unfoldingWord® Hebrew Grammar https://uhg.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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:github_url: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_uhg/src/branch/master/content/adjective_cardinal_number.rst
.. _adjective_cardinal_number:
Adjective Cardinal Number
.. include:: includes/adjective_cardinal_number-summary.rst
.. include:: includes/adjective_cardinal_number-article.rst
.. csv-table:: "One" Paradigm
masculine singular absolute,אֶחָד,'ehad,one
masculine singular construct,אַחַד,'ahad,one of
feminine singular absolute,אַחַת,'ahath,one
feminine singular construct,אַחַת,'ahath,one of
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 18:19
אִ֣ישׁ אֶחָ֔ד
'ish **'ehad**
man **one**
**one** man
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 13:17
הָרֹ֨אשׁ אֶחָ֥ד
harosh **'ehad**
The-group **one**
**One** group
The following example is a cardinal number functioning as a noun.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 19:9
הָאֶחָ֤ד בָּֽא־לָגוּר֙
**ha'ehad** ba-lagur
**The-one** came-in\_to-live-as-a-foreigner
**This one** came here to live as a foreigner
As would be expected, the number “two” in Biblical Hebrew always takes
the :ref:`dual<number_dual>` form.
.. csv-table:: "Two" Paradigm
masculine dual absolute,שְׁנַיִם,shenayim,two
masculine dual construct,שְׁנֵי,shene,two of
feminine dual absolute,שְׁתַּיִם,shetayim,two
feminine dual construct,שְׁתֵּי,shete,two of
.. csv-table:: Example: 1CH 4:5
שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֑ים
**shete** nashim
**two** women
**two** women
.. csv-table:: Example: 2CH 3:15
עַמּוּדִ֣ים שְׁנַ֔יִם
'ammudim **shenayim**
pillars **two**
**two** pillars
The following example is a cardinal number with a :ref:`pronominal suffix<suffix_pronominal>`.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 3:7
**two of them**
**both of them**
.. note:: These numbers have specialized uses when they take either a
:ref:`dual<number_dual>` ending or a :ref:`plural<number_plural>`
ending. When these numbers take a dual ending, they become simple
multiples ("three-fold", "four-fold", "five-fold", etc.); but when they
take a plural ending, they become multiples of ten ("thirty", "forty",
"fifty", etc.).
.. csv-table:: 3-10 Paradigm
masculine singular absolute,שָׁלֹשׁ,shalosh,three
masculine singular construct,שְׁלֹשׁ,shelosh,three of
feminine singular absolute,שְׁלֹשָׁה,sheloshah,three
feminine singular construct,שְׁלֹשֶׁת,shelosheth,three of
masculine singular absolute,אַרְבַּע,'arba',four
masculine singular construct,אַרְבַּע,'arba',four of
feminine singular absolute,אַרְבָּעָה,'arba'ah,four
feminine singular construct,אַרְבַּעַת,'arba'ath,four of
masculine singular absolute,חָמֵשׁ,hamesh,five
masculine singular construct,חֲמֵשׁ,hamesh,five of
feminine singular absolute,חֲמִשָּׁה,hamishah,five
feminine singular construct,חֲמֵשֶׁת,hameshet,five of
masculine singular absolute,שֵׁשׁ,shesh,six
masculine singular construct,שֵׁשׁ,shesh,six of
feminine singular absolute,שִׁשָּׁה,shishah,six
feminine singular construct,שֵׁשֶׁת,sheshet,six of
masculine singular absolute,שֶׁבַע,sheva',seven
masculine singular construct,שֶׁבַע,sheva',seven of
feminine singular absolute,שִׁבְעָה,shiv'ah,seven
feminine singular construct,שִׁבְעַת,shiv'at,seven of
masculine singular absolute,שְׁמֹנֶה,shemoneh,eight
masculine singular construct,שְׁמֹנֶה,shemoneh,eight of
feminine singular absolute,שְׁמֹנָה,shemonah,eight
feminine singular construct,שִׁמֹנַת,shimonath,eight of
masculine singular absolute,תֵּשַׁע,tesha',nine
masculine singular construct,תֵּשַׁע,tesha',nine of
feminine singular absolute,תִּשְׁעָה,tish'ah,nine
feminine singular construct,תִּשְׁעַת,tish'ath,nine of
masculine singular absolute,עֶשֶׂר,'eser,ten
masculine singular construct,עֶשֶׂר,'eser,ten of
feminine singular absolute,עֲשָׂרָה,'asarah,ten
feminine singular construct,עֲשֶׂרֶת,'asereth,ten of
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 21:18
עָרִ֖ים אַרְבַּֽע׃
'arim **'arba'**
cities **four**
**four** cities
.. csv-table:: Example: JOB 1:2
שִׁבְעָ֥ה בָנִ֖ים **וְשָׁל֥וֹשׁ** בָּנֽוֹת
**shiv'ah** vanim **weshalosh** banoth
**seven** sons **and-three** daughters
**seven** sons **and three** daughters
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 4:15
כָּל־הֹרֵ֣ג קַ֔יִן **שִׁבְעָתַ֖יִם** יֻקָּ֑ם
kol-horeg qayin **shiv'athayim** yuqqam
all\_he-who-kills Cain **sevenfold** he-will-be-avenged
"If anyone kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him **sevenfold**."
.. csv-table:: Example: 2SA 12:6
וְאֶת־הַכִּבְשָׂ֖ה יְשַׁלֵּ֣ם אַרְבַּעְתָּ֑יִם
we'eth-hakkivsah yeshallem **'arba'tayim**
and-[dir.obj]-the-lamb he-will-restore **fourfold**
He must pay back the lamb **four times over**
The numbers 11-19 are formed by writing the number 1-9 followed by the
number 10. Thus, in Biblical Hebrew the number "eleven" is written as
"one ten"; the number "seventeen" is written as "seven ten", etc.
.. csv-table:: 11-19 Paradigm
masculine,אַחַד עָשָׂר,'ahad 'asar,eleven
feminine,אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה,'ahath 'esreh,eleven
masculine,שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר,shenem 'asar,twelve
feminine,שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה,shetem 'esreh,twelve
masculine,שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר,sheloshah 'asar,thirteen
feminine,שָׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה,shalosh 'esreh,thirteen
masculine,אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר,'arba'ah 'asar,fourteen
feminine,אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה,'arba' 'esreh,fourteen
masculine,חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר,hamishah 'asar,fifteen
feminine,חָמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה,hamesh 'esreh,fifteen
masculine,שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר,shishah 'asar,sixteen
feminine,שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה,shesh 'esreh,sixteen
masculine,שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר,shiv'ah 'asar,seventeen
feminine,שְׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה,sheva' 'esreh,seventeen
masculine,שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר,shemonah 'asar,eighteen
feminine,שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה,shemoneh 'esreh,eighteen
masculine,תִּשְׁעָה עָשָׂר,tish'ah 'asar,nineteen
feminine,תְּשַׁע עֶשְׂרֵה,tesha' 'esreh,nineteen
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 15:41
עָרִ֥ים שֵׁשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֖ה
'arim **shesh-'esreh**
cities **six\_ten**
**sixteen** cities
.. csv-table:: Example: 2SA 9:10
חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר בָּנִ֖ים
**hamishah 'asar** banim
**five ten** sons
**fifteen** sons
.. csv-table:: Example: JOS 4:4
וַיִּקְרָ֣א יְהֹושֻׁ֗עַ אֶל־\ **שְׁנֵ֤ים הֶֽעָשָׂר֙** אִ֔ישׁ
wayyiqra yehowshua' 'el-**shenem he'asar** 'ish
And-he-called Joshua to\_\ **two ten** man
Then Joshua called the **twelve** men
Multiples of ten (20, 30, 40, etc.)
.. csv-table:: Multiples of Ten Paradigm
gender both,עֶשְׂרִים,'esrim,twenty
gender both,שְׁלֹשִׁים,sheloshim,thirty
gender both,אַרְבָּעִים,'arba'im,forty
gender both,חֲמִשִּׁים,hamishim,fifty
gender both,שִׁשִּׁים,shishim,sixty
gender both,שִׁבְעִים,shiv'im,seventy
gender both,שְׁמֹנִים,shemonim,eighty
gender both,תִּשְׁעִים,tish'im,ninety
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 18:31
לֹ֣א אַשְׁחִ֔ית בַּעֲב֖וּר הָֽעֶשְׂרִֽים׃
lo 'ashhith ba'avur **ha'esrim**
not I-will-destroy for-sake-of **the-twenty**.
