unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/participle_passive.rst
.. _participle_passive:
Participle Passive
==================
Summary
-------
.. include:: includes/participle_passive-summary.rst
Article
-------
.. include:: includes/participle_article.rst
.. include:: includes/participle_passive-article.rst
.. note:: Only the :ref:`Qal<stem_qal>` stem
has a distinct passive form for the participle; in all other cases, the
passive (or sometimes reflexive) meaning is determined by the :ref:`stem formation<stem>`
and the specific verb.
Form
----
.. csv-table:: Qal Passive Participle Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
masculine singular Absolute,קָטוּל,qatul,killer / killed
feminine singular Absolute,קְטוּלָה,qetulah,killer / killed
masculine plural Absolute,קְטוּלִים,qetulim,killers / killed
feminine plural Absolute,קְטוּלוֹת,qetuloth,killers / killed
.. csv-table:: Niphal (usually passive or reflexive voice) Passive Participle Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
masculine singular Absolute,נִקְטָל,niqtal,being killed
feminine singular Absolute,נִקְטָלָה,niqtalah,being killed
masculine plural Absolute,נִקְטָלִים,niqtalim,being killed
feminine plural Absolute,נִקְטָלוֹת,niqtaloth,being killed
.. csv-table:: Hophal Passive Participle Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
masculine singular Absolute,מָקְטָל,moqtal,being caused to kill
feminine singular Absolute,מָקְטֶלֶת,moqteleth,being caused to kill
masculine plural Absolute,מָקְטָלִים,moqtalim,being caused to kill
feminine plural Absolute,מָקְטָלוֹת,moqtaloth,being caused to kill
.. csv-table:: Pual Passive Participle Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
masculine singular Absolute,מְקֻטַּל,mequttal,being slaughtered
feminine singular Absolute,מְקֻטֶּלֶת,mequtteleth,being slaughtered
masculine plural Absolute,מְקֻטְּלִים,mequttelim,being slaughtered
feminine plural Absolute,מְקֻטְּלוֹת,mequtteloth,being slaughtered
.. csv-table:: Hithpael (usually reflexive voice) Passive Participle Paradigm
:header-rows: 1
Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
masculine singular Absolute,מִתְקַטֵּל,mithqattel,killing oneself
feminine singular Absolute,מִתְקַטֶּלֶת,mithqatteleth,killing oneself
masculine plural Absolute,מִתְקַטְּלִים,mithqattelim,killing oneself
feminine plural Absolute,מִתְקַטְּלוֹת,mithqatteloth,killing oneself
Function
--------
.. include:: includes/participle_passive-function.rst
.. _participle_passive-adjectival:
.. include:: includes/participle-adjectival.rst
.. include:: includes/participle_passive-adjectival.rst
The following example shows a passive participle functioning as an attributive adjective.
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 149:9
לַעֲשׂ֤וֹת בָּהֶ֨ם׀ מִשְׁפָּ֬ט כָּת֗וּב
la'asoth bahem mishpat **kathuv**
to-do to-them judgment **written**
They will execute the judgment **that is written**
The following example shows a passive participle functioning as a predicative adjective.
.. csv-table:: Example: EXO 5:16
וְהִנֵּ֧ה עֲבָדֶ֛יךָ מֻכִּ֖ים
wehinneh 'avadeykha **mukkim**
and-behold your-servants **beaten**
"We, your servants, are even **beaten** now"
The following example shows passive participles introducing an entire clause that functions as a predicative adjective.
.. csv-table:: Example: PSA 22:7
וְאָנֹכִ֣י תוֹלַ֣עַת וְלֹא־אִ֑ישׁ **חֶרְפַּ֥ת** אָ֝דָ֗ם **וּבְז֥וּי** עָֽם׃
we'anokhi thola'ath welo-'ish **herpath** 'adam **uvezuy** 'am
"and-I worm and-not\_man **scorned-of** humanity **and-despised-of**
people"
"But I am a worm and not a man, a **disgrace** to humanity
**and despised** by the people."
.. _participle_passive-verbal:
.. note:: The subject of a verbal participle usually
precedes the participle, in contrast to the normal conventions of Hebrew
:ref:`word order<word_order>`.
.. _participle_passive-verbal-MV:
.. include:: includes/participle-verbal-MV.rst
.. include:: includes/participle_passive-verbal-MV.rst
In the following example, the participle is in the first position,
which is the normal Hebrew :ref:`word order<word_order>` for finite verbs but not for participles.
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 17:2
עֲזֻב֖וֹת עָרֵ֣י עֲרֹעֵ֑ר
**'azuvoth** 'are 'aro'er
**being-forsaken** cities-of Aroer
The cities of Aroer **will be abandoned**
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 19:11
מָחָ֖ר אַתָּ֥ה מוּמָֽת
mahar 'attah **mumath**
tomorrow you **being-made-dead**
tomorrow you **will be killed**
.. _participle_passive-verbal-VC:
.. include:: includes/participle-verbal-VC.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 38:25
הִ֣וא **מוּצֵ֗את** וְהִ֨יא שָׁלְחָ֤ה אֶל־חָמִ֙יהָ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר
hiw **mutseth** wehi sholhah 'el-hamiha lemor
she **being-brought-out** and-she sent to\_her-father-in-law saying
"When she **was brought out**, she sent to her father-in-law a message"
.. _participle_passive-nominal:
.. include:: includes/participle-nominal.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 8:34
כְּכָל־\ **הַכָּת֖וּב** בְּסֵ֥פֶר הַתּוֹרָֽה׃
kekhol-\ **hakkathuv** besefer hattowrah
like-all\_\ **the-written** in-book-of the-law
just as **had been written** in the book of the law