unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/pronoun_demonstrative.rst
.. _pronoun_demonstrative:
Pronoun Demonstrative
.. include:: includes/pronoun_demonstrative-summary.rst
In Biblical Hebrew, demonstrative :ref:`pronouns<pronoun>` can function either as :ref:`nouns<noun>` or
:ref:`adjectives<adjective>`. Demonstrative pronouns can change form according to gender (:ref:`masculine<gender_masculine>`
or :ref:`feminine<gender_feminine>`) and number (:ref:`singular<number_singular>` or :ref:`plural<number_plural>`) but NOT
according to person (i.e. :ref:`first<person_first>`, :ref:`second<person_second>`, or :ref:`third<person_third>` person).
.. csv-table:: Demonstrative Pronoun Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
masculine singular near,(or זֶה (זֹה / זֹו,zeh (or zow / zoh),this
feminine singular near,זֹאת,zoth,this
masculine singular far,הוּא,hu,that
feminine singular far,הִיא,hi,that
common plural near,אֵלֶּה,'elleh,these
masculine plural far,הֵם / הֵמָּה,hemmah / hem,those
feminine plural far,הֵנָּה,hennah,those
.. note:: The "far" demonstrative pronouns are identical to certain :ref:`personal pronouns<pronoun_personal>` and must be distinguished by the context.
As a :ref:`noun<noun>`
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 7:4
ְהָיָ֡ה אֲשֶׁר֩ אֹמַ֨ר אֵלֶ֜יךָ \ **זֶ֣ה** ׀ יֵלֵ֣ךְ
אִתָּ֗ךְ \ **ה֚וּא** יֵלֵ֣ךְ אִתָּ֔ךְ"
"wehayah 'asher 'omar 'eleykha **zeh** yelekh 'ittakh **hu** yelekh
"And-it-is that I-will-say to-you **this** will-go with-you **that**
will-go with-you"
"If I say to you, ""**This one** will go with you,"" **he** will go with
Demonstrative pronouns can be used to distinguish individuals within a
group interacting with each other.
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 6:3
וְקָרָ֨א \ **זֶ֤ה** אֶל־זֶה֙
weqara **zeh** 'el-**zeh**
And-it-called **this** to\_\ **this**
And **each one** called to **another**
Apposition to a noun
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 27:21
הַֽאַתָּ֥ה \ **זֶ֛ה** בְּנִ֥י
ha'attah **zeh** beni
the-you **this** my-son
you are my **true** son
As an :ref:`adjective<adjective>`
as an :ref:`attributive<adjective-attributive>` adjective
When used as an attributive adjective, a demonstrative pronoun often follows the noun, and both terms can take the
:ref:`definite article<particle_definite_article>`. Sometimes neither the noun nor the demonstrative pronoun takes
the definite article. In either case, the demonstrative pronoun makes the described noun :ref:`definite<definiteness>`.
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 18:23
הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה
haddevarim **ha'elleh**
the-words **the-these**
**these** words
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 2:20
דְּבָרֵ֣נוּ זֶ֑ה
devarenu **zeh**
our-business **this**
**this** business of ours
.. csv-table:: Example: 1KI 19:5
וְהִנֵּֽה־\ **זֶ֤ה** מַלְאָךְ֙
wehinneh-\ **zeh** mal'akh
And-behold **this** angel
Suddenly an angel
as a :ref:`Predicative<adjective-predicative>` adjective
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 4:14
זֶ֤ה הַיּוֹם֙
**zeh** hayyom
**this** the-day
**this** is the day
.. _pronoun_demonstrative-relative:
As a :ref:`relative particle<particle_relative>`
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 74:2
הַר־צִ֝יֹּ֗ון **זֶ֤ה**\ ׀ שָׁכַ֬נְתָּ בֹּֽו׃
har-tsiyyown **zeh** shakhanta bow
Mount\_Zion **this** you-lived in-it.
"Mount Zion, **where** you live."
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 104:26
לִ֝וְיָתָ֗ן \ **זֶֽה**\ ־יָצַ֥רְתָּ
liwyathan **zeh**-yatsarta
Leviathan **this**\ \_you-formed
"Leviathan, **which** you formed"
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 47:6
אֶ֤רֶץ מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ לְפָנֶ֣יךָ הִ֔וא
'erets mitsrayim lefaneykha **hiw**
Land-of Egypt to-your-face **that**
The land of Egypt is before you