Jacob tore his garments
This is an act of deep distress and grief. This can be written more clearly. AT: "Jacob was so grieved that he tore his garments" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit)
put sackcloth upon his loins
Here "loins" refers to the middle part of the body or the waist. AT: "put on sackcloth" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit)
Here the childrens' coming to their father is spoke of as "rising up." AT: "came to him" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)
but he refused to be comforted
This can be stated in active form. AT: "but he would not let them comfort him" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive)
Indeed I will go down to Sheol mourning
The means that he be mourning from now until when he dies. AT: "Indeed when I die and go down to Sheol I will still be mourning" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit)
The Midianites sold him
"The Midianites sold Joseph"
the captain of the bodyguard
"the leader of the soldiers who guarded the king"