Being in a rage is an idiom for being extremely angry. AT: "The king was extremely angry and got up" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom)
"to beg Queen Esther to save his life"
Here seeing represents realizing or understanding. AT: "He realized that disaster was being decided" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)
This can be stated in active form. The abstract noun "disaster" can be expressed with the more concrete verbs "destroy" or "kill." AT: "the king was deciding to cause a disaster against him" or "the king was deciding to destroy him" (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive and rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns)