unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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For you were once darkness

Just as one cannot see in the dark, so people who love to sin lack spiritual understanding. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

but now you are light in the Lord

Just as one can see in the light, so people whom God has saved understand how to please God. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

Walk as children of light

Walking on a path is a metaphor for how a person lives his life. AT: “Live as people who understand what the Lord wants them to do” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

the fruit of the light consists in all goodness, righteousness, and truth

“Fruit” here is a metaphor for “result” or “outcome.” AT: “the result of living in the light is good work, right living, and truthful behavior” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor).

Do not associate with the unfruitful works of darkness

Paul speaks of the useless, sinful things that unbelievers do as if they are evil deeds people do in the dark so no one will see them. AT: “Do not do useless, sinful things with unbelievers” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

unfruitful works

actions that do nothing good, useful, or profitable. Paul is comparing evil actions to an unhealthy tree that produces nothing good. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

expose them

Speaking against the works of darkness is spoken of as bringing them out into the light so that people can see them. AT: “bring them out into the light” or “uncover them” or “show and tell people how wrong these actions are” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)


  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/true