unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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The virgin daughter of Zion

"Virgin daughter" here is a metaphor for the people of Jerusalem as if they are young, vibrant and beautiful. The term "daughter" was used to give personal characteristics to cities by some biblical writers. AT: "The beautiful people of Jerusalem" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor and rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification)

The virgin daughter of Zion despises you and laughs you to scorn. The daughter of Jerusalem shakes her head at you.

Both of these sentences intend to give the same meaning. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism)

The daughter of Jerusalem

"Daughter" is metaphor for the people of Jerusalem. AT: "The people of the city of Jerusalem" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

shakes her head at you

This action is a metaphor to represent disdain at the pride of the Assyrians. AT: "scorns you" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

Whom have you defied and insulted? Against whom have you exalted your voice and lifted up your eyes in pride? Against the Holy One of Israel!

Yahweh uses rhetorical questions to rebuke Sennacherib. AT: "You have defied and insulted me! You have exalted your voice and lifted up your eyes in pride against me, the Holy One of Israel!" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion)

lifted up your eyes in pride

"lifted up your eyes in pride" is metonymy for a haughty or arrogant facial expression. AT: "looked at very proudly" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

the Holy One of Israel

An expression for the God of Israel, Yahweh.


  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/isaiah
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/amoz
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/hezekiah
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/pray
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/word
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/virgin
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/zion
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/jerusalem
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/exalt
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/voice
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/proud
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyone