unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/adverb.rst
.. _adverb:
.. include:: includes/adverb-summary.rst
.. include:: includes/hebrew/adverb-summary-hebrew.rst
.. include:: includes/notes/adverbs-hebrew.rst
Biblical Hebrew does not contain many words that are classified directly
as adverbs. However, many different kinds of words can
function as adverbs, including an
:ref:`infinitive absolute<infinitive_absolute>`, an
:ref:`adjective<adjective>`, or even a :ref:`noun<noun>`.
Many :ref:`particles<particle>` are closely related to adverbs in Biblical Hebrew. A
general rule is that when a particle occurs after the verb, it functions
as an adverb; but when a particle appears before the verb, then it
functions in some other way (usually as a conjunction or a discourse marker). But
this rule is not universal; sometimes both adverbs and particles
can appear before the verb rather than after the verb, as in the
example below (GEN 32:11).
Describes a verb
There are several different ways that an adverb can describe a verb.
Many adverbs in Biblical Hebrew have the potential to serve multiple
functions. For example, כֹּה can function as an adverb of place, an
adverb of time, or an adverb of manner; פֹּה can function as an adverb
of time or an adverb of place, etc.
.. _adverb-locative:
.. include:: includes/adverb-locative.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 22:5
ְׁבוּ־לָכֶ֥ם **פֹּה֙** עִֽם־הַחֲמ֔וֹר וַאֲנִ֣י וְהַנַּ֔עַר נֵלְכָ֖ה
"shevu-lakhem **poh** 'im-hahamor wa'ani wehanna'ar nelekhah
"Stay\_to-you **here** with\_the-donkey and-I and-the-lad will-go
to\_\ **there**."
"You two stay **here** with the donkey while the boy and I go over
.. csv-table:: Example: DEU 31:26
וְהָֽיָה־\ **שָׁ֥ם** בְּךָ֖ לְעֵֽד׃
wehayah-\ **sham** bekha le'ed
it-may-be **there** as-a-witness against-you
"it may remain **there** to testify about what Yahweh will do to the
people if they disobey him"
.. csv-table:: Example: EZE 40:30
וְאֵֽלַמּ֖וֹת **סָבִ֣יב ׀ סָבִ֑יב** אֹ֗רֶךְ
we'elammoth **saviv saviv** 'orekh
And-porticos **surrounding surrounding** length
There were also porticos **all around** the inner wall
.. _adverb-temporal:
.. include:: includes/adverb-temporal.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 32:11
וְעַתָּ֥ה הָיִ֖יתִי לִשְׁנֵ֥י מַחֲנֽוֹת
**we-‘attah** hayithi lishene mahanoth
**and-now** I-have-become to-two companies
**and now** I have become two camps
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 4:26
אָ֣ז הוּחַ֔ל לִקְרֹ֖א בְּשֵׁ֥ם יְהוָֽה
**‘az** huhal liqro’ beshem yehwah
**Then** he-began to-call-out in-name-of Yahweh
**At that time** people began to call on the name of Yahweh.
.. _adverb-quantitative:
.. include:: includes/adverb-quantitative.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 31:41
וַיִּ֤חַר לְקַ֙יִן֙ מְאֹ֔ד
And-it-burned for-Cain **greatly**
So Cain was **very** angry
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 22:15
ַיִּקְרָ֛א מַלְאַ֥ךְ יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־אַבְרָהָ֑ם **שֵׁנִ֖ית**
"And-he-called-out angel-of Yahweh to\_Abraham **second**
The angel of Yahweh called to Abraham **a second time** from heaven
.. _adverb-manner:
.. include:: includes/adverb-manner.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 21:14
וְלֹֽא־מָצְא֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם כֵּֽן׃
but-not they-found for-them **thus**
but there were not **enough** women for all of them.
.. csv-table:: Example: ZEP 1:14
מַ֥ר צֹרֵ֖חַ שָׁ֥ם גִּבּֽוֹר׃
**mar** tsoreah sham gibbor
**bitterly** cries there hero.
even brave soldiers will cry **loudly**.
