unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
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01.md 1006B

now Reuben

The word “now” is used here to mark the change from the lists of descendants to background information about Reuben. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background)

but his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph son of Israel

AT: “but Israel gave Reuben’s birthright to the sons of Joseph, another of Israel’s sons” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive)

Reuben had defiled his father’s couch

This is a polite way to speak about Reuben sleeping with father’s secondary wife. (See:rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism) The couch is the place where a man and his wife would have slept together. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

So he is not recorded as being the oldest

AT: “So the family history does not list Reuben as the oldest son” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive)


These are the names of men. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names)