I will not destroy it for **the twenty**'s sake
In the following example, the nouns "day" and "night" are singular in form
but plural in meaning.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 7:4
אַרְבָּעִ֣ים יֹ֔ום **וְאַרְבָּעִ֖ים** לָ֑יְלָה
**'arba'im** yowm **we'arba'im** laylah
**forty** day **and-forty** night
**forty** days **and forty** nights
Multiples of ten plus units (21, 32, 43, etc.)
These numbers are written following the same rules as the numbers 11-19.
Thus, the number "twenty-one" is written as "one twenty"; the number
"thirty-two" is written as "two thirty"; the number "forty-three" is
writen as "three forty", etc.
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 5:20
שְׁתַּ֤יִם וְשִׁשִּׁים֙ שָׁנָ֔ה
**shetayim weshishim** shanah
**two and-sixty** year
**sixty-two** years
.. csv-table:: Example: DAN 9:26
וְאַחֲרֵ֤י הַשָּׁבֻעִים֙ שִׁשִּׁ֣ים וּשְׁנַ֔יִם
we'ahare hashavu'im **shishim ushenayim**
And-after the-weeks **sixty and-two**
After the **sixty-two** weeks
Multiples of 100, 1000, 10000, etc.
The nouns "hundred" (100) and "thousand" (1000) function the same as any
other common noun with singular, dual, and plural forms. Although the
number for "hundred" uses feminine endings and the number for "thousand"
uses masculine endings, both numbers should be classified as "gender
both" because the same form can be both grammatically-masculine and
.. csv-table:: Multiples of 100, 1000, 10000, etc. Paradigm
gender both singular absolute,מֵאָה,me'ah,hundred
gender both singular construct,מְאַת,me'ath,hundred of
gender both dual absolute,מָאתַיִם,mathayim,two hundred
gender both plural absolute,מֵאוֹת,me'oth,hundreds
gender both plural construct,מֵאוֹת,me'oth,hundreds of
gender both singular absolute,אֶלֶף,'elef,thousand
gender both singular construct,אֶלֶף,'elef,thousand of
gender both dual absolute,אַלְפַּיִם,'alpayim,two thousand
gender both plural absolute,אֲלָפַיִם,'alafayim,thousands
gender both plural construct,אַלְפֵי,'alfe,thousands of
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 5:5
ַיִּֽהְי֞וּ כָּל־יְמֵ֤י אָדָם֙ אֲשֶׁר־חַ֔י תְּשַׁ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ שָׁנָ֔ה
וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה וַיָּמֹֽת"
"wayyiheyu kol-yeme 'adam 'asher-hay tesha' me'oth shanah usheloshim
shanah wayyamoth"
"And-it-was all\_days-of Adam which\_he-lived nine hundred year
and-thirty year and-he-died."
"Adam lived 930 years altogether, and then he died."
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 11:17
וַֽיְחִי־עֵ֗בֶר ... שְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְאַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָ֑ה
wayehi-'ever ... sheloshim shanah we'arba' me'oth shanah
And-he-lived Eber ... thirty year and-four hundred year
Eber ... lived 430 more years
.. csv-table:: Example: GEN 20:16
נָתַ֜תִּי אֶ֤לֶף כֶּ֙סֶף֙ לְאָחִ֔יךְ
nathatti 'elef kesef le'ahikh
I-have-given thousand-of silver to-your-brother
I have given your brother a thousand pieces of silver.
.. csv-table:: Example: 1SA 29:2
וְסַרְנֵ֤י פְלִשְׁתִּים֙ עֹֽבְרִ֔ים לְמֵא֖וֹת וְלַאֲלָפִ֑ים
wesarne felishtim 'overim leme'oth wela'alafim
"And-the-lords-of the-Philistines were-passing-over by-hundreds
The princes of the Philistines passed on by hundreds and by thousands
In the following example, multiples of 1,000 are expressed by numbers
in a construct phrase.
.. csv-table:: Example: JDG 1:4
וַיַּכּ֣וּם בְּבֶ֔זֶק עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת אֲלָפִ֖ים אִֽישׁ׃
wayyakkum bevezeq 'asereth 'alafim 'ish
And-they-defeated in-Bezek ten-of thousands man
They killed ten thousand of them at Bezek.