.. _adverb-sentential:
.. include:: includes/adverb-sentential.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 9:4 –– אַךְ as a restrictive adverb
אַךְ־בָּשָׂ֕ר בְּנַפְשׁ֥וֹ דָמ֖וֹ לֹ֥א תֹאכֵֽלוּ׃
**'akh**-basar benafsho damo lo thokhelu
**However**\ \_meat in-its-life its-blood not you-shall-eat
**But** you must not eat meat with its life—that is its blood—in it.
.. csv-table:: Example: NUM 12:2 –– רַ֥ק as a restrictive adverb
הֲרַ֤ק אַךְ־בְּמֹשֶׁה֙ דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה
**haraq** 'akh-bemosheh dibber yehwah
**only** really\_with-Moses spoken Yahweh
"Is Moses the **only** one to whom Yahweh has spoken messages to tell
to us?"
.. csv-table:: Example: DEU 15:5 –– רַ֥ק as a restrictive adverb
רַ֚ק אִם־שָׁמ֣וֹעַ תִּשְׁמַ֔ע בְּק֖וֹל יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
**raq** 'im-shamoa' tishma' beqol yehwah 'eloheykha
**only** if\_listening you-will-listen to-voice-of Yahweh your-God
if **only** you diligently listen to the voice of Yahweh your God
.. _adverb-nominal:
.. include:: includes/adverb-nominal.rst
.. csv-table:: Example: ISA 65:16
יִשָּׁבַ֖ע בֵּאלֹהֵ֣י אָמֵ֑ן
he-will-swear by-God-of **Amen**
"Whoever ... will swear by me, the God of **truth**"
Other words functioning as adverbs
Because Biblical Hebrew does not contain many adverbs, sometimes other kinds of words can function as adverbs.
:ref:`Particles<particle>` functioning as adverbs
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 3:22
וְלָקַ֕חַת **גַּ֥ם** אֶת־דּוּדָאֵ֖י בְּנִ֑י
and-to-take **also** [dir.obj]\_mandrakes-of my-son
"Do you now want to take away my son's mandrakes, **too**?"
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 6:5
וְכָל־יֵ֙צֶר֙ מַחְשְׁבֹ֣ת לִבּ֔וֹ **רַ֥ק** רַ֖ע כָּל־הַיּֽוֹם
"and-all-of\_intentions-of thoughts-of his-heart **only** evil
"every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts was **only** evil
:ref:`Infinitive absolute<infinitive_absolute>` verbs functioning as adverbs
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 2:16
מִכֹּ֥ל עֵֽץ־הַגָּ֖ן **אָכֹ֥ל** תֹּאכֵֽל
mikkol 'ets-haggan **'akhol** tokhel
from-every tree-of\_the-garden **eating** you-may-eat
From every tree in the garden you may **freely** eat.
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 3:12
אָקִ֣ים אֶל־עֵלִ֔י אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתִּי אֶל־בֵּיתֹ֑ו הָחֵ֖ל וְכַלֵּֽה
"'aqim 'el-'eli 'eth kol-'asher dibbarti 'el-bethow
**hahel wekhalleh**"
"I-will-fulfill to\_Eli [dir.obj] all\_that I-have-spoken
to\_his-house **beginning and-ending**."
"I will fulfill against Eli everything that I have spoken concerning
his house, **from beginning to end**."
:ref:`Adjectives<adjective>` functioning as adverbs
This is called an :ref:`adverbial adjective<adjective-adverbial>`.
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 21:10
כִּ֥י לָהֶ֛ם הָיָ֥ה הַגּוֹרָ֖ל רִיאשֹׁנָֽה
for to-them it-was the-lot **first**
For the **first** casting of lots had fallen to them.
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 1:7
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר עֵשָׂ֖ו יֶשׁ־לִ֣י **רָ֑ב** אָחִ֕י
And-he-said Esau 'There-is\_for-me **enough** my-brother'
"Esau said, ""I have **enough**, my brother."""
:ref:`Nouns<noun>` functioning as adverbs
This is called an adverbial noun.
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 12:11
וַתֵּשְׁב֖וּ **בֶּֽטַח**\ ׃
watteshevu **betah**
and-you-lived **safety**
and you lived **safely**
.. csv-table:: Example: HOS 14:4 (in Hebrew: HOS 14:5)
אֹהֲבֵ֖ם נְדָבָ֑ה
'ohavem **nedavah**
I-will-love **free**
I will love them **freely**