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Introduction to Acts

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the book of Acts

  1. The apostles spread the good news about Jesus in Jerusalem (1:1–6:7)
  2. The church expands into Judea and Samaria (6:8–9:31)
  3. The church expands to include Gentiles (9:32–12:24)
  4. Paul goes to Asia Minor as an apostle to the Gentiles (12:25–16:5)
  5. The church expands into the middle Mediterranean area (16:6–19:20)
  6. Paul reaches Rome, but as a prisoner and after several trials (19:21–28:31)

What is the book of Acts about?

The book of Acts tells the story of the early church. It relates how more and more people, from different backgrounds and in different parts of the Roman Empire, became believers in Jesus. It shows the power of the Holy Spirit helping the early Christians. The events in this book begin with the return of Jesus to heaven and they end about 30 years later.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Acts of the Apostles.” Or translators may choose a different title, for example, “The Acts of the Holy Spirit through the Apostles.”

Who wrote the book of Acts?

The author of this book does not give his own name. However, the book is dedicated to Theophilus, the same person to whom Luke dedicated his story of the life of Jesus, the Gospel of Luke. Also, in parts of this book, the author uses the word “we.” This indicates that the author traveled with Paul. Most scholars think that Luke was this person who traveled with Paul. Therefore, since early Christian times, most Christians have thought that Luke was the author of the book of Acts as well as the Gospel of Luke.

Luke was a medical doctor. His way of writing shows that he was an educated man. He was probably a Gentile. He personally witnessed many of the events that he describes in the book of Acts.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What is the church?

The church is the community of people who believe in Jesus as their Lord and Savior. The church includes both Jewish and Gentile believers. The book of Acts shows God helping the church. It shows God doing signs and wonders to confirm the church’s testimony to Jesus, leading many people to have faith in Jesus, guiding the church about where and how to share the good news, and enabling believers to resolve conflicts and endure persecution.

The kingdom of God

The “kingdom of God” is a major concept in the book of Acts, as it is in the Gospel of Luke. This concept is very rich in meaning. It includes the idea of eternal life in the presence of God, but it also includes the idea of what the earth will be like in the future when God rules everything, and the idea of life on earth right now, when and where God’s wishes are carried out fully. The unifying concept behind all of these ideas is that of God ruling and of people embracing God’s rule over their lives. Wherever the expression “the kingdom of God” occurs, translation notes will suggest communicating the idea behind the abstract noun “kingdom” with some phrase that uses the verb “rule.” UST models this approach consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Possible translation difficulties in the book of Acts

“to the same”

The phrase “to the same” occurs five times in this book (1:15, 2:1, 2:44, 2:47, 4:26). It is not entirely clear what this phrase means. In the first three instances it could mean “in the same place,” but it could also mean “in one accord,” that is, “in full agreement.” In 2:47 it seems to mean “to their group.” Paul uses the same phrase in 1 Corinthians 11:20 and 14:23, where it could mean “in the same place” or it could have the sense of full agreement and mean something like “in Christian fellowship.” That sense would fit Acts 2:47, where the phrase could be translated “to their Christian fellowship.” In 4:26 it could mean “to the same place,” but it could also mean “by agreement.” Notes will discuss the different possibilities in each case where the phrase could mean more than one thing.

“in/to/into the temple”

Luke uses this phrase many times in this book, but it does not refer to the temple building itself. Only priests were allowed to enter that building, so the phrase refers to the courtyard or area around the temple. The phrase “in the porch that is called Solomon’s” in 3:11 makes it clear that Peter and John and the crowd that gathered on the occasion that chapter describes were not inside the temple building. Notes will address this phrase to explain its meaning each time it occurs in the book.

What are the major issues in the text of the book of Acts?

The following are the most significant textual issues in Acts. Notes will address them where they occur in the book.

First, there are some verses that are found in traditional versions of the Bible, but they are not found in the most accurate ancient manuscripts of the Bible. Some modern versions put these verses in square brackets [ ]. The ULT and UST also put them in brackets. If a translation of the Bible already exists in your area, you could consider including these verses if that translation does. If there is not already a Bible translation in your area, we recommend that you indicate in some way that these verses may not be original. You could put them in brackets, for example, or in footnotes. These verses are:

  • Acts 8:37, “Philip said, ‘If you believe with all your heart, you may be baptized.’ The Ethiopian answered, ‘I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.’”
  • Acts 15:34, “But it seemed good to Silas to remain there.”
  • Acts 24:6-8, “And we wanted to judge him according to our law. But Lysias, the officer, came and forcibly took him out of our hands, sending him to you.”
  • Acts 28:29, “When he had said these things, the Jews departed, having a great dispute among themselves.”

Second, in some verses, it is uncertain what the original text said. The ULT uses the first readings listed below, but it includes the second readings in footnotes. If a translation of the Bible already exists in your area, you could consider following the same reading that it does. If there is not already a Bible translation in your area, we recommend that you follow the same reading that ULT does. These verses are:

  • Acts 3:22, “the Lord our God.” Some versions read “the Lord your God,” and other versions read “the Lord God.”
  • Acts 7:46, “a dwelling for the house of Jacob.” Some versions read “for the God of Jacob.”
  • Acts 12:25, “They returned from Jerusalem.” Some versions read, “They returned to Jerusalem” (or “to there”).
  • Acts 13:18, “he put up with them.” Some versions read, “he cared for them.”
  • Acts 15:17-18, “This is what the Lord says, who has done these things that have been known from ancient times.” Some older versions read, “This is what the Lord says, to whom are known all his deeds from ancient times.”

(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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Acts 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The UST has set the words “Dear Theophilus” apart from the other words. This is because English speakers often start letters this way. You may want to start this book in the way that people start letters in your culture.

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. The ULT does this with the two quotations from the book of Psalms in 1:20.

Special concepts in this chapter

The Ascension

This chapter records an event that is commonly known as the “Ascension.” That word describes how Jesus returned to heaven after he became alive again. In the future he will come back to earth again, and his return to earth is known as his “Second Coming.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/resurrection]])

Baptism

Luke uses the word “baptize” with two different meanings in 1:5. In the first instance, it refers literally to the water baptism of John. In the second instance, it refers figuratively to people being filled with the Holy Spirit. Luke uses the term “filled” to mean this same thing in 2:4. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/baptize]])

“He spoke things concerning the kingdom of God”

Some scholars believe that when Jesus spoke “things concerning the kingdom of God,” as Luke describes in 1:3, he explained to the disciples why the kingdom of God had not come while he was on earth the first time. Other scholars believe that the kingdom of God did begin while Jesus was on earth and that Jesus explained that it had come in a form different from the one the disciples had expected. Since Christians hold different views about the kingdom of God coming, translators should be careful to avoid letting how they understand that issue affect how they translate this verse.

Possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Long sentence

As was common in compositions of this time, for stylistic purposes Luke begins this book with a very long sentence. It goes from the beginning of 1:1 to the end of 1:3. ULT represents all of this as a single sentence. It may be helpful to your readers to divide it into several sentences, as UST does.

The details of the death of Judas

There are some differences in detail between the way Luke describes the death of Judas in the book of Acts and the way Matthew describes it in his gospel. Luke says that Judas used the money he got for betraying Jesus to buy a field; Matthew says that Judas returned the money to the Jewish leaders and that they bought the field with it. Luke says that Judas killed himself by falling onto the field from a height; Matthew says that Judas hanged himself. Luke says that the field was named the “Field of Blood” because Judas died a bloody death there; Matthew says the field was given that name because it was purchased with “blood money,” that is, money paid to ensure someone’s death.

It is possible to reconcile many of these details. For example, the body of Judas may have fallen and split open on the field if he fell when he tried to hang himself. Luke may say that Judas bought the field because the Jewish leaders would not take back the money that they had paid him, and so in a sense it was still his money when the field was purchased with it.

But it would probably be best to avoid trying to reconcile these details within your translation. For example, when Luke says in 1:18 that Judas fell onto the field, instead of saying that he fell when he was trying to hang himself, you can let Luke and Matthew each tell the story the way they do. Then you can leave it up to preachers and teachers of the Bible to explain how their accounts are compatible.

The 12 disciples

There is one small difference between the list of the 12 disciples that Matthew and Mark provide in their gospels and the list that Luke provides in his gospel and in the book of Acts.

All three writers list Simon Peter and his brother Andrew; James and John, the two sons of Zebedee; Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot. But Matthew and Mark say that the twelfth disciple was Thaddeus, while Luke says he was Judas the son of James. However, it is quite likely that Thaddeus was another name by which this other Judas was known.

Once again it is not necessary to try to reconcile these details within your translation. Specifically, in 1:13 instead of saying, “Judas the son of James, who was also known as Thaddeus,” you can let each of the biblical writers tell the story in the way that they do. Then you can leave it up to preachers and teachers of the Bible to explain how their accounts are compatible.

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figs-explicit

τὸν μὲν πρῶτον λόγον ἐποιησάμην

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I made the first account

Luke assumes that Theophilus will know that by the first account he means the book that has become known as the Gospel of Luke. Since that book was not known by that title at this time, it would not be accurate to put the title in your translation as a name that Luke would have used to describe the book to Theophilus. However, you could explain this in a footnote and use another expression here. Alternate translation: “I wrote in my first volume” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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ὦ Θεόφιλε

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O Theophilus

Here Luke is identifying and addressing the man for whom he complied this account of the early church. Since this is like the salutation of a letter, in your translation you may wish to follow your culture’s way of identifying and greeting the addressee of a letter. UST models this by saying “Dear Theophilus” and putting the phrase at the beginning of the sentence.

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Θεόφιλε

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Theophilus

Theophilus is the name of a man. It means “friend of God.” It may be his actual name, or it may describe what this man was like. Most translations treat it as his name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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a001

figs-idiom

περὶ πάντων…ὧν ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς ποιεῖν τε καὶ διδάσκειν

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all that Jesus began both to do and to teach

Luke is using the word began in an idiomatic way to indicate that Jesus had been doing something else (he had been working as a carpenter), but he then began to do something new when he started his ministry. In many languages it would not be necessary to translate the word began. Alternate translation: “about all that Jesus did and taught” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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a002

figs-hyperbole

περὶ πάντων…ὧν ἤρξατο ὁ Ἰησοῦς ποιεῖν τε καὶ διδάσκειν

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all that Jesus began both to do and to teach

This is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “about some of the most important things that Jesus did and taught” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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figs-idiom

ἄχρι ἧς ἡμέρας

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until that day when

While this did happen on a specific day, Luke is likely using the word day idiomatically to mean a specific time. Alternate translation: “up to the time when” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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figs-activepassive

ἀνελήμφθη

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he was taken up

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God took him up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-explicit

ἀνελήμφθη

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he was taken up

Luke is referring to Jesus being taken up into heaven. See the discussion of “Ascension” in the General Notes to this chapter. Alternate translation: “he was taken up into heaven” or “God took him up into heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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οἷς καὶ παρέστησεν ἑαυτὸν ζῶντα, μετὰ τὸ παθεῖν αὐτὸν, ἐν πολλοῖς τεκμηρίοις

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to whom also, after he had suffered, he presented himself living with many proofs

As the General Notes to this chapter suggest, it be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Jesus also presented himself alive with many proofs to his apostles after he had suffered”

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figs-explicit

μετὰ τὸ παθεῖν αὐτὸν

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after he had suffered

This refers to how Jesus suffered and died on the cross. Alternate translation: “after he had suffered and died on the cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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ἐν πολλοῖς τεκμηρίοις

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with many proofs

The word translated proofs describes items of evidence that are decisive and convincing. Alternate translation: “with many definitive proofs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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figs-explicit

δι’ ἡμερῶν τεσσεράκοντα, ὀπτανόμενος αὐτοῖς, καὶ λέγων

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appearing to them for 40 days and speaking

While the antecedent of whom is “the apostles whom he had chosen” in the previous verse, Jesus actually appeared to many other disciples besides his apostles. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “For 40 days he appeared to his apostles and many of his other disciples, and he spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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figs-abstractnouns

τὰ περὶ τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

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things concerning the kingdom of God

See the discussion of the concept of the kingdom of God in Part 2 of the General Introduction to Acts. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word kingdom, you could express this with a verb such as “rule,” as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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a007

figs-doublenegatives

ἀπὸ Ἱεροσολύμων, μὴ χωρίζεσθαι, ἀλλὰ

1

not to depart from Jerusalem, but

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use a positive expression to translate this double negative that consists of the negative particle not and the negative verb depart. Alternate translation: “to remain in Jerusalem and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

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vb7g

figs-quotemarks

ἀπὸ Ἱεροσολύμων, μὴ χωρίζεσθαι

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not to depart from Jerusalem

The content of Jesus’ instructions to the apostles on this occasion begins here. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate and punctuate the material from here to the end of the verse as a direct quotation, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

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translate-names

Ἱεροσολύμων

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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figs-metonymy

τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ Πατρὸς

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the promise of the Father

Jesus is referring figuratively to the Holy Spirit by association with the way God made a promise to send the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit, whom the Father promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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a009

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Πατρὸς

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of the Father

Father is an important title for God. Alternate translation: “of God the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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tj6r

figs-quotations

ἣν ἠκούσατέ μου

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which you heard from me

In keeping with his engaging storytelling style, Luke begins a quotation from Jesus here without introducing it with a formula such as “he said.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could include an introductory formula in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He said, ‘You heard about this from me’” or “He said, ‘I told you about this’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

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d3kr

figs-you

ἠκούσατέ

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you heard

Here, you is plural because Jesus is speaking to the apostles, so use the plural form of “you” in your translation if your language marks that distinction. In 1:6, “you” is singular because Jesus alone is being addressed, so the singular form would be accurate there. In general these notes will not discuss whether you is singular or plural when this should be clear from the context, but they will address ambiguous cases where this may not be clear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

