unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/stem_hishtaphel.rst
.. _stem_hishtaphel:
Stem Hishtaphel
The Hishtaphel is an extremely rare stem formation that is similar to
the Hiphil and expresses causative action in active voice.
The Hishtaphel is a :ref:`rare stem formation<stem-uncommon>`
that is unrelated to any other :ref:`stem<stem>`. Many scholars believe this stem is derived from Ugaritic and is similar to the
:ref:`Hiphil<stem_hiphil>`, expressing :ref:`causative<stem-action-causative>` action in :ref:`active<stem-voice-active>` voice.
However, In Biblical Hebrew this stem is used almost exclusively with the common verb חוי / חוה, meaning
"to prostrate oneself" (simple action with reflexive voice) or "to worship" (simple action with active voice).
.. csv-table:: Hishtaphel Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
Perfect,masculine singular third person,הְִתַּחֲוָה,hishtahawah,he worshipped
Imperfect,masculine singular third person,יְִתַּחֲוֶה,yishtahaweh,he will worship
Sequential Imperfect,masculine singular third person,וַיְִּתַּחוּ,wayyishtahu,(and) he worshipped
Imperative,masculine singular,הְִתַּחֲוִי,hishtahawi,you must worship
Infinitive Construct,---,הְִתַּחֲוֹת,hishtahawoth,worship
Participle,masculine singular absolute,מְִתַּחֲוֶה,mishtahaweh,worshipping
.. csv-table:: Example: RUT 2:10
וַתִּפֹּל֙ עַל־פָּנֶ֔יהָ **וַתִּשְׁתַּ֖חוּ** אָ֑רְצָה
wattippol 'al-paneyha **wattishtahu** 'artsah
and-she-fell-down on\_her-face **bowing-down** to-ground.
"she knelt before him, with her face **touching** the ground."