unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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  • en:tw:birthright
  • en:tw:defile
  • en:tw:firstborn
  • en:tw:jacob
  • en:tw:josephot
  • en:tw:judah
  • en:tw:reuben


  • now Reuben - The word “now” is used here to mark the change from the lists of descendants to background information about Reuben. (See: en:ta:vol2:translate:writing_background)
  • but his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph son of Israel - AT: “but Israel gave Reuben’s birthright to the sons of Joseph, another of Israel’s sons” (See: :en:ta:vol2:translate:figs_activepassive)
  • Reuben had defiled his father’s couch - This is a polite way to speak about Reuben sleeping with father’s secondary wife. (See::en:ta:vol2:translate:figs_euphemism) The couch is the place where a man and his wife would have slept together. (See: :en:ta:vol2:translate:figs_metonymy)
  • So he is not recorded as being the oldest - AT: “So the family history does not list Reuben as the oldest son” (See: :en:ta:vol2:translate:figs_activepassive)
  • Hanoch…Pallu…Hezron…Carmi - These are the names of men. (See: :en:ta:vol1:translate:translate_names)