unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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13.md 934B

See the land of the Chaldeans

“Chaldeans” here is another name for Babylonians. AT: “See what happened to the land of the Babylonians” or “See what has happened to Babylonia”

siege towers

Soldiers built towers or dirt ramps to attack over the walls of a city.

Howl, you ships of Tarshish

Here “ships” represents the men on the ships. See how you translated this in Isaiah 23:1. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

for your refuge has been destroyed

This can be stated in active form. AT: “for enemies have destroyed your refuge” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive)


  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/chaldeans
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/assyria
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/desert
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/siege
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/ruin
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/tarshish
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/refuge