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translate-names

Ἰωάννης

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John

John is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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figs-explicit

Ἰωάννης

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John

Jesus is referring to the man who was known as John the Baptist because he baptized people. It may help to identify him if you use that title after his name in your translation. However, because the word “Baptist” is associated with a group of churches in many parts of the world, it may be helpful to your readers to use a different form of the word as a title, as UST does by saying “Baptizer.” Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Baptizer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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a075

figs-metaphor

ὑμεῖς…ἐν Πνεύματι βαπτισθήσεσθε Ἁγίῳ

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you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit

After describing earlier in the verse how John baptized people literally, Jesus is using baptism in this second instance as a metaphor. See the discussion in the General Notes to this chapter. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit will come and empower you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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dzj1

figs-activepassive

ὑμεῖς…βαπτισθήσεσθε

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you will be baptized

You may wish to retain the metaphor of baptism in your translation. If you do, and if your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you can say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will baptize” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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a010

figs-litotes

οὐ μετὰ πολλὰς ταύτας ἡμέρας

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after these not many days

Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “just a few days from now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

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n9wt

writing-pronouns

οἱ μὲν οὖν συνελθόντες, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν

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They therefore having assembled, they were asking him

In the first instance, they describes Jesus and the apostles, while in the second instance, they refers to the apostles. (Other disciples could have been present on this occasion, but the instructions that Jesus gives about being “witnesses” in 1:8 apply specifically to the apostles, so it would be good to name them directly.) Alternate translation: “When the apostles were together with Jesus, the apostles were asking him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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a011

figs-idiom

εἰ ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ τούτῳ, ἀποκαθιστάνεις τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ Ἰσραήλ

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if you are restoring the kingdom to Israel at this time

This is an idiomatic way of asking a question. Alternate translation: “are you restoring the kingdom to Israel at this time” or “will you now restore the kingdom to Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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f7uj

figs-abstractnouns

εἰ…ἀποκαθιστάνεις τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ Ἰσραήλ

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if you are restoring the kingdom to Israel

f your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word kingdom, you could express the same idea with a noun such as “king.” Alternate translation: “are you going to give Israel its own king again” or “are you going to become the restored king of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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a252

translate-names

τῷ Ἰσραήλ

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to Israel

Israel is the name of a nation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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figs-explicit

οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν γνῶναι

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It is not for you to know

Jesus is saying implicitly by this response that he is not going to tell the apostles when the thing they are asking about will happen. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “I am not going to tell you when that will happen, because it is not for you to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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y1fu

figs-doublet

χρόνους ἢ καιροὺς

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the times or the seasons

The words times and seasons could: (1) refer to different kinds of time. Alternate translation: “the general period of time or the specific date” (2) have similar meanings, being used together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the exact time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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a013

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Πατὴρ

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the Father

Father is an important title for God. Alternate translation: “God the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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a014

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ

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by his own authority

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word authority, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “control.” Alternate translation: “as the one who controls all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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ld4k

grammar-connect-logic-result

λήμψεσθε δύναμιν, ἐπελθόντος τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἔσεσθέ μου μάρτυρες

1

you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses

Jesus is using the word translated and to describe a result. Alternate translation: “when the Holy Spirit comes upon you, then you will receive power to be my witnesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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a015

figs-abstractnouns

δύναμιν

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power

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word power, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “powerful.” Alternate translation: “powerful ability” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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a016

translate-names

Ἰερουσαλὴμ…Ἰουδαίᾳ…Σαμαρείᾳ

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Jerusalem … Judea … Samaria

Jerusalem is the name of a city, and Judea and Samaria are the names of regions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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vb4m

figs-idiom

ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς

1

to the end of the earth

This is a reference to place, not to time. Jesus does not mean “until the world ends.” Alternate translation: “all over the world” or “to the places on the earth that are farthest away from here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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e1q1

figs-explicit

βλεπόντων αὐτῶν

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as they were looking

Your language may require you to specify the object of looking. Alternate translation: “as they were looking at him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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l1cq

figs-activepassive

ἐπήρθη

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he was raised up

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. (See the discussion of “Ascension” in the General Notes to this chapter.) Alternate translation: “he rose up” or “God raised him up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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ug58

figs-metonymy

ἀπὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν

1

from their eyes

Luke is using the eyes of the apostles figuratively to mean their capacity to see. Alternate translation: “from their sight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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enu1

figs-explicit

ἀτενίζοντες ἦσαν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν

1

they were looking intently into heaven

Since a cloud was able to block the apostles’ view, it is clear that Luke is using the word translated heaven here in one of its specific senses to mean “sky.” It would be good to make clear that the apostles were not seeing into heaven itself. Alternate translation: “gazing at the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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a017

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο

1

and behold, two men

Luke is using the term behold to focus readers’ attention on how suddenly these two men appeared. Your language may have a comparable expression that you can use in your translation. Alternate translation: “just then two men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

46

ACT

1

10

a018

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

and

Luke uses the word translated And to indicate that the event of the men appearing happened after the event of Jesus going up. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

47

ACT

1

10

a019

figs-explicit

ἄνδρες δύο

1

two men

These were actually angels. Luke calls them men because they appeared in human form. Alternate translation: “two angels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

48

ACT

1

10

a020

ἐσθήσεσι λευκαῖς

1

white clothes

In this context, the word white likely has the specific sense of “bright” or “shining.” Alternate translation: “bright clothes” or “shining clothes”

49

ACT

1

11

a021

figs-explicit

οἳ…εἶπαν

1

they said

This could mean: (1) one of the angels had spoken on behalf of both of them. Alternate translation: “one of them said” (2) the two angels had each said different parts of the quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

50

ACT

1

11

a022

figs-verbs

οἳ…εἶπαν

1

they said

If you retain the word they in your translation and if your language uses dual forms for verbs, it would be accurate to use the dual form here, since two men are speaking. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-verbs]])

51

ACT

1

11

gpg3

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, Γαλιλαῖοι

1

Men, Galileans

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “You Galileans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

52

ACT

1

11

a023

translate-names

ἄνδρες, Γαλιλαῖοι

1

Men, Galileans

Galileans are people who are from the region of Galilee. Alternate translation: “You men from Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

53

ACT

1

11

a024

figs-rquestion

τί ἑστήκατε βλέποντες εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν?

1

why do you stand looking into heaven?

The angels are not looking for information. They are using the question form for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “there is no reason for you to stand looking into heaven!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

54

ACT

1

11

a025

figs-idiom

τί ἑστήκατε βλέποντες

1

why do you stand looking

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “why do you keep looking” or “there is no reason for you to keep looking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

55

ACT

1

11

a026

ὁ ἀναλημφθεὶς ἀφ’ ὑμῶν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν…ἐθεάσασθε αὐτὸν πορευόμενον εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν

1

who has been taken up from you into heaven … you saw him going into heaven

In its second occurrence in this sentence, the term translated heaven likely means “the sky,” as in the previous sentence and in the previous verse. However, in its first occurrence in this sentence, the term likely means “heaven” itself. It would not be accurate to say that Jesus was just “taken up from you into the sky.” Alternate translation: “who has been taken up from you into heaven … you saw him going into the sky”

56

ACT

1

11

a027

figs-activepassive

ὁ ἀναλημφθεὶς

1

who has been taken up

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who has done the action. Alternate translation: “whom God has taken up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

57

ACT

1

11

cue7

ὃν τρόπον

1

in which manner

Alternate translation: “in the same way in which”

58

ACT

1

12

x2nk

writing-pronouns

ὑπέστρεψαν

1

they returned

The word they refers to the apostles. Alternate translation: “the apostles returned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

59

ACT

1

12

a028

figs-activepassive

ὄρους τοῦ καλουμένου Ἐλαιῶνος

1

the hill that is called Olivet

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the hill that people call Olivet” or “the hill whose name is Olivet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

60

ACT

1

12

a029

translate-names

ὄρους τοῦ καλουμένου Ἐλαιῶνος

1

the hill that is called Olivet

Olivet is the name of a hill. If your readers might recognize it better if you called it the Mount of Olives, you could use that name in your translation, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

61

ACT

1

12

a030

figs-idiom

Σαββάτου ἔχον ὁδόν

1

having a journey of a Sabbath

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “a Sabbath-day’s journey away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

62

ACT

1

12

p19g

figs-explicit

Σαββάτου ἔχον ὁδόν

1

having a journey of a Sabbath

The journey of a Sabbath was the distance that interpreters of the law of Moses had determined people could walk on the Sabbath without that being “work.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the distance in the measurement that your culture uses. Alternate translation: “about a kilometer away” or “about half a mile away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

63

ACT

1

13

vis2

figs-explicit

ὅτε εἰσῆλθον

1

when they arrived

The previous verse explains that the apostles returned to Jerusalem. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that again explicitly here. Alternate translation: “when they arrived back in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

64

ACT

1

13

zt12

translate-unknown

εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον, ἀνέβησαν οὗ ἦσαν καταμένοντες

1

they went up into the upper chamber where they were staying

In this culture, in some houses, rooms were built on top of other rooms. The expression upper chamber describes such a room, which was reached by stairs. If your culture does not have houses like that, it may be helpful to explain the meaning of the expression in your translation. Alternate translation: “they climbed the stairs to the room where they were staying, which had been built on top of other rooms in the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

65

ACT

1

13

a031

translate-names

Πέτρος…Ἰωάννης…Ἰάκωβος…Ἀνδρέας…Φίλιππος…Θωμᾶς…Βαρθολομαῖος…Μαθθαῖος

1

Peter … John … James … Andrew … Philip … Thomas … Bartholomew … Matthew

These are the names of eight men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

66

ACT

1

13

a032

figs-idiom

Ἰάκωβος Ἁλφαίου…Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου

1

James of Alphaeus … Judas of James

These are two occurrences of an idiom. Alternate translation: “James the son of Alphaeus … Judas the son of James” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

67

ACT

1

13

a033

translate-names

Ἰάκωβος…Ἁλφαίου…Ἰούδας…Ἰακώβου

1

James … Alphaeus … Judas … James

These are the names of four men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

68

ACT

1

13

a034

translate-names

Σίμων ὁ Ζηλωτὴς

1

Simon the Zealot

Simon is the name of a man, and Zealot is another name by which he was known. (1) Zealot could be a title that indicates that this man was part of the group of people who wanted to free the Jewish people from Roman rule. Alternate translation: “Simon the Patriot” (2) Zealot could also be a description that indicates that this man was zealous for God to be honored. Alternate translation: “Simon the Passionate One” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names)

69

ACT

1

14

z6cf

ὁμοθυμαδὸν

1

unanimously

The word unanimously indicates that the apostles and other believers shared a common commitment and purpose and that there was no strife among them. Alternate translation: “with one accord” or “harmoniously”

70

ACT

1

14

a035

figs-explicit

γυναιξὶν

1

the women

Luke assumes that his readers will know he is referring to the women who accompanied Jesus and his disciples during his ministry. These women provided for them out of their own means, and they had traveled with them to Jerusalem. These women are described in Luke 8:2–3 and 23:49. Alternate translation: “the women who had helped Jesus and his disciples during his ministry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

71

ACT

1

14

a036

translate-names

Μαρία

1

Mary

Mary is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

72

ACT

1

14

a037

translate-kinship

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς αὐτοῦ

1

his brothers

These were Jesus’ younger brothers. They were the sons of Mary and Joseph. Since the Father of Jesus was God, and their father was Joseph, they were actually his half-brothers. That detail is not normally translated, but if your language has a specific word for “younger brother,” you may wish to use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

73

ACT

1

15

il8w

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

And in those days

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. The phrase refers to the period of time after Jesus ascended, when the disciples were meeting in the upper chamber. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

74

ACT

1

15

cup2

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

in those days

Luke is using the term days idiomatically to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “during that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

75

ACT

1

15

a038

translate-symaction

ἀναστὰς

1

having stood up

Peter stood up to indicate that he had something important to say. Alternate translation: “having stood up to show that he had something important to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

76

ACT

1

15

liz1

figs-metaphor

τῶν ἀδελφῶν

1

the brothers

Luke is using the term brothers figuratively to mean people who share the same faith. Alternate translation: “his fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

77

ACT

1

15

a039

figs-gendernotations

τῶν ἀδελφῶν

1

the brothers

Although the term brothers is masculine, Luke is using the word in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “brothers and sisters” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

78

ACT

1

15

tl5m

writing-background

ἦν τε ὄχλος ὀνομάτων ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ὡς ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι

1

and the multitude of names to the same was about 120

Luke provides this background information to help readers appreciate what happens shortly afterwards in the story, when the church grows in one day to many times this size. It may be helpful to put this background information first in the verse as a separate sentence, in which case it would not have to be in parentheses. Alternate translation: “Now the number of people in that one place was about 120.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

79

ACT

1

15

a040

figs-metonymy

ὄχλος ὀνομάτων

1

the multitude of names

Luke is using the term names figuratively to mean “people,” by association with the way that people have names. Alternate translation: “the number of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

80

ACT

1

15

a041

ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ

1

to the same

See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the Introduction to Acts. Alternate translation: “in that one place” or “in their Christian fellowship”

81

ACT

1

16

a042

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “My brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

82

ACT

1

16

a043

figs-metaphor

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

See how you translated the term brothers in 1:15. Alternate translation: “My fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

83

ACT

1

16

a044

figs-gendernotations

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

If you decide to retain the metaphor of brothers, you could show that Peter is using the term in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “My brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

84

ACT

1

16

a045

figs-infostructure

ἔδει πληρωθῆναι τὴν Γραφὴν, ἣν προεῖπε τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον διὰ στόματος Δαυεὶδ περὶ Ἰούδα, τοῦ γενομένου ὁδηγοῦ τοῖς συλλαβοῦσιν Ἰησοῦν

