unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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number_plural.rst 11KB

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  1. :github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/number_plural.rst
  2. .. _number_plural:
  3. Number Plural
  4. =============
  5. Summary
  6. -------
  7. The plural form of a term refers to two or more of that item.
  8. Article
  9. -------
  10. In Biblical Hebrew, a term with plural form usually refers to multiple persons or objects. However, Biblical Hebrew
  11. can use the plural form of a word to express many different meanings about a singular entity.
  12. Form
  13. ----
  14. Nouns and adjectives
  15. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  16. :ref:`Feminine<gender_feminine>` plural nouns and adjectives usually end in וֹת- (holem waw + taw).
  17. :ref:`Masculine<gender_masculine>` plural nouns and adjectives usually end in ־ִים (hireq-yod + final mem).
  18. .. csv-table:: Plural Noun Paradigm
  19. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  20. masculine plural absolute,סוּסִים,susim,stallions
  21. masculine plural construct,סוּסֵי,suse,stallions of
  22. feminine plural absolute,סוּסוֹת,susoth,mares
  23. feminine plural construct,סוּסוֹת,susoth,mares of
  24. .. csv-table:: Plural Adjective Paradigm
  25. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  26. masculine plural absolute,טוֹבִים,tovim,good
  27. masculine plural construct,טוֹבֵי,tove,good
  28. feminine plural absolute,טוֹבוֹת,tovoth,good
  29. feminine plural construct,טוֹבוֹת,tovoth,good
  30. Other terms
  31. ~~~~~~~~~~~
  32. Besides nouns, a plural term can be recognized by a variety of changes
  33. to the form. These changes differ greatly from each other and are hard
  34. to sum up in a simple, helpful way. This paradigm shows a sample of the
  35. kinds of changes that signal a plural form for :ref:`verbs<verb>`, independent :ref:`personal pronouns<pronoun_personal>`,
  36. the :ref:`direct object marker<particle_direct_object_marker>` with a pronominal suffix,
  37. and :ref:`pronominal suffixes<suffix_pronominal>`.
  38. .. csv-table:: Qal Suffix Conjugation Plural Forms
  39. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  40. common plural first person,קָטַלְנוּ,qatalnu,we killed
  41. second person masculine plural,קְטַלְתֶּם,qetaltem,you killed
  42. second person feminine plural,קְטַלְתֶּן,qetalten,you killed
  43. common plural third person,קָטְלוּ,qatlu,they killed
  44. common plural first person,נִקְטֹל,niqtol,we will kill
  45. second person masculine plural,תִּקְטְל,tiqtelu,you will kill
  46. second person feminine plural,תִּקְטֹלְנָה,tiqtolenah,you will kill
  47. third person masculine plural,יִקְטְלוּ,yiqtelu,they will kill
  48. third person feminine plural,תִּקְטֹלְנָה,tiqtolenah,they will kill
  49. .. csv-table:: Independent Personal Pronoun Plural Forms
  50. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  51. second person masculine plural,אַתֶּם,'attem,you
  52. second person feminine plural,אַתֵּנָה,'attenah,you
  53. third person masculine plural,הֵם / הֵמָּה,hem / hemmah,they
  54. third person feminine plural,הֵן / הֵנָּה,hen / hennah,they
  55. .. csv-table:: Direct Object Marker with Pronominal Suffix Plural Forms
  56. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  57. second person masculine plural,אֹתְכֶֶם,'othekhem,you
  58. second person feminine plural,אֹתְכֶֶן,'thekhem,you
  59. third person masculine plural,אֶתְהֶם / אֹתָם,'ethhem / 'otham,them
  60. third person feminine plural,אֶתְהֶן / אֹתָן,'ethhen / 'othan,them
  61. .. csv-table:: Pronominal Suffix Plural Forms
  62. Parsing,Hebrew,Transliteration,Gloss
  63. second person masculine plural,לָכֶם / -כֶם,lakhem / -khem,(to) you
  64. second person feminine plural,לָכֶן / -כֶן,lakhen / -khen,(to) you
  65. third person masculine plural,לָהֶם / -הֶם / - ָם,lahem / -hem / -am,(to) them
  66. third person feminine plural,לָהֶן / -הֶן / - ָן,lahen / -hen / -an,(to) them
  67. Function
  68. --------
  69. :ref:`Nouns<noun>` marked as plural
  70. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  71. .. _number_plural-common:
  72. Common Plural
  73. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  74. The common plural expresses more than one of a thing.
