unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/suffix_pronominal.rst
.. _suffix_pronominal:
Suffix Pronominal
Pronominal suffixes refer to a person(s) or thing(s) and can be attached to nouns, verbs, prepositions, participles,
infinitives, even some particles. A pronominal suffix nearly always functions as either a personal pronoun (for example,
"I" or "me" in English) or a possessive pronoun (for example, "my" or "mine" in English).
A pronominal :ref:`suffix<suffix>` refers to a person(s) or a thing(s) and can change form according to gender
(:ref:`masculine<gender_masculine>` or
:ref:`feminine<gender_feminine>`), number (:ref:`singular<number_singular>` or :ref:`plural<number_plural>`), and person
(:ref:`first<person_first>`, :ref:`second<person_second>`, or :ref:`third<person_third>` person).
These various suffixes look quite similar to their corresponding :ref:`personal pronouns<pronoun_personal>`.
Only nouns in the :ref:`construct state<state_construct>` can take a pronominal suffix.
.. note:: In Biblical Hebrew, a noun always becomes :ref:`definite<definiteness>` when a pronominal suffix is attached to it.
.. csv-table:: Pronominal Suffix with a Singular Noun
:header-rows: 1
common singular first person,סוּסִי,susi,my horse
masculine singular second person,סוּסְךָ,suskha,your horse
feminine singular second person,סוּסֵךְ,susekh,your horse
masculine singular third person,סוּסוֹ / סוּסֹה / סוּסֵהוּ,suso / susoh / susehu,his horse
feminine singular third person,סוּסהָ / סוּסָהּ,susha / susah,her horse
common plural first person,סוּסֵנוּ,susenu,our horse
masculine plural second person,סוּסְכֶם,susekhem,your horse
feminine plural second person,סוּסְכֶן,susekhen,your horse
masculine plural third person,סוּסְהֶם / סוּסָם,susehem / susam,their horse
feminine plural third person,סוּסְהֶן / סוּסָן,susehen / susan,their horse
.. csv-table:: Pronominal Suffix with a Plural Noun
:header-rows: 1
common singular first person,סוּסַי,susay,my horses
masculine singular second person,סוּסֶיךָ,susekha,your horses
feminine singular second person,סוּסַיִךְ,susayikh,your horses
masculine singular third person,סוּסָיו,susayw,his horses
feminine singular third person,סוּסֶיהָ,suseyha,her horses
common plural first person,סוּסֵינוּ,susenu,our horses
masculine plural second person,סוּסֵיכֶם,susekhem,your horses
feminine plural second person,סוּסֵיכֶן,susekhen,your horses
masculine plural third person,סוּסֵיהֶם,susehem,their horses
feminine plural third person,סוּסֵיהֶן,susehen,their horses
.. _suffix_pronominal-nouns:
Attached to a :ref:`noun<noun>`
When attached to a noun, a pronominal suffix functions as a personal pronoun in a :ref:`construct relationship<state_construct-construct-chain>`
with the noun to which it is attached. Very often, the pronoun functions as a possessive
:ref:`attributive adjective<adjective-attributive>` indentifying the person(s) or thing(s) in possession of that noun.
.. csv-table:: Example: 2SA 17:23
וַיָּ֜קָם וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ אֶל־\ **בֵּיתוֹ֙** אֶל־עִיר֔וֹ
wayyaqom wayyelekh 'el-**betho** 'el-**'iro**
And-he-stood-up and-went to\_\ **his-house** to\_\ **his-city**
He went **home** to **his own city**
.. csv-table:: Example: 2SA 19:4 (2SA 19:1 in Hebrew)
בְּנִ֤י אַבְשָׁלֹום֙ בְּנִ֣י בְנִ֣י
**beni** 'avshalowm **beni veni**
**My-son** Absalom **my-son my-son**
"**My son** Absalom, **my son**, **my son**!"
.. csv-table:: Example: EZR 9:12
וְ֠עַתָּה **בְּֽנֹותֵיכֶ֞ם** אַל־תִּתְּנ֣וּ **לִבְנֵיהֶ֗ם וּבְנֹֽתֵיהֶם֙** אַל־תִּשְׂא֣וּ לִבְנֵיכֶ֔ם
"we'attah **benowthekhem** 'al-tittenu **livnehem uvenothehem** 'al-tis'u **livnekhem**"
"And-now **your-daughters** not\_give **to-their-sons and-their-daughters** not\_take **for-your-sons**"
"So now, do not give **your daughters to their sons**; do not take **their daughters for your sons**"
.. _suffix_pronominal-verbs:
Attached to a :ref:`finite verb<verb-finite>`
A pronominal suffix can be attached to any finite verb conjugation to indicate the direct object of the verb. In these cases,
the pronominal suffix always functions as a :ref:`personal pronoun<pronoun_personal>`.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 37:14
וַיִּשְׁלָחֵ֨הוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣מֶק חֶבְרֹ֔ון וַיָּבֹ֖א שְׁכֶֽמָה׃
