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Introduction to Revelation

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the book of Revelation

  1. Opening (1:1-20)
  2. Letters to the seven churches (2:1-3:22)
  3. Vision of God in heaven, and a vision of the Lamb (4:1-11)
  4. The seven seals (6:1-8:1)
  5. The seven trumpets (8:2-13:18)
  6. Worshipers of the Lamb, the martyrs, and the harvest of wrath (14:1-20)
  7. The seven bowls (15:1-18:24)
  8. Worship in heaven (19:1-10)
  9. The Lamb’s judgment, the destruction of the beast, the thousand years, the destruction of Satan, and the final judgment (20:11-15)
  10. The new creation and the new Jerusalem (21:1-22:5)
  11. Jesus’ promise to return, the witness from the angels, John’s closing words, Christ’s message to his church, the invitation and the warning (22:6-21)

Who wrote the book of Revelation?

The author identified himself as John. This was probably the Apostle John. He wrote the book of Revelation while on the island of Patmos. The Romans exiled John there for teaching people about Jesus.

What is the book of Revelation about?

John wrote the book of Revelation to encourage believers to remain faithful even when they are suffering. John described visions he had of Satan and his followers fighting against and killing believers. In the visions God causes many terrible things to happen on the earth to punish wicked people. In the end, Jesus defeats Satan and his followers. Then Jesus comforts those who were faithful. And the believers will live forever with God in the new heavens and earth.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by one of its traditional titles, “Revelation,” “The Revelation of Jesus Christ,” “The Revelation to Saint John,” or “The Apocalypse of John.” Or they may choose a possibly clearer title, such as “The Things that Jesus Christ Showed to John.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

What type of writing is the book of Revelation?

John used a special style of writing to describe his visions. John described what he saw by using many symbols. This style of writing is called symbolic prophecy or apocalyptic literature. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

Are the events of Revelation past or future?

Since early Christian times, scholars have interpreted Revelation differently. Some scholars think John described events that happened during his time. Some scholars think John described events happening from his time until the return of Jesus. Other scholars think John described events that will happen in a short period of time just before Christ returns.

Translators will not need to decide how to interpret the book before they translate it. Translators should leave the prophecies in the tenses that are used in the ULT.

Are there any other books in the Bible like Revelation?

No other book of the Bible is like the book of Revelation. But, passages in Ezekiel, Zechariah, and especially Daniel are similar in content and style to Revelation. It may be beneficial to translate Revelation at the same time as Daniel since they have some imagery and style in common.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Does one need to understand the book of Revelation to translate it?

One does not need to understand all of the symbols in the book of Revelation to translate it properly. Translators should not give possible meanings for the symbols or numbers in their translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

How are the ideas of “holy” and “sanctify” represented in Revelation in the ULT?

The scriptures use these words to indicate any one of various ideas. For this reason, it is often difficult for translators to represent them well in their versions. In translating Revelation into English, the ULT uses the following principles:

  • The meaning in two passages indicates moral holiness. Here, the ULT uses “holy.” (See: 14:12; 22:11)
  • Usually the meaning in Revelation indicates a simple reference to Christians without implying any particular role filled by them. In these cases, the ULT uses “believer” or “believers.” (See: 5:8; 8:3, 4; 11:18; 13:7; 16:6; 17:6; 18:20, 24; 19:8; 20:9)
  • Sometimes the meaning implies the idea of someone or something set apart for God alone. In these cases, the ULT uses “sanctify,” “set apart,” “dedicated to,” or “reserved for.”

The UST will often be helpful as translators think about how to represent these ideas in their own versions.

Periods of time

John referred to various periods of time in Revelation. For example, there are many references to forty-two months, seven years, and three and a half days. Some scholars think these time periods are symbolic. Other scholars think these are actual time periods. The translator should treat these time periods as referencing actual periods of time. It is then up to the interpreter to determine their significance or what they may represent.

What are the major issues in the text of the book of Revelation?

For the following verses, some modern versions of the Bible differ from older versions. The ULT text has the modern reading and puts the older reading in a footnote. If a translation of the Bible exists in the general region, translators should consider using the reading found in those versions. If not, translators are advised to follow the modern reading.

  • “‘I am the alpha and the omega,’ says the Lord God, ‘the one who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty’” (1:8). Some versions add the phrase “the Beginning and the End.”
  • “the elders prostrated themselves and worshiped” (5:14). Some older versions read, “the twenty-four elders prostrated themselves and worshiped the one who lives forever and ever.”
  • “so that a third of it \[the earth\] was burned up” (8:7). Some older versions do not include this phrase.
  • “the one who is and who was” (11:17). Some versions add the phrase “and who is to come.”
  • “they are blameless” (14:5). Some versions add the phrase “before the throne of God” (14:5).
  • “the one who is and who was, the Holy One” (16:5). Some older versions read, “O Lord, the One who is and who was and who is to be.”
  • “The nations will walk by the light of that city” (21:24). Some older versions read, “The nations that are saved will walk by the light of that city.”
  • “Blessed are those who wash their robes” (22:14). Some older versions read “Blessed are those who do his commandments.”
  • “God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city” (22:19). Some older versions read, “God will take away his share in the book of life and in the holy city.”

(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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Revelation 1 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

Outline of Chapter One of Revelation

I. The Introduction to Revelation

A. The Prologue (1:1-8)

  1. The Preface (1:1-3)
  2. The Address and the Doxology (1:4-6)
  3. The Book’s Theme (1:7-8)

II. John’s Vision of Christ

B. John’s Appointment to Write the Book of Revelation (1:9-20)

  1. The Initial Appointment to Write (1:9-11)
  2. The Source of the Appointment (1:12-16)
  3. The Appointment Repeated and Elaborated (1:17-20)

This chapter explains how the book of Revelation records the vision John received on the island of Patmos.

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page to make them easier to read. The ULT does this with the quoted words in verse 7.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Seven churches

John wrote this book to seven actual churches in Asia Minor, which is now the country of Turkey.

White

The Bible often speaks of something that belongs to a person as being “white.” This is metaphor and metonym for that person living rightly and pleasing God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

“Him who is, and who was, and who is to come”

God exists now. He has always existed. He will always exist. Your language may have a different way of saying this.

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Blood

Blood is a metonym for death. Jesus “has released us from our sins by his blood.” John means that Jesus saved us from our sins by dying for us. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

“He is coming with the clouds”

Jesus went into the clouds when he went up to heaven after God raised him from the dead. When Jesus returns, he will also be “with the clouds.” It is not clear whether he will be sitting or riding on clouds or coming in the clouds or “with the clouds” in some other way. Your translation should express this in a way that is natural in your language.

“One like a son of man”

This refers to Jesus. You should translate the words “son of man” using the same words as you did in the Gospels for when Jesus called himself the “Son of Man.”

“The angels of the seven churches”

The word “angels” here can also mean “messengers.” This might refer to heavenly beings, or to the messengers or leaders of these seven churches. John uses the same word “angel” (singular) in verse 1 and in many other places throughout the book. Your translation should also use the same word.

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rkh9

figs-abstractnouns

ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of revelation, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “What God disclosed to Jesus Christ” or “The matters that God revealed to Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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figs-possession

ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

General Information:

This phrase could mean: (1) this book is revelation that came to Jesus from God. Alternate translation: “revelation to Jesus Christ” (2) this book is revelation that came from Jesus to the author of the book, namely John. Alternate translation: “revelation from Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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ik5v

figs-explicit

τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ

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his servants

Here, his servants refers to people who believe in Jesus Christ and serve him as their Lord. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternative translation: “those who serve him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει

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what must soon take place

Alternate translation: “the events that must happen soon”

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writing-pronouns

ἐσήμανεν

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made it known

The pronoun he here refers to Jesus Christ. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus communicated it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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translate-names

Ἰωάννῃ

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John is the name of a man who was Jesus’ disciple and one of the original twelve apostles. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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figs-123person

τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ, Ἰωάννῃ

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to his servant John

The Apostle John is referring to himself in the third person here. If this is confusing in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “to me, John, his servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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tgts

writing-pronoun

ὃς ἐμαρτύρησεν

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The subject of this sentence is the author John. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “John testified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronoun]])

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figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

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the word of God

Here, John uses word figuratively to refer to the message that God said by using words. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the message that God spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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wb7z

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of testimony, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “what Jesus Christ testified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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figs-possession

τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

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the testimony of Jesus Christ

John is using the possessive form to describe the testimony that Jesus Christ has given about the personal revelation received directly from God and then given in prophecy by the book’s author, John. If this is not clear in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the testimony that Jesus Christ has given him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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figs-genericnoun

ὁ ἀναγινώσκων

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the one who reads aloud

Here, the one who reads does not refer to a specific person. It refers to anyone who reads the words of the prophecy aloud or in public. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use a more natural phrase. Alternate translation: “anyone who reads aloud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

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figs-activepassive

τηροῦντες τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ γεγραμμένα

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obey what is written in it

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “who keep what John has written in it” or “who obey what they read in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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τῆς προφητείας

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Here, this prophecy refers to this whole book that John is writing. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “of this book of prophecy”

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figs-activepassive

figs-activepassive

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “who keep what John has written in it” or “who keep what they read in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-explicit

ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς ἐγγύς

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the time is near

Here, the time refers specifically to the appointed time when God will make the prophecies in this book come true. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the time when what is written in this book is near” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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figs-metaphor

ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς ἐγγύς

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Here, John speaks figuratively of time as if it could be near something. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the time will be soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-123person

Ἰωάννης ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ

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General Information:

In this culture, letter writers would give their own names first, and they would refer to themselves in the third person. If that would be confusing in your language, you could use the first person. If your language has a particular way of introducing the author of a letter, you could also use that. Alternate translation: “I, John, am writing this letter” or “From John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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figs-123person

ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ

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In this culture, after giving their own names, letter writers would then say to whom they were writing, naming those people in the third person. If that would be confusing in your language, you could use the second person. Alternate translation: “to you who are members of the seven church that are in Asia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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translate-blessing

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ ὁ ὢν, καὶ ὁ ἦν, καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος

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May grace be to you and peace from the one who is … and from the seven spirits

In this culture, letter writers would offer a good wish for the recipient before introducing the main business of the letter. Use a form in your language that makes it clear that this is a greeting and blessing. Alternate translation: “May the one who is, and who was, and who is coming give you grace and peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

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figs-abstractnouns

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ ὁ ὢν, καὶ ὁ ἦν, καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas of grace and peace, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “May the one who is, and who was, and who is coming treat you kindly and give you peaceful relationships” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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unul

figs-explicit

ὁ ὢν

1

These three phrases all refer to God. If this might confuse your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the God who is, and who was, and who is coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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figs-metaphor

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

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who is to come

Here, is coming has two possible connotations. The expression could refer to the physical act of coming, when God will be present on earth for a final judgment. Alternatively, the phrase indicates the future tense, which seems more likely, given the prior context describing the past and present times of God’s existence. In other words, John uses is coming figuratively to state that God will exist in the future. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “who will still exist in the future” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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writing-symlanguage

ἑπτὰ πνευμάτων

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seven spirits

The number seven is often used in the Bible as a symbol for completeness and perfection. Here, the seven spirits could refer to: (1) the Spirit of God, which is described with seven attributes in Isaiah 11:2. Alternate translation: “the sevenfold Holy Spirit” (2) seven individual spirits who serve God, which might be the “seven angels” in 8:2. Alternate translation: “the seven spirit beings” or “the seven angelic spirits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

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καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

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and from Jesus Christ

The first half of this verse continues the sentence from the previous verse. If you make this a new sentence, then you will need to repeat some of the information from the previous verse. Alternate translation: “And may grace be to you and peace also from Jesus Christ”

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ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός

1

This phrase the faithful witness is a title describing Jesus Christ. The expression is probably an allusion to Psalm 89, specifically to Psalm 89:37. Likewise, every title that is describing Jesus Christ in this verse alludes to a portion of Psalm 89, including: the firstborn from the dead and the ruler of the kings of the earth. All the titles in this verse describe Jesus Christ as the one who completes God’s promises given to David in 2 Samuel 7 and then affirmed again within Psalm 89 later. Therefore, the translator can indicate the presence of an Old Testament quotation or allusion here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

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figs-idiom

ὁ πρωτότοκος τῶν νεκρῶν

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the firstborn from the dead

This phrase the firstborn from the dead is an idiom meaning “the first person to die and become alive again”. The term firstborn commonly refers to the first child actually to be born to parents and, therefore, the primary recipient of the parents’ inheritance. The idiomatic expression apparently alludes to Psalm 89:27. However, every title describing Jesus Christ in this verse alludes to portions of Psalm 89, including: the faithful witness and the ruler of the kings of the earth. If your readers would not understand the phrase the firstborn from the dead, you could use plain language. Alternate translation: “the first person to be raised from death” or “the first person to come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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grammar-collectivenouns

τῶν νεκρῶν

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from the dead

The word dead is a singular noun that refers to a group of people. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “from those who are dead” or “from those who have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

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grammar-collectivenouns

καὶ ὁ ἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς

1

This phrase the ruler of the kings of the earth is a title of Jesus Christ that describes his future dominion over the earth. The expression the ruler of the kings of the earth alludes to Psalm 89:27. However, every title describing Jesus Christ in this verse alludes to portions of Psalm 89, including: the faithful witness and the firstborn from the dead. All the titles in this verse describe Jesus Christ as the one who completes God’s promises given to David in 2 Samuel 7, which are then affirmed again in Psalm 89 later. Therefore, the translator can indicate the presence of an Old Testament quotation or allusion here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

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ttqn

τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς

1

The second half of this verse begins a doxology that continues through the rest of this verse and all of the next verse. The doxology directly praises Jesus Christ personally. If you make this a new sentence, then you will need to state some of the information from the following verse that will then be repeated in verse 1:6 once again. Alternate translation: “May Jesus Christ, who loves us, receive glory and power always”

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figs-metaphor

λύσαντι ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν

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has released us

Here John uses released figuratively of forgiving people for their sins. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternative translation: “has forgiven us for our sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metonymy

ἐκ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν

1

John uses sins figuratively to refer to the punishment for sins. He means that Jesus causes people who believe in him to escape eternal punishment for their sins. If this would confuse your readers, you could say the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “has released us from the punishment for our sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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q64f

figs-metonymy

τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ

1

Here, blood figuratively represents the death of Christ on the cross. If this might confuse your readers, you could use a comparable word that stands for death or express the idea in non-figurative language. Alternate translation: “his death on the cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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writing-pronoun

καὶ ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς βασιλείαν, ἱερεῖς

1

The subject of the sentence, as well as of the contents of this entire verse, is Jesus Christ. Thus, the UST makes the subject of Jesus explicit throughout the entire verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronoun]])

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figs-metaphor

βασιλείαν

1

Here, a kingdom functions as a metaphor for the service that believers give to God. Believers in Jesus Christ serve God like citizens serve their ruling king in a kingdom. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate the meaning of kingdom explicitly. Alternate translation: “the citizens that God rules over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metaphor

ἱερεῖς

1

Here, priests represent people that God chose to offer sacrifices on behalf of others. The language here functions as a metaphor for the service that believers give to God. Believers in Jesus Christ benefit God like priests attended to God in the temple or the tabernacle of the Old Testament. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate the meaning of the office of priest explicitly. Alternate translation: “people that offer sacrifices” or “people that serve in the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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nesy

writing-pronoun

βασιλείαν, ἱερεῖς τῷ Θεῷ καὶ Πατρί αὐτοῦ— αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for these ideas, you could express the ideas behind the abstract nouns kingdom, priests, glory, and power in other ways. Alternate translation: “he has created us to aid him in his program and to be household custodians serving God, his Father. May Jesus have proper honor and recognized authority always” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τῷ Θεῷ καὶ Πατρί αὐτοῦ

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his God and Father

Here, God and Father refers to two persons of the Godhead, who exists in essence as a trinity of individual persons. The name Father is an important title for God that describes the relationship between God and Jesus. Alternate translation: “for God, his Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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figs-abstractnouns

αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος

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to him be the glory and the power

This is a wish or prayer. This could mean: (1) John prays that people honor Jesus Christ in light of or with respect to his glory and power. Alternate translation: “May all honor Jesus with glory and power.” (2) John prays that Jesus Christ will be honored and will be able to rule completely over everyone and everything. Alternate translation: ‘May Jesus accept glory and power throughout eternity.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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τὸ κράτος

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the power

Here, the power probably refers to Jesus Christ’s authority as king. Thus, the power is a metonym that describes the rule of Jesus in his kingdom. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the dominion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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ldv8

figs-quotemarks

ἰδοὺ, ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν, καὶ ὄψεται αὐτὸν πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς, καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν, καὶ κόψονται ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς

1

General Information:

The clauses Behold, he is coming with the clouds, every eye will see him, even those who pierced him, and will mourn because of him are quotations from the Old Testament. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

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7

mx1c

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Here, Behold is a word that focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. The word literally means “look” or “see”. However, in this case, the expression denotes the act of seeing figuratively by means of giving notice and attention. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

46

REV

1

7

bbqj

writing-pronoun

ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν

1

The pronoun he here refers to Jesus Christ. Jesus will come to the earth from above, or from the sky above, as seen originally in Daniel 7:14 and Daniel 7:27. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus is coming with the clouds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronoun]])

47

REV

1

7

k0qo

ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν

1

Alternate translation: “He approaches on the clouds”

48

REV

1

7

hb4i

figs-synecdoche

πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς

1

every eye

Since people see with their eyes, the word eye is used to refer to people. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “every person” or “everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

49

REV

1

7

ndf6

figs-metonymy

καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν

1

pierced him

Jesus’ hands and feet were pierced when he was nailed to the cross. Here it refers to the people who killed him. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “even those who bore a hole in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

50

REV

1

7

ewtl

figs-ellipsis

καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν

1

John is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could supply these words from the previous clause. Alternate translation: “even those who pierced him will see him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

51

REV

1

7

enuz

grammar-collectivenouns

πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς

1

The phrase all the tribes of the earth describes all types of the earth’s peoples by the category of every single tribe. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “every ethnicity of the earth” or “every racial type of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

52

REV

1

7

s0rd

figs-doublet

ναί! ἀμήν!

1

Here, the phrase Yes, Amen has two words that mean basically the same thing. Yes affirms, emphasizes, and strengthens the following word, Amen. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Certainly it shall be thus!” or “Yes indeed, may this truly be so!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

53

REV

1

8

c96p

ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, λέγει Κύριος, ὁ Θεός, ὁ ὢν, καὶ ὁ ἦν, καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ Παντοκράτωρ

1

says the Lord God

Here, says the Lord God indicates that the clauses that comes before and after this phrase are quotations. If this might confuse your readers, you could move this phrase to the beginning or end of the verse. Alternate translation: “The Lord God says, ‘I am the alpha and the omega, the one who is, and who was, and who is coming, the Almighty.’”

54

REV

1

8

ufix

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ

1

The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet are alpha and omega. If your readers would misunderstand this, you may consider using the first and last letters of your language’s alphabet. Alternate translation: “the A and the Z” or “the first thing and the last thing”

55

REV

1

8

mm9z

figs-metaphor

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ

1

the alpha and the omega

This could mean: (1) God the Father or Jesus Christ is the one who began all things and who will end all things. Alternate translation: “the one who began and will end all things” (2) God the Father or Jesus Christ is the one who has always lived and who always will live. Alternate translation: “the one who always existed and will always exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

56

REV

1

8

l1ss

figs-merism

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ

1

Here, the alpha and the omega refers by merism to the eternal nature of God the Father or that of Jesus Christ. A merism gives a sense of a totality by a description that references two extreme parts of a concept’s whole. In this case, the parts at the extremities of the concept’s whole are the first (alpha) and last (omega) letters of the Greek alphabet. The Greek alphabet is a type of metaphor for eternity, which has a beginning and a end normally in time, although here the idea is that of the eternal existence of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

57

REV

1

8

t0ga

translate-textvariants

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, λέγει Κύριος

1

Some versions add the phrase “the Beginning and the End” after this statement. If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the phrase it uses. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to follow the example of the ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

58

REV

1

8

in5e

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

1

who is to come

See how you translated the phrase who is coming in verse 4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

59

REV

1

9

qyu1

figs-123person

ἐγὼ Ἰωάννης, ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν, καὶ συνκοινωνὸς ἐν τῇ θλίψει, καὶ βασιλείᾳ, καὶ ὑπομονῇ, ἐν Ἰησοῦ

1

The Apostle John refers to himself in the third person here in this verse. If this is confusing in your language, you could translate this in the first person primarily or predominantly. Alternate translation: “I … am experiencing affliction with you …” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

60

REV

1

9

mg1k

figs-you

ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν

1

your

Here, your is plural and refers to the believers assembled among the seven churches mentioned in chapters 1–3 of this book. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the brother of you believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

61

REV

1

9

ikek

figs-abstractnouns

βασιλείᾳ

1

Here, kingdom expresses the idea that Christ rules and will rule over the lives of believers. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of kingdom, you could express the same idea in some phrase that uses the verb “rule.” Alternate translation: “realm where Christ rules” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

62

REV

1

9

c1a9

figs-metonymy

διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

because of the word of God

John uses word of God figuratively to describe the gospel message that came from God and that John proclaimed by using words. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “because of the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

63

REV

1

9

sim8

figs-possession

τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ

1

the testimony about Jesus

John is using the possessive form to describe the testimony about Jesus that John proclaimed. If this is not clear in your language, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the testimony that I proclaimed about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

64

REV

1

10

s2sw

figs-idiom

ἐγενόμην ἐν Πνεύματι

1

I was in the Spirit

Here, in the Spirit could mean: (1) God’s Spirit (the Holy Spirit) took control of John in order to influence John to receive divine revelation. Alternate translation: “I was influenced by the Spirit of God” or “God’s Spirit took control of me” (2) God caused John’s spirit to be in a state so that he could perceive revelation. Alternate translation: “God influenced my spirit” or “God took control of my spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

65

REV

1

10

lnj2

τῇ Κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ

1

the Lord’s day

Here, the Lord’s day refers specifically to Sunday, which was the day of the week when believers gathered to worship together in John’s time. Some scholars think that the Lord’s day here refers to the future time of God’s judgment called “the day of the Lord” throughout the Bible. However, this exact phrase is not used anywhere else in the Bible. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “Sunday, the Lord’s day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

66

REV

1

10

fa68

figs-simile

φωνὴν μεγάλην ὡς σάλπιγγος

1

loud voice like a trumpet

The voice was very loud so that the noise sounded like a trumpet. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “a voice as loud as a trumpet being blown” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

67

REV

1

10

ggph

figs-metonymy

φωνὴν μεγάλην

1

Here, a loud voice figuratively refers to the person speaking the voice, which is later revealed in the context to be the divine voice of Jesus Christ. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “a great sound of one speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

68

REV

1

11

y4ab

writing-pronouns

λεγούσης

1

Here, saying introduces a quotation. What follows is what the voice of the previous verse actually said. Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “that voice said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

69

REV

1

11

kq6x

translate-names

Σμύρναν…Πέργαμον…Θυάτειρα…Σάρδεις…Φιλαδέλφιαν…Λαοδίκιαν

1

Smyrna … Pergamum … Thyatira … Sardis … Philadelphia … Laodicea

These are names of cities in the region of western Asia Minor that are in the modern area of southwestern Turkey today. The logic of the order seems to begin with Ephesus, the most important city at the time and then proceed to move clockwise until it reaches the city that is the furthest south at Laodicea. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

70

REV

1

12

r89l

figs-metonymy

τὴν φωνὴν ἥτις

1

whose voice

Here, voice refers figuratively to the person speaking. The context indicates that Jesus Christ is the one speaking here. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

71

REV

1

12

flem

ἑπτὰ λυχνίας χρυσᾶς

1

Here, seven golden lampstands refers to seven golden lamp holders that are place holding stands for portable oil lamps. These seven lamp holders are made of gold or, at the very least, were plated with gold. Apparently these lamp holders represent the seven assemblies of believers in the seven cities mentioned in the previous verse. The number seven is often used in the Bible as a symbol for completeness and perfection, although the context would simply suggest that the number is required by the amount of the churches addressed in Revelation chapters two and three. Alternate translation: “seven golden portable oil lamp-holding stands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

72

REV

1

13

xmx7

figs-simile

ὅμοιον Υἱὸν Ἀνθρώπου

1

son of man

The expression like a son of man describes a human figure that recalls the same Aramaic phrase in Daniel 7, specifically within Daniel 7:13. The point of this comparison is that the figure John saw looked like a human. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “a being that looked like a man” or “a figure that resembled a human being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

73

REV

1

13

y6qk

ζώνην χρυσᾶν

1

a golden sash

A sash was a strip of cloth worn around the chest. This one may have been woven from golden threads. Clearly sash is not a belt that is worn around the waist specifically. Alternate translation: “strap” or “band”

74

REV

1

14

qc12

figs-simile

ἡ δὲ κεφαλὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ αἱ τρίχες λευκαὶ, ὡς ἔριον λευκόν ὡς χιών

1

His head and hair were as white as wool—as white as snow

The point of this comparison is that the head and hair were like wool and snow, which are both very white. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “Now his head and hair were very white, like the white color of wool and snow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

75

REV

1

14

mg7r

figs-doublet

λευκαὶ, ὡς ἔριον λευκόν ὡς χιών

1

John uses white as in order to emphasize how white the head and hair were. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “extremely white like wool and snow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

76

REV

1

14

j9w4

ἔριον

1

wool

The word wool refers to the hair of a sheep or goat that can often be very white. If your readers would not be familiar with this material, you could use the name of a type of fur or fabric in your area that is known to be very white, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “white fabric” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

77

REV

1

14

vp4t

figs-simile

οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ ὡς φλὸξ πυρός

1

his eyes were like a flame of fire

The point of this comparison is that the eyes were like a flame of fire, which full of light and very bright. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “his eyes were glowing like a flame of fire” or “his eyes blazed like a flame of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

78

REV

1

15

u551

figs-simile

οἱ πόδες αὐτοῦ ὅμοιοι χαλκολιβάνῳ

1

His feet were like polished bronze

The point of this comparison is that the feet were like polished bronze, which is very shiny. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “his feet were very shiny like polished bronze” or “his feet were reflecting light like polished bronze” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

79

REV

1

15

d6je

figs-events

ὅμοιοι χαλκολιβάνῳ ὡς ἐν καμίνῳ πεπυρωμένης

1

like polished bronze, like bronze that had been refined in a furnace

Here, furnace refers to a strong container for holding a very hot fire. People would put metal like bronze in it, and the hot fire would make the metal refined by melting away any impurities that were in the metal. Do not translate this verse in a way that would imply that the bronze was first polished and then refined in a furnace, which reverses the actual order of events. Alternate translation: “like bronze that has been purified in a hot furnace and then polished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

80

REV

1

15

izg6

figs-simile

ἡ φωνὴ αὐτοῦ ὡς φωνὴ ὑδάτων πολλῶν

1

the sound of many rushing waters

The point of this comparison is that the sound of his voice was like the sound of a large and fast flowing river or of a large waterfall with loud waves of constant water flow, which is very loud. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “his voice was very loud like the sound of rushing waters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

81

REV

1

16

qu9h

καὶ ἔχων

1

Here, the subject of and having should be assumed from earlier in verse 1:13 rendered one like a son of man. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “and the one like the son of man had”

82

REV

1

16

udj5

writing-symlanguage

καὶ ἔχων ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ ἀστέρας ἑπτά

1

Here, seven stars refer to “the angels of the seven churches” as stated explicitly in 1:20. The symbolism of Jesus Christ holding stars could refer to: (1) Christ having absolute authority over the churches symbolized by the stars. Alternate translation: “and exercising authority over the stars” (2) Christ keeping the churches symbolized by the stars secure and safe from death or evil so as to have eternal life as described in John 10:28. Alternate translation: “and keeping seven stars in his right hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

83

REV

1

16

pp58

writing-symlanguage

καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ ῥομφαία δίστομος ὀξεῖα ἐκπορευομένη

1

a sword … was coming out of his mouth

Here, the sword refers to a sword that is sharpened on both edges so that it can cut in both directions on both sides. Only the blade of the sword protruded from Christ’s mouth since the imagery is most likely a metaphor for the spoken word as being figuratively sharp and able to pierce things. The symbolism was probably inspired by the fact that Roman double-edged swords were shaped like human tongues in their forms. Thus, double-edged swords in the shape of human tongues apparently signify spoken words coming from the human mouth. The translator may wish to indicate this imagery in his translation of the symbolism. Alternate translation: “a sharp, double-edged sword was protruding from his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

84

REV

1

16

cb26

figs-simile

ὡς ὁ ἥλιος φαίνει ἐν τῇ δυνάμει αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the simile in the phrase shining as the sun at its strength expresses a very bright appearance. Thus, the face of Jesus Christ appeared very bright in a similar manner to the way that the sun shines in its full force during the middle of the day. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “shining as bright as the noonday sun” or “shining as bright as the mid-day sun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

85

REV

1

17

twy9

translate-symaction

ἔπεσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ, ὡς νεκρός

1

fell at his feet like a dead man

This phrase describes John laying down with his face toward the ground in a common gesture that expresses a deferential respect for a person before whom one bows down before. This symbolic action or cultural gesture of obeisance signifies great respect, reverential awe, and maybe even some fear at the person who receives the symbolic gesture of the bow. John was probably very frightened and was showing Jesus great respect by the customary act of a dramatic bow before the presence of Jesus. If the translator has a similar symbolic action or cultural gesture to indicate obeisance in the culture of the target language, then perhaps the similar cultural action should be incorporated in the translation. Alternate translation: “fell down at his feet like a dead man to show his fear and respect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

86

REV

1

17

vz4u

writing-pronouns

καὶ ἔθηκεν τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἐμὲ

1

Here, the subject of and he placed his right hand on me should be assumed from earlier in the context at verse 1:13. Verse 1:13 mentions one like a son of man as a description of Jesus Christ. If this might confuse your readers, you could explicitly state the subject as Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus placed his right hand on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

87

REV

1

17

jw5r

translate-symaction

καὶ ἔθηκεν τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἐμὲ

1

He placed his right hand on me

Here, the phrase and he placed his right hand on me signifies a cultural gesture or symbolic action that expresses comfort and assurance for the person who is need of encouragement at the moment of fear. The symbolic action has the accompanying verbal expression of Do not be afraid so as to illustrate the significance and symbolism of the cultural gesture. Alternate translation: “and he touched me with his right hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

88

REV

1

17

uc3d

figs-merism

ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος

1

I am the first and the last

Here, the first and the last refers to the eternal nature of Jesus. He existed before anything else and he will continue to exist after everything else is gone. In this expression, first refers to what is before everything and last refers to what is after everything. This is similar to the use of alpha and omega in verse 8. If this might confuse your readers, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the one who existed before everything and will exist after everything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

89

REV

1

18

zm05

καὶ ὁ ζῶν καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς

1

Here, the one who lives refers to God. It could refer to: (1) God possessing eternal life in himself. Alternate translation: “the living one” (2) God being the source of life. Alternate translation: “the one who gives life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

90

REV

1

18

cc7c

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἰδοὺ

1

Behold here denotes the act of seeing figuratively by means of giving notice and attention. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

91

REV

1

18

a4e2

figs-metaphor

ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾍδου

1

I have the keys of death and of Hades

John uses keys here figuratively to refer to authority or power. Just as keys have the ability to control the opening or locking of a door, so Jesus has the power to control death and Hades. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “I have the power over death and over Hades” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

92

REV

1

18

pgql

figs-explicit

ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾍδου

1

This clause implies that Jesus can give life to those who have died and let them out of Hades. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. Alternate translation: “I have the power to give life to people who have died and to let them out of Hades” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

93

REV

1

18

acrx

translate-transliterate

τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾍδου

1

Hades here refers to the world of people who have died and is commonly transliterated directly from the Greek language, as in the ULT. Hades signifies the place or location where deceased individuals go after they die within the cultural world of Greek mythology. The distinction between death and Hades is not great, but there is a slight difference. Death indicates the state of being dead. However, Hades represents the place where the spirits of dead people reside. Thus, the translator might indicate the slight differences between the two words in this verse here when translating the expression. Alternate translation: “of death’s state and of death’s location” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

94

REV

1

19

eupc

figs-litany

ἃ εἶδες, καὶ ἃ εἰσὶν, καὶ ἃ μέλλει γενέσθαι μετὰ ταῦτα

1

Here, what you have seen and what is and what is about to happen after these things represents the three-part division of the entire Book of Revelation. This repetitive style of speaking or writing is called a “litany.” The command to John requires John to write everything down in the book with no exceptions from what he is required to write. If it would help your readers, you could indicate the use of this verse here as a natural three-part division of the book of Revelation. Alternatively, you may wish to reflect in the translation of the three different clauses with their different verb tenses. Alternate translation: “that which you are seeing, that which exists now, and that which will happen afterwards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litany]])

95

REV

1

20

ytmk

τὸ μυστήριον τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων

1

Here, the mystery refers to a secret or symbolic meaning of a symbolic vision of the seven stars. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the secret meaning of the seven stars” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

96

REV

1

20

d6ez

writing-symlanguage

τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων

1

stars

See how you translated this phrase in verse 16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

97

REV

1

20

fl5d

writing-symlanguage

λυχνίας

1

lampstands

See how you translated this word in verse 12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

98

REV

1

20

eek9

figs-explicit

ἄγγελοι τῶν ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησιῶν

1

the angels of the seven churches

Here, the angels of the seven churches could refer to: (1) heavenly angels who protect the seven churches, as in the ULT. (2) human messengers who are sent to the seven churches. In this case they could either be leaders of the seven churches or the actual messengers who went from John bearing the Book of Revelation to the seven churches mentioned in verse 11. Alternate translation: “the seven messengers of the seven churches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

99

REV

1

20

e25n

τῶν ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησιῶν

1

seven churches

See how you translated this in verse 11.

