unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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Connecting Statement:

Peter gives examples of people who acted against God and whom God punished because of what they did.

did not spare

"did not refrain from punishing" or "punished"

he handed them down to Tartarus

The word "Tartarus" is a term from Greek religion that refers to the place where evil spirits and wicked men who have died are punished. AT: "he cast them into hell" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names)

to be kept in chains of lower darkness

This can be stated in active form. AT: "where he will keep them in chains of lower darkness" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive)

in chains of lower darkness

Possible meanings are 1) "in chains in a very dark place" or 2) "in very deep darkness that imprisons them like chains." (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

until the judgment

This refers to the day of judgment when God will judge every person.

he did not spare the ancient world

Here the word "world" refers to the people who lived in it. AT: "he did not spare the people who lived in the ancient world" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

he preserved Noah ... along with seven others

God did not destroy Noah and seven other people when he destroyed the rest of the people who lived in the ancient world.

reduced the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes

"burned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah with fire until only ashes remained"

condemned them to destruction

Here the word "them" refers to Sodom and Gomorrah and the people who lived in them.

as an example of what is to happen to the ungodly

Sodom and Gomorrah serve as an example and a warning of what will happen to others who disobey God.


  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/god
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/angel
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/world
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/noah
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/flood
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/sodom
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/gomorrah
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/ash
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/condemn