unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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Connecting Statement:

Jude uses a series of metaphors to describe the ungodly men. He tells the believers how to recognize these men when they are among them.

These are the ones

The word “These” refers to the “ungodly men” of Jude 1:4.

hidden reefs

Reefs are large rocks that are very close to the surface of water in the sea. Because sailors cannot see them, they are very dangerous. Ships can easily be destroyed if they hit these rocks. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

autumn trees without fruit

Possible meanings are that these people are like 1) trees from which people expect to harvest fruit, but they have none, or 2) trees that never bear fruit. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)


This is a metaphor for a life that pleases God and helps other people. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

twice dead, torn up by the roots

A tree that someone has uprooted is a metaphor for death. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

torn up by the roots

Like trees that have been completely pulled out of the ground by their roots, the ungodly people have been separated from God, who is the source of life. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

violent waves in the sea

As the sea’s waves are blown by a strong wind, so the ungodly people are easily moved in many directions. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

foaming out their own shame

As wind causes wild waves to stir up dirty foam—so these men, through their false teaching and actions, shame themselves. AT: “and just as waves bring up foam and dirt, these men pollute others with their shame” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

wandering stars

Those who studied the stars in ancient times noticed that what we call planets do not move the way that stars do. AT: “disorderly stars” or “moving stars” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

stars, for whom the gloom of thick darkness has been reserved forever

“stars. For them God has set aside a place of complete darkness, where he will keep them forever”