unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

90 lines
3.1 KiB

:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/particle_exhortation.rst
.. _particle_exhortation:
Particle Exhortation
Exhortative particles strengthen the emotion of a command or request.
Exhortation :ref:`particles<particle>` are words that add emotive force to a command or request. These particles are similar to
:ref:`interjections<particle_interjection>` but function to strengthen a specific call to action, while an interjection is used
as a more general expression of emotion. Similar to :ref:`demonstrative<particle_demonstrative>` particles, exhortation particles
are sometime left untranslated, depending on the specific context.
When used with a *command*, נָא is usually translated as "now" in English
(or left untranslated).
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 51:21
לָכֵ֛ן שִׁמְעִי־\ **נָ֥א** זֹ֖את
lakhen shim'i-\ **na** zoth
Therefore listen\_\ **now** this
But **now** hear this
When used as part of a *request*, נָא is usually translated as "please" in
English (or left untranslated).
.. csv-table:: Example: AMO 7:2
אֲדֹנָ֤י יְהוִה֙ סְֽלַֽח־נָ֔א
'adonay yehwih selah-\ **na**
Lord Yahweh forgive\_\ **please**
"Lord Yahweh, **please** forgive"
In some instances a translation with "now", "please", or "oh" is
possible, but not necessary. The emotive context of each attestation
must determine whether to render the word in translation or to leave it
.. csv-table:: Example: JON 1:14
אַל־\ **נָ֣א** נֹאבְדָ֗ה
'al-**na** novedah
not\_\ **now** let-us-perish
do not let us perish
This is a stronger and more emotive form of the particle נָא. The
two particles are sometimes paired together to express extreme urgency
or desperation, as in the example below. In some instances, this
particle could also be classified as an
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 118:25
ָנָּ֣א יְ֭הוָה הֹושִׁ֘יעָ֥ה **נָּ֑א אָֽנָּ֥א** יְ֝הוָ֗ה הַצְלִ֘יחָ֥ה
**נָּֽא**\ ׃"
**'onna** yehwah howshi'ah **na 'anna** yehwah hatslihah **na**
**Please** Yahweh give-help **oh please** Yahweh make-succeed **oh!**
"**Please**, Yahweh, give us victory\ **! Please**, Yahweh, give us
success\ **!**"
.. note:: This particle appears the same but should not be confused with the
preposition בְּ with 1st common singular :ref:`suffix_pronominal`.
When paired with a vocative, the word בִּי strengthens the emotive force
of the statement that follows. It is used for addressing someone who is
superior. In English, it can be translated as "oh" or "pray" or
"please", etc.
.. csv-table:: Example: 1KI 3:26
בִּ֣י אֲדֹנִ֗י תְּנוּ־לָהּ֙ אֶת־הַיָּל֣וּד הַחַ֔י
**bi** 'adoni tenu-lah 'eth-hayyalud hahay
**Oh** my-master give\_to-her [dir.obj]\_the-child living
"**Oh**, my master, give her the living child"