100

REV

2

intro

zps2

0

Revelation 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Outline of Chapters Two and Three of Revelation

I. The Current Condition of the Churches (2:1-3:22)

A. The Letter to Ephesus (2:1-7)

B. The Letter to Smyrna (2:8-11)

C. The Letter to Pergamum (2:12-17)

D. The Letter to Thyatira (2:18-29)

E. The Letter to Sardis (3:1-6)

F. The Letter to Philadelphia (3:7-13)

G. The Letter to Laodicea (3:14-22)

Chapters 2 and 3 together are usually called the “seven letters to the seven churches.” You may wish to set each letter apart. The reader can then easily see that they are separate letters.

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. The ULT does this with the quoted words of verse 27.

Special concepts in this chapter

Poverty and wealth

The Christians in Smyrna were poor because they did not have much money. But they were rich spiritually because God would reward them for their suffering. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]])

“The devil is about to”

People were about to take some of the Christians in Smyrna and throw them into prison and even kill some of them (Revelation 2:10). John does not say who these people were. But he does speak of them harming the Christians as if Satan himself were harming them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Balaam, Balak, and Jezebel

Balaam, Balak, and Jezebel were people who lived long before Jesus was born. They all tried to harm the Israelites either by cursing them or by making them want to stop obeying God.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

“Let the one who has an ear, hear what the Spirit is saying to the churches”

The writer knew that almost all of his readers had physical ears. The ear here is a metonym for hearing what God says and desiring to obey him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“The angel of the church”

The word angel here can also mean “messenger.” This might refer to the messenger or leader of the church. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20.

“The words of the one who”

The verses with these words can be difficult to translate. They do not make complete sentences. You may need to add “These are” to the beginning of these verses. Also, Jesus used these words to speak of himself as if he were speaking of another person. Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking of other people. Jesus began speaking in Revelation 1:17. He continues to speak through the end of Chapter 3.

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kq5r

figs-explicit

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἐκκλησίας

1

the angel

Here, the angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects the church in Ephesus, as in the ULT. (2) a human messenger who is sent to the church in Ephesus. In this case, the angel could either be a leader of the church in Ephesus or the actual messenger who went from John bearing the Book of Revelation to the church in Ephesus. See how you translated “angels” in Revelation 1:20. Alternate translation: “the messenger of the church in Ephesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]).

102

REV

2

1

mn8x

translate-names

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον

1

General Information:

This is the beginning of Jesus Christ’s message to the angel of the church in Ephesus. Ephesus is the name of one of the seven churches, or seven assemblies of believers, which existed in southwestern Asia Minor when John wrote the Book of Revelation. Note the translation of the seven churches in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

103

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1

mz7l

τάδε λέγει

1

Here, says these things indicates that the clauses that comes before and after this phrase are quotations. If this might confuse your readers, you could move this phrase to the beginning or end of the verse. Alternate translation: “says this message”

104

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1

q1ck

writing-pronouns

ὁ κρατῶν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ, ὁ περιπατῶν ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν τῶν χρυσῶν

1

Here, the implied subject of the two clauses is Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is the assumed subject from the context established in the previous chapter one. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the intended reference to Jesus Christ explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus Christ, the one who holds the seven stars in his right hand, who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

105

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2

1

i92a

writing-symlanguage

ἀστέρας

1

stars

These stars are symbols. The stars represent the seven angels of the seven churches. Note the translations of stars in Revelation 1:16 and Revelation 1:20. The figure of speech is that of symbolic language which is common to the Book of Revelation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

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1

ugs3

writing-symlanguage

τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν τῶν χρυσῶν

1

lampstands

The golden lampstands are symbols that represent the seven churches, or seven assemblies of believers. See how you translated lampstands in Revelation 1:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

107

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2

jg1u

figs-abstractnouns

τὸν κόπον

1

I know … your hard labor and your patient endurance

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun labor, you can express it with the verb “work”. Alternate translation: “that you laboured very hard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

108

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2

iwe7

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ὑπομονήν

1

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun endurance, you can express it with the verb “endure.” Alternate translation: “that you patiently suffered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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2

l6mv

figs-youcrowd

τὰ ἔργα σου, καὶ τὸν κόπον καὶ τὴν ὑπομονήν σου, καὶ ὅτι οὐ δύνῃ βαστάσαι κακούς; καὶ ἐπείρασας τοὺς λέγοντας ἑαυτοὺς ἀποστόλους, καὶ οὐκ εἰσίν, καὶ εὗρες αὐτοὺς ψευδεῖς

1

The second person pronouns and the second person individuals addressed throughout this verse are all singular in their number but plural in their references. Technically, every message to each of the seven churches mentioned in Revelation chapters two and three are addressed to a singular, individual angel (see the previous verse), so that one would naturally expect singular references in the language of the letters. Thus, all the second person references in the verbs and the pronouns, although singular in their literal sense, are plural in their implied references to the believers of the church that receives the message in the letter. If the singular form of the second person address and the second person verbal references would not be natural in your language, then perhaps the translator could use the plural forms of the second person, or “you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

110

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2

sxbf

figs-nominaladj

κακούς

1

Here, evil people translates directly an adjective in the Greek that signifies simply “wicked” or evil. Thus, the translator must supply a noun that the adjective is describing through an assumed implication. The natural assumption for the noun to be supplied would be human individuals who were people in the surrounding community of those being addressed here. Alternate translation: “wayward people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

111

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2

2

ka9e

εὗρες αὐτοὺς ψευδεῖς

1

you have found them to be false

Here, you have found them indicates the literal translation of the Greek. However, the sense of found is something like “to understand” or simply to come to the knowledge about a certain reality. The understood reality is actually the falsehood of the claim of certain people to be apostles. Alternate translation: “you have recognized those people to be false apostles”

112

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2

3

nn01

figs-explicit

καὶ ὑπομονὴν ἔχεις

1

Here, and you have patient endurance implies a missing affirmation of I know from the previous verse. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternative translation: “I realize that you have patient endurance” or “I recognize that you have patient endurance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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3

muq8

figs-metonymy

διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου

1

because of my name

Here, name is a metonym for the person of Jesus Christ, since Jesus uses name here to refer to himself. The believers in Ephesus are suffering persecution and difficult circumstances for the sake of Jesus Christ as believers in him. The assembly in Ephesus suffers for the sake of the person and message of Jesus Christ within their society. Alternate translation: “because of me” or “because you believe in my name” or “because you believe in me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

114

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3

j46d

figs-metaphor

οὐ κεκοπίακες

1

you have not grown weary

Being discouraged is spoken of as growing weary. The metaphor relates the notion of quitting an action with becoming tired since often people stop an action if they are tired. Alternate translation: “you have not become discouraged” or “you have not quit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

115

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3

mg3z

figs-litotes

οὐ κεκοπίακες

1

Here, have not grown weary is a litotes expression that expresses emphasis by negating the opposite statement. In this case, Jesus emphasizes the act of persevering and not giving up despite obstacles by stating the opposite notion. The believers at Ephesus had persevered in trials but did not give up. Thus, they did not grow weary or become tired, but rather they continued to try hard. See the previous note about the metaphor in the figure of speech. Alternate translation: “you have not grown tired” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

116

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4

j7gz

figs-ellipsis

ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ, ὅτι

1

I have against you the fact that

Here I have against you that indicates a negative, critical sentiment. It expresses the idea of a critical attitude in the person speaking, meaning something like: “I have something against you” or “there is something about you that I disapprove of”. Jesus is leaving out a word in the idiomatic expression that some languages would need in order for a clause to be complete. However, the following words in the context describe the matter of contention that Jesus is angry about. If your language requires an explanation of what Jesus is taking issue with the Ephesian church about, then you can supply it from the context. Alternate translation: “I disapprove of you because” or “I have a criticism to make of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

117

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2

4

kx98

figs-metaphor

τὴν ἀγάπην σου τὴν πρώτην ἀφῆκες

1

you have left behind your first love

To stop doing something is spoken of as leaving it behind. Here, love represents an object that can abandoned. Here, the expression presents a metaphor expressing love as an object that can be forsaken. Alternate translation: “you have stopped loving me as you did at the beginning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

118

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5

sfw2

figs-metaphor

πόθεν πέπτωκας

1

from where you have fallen

The notion of the church no longer loving as much as they used to love is spoken of as having fallen in the sense of “how far you have fallen from your original location”. Here, “falling” from a standing location is a metaphor for abandoning an earlier love and devotion for a person, in this case Jesus. Here, the metaphorical expression describes a tremendous decline in the love for Jesus among the Christians at Ephesus. Alternate translation: “how much you have changed” or “how much you once loved me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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5

cd8v

figs-metonymy

καὶ τὰ πρῶτα ἔργα ποίησον

1

Here, the first works is a metonym that describes the behavior or way of life of the Ephesian believers earlier in their Christian practice. Earlier in the Christian way of life of the Ephesian believers they made greater efforts in their stronger devotion for Jesus. Alternate translation: “and do the first efforts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

120

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2

5

hlyf

figs-metaphor

ἔρχομαί σοι καὶ κινήσω τὴν λυχνίαν σου ἐκ τοῦ τόπου αὐτῆς

1

Here, I will come to you and I will remove your lampstand from its place could refer to: (1) a special coming in judgment that Jesus would make personally for only the church of Ephesus. (2) the final, second coming of Jesus to the earth in judgment. In both interpretation options, Jesus uses a metaphor from the actual Roman destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 AD. In 70 AD, the Romans entered the Jerusalem temple and removed the seven-branched lampstand from inside the sanctuary. However, the translator should not make either interpretive option explicit in the translation. Alternate translation: “I will come to you and I will extract your lampstand from its place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

121

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5

j8p5

writing-symlanguage

ἔρχομαί σοι καὶ κινήσω τὴν λυχνίαν σου ἐκ τοῦ τόπου αὐτῆς

1

remove your lampstand

The lampstand is a symbol that represents one of the seven churches. See how you translated lampstand in Revelation 1:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

122

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6

g8gn

figs-metaphor 

ἀλλὰ τοῦτο ἔχεις

1

But you have this is a metaphor in which this represents the fact that Jesus hates the works of the Nicolaitans. The metaphor in this idiomatic expression is that this is spoken of as if it were an object someone could have. If this might confuse your readers, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “But this is to your credit” or “But here is a good thing you are doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

123

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2

6

cvi5

translate-names

τῶν Νικολαϊτῶν

1

Nicolaitans

The Nicolaitans were people who followed the teachings or practices of a man named Nicolaus. The translator should not attempt to specify the actual teachings or practices of the Nicolaitans since there is no certainty about what Nicolaus taught or practiced. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

124

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7

s3qg

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear presents a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey by association with the part of the body in which his listeners would have been receiving his teaching. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

125

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7

tidg

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to pay attention, then pay attention” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

126

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2

7

wzg1

figs-metaphor

τῷ νικῶντι

1

the one who conquers

To the one who conquers refers to anyone who conquers, or is victorious throughout obstacles and difficulties in the Christian life. The expression represents a metaphor comparing the Christian life to a military battle, in which the Christian overcomes the forces of evil and any difficult obstacles in warfare. Alternate translation: “To the one who wins the victory” or “To the one who overcomes the obstacles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

127

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7

ng2d

figs-possession

ἐκ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς

1

John is using the possessive form of tree to describe the tree as giving life. The imagery recalls Genesis 3:22’s reference to the tree of life in the Garden of Eden. If this is not clear in your language, you could say the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the tree that grants life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

128

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7

rmf5

figs-transliterate

τῷ Παραδείσῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the paradise of God

Here, paradise is a Greek transliteration of a Persian word that describes a pleasure garden and zoo that Persian monarchs built at their residences. However, in the Bible paradise becomes a symbol for heaven. The symbolism for heaven might be seen in Luke 23:43 and 2 Corinthians 12:4, which both show that paradise is a name for the abode of God. Thus, paradise represents the eternal and permanent home of believers in Jesus Christ in the new heavens and the new earth of the future. Alternate translation: “the garden of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-transliterate]])

129

REV

2

8

is3w

translate-names

καὶ τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Σμύρνῃ ἐκκλησίας γράψον

1

General Information:

This is the beginning of the Son of Man’s message to the angel of the church in Smyrna. Smyrna is the name of one of the seven churches, or seven assemblies of believers, which existed in southwestern Asia Minor when John wrote the Book of Revelation. Note the translation of the seven churches in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

130

REV

2

8

ie9x

figs-explicit

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Σμύρνῃ ἐκκλησίας

1

the angel

Here, the angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects the church in Smyrna, as in the ULT. (2) a human messenger who is sent to the church in Smyrna. In this case, the angel could either be a leader of the church in Smyrna or the actual messenger who went from John bearing the Book of Revelation to the church in Smyrna. See how you translated “angels” in Revelation 1:20. Alternate translation: “the messenger of the church in Smyrna” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]).

131

REV

2

8

nvn1

τάδε λέγει

1

See how you translated the phrase says these things in Revelation 2:1.

132

REV

2

8

huo8

figs-123person

ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος, ὃς ἐγένετο νεκρὸς καὶ ἔζησεν

1

133

REV

2

8

k7qk

figs-merism

ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος

1

the first and the last

Here, the first and the last refers to the eternal nature of Jesus Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

134

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2

8

t5l1

figs-merism

ὃς ἐγένετο νεκρὸς καὶ ἔζησεν

1

Here, the phrase who became dead but came to life again describes Jesus by the two extremes of his death on the cross as well as his current life after the resurrection. The figure of speech is a type of merism. See how you translated the very similar phrase in Revelation 1:18. However, note that there are slight differences between this verse and Revelation 1:18, such as in the order of the words. Alternate translation: “who became dead but lived again” or “who became dead but returned back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

135

REV

2

9

s6ja

figs-youcrowd

σου

1

See how you translated this in Revelation 2:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

136

REV

2

9

p6hp

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν θλῖψιν

1

I know your sufferings and your poverty

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun affliction, you can express it as a verb. Alternate translation: “I know how you have suffered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

137

REV

2

9

ch4u

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν πτωχείαν

1

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun poverty, you can express it as a verb. Alternate translation: “how poor you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

138

REV

2

9

lhuk

figs-metaphor

ἀλλὰ πλούσιος εἶ

1

Here, rich is a metaphor for the spiritual condition of the Christians in Smyrna. The Christians in Smyrna were physically poor because they did not have much money. However, they were spiritually rich because God would reward them for their suffering in the future. Thus, the metaphor uses the language of physical money to describe the spiritual condition of Smyrna's Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

139

REV

2

9

f6bp

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν βλασφημίαν ἐκ τῶν λεγόντων Ἰουδαίους εἶναι ἑαυτούς

1

I know the slander of those who say they are Jews

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun slander, you can express it as a verb. Alternate translation: “how people have slandered you—those who say they are Jews” or “how people have said terrible things about you—those who say they are Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

140

REV

2

9

qf9p

figs-irony

καὶ οὐκ εἰσίν

1

but they are not

Here, but they are not is irony in the sense of the fact that Jesus does not intend to say that the people are not literal Jews. Jesus actually means that these people are indeed Jews, although they do not behave in a manner that agrees with their ethnic identification. Jews should behave as if they were God's people, but these people mentioned here do not act as if they were actually God's chosen race. Alternate translation: “but they are not real Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

141

REV

2

9

a4yu

figs-metaphor

συναγωγὴ τοῦ Σατανᾶ

1

a synagogue of Satan

Here, a synagogue of Satan is a metaphor describing Jewish people in Smyrna that were slandering the Christians in the local church. The metaphor uses the imagery of the word synagogue as a place to gather together Jews for both worship and for learning. However, the Jews described in this verse gather together to slander the Christians of Smyrna. Therefore, these Jews actually gather and serve Satan as a synagogue in a certain sense. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

142

REV

2

9

hv3o

figs-possession

συναγωγὴ τοῦ Σατανᾶ

1

143

REV

2

10

agx4

figs-metonymy

μέλλει βάλλειν ὁ διάβολος ἐξ ὑμῶν εἰς φυλακὴν

1

The devil is about to throw some of you into prison

Here, the devil is a metonym for the people who obey the devil. Alternate translation: “the devil will soon cause others to put some of you in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

144

REV

2

10

f5t1

γίνου πιστὸς ἄχρι θανάτου

1

Be faithful until death

The use of the word until does not mean that you should stop being faithful at death. Alternate translation: “Be faithful to me even if they kill you”

145

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2

10

zhj8

figs-metaphor

τὸν στέφανον τῆς ζωῆς

1

the crown of life

Here, the crown of life could refer to: (1) a crown that shows that Christ has given the believers eternal life. (2) true life as a prize like a winner’s crown. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

146

REV

2

11

g7zq

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

147

REV

2

11

dc3n

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one … hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen to” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

148

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2

11

s9d2

figs-genericnoun

ὁ νικῶν

1

The one who conquers

This refers anyone who conquers. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Anyone who resists evil” or “Those who do not agree to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

149

REV

2

11

q6w2

οὐ μὴ ἀδικηθῇ ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ δευτέρου

1

will not be hurt by the second death

Alternate translation: “will not experience the second death” or “will not die a second time”

150

REV

2

12

ll17

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the Son of Man’s message to the angel of the church in Pergamum.

151

REV

2

12

y864

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ

1

the angel

Here, angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects this church. (2) a human messenger to the church, either a messenger who went from John to the church or the leader of the churches. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20

152

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2

12

il7c

translate-names

Περγάμῳ

1

Pergamum

Pergamum is the name of a city in a part of western Asia that today is modern Turkey. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

153

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2

12

f6s5

τὴν ῥομφαίαν τὴν δίστομον τὴν ὀξεῖαν

1

the sword with two sharp edges

This refers to a sword which is sharpened on both edges so that it can cut both directions. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:16

154

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2

13

ryn6

figs-metonymy

ὁ θρόνος τοῦ Σατανᾶ

1

Satan’s throne

Here, the throne of Satan could mean: (1) Satan’s power and evil influence on people. (2) the place where Satan rules. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

155

REV

2

13

tf7c

figs-metonymy

κρατεῖς τὸ ὄνομά μου

1

you hold on tightly to my name

Here, name is a metonym for the person. Alternate translation: “you are holding on tighly to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

156

REV

2

13

fxzt

figs-metaphor

κρατεῖς τὸ ὄνομά μου

1

Firmly believing is spoken of as holding on tightly. Alternate translation: “you firmly believe in me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

157

REV

2

13

x6j6

figs-abstractnouns

οὐκ ἠρνήσω τὴν πίστιν μου

1

you did not deny your faith in me

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun faith, you can express it with the verb “believe.” Alternate translation: “you continued to tell people that you believe in me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

158

REV

2

13

lu4b

translate-names

Ἀντιπᾶς

1

Antipas

Antipas is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

159

REV

2

14

wu6n

ἀλλ’ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ ὀλίγα

1

But I have a few things against you

See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 2:4. Alternate translation: “I disapprove of you because of a few things you have done” or “I am angry with you because of a few things you did”

160

REV

2

14

rd44

figs-metaphor

κρατοῦντας τὴν διδαχὴν Βαλαάμ, ὃς

1

who hold tightly to the teaching of Balaam, who

This could refer to: (1) people who teach what Balaam taught. (2) people who do what Balaam taught. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

161

REV

2

14

j3nc

translate-names

τῷ Βαλὰκ

1

Balak

Balak was the name of a king in the Old Testament. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

162

REV

2

14

hg4g

figs-metaphor

ὃς ἐδίδασκεν τῷ Βαλὰκ βαλεῖν σκάνδαλον ἐνώπιον τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ

1

who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel

Something that leads people to sin is spoken of as a stone in the road that people stumble on. Alternate translation: “who showed Balak how to cause the people of Israel to sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

163

REV

2

14

u19f

πορνεῦσαι

1

be sexually immoral

Alternate translation: “to sin sexually” or “to commit sexual sin”

164

REV

2

15

hc85

translate-names

Νικολαϊτῶν

1

Nicolaitans

The Nicolaitans was the name for a group of people who followed the teachings of a man named Nicolaus. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:6 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

165

REV

2

16

f8dy

figs-ellipsis

εἰ δὲ μή

1

If you do not,

If your readers would misunderstand this phrase, you can supply the verb from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “If you do not repent, I” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

166

REV

2

16

fd6u

πολεμήσω μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

wage war against them

Alternate translation: “fight against them”

167

REV

2

16

j52q

writing-symlanguage

ἐν τῇ ῥομφαίᾳ τοῦ στόματός μου

1

with the sword in my mouth

This refers to the sword in Revelation 1:16. Although symbols in apocalyptic language are not normally to be replaced with the item they represent, translators may choose whether or not to show that this as a symbol represents God’s word, as the UST does. This symbol indicates that Christ will defeat his enemies by giving a simple command. Alternate translation: “with the sword in my mouth, which is the word of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

168

REV

2

17

lm1j

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

169

REV

2

17

m867

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one … hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen to” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

170

REV

2

17

i61b

figs-genericnoun

τῷ νικῶντι

1

To the one who conquers

This refers to anyone who conquers. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “To anyone who resists evil” or “To those who do not agree to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

171

REV

2

18

b83m

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the Son of Man’s message to the angel of the church in Thyatira.

172

REV

2

18

nd4m

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ

1

the angel

Here, the angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects this church. (2) a human messenger to the church, either a messenger who went from John to the church or the leader of the churches. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20

173

REV

2

18

kd5v

translate-names

Θυατείροις

1

Thyatira

Thyatira is the name of a city in a part of western Asia that today is modern Turkey. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

174

REV

2

18

q3w9

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Son of God

Son of God is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

175

REV

2

18

zbx5

figs-simile

ὁ ἔχων τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ ὡς φλόγα πυρός

1

who has eyes like a flame of fire

His eyes are describes as being full of light like a flame of fire. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:14. Alternate translation: “whose eyes glow like a flame of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

176

REV

2

18

p86i

figs-simile

οἱ πόδες αὐτοῦ ὅμοιοι χαλκολιβάνῳ

1

feet like polished bronze

Objects made of bronze are polished to make them shine and reflect light. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:15. Alternate translation: “whose feet are very shiny like polished bronze” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

177

REV

2

19

bx33

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἀγάπην, καὶ τὴν πίστιν, καὶ τὴν διακονίαν, καὶ τὴν ὑπομονήν σου

1

your love and faith and service and your patient endurance

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun love, faith, service, and endurance, you can express them with verbs. Alternate translation: “how you have loved, trusted, served, and endured patiently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

178

REV

2

19

y2mu

figs-explicit

τὴν ἀγάπην, καὶ τὴν πίστιν, καὶ τὴν διακονίαν, καὶ τὴν ὑπομονήν σου

1

your love and faith and service and your patient endurance

If your readers would misunderstand this phrase, you can state the implied objects of these terms explicitly. Alternate translation: “how you have loved me and others, trusted me, served me and others, and endured troubles patiently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

179

REV

2

20

wbu1

ἀλλ’ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ

1

But I have this against you

See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 2:4. Alternate translation: “But I disapprove of some of the things you are doing” or “But I am angry with you because of something you are doing”

180

REV

2

20

f6e8

figs-metaphor

τὴν γυναῖκα Ἰεζάβελ

1

the woman Jezebel, who

Jesus spoke of a certain woman in their church as if she were Queen Jezebel, because she did the same kinds of sinful things that Queen Jezebel had done long before that time. Alternate translation: “the woman who is just like Jezebel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

181

REV

2

21

g7yh

ἔδωκα αὐτῇ χρόνον ἵνα μετανοήσῃ

1

I gave her time to repent

Alternate translation: “I gave her opportunity to repent” or “I waited for her to repent”

182

REV

2

22

twa2

figs-metonymy

βάλλω αὐτὴν εἰς κλίνην…εἰς θλῖψιν μεγάλην

1

I will throw her onto a sickbed … into great suffering

Her having to lie in a bed would be the result of Jesus making her very sick. Alternate translation: “I will make her lie sick in bed … I will make suffer greatly” or “I will make her very sick … I will make suffer greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

183

REV

2

22

lj36

figs-metaphor

τοὺς μοιχεύοντας μετ’ αὐτῆς εἰς θλῖψιν μεγάλην

1

those who commit adultery with her into great suffering

Jesus speaks of causing people to suffer as throwing them into suffering. Alternate translation: “I will make those who commit adultery with her to suffer greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

184

REV

2

22

g53b

figs-explicit

ἐὰν μὴ μετανοήσουσιν ἐκ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῆς

1

unless they repent of her deeds

This implies that they have participated with her in her wicked behavior. By repenting of her deeds, they also repent of participating in her behavior. Alternate translation: “if they do not repent from doing the evil that she does” or “if they do not repent of participating in her deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

185

REV

2

23

kx34

τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς ἀποκτενῶ ἐν θανάτῳ

1

I will strike her children dead

Alternate translation: “I will kill her children”

186

REV

2

23

cn5s

figs-metaphor

τὰ τέκνα αὐτῆς

1

her children

Jesus spoke of her followers as if they were her children. Alternate translation: “her followers” or “the people who do what she teaches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

187

REV

2

23

zm6t

figs-metonymy

νεφροὺς καὶ καρδίας

1

thoughts and hearts

The terms kidneys and hearts are metonym that represents feelings and desires. Alternate translation: “what people think and want” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

188

REV

2

23

bgs9

figs-idiom

δώσω ὑμῖν ἑκάστῳ

1

I will give to each one of you

This phrase is an expression about punishment and reward. Alternate translation: “I will punish or reward each one of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

189

REV

2

24

tli6

figs-metaphor

ὅσοι οὐκ ἔχουσιν τὴν διδαχὴν ταύτην

1

everyone who does not hold this teaching

Believing a teaching is spoken of as holding the teaching. Alternate translation: “to everyone who does not believe this teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

190

REV

2

24

scu6

figs-abstractnouns

οὐκ ἔχουσιν τὴν διδαχὴν ταύτην

1

does not hold this teaching

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun teaching, you can express it as a verb. Alternate translation: “do not hold to what she teaches” or “do not believe what she teaches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

191

REV

2

24

d5i9

figs-metaphor

βαθέα

1

deep things

Secret things are spoken of as if they were deep. Alternate translation: “secret things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

192

REV

2

26

z5xi

figs-genericnoun

ὁ νικῶν

1

The one who conquers

This refers anyone who conquers. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “anyone who resists evil” or “the person who does not agree to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

193

REV

2

27

c9gu

καὶ ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ, ὡς τὰ σκεύη τὰ κεραμικὰ συντρίβεται

1

He will rule … break them into pieces

This is a prophecy from the Old Testament about a king of Israel, but Jesus applied it here to those to whom he gives authority over the nations.

194

REV

2

27

w8pp

figs-metaphor

ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ

1

He will rule them with an iron rod

Ruling harshly is spoken of as ruling with a rod of iron. Alternate translation: “he will rule them harshly as if striking them with an iron stick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

195

REV

2

27

ksl1

figs-simile

ὡς τὰ σκεύη τὰ κεραμικὰ συντρίβεται

1

like clay jars he will break them into pieces

Breaking jars of clay to pieces is an image that represents either: (1) destroying evildoers. (2) defeating enemies. Alternate translation: “and he will defeat his enemies completely as if breaking clay jars into pieces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

196

REV

2

28

n9ts

figs-explicit

ὡς κἀγὼ εἴληφα παρὰ τοῦ πατρός μου

1

Just as I have received from my Father

Some languages may need to tell what was received. This could mean: (1) he received authority from his Father. (2) he received the morning star from his Father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

197

REV

2

28

hr39

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ πατρός μου

1

my Father

Here, Father is an important title for God that describes the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

198

REV

2

28

c1zc

καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ

1

I will also give him

Here, him refers to the one who conquers.

199

REV

2

28

g5iy

writing-symlanguage

τὸν ἀστέρα τὸν πρωϊνόν

1

morning star

This is a bright star that sometimes appears early in the morning just before dawn. It was a symbol of victory. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

200

REV

2

29

ilk8

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

201

REV

2

29

ikm8

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one … hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen to” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

202

REV

3

intro

q1l9

0

Revelation 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Outline of Chapters Two and Three of Revelation

I. The Current Condition of the Churches (2:1-3:22)

A. The Letter to Ephesus (2:1-7)

B. The Letter to Smyrna (2:8-11)

C. The Letter to Pergamum (2:12-17)

D. The Letter to Thyatira (2:18-29)

E. The Letter to Sardis (3:1-6)

F. The Letter to Philadelphia (3:7-13)

G. The Letter to Laodicea (3:14-22)

Chapters 2 and 3 together are usually called the “seven letters to the seven churches.” You may wish to set each letter apart. The reader can then easily see that they are separate letters.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verse 7.

Special concepts in this chapter

Seven spirits of God

These spirits are the seven spirits of Revelation 1:4.

Seven stars

These stars are the seven stars of Revelation 1:20.