1

it was necessary for the scripture to be fulfilled that the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to the ones who arrested Jesus

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could put the information that Peter provides to identify this scripture before his statement that it had to be fulfilled. It may be helpful to make that statement a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to the ones who arrested Jesus. It was necessary for that scripture to be fulfilled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

85

ACT

1

16

i8tl

figs-activepassive

ἔδει πληρωθῆναι τὴν Γραφὴν

1

it was necessary for the scripture to be fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the things needed to take place that the scripture described” or, if you put the background information first as a separate sentence, “What that scripture described needed to take place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

86

ACT

1

16

a046

προεῖπε

1

spoke before

Alternate translation: “spoke beforehand” or “spoke in advance”

87

ACT

1

16

f3um

figs-metonymy

διὰ στόματος Δαυεὶδ

1

by the mouth of David

Peter is using the word mouth figuratively to refer to words that David spoke or sang using his mouth and that he recorded in the book of Psalms, as Peter indicates in 1:20. Alternate translation: “through the words of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

88

ACT

1

16

a047

translate-names

Δαυεὶδ…Ἰούδα

1

David … Judas

David and Judas are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

89

ACT

1

16

a048

figs-synecdoche

τοῦ γενομένου ὁδηγοῦ τοῖς συλλαβοῦσιν Ἰησοῦν

1

who became a guide to the ones who arrested Jesus

Peter is using the act of guiding the ones who arrested Jesus to represent all of the things that Judas did to betray Jesus. This also included meeting beforehand with his enemies, receiving payment for the betrayal, and looking for the best opportunity to catch Jesus away from the crowds. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this in more general terms. Alternate translation: “who betrayed Jesus to his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

90

ACT

1

17

q73y

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

For

Peter uses the word For to introduce the reason for a result that is described in 1:21–22, after Luke provides further background information and Peter quotes the scripture he referred to in 1:16. The overall meaning is, “Since Judas was one of us apostles, we need to replace him with another witness of the ministry of Jesus.” But since so much material comes between the reason and the result, it may be helpful to give an indication here that Peter has a response in mind. Alternate translation: “There is something important we need to do in response to this scripture being fulfilled, since” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

91

ACT

1

17

a049

figs-parallelism

κατηριθμημένος ἦν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἔλαχεν τὸν κλῆρον τῆς διακονίας ταύτης

1

he was numbered with us and received a share of this ministry

These two phrases mean similar things. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “Jesus chose him to be an apostle along with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

92

ACT

1

17

a050

κατηριθμημένος ἦν ἐν ἡμῖν

1

he was numbered with us

Peter is using the term numbered in one of its specific senses. Alternate translation: “he was considered to be one of us apostles”

93

ACT

1

17

a051

figs-activepassive

κατηριθμημένος ἦν ἐν ἡμῖν

1

he was numbered with us

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “he belonged to our group of apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

94

ACT

1

17

tmv2

figs-exclusive

ἐν ἡμῖν

1

with us

Although Peter is addressing a larger group of people, he is using the word us to refer only to himself and the other apostles. So if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive “us,” it would be accurate to use the exclusive form here. Other languages may have other ways of indicating that us is exclusive here. Alternate translation: “with us apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

95

ACT

1

17

a052

figs-quotemarks

τὸν κλῆρον τῆς διακονίας ταύτης

1

a share of this ministry

Luke temporarily ends his quotation from Peter after this phrase so that he can provide further background information about Judas in 1:18–19. The quotation resumes in 1:20. If you are identifying quotations in your translation by putting them within quotation marks or by using some other punctuation or convention that your language uses, there should be an ending quotation mark or the equivalent after this phrase. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

96

ACT

1

18

tmv1

writing-background

μὲν οὖν

1

Now indeed

Luke is using this expression to introduce further background information that he provides in this verse and the next one about how Judas died and about what people called the field where he died. This is not part of Peter’s speech. You may want to indicate that by putting these verses in parentheses or by using the equivalent convention in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

97

ACT

1

18

dd58

figs-nominaladj

οὗτος

1

this one

Luke is using the demonstrative adjective this as a noun to refer to a specific person, Judas. (ULT shows that by adding one.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could say “he” or use the name “Judas.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

98

ACT

1

18

a053

figs-abstractnouns

ἐκ μισθοῦ τῆς ἀδικίας

1

from the wage of unrighteousness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word unrighteousness, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “unrighteous.” Alternate translation: “with the money that he received for doing an unrighteous deed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

99

ACT

1

18

w83j

figs-metonymy

ἐκ μισθοῦ τῆς ἀδικίας

1

from the wage of unrighteousness

Luke is using the term unrighteousness figuratively to describe Judas betraying Jesus, by association with the way that was an unrighteous thing to do. Alternate translation: “with the money that he received for betraying Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

100

ACT

1

18

kg3q

figs-explicit

πρηνὴς γενόμενος

1

having fallen headfirst

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Judas did not fall down accidentally. Rather, he threw himself onto the field intentionally in order to kill himself. The implications are that he must have done this from a height. Alternate translation: “because he then threw himself down from a height onto that field” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

101

ACT

1

18

a054

πρηνὴς γενόμενος

1

having fallen headfirst

The word headfirst describes someone falling forward, as opposed to falling backwards. Alternate translation: “having fallen forward”

102

ACT

1

18

a055

figs-activepassive

ἐξεχύθη πάντα τὰ σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ

1

all his entrails were poured out

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “all his inward parts poured out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

103

ACT

1

19

a056

γνωστὸν ἐγένετο πᾶσι τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

it became known to all those living in Jerusalem

The verb form is not passive here, since known is an adjective rather than a participle. Even so, it may be helpful to your readers to make it the object rather than the subject. Alternate translation: “all those living in Jerusalem heard about it”

104

ACT

1

19

a057

figs-hyperbole

γνωστὸν ἐγένετο πᾶσι τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

it became known to all those living in Jerusalem

Luke says all as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “it became well known to those living in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

105

ACT

1

19

a058

figs-activepassive

ὥστε κληθῆναι τὸ χωρίον ἐκεῖνο

1

Therefore that field was called

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “So they called that field” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

106

ACT

1

19

mxf3

translate-transliterate

Ἁκελδαμάχ

1

Akeldama

Akeldama is an Aramaic word. Luke spells it out using Greek letters so his readers will know how it sounds, and then he says what it means, Field of Blood. In your translation you can spell it the way it sounds in your language and then explain its meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

107

ACT

1

20

mz13

figs-quotemarks

γέγραπται γὰρ

1

For it is written

Luke now resumes his quotation of what Peter said on this occasion. If you are identifying quotations in your translation by putting them within quotation marks or by using some other punctuation or convention that your language uses, there should be an opening quotation mark or the equivalent before this phrase. It may also be helpful to indicate explicitly that the quotation resumes here. Alternate translation: “Peter went on to say, ‘For it is written’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

108

ACT

1

20

d7pk

figs-quotesinquotes

γέγραπται…ἐν βίβλῳ Ψαλμῶν, γενηθήτω ἡ ἔπαυλις αὐτοῦ ἔρημος, καὶ μὴ ἔστω ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν αὐτῇ; καί, τὴν ἐπισκοπὴν αὐτοῦ, λαβέτω ἕτερος

1

it is written in the book of Psalms, ‘Let his habitation be made desolate, and let not one dwelling be in it,’ and ‘Let another take his overseership.’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “it is written in the book of Psalms that his habitation should be made desolate, with no one dwelling in it, and that another should take his overseership” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

109

ACT

1

20

ip5w

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται…ἐν βίβλῳ Ψαλμῶν

1

it is written in the book of Psalms

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “David wrote in the book of Psalms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

110

ACT

1

20

mc45

figs-parallelism

γενηθήτω ἡ ἔπαυλις αὐτοῦ ἔρημος, καὶ μὴ ἔστω ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν αὐτῇ

1

Let his habitation be made desolate, and let not one dwelling be in it

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. The second emphasizes the meaning of the first by repeating the same idea with different words. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be good to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a word other than and in order to show that the second phrase is repeating the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “Let his habitation be made desolate, yes, let no one dwell in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

111

ACT

1

20

chq4

figs-metaphor

γενηθήτω ἡ ἔπαυλις αὐτοῦ ἔρημος, καὶ μὴ ἔστω ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν αὐτῇ

1

Let his habitation be made desolate, and let not one dwelling be in it

The word habitation likely refers to Judas’ home and is a metaphor for his family line. Alternate translation: “May he leave no descendants, none to continue his family line” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

112

ACT

1

20

lsm2

figs-activepassive

γενηθήτω ἡ ἔπαυλις αὐτοῦ ἔρημος

1

Let his habitation be made desolate

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Let his habitation become desolate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

113

ACT

1

20

a059

τὴν ἐπισκοπὴν αὐτοῦ, λαβέτω ἕτερος

1

Let another take his overseership

The word overseership refers to a position of leadership and supervision. It is the same term that Paul uses for a spiritual leader in 1 Timothy 3:1. Alternate translation: “Let someone else take his leadership position”

114

ACT

1

21

t916

translate-versebridge

0

To help your readers understand Peter’s main point in this verse and the next one, you could combine both verses into a verse bridge. You could put his main point in a first sentence and his further explanation in a second sentence. Alternate translation: “Therefore it is necessary for someone else to become a witness with us of Jesus’ resurrection. It should be one of the men who accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus came in and went out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day that he was taken up from us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

115

ACT

1

21

xz69

figs-exclusive

ἡμῖν…ἡμᾶς

1

us … us

In the first instance of us, Peter means himself and his fellow apostles, not everyone to whom he is speaking, so use the exclusive form of the word if your language marks that distinction. However, in the second instance of us, Peter could well mean himself and his entire audience, so use the inclusive form in that instance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

116

ACT

1

21

zuf7

figs-idiom

εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ὁ Κύριος Ἰησοῦς

1

the Lord Jesus came in and went out among us

Peter is speaking in an idiomatic way. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus lived among us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

117

ACT

1

22

qb8j

figs-abstractnouns

ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ τοῦ βαπτίσματος Ἰωάννου

1

beginning from the baptism of John

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word baptism, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “baptize.” Alternate translation: “beginning from when John started baptizing people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

118

ACT

1

22

a060

translate-names

Ἰωάννου

1

John

John is the name of a man. Peter means the man who was known as John the Baptist. See how you translated his name in 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

119

ACT

1

22

a061

figs-idiom

τῆς ἡμέρας ἧς

1

the day on which

While Jesus was taken up to heaven on a specific day, Peter may be using the word day idiomatically to mean a specific time. Alternate translation: “the time when” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

120

ACT

1

22

a062

writing-pronouns

ἀνελήμφθη…τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ

1

he was taken up … his resurrection

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, not to John the Baptist. The pronoun his also refers to Jesus. For clarity, you may want to use the name Jesus instead of one or both of these pronouns. Alternate translation: “Jesus was taken up … the resurrection of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

121

ACT

1

22

yi3a

figs-activepassive

ἀνελήμφθη ἀφ’ ἡμῶν

1

he was taken up from us

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God took him up from us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

122

ACT

1

22

a063

figs-exclusive

ἀφ’ ἡμῶν…σὺν ἡμῖν

1

from us … with us

When Peter says from us, he is referring to God taking Jesus from everyone to whom he is speaking. But when Peter says with us, he means only himself and the other apostles. So the word “us” would be inclusive in the first instance and exclusive in the second instance, if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

123

ACT

1

22

mrx7

figs-nominaladj

ἕνα τούτων

1

one of these is

Peter is using the demonstrative adjective these as a noun to refer to specific people, the men whose qualifications he has just described. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could add the term “men” to clarify the meaning. Alternate translation: “one of these men is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

124

ACT

1

22

g3n9

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ

1

of his resurrection

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word resurrection, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “alive.” Alternate translation: “that God made him alive again after he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

125

ACT

1

23

lz7y

writing-pronouns

ἔστησαν δύο

1

they stood up two

The pronoun they refers to all of the believers who were present on this occasion. This is the group that Luke describes as “the brothers” in 1:15. Alternate translation: “the believers stood up two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

126

ACT

1

23

a064

figs-nominaladj

ἔστησαν δύο

1

they stood up two

Luke is using the adjective two as a noun to refer to specific people, two men who met the qualifications Peter described. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could add the term “men” to clarify the meaning, and you could also describe these men more specifically. Alternate translation: “the believers stood up two men” or “the believers stood up two men who met the qualifications that Peter described” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

127

ACT

1

23

a065

translate-symaction

ἔστησαν δύο

1

they stood up two

When the believers stood up these two men, that is, when they had them stand up within the group, this was a symbolic way of proposing them as candidates to replace Judas. Alternate translation: “the believers proposed two men who met the qualifications that Peter described” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

128

ACT

1

23

a066

translate-names

Ἰωσὴφ…Βαρσαββᾶν…Ἰοῦστος

1

Joseph … Barsabbas … Justus

Joseph is the name of a man, and Barsabbas and Justus are two other names by which he was known. Barsabbas is probably a patronymic, that is, an indication of who his father was. If your language and culture identify people by patronymics, it may be helpful to translate this name as “the son of Sabbas,” as UST does. Justus is a Roman name, and it may be a name that this man used for official purposes and in interactions with people who spoke Latin. (It would be like the name Paul, by which Saul of Tarsus was also known in the Roman Empire.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

129

ACT

1

23

s1ff

figs-activepassive

τὸν καλούμενον Βαρσαββᾶν, ὃς ἐπεκλήθη Ἰοῦστος

1

the one called Barsabbas, who was named Justus

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say both of these things with active forms. Alternate translation: “whom people called Barsabbas and whose other name was Justus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