**wayyishlahehu** me'emeq hevrown wayyavo shekhemah
**and-he-sent-him** from-Valley-of Hebron and-he-came-in Shechem.
"**So he sent him out** of the Valley of Hebron, and he went to
.. csv-table:: Example: 2CH 15:2
וְאִֽם־\ **תִּדְרְשֻׁ֨הוּ֙** יִמָּצֵ֣א לָכֶ֔ם
we'im-\ **tidreshuhu** yimmatse lakhem
And-if\_\ **you-seek-him** he-will-be-found by-you
"If **you seek him**, he will be found by you"
.. csv-table:: Example: HOS 8:7
זָרִ֖ים **יִבְלָעֻֽהוּ**\ ׃
zarim **yivla'uhu**
strangers **will-swallow-him**
foreigners **will devour it**
.. _suffix_pronominal-prepositions:
Attached to a :ref:`preposition<preposition>`
Similar to verbs, a pronominal suffix attached to a preposition is always the object of that preposition, functioning as a
:ref:`personal pronoun<pronoun_personal>`.
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 25:28
וְרָעָ֛ה לֹא־תִמָּצֵ֥א **בְךָ֖** מִיָּמֶֽיךָ׃
wera'ah lo-thimmatse **vekha** miyyameykha
and-evil not\_will-be-found **in-you** from-your-days
and evil will not be found **in you** so long as you live.
.. csv-table:: Example: JOB 39:12
הֲתַאֲמִ֣ין בֹּ֖ו
hatha'amin **bow**
Do-you-believe **in-him**
Will you depend **on him**?
.. csv-table:: Example: 2KI 17:15
אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֹתָ֔ם לְבִלְתִּ֖י עֲשֹׂ֥ות כָּהֶֽם׃
'asher tsiwwah yehwah 'otham levilti 'asowth **kahem**
"whom had-commanded Yahweh [dir.obj]-them to-abstain doing
those that Yahweh had commanded them not to do **like them**.
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 46:9
וְאֶ֥פֶס **כָּמֹֽונִי**\ ׃
we'efes **kamowni**
and no-one **like-me**
and there is no one **like me**.
לְ and אֶל
.. csv-table:: Example: EXO 19:5
כִּי־\ **לִ֖י** כָּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃
ki-\ **li** kol-ha'arets
for\_\ **to-me** all\_the-earth
for all the earth is **mine**.
.. csv-table:: Example: EXO 9:13
וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֵלָ֗יו
we'amarta **'elayw**
and-say **to-him**
and say **to him**
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 11:36
וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֗יו
wattomer **'elayw**
And-she-said **to-him**
She said **to him**
.. csv-table:: Example: DEU 17:14
אָשִׂ֤ימָה **עָלַי֙** מֶ֔לֶךְ
'asimah **'alay** melekh
I-will-set **over-me** king
I will set a king **over myself**
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 62:5
יָשִׂ֥ישׂ **עָלַ֖יִךְ** אֱלֹהָֽיִךְ׃
yasis **'alayikh** 'elohayikh
he-will-rejoice **over-you** your-God.
your God will rejoice **over you**.
.. csv-table:: Example: 2CH 8:8
אֲשֶׁ֨ר נֹותְר֤וּ **אַחֲרֵיהֶם֙** בָּאָ֔רֶץ
'asher nowthru **'aharehem** ba'arets
who were-left **after-them** in-the-land
who were left **after them** in the land
.. csv-table:: Example: JER 9:16 (JER 9:15 in Hebrew)
וְשִׁלַּחְתִּ֤י **אַֽחֲרֵיהֶם֙** אֶת־הַחֶ֔רֶב
weshillahti **'aharehem** 'eth-haherev
and-I-will-send-out **after-them** [dir.obj]\_the-sword
I will send out a sword **after them**
.. csv-table:: Example: DEU 28:23
וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־\ **תַּחְתֶּ֖יךָ** בַּרְזֶֽל׃
weha'arets 'asher-**tahteykha** barzel
and-the-earth which\_\ **under-you** will-be-iron.
and the earth that is **under you** will be iron.
