unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

82 lines
4.1 KiB

:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/gender_feminine.rst
.. _gender_feminine:
Gender Feminine
.. include:: includes/gender_feminine-summary.rst
.. include:: includes/hebrew/gender_feminine-summary-hebrew.rst
In Biblical Hebrew, :ref:`nouns<noun>` are classified according to gender, either :ref:`masculine<gender_masculine>`, feminine, or
sometimes :ref:`both<gender_both>`. Grammatical modifiers (such as :ref:`adjectives<adjective>`, :ref:`active<participle_active>`
and :ref:`passive<participle_passive>` participles, :ref:`pronouns<pronoun>`, :ref:`pronominal suffixes<suffix_pronominal>`)
change their endings in order to agree with the gender of the term they refer to. A :ref:`finite verb<verb-finite>`
with feminine gender indicates a feminine subject. All references to female persons in Biblical Hebrew are feminine.
However, other entities apart from people can also be classified as feminine. For example, the :ref:`proper names <noun_proper_name>`
of cities are often feminine in Biblical Hebrew, as well as body parts that exist as pairs (hand, foot, etc.).
Some :ref:`particles<particle>` are also marked for gender in Biblical Hebrew.
.. note:: Some feminine nouns do NOT take feminine endings, even some common
nouns such as אֵם (mother) and אֶרֶץ (earth). They appear to be
masculine nouns, but they are actually feminine nouns. A dictionary or
lexicon will indicate the proper gender for each word.
Feminine :ref:`singular<number_singular>` :ref:`nouns<noun>` and :ref:`adjectives<adjective>` usually end in either ־ָה (qamets-he)
or ־ֶת (seghol-taw, for participles). Feminine :ref:`dual<number_dual>` terms end in ־ַיִם (patach-yod-hireq-final mem), as in יָדַיִם (hands).
Feminine :ref:`plural<number_plural>` terms usually end in וֹת- (holem-taw), as in תּוֹרוֹת (laws). There is a whole family of
:ref:`verbal<verb>` prefixes and suffixes that indicate feminine gender for :ref:`finite<verb-finite>` verbs.
.. csv-table:: Feminine Noun Paradigm
feminine singular absolute,סוּסָה,susah,mare
feminine singular construct,סוּסַת,susat,mare of
feminine plural absolute,סוּסוֹת,susoth,mares
feminine plural construct,סוּסוֹת,susoth,mares of
.. csv-table:: Qal Suffix Conjugation Feminine Forms
second person feminine singular,קָטַלְתְּ,qatalt,you killed
second person feminine plural,קְטַלְתֶּן,qetalten,you killed
third person feminine singular,קָטְלָה,qatlah,she killed
.. csv-table:: Qal Prefix Conjugation Feminine Forms
second person feminine singular,תִּקְטְלִי,tiqteli,you will kill
second person feminine plural,תִּקְטֹלְנָה,tiqtolenah,you will kill
third person feminine singular,תִּקְטֹל,tiqtol,she will kill
third person feminine plural,תִּקְטֹלְנָה,tiqtolenah,they will kill
.. csv-table:: Independent Personal Pronoun Feminine Forms
second person feminine singular,אַתְּ,'at,you
second person feminine plural,אַתֵּנָה,'attenah,you
third person feminine singular,הִיא / הִוא,hi / hiw,she / it
third person feminine plural,הֵן / הֵנָּה,hen / hennah,they
.. csv-table:: Object Pronoun Feminine Forms
second person feminine singular,אֹתָךְ,'othakh,you
second person feminine plural,אֹתְכֶֶן,'othekhem,you
third person feminine singular,אֹתָהּ,'othah,her / it
third person feminine plural,אֶתְהֶן / אֹתָן,'ethhen / 'othan,them
.. csv-table:: Pronominal Suffix Feminine Forms
second person feminine singular,לָךְ / - ָךְ,lakh / -akh,(to) you
second person feminine plural,לָכֶן / -כֶן,lakhen / -khen,(to) you
third person feminine singular,לָהּ / - ָהּ,lah / -ah,(to) her
third person feminine plural,לָהֶן / -הֶן / - ָן,lahen / -hen / -an,(to) them