130

ACT

1

23

a067

translate-names

Μαθθίαν

1

Matthias

Matthias is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

131

ACT

1

24

a068

translate-versebridge

0

Judas betrayed Jesus and abandoned his position as an apostle. The person who is praying says that in the next verse. As a result, the believers are asking God to show them whom he has chosen to replace Judas, as the person praying says in this verse. You could put the reason before the result by creating a verse bridge. UST provides a model for doing that. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

132

ACT

1

24

a069

figs-hendiadys

προσευξάμενοι, εἶπαν

1

praying they said

Together the words praying and said indicate that the believers said what they did while praying. Alternate translation: “they said in prayer” or “they prayed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

133

ACT

1

24

zd1f

figs-synecdoche

προσευξάμενοι, εἶπαν

1

praying they said

The pronoun they refers to all of the believers, but one of the apostles alone probably spoke these words on behalf of everyone. Alternate translation: “as the believers were all praying together, one of the apostles said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

134

ACT

1

24

a070

σὺ Κύριε, καρδιογνῶστα πάντων

1

You, Lord, heart-knower of all

Alternate translation: “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all people”

135

ACT

1

24

se6m

figs-metaphor

σὺ Κύριε, καρδιογνῶστα πάντων

1

You, Lord, heart-knower of all

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and motives. Alternate translation: “You, Lord, who know the thoughts and motives of all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

136

ACT

1

24

a071

figs-youformal

σὺ Κύριε

1

you, Lord

The word you is singular because the person who is praying is addressing God. If your language has a formal form of “you” that it uses to address a superior respectfully, you may wish to use that form in your translation. However, it might be more natural in your language for someone who has a good, close relationship with God to address God using the informal form of “you.” Use your best judgment about what form to use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

137

ACT

1

24

a072

figs-nominaladj

ὃν ἐξελέξω ἐκ τούτων τῶν δύο ἕνα

1

which one from these two

The person who is praying is using the adjective two as a noun to refer to specific people, the two men whom the believers have proposed. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could add the term “men” to clarify the meaning. Alternate translation: “which one of these two men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

138

ACT

1

25

mg47

figs-hendiadys

λαβεῖν τὸν τόπον τῆς διακονίας ταύτης καὶ ἀποστολῆς

1

to take this place of ministry and apostleship

The person who is praying is expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word apostleship identifies what kind of ministry this is. Alternate translation: “to take this place of apostolic ministry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

139

ACT

1

25

ryv6

figs-metaphor

ἀφ’ ἧς παρέβη Ἰούδας

1

from which Judas turned aside

The expression turned aside figuratively means that Judas stopped performing this ministry. Alternate translation: “which Judas stopped fulfilling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

140

ACT

1

25

tx6n

figs-euphemism

πορευθῆναι εἰς τὸν τόπον τὸν ἴδιον

1

to go to his own place

This phrase uses a mild expression to describe Judas’ death and likely also his judgment after death. Alternate translation: “and died under God’s judgment as a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

141

ACT

1

26

a073

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses the word translated And to introduce what the believers did as a result of Peter’s speech. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

142

ACT

1

26

r84c

writing-pronouns

ἔδωκαν κλήρους αὐτοῖς

1

they cast lots for them

The pronoun they refers to the believers and the pronoun them refers to Joseph and Matthias. You may want to specify that for clarity. (But if you decide to retain the pronoun them and if your language marks the dual form, them would be dual because it refers to those two men.) Alternate translation: “the believers cast lots to decide between Joseph and Matthias” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

143

ACT

1

26

a074

translate-unknown

ἔδωκαν κλήρους αὐτοῖς

1

they cast lots for them

The term lots describes objects with various markings on different sides that were used, most likely by dropping them on the ground, to select between possibilities. The belief was that God would control which way these objects fell and so guide the selection process. Alternate translation: “they threw marked objects on the ground, trusting that God would use these to guide them whether to choose Joseph or Matthias” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

144

ACT

1

26

w4ph

figs-idiom

ἔπεσεν ὁ κλῆρος ἐπὶ Μαθθίαν

1

the lot fell to Matthias

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the lot selected Matthias” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

145

ACT

1

26

fk4x

figs-activepassive

συνκατεψηφίσθη

1

he was chosen

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the believers chose him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

146

ACT

2

intro

x8fr

0

Acts 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set lines of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 2:17–21, 25–28, and 34–35.

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. The ULT does this with the material that is quoted in 2:31.

Special concepts in this chapter

Pentecost

The events described in this chapter took place on the day of Pentecost. That was a festival that the Jews observed each year 50 days after Passover. It was a harvest festival that celebrated the first produce from the fields. That produce was known as “firstfruits.” Many people believe that the church began to exist when the Holy Spirit came to live inside believers on this particular day of Pentecost. Those believers were the “firstfruits” of all those who would become part of the church down through the years.

Tongues

The word “tongues” has two meanings in this chapter. In 2:3, Luke describes what came down from heaven as “tongues as if of fire.” A “tongue of fire” means a “flame of fire” (as in Isaiah 5:24, for example), so this means “something like flames of fire.” In 2:4, Luke uses the word “tongues” in the different sense of “languages” to describe the languages that the people spoke after the Holy Spirit filled them.

Last days

In 2:17–21, Peter quotes a prophecy from Joel that describes something that will happen in the “last days.” Some scholars understand the “last days” to mean a time in the future just before Jesus returns. Other scholars understand the “last days” to mean the entire time from when Jesus first came to when he will return. Translators should be careful not to let how they understand this issue affect how they translate this expression where it occurs in 2:17. It may be best not to say more about this than ULT does. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lastday]])

The prophecy of Joel

In 2:17–21, Peter quotes a prophecy of Joel about what would happen in the “last days.” Some of the things that prophecy describes did happen on the day of Pentecost, for example, the pouring out of the Spirit (2:17–18). Some other things did not happen, at least not literally, for example, the sun turning to darkness (2:20). Depending on how scholars understand the “last days,” they may say either that these other things await a literal future fulfillment or that they were fulfilled in some spiritual sense on the day of Pentecost. Once again it may be best not to say any more than ULT does and to allow preachers and teachers of the Bible to interpret and explain the meaning of Peter’s statement in 2:16, “this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

Baptize

In this chapter, the word “baptize” refers to water baptism as an expression of faith in Jesus for the forgiveness of sins. That is how Luke uses the term in 2:38 and 2:41. Jesus did promise the disciples in 1:5 that they would be baptized in the Holy Spirit, and the events that Luke describes in 2:1-11 are the fulfillment of that promise. But Luke does not use the word “baptize” to describe those events in this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/baptize]])

Wonders and signs

These words refer to things that only God could do that showed that Jesus was who the disciples said he was. See the notes to this expression in 2:43.

Possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“You killed” (2:23)

The Romans were the ones who killed Jesus, but they killed him because the Jews captured him, brought him to the Romans, and urged the Romans to kill him. For this reason Peter tells the people in the crowd on the day of Pentecost that they were guilty of killing Jesus. See the note to this phrase in 2:23 for suggestions about how to make clear in your translation what Peter means when he says this.

Long sentences

There is a long sentence that goes from the beginning of 2:9 to the end of 2:11. ULT represents all of it as a single sentence. It may be helpful to your readers to divide it into several sentences, as UST does.

There is also a long sentence that goes from the beginning of 2:44 to the end of 2:47. Once again it may be helpful to your readers to divide it into several sentences, as UST does.

Poetry

The quotations from the Old Testament in 2:17–21, 25–28, and 34–35 are poetry. For advice about how to represent this literary form in your translation, see: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]].

147

ACT

2

1

i4sa

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς Πεντηκοστῆς

1

And when the day of Pentecost was completely filled

Luke uses this time reference to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

148

ACT

2

1

a076

figs-idiom

ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς Πεντηκοστῆς

1

when the day of Pentecost was completely filled

This is an idiomatic way of speaking about time. Alternate translation: “when the day of Pentecost had come” or, if your language does not speak of days “coming,” “on the day of Pentecost” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

149

ACT

2

1

a425

figs-activepassive

ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς Πεντηκοστῆς

1

when the day of Pentecost was completely filled

Since this is an idiom, it would probably not be meaningful in most languages to use an active form of the verb “fill” in place of the passive form of that verb here. However, if your language does speak of someone or something “filling” days or times so that they arrive, but your language does not use passive verbal forms, you could use an active form of “fill” here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

150

ACT

2

1

x075

translate-names

τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς Πεντηκοστῆς

1

the day of Pentecost

Pentecost is the name of a festival. It occurs 50 days after Passover. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

151

ACT

2

1

i4sb

writing-pronouns

ἦσαν πάντες ὁμοῦ

1

they were all together

Here the word they refers to the apostles and the other 120 believers whom Luke mentions in 1:15. Alternate translation: “the apostles and all the other believers were together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

152

ACT

2

1

a077

ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό

1

to the same

See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the Introduction to Acts. Alternate translation: “in the same place” or “in united Christian fellowship”

153

ACT

2

2

qjc3

ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

from heaven

The word translated heaven could mean: (1) “the sky.” Alternate translation: “from the sky” (2) the sound came from heaven itself.

154

ACT

2

2

a078

figs-simile

ὥσπερ φερομένης πνοῆς βιαίας

1

as of a strong wind being borne along

Luke is using a simile to describe what this wind was like. You could use the same simile in your translation, or you could use a different comparison, to a similar loud sound that your readers would recognize. It may be helpful to start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “It sounded like a strong wind being borne along” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

155

ACT

2

2

jec5

figs-metaphor

φερομένης πνοῆς βιαίας

1

a strong wind being borne along

Luke speaks figuratively of the wind as if it were being carried through the air. Alternate translation: “a mighty, rushing wind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

156

ACT

2

2

a079

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήρωσεν ὅλον τὸν οἶκον

1

it filled the whole house

Luke speaks figuratively of this sound as if it filled the house. Alternate translation: “it could be heard throughout the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

157

ACT

2

2

t4y4

ὅλον τὸν οἶκον

1

the whole house

Luke may be using the word translated house in one of its specific senses to mean a building. So this could have been either a private home or a larger building. Alternate translation: “the entire building”

158

ACT

2

2

a080

figs-idiom

οὗ ἦσαν καθήμενοι

1

where they were sitting

Luke may be using the term sitting idiomatically to mean “meeting.” Alternate translation: “in which they were meeting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

159

ACT

2

3

re3t

γλῶσσαι ὡσεὶ πυρός

1

tongues as if of fire

This phrase means “something like tongues of fire,” and a “tongue of fire” means a “flame of fire.” (The expression is used with that meaning in Isaiah 5:24, for example.) This is not a simile. Luke is describing what these objects looked like. Alternate translation: “objects that looked like flames of fire”

160

ACT

2

3

xtk4

διαμεριζόμεναι

1

distributing themselves

This means that the objects that looked like flames of fire spread out so that there was one on each person. Alternate translation: “spreading around”

161

ACT

2

3

a081

writing-pronouns

ἐκάθισεν ἐφ’ ἕνα ἕκαστον αὐτῶν

1

they sat upon each one of them

The pronoun they refers to the objects, and the pronoun them refers to the disciples. Alternate translation: “one of the objects sat upon each one of the disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

162

ACT

2

3

a082

figs-metaphor

ἐκάθισεν ἐφ’ ἕνα ἕκαστον αὐτῶν

1

they sat upon each one of them

Luke is using the word sat figuratively to indicate that the objects remained in one place once they had spread around. Alternate translation: “one of the objects remained on each one of the disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

163

ACT

2

4

v7hi

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

they were all filled with the Holy Spirit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit filled them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

164

ACT

2

4

a251

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

they were all filled with the Holy Spirit

Luke is speaking figuratively as if the believers were containers that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “they were all inspired by the Holy Spirit” or “the Holy Spirit inspired them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

165

ACT

2

4

a083

ἤρξαντο λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις

1

they began to speak in other tongues

Luke is using the word tongues in one of its specific senses to mean “languages.” Alternate translation: “they began to speak in other languages”

166

ACT

2

4

nr9f

figs-explicit

ἤρξαντο λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις

1

they began to speak in other tongues

The implication, as 2:6–11 makes clear, is that the disciples were speaking languages that they did not know. Alternate translation: “they began to speak in languages that they did not know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

167

ACT

2

4

a084

καθὼς τὸ Πνεῦμα ἐδίδου ἀποφθέγγεσθαι αὐτοῖς

1

as the Spirit was giving them to speak out

Here, giving has the sense of enabling. Alternate translation: “as the Spirit was enabling them to speak out”

168

ACT

2

4

a085

καθὼς τὸ Πνεῦμα ἐδίδου ἀποφθέγγεσθαι αὐτοῖς

1

as the Spirit was giving them to speak out

The word translated to speak out means to speak clearly and articulately. To express this meaning, it may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “The Spirit was enabling them to speak these languages clearly and articulately”

169

ACT

2

5

dz1l

grammar-connect-time-background

δὲ

1

Now

Luke uses the word Now to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. You can translate it with a word or phrase that serves the same purpose in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

170

ACT

2

5

yft2

figs-gendernotations

ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς

1

godly men

Luke is using the term men in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “godly people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

171

ACT

2

5

stq9

figs-hyperbole

παντὸς ἔθνους

1

every nation

The word every is a generalization that emphasizes that the people came from many different nations. Alternate translation: “many different nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

172

ACT

2

5

a086

figs-idiom

ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανόν

1

under heaven

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

173

ACT

2

6

bpj7

figs-activepassive

συνεχύθη

1

was confused

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say what did the action. Alternate translation: “what they heard confused them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

174

ACT

2

6

u9hc

writing-pronouns

ἤκουον εἷς ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ λαλούντων αὐτῶν

1

each one was hearing them speaking in his own language

The pronoun them refers to the believers and the pronoun his refers to each person in the multitude. Alternate translation: “each person in the multitude could hear one of the disciples speaking in that person’s own language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

175

ACT

2

7

m8kd

figs-doublet

ἐξίσταντο…καὶ ἐθαύμαζον

1

they were … amazed and were marveling

The terms amazed and marveling mean similar things. Luke may be using the two terms together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “they were … greatly amazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

176

ACT

2

7

a087

figs-activepassive

ἐξίσταντο…πάντες καὶ ἐθαύμαζον

1

they were all amazed and were marveling

The expression were … amazed is not a passive verbal form. However, if your language does not use passive forms, it might be helpful to your readers to use an expression that does not seem to be a passive verbal form. Alternate translation: “this amazed all of them and they were marveling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

177

ACT

2

7

a088

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Behold is an expression that speakers use to focus the attention of their listeners on what they are about to say. Though it literally means “look” or “see,” the term can be used figuratively to get people to pay attention. Your language may have a comparable expression that you can use here in your translation. Alternate translation: “In fact” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

178

ACT

2

7

wnk2

figs-rquestion

οὐχ…ἅπαντες οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ λαλοῦντες Γαλιλαῖοι

1

are not all these who are speaking Galileans?