Important metaphors in this chapter

Look, I am standing at the door and am knocking

Jesus speaks of his desire to have the Christians in Laodicea obey him as if he were a man asking people in a house to allow him to enter and eat with them (Revelation 3:20). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

“Let the one who has an ear, hear what the Spirit is saying to the churches”

The speaker knew that almost all of his readers had physical ears. The ear here is a metonym for hearing what God says and desiring to obey him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“The angel of the church”

The word angel here can also mean “messenger.” This might refer to the messenger or leader of the church. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20.

“The words of the one who”

The verses with these words can be difficult to translate. They do not make complete sentences. You may need to add “These are” to the beginning of these verses. Also, Jesus used these words to speak of himself as if he were speaking of another person. Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking of other people. Jesus began speaking in Revelation 1:17. He continues to speak through the end of Chapter 3.

203

REV

3

1

k6b7

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the Son of Man’s message to the angel of the church in Sardis.

204

REV

3

1

u1zs

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ

1

the angel

Here, the angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects this church. (2) a human messenger to the church, either a messenger who went from John to the church or the leader of the churches. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20.

205

REV

3

1

q7n9

translate-names

Σάρδεσιν

1

Sardis

Sardis is the name of a city in the western part of Asia that today is modern Turkey. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

206

REV

3

1

un3c

writing-symlanguage

ὁ ἔχων τὰ ἑπτὰ πνεύματα

1

the seven spirits

The number seven is a symbol of completeness and perfection. The seven spirits refers either to the Spirit of God or to seven spirits who serve God. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

207

REV

3

1

t8wv

writing-symlanguage

τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας

1

the seven stars

These stars are symbols that represent the seven angels of the seven churches. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

208

REV

3

1

ty18

figs-metaphor

ζῇς, καὶ νεκρὸς εἶ

1

alive … dead

Obeying and honoring God is spoken of as being alive; disobeying and dishonoring him is spoken of as being dead. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

209

REV

3

2

d8cw

figs-metaphor

γίνου γρηγορῶν, καὶ στήρισον τὰ λοιπὰ, ἃ ἔμελλον ἀποθανεῖν

1

Wake up and strengthen what remains, but is about to die

The good deeds done by the believers in Sardis are spoken of as if they were alive but in danger of dying. Alternate translation: “Wake up and complete the work that remains, or what you have done will become worthless” or “Wake up. If you do not finish what you have started to do, your previous work will have been useless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

210

REV

3

2

l7qg

figs-metaphor

γίνου γρηγορῶν

1

Wake up

Being alert to danger is spoken of as waking up. Alternate translation: “Be alert” or “Be careful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

211

REV

3

3

wcs4

figs-explicit

πῶς εἴληφας καὶ ἤκουσας

1

what you have received and heard

This phrase refers to God’s word, which they believed. Alternate translation: “God’s word that you heard and the truth that you believed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

212

REV

3

3

gwk8

figs-metaphor

ἐὰν…μὴ γρηγορήσῃς

1

if you do not wake up

Being alert to danger is spoken of as waking up. See how you translated “wake up” on Revelation 3:2. Alternate translation: “If you are not alert” or “If you are not careful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

213

REV

3

3

ypw4

figs-simile

ἥξω ὡς κλέπτης

1

I will come as a thief

Jesus will come at a time when people do not expect him, just as a thief comes when not expected. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

214

REV

3

4

fy7f

figs-metonymy

ὀλίγα ὀνόματα

1

a few names

Here, names is a metonym for the people themselves. Alternate translation: “a few people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

215

REV

3

4

x2if

figs-metaphor

οὐκ ἐμόλυναν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν

1

have not stained their clothes

Jesus speaks of sin in a person’s life as if it were dirty clothes. Alternate translation: “have not made their lives sinful like dirty clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

216

REV

3

4

x48r

figs-metaphor

περιπατήσουσιν μετ’ ἐμοῦ

1

will walk with me

People commonly spoke of living as “walking.” Alternate translation: “they will live with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

217

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3

4

w5t9

figs-metaphor

ἐν λευκοῖς

1

dressed in white

Clothes that are white represent a pure life without sin. Alternate translation: “and they will be dressed in white, which shows that they are pure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

218

REV

3

5

v69e

figs-genericnoun

ὁ νικῶν

1

The one who conquers

This refers anyone who conquers. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Anyone who resists evil” or “Anyone who does not agree to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

219

REV

3

5

w5k4

figs-activepassive

οὕτως περιβαλεῖται ἐν ἱματίοις λευκοῖς

1

will be clothed in white garments

If your readers would misunderstand the passive verb clothed, you can translate it with an active verb. Alternate translation: “will wear white garments” or “I will give white clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

220

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3

5

yyu5

figs-metonymy

ὁμολογήσω τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

I will confess his name

Here I will confess his name means he would announce that the person belongs to him, not simply say the person’s name. Alternate translation: “I will announce that he belongs to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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5

d7l5

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Πατρός μου

1

before my Father

Alternate translation: “in the presence of my Father”

222

REV

3

5

bi3h

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Πατρός μου

1

my Father

Here, Father is an important title for God that describes the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

223

REV

3

6

zxc7

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

224

REV

3

6

k2k6

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one … hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen to” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

225

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3

7

rf9b

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the Son of Man’s message to the angel of the church in Philadelphia.

226

REV

3

7

ksg4

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ

1

the angel

Here, the angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects this church. (2) a human messenger to the church, either a messenger who went from John to the church or the leader of the churches. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20

227

REV

3

7

mm6x

translate-names

Φιλαδελφίᾳ

1

Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the name of a city in the western part of Asia that today is modern Turkey. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

228

REV

3

7

ih6i

writing-symlanguage

τὴν κλεῖν Δαυείδ

1

key of David

Jesus speaks of his authority to decide who may go into his kingdom as if it were King David’s key. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

229

REV

3

7

aam6

ὁ ἀνοίγων καὶ οὐδεὶς κλείσει

1

he opens and no one shuts

Alternate translation: “he opens the door to the kingdom and no one can close it”

230

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3

7

pzy2

κλείων καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀνοίγει

1

he shuts and no one can open

Alternate translation: “he closes the door and no one can open it”

231

REV

3

8

j1x7

δέδωκα ἐνώπιόν σου θύραν ἠνεῳγμένην

1

I have put before you an open door

Alternate translation: “I have opened a door for you”

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3

8

xyw6

ἐτήρησάς μου τὸν λόγον

1

you have obeyed my word

This could mean: (1) they have followed his teachings. (2) they have obeyed his commands.

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3

8

b3kz

figs-metonymy

τὸ ὄνομά μου

1

my name

Here, name is a metonym for the person who has that name. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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3

9

x78m

figs-metaphor

συναγωγῆς τοῦ Σατανᾶ

1

synagogue of Satan

People who gather to obey or honor Satan are spoken of as if they were in a synagogue, a place of worship and teaching for the Jews. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

235

REV

3

9

q496

translate-symaction

προσκυνήσουσιν

1

bow down

Here to bow down is a sign of submission, not worship. Alternate translation: “bow down in submission” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

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3

9

ah4w

figs-synecdoche

ἐνώπιον τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

before your feet

Here, feet represents the person before whom these people bow down. Alternate translation: “before you” or “to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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3

9

k2g5

γνῶσιν

1

they will come to know

Alternate translation: “they will learn” or “they will admit”

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3

10

gv5g

κἀγώ σε τηρήσω ἐκ τῆς ὥρας τοῦ πειρασμοῦ

1

I will also keep you from the hour of testing

Alternate translation: “I will also prevent the hour of testing from happening to you” or “I will protect you so you do not enter the hour of testing”

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3

10

ckm4

ὥρας τοῦ πειρασμοῦ

1

hour of testing

This probably means “the time when people try to make you disobey me.”

240

REV

3

10

e6bw

figs-metaphor

τῆς μελλούσης ἔρχεσθαι

1

is coming

Existing in the future is spoken of as coming. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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3

11

ih12

figs-explicit

ἔρχομαι ταχύ

1

I am coming soon

It is understood that he is coming in order to judge. Alternate translation: “I am coming to judge soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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3

11

n9a9

figs-metaphor

κράτει ὃ ἔχεις

1

Hold to what you have

Continuing to believe firmly in Christ is spoken of as if it were holding something tightly. Alternate translation: “Continue to believe firmly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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3

11

a4m5

figs-metaphor

τὸν στέφανόν

1

crown

Here, crown stands for a reward. See how you translated “crown” in Revelation 2:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

244

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3

12

px36

figs-genericnoun

ὁ νικῶν, ποιήσω αὐτὸν στῦλον ἐν τῷ ναῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ μου

1

The one who conquers, I will make a pillar in the temple of my God

Here, The one who conquers refers to anyone who conquers. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “I will make anyone who resists evil to be a pillar in the temple of my God” or “Those who do not agree to do evil I will make a pillar in the temple of my God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

245

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3

12

xiwx

figs-metaphor

ποιήσω αὐτὸν στῦλον ἐν τῷ ναῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ μου

1

The pillar represents an important and permanent part of God’s kingdom. Alternate translation: “I will make him strong, like a pillar in the temple of my God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

246

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3

13

u5jk

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

247

REV

3

13

ug5m

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one … hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen to” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

248

REV

3

14

r6bz

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the Son of Man’s message to the angel of the church in Laodicea.

249

REV

3

14

jg3b

τῷ ἀγγέλῳ

1

the angel

Here, the angel could refer to: (1) a heavenly angel who protects this church. (2) a human messenger to the church, either a messenger who went from John to the church or the leader of the churches. See how you translated “angel” in Revelation 1:20

250

REV

3

14

wzg9

translate-names

Λαοδικίᾳ

1

Laodicea

Laodicea is the name of a city in the western part of Asia that today is modern Turkey. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

251

REV

3

14

f65v

ὁ Ἀμήν

1

the Amen

Here, The Amen is a name for Jesus Christ. He guarantees God’s promises by saying amen to them.

252

REV

3

14

btv1

ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κτίσεως τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the beginning of God’s creation

Here, the beginning of the creation of God could refer to: (1) the one who rules over everything that God created. (2) the one through whom God created everything.

253

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3

15

pf9x

figs-metaphor

οὔτε ψυχρὸς εἶ οὔτε ζεστός

1

you are neither cold nor hot

The writer speaks of the Laodiceans as if they were water. Here, cold and hot could: (1) represent two extremes of spiritual interest or love for God, where “cold” is to be completely against God, and to be “hot” is to be zealous to serve him. (2) both refer to water that is useful for drinking or for cooking or healing, respectively. Alternate translation: “you are like water that is neither cold nor hot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

254

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3

16

y9vt

figs-metaphor

μέλλω σε ἐμέσαι ἐκ τοῦ στόματός μου

1

I am about to vomit you out of my mouth

Rejecting them is spoken of as vomiting them out of the mouth. Alternate translation: “I will reject you as I would spit out lukewarm water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

255

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3

17

v1pj

figs-metaphor

σὺ εἶ ὁ ταλαίπωρος, καὶ ἐλεεινὸς, καὶ πτωχὸς, καὶ τυφλὸς, καὶ γυμνός

1

you are most miserable, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked

Jesus speaks of their spiritual condition as if he were speaking about their physical condition. Alternate translation: “you are like people who are most miserable, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

256

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3

18

tmm7

ἀγοράσαι παρ’ ἐμοῦ χρυσίον πεπυρωμένον ἐκ πυρὸς, ἵνα πλουτήσῃς, καὶ ἱμάτια λευκὰ, ἵνα περιβάλῃ, καὶ μὴ φανερωθῇ ἡ αἰσχύνη τῆς γυμνότητός σου, καὶ κολλούριον ἐγχρῖσαι τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς σου, ἵνα βλέπῃς

1

Buy from me gold refined by fire so that you may become rich, and brilliant white garments so you may clothe yourself and not show the shame of your nakedness, and salve to anoint your eyes so you will see

Here, to buy represents receiving things from Jesus that have true spiritual value. The gold refined by fire represents spiritual wealth. The brilliant white garments represents righteousness. And the salve to anoint your eyes represents the ability to understand spiritual things. Alternate translation: “to come to me and receive spiritual wealth, which is more valuable than gold that is refined by fire. Receive from me righteousness, which is like brilliant white garments, so that you will not be ashamed. And receive from me wisdom, which is like salve for the eyes, so that you may understand spiritual things” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

257

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3

19

sf66

ζήλευε…καὶ μετανόησον

1

be earnest and repent

Alternate translation: “be serious and repent”

258

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3

20

i7gy

figs-metaphor

ἕστηκα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούω

1

I am standing at the door and am knocking

Jesus speaks about wanting people to relate to him as if he wanted them to invite him into their home. Alternate translation: “I am like one standing at the door and knocking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

259

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3

20

sr5y

translate-symaction

κρούω

1

am knocking

When people want someone to welcome them into their home, they knock on the door. Alternate translation: “I want you to let me come inside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

260

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3

20

m6n2

figs-metonymy

ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου

1

hears my voice

Here, my voice refers to Christ speaking. Alternate translation: “hears me speak” or “hears me call” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

261

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3

20

di8q

figs-go

καὶ εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτὸν

1

I will come into him

Some languages might prefer the verb “go” here. Alternate translation: “I will indeed go into his home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

262

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3

20

une1

figs-metaphor

καὶ δειπνήσω μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

and will eat with him

Here, eat with him represents being together as friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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3

21

h9pf

0

Connecting Statement:

This is the end of the Son of Man’s messages to the angels of the seven churches.

264

REV

3

21

n83q

figs-genericnoun

ὁ νικῶν

1

The one who conquers

This refers anyone who conquers. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Anyone who resists evil” or “Anyone who does not agree to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

265

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3

21

mn2c

figs-metonymy

καθίσαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ ἐν τῷ θρόνῳ μου

1

to sit down with me on my throne

To sit down on a throne means to rule. Alternate translation: “to rule with me” or “to sit down on my throne and rule with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

266

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3

21

un17

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Πατρός μου

1

my Father

Here, Father is an important title for God that describes the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

267

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3

22

m13x

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one who has an ear, hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, the phrase has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “Let the one who is willing to listen, listen to” or “The one who is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

268

REV

3

22

mjv6

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

Let the one … hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen to” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

269

REV

4

intro

cl9f

0

Revelation 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 8 and 11.

John has finished describing the letters to the churches. He now begins to describe a vision that God showed him.

Special concepts in this chapter

Jasper, carnelian, and emerald

These words refer to kinds of special stones that the people in John’s day considered valuable. It may be difficult for you to translate these words if people in your culture do not value special kinds of stones.

Twenty-four elders

Elders are church leaders. Twenty-four elders may be symbolic of the whole church through the ages. There were twelve tribes in Old Testament Israel and twelve apostles in the New Testament church. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Seven spirits of God

These spirits are the seven spirits of Revelation 1:4.

Giving glory to God

God’s glory is the great beauty and radiant majesty that God has because he is God. Other Bible writers describe it as if it were a light so bright that no one can look at it. No one can give God this kind of glory, because it is already his. When people give glory to God or when God receives glory, people say that God has the glory that is his, that it is right for God to have that glory, and that people should worship God because he has that glory. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/glory]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/worthy]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/worship]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Difficult images

Such things as bolts of lightning coming from the throne, lamps that are spirits, and a sea in front of the throne may be difficult to imagine, and so the words for them may be difficult to translate. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

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REV

4

1

ws2q

0

General Information:

John begins to describe his vision of the throne of God.

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4

1

vh4i

μετὰ ταῦτα

1

After these things

See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:1-3:22 Alternate translation: “After I had just seen these things”

272

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4

1

z8r8

figs-metaphor

θύρα ἠνεῳγμένη ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ

1

an open door in heaven

The expression open door in heaven stands for the ability that God gave John to see into heaven, at least by means of a vision. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

273

REV

4

1

a49s

figs-simile

ὡς σάλπιγγος λαλούσης μετ’ ἐμοῦ

1

speaking to me like a trumpet

If your readers would misunderstand this simile, you can state explicitly how the voice was like a trumpet. Alternate translation: “speaking to me loudly like the sound of a trumpet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

274

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4

1

j713

σάλπιγγος

1

trumpet

A trumpet is a instrument for producing music or for calling people to gather together for an announcement or meeting. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:10.

275

REV

4

2

ie3w

figs-idiom

ἐγενόμην ἐν Πνεύματι

1

I was in the Spirit

John speaks of being influenced by God’s Spirit as if he were in the Spirit. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:10. Alternate translation: “I was influenced by the Spirit” or “the Spirit influenced me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

276

REV

4

3

m4mi

translate-unknown

λίθῳ, ἰάσπιδι καὶ σαρδίῳ

1

jasper and carnelian

The terms jasper and carnelian refer to valuable stones. Jasper may have been clear like glass or crystal, and carnelian may have been red. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

277

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4

3

aap1

translate-unknown

σμαραγδίνῳ

1

emerald

An emerald is a green, valuable stone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

278

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4

5

ryb1

ἀστραπαὶ

1

flashes of lightning

Use your language’s way of describing what lightning looks like each time it appears.

279

REV

4

5

u1da

φωναὶ, καὶ βρονταί

1

rumblings, and crashes of thunder

Here, rumblings are the loud noises that thunder makes. Use your language’s way of describing the sound of thunder.

280

REV

4

5

e1jm

writing-symlanguage

τὰ ἑπτὰ πνεύματα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

seven spirits of God

The number seven is a symbol of completeness and perfection. The seven spirits refers either to the Spirit of God or to seven spirits who serve God. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

281

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4

6

ja33

figs-metaphor

θάλασσα ὑαλίνη

1

a sea of glass

If your readers would misunderstand this metaphor, you can state how it was like glass or a sea. This could mean: (1) a sea is spoken of as if it were glass. Alternate translation: “a sea that was as smooth as glass” (2) glass is spoken of as if it were a sea. Alternate translation: “glass that was spread out like a sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

282

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4

6

cv9p

figs-simile

ὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ

1

like crystal

If your readers would misunderstand this simile, you can state how it was like crystal. Alternate translation: “clear as crystal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

283

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4

6

fr7x

ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ κύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου

1

In the middle of the throne and around the throne

Alternate translation: “immediately around the throne” or “close to the throne and around it”

284

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4

6

b66k

τέσσαρα ζῷα

1

four living creatures

Alternate translation: “four living beings” or “four living things”

285

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4

7

d84n

figs-simile

τὸ ζῷον τὸ πρῶτον ὅμοιον λέοντι, καὶ τὸ δεύτερον ζῷον ὅμοιον μόσχῳ, καὶ τὸ τρίτον ζῷον ἔχων τὸ πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου, καὶ τὸ τέταρτον ζῷον ὅμοιον ἀετῷ πετομένῳ

1

The first living creature was like a lion, the second living creature was like a calf, the third living creature had a face like a man, and the fourth living creature was like a flying eagle

How the head of each living creature appeared to John is expressed as a comparison with something more familiar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

286

REV

4

7

b9tx

ζῷον

1

living creature

See how you translated this term in Revelation 4:6 Alternate translation: “living being” or “living thing”

287

REV

4

8

n8g2

κυκλόθεν καὶ ἔσωθεν γέμουσιν ὀφθαλμῶν

1

full of eyes on top and underneath

The top and bottom of each wing was covered with eyes.

288

REV

4

8

y1u5

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

1

who is to come

Existing in the future is spoken of as coming. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

289

REV

4

9

xj6b

τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ, τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

1

the one who sits on the throne, the one who lives forever and ever

This is one person. The one who sits on the throne lives forever and ever.

290

REV

4

9

a19z

figs-doublet

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

1

forever and ever

These two words mean about the same thing and are repeated for emphasis. Alternate translation: “for all eternity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

291

REV

4

10

c2vg

πεσοῦνται

1

fall down

They purposely lie down facing the ground to show that they are worshiping.

292

REV

4

10

sly8

translate-symaction

βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου

1

They lay their crowns before the throne

The elders were respectfully placing the crowns on the ground, showing that they were submitting to God’s authority to rule. Alternate translation: “they lay their crowns before the throne to show that they were submitting to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

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4

10

wvf9

βαλοῦσιν

1

lay

This could refers to: (1) placing something. (2) throwing down forcibly, as of something worthless (Revelation 2:22). The reader should understand that the elders are acting respectfully.

294

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4

11

idj1

ὁ Κύριος καὶ ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν

1

our Lord and our God

Here, our Lord and God is one person, the one who was sitting on the throne.

295

REV

4

11

q91l

figs-metonymy

λαβεῖν τὴν δόξαν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν

1

to receive the glory and the honor and the power

Here, the glory and the honor and the power are things that God always has. Being praised for having them is spoken of as receiving them. Alternate translation: “to be praised for your glory, honor, and power” or “for everyone to praise you because you are glorious, honorable, and powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

296

REV

5

intro

g7ey

0

Revelation 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this in verses 9-13.

Special concepts in this chapter

Sealed scroll

Kings and important people in John’s time wrote important documents on large pieces of paper or animal skin. They then rolled them up and sealed them with wax so they would stay closed. Only the person to whom the document was written had the authority to open it by breaking the seal. In this chapter, “the one who was seated on the throne” had written the scroll. Only the person called “the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David” and “the Lamb” had the authority to open it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/scroll]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/authority]])

Twenty-four elders

Elders are church leaders. Twenty-four elders may be symbolic of the whole church through the ages. There were twelve tribes in Old Testament Israel and twelve apostles in the New Testament church. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Christian prayers

The prayers of Christians are described as incense. Christian prayers have a good smell to God. He is pleased when Christians pray.

Seven spirits of God

These spirits are the seven spirits of Revelation 1:4.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

The “Lion of the tribe of Judah” and the “Root of David” are metaphors that refer to Jesus. Jesus descended from the tribe of Judah and the family of David. Lions are fierce, and all animals and people are afraid of them, so they are a metaphor for a king whom everyone obeys. The words Root of David speak of Israel’s King David as if he were a seed that God had planted and of Jesus as if he were a root growing from that seed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1

txr5

0

Connecting Statement:

John continues to describe what he saw in his vision of the throne of God.

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1

w3yi

καὶ εἶδον

1

Then I saw

Alternate translation: “After I saw those things, I saw”

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1

u3br

τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου

1

the one who was seated on the throne

This is the same one as in Revelation 4:2-3.

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1

yhm3

βιβλίον, γεγραμμένον ἔσωθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν

1

a scroll written on the front and on the back

Alternate translation: “a scroll with writing on the front and the back”

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1

aj7m

κατεσφραγισμένον σφραγῖσιν ἑπτά

1

sealed with seven seals

Alternate translation: “and it had seven seals keeping it closed”

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2

r2vt

figs-events

τίς ἄξιος ἀνοῖξαι τὸ βιβλίον, καὶ λῦσαι τὰς σφραγῖδας αὐτοῦ?

1

Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?

Someone would need to break the seals in order to open the scroll. Alternate translation: “Who is worthy to break the seals and open the scroll?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

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2

v4r4

figs-rquestion

τίς ἄξιος ἀνοῖξαι τὸ βιβλίον, καὶ λῦσαι τὰς σφραγῖδας αὐτοῦ?

1

Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can translate it as a statement: “Show us who is worthy to break the seals and open the scroll!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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3

lj9u

figs-merism

ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, οὐδὲ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς

1

in heaven or on the earth or under the earth

This means everywhere: the place where God and the angels live, the place where people and animals live, and the place where those who have died are. Alternate translation: “anywhere in heaven or on the earth or under the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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5

dm5p

ἰδοὺ

1

Look

Alternate translation: “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

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5

j67w

ὁ λέων ὁ ἐκ τῆς φυλῆς Ἰούδα

1

The Lion of the tribe of Judah

This is a title for the man from the tribe of Judah that God had promised would be the great king. Alternate translation: “The one who is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah” or “The king who is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah”

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5

b6wg

figs-metaphor

ὁ λέων

1

The Lion

The king is spoken of as if he were a Lion because a lion is very strong. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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5

i89j

ἡ ῥίζα Δαυείδ

1

the Root of David

This is a title for the descendant of David that God had promised would be the great king. Alternate translation: “the one who is called the Root of David”

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5

z3vw

figs-metaphor

ἡ ῥίζα Δαυείδ

1

the Root of David

The descendant is spoken of as if David’s family were a tree and he were a root of that tree. Alternate translation: “the Descendant of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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6

v99j

writing-participants

0

General Information:

The Lamb appears in the throne room. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

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6

du51

writing-symlanguage

Ἀρνίον

1

a Lamb

Here, Lamb is used symbolically to refer to Christ. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

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6

erg2

writing-symlanguage

τὰ ἑπτὰ πνεύματα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the seven spirits of God

The number seven is a symbol of completeness and perfection. The seven spirits refers either to the Spirit of God or to seven spirits who serve God. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

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6

t7d1

figs-activepassive

ἀπεσταλμένοι εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν

1

sent out into all the earth

If your language does not use this passive form, you can translate it with an active verb. Alternate translation: “which God sent out over all the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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7

egp6

figs-go

ἦλθεν

1

He went

He approached the throne. Some languages would use the verb “go.” Alternate translation: “he went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

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8

e3fh

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

Here, Lamb is used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

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8

ff8y

ἔπεσαν

1

fell down

Their faces were toward the ground to show that they were worshiping the Lamb. They did this on purpose; they did not fall accidentally. Alternate translation: “lay down on the ground”

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8

uv6w

ἕκαστος

1

Each of them

Here, each one could refers to: (1) each of the elders and living creatures. (2) each of the elders.

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8

qak6

writing-symlanguage

φιάλας χρυσᾶς γεμούσας θυμιαμάτων, αἵ εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ τῶν ἁγίων

1

a golden bowl full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints

Here, incense here is a symbol for the believers’ prayers to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

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9

yu7h

figs-activepassive

ὅτι ἐσφάγης

1

For you were slaughtered

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “for they slaughtered you” or “for people killed you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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9

j1jn

ἐσφάγης

1

slaughtered

If your language has a word for killing an animal for a sacrifice, consider using it here.

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9

qtv5

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου

1

with your blood

Since blood represents a person’s life, losing the blood represents dying. This probably means “by your death” or “by dying.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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9

k8re

ἠγόρασας τῷ Θεῷ

1

you purchased people for God

Alternate translation: “you bought people so that they could belong to God” or “you paid the price so that people could belong to God”

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9

zzc7

ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς, καὶ γλώσσης, καὶ λαοῦ, καὶ ἔθνους

1

from every tribe, language, people, and nation

This means that people from every ethnic group are included.

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11

xuy1

translate-numbers

μυριάδες μυριάδων καὶ χιλιάδες χιλιάδων

1

ten thousands of ten thousands and thousands of thousands

Use an expression in your language that shows that it is a huge number. Alternate translation: “millions” or “too many thousands to count” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

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12

gnv1

ἄξιόν ἐστιν τὸ Ἀρνίον τὸ ἐσφαγμένον

1

Worthy is the Lamb who has been slaughtered

Alternate translation: “wdwdThe Lamb who has been slaughtered is worthy”

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12

mt28

figs-metonymy

λαβεῖν τὴν δύναμιν, καὶ πλοῦτον, καὶ σοφίαν, καὶ ἰσχὺν, καὶ τιμὴν, καὶ δόξαν, καὶ εὐλογίαν

1

to receive power, wealth, wisdom, strength, honor, glory, and praise

These are all things that the Lamb has. Being praised for having them is spoken of as receiving them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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12

w0dv

figs-abstractnouns

λαβεῖν τὴν δύναμιν, καὶ πλοῦτον, καὶ σοφίαν, καὶ ἰσχὺν, καὶ τιμὴν, καὶ δόξαν, καὶ εὐλογίαν

1

If your readers would misunderstand these abstract nouns, you can express them as verbs. See how you translated a similar sentence in Revelation 4:11. Alternate translation: “for everyone to honor, glorify, and praise him because he is powerful, wealthy, wise, and strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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13

sad6

figs-merism

ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς

1

in heaven and on the earth and under the earth

This means everywhere: the place where God and the angels live, the place where people and animals live, and the place where those who have died are. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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13

t3zy

τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ Ἀρνίῳ

1

To the one who sits on the throne and to the Lamb

Alternate translation: “May he who sits on the throne and the Lamb have”

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6

intro

zkn7

0

Revelation 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The author describes what happened after the Lamb opens each of the first six seals. The Lamb does not open the seventh seal until Chapter 8.

Special concepts in this chapter

Seven Seals

Kings and important people in John’s time wrote important documents on large pieces of paper or animal skin. They then rolled them up and sealed them with wax so they would stay closed. Only the person to whom the document was written had the authority to open it by breaking the seal. In this chapter, the Lamb opens the seals. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

The Four Horsemen

As the Lamb opens each of the first four seals, the author describes horsemen riding different colored horses. The colors of the horses seem to symbolize how the rider will affect the earth.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

The Lamb

This refers to Jesus. In this chapter, it is also a title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lamb]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Similes

In verses 12-14, the author uses several similes to try to describe the images he sees in the vision. He compares the images to everyday things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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i392

0

Connecting Statement:

John continues to describe the events that happened before the throne of God. The Lamb begins to open the seals on the scroll.

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1

be7p

ἔρχου!

1

Come!

This is a command to one person, apparently to the rider of the white horse who is spoken of in verse 2.

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2

t2qg

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ στέφανος

1

he was given a crown

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “he received a crown” or “God gave him a crown” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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3

bs66

translate-ordinal

τὴν σφραγῖδα τὴν δευτέραν

1

the second seal

The word second is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next seal” or “seal number two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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3

i1p4

translate-ordinal

τοῦ δευτέρου ζῴου

1

the second living creature

The word second is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next living creature” or “living creature number two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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4

qg8s

ἐξῆλθεν…πυρρός

1

came out—fiery red

This can the stated as a second sentence. Alternate translation: “came out. It was red like fire” or “came out. It was bright red”

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6

4

w57m

figs-activepassive

τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπ’ αὐτὸν, ἐδόθη αὐτῷ

1

To its rider was given permission

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God gave permission to its rider” or “its rider received permission” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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4

je64

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ μάχαιρα μεγάλη

1

This rider was given a huge sword

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “this rider received a huge sword” or “God gave this rider a huge sword” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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5

v4us

translate-ordinal

τὴν σφραγῖδα τὴν τρίτην

1

the third seal

The word third is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next seal” or “seal number three” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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5

zec1

translate-ordinal

τοῦ τρίτου ζῴου

1

the third living creature

The word third is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next living creature” or “living creature number three” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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5

rm4y

ζυγὸν

1

a pair of scales

A scales is a tool used for weighing things.

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6

cq7h

χοῖνιξ σίτου δηναρίου

1

A choenix of wheat for one denarius

Some languages might want a verb such as “cost” or “buy” in the sentence. There was very little wheat for all the people, so its price was very high. Alternate translation: “A choenix of wheat now costs one denarius” or “Buy a choenix of wheat with one denarius”

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6

6

b5rr

translate-bvolume

χοῖνιξ σίτου…τρεῖς χοίνικες κριθῶν

1

A choenix of wheat … three choenices of barley

A choenix was a specific measure that was about one liter. The plural of choenix is “choenices.” Alternate translation: “one liter of wheat … three liters of barley” or “one bowl of wheat … three bowls of barley” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

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6

6

v3sn

translate-bmoney

δηναρίου

1

one denarius

The denarius was a coin that was worth a day’s wages. Alternate translation: “one silver coin” or “the pay for one day of work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

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6

ej1v

καὶ τὸ ἔλαιον καὶ τὸν οἶνον μὴ ἀδικήσῃς

1

But do not harm the oil and the wine

If the oil and wine were harmed, there would be less of them for people to buy, and their prices would go up.