  75. .. csv-table:: Example: ECC 10:7
  76. רָאִ֥יתִי **עֲבָדִ֖ים** עַל־סוּסִ֑ים
  77. ra'ithi **'avadim** 'al-**susim**
  78. I-have-seen **servants** on\_\ **horses**.
  79. I have seen **servants** on **horses**.
  80. The term אֲלֹהִים can function as a common plural, but it most often functions as a :ref:`majestic<number_plural-majestic>`
  81. plural (see example below).
  82. .. csv-table:: Example: JDG 5:8
  83. יִבְחַר֙ **אֱלֹהִ֣ים** חֲדָשִׁ֔ים
  84. yivhar **'elohim** hadashim
  85. And-they-chose **gods** new
  86. When they chose new **gods**
  87. .. _number_plural-complex:
  88. Complex Plural
  89. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  90. Some nouns can be singular or plural even though they appear in plural form. For example, the term שָׁמַיִם can be translated into
  91. English as "heaven" or "heavens", and the term מַיִם can be translated in English as "water" or waters", depending on the context.
  92. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 1:1
  93. בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ת הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם
  94. bereshith bara 'elohim 'eth **hashamayim**
  95. In-beginning he-created God [dir.obj] **the-heavens**
  96. In the beginning God created the **heavens**
  97. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 1:2
  98. וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים מְרַחֶ֖פֶת עַל־פְּנֵ֥י **הַמָּֽיִם**\ ׃
  99. weruah 'elohim merahefeth 'al-pene **hammayim**
  100. and-the-Spirit-of God was-moving on\_the-face-of **the-waters**.
  101. The Spirit of God was moving on the surface of the **waters**.
  102. Biblical Hebrew can use the plural form for actions that have multiple processes or an action involving a collective noun
  103. (see example Gen 4:10 below, "bloods" = "bloodshed").
  104. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 50:3
  105. כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י הַחֲנֻטִ֑ים
  106. ki ken yimle'u yeme **hahanutim**
  107. for so are-filled days-of **the-embalmings**.
  108. for that was the full time for **embalming**.
  109. .. csv-table:: Example: JER 13:27
  110. נִֽאֻפַ֤יִךְ וּמִצְהֲלוֹתַ֙יִךְ֙ ... רָאִ֖יתִי
  111. **ni'ufayikh umitshalothayikh** ... ra'ithi
  112. **Your-adulteries and-your-neighings** ... I-have-seen
  113. I have seen **your adultery and neighing**
  114. .. _number_plural-majestic:
  115. Majestic Plural
  116. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  117. The plural form can also express a collective, intensive or superlative sense of a singular item (or kind of item).
  118. For example, the noun אֲלֹהִים (God) appears in the plural form but usually refers to the singular entity "God".
  119. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 1:1
  120. בְּרֵאשִׁ֖ית בָּרָ֣א אֱלֹהִ֑ים
  121. insert transliteration
  122. In-beginning he-created **God**
  123. In the beginning **God** created
  124. .. csv-table:: Example: Job 40:15
  125. הִנֵּה־נָ֣א בְ֭הֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֣יתִי
  126. insert transliteration
  127. [dem.part]\_[exh.part] **behemoth** [rel.part]\_I-made
  128. Look now at **the behemoth**, which I made
  129. .. _number_plural-abstract:
  130. Abstract Plural
  131. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  132. Some plural nouns in Biblical Hebrew are translated as singular in other
  133. languages. In English, abstract plurals are often singular and have
  134. endings like -ness, -hood, and -ship.
  135. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 19:11
  136. הִכּוּ֙ בַּסַּנְוֵרִ֔ים
  137. hikku **bassanwerim**
  138. they-hit **with-the-blindnesses**
  139. they struck them **with blindness**
  140. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 21:7
  141. כִּֽי־יָלַ֥דְתִּי בֵ֖ן **לִזְקֻנָֽיו**\ ׃
  142. ki-yaladti ven **lizqunayw**
  143. for\_I-bore son **to-his-old-ages**
  144. yet I have borne him a son **in his old age**!
  145. :ref:`Adjectives<adjective>` marked as plural
  146. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  147. Generally, plural adjectives (also :ref:`active<participle_active-adjectival>` and :ref:`passive<participle_passive-adjectival>`
  148. adjectival participles) use the :ref:`common plural<number_plural-common>`.