The speakers are not looking for information. They are using the question form to express their amazement. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “all of these people who are speaking are Galileans!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

179

ACT

2

7

a089

translate-names

Γαλιλαῖοι

1

Galileans

See how you translated the name Galileans in 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

180

ACT

2

8

hzm8

figs-rquestion

καὶ πῶς ἡμεῖς ἀκούομεν ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ ἡμῶν, ἐν ᾗ ἐγεννήθημεν?

1

And how are we hearing, each in our own language in which we were born?

The speakers do not expect someone to be able to answer this question for them. Rather, they are using the question form to express their amazement. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “So we should not each be hearing them speak in our own languages in which we were born!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

181

ACT

2

8

a090

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

The speakers are using the word translated And to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

182

ACT

2

8

a091

figs-explicit

πῶς ἡμεῖς ἀκούομεν ἕκαστος

1

how are we hearing, each

Your language may require you to specify the object of hearing. Alternate translation: “how are we each hearing them speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

183

ACT

2

8

a092

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς…ἡμῶν

1

we … our

The speakers are using the words we and our to refer to themselves and to their listeners, so use the inclusive forms of those words if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

184

ACT

2

8

wb5t

figs-metaphor

ἐν ᾗ ἐγεννήθημεν

1

in which we were born

The speakers say figuratively that they were born in these languages to mean that they learned them from birth. Alternate translation: “that we learned from birth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

185

ACT

2

8

a093

figs-activepassive

ἐν ᾗ ἐγεννήθημεν

1

in which we were born

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. However, since this is a metaphor, it would be preferable to use another expression to explain its meaning, rather than to say something like “in which our mothers gave birth to us.” Alternate translation: “that we learned from birth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

186

ACT

2

9

f1ve

translate-names

Πάρθοι…Μῆδοι…Ἐλαμεῖται

1

Parthians … Medes … Elamites

These are names of three people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

187

ACT

2

9

dm23

translate-names

τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν, Ἰουδαίαν;…Καππαδοκίαν, Πόντον…Ἀσίαν

1

Mesopotamia, Judea … Cappadocia, Pontus … Asia

These are names of five areas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

188

ACT

2

10

tmb4

translate-names

Φρυγίαν…Παμφυλίαν, Αἴγυπτον…Λιβύης

1

Phrygia … Pamphylia, Egypt … Libya

These are names of four areas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

189

ACT

2

10

a094

translate-names

Κυρήνην

1

Cyrene

Cyrene is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

190

ACT

2

10

a095

translate-names

οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες Ῥωμαῖοι

1

Romans visiting

Here, Romans is a name for people who are from the city of Rome. Alternate translation: “visitors from Rome” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

191

ACT

2

11

w8jy

Ἰουδαῖοί τε καὶ προσήλυτοι

1

both Jews and proselytes

The term proselytes describes converts to the Jewish religion. The phrase both Jews and proselytes could apply specifically to the visitors from Rome mentioned at the end of the previous verse, or it could apply to the whole list of people in 2:9–11. Alternate translation: “both Jews and converts to the Jewish religion”

192

ACT

2

11

jnp7

translate-names

Κρῆτες…Ἄραβες

1

Cretans and Arabians

These are names of two people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

193

ACT

2

11

a096

γλώσσαις

1

tongues

As in 2:4, here the word tongues has the specific sense of “languages.” Alternate translation: “languages”

194

ACT

2

11

a097

figs-nominaladj

τὰ μεγαλεῖα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the great things of God

The speakers are using the adjective great as a noun. (The term is plural; ULT adds things to show this.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the great things that God has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

195

ACT

2

12

el2f

figs-doublet

ἐξίσταντο…πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο

1

they were all amazed and were perplexed

The words amazed and perplexed mean similar things. Luke is using them together to emphasize that the people could not understand what was happening. Alternate translation: “they were very perplexed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

196

ACT

2

12

a098

figs-activepassive

ἐξίσταντο…πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο…λέγοντες

1

they were all amazed and were perplexed, saying

These are not passive verbal forms. However, if your language does not use passive forms, it might be helpful to your readers to use an expression that does not seem to be a passive verbal form. Alternate translation: “this amazed and perplexed all of them, and they said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

197

ACT

2

12

a099

figs-idiom

τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι

1

What does this want to be

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “What is the explanation for this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

198

ACT

2

13

a100

figs-activepassive

γλεύκους μεμεστωμένοι εἰσίν

1

They are filled with sweet wine

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. However, it would be preferable to use an equivalent expression that conveys the meaning rather than to say something like “sweet wine has filled them.” Alternate translation: “They have drunk their fill of sweet wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

199

ACT

2

13

fg59

figs-explicit

γλεύκους μεμεστωμένοι εἰσίν

1

They are filled with sweet wine

The implications of this statement are that the disciples have gotten drunk and are babbling and that this is the explanation for the languages the people think they are hearing. Alternate translation: “They have gotten drunk on sweet wine, and so what we are hearing is just drunken babbling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

200

ACT

2

13

jj1n

translate-unknown

γλεύκους

1

with sweet wine

This refers to wine that is thicker and more intoxicating than ordinary wine. If your readers would not be familiar with this drink, you could use the name of another strong drink that they would recognize, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “with strong liquor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

201

ACT

2

14

k5hr

translate-symaction

σταθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος σὺν τοῖς ἕνδεκα, ἐπῆρεν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ

1

But Peter, having stood with the Eleven, raised up his voice

Peter stood to show that he had something important to say, and the other apostles stood with him to show their support for him as he spoke. You could indicate that in your translation, perhaps as a separate sentence, if it would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “But Peter stood up to show that he had something important to say, and the other apostles stood with him to show their support for him as he spoke. Peter raised up his voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

202

ACT

2

14

c919

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς ἕνδεκα

1

the eleven

Luke is using the adjective eleven as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the other 11 apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

203

ACT

2

14

d9tb

figs-idiom

ἐπῆρεν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀπεφθέγξατο αὐτοῖς

1

raised up his voice and spoke out to them

The idiom raised up his voice means that Peter spoke loudly. Alternate translation: “spoke out to them in a loud voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

204

ACT

2

14

a102

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, Ἰουδαῖοι

1

Men, Jews

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “My fellow Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

205

ACT

2

14

a103

figs-gendernotations

ἄνδρες, Ἰουδαῖοι

1

Men, Jews

Peter is using the term men in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you retain the idiomatic form of address in your translation, follow the convention in your language that indicates a mixed group of people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

206

ACT

2

14

a104

figs-explicit

οἱ κατοικοῦντες Ἰερουσαλὴμ πάντες

1

all who are inhabiting Jerusalem

This seems to mean implicitly people who are not Jews but who live in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “all of you non-Jews who are residents of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

207

ACT

2

14

ei5j

τοῦτο ὑμῖν γνωστὸν ἔστω

1

let this be known to you

This expression means that Peter wants to explain the meaning of what the people are seeing and hearing. Alternate translation: “let me explain this to you” or “I am going to explain this to you”

208

ACT

2

14

a105

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

and

Peter uses the word translated and to indicate what his listeners should do as a result of what he has just told them. Alternate translation: “so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

209

ACT

2

14

qp16

figs-metonymy

ἐνωτίσασθε τὰ ῥήματά μου

1

take my words into your ears

Peter is using the term words figuratively to mean what he is about to say by using words, and he is using the term ears figuratively to mean the capacity for listening. Alternate translation: “listen carefully to what I am about to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

210

ACT

2

15

a106

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Peter says for in this first instance to introduce the reason why the crowd should listen to him. Alternate translation: “You should listen to me because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

211

ACT

2

15

a107

writing-pronouns

οὗτοι

1

these

The demonstrative pronoun these refers to the disciples who are speaking different languages. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could add more information to clarify the meaning. Alternate translation: “these people who are speaking different languages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

212

ACT

2

15

a108

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

2

For

Peter says for in this second instance to introduce the reason why the people speaking different languages are not drunk. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “They are not drunk, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

213

ACT

2

15

a109

ἔστιν…ὥρα τρίτη τῆς ἡμέρας

1

it is the third hour of the day

In this culture, people began counting the hours each day beginning around daybreak at six o’clock in the morning. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this in the way the people of your culture reckon time. Alternate translation: “it is nine o’clock in the morning”

214

ACT

2

15

h28q

figs-explicit

ἔστιν…ὥρα τρίτη τῆς ἡμέρας

1

it is the third hour of the day

Peter assumes that his listeners will know that people do not get drunk that early in the day. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “it is only nine o’clock in the morning, and people do not get drunk that early” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

215

ACT

2

15

a110

translate-ordinal

ὥρα τρίτη τῆς ἡμέρας

1

the third hour of the day

If you decide to translate this in the way that the biblical culture reckoned time, but your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “hour three of the day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

216

ACT

2

16

f9hz

figs-activepassive

τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ εἰρημένον διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Ἰωήλ

1

this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “this is what God said through the prophet Joel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

217

ACT

2

16

ktw9

figs-explicit

τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ εἰρημένον διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Ἰωήλ

1

this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel

The implication is that God is now making happen what he said through Joel. Alternate translation: “you are seeing God make happen what he announced earlier through the prophet Joel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

218

ACT

2

17

a111

figs-quotesinquotes

καὶ ἔσται ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις, λέγει ὁ Θεός, ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματός μου ἐπὶ πᾶσαν σάρκα

1

‘“And it will be in the last days,” God says, “I will pour out from my Spirit on all flesh”

The material in 2:17–21 contains a quotation within a quotation within a quotation. Luke is quoting Peter, Peter is quoting Joel, and Joel is quoting God. You could avoid having a third-level quotation by moving the phrase God says to before the quotation from Joel. (The phrase itself does not occur in the passage from Joel that Peter quotes. It appears to be something that Peter supplies within the quotation to show that God is the speaker. Since that is the case, putting it before the quotation would not change the actual biblical text.) Alternate translation: “God said, ‘And it will be in the last days, I will pour out from my Spirit on all flesh’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

219

ACT

2

17

a112

figs-quotations

καὶ ἔσται ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις, λέγει ὁ Θεός, ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματός μου ἐπὶ πᾶσαν σάρκα

1

‘“And it will be in the last days,” God says, “I will pour out from my Spirit on all flesh”

You could also avoid having a second-level quotation by turning the direct quotation into an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “God said that in the last days he would pour out his Spirit on all flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

220

ACT

2

17

ijl8

καὶ ἔσται

1

And it will be

Alternate translation: “This is what will happen” or “This is what I will do”

221

ACT

2

17

a113

ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις

1

the last days

See the discussion of this phrase in the General Notes to this chapter, which recommend not interpreting or explaining it, but representing it simply as ULT does.

222

ACT

2

17

u2d1

figs-metaphor

ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματός μου

1

I will pour out from my Spirit

God says figuratively that he will pour out his Spirit, as if the Spirit were a liquid, to mean that he will give the Spirit generously and abundantly. Alternate translation: “I will lavish my Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

223

ACT

2

17

a114

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ πᾶσαν σάρκα

1

on all flesh

God refers figuratively to flesh to mean people, by association with the way that people are made of flesh. Alternate translation: “to all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

224

ACT

2

17

a115

figs-quotations

καὶ προφητεύσουσιν οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν, καὶ αἱ θυγατέρες ὑμῶν; καὶ οἱ νεανίσκοι ὑμῶν ὁράσεις ὄψονται, καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ὑμῶν ἐνυπνίοις ἐνυπνιασθήσονται

1

and your sons and your daughters will prophesy, and your young men will see visions, and your old men will dream dreams

If you have decided to turn Peter’s quotation from Joel into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation, also do that here in the rest of the verse. It may be helpful to make this a new sentence. Alternate translation: “God said that our sons and our daughters would prophesy and our young men would see visions and our old men would dream dreams” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

225

ACT

2

17

a116

figs-exclusive

ὑμῶν

-1

your

If you turn the direct quotation into an indirect quotation and translate these instances of your as “our,” use the inclusive form of the word “our” in each instance if your language marks that distinction, since Joel would be referring to himself and his listeners. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

226

ACT

2

17

a117

figs-gendernotations

οἱ νεανίσκοι…οἱ πρεσβύτεροι

1

young men … old men

God speaks separately of sons and daughters in this verse and of “male servants” and “female servants” in the next verse. But here the contrast is between young and old. So the word men could have a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “young people … old people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

227

ACT

2

18

uwd7

figs-quotations

καί γε ἐπὶ τοὺς δούλους μου, καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς δούλας μου, ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματός μου, καὶ προφητεύσουσιν

1

And even on my male servants and on my female servants in those days I will pour out from my Spirit, and they will prophesy

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation from Joel into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. Alternate translation: “God said that even on his male servants and on his female servants in those days he would pour out from his Spirit, and they would prophesy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

228

ACT

2

18

nd34

ἐπὶ τοὺς δούλους μου, καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς δούλας μου

1

on my male servants and on my female servants

If your language has masculine and feminine forms of the word “servant,” it would be accurate to use those forms here. Other languages can indicate this distinction in other ways, as ULT does with the adjectives “male” and “female.”