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 47:3 (PSA 47:4 in Hebrew)
יַדְבֵּ֣ר עַמִּ֣ים תַּחְתֵּ֑ינוּ
yadber 'ammim **tahtenu**
He-will-drive-back peoples **beneath-us**
He subdues peoples **under us**
.. csv-table:: Example: NUM 23:18
הַאֲזִ֥ינָה **עָדַ֖י** בְּנֹ֥ו צִפֹּֽר׃
ha'azinah **'aday** benow tsippor
Listen **unto-me** son-of Zippor.
"Listen **to me**, you son of Zippor."
.. csv-table:: Example: AMO 4:10
וְלֹֽא־שַׁבְתֶּ֥ם עָדַ֖י
welo-shavtem **'aday**
And-not you-have-returned **unto-me**
Yet you have not returned **to me**
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 22:12
וְלֹ֥א חָשַׂ֛כְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ֥ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ֖ **מִמֶּֽנִּי**\ ׃
welo hasakhta 'eth-binkha 'eth-yehidekha **mimmenni**
"and-not you-witheld [dir.obj]\_your-son [dir.obj]\_your-only
"you have not withheld your son, your only son, **from me**."
.. csv-table:: Example: 1CH 29:14
כִּֽי־\ **מִמְּךָ֣** הַכֹּ֔ל
ki-\ **mimmekha** hakkol
for\_\ **from-you** the-all
all things come **from you**
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 50:18
וַתִּ֣רֶץ עִמֹּ֑ו
wattirets **'immow**
and-you-are-pleased **with-him**
you agree **with him**
.. csv-table:: Example: ZEC 14:5
כָּל־קְדֹשִׁ֖ים **עִמָּֽךְ**\ ׃
kol-qedoshim **'immakh**
all\_holy-ones **with-you**
all the holy ones will be **with you**
When the preposition אֵת takes a pronominal suffix, it can be distinguished from the direct object marker. The preposition will
take a hireq vowel with a daghesh in the *taw* consonant (see examples below).
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 12:4
שְׂפָתֵ֣ינוּ אִתָּ֑נוּ
sefathenu **'ittanu**
our-lips **with-us**.
our lips speak and they **make us prevail**.
.. csv-table:: Example: PRO 1:11
לְכָ֪ה אִ֫תָּ֥נוּ
lekhah **'ittanu**
walk **with-us**
come **with us**
Attached to a participle
When attached to a participle, the pronominal suffix can function as a personal pronoun, a possessive adjective, or as a noun
in construct relationship with the particle.
Attached to an infinitive construct
as object of the infinitive
When attached to an infinitive construct, the pronominal suffix can function as the object of the verbal action.
as subject of the infinitive
When attached to an infinitive construct, the pronominal suffix can function as the subject of the verbal action described by
the infinitive. In these cases, often the object of the infinitive (with the direct object marker) will appear immediately
following the infinitive.
as possessive adjective describing the infinitive
Attached to a particle
the :ref:`direct object marker<particle_direct_object_marker>` (אֵת)
When the direct object marker takes a pronominal suffix, it can be distinguished from the preposition אֵת. The direct object
marker will take a holem vowel without a daghesh in the *taw* consonant (see examples below).
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 17:9
וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם **אֹתָֽנוּ**\ ׃
wa'avadtem **'othanu**
and-you-will-serve **[dir.obj]-us**.
then you will serve **us**.
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 10:13
וְאַתֶּם֙ עֲזַבְתֶּ֣ם אֹותִ֔י
we'attem 'azavtem **'owthi**
And-you have-left **[dir.obj]-me**
Yet you abandoned **me**
the particle הִנֵּה
When attached to the :ref:`demonstrative particle<particle_demonstrative>` הִנֵּה, a pronominal suffix can function as either
the object of the particle or the subject of a verbal participle that immediately follows the particle.
as object of the particle
In these cases, the pronominal suffix functions as the object of the verbal action expressed by the demonstrative particle.
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 65:1
אָמַ֨רְתִּי֙ **הִנֵּ֣נִי הִנֵּ֔נִי** אֶל־גֹּ֖וי לֹֽא־קֹרָ֥א
'amartiy **hinneni hinneni** 'el-gowy lo-qora vishmi
I-said **look-me look-me** to\_nation not\_called by-my-name.
I said ""**Here I am! Here I am!**"" to a nation that did not call on my name.
as subject of a participle
Sometimes, a pronominal suffix attached to the particle הִנֵּה functions as the subject of a participle that immediately follows
the particle.