  149. .. csv-table:: Example: DEU 8:12 –– attributive adjective with common plural
  150. וּבָתִּ֥ים **טֹובִ֛ים** תִּבְנֶ֖ה וְיָשָֽׁבְתָּ׃
  151. uvottim **towvim** tivneh weyashavetta
  152. and-houses **good** you-will-built and-you-will-live
  153. and when you build **good** houses and live in them
  154. .. csv-table:: Example: JER 33:22 –– adjectival participle with common plural
  155. וְאֶת־הַלְוִיִּ֖ם מְשָׁרְתֵ֥י אֹתִֽי
  156. insert transliteration
  157. and-[dir.obj]\_[def.art]-Levites **who-serve** [dir.obj]-me
  158. and the Levites **who serve** before me
  159. :ref:`Verbs<verb>` marked as plural
  160. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  161. A :ref:`finite verb<verb-finite>` and/or :ref:`verbal participle<participle_active-verbal>` in plural form
  162. indicates that the subject of the verb is plural.
  163. .. csv-table:: Example: JER 43:7 –– finite verb with common plural
  164. כִּ֛י לֹ֥א **שָׁמְע֖וּ** בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֑ה
  165. ki lo **shom'u** beqol yehwah
  166. for not **they-listened** to-voice-of Yahweh.
  167. because **they** did not **listen** to Yahweh's voice.
  168. .. csv-table:: Example: ??? ??:? –– verbal participle with common plural
  169. כִּ֛י לֹ֥א **שָׁמְע֖וּ** בְּק֣וֹל יְהוָ֑ה
  170. insert transliteration [VERBAL PARTICIPLE]
  171. for not **they-listened** to-voice-of Yahweh.
  172. because **they** did not **listen** to Yahweh's voice.
  173. Participles marked as plural
  174. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  175. Participles in plural form can generally use the common plural, but not always. A verbal participle in plural form indicates
  176. that the subject of the participle is plural.
  177. .. csv-table:: Example: SNG 3:8 –– :ref:`nominal<participle_active-nominal>` participle with common plural
  178. כֻּלָּם֙ אֲחֻ֣זֵי חֶ֔רֶב
  179. insert transliteration
  180. all-them **holders-of** sword
  181. All of them **are skilled with** a sword
  182. .. csv-table:: Example: Job 35:10 –– :ref:`adjectival<participle_active-adjectival>` participle with majestic plural
  183. אַ֭יֵּה אֱל֣וֹהַּ עֹשָׂ֑י
  184. insert transliteration
  185. where God **makers-of**-me
  186. Where is God my **Maker**
  187. .. csv-table:: Example: GEN 4:10 –– :ref:`verbal participle<participle_active-verbal>` participle with complex plural ["bloods" = "bloodshed"]
  188. דְּמֵ֣י אָחִ֔יךָ צֹעֲקִ֥ים אֵלַ֖י
  189. insert transliteration
  190. bloods-of your-brother **crying-out** to-me
  191. Your brother's blood **is calling out** to me
  192. Personal :ref:`pronouns<pronoun_personal>` and :ref:`suffixes<suffix_pronominal>` marked as plural
  193. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  194. Generally, pronouns and suffixes use the :ref:`common plural<number_plural-common>`.
  195. .. csv-table:: Example: JOS 2:18 –– independent personal pronoun with common plural
  196. הִנֵּ֛ה **אֲנַ֥חְנוּ** בָאִ֖ים בָּאָ֑רֶץ
  197. hinneh **'anahnu** va'im ba'arets
  198. behold **we** coming-in in-the-land
  199. "behold, when **we** come into the land"
  200. .. csv-table:: Example: EZR 9:12 –– pronominal suffixes with common plural
  201. וְ֠עַתָּה **בְּֽנֹותֵיכֶ֞ם** אַל־תִּתְּנ֣וּ **לִבְנֵיהֶ֗ם וּבְנֹֽתֵיהֶם֙** אַל־תִּשְׂא֣וּ לִבְנֵיכֶ֔ם
  202. "we'attah **benowthekhem** 'al-tittenu **livnehem uvenothehem** 'al-tis'u **livnekhem**"
  203. "And-now **your-daughters** not\_give **to-their-sons and-their-daughters** not\_take **for-your-sons**"
  204. "So now, do not give **your daughters to their sons**; do not take **their daughters for your sons**"