unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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stem_hophal.rst 9.9KB

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  1. :github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/stem_hophal.rst
  2. .. _stem_hophal:
  3. Stem Hophal
  4. ===========
  5. Summary
  6. -------
  7. The Hophal stem is the passive form of the Hiphil, and it generally
  8. expresses the passive voice of the meaning of a verb in the Hiphil stem.
  9. Article
  10. -------
  11. The Hophal
  12. :ref:`stem<stem>`
  13. is the passive form of the
  14. :ref:`Hiphil<stem_hiphil>`
  15. stem formation in Biblical Hebrew. The Hophal stem is usually indicated
  16. by either a הָ or הֻ prefix to the
  17. :ref:`verb`.
  18. (The ה changes in the
  19. :ref:`participle<participle_active>`
  20. and :ref:`Imperfect<verb_imperfect>`
  21. forms.) The Hophal stem usually expresses the :ref:`passive<stem-voice-passive>` voice of the
  22. meaning of a verb in the Hiphil stem. Scholars sometimes disagree
  23. whether certain verb forms should be classified as belonging to the
  24. Hophal, the
  25. :ref:`Pual<stem_pual>`
  26. or even the :ref:`Qal Passive<stem_qal_passive>`
  27. stem. In English, passive voice is expressed using the helping verb "to
  28. be." In Biblical Hebrew, the passive nature of the verbal action is
  29. expressed by the Hophal form of the verb itself without any helping
  30. verbs.
  31. .. include:: includes/consult_dictionary.txt
  32. Form
  33. ----
  34. Paradigm
  35. ~~~~~~~~
  36. .. note:: every form in the Hophal can have either a qamets hatuf or a
  37. qibbuts under the first letter (so הָ or הֻ). Here the qamets hatuf is
  38. used throughout.
  39. .. csv-table:: Hophal Perfect Paradigm
  40. :header-rows: 1
  41. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  42. masculine singular third person,הָקְטַל,hoqtal,he was caused to kill
  43. feminine singular third person,הָקְטְלָה,hoqtelah,she was caused to kill
  44. masculine singular second person,הָקְטַלְתָּ,hoqtalta,you were caused to kill
  45. feminine singular second person,הָקְטַלְתְּ,hoqtalt,you were caused to kill
  46. common singular first person,הָקְטַלְתִּי,hoqtalti,I was caused to kill
  47. common plural third person,הָקְטְלוּ,hoqtelu,they were caused to kill
  48. masculine plural second person,הָקְטַלְתֶּם,hoqtaltem,you were caused to kill
  49. feminine plural second person,הָקְטַלְתֶּן,hoqtalten,you were caused to kill
  50. common plural first person,הָקְטַלְנוּ,hoqtalnu,we were caused to kill
  51. .. csv-table:: Hophal Imperfect Paradigm
  52. :header-rows: 1
  53. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  54. masculine singular third person,יָקְטַל,yoqtal,he will be caused to kill
  55. feminine singular third person,תָּקְטַל,toqtal,she will be caused to kill
  56. masculine singular second person,תָּקְטַל,toqtal,you will be caused to kill
  57. feminine singular second person,תָּקְטְלִי,toqteli,you will be caused to kill
  58. common singular first person,אָקְטַל,'oqtal,I will be caused to kill
  59. masculine plural third person,יָקְטְלוּ,yoqtelu,they will be caused to kill
  60. feminine plural third person,תָּקְטַלְנָה,toqtalnah,they will be caused to kill
  61. masculine plural second person,תָּקְטְלוּ,toqtelu,you will be caused to kill
  62. feminine plural second person,תָּקְטַלְנָה,toqtalnah,you will be caused to kill
  63. common plural first person,נָקְטַל,noqtal,we will be caused to kill
  64. .. csv-table:: Hophal Sequential Perfect Paradigm
  65. :header-rows: 1
  66. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  67. masculine singular third person,וְהָקְטַל,wehoqtal,(and) he will be caused to kill
  68. feminine singular third person,וְהָקְטְלָה,wehoqtelah,(and) she will be caused to kill
  69. masculine singular second person,וְהָקְטַלְתָּ,wehoqtalta,(and) you will be caused to kill
  70. feminine singular second person,וְהָקְטַלְתְּ,wehoqtalt,(and) you will be caused to kill
  71. common singular first person,וְהָקְטַלְתִּי,wehoqtalti,(and) I will be caused to kill
  72. common plural third person,וְהָקְטְלוּ,wehoqtelu,(and) they will be caused to kill
  73. masculine plural second person,וְהָקְטַלְתֶּם,wehoqtaltem,(and) you will be caused to kill
  74. feminine plural second person,וְהָקְטַלְתֶּן,wehoqtalten,(and) you will be caused to kill
  75. common plural first person,וְהָקְטַלְנוּ,wehoqtalnu,(and) we will be caused to kill
  76. .. csv-table:: Hophal Sequential Imperfect Paradigm
  77. :header-rows: 1
  78. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  79. masculine singular third person,וַיָּקְטַל,wayyoqtal,(and) he was caused to kill
  80. feminine singular third person,וַתָּקְטַל,wattoqtal,(and) whe was caused to kill
  81. masculine singular second person,וַתָּקְטַל,wattoqtal,(and) you were caused to kill
  82. feminine singular second person,וַתָּקְטְלִי,wattoqteli,(and) you were caused to kill
  83. common singular first person,וָאָקְטַל,wa'oqtal,(and) I was caused to kill
  84. masculine plural third person,וַיָּקְטְלוּ,wayyoqtelu,(and) they were caused to kill
  85. feminine plural third person,וַתָּקְטַלְנָה,wattoqtalnah,(and) they were caused to kill
  86. masculine plural second person,וַתָּקְטְלוּ,wattoqtelu,(and) you were caused to kill
  87. feminine plural second person,וַתָּקְטַלְנָה,wattoqtalnah,(and) you were caused to kill
  88. common plural first person,וַנָּקְטַל,wannoqtal,(and) we were caused to kill
  89. .. csv-table:: Hophal Infinitive Paradigm
  90. :header-rows: 1
  91. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  92. Infinitive Absolute,הָקְטֵל,hoqtel,causing to be killed
  93. The infinitive construct, imperative, jussive, and cohortative
  94. are not found in the Hophal stem in Biblical Hebrew.
