unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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You adulteresses!

James speaks of believers as being like wives who sleep with men other than their husbands. AT: “You are not being faithful to God!” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

Do you not know … God?

James uses this question to teach his audience. This can be translated as a statement. AT: “You know … God!” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion)

friendship with the world

This phrase refers to identifying with or participating in the world’s value system and behavior. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

friendship with the world

Here the world’s value system is spoken of as if it were a person that others could be friends with. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification)

friendship with the world is hostility against God

One who is friends with the world is an enemy of God. Here “friendship with the world” stands for being friends with the world, and “hostility against God” stands for being hostile against God. AT: “friends of the world are enemies of God” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

Or do you think the scripture says in vain

This is a rhetorical question James uses to exhort his audience. To speak in vain is to speak uselessly. AT: “There is a reason that scripture says”

The Spirit he caused to live in us

Some versions, including the ULB and UDB, understand this as a reference to the Holy Spirit. Other versions translate this as “the spirit” and mean by it the human spirit that each person has been created to have. We suggest that you use the meaning that is presented in other translations used by your readers.


  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/adultery
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/world
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/god
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wordofgod
  • rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyspirit