“Sins” represents the punishment for sin. AT: “to take the punishment we deserved because of our sins” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)
Here “this … age” represents the powers at work in the age. AT: “that he might bring us to a place of safety from the evil powers at work in the world today” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)
“Deliver” here is a metaphor for “bring to a place of safety.” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor).
This refers to “God our Father.” He is our God and our Father.