unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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pronoun_personal.rst 4.3KB

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  1. :github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/pronoun_personal.rst
  2. .. _pronoun_personal:
  3. Pronoun Personal
  4. ================
  5. Summary
  6. -------
  7. In Biblical Hebrew, a personal pronoun is a word that indirectly refers to a particular person(s) or thing(s). In English, the
  8. following words are personal pronouns: "I", "we", "you", "he", "she", "they", "them".
  9. Article
  10. -------
  11. In Biblical Hebrew, personal pronouns change form according to gender (:ref:`masculine<gender_masculine>`, number
  12. (:ref:`feminine<gender_feminine>`, and person (:ref:`first<person_first>`, :ref:`second<person_second>`, or
  13. :ref:`third<person_third>`. Grammatically they are very similar to :ref:`pronominal suffixes<suffix_pronominal>`, but they
  14. stand alone rather than attaching to other kinds of words; also, they are more limited in their function.
  15. Form
  16. ----
  17. Paradigm
  18. ~~~~~~~~
  19. .. csv-table:: Personal Pronoun Paradigm
  20. :header-rows: 1
  21. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  22. common singular first person,אֲנִי / אָנֹכִי,'ani / 'anokhi,I
  23. masculine singular second person,אַתָּה,'attah,you
  24. feminine singular second person,אַתְּ,'at,you
  25. masculine singular third person,הוּא,hu,he / it
  26. feminine singular third person,הִיא / הִוא,hi / hiw,she / it
  27. common plural first person,אֲנַחְנוּ,'anahnu,we
  28. masculine plural second person,אַתֶּם,'attem,you
  29. feminine plural second person,אַתֵּנָה,'attenah,you
  30. masculine plural third person,הֵם / הֵמָּה,hem / hemmah,they
  31. feminine plural third person,הֵן / הֵנָּה,hen / hennah,they
  32. Function
  33. --------
  34. As a general :ref:`noun<noun>`
  35. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  36. .. csv-table:: Example: ISA 41:10
  37. "אַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּ֣י עִמְּךָ־\ **אָ֔נִי** אַל־תִּשְׁתָּ֖ע
  38. כִּֽי־\ **אֲנִ֣י** אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ"
  39. 'al-tira' ki 'immekha-**'ani** 'al-tishta' ki-\ **'ani** 'eloheykha
  40. Not\_fear for with-you\_\ **I** not\_be-anxious for\_\ **I** your-God
  41. "Do not fear, for **I** am with you. Do not be anxious, for **I** am
  42. your God."
  43. .. csv-table:: Example: EXO 6:2
  44. אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
  45. **'ani** yehwah
  46. **I** Yahweh
  47. **I** am Yahweh.
  48. .. csv-table:: Example: JER 12:1
  49. צַדִּ֤יק אַתָּה֙
  50. tsaddiq **'attah**
  51. righteous **you**
  52. **you** are righteous
  53. As subject of a finite verb
  54. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  55. Sometimes an independent personal pronoun appears as the subject of a finite verb even though the pronominal subject is
  56. already indicated by the verb form iteself. In these cases, the personal pronoun functions to emphasize the personal role of
  57. the subject in performing the verbal action. When used in this way, the personal pronoun is often translated reflexively in
  58. English: "myself", "yourself", etc.
  59. .. csv-table:: Example: 1KI 18:22
  60. אֲנִ֞י נֹותַ֧רְתִּי נָבִ֛יא לַיהוָ֖ה
  61. **'ani** nowtharti navi layhwah
  62. **I** I-am-left prophet for-Yahweh
  63. "I, **I alone**, am left as a prophet of Yahweh"
  64. As subject of a :ref:`verbal participle<participle_active>`
  65. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  66. .. csv-table:: Example: DEU 8:1
  67. אָנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛
  68. **'anokhi** metsawwekha
  69. **I** am-commanding-you
  70. **I** am giving you
  71. In apposition with a :ref:`noun<noun>` or :ref:`pronominal suffix<suffix_pronominal>`
  72. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  73. Sometimes a personal pronoun simply repeats a noun or pronominal suffix that has appeared earlier in the sentence. The specific
  74. function of the repeated pronoun must be discerned from the context in these cases, but often the repetition expresses some
  75. kind of emphasis on the identified person(s) or thing(s) within the sentence.
  76. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 27:34
  77. בָּרֲכֵ֥נִי גַם־\ **אָ֖נִי** אָבִֽי
  78. barakheni gam-\ **'ani** 'avi
  79. Bless-me also\_\ **me** my-father
  80. "Bless me, **me** also, my father"
  81. .. csv-table:: Example: EZR 7:6
  82. ה֤וּא עֶזְרָא֙ עָלָ֣ה מִבָּבֶ֔ל
  83. **hu** 'ezra' 'alah mibbavel
  84. **He** Ezra came-up from-Babylon
  85. Ezra came up from Babylon
  86. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 36:1
  87. עֵשָׂ֖ו \ **ה֥וּא** אֱדֽוֹם
  88. 'esaw **hu** 'edom
  89. Esau **he** Edom
  90. Esau (**also called** Edom)