unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/particle_relative.rst
.. _particle_relative:
Particle Relative
Relative particles introduce clauses or phrases that usually describe nouns but can also sometimes
describe adjectives and/or verbs. In English, relative particles are usually translated as “who,”
“that,” “which,” "when," or "where."
Biblical Hebrew utilizes three different particles that introduce relative clauses or phrases. The particle אֲֶר and the
prefix -שֶׁ function as synonyms: they usually immediately follow nouns and sometimes adjectives. When functioning as a relative
particle, the word כִּי usually immediately follows a verb of seeing or perceiving.
אֲשֶׁר follows a
and introduces a relative clause. Its translation depends on the noun.
For example, if the noun is a place, אֲשֶׁר means “where,” if the noun
is a person, it means “who”, and if the noun is an object, it means
“that”, “what” or “which.”
.. csv-table:: Example: EXO 3:5
הַמָּק֗וֹם \ **אֲשֶׁ֤ר** אַתָּה֙ עוֹמֵ֣ד עָלָ֔יו
hammaqom **'asher** 'attah 'omed 'alayw
the-place **where** you are-standing on-it
the place **where** you are standing
.. csv-table:: Example: 1KI 21:4
ַיָּבֹא֩ אַחְאָ֨ב אֶל־בֵּיתֹ֜ו סַ֣ר וְזָעֵ֗ף עַל־הַדָּבָר֙
**אֲשֶׁר**\ ־דִּבֶּ֣ר אֵלָ֗יו נָבֹות֙ הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִ֔י"
"wayyavo' 'ah'av 'el-bethow sar weza'ef 'al-haddavar **'asher**-dibber
'elayw navowth hayyizre'eli"
"And-he-went-in Ahab to\_his-house resentful and-angry on\_the-word
**that**\ \_had-spoken to-him Naboth the-Jezreelite"
"So Ahab went into his palace resentful and angry **because of** the
answer Naboth the Jezreelite gave him"
Sometimes there is no noun as an antecedent.
.. csv-table:: Example: NUM 22:6
כִּ֣י יָדַ֗עְתִּי אֵ֤ת \ **אֲשֶׁר**\ ־תְּבָרֵךְ֙ מְבֹרָ֔ךְ \ **וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר** תָּאֹ֖ר יוּאָֽר
ki yada'ti 'eth **'asher**-tevarekh mevorakh **wa'asher** ta'or yu'ar
"For I-know [dir.obj] **whom**\ \_you-bless is-blessed **and-whom**
you-curse will-be-cursed."
"For I know that **whomever** you bless will be blessed, and
**whomever** you curse will be cursed."
ֶׁ has the same function as אֲשֶׁר, but is a prefix. It also doubles
the next consonant and follows similar rules regarding the vowel
patterns as the :ref:`definite article<particle_definite_article>`.
.. csv-table:: Example: ECC 1:7
אֶל־מְקֹ֗ום \ **שֶׁ֤הַנְּחָלִים֙** הֹֽלְכִ֔ים
'el-meqowm **shehannehalim** holekhim
To\_place **where-the-rivers** go
To the place **where the rivers** go
.. csv-table:: Example: ECC 1:9
**מַה־\ **שֶּֽׁהָיָה֙** ה֣וּא **שֶׁיִּהְיֶ֔ה
mah-\ **shehayah** hu **sheyyihyeh**
What\_\ **that-has-been** that **which-will-be**
**Whatever has been** is **what will be**
.. include:: includes/ci_flexible.txt
Biblical Hebrew uses the particle כִּי to introduce relative clauses or phrases
that describe something that is seen, known, or somehow perceived by a
person. Therefore, כִּי usually follows verbs of seeing/perceiving where
a reader might expect to find אֲֶר. In English, it is usually
translated as “that” in these cases.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 1:3
וַיַּ֧רְא אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָא֖וֹר **כִּי**\ ־ט֑וֹב
wayyar 'elohim 'eth-ha'or **ki**-tov
And-he-saw God [dir.obj]\_the-light **that**\ \_good
"God saw the light, **that** it was good."
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 22:12
עַתָּ֣ה יָדַ֗עְתִּי **כִּֽי**\ ־יְרֵ֤א אֱלֹהִים֙ אַ֔תָּה
'attah yada'ti **ki**-yere 'elohim 'attah
now I-know **that**\ \_fearful-of God you
now I know **that** you respect and obey God