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6

6

c5ik

figs-metonymy

τὸ ἔλαιον καὶ τὸν οἶνον

1

the oil and the wine

The oil and the wine probably stand for the olive oil harvest and the grape harvest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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7

mu5f

translate-ordinal

τὴν σφραγῖδα τὴν τετάρτην

1

the fourth seal

The word fourth is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next seal” or “seal number four” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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7

zj87

translate-ordinal

τοῦ τετάρτου ζῴου

1

the fourth living creature

The word fourth is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next living creature” or “living creature number four” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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e11y

ἵππος χλωρός

1

pale horse

Here, pale is the color of a dead body, so its color is a symbol of death. Alternate translation: “a grey horse”

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8

df32

figs-metonymy

τὸ τέταρτον τῆς γῆς

1

one-fourth of the earth

Here, the earth represents the people of the earth. Alternate translation: “one-fourth of the people on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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8

aj1h

translate-fraction

τὸ τέταρτον τῆς γῆς

1

Alternate translation: “one out of every four of the people on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

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6

8

tjw8

figs-metonymy

ῥομφαίᾳ

1

the sword

Here, the sword represents war. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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6

8

n9x3

ὑπὸ τῶν θηρίων τῆς γῆς

1

with the wild animals of the earth

This means that Death and Hades would cause the wild animals to attack and kill people.

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6

9

bv8r

translate-ordinal

τὴν πέμπτην σφραγῖδα

1

the fifth seal

The word fifth is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next seal” or “seal number five” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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9

n3mi

ὑποκάτω τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου

1

under the altar

This may have been “at the base of the altar.”

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6

9

b2kp

figs-activepassive

τῶν ἐσφαγμένων

1

those who had been killed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “those whom others had killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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y8c6

figs-metonymy

διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ διὰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἣν εἶχον

1

because of the word of God and the testimony which they held

Here, the word of God is a metonym for the message from God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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9

x1yr

figs-metaphor

διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ διὰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἣν εἶχον

1

Here, held is a metaphor. Here, holding the testimony could refer to: (1) believing God’s word and testimony. Alternate translation: “because of the teachings of scripture and what they taught about Jesus Christ” or “because they believed the word of God, which is his testimony” (2) testifying about the word of God. Alternate translation: “because they testified about the word of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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10

qz1i

figs-metonymy

ἐκδικεῖς τὸ αἷμα ἡμῶν

1

avenge our blood

Here, blood represents their deaths. Alternate translation: “punish those who killed us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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11

bq1p

figs-activepassive

ἕως πληρωθῶσιν καὶ οἱ σύνδουλοι αὐτῶν, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτῶν, οἱ μέλλοντες ἀποκτέννεσθαι ὡς καὶ αὐτοί

1

until the full number of their fellow servants and their brothers was reached who were to be killed, just as they had been killed

This implies that God had decided that a certain number of people should be killed by their enemies. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “until people had killed the full number of their fellow servants and brothers that they were going to kill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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11

q9xh

καὶ οἱ σύνδουλοι αὐτῶν, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτῶν

1

their fellow servants and their brothers

This is one group of people described in two ways: as fellow servants and as brothers. Alternate translation: “their brothers who serve God with them” or “their fellow believers who serve God with them”

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6

11

p615

figs-metaphor

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ

1

brothers

Christians are often spoken of as being one another’s brothers. Females were among those spoken of here. Alternate translation: “fellow Christians” or “fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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12

z9qm

translate-ordinal

τὴν σφραγῖδα τὴν ἕκτην

1

the sixth seal

The word sixth is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next seal” or “seal number six” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

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6

12

xu8l

figs-simile

μέλας ὡς σάκκος

1

as black as sackcloth

Sometimes sackcloth was made of black hair. People would wear sackcloth when they were mourning. The image of sackcloth is meant to lead people to think of death and mourning. Alternate translation: “as black as mourning clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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12

g7rt

figs-simile

ὡς αἷμα

1

like blood

The image of blood is meant to lead people to think of death. If your readers would misunderstand this simile, you can state how it was like blood. Alternate translation: “red like blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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6

13

s137

figs-activepassive

ὡς συκῆ βάλλει τοὺς ὀλύνθους αὐτῆς, ὑπὸ ἀνέμου μεγάλου σειομένη

1

just as a fig tree drops its unripe fruit when shaken by a stormy wind

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “just as a stormy wind shakes a fig tree and causes it to drop its unripe fruit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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6

14

jyb7

figs-simile

ὁ οὐρανὸς ἀπεχωρίσθη ὡς βιβλίον ἑλισσόμενον

1

The sky vanished like a scroll that was being rolled up

The sky was normally thought of as being strong like a sheet of metal, but now it was weak like a sheet of paper and easily torn and rolled up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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6

15

m6j6

οἱ χιλίαρχοι

1

the generals

Here, the generals refers to the warriors who command in the battle.

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6

15

vl6h

τὰ σπήλαια

1

the caves

These caves are large holes in the sides of hills.

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6

16

f4bj

figs-metonymy

προσώπου τοῦ

1

the face of the one

Here, face represents “presence.” Alternate translation: “the presence of the one” or “the one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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6

17

bd8v

figs-metonymy

ἦλθεν ἡ ἡμέρα ἡ μεγάλη τῆς ὀργῆς αὐτῶν

1

the great day of their wrath has come

The great day of their wrath refers to the time when they would punish wicked people. Alternate translation: “this is the terrible time when they will punish people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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17

i7t4

figs-metaphor

ἦλθεν

1

has come

Existing now is spoken of as having come. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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6

17

cq9e

ὀργῆς αὐτῶν

1

their wrath

Here, their refers to the one on the throne and the Lamb.

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6

17

r1ta

figs-metonymy

τίς δύναται σταθῆναι?

1

Who is able to stand?

Surviving, or staying alive, is spoken of as standing. Alternate translation: “Who can survive?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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6

17

pmn6

figs-rquestion

τίς δύναται σταθῆναι?

1

This question is used to express their great sadness and fear that no one will be able to survive when God punishes them. Alternate translation: “no one can survive!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

376

REV

7

intro

f27i

0

Revelation 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Scholars have interpreted parts of this chapter in many different ways. Translators do not need to fully understand what this chapter means to accurately translate its contents. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

It is important to accurately translate the large numbers in this chapter. The number 144,000 is twelve times twelve thousand.

Translators should be aware that the tribes of the people of Israel are not listed in this chapter the same as they are generally listed in the Old Testament.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 5-8 and 15-17.

Special concepts in this chapter

Worship

God saves his people and keeps them through times of trouble. His people respond by worshipping him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/worship]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

The Lamb

This refers to Jesus. In this chapter, it is also a title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

377

REV

7

1

b1yl

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a vision of 144,000 servants of God who become marked with seals. Their marking takes place after the Lamb opens the sixth seal and before he opens the seventh seal.

378

REV

7

1

id3y

τὰς τέσσαρας γωνίας τῆς γῆς

1

the four corners of the earth

The earth is spoken of as if it were flat and square like a sheet of paper. The phrase the four corners refers to the north, south, east, and west.

379

REV

7

2

sgq7

figs-metonymy

σφραγῖδα

1

the seal of the living God

Here, the seal refers to a tool that is used to press a mark onto a wax seal. In this case the tool would be used to put a mark on God’s people. Alternate translation: “the marker” or “stamp” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

380

REV

7

3

upb7

figs-metonymy

σφραγίσωμεν τοὺς δούλους τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν

1

have sealed … on their foreheads

Here, to seal refers to placing a mark on something. This mark shows that the people belong to God and that he will protect them. Alternate translation: “we put a mark on the foreheads of the servants of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

381

REV

7

3

je8m

μετώπων

1

foreheads

The forehead is the top of the face, above the eyes.

382

REV

7

4

m58v

figs-activepassive

τῶν ἐσφραγισμένων

1

those who were sealed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “those whom God’s angel marked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

383

REV

7

4

lh7h

figs-ellipsis

ἑκατὸν τεσσεράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες

1

144000

Alternate translation: “one hundred forty-four thousand people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

384

REV

7

5

lyz8

figs-ellipsis

δώδεκα χιλιάδες

1

twelve thousand from the tribe

Alternate translation: “12,000 people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

385

REV

7

9

cj5k

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a second vision about a multitude praising God. This vision also takes place after the Lamb opens the sixth seal and before he opens the seventh seal.

386

REV

7

9

au1m

ὄχλος πολύς

1

a huge multitude

Alternate translation: “a huge crowd” or “a great number of people”

387

REV

7

9

v63z

στολὰς λευκάς

1

white robes

Here the color white represents purity.

388

REV

7

10

m5az

ἡ σωτηρία τῷ Θεῷ ἡμῶν

1

Salvation belongs to

Alternate translation: “Salvation comes from our God”

389

REV

7

10

vlv1

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ σωτηρία τῷ Θεῷ ἡμῶν, τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ Ἀρνίῳ

1

Salvation belongs … to the Lamb

They were praising God and the Lamb. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract Salvation, you can express it with the verb “save.” Alternate translation: “Our God, who sits on the throne, and the Lamb have saved us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

390

REV

7

11

a45p

τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων

1

the four living creatures

These are the four living creatures mentioned in Revelation 4:6-8.

391

REV

7

11

aja9

figs-idiom

ἔπεσαν…ἐπὶ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν

1

they fell on their faces

Here, fell on their faces is an idiom that means hey lay down facing the ground. See how you translated “prostrated themselves” in Revelation 4:10. Alternate translation: “they bowed down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

392

REV

7

12

lf1m

ἡ εὐλογία, καὶ ἡ δόξα, καὶ ἡ σοφία, καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία, καὶ ἡ τιμὴ, καὶ ἡ δύναμις, καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς, τῷ Θεῷ ἡμῶν

1

Praise, glory … be to our God

Alternate translation: “Our God is worthy of all praise, glory, wisdom, thanks, honor, power and strength”

393

REV

7

12

q3gt

εὐλογία, καὶ ἡ δόξα, καὶ ἡ σοφία, καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία, καὶ ἡ τιμὴ, καὶ ἡ δύναμις, καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς, τῷ Θεῷ ἡμῶν

1

Praise, glory … thanksgiving, honor … be to our God

You can use the verb “give” to show how praise, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and strength are to be to our God. Alternate translation: “We must give praise, glory, wisdom, thanks, honor, power, and strength to our God”

394

REV

7

12

d74f

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

1

forever and ever

These two words forever and ever mean basically the same thing and emphasize that the praise will never end.

395

REV

7

13

wz8z

περιβεβλημένοι τὰς στολὰς τὰς λευκὰς

1

clothed with white robes

These white robes showed that they were righteous.

396

REV

7

14

p6en

οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης

1

have come out of the great tribulation

Alternate translation: “the one who have survived the great tribulation” or “are the people who have lived through the great tribulation”

397

REV

7

14

u6fc

τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης

1

the great tribulation

Alternate translation: “the time of terrible suffering” or “the time when people suffered terribly”

398

REV

7

14

b7mi

figs-metaphor

ἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐλεύκαναν αὐτὰς ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb

Being made righteous by the blood of the Lamb is spoken of as washing their robes in his blood. Alternate translation: “they have been made righteous by washing their robes white in his blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

399

REV

7

14

ym21

figs-metonymy

τῷ αἵματι τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the blood of the Lamb

Here, blood is used to refer to the death of Lamb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

400

REV

7

15

qs23

εἰσιν…αὐτούς

1

they … them

Here, they and them refer to those people who have come out of the great tribulation.

401

REV

7

15

us3i

figs-merism

ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς

1

day and night

Here, day and night are used together to mean “all the time” or “without stopping” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

402

REV

7

15

k9f2

figs-metaphor

σκηνώσει ἐπ’ αὐτούς

1

will spread his tent over them

Protecting them is spoken of as if he were giving them shelter to live under. Alternate translation: “will shelter them” or “will protect them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

403

REV

7

16

p6u7

οὐ πεινάσουσιν…αὐτοὺς

1

They … them

Here, They and them refer to those people who have come out of the great tribulation.

404

REV

7

16

t45h

figs-metaphor

οὐδὲ μὴ πέσῃ ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ὁ ἥλιος

1

The sun will not beat down

The heat of the sun is compared to punishment that causes people to suffer. Alternate translation: “and the sun will not burn them” or “and the sun will not make them weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

405

REV

7

17

wc49

αὐτούς…αὐτοὺς

1

their … them

Both occurrences of them refer to those people who have come out of the great tribulation.

406

REV

7

17

b5rp

τὸ Ἀρνίον τὸ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ θρόνου

1

the Lamb at the center of the throne

Alternate translation: “the Lamb, who is standing in the middle of the area around the throne”

407

REV

7

17

bi5i

figs-metaphor

ὅτι τὸ Ἀρνίον…ποιμανεῖ αὐτούς

1

For the Lamb … will be their shepherd

The elder speaks of the Lamb’s care for his people as if it were a shepherd’s care for his sheep. Alternate translation: “for the Lamb … will be like a shepherd to them” or “for the Lamb … will care for them as a shepherd cares for his sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

408

REV

7

17

m6m8

figs-metaphor

ὁδηγήσει αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ ζωῆς πηγὰς ὑδάτων

1

he will guide them to springs of living water

The elder speaks of what gives life as if it were springs of fresh water. Alternate translation: “he will guide them like a shepherd guiding his sheep to fresh water” or “he will guide them to life like a shepherd guiding his sheep to living water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

409

REV

7

17

g3d2

figs-metonymy

ἐξαλείψει ὁ Θεὸς πᾶν δάκρυον ἐκ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν

1

God will wipe away every tear from their eyes

Here, a tear represents sadness. Alternate translation: “God will wipe away their sadness, like wiping away tears” or “God will cause them to not be sad anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

410

REV

8

intro

ma7f

0

Revelation 8 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Seven seals and seven trumpets

This chapter begins to show what happens when the Lamb opens the seventh seal. God uses the prayers of all believers to cause dramatic things to happen on earth. John then describes what happens when angels sound the first four of seven trumpets. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Passive voice

John uses the passive voice several times in this chapter. This hides who performs the action. This will be difficult to convey if the translator’s language does not have a passive voice. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

Similes

In verses 8 and 10, John uses similes to try to describe the images he sees in the vision. He compares the images to everyday things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

411

REV

8

1

d652

0

Connecting Statement:

The Lamb opens the seventh seal.

412

REV

8

1

mh2b

translate-ordinal

τὴν σφραγῖδα τὴν ἑβδόμην

1

the seventh seal

This is the last of the seven seals on the scroll. The word seventh is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next seal” or “the final seal” or “seal number seven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

413

REV

8

2

fri9

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθησαν αὐτοῖς ἑπτὰ σάλπιγγες

1

seven trumpets were given to them

Each of the seven angels were given one trumpet. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. This could mean: (1) God gave them seven trumpets. (2) the Lamb gave them seven trumpets. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

414

REV

8

3

f9g9

δώσει

1

he would offer it

Alternate translation: “he would offer the incense to God by burning it”

415

REV

8

4

lq1q

figs-metonymy

ἐκ χειρὸς τοῦ ἀγγέλου

1

the angel’s hand

This refers to the bowl in the angel’s hand. Alternate translation: “from the bowl in the angel’s hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

416

REV

8

5

l79w

figs-metonymy

ἐγέμισεν αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς

1

filled it with fire

Here, the fire probably refers to burning coals. Alternate translation: “filled it with burning coals” or “filled it with coals of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

417

REV

8

7

g5gp

figs-activepassive

ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν γῆν

1

It was thrown down onto the earth

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the angel threw the hail and fire mixed with blood down onto the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

418

REV

8

7

ga1r

figs-activepassive

τὸ τρίτον τῆς γῆς κατεκάη, καὶ τὸ τρίτον τῶν δένδρων κατεκάη, καὶ πᾶς χόρτος χλωρὸς κατεκάη

1

a third of it was burned up, a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “it burned up a third of the earth, a third of the trees, and all the green grass” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

419

REV

8

8

rnh8

translate-ordinal

ὁ δεύτερος ἄγγελος

1

The second angel

The word second is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the next angel” or “angel number two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

420

REV

8

8

uw2h

figs-activepassive

ὡς ὄρος μέγα πυρὶ καιόμενον, ἐβλήθη

1

something like a great mountain burning with fire was thrown

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the angel threw something like a great mountain burning with fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

421

REV

8

8

ev7g

translate-fraction

ἐγένετο τὸ τρίτον τῆς θαλάσσης αἷμα

1

A third of the sea became blood

If your readers would misunderstand the fraction a third, you can explain it in translation. Alternate translation: “it was like the sea was divided into three parts, and one of those parts became blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

422

REV

8

8

k43y

figs-simile

ἐγένετο…αἷμα

1

became blood

Here, became blood could mean: (1) it became red like blood. (2) it really became blood. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

423

REV

8

9

vgf4

τῶν κτισμάτων τῶν ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ τὰ ἔχοντα ψυχάς

1

the living creatures in the sea

Alternate translation: “of the things living in the sea” or “of the fish and other animals that lived in the sea”

424

REV

8

10

n8ue

figs-simile

ἔπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἀστὴρ μέγας, καιόμενος ὡς λαμπάς

1

a huge star fell from the sky, blazing like a torch

The fire of the huge star looked similar to the fire of a torch. Alternate translation: “a huge star that was blazing like a torch fell from the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

425

REV

8

10

int4

λαμπάς

1

torch

A torch a stick with one end lit on fire to provide light.

426

REV

8

11

as2n

translate-unknown

τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ ἀστέρος λέγεται ὁ Ἄψινθος

1

The name of the star is Wormwood

Wormwood is a shrub that tastes bitter. People made medicine out of it, but they also believed that it was poisonous. Alternate translation: “the name of the star is Bitterness” or “the name of the star is Bitter Medicine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

427

REV

8

11

gei4

figs-metaphor

ἐγένετο…ἄψινθον

1

became wormwood

The bitter taste of the water is spoken of as if it were wormwood. Alternate translation: “became bitter like wormwood” or “became bitter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

428

REV

8

11

g4q5

ἀπέθανον ἐκ τῶν ὑδάτων, ὅτι ἐπικράνθησαν

1

died from the waters that became bitter

Alternate translation: “died when they drank the bitter water”

429

REV

8

12

z936

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήγη τὸ τρίτον τοῦ ἡλίου

1

a third of the sun was struck

Causing something bad to happen to the sun is spoken of as striking, or hitting, it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

430

REV

8

12

dfm7

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήγη τὸ τρίτον τοῦ ἡλίου

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “a third of the sun changed” or “God changed a third of the sun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

431

REV

8

12

ukh6

σκοτισθῇ τὸ τρίτον αὐτῶν

1

a third of them turned dark

The phrase a third of then turned dark could mean: (1) one third of the time, they were dark. (2) one third of the sun, one third of the moon, and one third of the stars became dark.

432

REV

8

12

t1ag

ἡ ἡμέρα μὴ φάνῃ τὸ τρίτον αὐτῆς, καὶ ἡ νὺξ ὁμοίως

1

a third of the day and a third of the night had no light

Alternate translation: “there was no light during one third of the day and one third of the night” or “they did not shine during one third of the day and one third of the night”

433

REV

8

13

x375

figs-activepassive

ἐκ τῶν λοιπῶν φωνῶν τῆς σάλπιγγος τῶν τριῶν ἀγγέλων τῶν μελλόντων σαλπίζειν

1

because of the remaining trumpet … angels

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “because the three angels who have not yet sounded their trumpets are about to sound them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

434

REV

9

intro

sq5c

0

Revelation 9 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In this chapter, John continues to describe what happens when angels sound seven trumpets. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Woe

John describes several “woes” in the Book of Revelation. This chapter begins to describe three “woes” announced at the end of Chapter 8.

Special concepts in this chapter

Animal imagery

This chapter includes several animals: locusts, scorpions, horses, lions, and snakes. Animals convey different qualities or traits. For example, a lion is powerful and dangerous. Translators should use the same animals in their translation if possible. If the animal is unknown, one with similar qualities or traits should be used.

Bottomless pit

This image is seen several times in the Book of Revelation. It is a picture of hell as being inescapable and the opposite direction as heaven. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/hell]])

Abaddon and Apollyon

“Abaddon” is a Hebrew word. “Apollyon” is a Greek word. Both words mean “Destroyer.” John used the sounds of the Hebrew word and wrote them with Greek letters. The ULT and UST write the sounds of both words with English letters. Translators are encouraged to transliterate these words using the letters of the target language. The original Greek readers would have understood “Apollyon” to mean “Destroyer.” So translators may also supply what it means in the text or in a footnote. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

Repentance

Despite great signs, people are described as not repenting and so remain in their sin. People refusing to repent are also mentioned in Chapter 16. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Simile

John uses many similes in this chapter. They help to describe the images that he sees in his vision. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

435

REV

9

1

d26c

0

Connecting Statement:

The fifth of the seven angels begins to sound his trumpet.

436

REV

9

1

jim6

εἶδον ἀστέρα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεπτωκότα

1

I saw a star from heaven that had fallen

John saw the star after it had fallen. He did not watch if fall.

437

REV

9

1

v12j

ἡ κλεὶς τοῦ φρέατος τῆς Ἀβύσσου

1

the key to the shaft of the bottomless pit

Alternate translation: “the key that unlocks the shaft of the bottomless pit”

438

REV

9

1

cjr9

τοῦ φρέατος τῆς Ἀβύσσου

1

the shaft of the bottomless pit

Here, shaft could be: (1) another way of referring to the abyss and describes it as long and narrow. (2) the opening of the abyss.

439

REV

9

1

p886

τῆς Ἀβύσσου

1

the bottomless pit

The abyss is an extremely deep narrow hole. This could mean: (1) the pit has no bottom; it continues to go down further forever. (2) the pit is so deep that it is as if it had no bottom.

440

REV

9

2

tp79

figs-simile

ὡς καπνὸς καμίνου μεγάλης

1

like smoke from a huge furnace

A huge furnace gives off a great amount of thick, dark smoke. Alternate translation: “like the great amount of smoke that comes from a huge furnace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

441

REV

9

2

nd4n

figs-activepassive

ἐσκοτώθη

1

turned dark

If your readers would misunderstand this passive phrase were darkened, you can state it inm active form. Alternate translation: “became dark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

442

REV

9

3

mb9m

translate-unknown

ἀκρίδες

1

locusts

The locusts are insects that fly together in large groups. People fear them because they can eat up all the leaves in gardens and on trees. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

443

REV

9

3

a4e7

figs-explicit

ἐδόθη αὐταῖς ἐξουσία, ὡς ἔχουσιν ἐξουσίαν οἱ σκορπίοι

1

power like that of scorpions

These scorpions have the ability to sting and poison people. Alternate translation: “they have the ability to sting people as scorpions do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

444

REV

9

3

mjf1

translate-unknown

σκορπίοι

1

scorpions

A scorpion is a small insect with a poisonous stinger on its tail. Its sting is extremely painful and the pain lasts a long time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

445

REV

9

4

cl6p

ἐρρέθη αὐταῖς, ἵνα μὴ ἀδικήσουσιν τὸν χόρτον τῆς γῆς, οὐδὲ πᾶν χλωρὸν, οὐδὲ πᾶν δένδρον

1

They were told not to damage the grass on the earth or any green plant or tree

Ordinary locusts were a terrible threat to people because when they swarm, they can eat up all the grass and all the leaves on plants and trees. These locusts were told not to do this.

446

REV

9

4

pb9q

figs-ellipsis

εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους

1

but only the people

The phrase “to damage” or “to harm” is understood. Alternate translation: “but only to harm the men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

447

REV

9

4

gi1a

figs-metonymy

τὴν σφραγῖδα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the seal of God

Here, seal refers to a tool that is used to press a mark onto a wax seal. In this case the tool would be used to put a mark on God’s people. See how you translated “seal” in Revelation 7:3. Alternate translation: “the marker of God” or “stamp of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

448

REV

9

4

tl6n

μετώπων

1

foreheads

The forehead is the top of the face, above the eyes.

449

REV

9

5

rui1

ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς

1

They were not given permission

Here, them refers to the locusts. (Revelation 9:3)

450

REV

9

5

vfj7

αὐτούς

1

them

Here, them refers to the people whom the locusts were stinging.

451

REV

9

5

nm7q

figs-activepassive

βασανισθήσονται μῆνας πέντε

1

to torture them for five months

If your readers would misunderstand this passive phrase will be tormented, you can state it in active form. Alternate translation: “the locusts will torment the people for five months” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

452

REV

9

5

a3dw

βασανισθήσονται

1

to torture them

Alternate translation: “will suffer terrible pain”

453

REV

9

5

qtk9

βασανισμὸς σκορπίου

1

the sting of a scorpion

A scorpion is a small insect with a poisonous stinger at the end of its long tail. The sting can cause severe pain or even death.

454

REV

9

6

p4mb

figs-abstractnouns

ζητήσουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι τὸν θάνατον, καὶ οὐ μὴ εὑρήσουσιν αὐτόν

1

people will seek death, but will not find it

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun death, you can express it with a verb. Alternate translation: “people will try to find a way to die, but will not find it” or “people will try to kill themselves, but will not find a way to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

455

REV

9

6

f1b4

figs-personification

φεύγει ὁ θάνατος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν

1

death will flee from them

John speaks of death as if it were a person or animal that could run away. Alternate translation: “they will not be able to die” or “they will not die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

456

REV

9

7

zh82

0

General Information:

These locusts did not look like ordinary locusts. John describes them by telling how parts of them looked like other things.

457

REV

9

10

mac3

ἔχουσιν οὐρὰς

1

They had tails

Here, they refers to the locusts.

458

REV

9

10

qdc3

figs-simile

ὁμοίας σκορπίοις καὶ κέντρα

1

with stingers like scorpions

A scorpion is a small insect with a poisonous stinger at the end of its long tail. The sting can cause severe pain or even death. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 9:6. Alternate translation: “with stingers like scorpion stingers” or “with stingers that could cause terrible pain as scorpion stingers can” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

459

REV

9

10

lim1

ἐν ταῖς οὐραῖς αὐτῶν ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτῶν ἀδικῆσαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους μῆνας πέντε

1

in their tails they had power to harm people for five months

This could mean: (1) they had power for five months to harm people. (2) they could sting people and the people would be in pain for five months.

460

REV

9

11

fiu6

τῆς Ἀβύσσου

1

the bottomless pit

The abyss is an extremely deep narrow hole. This could mean: (1) the pit has no bottom; it continues to go down further forever. (2) the pit is so deep that it is as if it had no bottom. See how you translated this in Revelation 9:1.

461

REV

9

11

bkg6

translate-names

Ἀβαδδών…Ἀπολλύων

1

Abaddon … Apollyon

Both Abaddon and Apollyon mean “Destroyer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

462

REV

9

12

ts26

figs-metaphor

ἔρχεται ἔτι δύο οὐαὶ

1

there are still two disasters to come

Existing in the future is spoken of as coming. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

463

REV

9

13

cyb6

0

Connecting Statement:

The sixth of the seven angels begins to sound his trumpet.

464

REV

9

13

x4md

figs-synecdoche

ἤκουσα φωνὴν μίαν ἐκ

1

I heard a voice from

The voice refers to the one who was speaking. John does not say who the speaker was, but it may have been God. Alternate translation: “I heard someone speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

465

REV

9

13

q3a3

τῶν κεράτων τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου τοῦ χρυσοῦ

1

horns of the golden altar

These are horn-shaped extensions at each of the four corners of the top of the altar.

466

REV

9

14

iq5t

figs-synecdoche

λέγουσαν

1

The voice said

This one who is speaking is the voice in verse 13. Alternate translation: “the voice said” or “the speaker said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

467

REV

9

14

su17

figs-activepassive

τοὺς τέσσαρας ἀγγέλους, τοὺς δεδεμένους

1

the four angels who are bound

The text does not say who has bound the angels, but it implies that God told someone to bind them. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the four angels whom God has commanded them to bind” or “the four angels whom God has commanded someone to bind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

468

REV

9

15

ijx2

figs-activepassive

ἐλύθησαν οἱ τέσσαρες ἄγγελοι, οἱ ἡτοιμασμένοι εἰς τὴν ὥραν, καὶ ἡμέραν, καὶ μῆνα, καὶ ἐνιαυτόν

1

The four angels who had been prepared for … that year, were released

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the angel released the four angels who had been prepared for that hour and day and month and year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

469

REV

9

15

p3w1

figs-activepassive

οἱ τέσσαρες ἄγγελοι, οἱ ἡτοιμασμένοι

1

The four angels who had been prepared

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the four angels whom God had prepared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

470

REV

9

15

b3d6

figs-parallelism

εἰς τὴν ὥραν, καὶ ἡμέραν, καὶ μῆνα, καὶ ἐνιαυτόν

1

for that hour, that day, that month, and that year

These words are used to show that there is a specific, chosen time and not just any time. Alternate translation: “for that exact time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

471

REV

9

16

h8uf

0

General Information:

Suddenly, a huge number of soldiers on horseback appear in John’s vision. John is no longer speaking about the four angels mentioned in the previous verse.

472

REV

9

16

ays5

translate-numbers

δύο μυριάδες μυριάδων

1

200000000

Some ways to express two myriads are: “two hundred million” or “two hundred thousand thousand” or “twenty thousand times ten thousand.” If your language does not have a specific number for this, you could also see how you translated a similar large number in Revelation 5:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

473

REV

9

17

j5n9

πυρίνους

1

fiery red

See how you translated this in Revelation 6:3. Alternate translation: “red like fire” or “bright red”

474

REV

9

17

pqe8

θειώδεις

1

sulfurous yellow

Alternate translation: “yellow like sulfur” or “bright yellow like sulfur”

475

REV

9

18

x4fr

translate-fraction

τὸ τρίτον τῶν ἀνθρώπων

1

A third of the people

See how you translated “A third” in Revelation 8:7. Alternate translation: “One third of the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

476

REV

9

20

xf3t

figs-activepassive

οἳ οὐκ ἀπεκτάνθησαν ἐν ταῖς πληγαῖς ταύταις

1

those who were not killed by these plagues

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “those whom the plagues had not killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

477

REV

9

20

d3vn

figs-distinguish

ἃ οὔτε βλέπειν δύνανται, οὔτε ἀκούειν, οὔτε περιπατεῖν

1

things that cannot see, hear, or walk

This phrase reminds us that idols are not alive and do not deserve to be worshiped. But the people did not stop worshiping them. Alternate translation: “even though these idols cannot see, hear, or walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

478

REV

10

intro

ys3l

0

Revelation 10 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Seven thunders

John here describes the seven thunders as making sounds that he could understand as words. However, translators should use their normal word for “thunder” when translating these verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

“The mystery of God”

This refers to some aspect of the hidden plan of God. It is not necessary to know what this mystery is to translate it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reveal]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Simile

John uses similes to help him describe the face, legs, and voice of the mighty angel. Translators should understand other objects in this chapter, such as the rainbow and the cloud, with their normal meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

479

REV

10

1

xr6f

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a vision of a mighty angel holding a scroll. In John’s vision he is viewing what is happening from earth. This takes place between the blowing of the sixth and seventh trumpets.