229

ACT

2

18

a118

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

1

in those days

Here, days idiomatically means a specific time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

230

ACT

2

18

wz2i

figs-metaphor

ἐπὶ…ἐπὶ…ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματός μου

1

on … on … I will pour out from my Spirit

See how you translated this in 2:17. Alternate translation: “to … to … I will give my Spirit abundantly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

231

ACT

2

19

a119

figs-quotations

καὶ δώσω

1

And I will give

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation from Joel into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. Alternate translation: “God said that he would give” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

232

ACT

2

19

a120

δώσω τέρατα…καὶ σημεῖα

1

I will give wonders … and signs

Alternate translation: “I will show wonders … and signs”

233

ACT

2

19

a121

ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἄνω

1

in the heaven above

Since God specifies in the next verse that these wonders will affect the sun and the moon, the word translated heaven likely has the specific sense of “sky.” Alternate translation: “in the sky above”

234

ACT

2

19

p5zi

figs-possession

ἀτμίδα καπνοῦ

1

vapor of smoke

Here the possessive form describes vapor that looks smoky or that has smoke in it. Alternate translation: “smoky vapor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

235

ACT

2

20

ylv7

figs-quotations

ὁ ἥλιος μεταστραφήσεται εἰς σκότος καὶ ἡ σελήνη εἰς αἷμα, πρὶν ἢ ἐλθεῖν ἡμέραν Κυρίου τὴν μεγάλην καὶ ἐπιφανῆ

1

The sun will be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood before the great and remarkable day of the Lord comes

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation from Joel into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. Alternate translation: “God said that sun would be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood before the great and remarkable day of the Lord came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

236

ACT

2

20

a6yh

figs-activepassive

ὁ ἥλιος μεταστραφήσεται εἰς σκότος

1

The sun will be turned to darkness

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I will turn the sun to darkness” or, if you are making this an indirect quotation, “God said that he would turn the sun to darkness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

237

ACT

2

20

a122

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἥλιος μεταστραφήσεται εἰς σκότος

1

The sun will be turned to darkness

God is speaking figuratively as if he would change the sun into something else. Alternate translation: “The sun will become dark” or “The sun will no longer shine brightly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

238

ACT

2

20

a123

figs-abstractnouns

ὁ ἥλιος μεταστραφήσεται εἰς σκότος

1

The sun will be turned to darkness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word darkness, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “dark.” Alternate translation: “The sun will become dark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

239

ACT

2

20

a124

figs-ellipsis

καὶ ἡ σελήνη εἰς αἷμα

1

and the moon to blood

Here some words have been left out that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. You can supply these words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “and the moon will be turned to blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

240

ACT

2

20

a125

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἡ σελήνη εἰς αἷμα

1

and the moon to blood

If you decide to supply words as the previous note suggests, but your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form. Alternate translation: “and I will turn the moon to blood” or, if you are making this an indirect quotation, “and that he would turn the moon to blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

241

ACT

2

20

f34k

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἡ σελήνη εἰς αἷμα

1

and the moon to blood

God is speaking figuratively as if he would change the moon into something else. Alternate translation: “and the moon will look like blood” or “and the moon will appear to be red” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

242

ACT

2

20

swb2

figs-doublet

ἡμέραν…τὴν μεγάλην καὶ ἐπιφανῆ

1

the great and remarkable day

The words great and remarkable mean similar things. They are being used together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the very great day” or “the truly remarkable day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

243

ACT

2

20

lc4g

figs-idiom

ἐλθεῖν ἡμέραν Κυρίου

1

the day of the Lord comes

This is an expression that many of the prophets use. It refers to the time when God will judge and punish people for their sins. Alternate translation: “the time when the Lord judges and punishes people for their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

244

ACT

2

20

a126

figs-123person

ἐλθεῖν ἡμέραν Κυρίου

1

the day of the Lord comes

In this expression, God is speaking of himself in the third person. If that would be confusing to your readers, you can use the first person in your translation. Alternate translation: “time arrives when I judge and punish people for their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

245

ACT

2

21

a127

figs-quotations

καὶ ἔσται, πᾶς ὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου σωθήσεται

1

And it will be, everyone who may call on the name of the Lord will be saved

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation from Joel into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. Alternate translation: “And God said it would happen that everyone who called on the name of the Lord would be saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

246

ACT

2

21

a128

καὶ ἔσται, πᾶς

1

And it will be, everyone

Alternate translation: “And this is what will happen: Everyone”

247

ACT

2

21

vql5

figs-activepassive

πᾶς ὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου σωθήσεται

1

everyone who may call on the name of the Lord will be saved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Lord will save everyone who calls on his name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

248

ACT

2

21

a129

figs-idiom

πᾶς ὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται

1

everyone who may call on

Here, call on is an idiom. Alternate translation: “everyone who may appeal to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

249

ACT

2

21

a130

figs-123person

τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου

1

the name of the Lord

God is speaking of himself in the third person. If that would be confusing to your readers, you can use the first person in your translation. Alternate translation: “my name” or “me by name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

250

ACT

2

21

a131

figs-metonymy

τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου

1

the name of the Lord

Here, name figuratively represents a person, by association with the way that each person has a name. Alternate translation: “the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

251

ACT

2

21

a132

figs-explicit

τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου

1

the name of the Lord

The implication is that people would appeal to God to show them mercy and save them. Alternate translation: “the Lord for mercy and salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

252

ACT

2

21

a133

figs-quotemarks

σωθήσεται

1

will be saved

This is the end of Joel’s quotation of the Lord. If you chose to mark the Lord’s words as a third-level quotation, indicate that ending here with a closing third-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a quotation within a quotation within a quotation. It is also the end of Peter’s quotation of Joel. If you chose to mark Joel’s words as a second-level quotation, similarly indicate the ending of that quotation within a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

253

ACT

2

22

sa78

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, Ἰσραηλεῖται

1

Men, Israelites

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “My fellow Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

254

ACT

2

22

g6vj

figs-metonymy

ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους

1

hear these words

Peter is using the term words figuratively to mean what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “listen to what I am about to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

255

ACT

2

22

a134

translate-names

Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον

1

Jesus the Nazarene

The word Nazarene describes someone who comes from the city of Nazareth. Alternate translation: “Jesus of Nazareth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

256

ACT

2

22

f2t1

figs-activepassive

ἀποδεδειγμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

attested to you by God

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom God proved he had sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

257

ACT

2

22

a135

figs-doublet

δυνάμεσι, καὶ τέρασι, καὶ σημείοις

1

with mighty deeds and wonders and signs

The terms mighty works, wonders, and signs mean similar things. Peter is using them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “by means of many great miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

258

ACT

2

23

a136

figs-nominaladj

τοῦτον

1

This one

Peter is using the demonstrative adjective this as a noun to refer to a specific person, Jesus. (ULT shows that by adding one.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could specify whom Peter means. Alternate translation: “This Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

259

ACT

2

23

i6un

figs-activepassive

τῇ, ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἔκδοτον

1

given up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God

The term translated given up is an adjective, not a passive verbal form, but even so you may wish to translate it with an active verbal form. Alternate translation: “whom God gave up by his determined counsel and foreknowledge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

260

ACT

2

23

s38b

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ, ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words counsel and foreknowledge, you could express the same ideas with verbs. Alternate translation: “as God had planned in a determined way for things he knew about ahead of time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

261

ACT

2

23

a137

figs-activepassive

τῇ, ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God

The word determined is a passive verbal form that you could express with an active form. Alternate translation: “in a way that God had determined as he planned for things he knew about ahead of time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

262

ACT

2

23

f5kn

figs-synecdoche

ἀνείλατε

1

you killed

It was the Romans who literally killed Jesus, but Peter says figuratively that the Jewish people in the crowd killed him because their demands led to his death. Alternate translation: “you demanded to be killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

263

ACT

2

23

e38a

figs-metonymy

διὰ χειρὸς ἀνόμων

1

of the lawless

Here, hand refers figuratively to actions. Alternate translation: “through the actions of the lawless” or “by what the lawless did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

264

ACT

2

23

a138

figs-nominaladj

ἀνόμων

1

the lawless

Peter is using the adjective lawless as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can supply the word “people” to show this. Alternate translation: “lawless people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

265

ACT

2

23

f6kd

figs-metonymy

ἀνόμων

1

of the lawless

By lawless, Peter does not mean people who disregard the law and break the law. He is figuratively describing Gentiles (that is, people who are not Jews) by association with the fact that they do not have the Jewish law. Alternate translation: “of the Gentiles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

266

ACT

2

23

a197

προσπήξαντες

1

having fastened

This is a reference to the crucifixion of Jesus. Alternate translation: “having nailed him to a cross” or “by crucifying him”

267

ACT

2

24

a140

ὃν ὁ Θεὸς ἀνέστησεν

1

whom God raised up

It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “But God raised him up”

268

ACT

2

24

ei37

figs-idiom

ὃν ὁ Θεὸς ἀνέστησεν

1

whom God raised up

The idiom raised up means that God made Jesus alive again after he died. Alternate translation: “whom God brought back to life” or, as a new sentence, “But God brought him back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

269

ACT

2

24

s8j3

figs-metaphor

λύσας τὰς ὠδῖνας τοῦ θανάτου

1

having loosed the agonies of death

Peter speaks figuratively of the agonies of death as if they were ropes with which Jesus had been tied, and of God bringing Jesus back to life as if God had untied those ropes and set him free. Alternate translation: “delivering him from the agonies of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

270

ACT

2

24

a141

figs-possession

τὰς ὠδῖνας τοῦ θανάτου

1

the agonies of death

Peter uses the possessive form to describe death as something that is characterized by agonies. Alternate translation: “agonizing death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

271

ACT

2

24

a142

figs-explicit

καθότι οὐκ ἦν δυνατὸν κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

because it was not possible for him to be held by it

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly why this was not possible. Alternate translation: “because God is so much stronger than death that it was not possible for him to be held by it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

272

ACT

2

24

ykq4

figs-activepassive

κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

for him to be held by it

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “for death to hold him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

273

ACT

2

24

vuf4

figs-personification

κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

for him to be held by it

Peter speaks of death figuratively as if it were a living thing that held Jesus captive. Alternate translation: “for him to remain dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

274

ACT

2

25

dd5a

figs-quotations

Δαυεὶδ γὰρ λέγει εἰς αὐτόν, προορώμην τὸν Κύριον ἐνώπιόν μου διὰ παντός, ὅτι ἐκ δεξιῶν μού ἐστιν, ἵνα μὴ σαλευθῶ

1

For David says about him, ‘I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right so that I should not be moved

In order to avoid having a second-level quotation, you could turn Peter’s quotation from David into an indirect quotation. (Peter is quoting from Psalm 16:8–11.) Alternate translation: “For David said about him that he saw the Lord always before him, for he was at his right so that he should not be moved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

275

ACT

2

25

a143

writing-pronouns

Δαυεὶδ γὰρ λέγει εἰς αὐτόν, προορώμην τὸν Κύριον ἐνώπιόν μου διὰ παντός, ὅτι ἐκ δεξιῶν μού ἐστιν, ἵνα μὴ σαλευθῶ

1

For David says about him, ‘I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right so that I should not be moved

The pronoun him refers to the Messiah, about whom David is prophesying. This means that within the quotation, the pronouns I and my are spoken by the Messiah. If you turn the direct quotation into an indirect quotation and change these pronouns to “he,” “him,” and “his,” it may be helpful to indicate the references in some cases so that your readers will recognize this. Alternate translation: “For David said about the Messiah that he saw the Lord always before him, for the Lord was at the Messiah’s right so that he should not be moved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

276

ACT

2

25

a144

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Peter uses the word For to introduce a reason why the crowd should believe him when he says that God brought Jesus back to life. The reason is that the Scriptures predicted this. As a result, the crowd should be confident that it did happen. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “You can be confident that God did bring Jesus back to life, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

277

ACT

2

25

a145

figs-explicit

Δαυεὶδ…λέγει εἰς αὐτόν

1

David says about him

Peter assumes that the crowd will know that he is referring to what David says in one of the psalms that he wrote, and that David is prophesying what the Messiah would say. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “David says in one of his psalms that the Messiah will say” or “David wrote in one of his psalms that the Messiah would say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

278

ACT

2

25

n2ls

figs-metaphor

ἐνώπιόν μου

1

before me

The phrase before me, which means “in front of me,” is a spatial metaphor. Alternate translation: “present with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

279

ACT

2

25

a146

figs-nominaladj

ἐκ δεξιῶν μού

1

at my right

Here the adjective right is being used as a noun to indicate the right side. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could say that specifically. Alternate translation: “at my right side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

280

ACT

2

25

l6xp

figs-metaphor

ἐκ δεξιῶν μού

1

at my right

In this context, to be at someone’s right side figuratively means to be in a position to help and sustain that person. Alternate translation: “there to help me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

281

ACT

2

25

a147

figs-metaphor

μὴ σαλευθῶ

1

I should not be moved

Here, moved means to be taken out of a safe and secure position, and so figuratively it means to be harmed. Alternate translation: “I will not be harmed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

