unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

130 lines
4.3 KiB

:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/particle_negative.rst
.. _particle_negative:
Particle Negative
Negative particles are terms that negate some aspect of a sentence, either an individual word or an entire phrase.
אַיִן or אֵין
This term is used in verbless clauses to negate an entire clause or
sentence. It is sometimes classified as a :ref:`noun<noun_common>`
but usually appears in the verbal position of normal :ref:`word order<word_order>`.
Literally, the term is translated in English as "there is no" or "there
is not"; but the English translation is often simplified to "is not"
(see example below).
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 45:5
אֲנִ֤י יְהוָה֙ **וְאֵ֣ין** עֹ֔וד זוּלָתִ֖י **אֵ֣ין** אֱלֹהִ֑ים
'ani yehwah **we'en** 'owd zulathi **'en** 'elohim
"I Yahweh **and-there-is-no** beside apart-from-me **there-is-no**
"I am Yahweh, **and there is no** other; **there is no** God but me."
.. csv-table:: Example: 2KI 1:3
הַֽמִבְּלִ֤י אֵין־אֱלֹהִים֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל
**hamibbeli 'en**-'elohim beyisra'el
**For-nothing is-there-no**\ \_God in-Israel?
Is it because **there is no** God in Israel?
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 37:29
וְהִנֵּ֥ה \ **אֵין**\ ־יוֹסֵ֖ף בַּבּ֑וֹר
wehinneh **'en**-yosef babbor
and-behold **there-is-no**\ \_Joseph in-the-pit
"and, behold, Joseph **was not** in the pit"
.. _particle_negative-lo:
The word לֹא is the standard negative particle in Biblical Hebrew. This
term often negates verbs, but it has potential to negate other kinds of
words as well. In English, it is usually translated as "no" or "not".
When used with :ref:`2nd person<person_second>`
verbs to express a negative command, this particle signifies a more
emphatic command than the use of the negative particle אַל (with an imperfect verb).
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 2:17
לֹ֥א תֹאכַ֖ל מִמֶּ֑נּוּ
**lo** thokhal mimmennu
**not** you-eat from-it
you may **not** eat from it
.. csv-table:: Example: JER 43:2
לֹֽא־\ **תָבֹ֥אוּ** מִצְרַ֖יִם לָג֥וּר שָֽׁם
lo-\ **thavo'u** mitsrayim lagur sham
not\_\ **you-go** Egypt to-sojourn there
Do not **go** to Egypt to live there.
.. _particle_negative-al:
The term אַַל is almost exclusively used to negate verbs; it is also the
standard particle used to negate :ref:`jussive<verb_jussive>` and :ref:`cohortative<verb_cohortative>` verbs. When
used with :ref:`2nd person<person_second>`
verbs to express a negative command, this particle signifies a less
emphatic command than the use of the negative particle לֹא.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 21:16
אַל־אֶרְאֶ֖ה בְּמ֣וֹת הַיָּ֑לֶד
**'al**-'er'eh bemoth hayyaled
**Not**\ \_I-will-look in-death-of the-child.
Let me **not** look upon the death of the child.
This term is sometimes used (especially with לְ) to negate :ref:`infinitive construct<infinitive_construct>`
verbs, and is usually translated in English as "no" or "not".
.. note:: This term is most often used as a concessive :ref:`conjunction<conjunction>`;
a dictionary or lexicon will indicate the specific use of
this particle in each individual context.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 3:11
צִוִּיתִ֛יךָ \ **לְבִלְתִּ֥י** אֲכָל־מִמֶּ֖נּוּ
tsiwwithikha **leviltiy** 'akhol-mimmennu
I-commanded-you **to-not** eat\_from-it
I commanded you **to not** eat from it
בַּל or בְּלִי (sometimes בְּלֹא)
These particles are usually used in poetry and carry no special meaning
other than to negate a word or concept within a sentence. In English,
they are usually translated as "no" or "not".
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 19:3 (PSA 19:4 in Hebrew)
בְּ֝לִ֗י נִשְׁמָ֥ע קוֹלָֽם
**beli** nishma' qolam
**not** is-heard their-voice
their voice is **not** heard
.. csv-table:: Example: NUM 35:23
בְּלֹ֣א רְא֔וֹת
**belo** re'oth
**without** seeing
**without** seeing