480

REV

10

1

jj2e

figs-metaphor

περιβεβλημένον νεφέλην

1

He was robed in a cloud

John speaks of the angel as if he were wearing a cloud as his clothing. This expression may be understood as metaphor. However, because very unusual things were often seen in visions, it might be understood as a literally true statement in its context. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

481

REV

10

1

qax6

figs-simile

τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ὡς ὁ ἥλιος

1

His face was like the sun

John compares the brightness of his face with the brightness of the sun. Alternate translation: “his face was bright like the sun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

482

REV

10

1

p81x

figs-metonymy

οἱ πόδες αὐτοῦ ὡς στῦλοι πυρός

1

his feet were like pillars of fire

Here, feet refers to the legs. Alternate translation: “his legs were like pillars of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

483

REV

10

3

ubb9

καὶ ἔκραξεν

1

Then he shouted

Alternate translation: “then the angel shouted”

484

REV

10

3

r4j6

ἐλάλησαν αἱ ἑπτὰ βρονταὶ

1

the seven thunders spoke out

The seven thunders are described as if they were people who could speak. Alternate translation: “the seven thunders made a loud noise” or “the thunder sounded very loudly seven times”

485

REV

10

3

qag8

ἑπτὰ βρονταὶ

1

seven thunders

This may refer to thunder occurring seven times, yet being spoken of as if it were seven different thunders.

486

REV

10

4

az1z

figs-synecdoche

καὶ ἤκουσα φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

but I heard a voice from heaven

Here, voice refers to words spoken by someone other than the angel. Alternate translation: “but I heard someone speaking from heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

487

REV

10

5

l5xy

translate-symaction

ἦρεν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ τὴν δεξιὰν εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν

1

raised his right hand to heaven

He raised his right hand to heaven to show that he was swearing by God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

488

REV

10

6

t2f6

ὤμοσεν τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

1

He swore by the one who lives forever and ever

Alternate translation: “and he asked that what he was going to say would be confirmed by the one who lives forever and ever”

489

REV

10

6

gmm8

τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

1

the one who lives forever and ever

Here, the one who lives forever and ever refers to God.

490

REV

10

6

egm1

χρόνος οὐκέτι ἔσται

1

There will be no more delay

Alternate translation: “There will be no more waiting” or “God will not delay”

491

REV

10

7

c5gy

figs-activepassive

ἐτελέσθη τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the mystery of God will be accomplished

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will accomplish his mystery” or “God will complete his secret plan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

492

REV

10

8

t61f

0

Connecting Statement:

John hears the voice from heaven, which he had heard in Revelation 10:4, speak to him again.

493

REV

10

8

v6a9

figs-synecdoche

ἡ φωνὴ ἣν ἤκουσα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

The voice I heard from heaven

Here, voice refers to the speaker. Alternate translation: “the one I heard speak from heaven” or “the one who had spoken to me from heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

494

REV

10

8

tkq7

ἤκουσα

1

I heard

John heard.

495

REV

10

9

x13b

λέγει μοι

1

He said to me

Alternate translation: “the angel said to me”

496

REV

10

9

tg31

πικρανεῖ σου τὴν κοιλίαν

1

make … bitter

This refers to a bad taste from the stomach after eating something that is not good. Alternate translation: “it will make your stomach sour”

497

REV

10

11

ahb4

figs-metonymy

γλώσσαις

1

languages

Here, tongues refers to the people who speak the languages. Alternate translation: “many language communities” or “many groups of people who speak their own languages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

498

REV

11

intro

s117

0

Revelation 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 15 and 17-18.

Woe

John describes several “woes” in the book of Revelation. This chapter describes a second and third “woe” announced at the end of Chapter 8.

Special concepts in this chapter

Gentiles

The word “Gentiles” here refers to ungodly people groups and not Gentile Christians. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]])

Two witnesses

Scholars have suggested many different ideas about these two witnesses. Translators do not need to understand this passage to accurately translate it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

Bottomless pit

This image is seen several times in the Book of Revelation. It is a picture of hell as being inescapable and the opposite direction as heaven. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/hell]])

499

REV

11

1

ba9b

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a vision about receiving a measuring rod and two witnesses that God appointed. This vision also takes place between the blowing of the sixth and seventh trumpets.

500

REV

11

1

lkn6

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη μοι κάλαμος ὅμοιος ῥάβδῳ

1

A reed was given to me

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “sSomeone gave me a reed like a measuring rod” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

501

REV

11

1

tl86

ἐδόθη μοι…λέγων

1

given to me … I was told

Here, me refers to John.

502

REV

11

1

ha6e

τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας ἐν αὐτῷ

1

those who worship in it

Alternate translation: “count those who worship in the temple”

503

REV

11

2

jae6

πατήσουσιν

1

trample

To trample to treat something as worthless by walking on it.

504

REV

11

3

h8vh

figs-explicit

περιβεβλημένοι σάκκους

1

days, clothed in sackcloth

You can make it explicit why they will wear sackcloth. Alternate translation: “wearing rough mourning clothes” or “wearing scratchy clothes to show that they are very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

505

REV

11

4

pa44

writing-symlanguage

οὗτοί εἰσιν αἱ δύο ἐλαῖαι καὶ αἱ δύο λυχνίαι, αἱ ἐνώπιον τοῦ Κυρίου τῆς γῆς ἑστῶτες

1

These witnesses are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that have stood before the Lord of the earth

The two olive trees and the two lampstands symbolize these people, but they are not literally the people. Alternate translation: “The two olive trees and the two lampstands that have stood before the Lord of the earth represent these witnesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

506

REV

11

4

p6mi

figs-explicit

αἱ δύο ἐλαῖαι καὶ αἱ δύο λυχνίαι, αἱ

1

the two olive trees and the two lampstands that

John expects his readers to know about the two olive trees and the two lampstands because many years earlier another prophet had written about them. Alternate translation: “the two olive trees and the two lampstands, told about in scripture, that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

507

REV

11

5

nr2s

πῦρ ἐκπορεύεται ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτῶν, καὶ κατεσθίει τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτῶν

1

fire comes out of their mouth and devours their enemies

Because this is about future events, you can state this in the future tense. Alternate translation: “fire will come out of their mouth and devour their enemies”

508

REV

11

5

ab6b

figs-metaphor

πῦρ…κατεσθίει τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτῶν

1

fire … devours their enemies

Here, fire burning and killing people is spoken of as if it were an animal that could eat them up. Alternate translation: “fire … will destroy their enemies” or “fire … will completely burn up their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

509

REV

11

6

cac1

figs-metaphor

κλεῖσαι τὸν οὐρανόν, ἵνα μὴ ὑετὸς βρέχῃ

1

to close up the sky so that no rain will fall

John speaks of the sky as if it had a door that someone can open to let rain fall or close to stop the rain. Alternate translation: “to keep rain from falling from the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

510

REV

11

6

a7ed

στρέφειν

1

to turn

Alternate translation: “to change”

511

REV

11

6

kth7

figs-metaphor

πατάξαι τὴν γῆν ἐν πάσῃ πληγῇ

1

to strike the earth with every kind of plague

John speaks of the plagues as if they were a stick that someone could hit the earth with. Alternate translation: “to cause all kinds of trouble to occur on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

512

REV

11

7

i679

Ἀβύσσου

1

bottomless pit

The abyss is an extremely deep narrow hole. This could mean: (1) the pit has no bottom; it continues to go down further forever. (2) the pit is so deep that it is as if it had no bottom. See how you translated this in Revelation 9:1.

513

REV

11

8

r45p

τὰ πτώματα αὐτῶν

1

Their bodies

Here, their corpses refers to the bodies of the two witnesses.

514

REV

11

8

p9fu

ἐπὶ τῆς πλατείας τῆς πόλεως τῆς μεγάλης

1

in the street of the great city

The city had more than one street. This was a public place where people could see them. Alternate translation: “in one of the streets of the great city” or “in the main street of the great city”

515

REV

11

8

iea1

ὁ Κύριος αὐτῶν

1

their Lord

They served the Lord, and like him, would die in that city.

516

REV

11

9

h3i2

translate-numbers

ἡμέρας τρεῖς καὶ ἥμισυ

1

three and a half days

Alternate translation: “three full days and one half day” or “3.5 days” or “3-1/2 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

517

REV

11

9

bp61

τὰ πτώματα αὐτῶν οὐκ ἀφίουσιν τεθῆναι εἰς μνῆμα

1

They will not permit them to be placed in a tomb

They will leave their bodies in the street as a sign of disrespect.

518

REV

11

10

dm89

χαίρουσιν ἐπ’ αὐτοῖς, καὶ εὐφραίνονται

1

will rejoice over them and celebrate

Alternate translation: “will rejoice and celebrate that the two witnesses have died”

519

REV

11

10

trs2

translate-symaction

δῶρα πέμψουσιν ἀλλήλοις

1

even send gifts to one another

Sending gifts to one another shows how happy the people were. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

520

REV

11

10

h4pq

ὅτι οὗτοι οἱ δύο προφῆται ἐβασάνισαν τοὺς κατοικοῦντας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς

1

because these two prophets tormented those who lived on the earth

This is the reason that the people will be so happy that the witnesses have died.

521

REV

11

11

x3gn

translate-numbers

τὰς τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ ἥμισυ

1

three and a half days

Alternate translation: “three full days and one half day” or “3.5 days” or “3-1/2 days.” See how you translated this in Revelation 11:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

522

REV

11

11

al5w

figs-metaphor

πνεῦμα ζωῆς ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς αὐτούς

1

a breath of life from God will enter them

The ability to breathe is spoken of as if it were something that can go into people. Alternate translation: “God will cause the two witnesses to breathe again and live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

523

REV

11

11

u265

figs-metaphor

φόβος μέγας ἐπέπεσεν ἐπὶ τοὺς θεωροῦντας αὐτούς

1

Great fear will fall on those who see them

Here, fear is spoken of as if it were a object that can fall on people. Alternate translation: “those who see them will be extremely afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

524

REV

11

12

f8ze

καὶ ἤκουσαν

1

Then they will hear

Here, they heard could mean: (1) the two witnesses will hear. (2) the people will hear what is said to the two witnesses.

525

REV

11

12

mkq9

figs-metonymy

φωνῆς μεγάλης ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

a loud voice from heaven

Here, a loud voice refers to the one who speaks. Alternate translation: “someone speak loudly to them from heaven and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

526

REV

11

12

l1x7

λεγούσης αὐτοῖς

1

say to them

Alternate translation: “saying to the two witnesses”

527

REV

11

13

fa14

οἱ λοιποὶ

1

the survivors

Alternate translation: “those who do not die” or “those who are still living”

528

REV

11

13

f4r2

ἔδωκαν δόξαν τῷ Θεῷ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

give glory to the God of heaven

Alternate translation: “said that the God of heaven is glorious”

529

REV

11

14

l7jp

ἡ οὐαὶ ἡ δευτέρα ἀπῆλθεν

1

The second woe is past

See how you translated “The first woe is past” in Revelation 9:12. Alternate translation: “The second terrible event is over”

530

REV

11

14

j1m5

figs-metaphor

ἡ οὐαὶ ἡ τρίτη ἔρχεται ταχύ

1

The third woe is coming quickly

Existing in the future is spoken of as coming. Alternate translation: “The third woe will happen soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

531

REV

11

15

l1be

0

Connecting Statement:

The last of the seven angels begins to sound his trumpet.

532

REV

11

15

sxx9

translate-ordinal

ὁ ἕβδομος ἄγγελος

1

the seventh angel

This is the last of the seven angels. See how you translated seventh in Revelation 8:1. The word seventh is an ordinal number. Alternate translation: “the final angel” or “angel number seven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

533

REV

11

15

zt2f

ἐγένοντο φωναὶ μεγάλαι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ λέγουσαι

1

loud voices spoke in heaven and said

The phrase loud voices represents speakers who spoke loudly. Alternate translation: “speakers in heaven spoke loudly and said”

534

REV

11

15

jsm2

figs-metonymy

ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κόσμου τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

The kingdom of the world … the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ

Here, kingdom refers to the authority to rule the world. Alternate translation: “The authority to rule the world has become the authority that belongs to our Lord and his Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

535

REV

11

15

en51

figs-metonymy

τοῦ κόσμου

1

the world

Here, the world refers to every person in the world. Alternate translation: “everyone in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

536

REV

11

15

sw4u

ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ κόσμου τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ

Alternate translation: “Our Lord and his Christ are now the rulers of the world”

537

REV

11

16

s2nv

figs-idiom

ἔπεσαν ἐπὶ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν

1

fell upon their faces

Here, fell upon their faces is an idiom that means they lay down facing the ground. See how you translated “prostrated themselves” in Revelation 4:10. Alternate translation: “they bowed down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

538

REV

11

17

dw6v

figs-distinguish

σοι, Κύριε ὁ Θεός ὁ Παντοκράτωρ, ὁ ὢν, καὶ ὁ ἦν

1

you, Lord God Almighty, the one who is and who was

You can state these phrases as sentences. Alternate translation: “you, Lord God, the ruler over all. You are the one who is, and you are the one who was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

539

REV

11

17

fq4b

ὁ ὢν

1

the one who is

Alternate translation: “the one who exists” or “the one who lives”

540

REV

11

17

ea29

ὁ ἦν

1

who was

Alternate translation: “who has always existed” or “who has always lived”

541

REV

11

17

fe2b

figs-explicit

εἴληφας τὴν δύναμίν σου τὴν μεγάλην

1

you have taken your great power

If your readers would misunderstand this phrase, you can state explicitly what God did with his great power. Alternate translation: “you have defeated with your power everyone who has rebelled against you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

542

REV

11

18

qw72

0

General Information:

The words you and your refer to God.

543

REV

11

18

iv5k

figs-metaphor

ἦλθεν ἡ ὀργή σου

1

your wrath has come

Existing in the present is spoken of as having come. Alternate translation: “you are ready to show your anger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

544

REV

11

18

h833

figs-activepassive

τῶν νεκρῶν κριθῆναι

1

for the dead to be judged

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “for God to judge the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

545

REV

11

18

zk1u

figs-nominaladj

τῶν νεκρῶν

1

the dead

If your readers would misunderstand the nominal adjective dead, you can state it as a verb or adjective. Alternate translation: “for those who have died” or “for the dead people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

546

REV

11

18

k3ba

figs-metonymy

τοῖς φοβουμένοις τὸ ὄνομά σου

1

the prophets, those who are believers, and those who feared your name

Here, name is a metonym for the person of Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “to those who fear you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

547

REV

11

19

c7pd

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἠνοίγη ὁ ναὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ ὁ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ

1

Then God’s temple in heaven was opened

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “Then someone opened God’s temple in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

548

REV

11

19

d9z7

figs-activepassive

ὤφθη ἡ κιβωτὸς τῆς διαθήκης τοῦ Κυρίου ἐν τῷ ναῷ αὐτοῦ

1

the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “I saw the ark of his covenant in his temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

549

REV

11

19

b6ly

ἀστραπαὶ

1

flashes of lightning

Use your language’s way of describing what lightning looks like each time it appears. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:5.

550

REV

11

19

ap5g

φωναὶ, καὶ βρονταὶ

1

rumblings, crashes of thunder

Here, loud sounds and crashes of thunder refers to the loud noises that thunder makes. Use your language’s way of describing the sound of thunder. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:5.

551

REV

12

intro

cq7x

0

Revelation 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 10-12.

Special concepts in this chapter

Serpent

The Book of Revelation uses imagery from the Old Testament. For example, John refers to Satan as the serpent. This image comes from the account of the Garden of Eden when Satan tempted Eve. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“A great sign was seen in heaven”

By using the passive voice here, John does not say who saw this great sign in heaven. The translation may be difficult when the subject is unclear, if your language does not have a passive voice. Many English translations use the past tense here and say “A great sign appeared in heaven.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

552

REV

12

1

n4ii

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a woman who appears in his vision.

553

REV

12

1

j9yl

figs-activepassive

γυνὴ περιβεβλημένη τὸν ἥλιον, καὶ ἡ σελήνη ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν αὐτῆς

1

a woman clothed with the sun, and with the moon under her feet

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “a woman who was wearing the sun and had the moon under her feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

554

REV

12

3

y4c1

0

Connecting Statement:

John describes a dragon that appears in his vision.

555

REV

12

3

s1j6

writing-symlanguage

δράκων

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

556

REV

12

4

ii1k

translate-fraction

τὸ τρίτον

1

a third

See how you translated this in Revelation 8:7. Alternate translation: “one third” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

557

REV

12

5

zr5q

figs-metaphor

ποιμαίνειν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ

1

rule all the nations with an iron rod

Here, ruling harshly is spoken of as ruling with an iron rod. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 2:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

558

REV

12

5

kfr1

figs-activepassive

ἡρπάσθη τὸ τέκνον αὐτῆς πρὸς τὸν Θεὸν

1

Her child was snatched away to God

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God quickly took her child to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

559

REV

12

7

wh37

writing-symlanguage

δράκοντος

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified in verse 9 as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

560

REV

12

8

uj6a

οὐδὲ τόπος εὑρέθη αὐτῶν ἔτι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ

1

So there was no longer any place in heaven for him and his angels

Alternate translation: “so the dragon and his angels could no longer stay in heaven”

561

REV

12

9

pk5u

figs-distinguish

ὁ δράκων ὁ μέγας, ὁ ὄφις ὁ ἀρχαῖος, ὁ καλούμενος, Διάβολος, καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς, ὁ πλανῶν τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην; ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν γῆν, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ἐβλήθησαν

1

dragon—that old serpent called the devil or Satan, who deceives the whole world—was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him

You can give the information about the serpent in a separate sentence after the statement that it was thrown down to the earth. Alternate translation: “the great dragon was thrown down to earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. He is the old serpent who deceives the world and is called the devil or Satan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

562

REV

12

9

v1tp

figs-activepassive

ἐβλήθη ὁ δράκων ὁ μέγας, ὁ ὄφις ὁ ἀρχαῖος, ὁ καλούμενος, Διάβολος, καὶ ὁ Σατανᾶς, ὁ πλανῶν τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην; ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν γῆν, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ἐβλήθησαν

1

The great dragon … was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God threw the great dragon—the ancient serpent, who people also call the devil and Satan—and his angels out of heaven and sent them to the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

563

REV

12

10

jb7z

ἤκουσα

1

I heard

The word I refers to John.

564

REV

12

10

i112

figs-metonymy

ἤκουσα φωνὴν μεγάλην ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ

1

I heard a loud voice in heaven

Here, the voice refers to someone who speaks. Alternate translation: “I heard someone saying loudly from heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

565

REV

12

10

nt1j

figs-metaphor

ἄρτι ἐγένετο ἡ σωτηρία, καὶ ἡ δύναμις, καὶ ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν, καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

Now have come the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ

God saving people by his power is spoken of as if his salvation and power were things that have come. God’s ruling and Christ’s authority are also spoken of as if they have come. Alternate translation: “Now God has saved his people by his power, God rules as king, and his Christ has all authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

566

REV

12

10

a5fm

ἐγένετο

1

have come

God is revealing these things because their time to occur has come. It is not that they did not exist before. Alternate translation: “have begun to really exist” or “have appeared” or “have become real”

567

REV

12

10

yg1a

ἐβλήθη ὁ κατήγορος τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἡμῶν

1

the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down

Here, the accuser of our brothers is the dragon that was thrown down in Revelation 12:9.

568

REV

12

10

a9wf

figs-metaphor

τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἡμῶν

1

our brothers

Fellow believers are spoken of as if they were brothers. Alternate translation: “our fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

569

REV

12

10

jn6q

figs-merism

ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός

1

day and night

These two parts of the day are used together to mean “all the time” or “without stopping” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

570

REV

12

11

qmg8

αὐτοὶ ἐνίκησαν αὐτὸν

1

They conquered him

Alternate translation: “they conquered the accuser”

571

REV

12

11

zt7v

figs-metonymy

διὰ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

by the blood of the Lamb

Here, the blood refers to the death of the Lamb. Alternate translation: “because the Lamb had shed his blood and died for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

572

REV

12

11

lht6

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τὸν λόγον τῆς μαρτυρίας αὐτῶν

1

by the word of their testimony

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun testimony, you can express it with the verb “testify” and you can state who they testified. Alternate translation: “by what they said when they testified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

573

REV

12

11

kuj5

figs-explicit

διὰ τὸν λόγον τῆς μαρτυρίας αὐτῶν

1

If your readers would misunderstand this phrase, you can state explicitly what they testified. Alternate translation: “by what they said when they testified to others about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

574

REV

12

11

n6wk

ἄχρι θανάτου

1

even to death

The believers told the truth about Jesus, even though they knew that their enemies might try to kill them because of it. Alternate translation: “but they kept testifying even though they knew that they might die for it”

575

REV

12

13

x7st

figs-activepassive

εἶδεν ὁ δράκων ὅτι ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν γῆν

1

the dragon realized he had been thrown down to the earth

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the dragon realized that God had thrown him out of heaven and sent him to earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

576

REV

12

13

kgv9

writing-symlanguage

ὁ δράκων

1

the dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified in verse 9 as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

577

REV

12

14

sxw1

τοῦ ὄφεως

1

the serpent

Here, the serpent is another way of referring to the dragon.

578

REV

12

15

c73v

ὄφις

1

serpent

Here, the serpent is the same being as the dragon mentioned earlier in Revelation 12:9.

579

REV

12

15

y5ml

figs-simile

ὡς ποταμόν

1

like a river

The water flowed from his mouth like a river flows. Alternate translation: “in large volume” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

580

REV

12

15

a9wh

figs-activepassive

αὐτὴν ποταμοφόρητον ποιήσῃ

1

to sweep her away

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “he might sweep her away with a flood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

581

REV

12

16

i4u5

figs-personification

ἤνοιξεν ἡ γῆ τὸ στόμα αὐτῆς, καὶ κατέπιεν τὸν ποταμὸν, ὃν ἔβαλεν ὁ δράκων ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

1

The earth opened its mouth and swallowed the river that the dragon was pouring out of his mouth

Here, the earth is spoken of as if it were a living thing, and a hole in the earth is spoken of as if it were a mouth that could drink up the water. Alternate translation: “a hole in the ground opened up and the river from the dragon went down into the hole” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

582

REV

12

16

lgt7

writing-symlanguage

δράκων

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified in verse 9 as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

583

REV

12

17

t6jf

figs-abstractnouns

ἐχόντων τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ

1

hold to the testimony about Jesus

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun testimony, you can express it as a verb. Alternate translation: “who continue to testify about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

584

REV

13

intro

c9mw

0

Revelation 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the words of verse 10, which are from the Old Testament.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Similes

John uses many similes in this chapter. They help to describe the images that he sees in his vision. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Unknown animals

John uses different animals to try to describe what he saw. Some of these animals may not be known in the target language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

585

REV

13

1

su49

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a beast who appears in his vision. Here, I refers to John.

586

REV

13

2

k6qh

writing-symlanguage

δράκων

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

587

REV

13

2

xa3a

ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ δράκων τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ

1

The dragon gave his power to it

The dragon made the beast as powerful as he was. He did not lose his power, however, by giving it to the beast.

588

REV

13

2

c4wx

ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ δράκων τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξουσίαν μεγάλην

1

his power … his throne, and his great authority to rule

The words power, throne, and authority are three ways of referring to the dragon’s authority, and together they emphasize that the authority was great.

589

REV

13

2

gyv9

figs-metonymy

τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ

1

his throne

Here, throne refers to the dragon’s authority to rule as king. Alternate translation: “his royal authority” or “his authority to rule as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

590

REV

13

3

yt22

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ ἐθεραπεύθη

1

but its fatal wound was healed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “but its fatal wound healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

591

REV

13

3

ba2z

ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου

1

fatal wound

This is an injury that is serious enough to cause a person to die. Alternate translation: “deadly wound”

592

REV

13

3

jc7x

figs-metonymy

ὅλη ἡ γῆ

1

The whole earth

Here, the whole earth refers to all the people who live anywhere on it. Alternate translation: “all the people on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

593

REV

13

3

xx3h

ὀπίσω τοῦ θηρίου

1

followed the beast

Alternate translation: “obeyed the beast”

594

REV

13

4

t15f

writing-symlanguage

δράκοντι

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

595

REV

13

4

yuu8

ἔδωκεν τὴν ἐξουσίαν τῷ θηρίῳ

1

he had given his authority to the beast

Alternate translation: “he had caused the beast to have as much authority as he had”

596

REV

13

4

ep4n

figs-rquestion

τίς ὅμοιος τῷ θηρίῳ, καὶ τίς δύναται πολεμῆσαι μετ’ αὐτοῦ?

1

Who is like the beast?

This question shows how amazed they were about the beast. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can translate it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one is as powerful as the beast or able to fight against it and win!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

597

REV

13

5

p2n5

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ…ἐδόθη αὐτῷ

1

The beast was given … It was permitted

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God gave the beast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

598

REV

13

5

y29e

figs-metonymy

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ στόμα λαλοῦν

1

The beast was given a mouth that could speak

Being given a mouth refers to being allowed to speak. Alternate translation: “the beast was allowed to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

599

REV

13

6

ru6v

εἰς βλασφημίας πρὸς τὸν Θεόν

1

to speak blasphemies against God

Alternate translation: “to say disrespectful things about God”

600

REV

13

6

k71y

βλασφημῆσαι τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὴν σκηνὴν αὐτοῦ, τοὺς ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ σκηνοῦντας

1

blaspheming his name, the place where he lives, and those who live in heaven

These phrases tell how the beast spoke blasphemies against God.

601

REV

13

7

fyp6

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ ἐξουσία

1

authority was given to it

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God gave authority to the beast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

602

REV

13

7

f5rl

πᾶσαν φυλὴν, καὶ λαὸν, καὶ γλῶσσαν, καὶ ἔθνος

1

every tribe, people, language, and nation

This means that people from every ethnic group are included. See how you translated a similar list in Revelation 5:9.

603

REV

13

8

nr7r

προσκυνήσουσιν αὐτὸν

1

will worship it

Alternate translation: “will worship the beast”

604

REV

13

8

vyy8

figs-activepassive

ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τῆς ζωῆς

1

everyone whose name was not written … in the Book of Life

This phrase clarifies who on the earth will worship the beast. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “everyone whose names the Lamb did not write in the Book of Life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

605

REV

13

8

nj7e

ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

1

since the creation of the world

Alternate translation: “when God created the world”

606

REV

13

8

vac6

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here is it used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

607

REV

13

8

bcu5

figs-activepassive

τοῦ ἐσφαγμένου

1

who had been slaughtered

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “whom the people slaughtered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

608

REV

13

9

tdy8

0

General Information:

These verses are a break from John’s account of his vision. Here he give a warning to the people reading his account.

609

REV

13

9

rr9a

figs-metonymy

εἴ τις ἔχει οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

If anyone has an ear, let him hear

Jesus is emphasizing that what he has just said is important and may take some effort to understand and put into practice. Here, has an ear is a metonym for the willingness to understand and obey. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If anyone is willing to listen, listen” or “If anyone is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

610

REV

13

9

tx89

figs-123person

εἴ τις ἔχει οὖς, ἀκουσάτω

1

If anyone … let him hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 2:7. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, listen” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

611

REV

13

10

r6sx

figs-explicit

εἴ τις εἰς αἰχμαλωσίαν

1

If anyone is to be taken

This expression means that someone has decided who should be taken. If your readers would misunderstand this phrase, you may state explicitly who decided it. Alternate translation: “If God has decided that someone should be taken captive” or “If it is God’s will that someone should be taken into captivity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

612

REV

13

10

ilzz

figs-abstractnouns

εἴ τις εἰς αἰχμαλωσίαν

1

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun captivity, you can express it with the verb “capture.” Alternate translation: “If it is God’s will for a certain person to captured” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

613

REV

13

10

ipw7

figs-activepassive

εἴ τις εἰς αἰχμαλωσίαν

1

If anyone is to be taken into captivity

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “If it is God’s will for the enemy to capture a certain person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

614

REV

13

10

mtu9

figs-activepassive

εἴ τις ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀποκτενεῖ

1

If anyone is to be killed with the sword

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “If it is God’s will for the enemy to kill a certain person with a sword” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

615

REV

13

10

cdi9

figs-metonymy

ἐν μαχαίρῃ

1

with the sword

Here, the sword represents war. Alternate translation: “in war” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

616

REV

13

10

d2rw

figs-activepassive

δεῖ αὐτὸν…ἀποκτανθῆναι

1

he will be killed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the enemy will kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

617

REV

13

10

pk8r

ὧδέ ἐστιν ἡ ὑπομονὴ καὶ ἡ πίστις τῶν ἁγίων

1

Here is a call for the patient endurance and faith of the saints

Alternate translation: “God’s holy people must endure patiently and be faithful”

618

REV

13

11

pg7g

0

Connecting Statement:

John begins to describe another beast who appears in his vision.

619

REV

13

11

e7aw

figs-simile

ἐλάλει ὡς δράκων

1

it spoke like a dragon

Harsh speech is spoken of as if it were the roar of a dragon. Alternate translation: “it spoke harshly like a dragon speaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

620

REV

13

11

k9g8

writing-symlanguage

δράκων

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

621

REV

13

12

a2fp

τὴν γῆν καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ κατοικοῦντας

1

the earth and those who live on it

Alternate translation: “everyone on the earth”

622

REV

13

12

ys3n

figs-activepassive

οὗ ἐθεραπεύθη ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ

1

the one whose lethal wound had been healed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the one who had a lethal wound that healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

623

REV

13

12

jc77

ἡ πληγὴ τοῦ θανάτου

1

lethal wound

This was an injury that was serious enough that it could have made him die. Alternate translation: “deadly wound”

624

REV

13

13

z2ws

ποιεῖ

1

It performed

Alternate translation: “the beast from the earth performed”

625

REV

13

15

dl87

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ

1

It was permitted

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God permitted the beast from the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

626

REV

13

15

cw55

figs-metonymy

δοῦναι πνεῦμα τῇ εἰκόνι τοῦ θηρίου

1

to give breath to the beast’s image

Here, breath represents life. Alternate translation: “to give life to the beast’s image” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

627

REV

13

15

dey8

τῇ εἰκόνι τοῦ θηρίου

1

the beast’s image

This is the image of the first beast that had been mentioned.

628

REV

13

15

ruk5

figs-activepassive

ποιήσῃ ὅσοι ἐὰν μὴ προσκυνήσωσιν τῇ εἰκόνι τοῦ θηρίου ἀποκτανθῶσιν

1

cause all who refused to worship the beast to be killed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “might put to death anyone who refused to worship the first beast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

629

REV

13

16

h9u9

καὶ ποιεῖ πάντας

1

It also forced everyone

Alternate translation: “And the beast from the earth also forced everyone”

630

REV

13

17

t7wm

figs-explicit

μή τις δύνηται ἀγοράσαι ἢ πωλῆσαι, εἰ μὴ ὁ ἔχων τὸ χάραγμα, τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θηρίου

1

It was impossible for anyone to buy or sell unless he had the mark of the name of the beast

The implicit information is that the beast from the earth commanded these things. If your readers would misunderstand this phrase, you can state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “he commanded that people could buy or sell things only if they had the mark of the beast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

631

REV

13

17

j8x4

τὸ χάραγμα, τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θηρίου

1

the mark of the name of the beast

The mark indicated that the person who received it worshiped the beast.

632

REV

13

18

i46m

0

General Information:

This verse is a break from John’s account of his vision. Here he gives another warning to the people reading his account.