  95. .. csv-table:: Hophal Participle (passive voice) Paradigm
  96. :header-rows: 1
  97. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  98. masculine singular,מָקְטָל,moqtal,being caused to kill
  99. feminine singular,מָקְטֶלֶת,moqteleth,being caused to kill
  100. masculine plural,טָמָקְלִים,tomaqlim,being caused to kill
  101. feminine plural,מָקְטָלוֹת,moqtaloth,being caused to kill
  102. Function
  103. --------
  104. The Hophal stem can express any of the following kinds of verbal action:
  105. Expresses the :ref:`passive<stem-voice-passive>` voice of the Hiphil stem
  106. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  107. For most verbs that appear in Hiphil stem in Biblical Hebrew, the Hophal
  108. stem expresses the same kind of simple or causative action as the Hiphil
  109. stem, but in passive voice. A good example is the verb בּוֹא. In the
  110. :ref:`Qal<stem_qal>` stem,
  111. the verb בּוֹא means "to come" or "to go" (:ref:simple<stem-action-simple>` action, :ref:`active<stem-voice-active>` voice).
  112. But in the :ref:`Hiphil<stem_hiphil>` stem, the verb בּוֹא means "to bring" (:ref:`causative<stem-action-causative>`
  113. action, active voice). Thus, in the Hophal stem, the verb בּוֹא means
  114. "to be brought" (causative action, passive voice).
  115. The Hophal stem of בּוֹא, meaning "to be brought"; in the
  116. Hiphil stem, means "to bring", for example:
  117. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 33:11
  118. קַח־נָ֤א אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר **הֻבָ֣את** לָ֔ךְ
  119. qah-na 'eth-birkhathiy 'asher **huvath** lakh
  120. Take\_please [dir.obj]\_my-blessing that **it-was-brought** to-you
  121. Please accept my gift that **was brought** to you
  122. The Hophal stem of נָגַד, meaning "to be declared"; in the
  123. Hiphil stem, means "to declare", for example:
  124. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 22:20
  125. וַיֻּגַּ֥ד לְאַבְרָהָ֖ם
  126. **wayyuggad** le'avraham
  127. **and-it-was-reported** to Abraham
  128. Abraham **was told**
  129. Expresses simple action in passive voice
  130. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  131. Some verbs use the Hophal stem to express simple :ref:`passive<stem-voice-passive>` action. (This
  132. can be true even if the verb also appears in the Hiphil stem in Biblical
  133. Hebrew; in such cases, the Hophal form does NOT function strictly as a
  134. passive of the Hiphil stem.) A good example is the verb יָצַק. In the
  135. :ref:`Qal<stem_qal>` stem, the verb יָצַק expresses the simple action "to pour" or "to
  136. pour out". In the :ref:`Hiphil<stem_Hiphil>` stem, the verb יָצַק expresses the same simple
  137. action "to pour". In the Hophal stem, the verb יָצַק expresses the
  138. simple passive "to be poured" (that is, the passive of both the *Qal*
  139. stem and the *Hiphil* stem). For some verbs, the Hophal and/or :ref:`Pual<stem_pual>`
  140. forms can both function as a passive of the Qal stem. In all these
  141. cases, a dictionary or lexicon will indicate the correct meaning.
  142. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 4:26 –– the Hophal stem of יָצַק ("to pour") means "to be poured"
  143. ה֣וּצַק חֵ֭ן בְּשְׂפְתוֹתֶ֑יךָ
  144. **hutsaq** hen besfethotheykha
  145. **it-is-poured-out** grace by-your-lips
  146. grace **is poured** onto your lips
  147. Expresses various kinds of passive or :ref:`stative<verb-stative>` action
  148. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  149. Sometimes the Hophal form is used with specific verbs or in specific
  150. contexts to express a specialized meaning for the verbal action. A
  151. dictionary or lexicon will indicate the correct meaning.
  152. For example, the Hophal stem of the verb יָלַד ("to give birth")
  153. refers to someone's birthday:
  154. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 40:20
  155. וַיְהִ֣י׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֗י י֚וֹם **הֻלֶּ֣דֶת** אֶת־פַּרְעֹ֔ה
  156. wayhi bayyom hashelishi yom **hulledeth** 'eth-par'oh
  157. "and-it-happened in-the-day the-third day-of **having-been-born**
  158. [dir.obj]\_Pharaoh"
  159. It came about on the third day that it was Pharaoh's **birth**\ day.
  160. The Hophal stem of the verb יָסַד ("to found, establish")
  161. refers to the foundation of a building:
  162. .. csv-table:: Example: 2CH 3:3
  163. וְאֵ֙לֶּה֙ **הוּסַ֣ד** שְׁלֹמֹ֔ה לִבְנ֖וֹת אֶת־בֵּ֣ית הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים
  164. we'elleh **husad** shelomoh livnoth 'eth-beth ha'elohim
  165. "and-these **being-founded-of** Solomon to-build [dir.obj]\_house-of
  166. the-God"
  167. "Now these are the dimensions **of the foundation** that Solomon laid
  168. for the house of God."