282

ACT

2

25

s4yp

figs-activepassive

μὴ σαλευθῶ

1

I should not be moved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “no one will harm me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

283

ACT

2

26

a148

figs-quotations

διὰ τοῦτο ηὐφράνθη ἡ καρδία μου, καὶ ἠγαλλιάσατο ἡ γλῶσσά μου; ἔτι δὲ καὶ ἡ σάρξ μου κατασκηνώσει ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

Because of this, my heart was glad and my tongue exulted. And indeed, my flesh will also dwell in hope

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation of David into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. Alternate translation: “Because of this, his heart was glad and his tongue exulted, and indeed his flesh would also dwell in hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

284

ACT

2

26

z8vw

figs-metaphor

ηὐφράνθη ἡ καρδία μου

1

my heart was glad

Here, the heart figuratively represents the emotions. Alternate translation: “I felt glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

285

ACT

2

26

a149

figs-metonymy

ἠγαλλιάσατο ἡ γλῶσσά μου

1

my tongue exulted

Here, the tongue figuratively represents the capacity for speech. Alternate translation: “I said joyful things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

286

ACT

2

26

zz6k

figs-metonymy

καὶ ἡ σάρξ μου κατασκηνώσει ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

my flesh will also dwell in hope

Here, flesh figuratively means the human body by association with the way that is made of flesh. Alternate translation: “my body will also dwell in hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

287

ACT

2

26

a150

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ ἡ σάρξ μου κατασκηνώσει ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

my flesh will also dwell in hope

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word hope, you could express the same idea with an adverb such as “hopefully.” Alternate translation: “my body will also live hopefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

288

ACT

2

26

a151

figs-personification

καὶ ἡ σάρξ μου κατασκηνώσει ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

my flesh will also dwell in hope

The Messiah is speaking figuratively as if his body itself would live hopefully. Alternate translation: “I will also have hope for my body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

289

ACT

2

26

a152

figs-explicit

καὶ ἡ σάρξ μου κατασκηνώσει ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

my flesh will also dwell in hope

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly what hope the Messiah had for his body. Alternate translation: “I will also have hope that God will bring my body back to life after I die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

290

ACT

2

27

m3ij

figs-quotations

ὅτι οὐκ ἐνκαταλείψεις τὴν ψυχήν μου εἰς ᾍδην, οὐδὲ δώσεις τὸν Ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν

1

For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, nor will you allow your Holy One to see decay

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation from David into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. If so, it may be necessary to add some introductory material here. Alternate translation: “The Messiah knew that God would not abandon his soul to Hades and that God would not allow his Holy One to see decay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

291

ACT

2

27

a153

figs-parallelism

οὐκ ἐνκαταλείψεις τὴν ψυχήν μου εἰς ᾍδην, οὐδὲ δώσεις τὸν Ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν

1

you will not abandon my soul to Hades, nor will you allow your Holy One to see decay

These two statements mean similar things. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it may be helpful to show that to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a word other than nor in order to show that the second phrase is repeating the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “you will not abandon my soul to Hades, no, you will not allow your Holy One to see decay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

292

ACT

2

27

whi3

figs-youformal

οὐκ ἐνκαταλείψεις…οὐδὲ δώσεις…σου

1

you will not abandon … nor will you allow your

The words you and your are singular, and they refer to God. See what you decided to do in your translation in 1:24 in a similar case where God is addressed as “you.” You may have decided in such cases to use a formal form of “you” that your language may have, or you may have decided to use an informal form of “you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

293

ACT

2

27

a154

figs-synecdoche

οὐκ ἐνκαταλείψεις τὴν ψυχήν μου εἰς ᾍδην

1

you will not abandon my soul to Hades

The Messiah says my soul figuratively to mean himself, using one part of his being to represent his whole being. Alternate translation: “you will not abandon me to Hades” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

294

ACT

2

27

a155

translate-names

οὐκ ἐνκαταλείψεις τὴν ψυχήν μου εἰς ᾍδην

1

you will not abandon my soul to Hades

Hades is the name for the realm of the dead. If your readers would not be familiar with that name, you could express its meaning in your translation. Alternate translation: “you will not abandon me to the realm of the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

295

ACT

2

27

a156

figs-explicit

τὸν Ὅσιόν σου

1

your Holy One

The expression Holy One is a title for the Messiah. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “your Messiah” or “your holy Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

296

ACT

2

27

rld3

figs-123person

τὸν Ὅσιόν σου

1

your Holy One

The Messiah is referring to himself in the third person. If that would be confusing to your readers, you can use the first person in your translation. Alternate translation: “me, your Holy One” or “me, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

297

ACT

2

27

a157

figs-idiom

ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν

1

to see decay

Here the word see is being used idiomatically to mean “experience.” Alternate translation: “to experience decay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

298

ACT

2

27

l5cd

figs-explicit

ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν

1

to see decay

The term decay refers in this context to the decomposition of the body after death. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to experience the decomposition of his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

299

ACT

2

28

a158

figs-quotations

ἐγνώρισάς μοι ὁδοὺς ζωῆς; πληρώσεις με εὐφροσύνης μετὰ τοῦ προσώπου σου

1

You made known to me the paths of life; you will fill me with gladness with your face

You may have decided to turn Peter’s quotation of David into an indirect quotation in order to avoid having a second-level quotation. If so, it may be helpful to add some introductory material here. Alternate translation: “The Messiah said that God had made known to him the paths of life and that God would fill him with gladness with his face” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

300

ACT

2

28

a159

figs-youformal

ἐγνώρισάς…πληρώσεις…σου

1

You made known … you will fill … your

The words you and your are singular and they refer to God. See what you decided to do in the similar case in 1:24. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

301

ACT

2

28

xhi3

figs-metaphor

ἐγνώρισάς μοι ὁδοὺς ζωῆς

1

You made known to me the paths of life

The Messiah speaks figuratively of life as if it consisted of paths that a person walked along. Those represent the various pursuits and adventures that people have in life. The word known refers to experiential knowledge. Alternate translation: “You enabled me to experience the adventures of life once again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

302

ACT

2

28

ej5m

figs-metaphor

πληρώσεις με εὐφροσύνης

1

you will fill me with gladness

The Messiah speaks figuratively as if he were a container that God could fill with gladness. Alternate translation: “you will give me great gladness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

303

ACT

2

28

y7gf

figs-metaphor

μετὰ τοῦ προσώπου σου

1

with your face

Here, the word face figuratively represents the presence of a person. Alternate translation: “by your presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

304

ACT

2

28

a161

figs-quotemarks

μετὰ τοῦ προσώπου σου

1

with your face

This is the end of Peter’s quotation of David. If you chose to mark David’s words as a second-level quotation, in your translation you can indicate this ending with a closing second-level quotation mark or whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

305

ACT

2

29

pv1x

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “My brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

306

ACT

2

29

ps7c

figs-metaphor

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

See how you translated the term brothers in 1:15. Alternate translation: “My fellow believers” or “My brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

307

ACT

2

29

wh97

figs-metaphor

τοῦ πατριάρχου Δαυεὶδ

1

the patriarch David

A patriarch is literally the ancestor of a group of people. David was not the ancestor of all the Jews to whom Peter is speaking. So he is likely using the term figuratively to identify David as the king who established the Israelite kingdom as a lasting dynasty. Alternate translation: “David, the founder of our kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

308

ACT

2

29

vtc6

figs-activepassive

ἐτάφη

1

he was buried

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “people buried him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

309

ACT

2

29

a162

figs-idiom

ἄχρι τῆς ἡμέρας ταύτης

1

to this day

Peter is using the word day idiomatically to mean a specific time. Alternate translation: “at this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

310

ACT

2

30

a163

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Therefore

Peter uses the word Therefore to introduce the logical result of what he has just said. Alternate translation: “We can therefore conclude that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

311

ACT

2

30

a164

figs-explicit

προφήτης…ὑπάρχων, καὶ εἰδὼς

1

being a prophet and having known

Peter is still speaking about David. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “because David was a prophet and he knew” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

312

ACT

2

30

x11q

figs-metonymy

ἐκ καρποῦ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτοῦ, καθίσαι ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ

1

to set from the fruit of his loins upon his throne

Peter is using the word loins figuratively to represent David himself by association with the way the reproductive organs are in the loins. He is using the word fruit in a broad sense to mean what someone or something produces, in this case a descendant. Alternate translation: “to set one of his descendants upon his throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

313

ACT

2

30

hq71

figs-synecdoche

ἐκ καρποῦ τῆς ὀσφύος αὐτοῦ, καθίσαι ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον αὐτοῦ

1

to set from the fruit of his loins upon his throne

When Peter says that God promised to set one of David’s descendants upon his throne, he is using that one action figuratively to represent God’s promise to David that this descendant would succeed him as king. Alternate translation: “to make one of his descendants succeed him as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

314

ACT

2

31

a165

writing-pronouns

ἐλάλησεν…ἐνκατελείφθη…αὐτοῦ

1

he spoke … was he abandoned … his

The first instance of he refers to David, and the second instance of he and the pronoun his refer to Christ. Alternate translation: “David spoke … was Christ abandoned … Christ’s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

315

ACT

2

31

a166

figs-abstractnouns

ἐλάλησεν περὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

he spoke about the resurrection of the Christ

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word resurrection, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “alive.” Alternate translation: “he described how God would make Christ alive again after he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

316

ACT

2

31

tn4b

figs-activepassive

οὔτε ἐνκατελείφθη εἰς ᾍδην

1

neither was he abandoned to Hades

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “neither did God abandon him to Hades” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

317

ACT

2

31

a167

figs-explicit

τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the Christ

Christ is the Greek word for “Messiah.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could use the term “Messiah” in your translation, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

318

ACT

2

31

a168

translate-names

ᾍδην

1

Hades

See how you translated the term Hades in 2:27. Alternate translation: “the realm of the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

319

ACT

2

31

a169

figs-idiom

οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν

1

nor did his flesh see decay

Here the word see is being used idiomatically to mean “experience.” Alternate translation: “nor did his flesh experience decay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

320

ACT

2

31

a170

figs-metonymy

οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν

1

nor did his flesh see decay

Peter is using the word flesh figuratively to mean the body of Jesus by association with the way the body is made of flesh. Alternate translation: “nor did his body experience decay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

321

ACT

2

31

up5x

figs-explicit

οὔτε ἡ σὰρξ αὐτοῦ εἶδεν διαφθοράν

1

nor did his flesh see decay

The term decay refers in this context to the decomposition of the body after death. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “nor did his body experience decomposition” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

322

ACT

2

32

udn1

figs-idiom

ἀνέστησεν ὁ Θεός

1

God has raised up

As in 2:24, the idiom raised up means that God made Jesus alive again after he died. Alternate translation: “God has brought back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

323

ACT

2

32

kw6a

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

1

we

By we, Peter means himself and the other apostles, so use the exclusive form of that word if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

324

ACT

2

33

a171

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Therefore

Peter is using the word Therefore to introduce a result. But it is not the immediate result of what he has just said. He is not saying that Jesus has done what the people see and hear because God raised him from the dead. Instead, this is an overall conclusion. Peter is saying that Jesus sending the Holy Spirit is the reason why the disciples are able to speak in other languages. The crowd should not conclude that they are babbling drunkenly, as some of them have suggested. UST models a way of expressing this sense of the word Therefore. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

325

ACT

2

33

kij2

figs-activepassive

τῇ δεξιᾷ οὖν τοῦ Θεοῦ ὑψωθεὶς

1

having been exalted to the right of God

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “now that God has exalted Jesus to his right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

326

ACT

2

33

c9mr

figs-nominaladj

τῇ δεξιᾷ…τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

to the right of God

Peter is using the adjective right as a noun in order to indicate the right side. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:25. Alternate translation: “to the right side of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

327

ACT

2

33

a172

figs-explicit

τῇ δεξιᾷ…τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

to the right of God

In this culture, the place at the right side of a ruler was a position of honor. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to a place of honor next to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

328

ACT

2

33

a173

figs-possession

τήν τε ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ Ἁγίου

1

the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father

Peter is using the possessive form to describe the Holy Spirit as someone whom God the Father promised to send. Alternate translation: “the promised Holy Spirit from the Father” or “the Holy Spirit whom the Father promised to send” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

329

ACT

2

33

a174

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Πατρὸς

1

the Father

Father is an important title for God. Alternate translation: “God the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

330

ACT

2

33

c1dr

writing-pronouns

ἐξέχεεν

1

he has poured out

The pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus has poured out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

331

ACT

2

33

wsg9

figs-metaphor

ἐξέχεεν

1

he has poured out

Peter says figuratively that Jesus has poured out the things that the people are seeing and hearing as if those things were a liquid. Peter means that Jesus has given these things generously and abundantly. See how you translated the similar statement in 2:17, to which Peter is likely alluding here. Alternate translation: “he has generously given” or “he has abundantly given” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

332

ACT

2

34

m7fy

figs-quotesinquotes

λέγει…αὐτός, εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου, κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

1

he himself says, ‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right

The material in 2:34–35 contains a quotation within a quotation within a quotation. Luke is quoting Peter, Peter is quoting another psalm by David (Psalm 110:1), and David is quoting God. You could avoid having second-level and third-level quotations by translating this as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “he himself says that the Lord told his Lord to sit at his right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

333

ACT

2

34

i8wu

figs-explicit

εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ Κυρίῳ μου

1

The Lord said to my Lord

The Lord means God here, and my Lord means the Messiah. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God said to the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

334

ACT

2

34

a175

figs-nominaladj

ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

1

at my right

Here the adjective right is used as a noun in order to indicate the right side. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:25. Alternate translation: “at my right side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