633

REV

13

18

uk74

ὧδε ἡ σοφία ἐστίν

1

Here is wisdom

Alternate translation: “Wisdom is needed” or “You need to be wise about this”

634

REV

13

18

z8tz

figs-abstractnouns

ὁ ἔχων νοῦν ψηφισάτω

1

If anyone has understanding

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun insight, you can express it with the verb “understand.” Alternate translation: “If anyone is able to understand things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

635

REV

13

18

ri1y

ψηφισάτω τὸν ἀριθμὸν τοῦ θηρίου

1

let him calculate the number of the beast

Alternate translation: “he should discern what the number of the beast means” or “he should figure out what the number of the beast means”

636

REV

13

18

bbn2

ἀριθμὸς…ἀνθρώπου ἐστίν

1

is the number of a human being

The number could represent: (1) one person. (2) all of humanity.

637

REV

14

intro

q71v

0

Revelation 14 General Notes

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Harvest

Harvest is when people go out to gather ripe food from plants. Jesus used this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about him so those people can be part of God’s kingdom. This chapter uses the metaphor of two harvests. Jesus gathers in his people from the whole earth. Then an angel gathers in wicked people whom God will punish. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

638

REV

14

1

e7u7

0

General Information:

The word I refers to John.

639

REV

14

1

ck6y

0

Connecting Statement:

John begins to describe the next part of his vision. There are 144,000 believers standing before the Lamb.

640

REV

14

1

a3kz

writing-symlanguage

τὸ Ἀρνίον

1

the Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here, the Lamb it used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

641

REV

14

1

uc96

translate-numbers

ἑκατὸν τεσσεράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες

1

144000

See how you translated this in Revelation 7:4. Alternate translation: “one hundred forty-four thousand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

642

REV

14

1

z963

figs-activepassive

ἔχουσαι τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, γεγραμμένον ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν

1

who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “on whose foreheads the Lamb and his Father had written their names” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

643

REV

14

1

rf47

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Πατρὸς αὐτοῦ

1

his Father

Father is an important title for God that describes the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

644

REV

14

2

hwu4

φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

a voice from heaven

Alternate translation: “a sound from heaven”

645

REV

14

3

sz1f

ᾄδουσιν ᾠδὴν καινὴν

1

They sang a new song

This phrase explains what the sound was that John heard in verse 2. Alternate translation: “that sound was a new song that they sang” or “the sound was the 144,000 people singing a new song”

646

REV

14

3

ii11

τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων

1

the four living creatures

See how you translated “living creature” in Revelation 4:6

647

REV

14

3

m75y

τῶν πρεσβυτέρων

1

the elders

Here, the elders refers to the twenty-four elders around the throne. See how you translated “elders” in Revelation 4:4.

648

REV

14

3

q6fc

translate-numbers

ἑκατὸν τεσσεράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες

1

144000

See how you translated this in Revelation 7:4. Alternate translation: “one hundred forty-four thousand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

649

REV

14

4

jet6

μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐκ ἐμολύνθησαν

1

have not defiled themselves with women

This could mean: (1) they have never had immoral sexual relations with a woman. (2) they have never had sexual relations with a woman. Defiling oneself with women may be a symbol of worshiping idols.

650

REV

14

4

a7ir

παρθένοι

1

virgins

This could mean: (1) they did not have sexual relations with a woman who was not their wife. (2) they are virgins.

651

REV

14

4

q3hg

figs-metaphor

οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες τῷ Ἀρνίῳ ὅπου ἂν ὑπάγει

1

the ones who follow the Lamb wherever he goes

Doing what the Lamb does is spoken of as following him. Alternate translation: “they do whatever the Lamb does” or “they obey the Lamb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

652

REV

14

4

mlw3

figs-metaphor

ἠγοράσθησαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπαρχὴ

1

redeemed from among mankind as firstfruits

Here, firstfruits is a metaphor for the first offering to be made to God in celebration of harvest. Alternate translation: “have been purchased out of the midst of the rest of mankind as a special celebration of salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

653

REV

14

5

ga8p

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν οὐχ εὑρέθη ψεῦδος

1

No lie was found in their mouth

Here, their mouth refers to “what they said.” Alternate translation: “they never lied when they spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

654

REV

14

6

n1fr

0

Connecting Statement:

John begins to describe the next part of his vision. This is the first of three angels who proclaim judgment on the earth.

655

REV

14

6

pp1l

πᾶν ἔθνος, καὶ φυλὴν, καὶ γλῶσσαν, καὶ λαόν

1

every nation, tribe, language, and people

This means that people from every ethnic group are included. See how you translated a similar list in Revelation 5:9.

656

REV

14

7

cj5z

figs-metaphor

ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα τῆς κρίσεως αὐτοῦ

1

the hour of his judgment has come

Here, the hour represents the time that has been chosen for something, and the hour having come is a metaphor for now being the chosen time. Alternate translation: “now is the time that God has chosen for judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

657

REV

14

7

reu7

figs-abstractnouns

ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα τῆς κρίσεως αὐτοῦ

1

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun judgment, you can express it with a verb. Alternate translation: “it is now the time for God to judge people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

658

REV

14

8

b18s

figs-metaphor

ἔπεσεν, ἔπεσεν, Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη

1

Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great

The angel speaks of Babylon having been destroyed as if it had fallen. Alternate translation: “Babylon the great has been destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

659

REV

14

8

jh3r

writing-symlanguage

Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη

1

Babylon the great

This was probably a symbol for the city of Rome, which was large, wealthy, and sinful. Alternate translation: “Babylon the large city” or “the important city of Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

660

REV

14

8

kg1i

figs-metonymy

ἣ…πεπότικεν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη

1

who persuaded

Babylon is spoken of as if it were a person, instead of a city filled with people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

661

REV

14

8

ldz2

writing-symlanguage

ἣ ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς, πεπότικεν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη

1

to drink the wine of her immoral passion

Here, to drink from the wine is a symbol for participating in her sexually immoral passion. Alternate translation: “to be sexually immoral like her” or “to get drunk like her in sexual sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

662

REV

14

8

v3zk

figs-personification

τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς

1

her immoral passion

Babylon is spoken of as if it were a prostitute who has caused other people to sin along with her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

663

REV

14

8

bey2

figs-metaphor

τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς

1

Here, immoral passion may well have a double meaning: literal sexual immorality and also the worship of false gods. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

664

REV

14

10

qw28

writing-symlanguage

καὶ αὐτὸς πίεται ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

her will drink some of the wine of God’s wrath

Here, to drink from the wine of the wrath of God is a symbol for being punished by God. Alternate translation: “will also drink some of the wine that represents God’s wrath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

665

REV

14

10

fe83

figs-activepassive

τοῦ κεκερασμένου ἀκράτου

1

that has been poured undiluted

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “that God has poured full strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

666

REV

14

10

bb38

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ κεκερασμένου ἀκράτου

1

that has been poured undiluted

This means that the wine has no water mixed into it. It is strong, and a person who drinks much of it will get very drunk. As a symbol, it means that God will be extremely angry, not just a little angry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

667

REV

14

10

zl4g

writing-symlanguage

τῷ ποτηρίῳ τῆς ὀργῆς αὐτοῦ

1

the cup of his anger

This symbolic cup holds the wine that represents God’s anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

668

REV

14

11

dds6

figs-metonymy

ὁ καπνὸς τοῦ βασανισμοῦ αὐτῶν

1

The smoke from their torment

The phrase their torment refers to the fire that torments them. Alternate translation: “the smoke from the fire that torments them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

669

REV

14

11

z5ea

οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἀνάπαυσιν

1

they have no rest

Alternate translation: “they have no relief” or “the torment does not stop”

670

REV

14

12

me1j

ὧδε ἡ ὑπομονὴ τῶν ἁγίων ἐστίν

1

Here is the patient endurance of the saints

See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 13:10.

671

REV

14

13

x62q

οἱ νεκροὶ οἱ…ἀποθνῄσκοντες

1

the dead who die

Alternate translation: “those who die”

672

REV

14

13

hy1a

οἱ ἐν Κυρίῳ ἀποθνῄσκοντες

1

who die in the Lord

This may refer to believers who are killed by their enemies. Alternate translation: “who are united to the Lord and die” or “who die because they are united to the Lord”

673

REV

14

13

v4xz

figs-personification

τὰ…ἔργα αὐτῶν ἀκολουθεῖ μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

their deeds will follow them

These deeds are spoken of as if they were alive and able to follow those who did them. This could mean: (1) others will know the good deeds these people have done. (2) God will reward them for their deeds. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

674

REV

14

14

ft6v

writing-symlanguage

0

Connecting Statement:

John begins to describe the next part of his vision. This part is about the Son of Man harvesting the earth. Harvesting the grain is a symbol of God’s judging people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

675

REV

14

14

gvw8

figs-simile

ὅμοιον Υἱὸν Ἀνθρώπου

1

one like a son of man

Here, the expression a son of man describes a human figure, someone who looks human. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

676

REV

14

14

l89c

translate-unknown

δρέπανον ὀξύ

1

sickle

A sickle is a tool with a curved blade used for cutting grass, grain, and vines (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

677

REV

14

15

v6dy

ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ ναοῦ

1

came out of the temple

Alternate translation: “came out of the heavenly temple”

678

REV

14

15

v2xf

figs-metaphor

ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα θερίσαι

1

the time to reap has come

Existing in the present is spoken of as having come. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

679

REV

14

16

nt7k

figs-activepassive

ἐθερίσθη ἡ γῆ

1

the earth was harvested

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “he harvested the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

680

REV

14

18

jp7l

ὁ ἔχων ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρός

1

who had authority over the fire

Here, authority over refers to responsibility to tend the fire.

681

REV

14

19

f3mn

τὴν ληνὸν τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν μέγαν

1

the great wine vat of God’s wrath

Alternate translation: “the large wine vat where God will show his wrath”

682

REV

14

20

b1bw

ληνὸς

1

winepress

This is “the great winepress” of Revelation 14:19.

683

REV

14

20

xt4z

ἄχρι τῶν χαλινῶν τῶν ἵππων

1

up to the height of a horse’s bridle

Alternate translation: “as high as the bridle in a horse’s mouth”

684

REV

14

20

m2i9

τῶν χαλινῶν

1

bridle

A bridle is device made of leather straps that goes around a horse’s head and is used for directing the horse.

685

REV

14

20

gdl8

translate-numbers

σταδίων χιλίων ἑξακοσίων

1

1,600 stadia

Alternate translation: “one thousand six hundred stadia” or “sixteen hundred stadia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

686

REV

14

20

dbz1

translate-bdistance

σταδίων χιλίων ἑξακοσίων

1

A “stadium” is 185 meters. The plural form of “stradium” is stadia. In modern measures this would be about “300 kilometers” or “200 miles.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

687

REV

15

intro

zxt7

0

Revelation 15 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In this chapter, John describes events and pictures that occur in heaven.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 3-4.

Special concepts in this chapter

“Victorious over the beast”

These people are spiritually victorious. While most spiritual battles cannot be seen, the Book of Revelation pictures spiritual battles as openly occurring. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

“The temple having the tent of witness, was open in heaven”

Scripture elsewhere indicates the earthly temple copied God’s perfect dwelling place in heaven. Here John seems to refer to God’s heavenly dwelling place or temple. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Songs

The Book of Revelation often describes heaven as a place where people sing. They worship God with songs. This illustrates that heaven is a place where God is always worshiped.

688

REV

15

1

p98c

0

General Information:

This verse is a summary of what will happen in 15:6-16:21.

689

REV

15

1

l345

figs-doublet

μέγα καὶ θαυμαστόν

1

great and marvelous

The words great and marvelous have similar meanings and are used for emphasis. Alternate translation: “something that greatly amazed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

690

REV

15

1

w6lf

ἀγγέλους ἑπτὰ ἔχοντας πληγὰς ἑπτὰ

1

seven angels with seven plagues

Alternate translation: “seven angels who had authority to send seven plagues on the earth”

691

REV

15

1

mw7g

τὰς ἐσχάτας

1

the final plagues

Alternate translation: “and after them, there will not be any more plagues”

692

REV

15

1

ij3d

figs-activepassive

ὅτι ἐν αὐταῖς ἐτελέσθη ὁ θυμὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

for with them the wrath of God will be completed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “for these plagues will complete the wrath of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

693

REV

15

1

gdt5

ὅτι ἐν αὐταῖς ἐτελέσθη ὁ θυμὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

for with them the wrath of God will be completed

This could mean: (1) these plagues will show all of God’s anger. (2) after these plagues, God will no longer be angry.

694

REV

15

2

ytq6

0

General Information:

Here John begins to describe his vision of the people who had been victorious over the beast and who are praising God.

695

REV

15

2

n9yj

figs-metaphor

θάλασσαν ὑαλίνην

1

sea of glass

You can state explicitly how it was like glass or a sea. This could mean: (1) a sea is spoken of as if it were glass. Alternate translation: “a sea that was as smooth as glass” (2) glass if spoken of as if it were a sea. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:6. Alternate translation: “glass that was spread out like a sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

696

REV

15

2

pt8v

figs-explicit

τοὺς νικῶντας ἐκ τοῦ θηρίου, καὶ ἐκ τῆς εἰκόνος αὐτοῦ

1

Those who had been victorious over the beast and over his image

You can state explicitly how they were victorious. Alternate translation: “who had been victorious over the beast and his image by not worshiping them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

697

REV

15

2

dbz9

figs-explicit

ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ

1

over the number representing his name

You can state explicitly how they were victorious over the number. Alternate translation: “over the number representing his name by not being marked with that number” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

698

REV

15

2

lra7

τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ

1

the number representing his name

This refers to the number described in Revelation 13:18.

699

REV

15

3

l5hu

ᾄδουσιν

1

They were singing

Alternate translation: “those who had been victorious over the beast were singing”

700

REV

15

4

hh87

figs-rquestion

τίς οὐ μὴ φοβηθῇ, Κύριε, καὶ δοξάσει τὸ ὄνομά σου, ὅτι μόνος ὅσιος?

1

Who will not fear you, Lord, and glorify your name that alone is holy?

This question is used to show their amazement at how great and glorious the Lord is. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “Lord, everyone will fear you and glorify your name because you are holy!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

701

REV

15

4

j9gj

figs-metonymy

δοξάσει τὸ ὄνομά σου

1

glorify your name

The phrase your name refers to God. Alternate translation: “glorify you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

702

REV

15

4

ei9k

figs-activepassive

τὰ δικαιώματά σου ἐφανερώθησαν

1

your righteous deeds have been revealed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “you have made everyone know about your righteous deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

703

REV

15

5

v4ye

0

Connecting Statement:

The seven angels with the seven plagues come out of the most holy place. They were spoken of previously in Revelation 15:1.

704

REV

15

5

da6n

μετὰ ταῦτα

1

After these things

Alternate translation: “after the people finished singing”

705

REV

15

6

f9gq

οἱ ἑπτὰ ἄγγελοι οἱ ἔχοντες τὰς ἑπτὰ πληγὰς

1

the seven angels holding the seven plagues

These seven angels were seen as holding seven plagues because in Revelation 17:7 they are given seven bowls full of the wrath of God.

706

REV

15

6

nei2

λίθον

1

linen

Linen is a fine, expensive cloth made from flax.

707

REV

15

6

w9kw

ζώνας χρυσᾶς

1

sashes

A sash is a decorative piece of cloth worn on the upper body.

708

REV

15

7

s4dj

τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων

1

the four living creatures

See how you translated living creatures in Revelation 4:6

709

REV

15

7

z1wz

writing-symlanguage

ἑπτὰ φιάλας χρυσᾶς, γεμούσας τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God

The word wrath here refers to punishment. Alternate translation: “seven gold bowls full of something that represents the wrath of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

710

REV

15

8

s67r

figs-activepassive

ἄχρι τελεσθῶσιν αἱ ἑπτὰ πληγαὶ τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀγγέλων

1

until the seven plagues of the seven angels were completed

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “until the seven angels finished sending the seven plagues to the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

711

REV

16

intro

v1cm

0

Revelation 16 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter continues the vision of chapter 15. Together they give the seven plagues that complete the wrath of God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wrath]])

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 5-7.

Special concepts in this chapter

“I heard a loud voice call out of the temple”

This is the same temple that was mentioned in chapter 15.

Seven bowls of God’s wrath

This chapter reveals severe judgments. They are pictured as angels pouring out seven bowls of God’s wrath. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

The tone of this chapter is meant to astonish the reader. Translations should not minimize the vivid language expressed in this chapter.

Armageddon

This is a Hebrew word. It is the name of a place. John used the sounds of the Hebrew word and wrote them with Greek letters. Translators are encouraged to transliterate it using the letters of the target language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

712

REV

16

1

nj83

0

Connecting Statement:

John continues to describe the part of the vision about the seven angels with the seven plagues. The seven plagues are the seven bowls of God’s wrath.

713

REV

16

1

t995

ἤκουσα

1

I heard

Here, I refers to John.

714

REV

16

1

k2nq

writing-symlanguage

φιάλας τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

bowls of God’s wrath

See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 15:7. Alternate translation: “bowls full of something that represents God’s wrath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

715

REV

16

2

n7mw

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

716

REV

16

2

e66u

ἕλκος κακὸν καὶ πονηρὸν

1

painful sores

These could be infections from diseases or injuries that have not healed.

717

REV

16

2

nux1

τὸ χάραγμα τοῦ θηρίου

1

the mark of the beast

The mark of the beast was an identifying mark that indicated that the person who received it worshiped the beast. See how you translated this in Revelation 13:17.

718

REV

16

3

nc6a

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. See how you translated this in Revelation 16:2. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

719

REV

16

3

sx66

figs-synecdoche

τὴν θάλασσαν

1

the sea

Here, the sea refers to all the salt water lakes and oceans. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

720

REV

16

4

p4ae

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. See how you translated this in Revelation 16:2. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

721

REV

16

4

xu1y

figs-synecdoche

τοὺς ποταμοὺς καὶ τὰς πηγὰς τῶν ὑδάτων

1

the rivers and the springs of water

This refers to all bodies of fresh water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

722

REV

16

5

f35a

τοῦ ἀγγέλου τῶν ὑδάτων

1

the angel of the waters

This could refers to: (1) the third angel who was in charge of pouring out God’s wrath on the rivers and springs of water. (2) another angel who was in charge of all the waters.

723

REV

16

5

e45u

figs-you

δίκαιος εἶ

1

You are righteous

Here, You refers to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

724

REV

16

5

itg7

ὁ ὢν, καὶ ὁ ἦν

1

the one who is and who was

See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 1:4. Alternate translation: “God who is and who was”

725

REV

16

6

b6wa

figs-metonymy

αἷμα ἁγίων καὶ προφητῶν ἐξέχεαν

1

they poured out the blood of the saints and prophets

Here, poured out the blood means they killed them. Alternate translation: “they murdered God’s holy people and the prophets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

726

REV

16

6

jy6a

καὶ αἷμα αὐτοῖς ἔδωκας πιεῖν

1

you have given them blood to drink

God will make the evil people drink the waters that he turned to blood.

727

REV

16

7

p4c5

figs-metonymy

ἤκουσα τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου λέγοντος

1

I heard the altar reply

Here, altar here refers perhaps to someone at the altar. “I heard someone at the altar reply” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

728

REV

16

8

nne6

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. See how you translated this in Revelation 16:2. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

729

REV

16

8

l6n2

figs-personification

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ καυματίσαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους

1

it was given permission to scorch the people

John speaks about the sun as if it were a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

730

REV

16

8

jf31

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῷ καυματίσαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “and caused the sun to severely burn the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

731

REV

16

9

i2du

figs-activepassive

ἐκαυματίσθησαν οἱ ἄνθρωποι καῦμα μέγα

1

the people were scorched by the terrible heat

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the extreme heat burned them badly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

732

REV

16

9

pr4e

figs-metonymy

ἐβλασφήμησαν τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

they blasphemed the name of God

Here, the name of God represents God. Alternate translation: “they blasphemed God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

733

REV

16

9

aza1

figs-distinguish

τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ, τοῦ ἔχοντος τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τὰς πληγὰς ταύτας

1

God, who has the power over these plagues

This phrase reminds readers of something they already know about God. It helps to explain why the people were blaspheming God. Alternate translation: “God because he has the power over these plagues” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

734

REV

16

9

rd4f

figs-metaphor

τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τὰς πληγὰς ταύτας

1

the power over these plagues

This refers to the power to inflict these plague on people, and the power to stop the plagues. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

735

REV

16

10

f1pm

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. See how you translated this in Revelation 16:2. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

736

REV

16

10

a2ud

figs-metonymy

τὸν θρόνον τοῦ θηρίου

1

the throne of the beast

The throne of the beast is where the beast reigns from. It may refer to the capital city of his kingdom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

737

REV

16

10

hit6

figs-activepassive

ἐγένετο ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ ἐσκοτωμένη

1

darkness covered its kingdom

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the contents of the bowl made the kingdom of the beast dark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

738

REV

16

10

pb1u

ἐμασῶντο

1

They chewed

Here, they refers to the people in the beast’s kingdom.

739

REV

16

11

kna6

ἐβλασφήμησαν

1

They blasphemed

Here, they refers to the people in the beast’s kingdom.

740

REV

16

12

kv5y

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. See how you translated this in Revelation 16:2. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

741

REV

16

12

amf1

figs-activepassive

τὸν Εὐφράτην, καὶ ἐξηράνθη τὸ ὕδωρ αὐτοῦ

1

the Euphrates. Its water was dried up

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. You can also make it into two sentences. Alternate translation: “the Euphrates, and caused its water to dry up” or “the Euphrates. Its water dried up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

742

REV

16

13

bb6d

ὡς βάτραχοι

1

looked like frogs

A frog is a small animal that lives near water. Jews considered them unclean animals.

743

REV

16

13

ai28

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ δράκοντος

1

dragon

A dragon is a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. The dragon is also identified in verse 9 as “the devil or Satan.” See how you translated this in Revelation 12:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

744

REV

16

15

u3v8

0

General Information:

Verse 15 is a break from the main story line of John’s vision. These are words spoken by Jesus. The story line continues in verse 16.

745

REV

16

15

l16g

figs-explicit

(ἰδοὺ, ἔρχομαι ὡς κλέπτης; μακάριος ὁ γρηγορῶν καὶ τηρῶν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ, ἵνα μὴ γυμνὸς περιπατῇ, καὶ βλέπωσιν τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην αὐτοῦ.)

1

Look! I am coming … his shameful condition

This is in parentheses to show that it is not part of the story line in the vision. Rather, this is something that the Lord Jesus said. You can state explicitly that the Lord Jesus said this, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

746

REV

16

15

lgi6

figs-simile

ἔρχομαι ὡς κλέπτης

1

I am coming as a thief

Jesus will come at a time when people do not expect him, just as a thief comes when not expected. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 3:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

747

REV

16

15

an84

figs-metaphor

τηρῶν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ

1

keeping his garments on

Living the right way is spoken of as keeping one’s clothes on. Alternate translation: “doing what is right, like keeping his clothes on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

748

REV

16

15

cia7

τηρῶν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ

1

keeping his garments on

Some versions translate this phrase as, “keeps his garments with him.”

749

REV

16

15

qwa2

βλέπωσιν τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην αὐτοῦ

1

they might see his shameful condition

Here the word they refers to other people.

750

REV

16

16

m2v7

συνήγαγεν αὐτοὺς

1

They brought them together

Alternate translation: “the spirits of the demons brought the kings and their armies together”

751

REV

16

16

cdx1

figs-activepassive

τὸν τόπον τὸν καλούμενον

1

the place that is called

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the place that people call” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

752

REV

16

16

x6ff

translate-names

Ἁρμαγεδών

1

Armageddon

Armageddon is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

753

REV

16

17

ny8p

0

Connecting Statement:

The seventh angel pours out the seventh bowl of God’s wrath.

754

REV

16

17

nhs7

figs-metonymy

ἐξέχεεν τὴν φιάλην αὐτοῦ

1

poured out his bowl

The word bowl refers to what is in it. See how you translated this in Revelation 16:2. Alternate translation: “poured out God’s wrath from his bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

755

REV

16

17

a15p

figs-metonymy

καὶ ἐξῆλθεν φωνὴ μεγάλη ἐκ τοῦ ναοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου

1

Then a loud voice came out of the temple and from the throne

This means someone sitting on the throne or someone standing near the throne spoke loudly. It is unclear who is speaking. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

756

REV

16

18

x586

ἀστραπαὶ

1

flashes of lightning

Use your language’s way of describing what lightning looks like each time it appears. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:5.

757

REV

16

18

c9fa

φωναὶ, καὶ βρονταί

1

rumbles, crashes of thunder

These sounds and crashes are the loud noises that thunder makes. Use your language’s way of describing the sound of thunder. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:5.

758

REV

16

19

q8lg

figs-activepassive

ἐγένετο ἡ πόλις ἡ μεγάλη εἰς

1

The great city was split

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the earthquake split the great city into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

759

REV

16

19

r2vh

figs-activepassive

Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη ἐμνήσθη ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Then God called to mind

This does not mean that God remembered something he had forgotten. Alternate translation: “then God remembered Babylon the Great” or “then God thought of Babylon the Great” or “then God started to pay attention to Babylon the Great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

760

REV

16

19

g6s8

writing-symlanguage

δοῦναι αὐτῇ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ οἴνου τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς ὀργῆς αὐτοῦ

1

he gave that city the cup filled with the wine made from his furious wrath

Here, the wine is a symbol of his wrath. Making people drink it is a symbol of punishing them. Alternate translation: “he made the people of that city drink the wine that represents his wrath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

761

REV

16

20

byn4

figs-metonymy

ὄρη οὐχ εὑρέθησαν

1

the mountains were no longer found

The inability to see any mountains is metonymy expressing the idea that no mountains existed any longer. Alternate translation: “there were no longer any mountains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

762

REV

16

21

i43r

translate-bweight

ταλαντιαία

1

a talent

You may convert the talent to a modern measure. Alternate translation: “33 kilograms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

763

REV

17

intro

ysn1

0

Revelation 17 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins to describe how God will destroy Babylon.

Special concepts in this chapter

Prostitute

Scripture often pictures idolatrous Jews as adulterous people and sometimes as prostitutes. This is not the reference here. The translator should allow this illustration to be vague. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Seven hills

This possibly refers to the city of Rome, which was known as the city on seven hills. However, the translator should not attempt to identify Rome in the translation.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

John uses many different metaphors in this chapter. He explains some of their meanings, but allows them to remain relatively unclear. The translator should attempt to do the same. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“The beast you saw existed, does not exist now, but is about to come up”

This and similar phrases in this chapter contrast the beast with Jesus. Jesus is called “the one who is, and who was, and who is to come” elsewhere in the Book of Revelation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Paradox

A paradox is a true statement that appears to describe something impossible. This sentence in 17:11 is a paradox: “the beast … is itself also an eighth king; but it is one of those seven kings.” The translator should not attempt to resolve this paradox. It should remain a mystery. (Revelation 17:11)

764

REV

17

1

ppd7

0

General Information:

John begins to describe the part of his vision about the great prostitute.

765

REV

17

1

c6f4

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ κρίμα τῆς πόρνης τῆς μεγάλης

1

the condemnation of the great prostitute

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun “judgment”, you can express it with a verb. Alternate translation: “how God will judge the great prostitute” or “how God will condemn the great prostitute”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

766

REV

17

1

f7ry

writing-symlanguage

τῆς πόρνης τῆς μεγάλης

1

the great prostitute

Here, the great prostitute represents a certain sinful city. Alternate translation: “the prostitute that everyone knows about” or “a certain sinful city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

767

REV

17

1

crs4

figs-explicit

ἐπὶ ὑδάτων πολλῶν

1

on many waters

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could use a more specific word for the kind of water. Alternate translation: “on many rivers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

768

REV

17

2

paa4

writing-symlanguage

ἐμεθύσθησαν οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν γῆν ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς

1

It is with the wine of her sexual immorality that the earth’s inhabitants became drunk

Here to be drunk from the wine of her sexual immorality represents fully giving themselves over to doing sexually immoral acts. Alternate translation: “the people of the earth fully engaged in every kind of sexual immorality” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

769

REV

17

2

f1yb

figs-distinguish

τοῦ οἴνου τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς

1

Here, the wine represents sexual immorality. Alternate translation: “her wine, that is, they were sexually immoral” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

770

REV

17

2

ayw3

figs-metaphor

τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς

1

her sexual immorality

This may well have a double meaning: sexual immorality among people and also the worship of false gods. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

771

REV

17

3

hf43

writing-background

ἀπήνεγκέν με εἰς ἔρημον ἐν Πνεύματι

1

carried me away in the Spirit to a wilderness

The setting changes from John being in heaven to being in a wilderness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

772

REV

17

4

rw19

translate-unknown

μαργαρίταις

1

pearls

A pearl is a beautiful and valuable white bead that is formed inside the shell of a certain kind of small animal that lives in the ocean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

773

REV

17

5

az5b

figs-activepassive

ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῆς ὄνομα γεγραμμένον

1

On her forehead was written a name

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “someone had written on her forehead a name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

774

REV

17

5

l75t

figs-explicit

Βαβυλὼν ἡ Μεγάλη

1

Babylon the great

If it needs to be made explicit that the name refers to the woman, it can be put in a new sentence. Alternate translation: “I am Babylon, the powerful one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

775

REV

17

6

iq7b

0

General Information:

The angel begins to explain to John the meaning of the prostitute and the red beast. The angel explains these things through verse 18.

776

REV

17

6

iwz1

μεθύουσαν ἐκ τοῦ αἵματος…καὶ ἐκ τοῦ αἵματος

1

was drunk with the blood … and with the blood

Alternate translation: “was drunk because she had drunk the blood … and had drunk the blood”

777

REV

17

6

yqi7

τῶν μαρτύρων Ἰησοῦ

1

the martyrs for Jesus

Alternate translation: “of the believers who have died because they told others about Jesus”

778

REV

17

6

ydi9

ἐθαύμασα

1

I marveled

Alternate translation: “I was amazed” or “I was surprised”

779

REV

17

7

j412

figs-rquestion

διὰ τί ἐθαύμασας?

1

Why are you astonished?

The angel used this question to gently scold John. If your readers would misunderstand thuis question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not be astonished!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

780

REV

17

8

upm7

τῆς Ἀβύσσου

1

the bottomless pit

The abyss is an extremely deep narrow hole. This could mean: (1) the pit has no bottom; it continues to go down further forever. (2) the pit is so deep that it is as if it had no bottom. See how you translated this in Revelation 9:1.

781

REV

17

8

usl4

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγει

1

Then it will go on to destruction

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun destruction, you can express it with a verb. Alternate translation: “and then he will be destroyed” or “and God will destroy him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

782

REV

17

8

glf1

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγει

1

it will go on to destruction

The certainty of what will happen in the future is spoken of as if the beast were going to it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

783

REV

17

8

r6h4

figs-activepassive

ὧν οὐ γέγραπται τὰ ὀνόματα

1

those whose names have not been written

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “those whose names God did not write” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

784

REV

17

9

p6lr

figs-abstractnouns

ὧδε ὁ νοῦς ὁ ἔχων σοφίαν

1

Here is the mind that has wisdom

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract nouns mind and wisdom, you can express them with “think” and “wise” or “wisely.” Alternate translation: “You need to think wisely in order to understand this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

785

REV

17

9

xcyo

figs-explicit

ὧδε ὁ νοῦς ὁ ἔχων σοφίαν

1

You can state explicitly why a wise mind is needed. Alternate translation: “A wise mind is needed in order to understand this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

786

REV

17

9

nr42

αἱ ἑπτὰ κεφαλαὶ ἑπτὰ ὄρη εἰσίν

1

The seven heads are seven hills

Here, are means “stand for” or “represent.”

