unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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General Information:

The words “his,” “He,” and “he” refer to God.

God chose us beforehand for adoption

The word “us” refers to Paul, the Ephesian church, and all believers in Christ. AT: “God planned long ago to adopt us” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-inclusive)

God chose us beforehand

“God chose us ahead of time” or “God chose us long ago”

for adoption as sons

Here “adoption” refers to becoming part of God’s family. Here the word “sons” refers to males and females. AT: “to be adopted as his children” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations)

through Jesus Christ

God brought believers into his family by the work of Jesus Christ.

he has freely given us in the One he loves.

“Freely given us” here is an idiom for “abundantly” or “without hesitation.” AT: “he has abundantly given to us by means of the One he loves. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor).

the One he loves

“the One he loves, Jesus Christ” or “his Son, whom he loves”


  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/predestine
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/adoption
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/praise
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/glory
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/grace
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/beloved