787

REV

17

10

yk93

figs-metaphor

οἱ πέντε ἔπεσαν

1

Five kings have fallen

The angel speaks of dying as falling. Alternate translation: “five kings have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

788

REV

17

10

d2wx

ὁ εἷς ἔστιν

1

one is

Alternate translation: “one is king now” or “one king is alive now”

789

REV

17

10

kw95

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἄλλος οὔπω ἦλθεν

1

the other has not yet come; when he comes

Not having existed yet is spoken of as not yet having come. Alternate translation: “the other has not yet become king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

790

REV

17

10

v8vx

figs-metaphor

ὅταν ἔλθῃ, ὀλίγον αὐτὸν δεῖ μεῖναι

1

he can remain only for a little while

The angel speaks of someone continuing to be king as if he were remaining in a place. Alternate translation: “he can be king only for a little while” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

791

REV

17

11

b1ct

ἐκ τῶν ἑπτά ἐστιν

1

is one of those seven kings

This could mean: (1) the beast rules twice: first as one of the seven kings, and then as the eighth king. (2) the beast belongs to that group of seven kings because he is like them.

792

REV

17

11

w7sk

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἀπώλειαν ὑπάγει

1

it is going to destruction

The certainty of what will happen in the future is spoken of as if the beast were going to it. Alternate translation: “it will certainly be destroyed” or “God will surely destroy it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

793

REV

17

12

gq2m

0

Connecting Statement:

The angel explains the meaning of the ten horns of the beast.

794

REV

17

12

n2rd

translate-unknown

μίαν ὥραν

1

for one hour

If your language does not divide the day into 24 hours, you may need to use a more general expression. Alternate translation: “for a very short time” or “for a very small part of a day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

795

REV

17

13

w7jb

οὗτοι μίαν γνώμην ἔχουσιν

1

These are of one mind

Alternate translation: “These all think the same thing” or “These all agree to do the same thing”

796

REV

17

14

wt9k

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here, Lamb is used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

797

REV

17

14

abb5

figs-activepassive

κλητοὶ, καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ, καὶ πιστοί

1

the called ones, the chosen ones, and the faithful ones

This refers to one group of people. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state the words called and chosen in active form. Alternate translation: “the called, chosen, and faithful ones” or “the ones whom God has called and chosen, who are faithful to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

798

REV

17

15

f5x6

figs-metaphor

τὰ ὕδατα ἃ εἶδες, οὗ ἡ πόρνη κάθηται, λαοὶ καὶ ὄχλοι εἰσὶν, καὶ ἔθνη καὶ γλῶσσαι

1

The waters you saw, where the prostitute is seated, are peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages

Here, are stands for “represent.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

799

REV

17

15

kq1e

figs-explicit

τὰ ὕδατα

1

The waters

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could use a more specific word for the kind of water. See how you translated “many waters” in Revelation 17:1. Alternate translation: “The rivers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

800

REV

17

15

zsh5

ὄχλοι

1

multitudes

large groups of people

801

REV

17

15

ua3s

figs-metonymy

γλῶσσαι

1

languages

Here, tongues refers to people who speak the languages. See how you translated this in Revelation 10:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

802

REV

17

16

j157

ἠρημωμένην ποιήσουσιν αὐτὴν καὶ γυμνήν

1

make her desolate and naked

Alternate translation: “they will steal everything that she has and leave her with nothing”

803

REV

17

16

f9as

figs-metaphor

τὰς σάρκας αὐτῆς φάγονται

1

they will devour her flesh

Destroying her completely is spoken of as eating all her flesh. Alternate translation: “they will destroy her completely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

804

REV

17

17

y8cn

ὁ γὰρ Θεὸς ἔδωκεν εἰς τὰς καρδίας αὐτῶν ποιῆσαι τὴν γνώμην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ποιῆσαι μίαν γνώμην, καὶ δοῦναι τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτῶν τῷ θηρίῳ, ἄχρι τελεσθήσονται οἱ λόγοι τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

For God has put it into their hearts to carry out his purpose by agreeing to give … until God’s words are fulfilled

They would agree to give their power to the beast, but it would not be that they want to obey God. Alternate translation: “For God has put it into their hearts to agree to give their kingdom to the beast until God’s words are fulfilled, and by doing this, they would carry out God’s purpose”

805

REV

17

17

sb1d

figs-metonymy

ὁ γὰρ Θεὸς ἔδωκεν εἰς τὰς καρδίας αὐτῶν ποιῆσαι

1

God has put it into their hearts

Here, heart is a metonym for desires. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

806

REV

17

17

j0ts

figs-metaphor

ὁ γὰρ Θεὸς ἔδωκεν εἰς τὰς καρδίας αὐτῶν ποιῆσαι

1

Making them want to do something is spoken of as putting it into their hearts to do it. Alternate translation: “God has made them want to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

807

REV

17

17

ku6m

τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτῶν

1

their kingdom

Alternate translation: “their authority” or “their kingly authority”

808

REV

17

17

el9y

figs-activepassive

ἄχρι τελεσθήσονται οἱ λόγοι τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

until God’s words are fulfilled

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “until God fulfills what he said will happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

809

REV

17

18

w2lu

0

Connecting Statement:

The angel finishes speaking to John about the prostitute and the beast.

810

REV

17

18

md61

figs-metaphor

ἔστιν

1

is

Here, is stands for “represents.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

811

REV

17

18

uy1m

figs-metonymy

ἡ πόλις ἡ μεγάλη, ἡ ἔχουσα βασιλείαν

1

the great city that rules

When it says that the city rules, it means that the leader of the city rules. Alternate translation: “the great city whose leader rules” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

812

REV

18

intro

j5qc

0

Revelation 18 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 1-8.

Special concepts in this chapter

Prophecy

The angel prophesies about Babylon falling, which here means being destroyed. It is spoken of as having already happened. This is common in prophecy. It emphasizes that the coming judgment will certainly happen. The angel also prophesies that the people will lament over Babylon falling. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-apocalypticwriting]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Prophecy frequently uses metaphors. This chapter has a slightly different apocalyptic style than the Book of Revelation overall. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

813

REV

18

1

xxe5

0

Connecting Statement:

Another angel comes down from heaven and speaks. This is a different angel than the one in the previous chapter, who spoke about the prostitute and the beast.

814

REV

18

2

a2f5

figs-metaphor

ἔπεσεν, Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη

1

Fallen is Babylon the great

The angel speaks of Babylon having been destroyed as if it had fallen. See how you translated this in Revelation 14:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

815

REV

18

2

fl3m

figs-personification

Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη

1

The angel speaks of the city of Babylon as if it were a prostitute. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

816

REV

18

3

l5jq

figs-metonymy

πάντα τὰ ἔθνη

1

all the nations

Here, the nations is a metonym for the people of those nations. Alternate translation: “the people of all the nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

817

REV

18

3

kpp1

writing-symlanguage

ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς, πέπτωκαν

1

have drunk the wine of her immoral passion

Here, drinking from the wine of her immoral passion is a symbol for participating in her sexually immoral passion. Alternate translation: “have become sexually immoral like her” or “have become drunk like her in sexual sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

818

REV

18

3

j1at

figs-metaphor

τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς

1

This may well have a double meaning: literal sexual immorality and also the worship of false gods. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

819

REV

18

3

kp3p

figs-personification

μετ’ αὐτῆς ἐπόρνευσαν

1

her immoral passion

Babylon is spoken of as if it were a prostitute who has caused other people to sin along with her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

820

REV

18

3

ejc5

ἔμποροι

1

merchants

A merchant is a person who sells things.

821

REV

18

3

ql37

ἐκ τῆς δυνάμεως τοῦ στρήνους αὐτῆς

1

from the power of her sensual way of living

Alternate translation: “because she spent so much money on sexual immorality”

822

REV

18

4

nz77

figs-metonymy

ἄλλην φωνὴν

1

another voice

Here, voice refers to the speaker, which is probably either Jesus or the Father. Alternate translation: “someone else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

823

REV

18

5

e32w

figs-metaphor

ἐκολλήθησαν αὐτῆς αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἄχρι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

her sins have piled up as high as heaven

The voice speaks of Babylon’s sins as if they were objects that could form a pile. Alternate translation: “her sins are so many they are like a pile that reaches heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

824

REV

18

5

u2yu

ἐμνημόνευσεν

1

has remembered

This does not mean that God remembered something he had forgotten. See how you translated “called to mind” in Revelation 16:19. Alternate translation: “has thought of” or “has started to pay attention to”

825

REV

18

6

ec42

figs-metaphor

ἀπόδοτε αὐτῇ ὡς καὶ αὐτὴ ἀπέδωκεν

1

Pay her back as she has paid others back

The voice speaks of punishment as if it were repayment. Alternate translation: “Punish her as she has punished others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

826

REV

18

6

pa62

figs-metaphor

διπλώσατε τὰ διπλᾶ

1

repay her double

The voice speaks of punishment as if it were repayment. Alternate translation: “punish her twice as much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

827

REV

18

6

xba5

figs-metaphor

ἐν τῷ ποτηρίῳ ᾧ ἐκέρασεν, κεράσατε αὐτῇ διπλοῦν

1

in the cup she mixed, mix double the amount for her

The voice speaks of causing others to suffer as preparing strong wine for them to drink. Alternate translation: “prepare for her the wine of suffering that is twice as strong as what she made for others” or “make her suffer twice as much as she made others suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

828

REV

18

6

l3n5

κεράσατε…διπλοῦν

1

mix double the amount

Here, mix double could mean: (1) they should prepare twice the amount. (2) they should make it twice as strong.

829

REV

18

7

we2t

ἐδόξασεν αὑτὴν

1

she glorified herself

Alternate translation: “the people of Babylon glorified themselves”

830

REV

18

7

yt32

figs-metonymy

ὅτι ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς λέγει

1

For she says in her heart

Here, heart is a metonym for a person’s mind or thoughts. Alternate translation: “For she says to herself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

831

REV

18

7

m3mg

figs-simile

κάθημαι βασίλισσα

1

I am seated as a queen

She claims to be a ruler, having her own authority. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

832

REV

18

7

dy5k

figs-metaphor

χήρα οὐκ εἰμί

1

I am not a widow

She implies that she will not be dependent on other people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

833

REV

18

7

eh5r

figs-metaphor

πένθος οὐ μὴ ἴδω

1

I will never see mourning

Experiencing mourning is spoken of as seeing mourning. Alternate translation: “I will never mourn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

834

REV

18

8

u6r9

figs-metaphor

ἥξουσιν αἱ πληγαὶ αὐτῆς

1

her plagues will come

Existing in the future is spoken of as coming. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

835

REV

18

8

vkk2

figs-metaphor

ἐν πυρὶ κατακαυθήσεται

1

She will be consumed by fire

Being burned up by fire is spoken of as being eaten up by fire. Alternate translation: “she will be completely burned up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

836

REV

18

8

tjd9

figs-activepassive

ἐν πυρὶ κατακαυθήσεται

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “fire will completely burn her up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

837

REV

18

9

lj14

0

General Information:

In these verses the word her refers to the city of Babylon.

838

REV

18

9

wk13

μετ’ αὐτῆς πορνεύσαντες καὶ στρηνιάσαντες

1

committed sexual immorality and went out of control with her

Alternate translation: “sinned sexually and did whatever they wanted just as the people of Babylon did”

839

REV

18

10

j3ln

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τὸν φόβον τοῦ βασανισμοῦ αὐτῆς

1

because of the fear of her torment

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun torment, you can express it with a verb. Alternate translation: “because they were afraid that they would be tormented like Babylon” or “because they were afraid that God would torment them as he torments Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

840

REV

18

10

qn81

οὐαὶ, οὐαί

1

Woe, woe

The word Woe is repeated for emphasis.

841

REV

18

10

hkd8

figs-metaphor

ἦλθεν ἡ κρίσις σου

1

your judgement has come

Existing in the present is spoken of as having come. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

842

REV

18

11

fe7u

πενθοῦσιν ἐπ’ αὐτήν

1

mourn for her

Alternate translation: “mourn for the people of Babylon”

843

REV

18

12

krs3

λίθου τιμίου, καὶ μαργαριτῶν

1

precious stone, pearls

See how you translated these in Revelation 17:4. Alternate translation: “many kinds of expensive stones”

844

REV

18

12

hnk1

βυσσίνου

1

fine linen

The fine linen is an expensive cloth made from flax. See how you translated “linen” in Revelation 15:6.

845

REV

18

12

xm9u

translate-unknown

πορφύρας, καὶ σιρικοῦ, καὶ κοκκίνου

1

purple, silk, scarlet

Purple cloth is a very dark red cloth that was very expensive at that time. Silk is a soft, strong cloth made from the fine string that silkworms make when they make their cocoons. Scarlet cloth was an expensive red cloth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

846

REV

18

12

hir4

πᾶν σκεῦος ἐλεφάντινον

1

every vessel of ivory

Alternate translation: “all kinds of containers made of ivory”

847

REV

18

12

yri7

translate-unknown

σκεῦος ἐλεφάντινον

1

ivory

Ivory is a beautiful hard, white material that people get from the tusks or teeth of very large animals such as elephants or walruses. Alternate translation: “container made from tusks” or “container made from valuable animal teeth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

848

REV

18

12

b8xc

translate-unknown

μαρμάρου

1

marble

Marble is a precious stone that is used for building and to make statues, furniture, and many other things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

849

REV

18

13

gz3v

κιννάμωμον

1

cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice that smells nice and comes from the bark of a certain kind of tree.

850

REV

18

13

z894

ἄμωμον

1

spice

Spice is a substance used to add flavor to food or a good smell to oil.

851

REV

18

14

x3kl

figs-metaphor

ἡ ὀπώρα

1

The fruit

The autumn fruit refers to fruit that ripens in the fall. Here, it is a metaphor for “result” or “outcome.” Alternate translation: “result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

852

REV

18

14

a1aa

τῆς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ψυχῆς

1

the desire of your soul

Alternate translation: “what you wanted very much”

853

REV

18

14

p7f7

figs-metaphor

ἀπώλετο ἀπὸ σοῦ, καὶ οὐκέτι οὐ μὴ αὐτὰ εὑρήσουσιν

1

vanished, never to be found again

Not to be found stands for not existing. Alternate translation: “has vanished, and they will never exist again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

854

REV

18

14

z9rv

figs-activepassive

ἀπώλετο ἀπὸ σοῦ, καὶ οὐκέτι οὐ μὴ αὐτὰ εὑρήσουσιν

1

If your readers would misunderstand this figure of speech, you can state it in active form. Alternate translation: “has vanished; you will never have them again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

855

REV

18

15

s4iq

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τὸν φόβον τοῦ βασανισμοῦ αὐτῆς

1

because of the fear of her torment

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract nouns fear and torment, you can express them as verbs. Alternate translation: “because they will be afraid of God tormenting them they way he torments her” or “because they will be afraid of suffering the way she is suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

856

REV

18

15

ii7v

κλαίοντες καὶ πενθοῦντες

1

weeping and mourning loudly

The merchants are the ones who will be weeping and mourning loudly. Alternate translation: “and the merchants will weep and mourn loudly”

857

REV

18

16

i7ip

figs-metaphor

ἡ πόλις ἡ μεγάλη, ἡ περιβεβλημένη βύσσινον

1

the great city that was dressed in fine linen

Throughout this chapter, Babylon is spoken of as if it were a woman. Alternate translation: “the great city, which was like a woman dressed in fine linen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

858

REV

18

16

qlo3

figs-metonymy

ἡ πόλις ἡ μεγάλη, ἡ περιβεβλημένη βύσσινον

1

The merchants speak of Babylon as being dressed in fine linen because its people were dressed in fine linen. Alternate translation: “the great city, whose women were dressed in fine linen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

859

REV

18

16

nji6

figs-activepassive

ἡ περιβεβλημένη βύσσινον

1

that was dressed in fine linen

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “that wore fine linen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

860

REV

18

16

v6q3

figs-activepassive

κεχρυσωμένη ἐν χρυσίῳ

1

was adorned with gold

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “adorned herself with gold” or “adorned themselves with gold” or “wore gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

861

REV

18

16

i5uy

λίθῳ τιμίῳ

1

precious jewels

Alternate translation: “valuable gems” or “treasured gems”

862

REV

18

16

rtm9

translate-unknown

μαργαρίτῃ

1

pearls

Pearls are beautiful and valuable white beads that are formed inside the shell of a certain kind of small animal that lives in the ocean. See how you translated this in Revelation 17:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

863

REV

18

17

ap3v

figs-metonymy

τὴν θάλασσαν ἐργάζονται

1

whose living is made from the sea

The phrase work the sea refers to what they do on the sea. Alternate translation: “who travel on the sea to make their living” or “who sail on the sea to different places in order to trade things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

864

REV

18

18

v7qe

figs-rquestion

τίς ὁμοία τῇ πόλει τῇ μεγάλῃ?

1

What city is like the great city?

This question shows the people the importance of the city of Babylon. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could translate it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No other city is like the great city, Babylon!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

865

REV

18

20

ld6c

figs-abstractnouns

ἔκρινεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸ κρίμα ὑμῶν ἐξ αὐτῆς

1

God has brought your judgment on her

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun judgment, you can express it with the verb “judge.” Alternate translation: “God has judged her for you” or “God has judged her because of the bad things she did to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

866

REV

18

21

b94u

0

Connecting Statement:

Another angel begins to speak about Babylon. This is a different angel than the ones who have spoken previously.

867

REV

18

21

el4e

μύλινον μέγαν

1

millstone

A millstone large round stone used to crush grain.

868

REV

18

21

dlp4

figs-metaphor

ὁρμήματι βληθήσεται Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη πόλις, καὶ οὐ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἔτι

1

Babylon, the great city, will be thrown down with violence and will not be seen anymore

To be thrown down and not be seen anymore speaks of complete destruction of the city. Alternate translation: “Babylon will be completely destroyed and will no longer exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

869

REV

18

21

kwsy

figs-activepassive

ὁρμήματι βληθήσεται Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη πόλις, καὶ οὐ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἔτι

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will violently throw down Babylon, the great city, and it will no longer exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

870

REV

18

21

kre6

figs-metonymy

οὐ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἔτι

1

will not be seen anymore

Not being seen here means that it will not exist. Alternate translation: “it will not exist anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

871

REV

18

22

j6aq

figs-activepassive

φωνὴ κιθαρῳδῶν, καὶ μουσικῶν, καὶ αὐλητῶν, καὶ σαλπιστῶν, οὐ μὴ ἀκουσθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι

1

The sound made by harpists, musicians, flute players, and trumpeters will not be heard anymore in you

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “no one in your city will ever again hear the sound that harpists, musicians, flute players, and trumpeters make” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

872

REV

18

22

da3h

figs-apostrophe

ἐν σοὶ

1

in you

The angel speaks as if Babylon were there listening to him. Alternate translation: “in Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

873

REV

18

22

c88l

figs-metonymy

οὐ μὴ ἀκουσθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι

1

will not be heard anymore in you

Not being heard here means that they will not be there. Alternate translation: “they will not be in your city anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

874

REV

18

22

cu19

figs-metonymy

πᾶς τεχνίτης οὐ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἐν σοὶ

1

No craftsman … will be found in you

Not being found there means that they will not be there. Alternate translation: “no craftsman of any kind will be in your city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

875

REV

18

22

c7p2

figs-metonymy

φωνὴ μύλου οὐ μὴ ἀκουσθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι

1

No sound of a mill will be heard anymore in you

The sound of something not being heard means that no one will make that sound. Alternate translation: “no one will use a mill in your city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

876

REV

18

23

d3yq

0

Connecting Statement:

The angel who threw the millstone finishes talking.

877

REV

18

23

d67i

figs-activepassive

φωνὴ νυμφίου καὶ νύμφης οὐ μὴ ἀκουσθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι

1

The voices of the bridegroom and the bride will not be heard in you anymore

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “no one will ever again hear in Babylon the happy voices of a bridegroom and a bride” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

878

REV

18

23

ja6m

figs-metonymy

οὐ μὴ ἀκουσθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι

1

will not be heard in you anymore

Not being heard here means that they will not be there. Alternate translation: “will not be in your city anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

879

REV

18

23

q8qm

figs-metaphor

οἱ ἔμποροί σου ἦσαν οἱ μεγιστᾶνες τῆς γῆς

1

your merchants were the princes of the earth

The angel speaks of important and powerful people as if they were princes. Alternate translation: “your merchants were like princes of the earth” or “your merchants were the most important men in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

880

REV

18

23

j3iy

figs-activepassive

ἐν τῇ φαρμακείᾳ σου ἐπλανήθησαν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη

1

all the nations were deceived by your sorcery

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “you deceived the people of the nations with your magic spells” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

881

REV

18

24

s8bp

figs-metonymy

ἐν αὐτῇ αἷμα προφητῶν καὶ ἁγίων εὑρέθη, καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐσφαγμένων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς

1

In her the blood of prophets and saints was found, and the blood of all who have been killed on the earth

Here, blood being found means that the people of the city were guilty of killing people. Alternate translation: “in her is the guilt for the death of the prophets and saints, along with all the other people in the world who were killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

882

REV

18

24

btz5

figs-activepassive

ἐν αὐτῇ αἷμα προφητῶν καὶ ἁγίων εὑρέθη, καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐσφαγμένων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “Babylon is guilty of killing the prophets and believers and all the other people in the world who were killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

883

REV

19

intro

h785

0

Revelation 19 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The beginning of chapter 19 concludes the topic of Babylon falling.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 1-8.

Special concepts in this chapter

Songs

The Book of Revelation often describes heaven as a place where people sing. They worship God with songs. This illustrates that heaven is a place where God is always worshiped. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

Wedding celebration

The wedding celebration or feast is an important image in Scripture. Jewish culture often pictured paradise, or life with God after death, as a feast. Here, the wedding feast is for the Lamb, who is Jesus, and his bride, who is all his people.

884

REV

19

1

qu5h

0

General Information:

This is the next part of John’s vision. Here he describes the rejoicing in heaven over the fall of the great prostitute, who is the city of Babylon.

885

REV

19

1

lr94

ἤκουσα

1

I heard

Here, I refers to John.

886

REV

19

1

nk8x

ἁλληλουϊά

1

Hallelujah

The word Hallelujah means “Praise God” or “Let us praise God.”

887

REV

19

2

u1rp

figs-metaphor

τὴν πόρνην τὴν μεγάλην

1

the great prostitute

Here John refers to the city of Babylon whose wicked people rule over all the people of the earth and lead them to worship false gods. He speaks of the wicked people of Babylon as if they were a great prostitute. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

888

REV

19

2

ky99

figs-metonymy

ἥτις ἔφθειρεν τὴν γῆν

1

who corrupted the earth

Here, the earth is a metonym for its inhabitants. Alternate translation: “who corrupted the people of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

889

REV

19

2

d9j7

figs-metonymy

τὸ αἷμα τῶν δούλων αὐτοῦ

1

the blood of his servants

Here, the blood is a metonym that represents murder. Alternate translation: “the murder of his servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

890

REV

19

2

cj3t

figs-rpronouns

ἐκ χειρὸς αὐτῆς

1

from her hand

Here, he refers to Babylon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

891

REV

19

3

jm9m

εἴρηκαν

1

They spoke

Here, they refers to the crowd of people in heaven.

892

REV

19

3

h1k4

ἁλληλουϊά

1

Hallelujah

The word Hallelujah means “Praise God” or “Let us praise God.” See how you translated this in Revelation 19:1.

893

REV

19

3

zy6e

καπνὸς αὐτῆς ἀναβαίνει

1

smoke rises from her

The word her refers to the city of Babylon, which is spoken of as if it were a prostitute. The smoke is from the fire that destroys the city. Alternate translation: “smoke rises from that city”

894

REV

19

4

r43f

translate-numbers

οἱ πρεσβύτεροι οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες

1

The twenty-four elders

See how you translated this in Revelation 4:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

895

REV

19

4

y4qd

τὰ τέσσερα ζῷα

1

the four living creatures

See how you translated this in Revelation 4:6 Alternate translation: “the four living beings” or “the four living things”

896

REV

19

4

dns7

figs-activepassive

τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ

1

who was seated on the throne

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “who sat on the throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

897

REV

19

5

w9qe

figs-personification

φωνὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ θρόνου ἐξῆλθεν

1

a voice came out from the throne

Here John speaks of a voice as if it were a person. Alternate translation: “someone spoke from the throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

898

REV

19

5

c3lm

figs-exclusive

αἰνεῖτε τῷ Θεῷ ἡμῶν

1

Praise our God

Here, our refers to the speaker and all God’s servants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

899

REV

19

5

cck3

figs-explicit

οἱ φοβούμενοι αὐτόν

1

those who fear him

Here, fear does not mean to be afraid of God, but to honor him. Alternate translation: “all you who honor him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

900

REV

19

5

qdb3

figs-merism

οἱ μικροὶ καὶ οἱ μεγάλοι

1

both the small and the great

The speaker uses the words small and great together to include all of God’s people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

901

REV

19

6

kq7n

figs-simile

καὶ ἤκουσα ὡς φωνὴν ὄχλου πολλοῦ, καὶ ὡς φωνὴν ὑδάτων πολλῶν, καὶ ὡς φωνὴν βροντῶν ἰσχυρῶν

1

Then I heard what sounded like the voice of a great number of people, like the roar of many waters, and like loud crashes of thunder

John speaks of what he is hearing as if it were like the sound made by a very large crowd of people, a large body of rushing water, and very loud thunder. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

902

REV

19

6

mdj6

ἁλληλουϊά

1

Hallelujah

The word Hallelujah means “Praise God” or “Let us praise God.” See how you translated this in Revelation 19:1.

903

REV

19

6

e3ua

ὅτι…Κύριος

1

For the Lord

Alternate translation: “Because the Lord”

904

REV

19

7

hi52

0

Connecting Statement:

The voice of the crowd from the previous verse continues speaking.

905

REV

19

7

api6

χαίρωμεν

1

Let us rejoice

Here, us refers to all of God’s servants.

906

REV

19

7

m5av

δῶμεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτῷ

1

give him the glory

Alternate translation: “give God the glory” or “honor God”

907

REV

19

7

bwf9

figs-metaphor

ὁ γάμος τοῦ Ἀρνίου…ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ ἡτοίμασεν ἑαυτήν

1

wedding celebration of the Lamb … his bride has made herself ready

Here John speaks of the joining of Jesus and his people together forever as if it were a wedding celebration and his people were his bride. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

908

REV

19

7

r5xt

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here, the Lamb used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

909

REV

19

7

j6d7

figs-metaphor

ἦλθεν

1

has come

Existing in the present is spoken of as having come. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

910

REV

19

7

q9e4

figs-metaphor

ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ ἡτοίμασεν ἑαυτήν

1

his bride has made herself ready

John speaks of God’s people as if they were a bride who has gotten herself ready for her wedding. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

911

REV

19

8

pz72

figs-metaphor

ἐδόθη αὐτῇ ἵνα περιβάληται βύσσινον λαμπρὸν καθαρόν

1

She was permitted to be dressed in bright and clean fine linen

Here, her and she refer to the people of God. John speaks of the righteous acts of God’s people as if they were a bright and clean dress that a bride wears on her wedding day. Alternate translation: “and it was permitted to them to wear a dress of bright and clean fine linen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

912

REV

19

8

oz7x

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη αὐτῇ ἵνα περιβάληται βύσσινον λαμπρὸν καθαρόν

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God allowed her to wear a dress of bright and clean fine linen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

913

REV

19

9

ayc4

0

General Information:

An angel begins to speak to John. This is likely the same angel who began to speak to John in Revelation 17:1.

914

REV

19

9

l72p

figs-activepassive

οἱ…κεκλημένοι

1

those who are invited

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the people whom God invites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

915

REV

19

9

q4ya

figs-metaphor

τὸ δεῖπνον τοῦ γάμου τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the wedding feast of the Lamb

Here the angel speaks of the joining of Jesus and his people forever as if it were a wedding supper. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

916

REV

19

10

uq6h

ἔπεσα ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ

1

I fell down at his feet

This means that John purposely lay on the ground and stretched himself out in reverence or submission. This action was an important part of worship, to show respect and willingness to serve. See note in Revelation 19:3.

917

REV

19

10

i2yq

τῶν ἀδελφῶν σου

1

your brothers

Here the word brothers here refers to all believers, male and female.

918

REV

19

10

up6l

figs-metaphor

τῶν ἐχόντων τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ

1

who hold the testimony about Jesus

Here holding stands for believing in or announcing. Alternate translation: “who speak the truth about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

919

REV

19

10

rku2

figs-explicit

ἡ γὰρ μαρτυρία Ἰησοῦ ἐστιν τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς προφητείας

1

for the testimony about Jesus is the spirit of prophecy

Here, the spirit of prophecy refers to God’s Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “for it is the Spirit of God who gives people the power to speak the truth about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

920

REV

19

11

xx12

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of a new vision. John begins to describe a rider on a white horse.

921

REV

19

11

m1qn

καὶ εἶδον τὸν οὐρανὸν ἠνεῳγμένον

1

Then I saw heaven open

This imagery is used to signify the beginning of a new vision. See how you translated this idea in Revelation 4:1 and Revelation 11:19 and Revelation 15:5.

922

REV

19

11

hcs8

ὁ καθήμενος ἐπ’ αὐτὸν

1

The one riding it

The rider is Jesus.

923

REV

19

11

lp9a

figs-explicit

ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ κρίνει καὶ πολεμεῖ

1

It is with justice that he judges and wages war

Here, righteousness refers to what is right. Alternate translation: “he judges all people and wages war according to what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

924

REV

19

12

p9ak

figs-simile

οἱ…ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ φλὸξ πυρός

1

His eyes are like a fiery flame

John speaks of the rider’s eyes as if they shone like a flame of fire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

925

REV

19

12

yhr7

figs-activepassive

ἔχων ὄνομα γεγραμμένον

1

He has a name written

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “and someone has written a name on him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

926

REV

19

12

kk9x

figs-rpronouns

ὃ οὐδεὶς οἶδεν, εἰ μὴ αὐτός

1

that no one knows but himself

Here, except himself means that he is the only one. Alternate translation: “on him, and only he knows the meaning of that name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

927

REV

19

13

vny3

figs-activepassive

περιβεβλημένος ἱμάτιον βεβαμμένον αἵματι

1

He wears a robe that was dipped in blood

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “and blood had covered his robe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

928

REV

19

13

hdk1

figs-metonymy

κέκληται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

his name is called the Word of God

Here, Word of God is a metonym for Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “his name is called the Message of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

929

REV

19

13

p7ts

figs-activepassive

κέκληται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “his name is also the Word of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

930

REV

19

15

m9yn

ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ ἐκπορεύεται ῥομφαία ὀξεῖα

1

Out of his mouth goes a sharp sword

The sword blade was sticking out of his mouth. The sword itself was not in motion. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 1:16.

931

REV

19

15

a88t

πατάξῃ τὰ ἔθνη

1

he might strike the nations

Alternate translation: “he could destroy the nations” or “he could bring the nations under his control”

932

REV

19

15

uq4z

figs-metaphor

ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ

1

shepherd them with an iron rod

John speaks of the rider’s power as if he were ruling with an iron rod. See how you translated this in Revelation 12:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

933

REV

19

15

nb4y

figs-metaphor

αὐτὸς πατεῖ τὴν ληνὸν τοῦ οἴνου τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς ὀργῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ Παντοκράτορος

1

He tramples in the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty

John speaks of the rider’s destroying his enemies as if they were grapes that a person tramples in a winepress. Alternate translation: “he crushes his enemies according to the wrath of God Almighty, just as a person crushes grapes in a winepress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

934

REV

19

15

vhk8

figs-explicit

αὐτὸς πατεῖ τὴν ληνὸν τοῦ οἴνου τοῦ θυμοῦ τῆς ὀργῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ Παντοκράτορος

1

Here, wrath refers to God’s punishment of evil persons. Alternate translation: “he crushes his enemies according to the judgment of God Almighty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

935

REV

19

16

a61a

figs-activepassive

ἔχει ἐπὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν μηρὸν αὐτοῦ, ὄνομα γεγραμμένον

1

He has a name written on his robe and on his thigh:

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “someone has written a name on his robe and thigh:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

936

REV

19

17

m6dt

figs-metonymy

εἶδον ἕνα ἄγγελον ἑστῶτα ἐν τῷ ἡλίῳ

1

I saw an angel standing in the sun

Here, the sun is a metonym for the light of the sun. Alternate translation: “Then I saw an angel standing in the light of the sun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

937

REV

19

18

khs9

figs-merism

ἐλευθέρων τε καὶ δούλων, καὶ μικρῶν καὶ μεγάλων

1

both free and slaves, and small and great

The angel uses these two sets of opposite-meaning words together to refer to all people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

938

REV

19

20

q83v

figs-activepassive

ἐπιάσθη τὸ θηρίον, καὶ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὁ ψευδοπροφήτης

1

The beast was captured and with him the false prophet

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the rider on the white horse captured the beast and the false prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

939

REV

19

20

gs37

τὸ χάραγμα τοῦ θηρίου

1

the mark of the beast

The mark of the beast was an identifying mark that indicated that the person who received it worshiped the beast. See how you translated this in Revelation 13:17.

940

REV

19

20

ht8g

figs-activepassive

ζῶντες ἐβλήθησαν οἱ δύο

1

The two of them were thrown alive

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God threw the beast and the false prophet alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

941

REV

19

20

blr1

τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρὸς, τῆς καιομένης ἐν θείῳ

1

the fiery lake of burning sulfur

Alternate translation: “place full of fire that burns with sulfur”

942

REV

19

21

h6ea

figs-activepassive

οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπεκτάνθησαν ἐν τῇ ῥομφαίᾳ τοῦ καθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ ἵππου, τῇ ἐξελθούσῃ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

1

The rest of them were killed by the sword that came out of the mouth of the one who rode on the horse

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the rider of the horse killed the remainder of the beast’s armies with the sword that extended from his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

943

REV

19

21

qk9t

τῇ ῥομφαίᾳ…τῇ ἐξελθούσῃ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

1

the sword that came out of the mouth

The sword blade was sticking out of his mouth. The sword itself was not in motion. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 1:16.

944

REV

20

intro

c7eh

0

Revelation 20 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The thousand-year reign of Christ

In this chapter, Jesus is said to reign for a thousand years, at the same time that Satan is bound. Scholars are divided over whether this refers to a future period of time or to Jesus reigning now from heaven. It is not necessary to understand this passage in order to translate it accurately. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

Final rebellion

This chapter also describes what happens after the thousand years are ended. During this time, Satan and many people will attempt to rebel against Jesus. This will result in God’s ultimate and final victory over sin and evil. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]])

Great white throne

This chapter ends with God judging all people who ever lived. God separates people who believe in Jesus from those who do not believe in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Book of Life

This is a metaphor for eternal life. Those possessing eternal life are said to have their names written in this Book of Life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Hades and the lake of fire

These appear to be two distinct places. The translator may wish to do further research to determine how to translate these two places differently. They should not be made the same as each other in translation. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/hell]])

945

REV

20

1

rkv7

0

General Information:

John begins to describe a vision of an angel throwing the devil into the bottomless pit.

946

REV

20

1

n8b8

καὶ εἶδον

1

Then I saw

Here, I refers to John.

947

REV

20

1

c18c

τῆς Ἀβύσσου

1

bottomless pit

The abyss is an extremely deep narrow hole. This could mean: (1) the pit has no bottom; it continues to go down further forever. (2) the pit is so deep that it is as if it had no bottom. See how you translated this in Revelation 9:1.

948

REV

20

2

r6es

writing-symlanguage

τὸν δράκοντα

1

dragon

The dragon was a large, fierce reptile, like a lizard. For Jewish people, it was a symbol of evil and chaos. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

949

REV

20

3

xj22

figs-explicit

ἐσφράγισεν ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ

1

sealed it over him

The angel sealed the abyss to keep anyone from opening it. Alternate translation: “sealed it to prevent anyone from opening it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

950

REV

20

3

el4f

figs-metonymy

μὴ πλανήσῃ…τὰ ἔθνη

1

deceive the nations

Here, nations is a metonym for the people of the earth. Alternate translation: “he would not deceive the people-groups” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

951

REV

20

3

y9xd

figs-activepassive

δεῖ αὐτὸν λυθῆναι

1

he must be set free

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will command the angel to free him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

952

REV

20

4

lw2r

0

General Information:

This is the next part of John’s vision. He describes suddenly seeing thrones and the souls of believers.

953

REV

20

4

qzt1

figs-activepassive

κρίμα ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς

1

judgment was given to them

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God had given authority to them to judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

954

REV

20

4

u3u8

figs-activepassive

τῶν πεπελεκισμένων

1

those who had been beheaded

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “whose heads others had cut off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

955

REV

20

4

tut2

διὰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ, καὶ διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

for the testimony about Jesus and for the word of God

Alternate translation: “because they had spoken the truth about Jesus and about the word of God”

956

REV

20

4

xz5l

figs-metonymy

διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

for the word of God

Here, the word of God is a metonym for the message from God. Alternate translation: “for what they taught about the scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

957

REV

20

4

cc1v

ἔζησαν

1

They came to life

Alternate translation: “they came back to life” or “they became alive again”

958

REV

20

5

cw4j

οἱ λοιποὶ τῶν νεκρῶν

1

The rest of the dead

Alternate translation: “All of the other dead people”

959

REV

20

5

e1pm

translate-numbers

τελεσθῇ τὰ χίλια ἔτη

1

the thousand years were ended

Alternate translation: “the end of the thousand years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

960

REV

20

6

f3gz

figs-personification

ἐπὶ τούτων ὁ δεύτερος θάνατος οὐκ ἔχει ἐξουσίαν

1

Over these the second death has no power

Here John describes the second death as a person with power. Alternate translation: “These people will not experience the second death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

961

REV

20

6

v4z3

writing-symlanguage

ὁ δεύτερος θάνατος

1

the second death

The second death is described as eternal punishment in the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14 and Revelation 21:8. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:11. Alternate translation: “the final death in the lake of fire” or “dying a second time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

962

REV

20

7

y1vw

figs-activepassive

λυθήσεται ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐκ τῆς φυλακῆς αὐτοῦ

1

Satan will be released from his prison

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will release Satan from his prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

963

REV

20

8

g429

figs-simile

ὧν ὁ ἀριθμὸς αὐτῶν ὡς ἡ ἄμμος τῆς θαλάσσης

1

The number of them will be like the sand of the sea

The comparison to the sand of the sea emphasizes the extremely large number of soldiers in Satan’s army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

964

REV

20

9

jlc6

ἀνέβησαν

1

They went up

Alternate translation: “Satan’s army went up”

965

REV

20

9

f4t7

τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἠγαπημένην

1

the beloved city

Here, the beloved city refers to Jerusalem.

966

REV

20

9

jhq8

figs-personification

κατέβη πῦρ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτούς

1

fire came down from heaven and devoured them

Here John speaks of fire as if it were alive. Alternate translation: “God sent fire from heaven to burn them up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

967

REV

20

10

pif3

figs-activepassive

ὁ διάβολος, ὁ πλανῶν αὐτοὺς, ἐβλήθη εἰς

1

The devil, who deceived them, was thrown into

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God threw the devil, who had deceived them, into” or “God’s angel threw the devil, who had deceived them, into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

968

REV

20

10

rjv1

τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ θείου

1

the lake of fire and sulfur

See how you translated this in Revelation 19:20. Alternate translation: “the lake of fire that burns with sulfur” or “place full of fire that burns with sulfur”

969

REV

20

10

t5h2

figs-activepassive

βασανισθήσονται

1

They will be tormented

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will torment them” or “the fire will torment them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

970

REV

20

11

n8h9

0

General Information:

This is the next part of John’s vision. He describes suddenly seeing a great white throne and the dead being judged.

971

REV

20

11

pm1z

figs-personification

οὗ ἀπὸ τοῦ προσώπου ἔφυγεν ἡ γῆ καὶ ὁ οὐρανός

1

The earth and the heaven fled away from his presence, but there was no place for them to go

John describes the earth and the heaven as if they were people who were trying to escape God’s judgment. This means that God completely destroyed the old heaven and earth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

972

REV

20

11

slhm

figs-metaphor

ἔφυγεν ἡ γῆ καὶ ὁ οὐρανός, καὶ τόπος οὐχ εὑρέθη αὐτοῖς

1

Here, not having a place means that God completely destroyed the old heaven and earth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

973

REV

20

12

gap2

figs-activepassive

βιβλία ἠνοίχθησαν

1

the books were opened

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “someone opened the books” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

974

REV

20

12

lt7k

figs-activepassive

ἐκρίθησαν οἱ νεκροὶ

1

The dead were judged

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God judged the people who had died and now lived again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

975

REV

20

12

vvc4

figs-activepassive

ἐκ τῶν γεγραμμένων

1

from the things that were written

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “by what he had recorded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

976

REV

20

13

ea2h

figs-personification

ἔδωκεν ἡ θάλασσα τοὺς νεκροὺς…ὁ θάνατος καὶ ὁ ᾍδης ἔδωκαν τοὺς νεκροὺς

1

The sea gave up the dead … Death and Hades gave up the dead

Here John speaks of the sea, Death, and Hades as if they were living persons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

977

REV

20

13

bg4u

figs-activepassive

ἐκρίθησαν ἕκαστος

1

were judged

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God judged each of the dead people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

978

REV

20

13

pk3k

figs-metonymy

ὁ ᾍδης

1

Hades

Here, Hades is a metonym that represents the place where unbelievers go when they die, to wait for God’s judgment. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

979

REV

20

14

lw6b

figs-activepassive

ὁ θάνατος καὶ ὁ ᾍδης ἐβλήθησαν

1

Death and Hades were thrown

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God threw Death and Hades” or “God’s angel threw Death and Hades” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

980

REV

20

14

qv55

writing-symlanguage

ὁ θάνατος ὁ δεύτερός

1

the second death

The second death is described as eternal punishment in the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14 and Revelation 21:8. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:11. Alternate translation: “the final death in the lake of fire” or “dying a second time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

981

REV

20

15

c9pb

figs-activepassive

εἴ τις οὐχ εὑρέθη…γεγραμμένος

1

If anyone’s name was not found written

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “if God’s angel did not find a person’s name written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

982

REV

20

15

wq31

figs-activepassive

ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός

1

he was thrown into the lake of fire

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the angel threw him into the lake of fire” or “the angel threw him into the place where fire burns forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

983

REV

21

intro

pai8

0

Revelation 21 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter gives a detailed picture of the new Jerusalem.

Special concepts in this chapter

Second death

Death is a type of separation. The first death is physically dying, when the soul is separated from the body. The second death is being eternally separated from God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/death]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/soul]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Book of Life

This is a metaphor for eternal life. Those possessing eternal life are said to have their names written in this Book of Life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

New heaven and new earth

It is unclear whether this is an entirely new heaven and earth or if it is remade out of the present heaven and earth. The same is also true of the new Jerusalem. It is possible this will affect translation in some languages. The word “new” in the original language means different and better than the old. It does not mean new in time.

984

REV

21

1

tj16

0

General Information:

John begins to describe his vision of the new Jerusalem.

985

REV

21

1

vks1

εἶδον

1

I saw

Here, I refers to John.

986

REV

21

2

er4u

figs-simile

ὡς νύμφην, κεκοσμημένην τῷ ἀνδρὶ αὐτῆς

1

like a bride adorned for her husband

John compares the new Jerusalem to a bride who has made herself beautiful for her bridegroom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

987

REV

21

3

i8za

figs-metonymy

φωνῆς μεγάλης ἐκ τοῦ θρόνου λεγούσης

1

a great voice from the throne saying

The great voice refers to the one who speaks. Alternate translation: “someone speak loudly from the throne saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

988

REV

21

3

gk3m

ἰδοὺ

1

Look!

The word Behold here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

989

REV

21

3

hpt1

figs-parallelism

ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ σκηνώσει μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

The dwelling place of God is with human beings, and he will live with them

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize that God will, indeed, live among men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

990

REV

21

4

w39g

figs-metonymy

ἐξαλείψει πᾶν δάκρυον ἐκ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν

1

He will wipe away every tear from their eyes

Here, tears represent sadness. See how you translated this in Revelation 7:17. Alternate translation: “God will wipe away their sadness, like wiping away tears” or “God will cause them to not be sad anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

991

REV

21

5

rq2q

figs-metonymy

οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι πιστοὶ καὶ ἀληθινοί εἰσιν

1

these words are trustworthy and true

Here, these words refers to the message that they formed. Alternate translation: “this message is trustworthy and true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

992

REV

21

6

dq8n

figs-parallelism

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος

1

the alpha and the omega, the beginning and the end

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize God’s eternal nature. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

993

REV

21

6

mfc7

figs-merism

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος

1

These two phrases mean that God exists from the beginning of everything to the end of it, including everything in between. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

994

REV

21

6

li7s

figs-metaphor

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ

1

the alpha and the omega

The alpha and the omega are first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. This could refer to: (1) the one who began all things and who ends all things. (2) the one who has always lived and who always will live. If your readers would misunderstand this, you may consider using the first and last letters of your alphabet. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:8. Alternate translation: “the A and the Z” or “the first and the last” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

995

REV

21

6

bf1p

ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος

1

the beginning and the end

This could refer to: (1) the one who began all things and the one who will cause all things to end. (2) the one who existed before all things and who will exist after all things.

996

REV

21

6

wk2c

figs-metaphor

τῷ διψῶντι δώσω ἐκ τῆς πηγῆς τοῦ ὕδατος τῆς ζωῆς δωρεάν

1

To the one who thirsts … water of life

God speaks of a person’s desire for eternal life as if it were thirst and of that person receiving eternal life as if he were drinking life-giving water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

997

REV

21

7

vms6

0

Connecting Statement:

The one seated on the throne continues to speak to John.

998

REV

21

8

hma7

τοῖς…δειλοῖς

1

the cowards

Alternate translation: “those who are too afraid to do what is right”

999

REV

21

8

k8yp

ἐβδελυγμένοις

1

the detestable

Alternate translation: “those who do terrible things”

1000

REV

21

8

zu27

τῇ λίμνῃ τῇ καιομένῃ πυρὶ καὶ θείῳ

1

the fiery lake of burning sulfur

See how you translated this in Revelation 19:20. Alternate translation: “the lake of fire that burns with sulfur” or “place full of fire that burns with sulfur”

1001

REV

21

8

k1hl

writing-symlanguage

ὁ θάνατος ὁ δεύτερος

1

the second death

The second death is described as eternal punishment in the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14 and Revelation 21:8. See how you translated this in Revelation 2:11. Alternate translation: “the final death in the lake of fire” or “dying a second time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1002

REV

21

9

cf2m

figs-metaphor

τὴν νύμφην, τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the bride, the wife of the Lamb

The angel speaks of Jerusalem as if it were a bride who is about to marry her groom, the Lamb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1003

REV

21

9

bil2

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here, Lamb is it used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1004

REV

21

10

czp2

writing-background

ἀπήνεγκέν με ἐν Πνεύματι

1

carried me away in the Spirit

The setting changes as the Spirit takes John to a high mountain where he can see the city of Jerusalem. See how you translated this phrase in Revelation 17:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1005

REV

21

10

fq8f

figs-metonymy

Ἰερουσαλὴμ

1

Jerusalem is a metonymy for those believers who will inhabit it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1006

REV

21

11

g44j

ἔχουσαν

1

It had

This refers to the “Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven” that he described in the previous verse and not to the physical Jerusalem.

1007

REV

21

11

xvg6

figs-parallelism

ὁ φωστὴρ αὐτῆς ὅμοιος λίθῳ τιμιωτάτῳ, ὡς λίθῳ ἰάσπιδι κρυσταλλίζοντι

1

like a very precious jewel, like a stone of crystal-clear jasper

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. The second emphasizes the brilliance of Jerusalem by naming a specific jewel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1008

REV

21

11

n51z

κρυσταλλίζοντι

1

crystal-clear

Alternate translation: “extremely clear”

1009

REV

21

11

vvq1

translate-unknown

ἰάσπιδι

1

jasper

Jasper is a valuable stone. This jasper may have been clear like glass or crystal. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1010

REV

21

12

qgh3

figs-activepassive

ἐπιγεγραμμένα

1

were written

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “someone had written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1011

REV

21

14

mm12

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

Here, the Lamb refers to Jesus. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6.

1012

REV

21

16

fs8z

translate-bdistance

σταδίων δώδεκα χιλιάδων

1

twelve thousand stadia

You may convert 12,000 stadia to modern measures. Alternate translation: “2,200 kilometers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

1013

REV

21

17

eut1

translate-bdistance

ἑκατὸν τεσσεράκοντα τεσσάρων πηχῶν

1

144 cubits

You may convert 144 cubits to modern measures. Alternate translation: “66 meters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

1014

REV

21

18

n3hu

figs-simile

χρυσίον καθαρὸν, ὅμοιον ὑάλῳ καθαρῷ

1

pure gold, like clear glass

The gold was so clear that it is spoken of as if it were glass. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1015

REV

21

18

h239

translate-unknown

ἴασπις

1

jasper

Jasper is a valuable stone. It may have been clear like glass or crystal. See how you translated this in Revelation 4:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1016

REV

21

19

ick5

figs-activepassive

οἱ θεμέλιοι τοῦ τείχους τῆς πόλεως…κεκοσμημένοι

1

The foundations of the wall were adorned

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone adorned the foundations of the city wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1017

REV

21

19

ke4b

translate-unknown

ἴασπις…σάπφειρος…χαλκηδών…σμάραγδος

1

jasper … sapphire … agate … emerald

These are valuable stones. Jasper may have been clear like glass or crystal. See how you translated it in Revelation 4:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1018

REV

21

20

a2tm

translate-unknown

σαρδόνυξ…σάρδιον…χρυσόλιθος…βήρυλλος…τοπάζιον…χρυσόπρασος…ὑάκινθος…ἀμέθυστος

1

onyx … chrysolite … beryl … topaz … chrysoprase … jacinth … amethyst

These are all precious gems. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1019

REV

21

21

yn6i

translate-unknown

μαργαρῖται

1

pearls

Pearls are beautiful and valuable white beads that are formed inside the shell of a certain kind of small animal that lives in the ocean. See how you translated this in Revelation 17:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1020

REV

21

21

g75r

figs-activepassive

ἀνὰ εἷς ἕκαστος τῶν πυλώνων ἦν ἐξ ἑνὸς μαργαρίτου

1

each of the gates was made from a single pearl

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “someone had made each of the gates from a single pearl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1021

REV

21

21

vp22

figs-simile

χρυσίον καθαρὸν ὡς ὕαλος διαυγής

1

pure gold, like transparent glass

The gold was so pure that it is spoken of as if it was clear glass. See how you translated a similar phrase in Revelation 21:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1022

REV

21

22

m2ew

figs-metaphor

ὁ…Κύριος ὁ Θεός ὁ Παντοκράτωρ ναὸς αὐτῆς ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ Ἀρνίον

1

Lord God … and the Lamb are its temple

The temple represented God’s presence. This means the new Jerusalem does not need a temple because God and the Lamb will live there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1023

REV

21

23

v2m9

figs-metaphor

ὁ λύχνος αὐτῆς τὸ Ἀρνίον

1

its lamp is the Lamb

Here the glory of Jesus, the Lamb, is spoken of as if it were a lamp that gives light to the city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1024

REV

21

24

j3lk

figs-metonymy

περιπατήσουσιν τὰ ἔθνη

1

The nations will walk

Here, the nations are a metonym for the people who live in the nations. Alternate translation: “the people from all the different nations will walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1025

REV

21

24

ma5n

figs-metaphor

περιπατήσουσιν τὰ ἔθνη

1

Here, walk here is a metaphor for “live.” Alternate translation: “the people from all the different nations will live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1026

REV

21

25

lq1z

figs-activepassive

οἱ πυλῶνες αὐτῆς οὐ μὴ κλεισθῶσιν

1

Its gates will not be shut

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “no one will ever shut the gates” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1027

REV

21

26

ps25

οἴσουσιν

1

They will bring

Alternate translation: “the kings of the earth will bring”

1028

REV

21

27

n3nh

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτὴν πᾶν κοινὸν, καὶ ὁ

1

nothing unclean will ever enter into it, nor anyone

If your readers would misunderstand this double negative, you can state it in positive form. Alternate translation: “only what is clean will ever enter, and never anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1029

REV

21

27

g7fr

figs-activepassive

εἰ μὴ οἱ γεγραμμένοι ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τῆς ζωῆς τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

but only those whose names are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “but only those whose names the Lamb wrote in his book of life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1030

REV

21

27

cw99

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here, the Lamb is it used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1031

REV

22

intro

e1ya

0

Revelation 22 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter emphasizes that Jesus is coming soon.

Special concepts in this chapter

Tree of life

There is probably an intended connection between the tree of life in the Garden of Eden and the tree of life mentioned in this chapter. The curse that began in Eden will end at this time.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Alpha and omega

These are the names of the first and last letters in the Greek alphabet. The ULT spells out their names in English. This strategy can serve as a model for translators. Some translators, however, may decide to use the first and last letters in their own alphabet. This would be “A and Z” in English.

1032

REV

22

1

b1ad

0

Connecting Statement:

John continues to describe the new Jerusalem as the angel shows it to him.

1033

REV

22

1

uu7b

ἔδειξέν μοι

1

showed me

Here, me refers to John.

1034

REV

22

1

vl23

ποταμὸν ὕδατος ζωῆς

1

the river of the water of life

Alternate translation: “the river flowing with life-giving water”

1035

REV

22

1

yn2p

figs-metaphor

ποταμὸν ὕδατος ζωῆς

1

the water of life

Eternal life is spoken of as if it were provided by life-giving water. See how you translated this in Revelation 21:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1036

REV

22

1

mxp4

writing-symlanguage

τοῦ Ἀρνίου

1

the Lamb

A lamb is a young sheep. Here, the Lamb is it used symbolically to refer to Christ. See how you translated this in Revelation 5:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1037

REV

22

2

l2aq

figs-metonymy

τῶν ἐθνῶν

1

the nations

Here, the nations refers to the people who live in every nation. Alternate translation: “the people of all nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1038

REV

22

3

d5fq

πᾶν κατάθεμα οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι

1

There will no longer be any curse

This could mean: (1) there will never be anyone there that God will curse. (2) there will not be anyone there who is under God’s curse.

1039

REV

22

3

by36

οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτοῦ λατρεύσουσιν αὐτῷ

1

his servants will serve him

Here, his and him could refer to: (1) God the Father. (2) both God and the Lamb, who rule together as one.

1040

REV

22

4

zy4x

figs-idiom

ὄψονται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ

1

They will see his face

Here, see his face is an idiom that refers to being in God’s presence. Alternate translation: “they will be in God’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1041

REV

22

6

j51i

figs-explicit

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the end of John’s vision. In verse 6 the angel is speaking to John. In verse 7, Jesus is speaking. You can state this explicitly as is in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1042

REV

22

6

xaw8

figs-metonymy

οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι πιστοὶ καὶ ἀληθινοί

1

These words are trustworthy and true

Here, words refers to the message that they formed. See how you translated this in Revelation 21:5. Alternate translation: “This message is trustworthy and true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1043

REV

22

6

cr31

figs-metonymy

ὁ Θεὸς τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν προφητῶν

1

the God of the spirits of the prophets

Here, spirits refers to: (1) the inward disposition of the prophets and indicates that God inspires them. Alternate translation: “God who inspires the prophets” (2) the Holy Spirit who inspires the prophets. Alternate translation: “God who gives his Spirit to the prophets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1044

REV

22

7

p72h

ἰδοὺ

1

Look!

Here Jesus begins to speak. The word behold adds emphasis to what follows.

1045

REV

22

7

afr9

figs-explicit

ἔρχομαι ταχύ

1

I am coming quickly!

It is understood that he is coming in order to judge. See how you translated this in Revelation 3:11. Alternate translation: “I am coming to judge soon!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1046

REV

22

8

xr17

0

General Information:

John tells his readers about how he responded to the angel.

1047

REV

22

8

uvk3

ἔπεσα προσκυνῆσαι ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν

1

I fell down to worship at the feet

This means that John purposely lay on the ground and stretched himself out in reverence or submission. This action was an important part of worship, to show respect and willingness to serve. See how you translated similar words in Revelation 19:10.

1048

REV

22

10

gqa8

0

Connecting Statement:

The angel finishes speaking to John.

1049

REV

22

10

ct48

figs-explicit

μὴ σφραγίσῃς τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου

1

Do not seal up … this book

To seal a book was to keep it closed with something that makes it impossible for anyone to read what was inside without breaking the seal. The angel is telling John not to keep the message a secret. Alternate translation: “Do not keep secret … this book” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1050

REV

22

10

xc15

figs-metonymy

τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου

1

the words of the prophecy of this book

Here, words refers to the message that they formed. See how you translated this in Revelation 22:7. Alternate translation: “This prophetic message of this book” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1051

REV

22

12

idc6

writing-endofstory

0

General Information:

As the book of Revelation is ending, Jesus gives a closing greeting. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

1052

REV

22

13

f5jl

figs-parallelism

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος, ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος

1

the alpha and the omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end

These three phrases share similar meanings and emphasize that Jesus has existed and will exist for all time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1053

REV

22

13

uup6

figs-merism

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος, ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος

1

the alpha and the omega

These three phrases are merisms. They each represent everything included between the two ends. The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet are alpha and omega. They represent all the letters in between. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:8. Alternate translation: “the A and the Z, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1054

REV

22

13

c9e8

figs-metaphor

τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ

1

This could refer to: (1) the one who began all things and who ends all things. (2) the one who has always lived and who always will live. If your readers would misunderstand this, you may consider using the first and last letters of your alphabet. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1055

REV

22

13

cpl9

figs-metaphor

ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος

1

the first and the last

This refers to the eternal nature of Jesus. See how you translated this in Revelation 1:17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1056

REV

22

13

nnm2

figs-metaphor

ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος

1

the beginning and the end

This could refer to: (1) the one who began all things and the one who will cause all things to end. (2) the one who existed before all things and who will exist after all things. See how you translated this in Revelation 21:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1057

REV

22

14

i54w

figs-metaphor

οἱ πλύνοντες τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν

1

those who wash their robes

Becoming righteous is spoken of as if it were washing one’s clothing. See how you translated as similar phrase in Revelation 7:14. Alternate translation: “those who have become righteous, as if they have washed their robes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1058

REV

22

15

aw1h

ἔξω

1

Outside

This means they are outside the city and not allowed to enter.

1059

REV

22

15

tkd7

figs-explicit

οἱ κύνες

1

are the dogs

In that culture, dogs were considered to be unclean, despised animals. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1060

REV

22

15

h0ih

figs-metaphor

οἱ κύνες

1

Here the word dogs is derogatory and refers to people who are wicked. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1061

REV

22

16

pu85

figs-you

μαρτυρῆσαι ὑμῖν

1

to testify to you

Here the word you is plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1062

REV

22

16

t2v9

figs-doublet

ἡ ῥίζα καὶ τὸ γένος Δαυείδ

1

the root and the descendant of David

The words root and descendant mean basically the same thing. Together the words emphasize that Jesus belongs to the family of David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1063

REV

22

16

afw1

figs-metaphor

ἡ ῥίζα καὶ τὸ γένος Δαυείδ

1

Jesus speaks of being a descendant as if he were a root that grew out of David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1064

REV

22

16

g9uj

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἀστὴρ ὁ λαμπρός, ὁ πρωϊνός

1

the bright morning star

Jesus speaks of himself as if he were the bright star that sometimes appears early in the morning and indicates that a new day is about to begin. See how you translated “morning star” in Revelation 2:28. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1065

REV

22

17

gig5

0

Connecting Statement:

This verse is a response to what Jesus said.

1066

REV

22

17

lt8j

figs-metaphor

ἡ νύμφη

1

the Bride

Believers are spoken of as if they were a Bride about to be married to her groom, Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1067

REV

22

17

m9at

figs-explicit

ἔρχου

1

Come!

Here, Come could mean: (1) this is an invitation for people to come and drink the water of life. Alternate translation: “Come and drink!” (2) this is a polite request for Jesus to return. Alternate translation: “Please come!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1068

REV

22

17

e2m5

figs-metaphor

ὁ διψῶν ἐρχέσθω; ὁ θέλων λαβέτω ὕδωρ ζωῆς δωρεάν

1

the one who is thirsty … the water of life

A person’s desire for eternal life is spoken of as if it were thirst and of that person receiving eternal life as if he were drinking life-giving water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1069

REV

22

17

dwb6

figs-metaphor

ὕδωρ ζωῆς

1

the water of life

Eternal life is spoken of as if it were provided by life-giving water. See how you translated this in Revelation 21:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1070

REV

22

18

fd5l

0

General Information:

John gives his final remarks about the book of Revelation.

1071

REV

22

18

d95j

μαρτυρῶ ἐγὼ

1

I testify

Here, I refers to John.

1072

REV

22

18

s36m

figs-metonymy

τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας τοῦ βιβλίου τούτου

1

the words of the prophecy of this book

Here, the words refers to the message that they formed. See how you translated this in Revelation 22:7. Alternate translation: “this prophetic message of this book” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1073

REV

22

18

jzu8

ἐάν τις ἐπιθῇ ἐπ’ αὐτά, ἐπιθήσει ὁ Θεὸς ἐπ’ αὐτὸν τὰς πληγὰς τὰς γεγραμμένας ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ

1

If anyone adds to them … God will add

This is a strong warning to not change anything about this prophecy.

1074

REV

22

18

d4sc

figs-activepassive

τὰς γεγραμμένας ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ

1

that are written about in this book

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “which I have written about in this book” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1075

REV

22

19

ss3y

ἐάν τις ἀφέλῃ ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων τοῦ βιβλίου τῆς προφητείας ταύτης, ἀφελεῖ ὁ Θεὸς τὸ μέρος αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς καὶ ἐκ τῆς πόλεως τῆς ἁγίας, τῶν γεγραμμένων ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ

1

If anyone takes away … God will take away

This is a strong warning to not change anything about this prophecy.

1076

REV

22

20

u6mb

0

General Information:

In these verses John gives his and Jesus’ closing greetings.

1077

REV

22

20

y9p2

ὁ μαρτυρῶν

1

The one who testifies

Alternate translation: “Jesus, who testifies”