335

ACT

2

34

kvn8

figs-explicit

ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

1

at my right

In this culture, the place at the right side of a ruler was a position of honor. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “in a place of honor next to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

336

ACT

2

35

nf1x

figs-metaphor

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

until I make your enemies a stool for your feet

The psalm says figuratively that God would make the Messiah’s enemies a stool for his feet to mean that God would conquer those enemies and make them submit to the Messiah. Alternate translation: “until I conquer your enemies for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

337

ACT

2

35

a176

figs-quotemarks

τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

for your feet

This is the end of David’s quotation of the Lord and of Peter’s quotation of David. If you chose to mark these in your translation as a third-level and a second-level quotation, indicate that ending here with the appropriate closing quotation marks or the comparable punctuation or convention in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

338

ACT

2

36

a177

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Therefore

Peter is using the word Therefore to introduce the result of what he has just said. Alternate translation: “Since David was not talking about himself, but about the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

339

ACT

2

36

pnp5

figs-metaphor

πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ

1

all the house of Israel

Here, house means all the people descended from a particular person. It envisions them as if they were one household living together. So the house of Israel figuratively means all the people descended from the patriarch Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “the entire nation of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

340

ACT

2

37

s85q

figs-activepassive

ἀκούσαντες…κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν

1

hearing this, they were pierced in the heart

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “what they heard Peter say pierced their heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

341

ACT

2

37

xan1

writing-pronouns

κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν

1

they were pierced in the heart

Here the word they refers to the people in the crowd to whom Peter spoke. Alternate translation: “the people in the crowd were pierced in the heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

342

ACT

2

37

w1ma

κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν

1

they were pierced in the heart

Since Luke is referring to a group of people, it might be more natural in your language to use the plural form of heart. Alternate translation: “the people in the crowd were pierced in their hearts”

343

ACT

2

37

l15x

figs-metaphor

κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν

1

they were pierced in the heart

Luke is speaking figuratively. The people were not literally pierced in the heart by anything. He means that the people felt guilty and became very sad. Alternate translation: “they felt guilty and became very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

344

ACT

2

37

zls6

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “Our brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

345

ACT

2

37

a178

figs-metaphor

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί

1

Men, brothers

See how you translated the term brothers in 1:15. Alternate translation: “Our fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

346

ACT

2

37

a179

figs-exclusive

τί ποιήσωμεν

1

what should we do

The people in the crowd are asking about themselves but not the apostles, so use the exclusive form of we in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

347

ACT

2

38

a180

figs-you

μετανοήσατε…βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν…τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν…λήμψεσθε

1

Repent … each of you be baptized … of your sins … you will receive

The words you and your are plural, you will receive is a plural verb form, and the implied “you” in the imperative Repent is also plural. But the implied “you” in the imperative be baptized is singular, since the subject is each. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

348

ACT

2

38

cmb7

figs-activepassive

βαπτισθήτω

1

be baptized

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “allow us to baptize you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

349

ACT

2

38

geb2

figs-idiom

ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

in the name of Jesus Christ

Peter has just finished demonstrating that God sent Jesus as the Christ or Messiah 2:36. He is saying here that people should acknowledge that as the basis of their baptism for the forgiveness of their sins. So in the name here is an idiomatic way of saying “on the basis of naming.” Alternate translation: “on the basis of naming Jesus as the Christ” or “upon acknowledging that Jesus is the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

350

ACT

2

38

a181

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν

1

for the forgiveness of your sins

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word forgiveness, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “forgive.” Alternate translation: “to show that you want God to forgive your sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

351

ACT

2

39

a182

figs-metonymy

ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία

1

the promise is

Peter is speaking figuratively of the Holy Spirit by association with the way God promised to send the Holy Spirit, as Peter says specifically in 2:33. Alternate translation: “God has promised the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

352

ACT

2

39

a183

figs-explicit

ὑμῖν…καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν

1

to you and to your children

Peter showed the people in 2:17 that God’s promise through Joel to pour out his Spirit included their “sons” and “daughters.” So the implication could be that the people in the crowd should not think that any of them have to reach a certain age before professing faith in Jesus and being baptized. Alternate translation: “to all of you, no matter what your age,” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

353

ACT

2

39

a184

figs-metaphor

ὑμῖν…καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν

1

to you and to your children

Peter could also be using the word children in a figurative sense to mean “descendants.” In that case, he would be saying that faith in Jesus as the Messiah was not something just for the people living at this time, but also for people living at all times in the future. That would parallel what he says next about faith in Jesus not being just for those who are present in this place, but for people living in all places. Alternate translation: “to you and your descendants” or “to you and everyone who will live after you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

354

ACT

2

39

v8vi

figs-explicit

πᾶσι τοῖς εἰς μακρὰν

1

to all who are at a distance

Since Peter is speaking to Jews as a fellow Jew, this is likely an implicit reference to the Jews who were living in other parts of the Roman Empire. However, this statement took on greater meaning when the church realized that “God has also given repentance unto life to the Gentiles,” as its leaders say in 11:18. So you could either express the likely initial meaning here in your translation, or you could leave the statement more general. Alternate translation: “to the Jews living in faraway parts of the empire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

355

ACT

2

39

a185

figs-exclusive

Κύριος, ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν

1

the Lord our God

By the Lord our God, Peter means the God of the Jews. He is speaking of himself and his fellow apostles and of the people in the crowd, so use the inclusive form of the word our in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

356

ACT

2

39

a186

figs-idiom

ἂν προσκαλέσηται

1

may call

Peter is using the word call in an idiomatic sense here. Alternate translation: “may bring to salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

357

ACT

2

40

a187

figs-metonymy

ἑτέροις…λόγοις πλείοσιν

1

with many other words

Luke is using the term words figuratively to mean things that Peter said by using words. Alternate translation: “by saying many other things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

358

ACT

2

40

v6ip

figs-hendiadys

διεμαρτύρατο, καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτοὺς

1

he testified and urged them

Here Luke is expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word urged tells in what way Peter testified further about faith in Jesus. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this same idea with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “he testified urgently to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

359

ACT

2

40

a188

figs-activepassive

σώθητε

1

Be saved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “Let God save you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

360

ACT

2

40

wtd5

figs-explicit

ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς τῆς σκολιᾶς ταύτης

1

from this perverse generation

The implication is that God is going to punish this perverse generation. Alternate translation: “from the punishment that this perverse generation will suffer if it does not repent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

361

ACT

2

40

a189

figs-explicit

τῆς γενεᾶς τῆς σκολιᾶς ταύτης

1

this perverse generation

The word perverse describes things or actions that do not conform to what is right and expected. Peter may be referring implicitly to how the people of this generation rejected and killed Jesus. Alternate translation: “this wicked generation that rejected and killed Jesus” or “the wicked people of this time who rejected and killed Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

362

ACT

2

41

k1kj

writing-endofstory

οὖν

1

Therefore

Luke uses the word Therefore to introduce information about what happened after the story of Pentecost as a result of the events within the story itself. Your language may have its own way of indicating how such information relates to a story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

363

ACT

2

41

r9qz

figs-idiom

ἀποδεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ

1

having received his word

Here, received means that the people in the crowd accepted that what Peter said was true. Alternate translation: “because they believed his word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

364

ACT

2

41

a190

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ

1

his word

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean what Peter said by using words. Alternate translation: “what Peter said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

365

ACT

2

41

kz64

figs-activepassive

οἱ…ἐβαπτίσθησαν

1

they were baptized

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. The apostles themselves may have baptized all these people, but because so many people repented and wanted to be baptized, it is possible that some of the other believers may have baptized some of them. Alternate translation: “the apostles baptized them” or “the believers baptized them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

366

ACT

2

41

sv5j

figs-synecdoche

ψυχαὶ

1

souls

Luke is using one part of these people, their souls, to mean the people themselves. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

367

ACT

2

41

a47f

figs-activepassive

προσετέθησαν

1

were added

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “became part of the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

368

ACT

2

42

a191

figs-abstractnouns

ἦσαν…προσκαρτεροῦντες τῇ διδαχῇ τῶν ἀποστόλων, καὶ τῇ κοινωνίᾳ, τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου, καὶ ταῖς προσευχαῖς

1

they were continuing in the teaching of the apostles and in fellowship, in the breaking of bread and in prayers

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words teaching and fellowship, you could express the same ideas with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “they continued to learn from what the apostles taught and to share life with one another, and to break bread together and to pray together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

369

ACT

2

42

gc59

figs-synecdoche

τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου

1

in the breaking of bread

Luke could be using the word breaking to mean “eating,” and he could be using the word bread to mean “food.” In each case he would be figuratively using one part of something to mean the whole thing. Breaking bread is one thing people do when they eat it, and bread is one kind of food. So this could be a reference to the believers sharing meals together. Alternate translation: “in sharing meals” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

370

ACT

2

42

a192

figs-explicit

τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου

1

in the breaking of bread

By the breaking of bread, Luke could also mean remembering the death of Jesus in the way that Jesus commanded, by literally breaking a loaf of bread and sharing it and also sharing a cup of wine. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “in observing the Lord’s Supper” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

371

ACT

2

43

a193

figs-personification

ἐγίνετο…πάσῃ ψυχῇ φόβος

1

fear was coming on every soul

Here the word fear describes a deep respect for God. Luke describes this fear figuratively as if it were a living thing that could come onto people. Alternate translation: “every soul began to feel a deep respect for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

372

ACT

2

43

gi9v

figs-synecdoche

ἐγίνετο…πάσῃ ψυχῇ φόβος

1

fear was coming on every soul

Luke is using one part of a person, the soul, to mean the entire person. Alternate translation: “every person began to feel a deep respect for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

373

ACT

2

43

a194

figs-hyperbole

ἐγίνετο…πάσῃ ψυχῇ φόβος

1

fear was coming on every soul

Luke says every as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “very many people began to feel a deep respect for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

374

ACT

2

43

ys3y

figs-explicit

πολλά…τέρατα καὶ σημεῖα διὰ τῶν ἀποστόλων ἐγίνετο

1

many wonders and signs were happening through the apostles

Since Luke says that these things happened through the apostles, the implication is that God was doing them. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could make God the subject of this sentence and wonders and signs the object. Alternate translation: “God performed many wonders and signs through the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

375

ACT

2

43

q6dm

figs-doublet

πολλά…τέρατα καὶ σημεῖα

1

many wonders and signs

The terms wonders and signs mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:22. Alternate translation: “many great miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

376

ACT

2

44

u8qk

ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ

1

to the same

See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the Introduction to Acts. Alternate translation: “in the same place” or “united in Christian fellowship”

377

ACT

2

44

jy2w

figs-hyperbole

εἶχον ἅπαντα κοινά

1

had all things in common

Luke may be saying all as a generalization to emphasize the powerful spirit of generosity among the believers. The next verse explains more specifically how the believers showed this generosity, and you could give some indication of that here. Alternate translation: “shared their belongings with one another” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

378

ACT

2

45

h8tn

figs-doublet

τὰ κτήματα καὶ τὰς ὑπάρξεις ἐπίπρασκον

1

they were selling their properties and their possessions

The words properties and possessions mean similar things. Luke may be using these words together for emphasis. As the General Notes to this chapter suggest, it may be helpful to start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “They were selling many valuable things that they owned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

379

ACT

2

45

f74s

writing-pronouns

καὶ διεμέριζον αὐτὰ

1

they were distributing them

Here the pronoun they refers to believers who sold things they owned, and the pronoun them refers to the money they received from these sales. Alternate translation: “the believers who sold these things were distributing the money that they received” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

380

ACT

2

45

n9hi

πᾶσιν, καθότι ἄν τις χρείαν εἶχεν

1

to all, as anyone might have need

Alternate translation: “to everyone who needed help”

381

ACT

2

46

in43

καθ’ ἡμέραν τε προσκαρτεροῦντες ὁμοθυμαδὸν

1

and, continuing unanimously

The word unanimously indicates that the apostles and other believers shared a common commitment and purpose and that there was no strife among them. See how you translated the same expression in 1:14. As the General Notes to this chapter suggest, it may be helpful to start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Continuing to meet with one accord” or “Continuing to meet harmoniously”

382

ACT

2

46

a427

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

1

in the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so here the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “in the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

383

ACT

2

46

q1ge

figs-synecdoche

κλῶντές…κατ’ οἶκον ἄρτον

1

breaking bread in each house

See how you translated the similar expression in 2:42. There were two possible meanings there, but here breaking bread seems to mean specifically sharing meals. Alternate translation: “having meals together in their homes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

384

ACT

2

46

i2yk

figs-metaphor

ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει καὶ ἀφελότητι καρδίας

1

with exultation and sincerity of heart

Here, the heart figuratively represents the emotions. Alternate translation: “with feelings of exultation and sincerity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

385

ACT

2

46

a195

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει καὶ ἀφελότητι καρδίας

1

with exultation and sincerity of heart

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words exultation and sincerity, you could express the same ideas with adverbs that would indicate feelings. Alternate translation: “joyfully and sincerely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

386

ACT

2

47

z6ig

figs-hyperbole

αἰνοῦντες τὸν Θεὸν καὶ ἔχοντες χάριν πρὸς ὅλον τὸν λαόν

1

praising God and having favor with the whole people

Luke says the whole people as a generalization to emphasize how widely the people favored the believers. As the General Notes to this chapter suggest, it may be helpful to start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “They praised God and enjoyed wide favor with the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

387

ACT

2

47

kc42

figs-activepassive

τοὺς σῳζομένους

1

those who were being saved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “those whom he was saving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

388

ACT

2

47

a196

ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό

1

to the same

See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the Introduction to Acts. Alternate translation: “to their Christian fellowship”

389

ACT

3

intro

hpd9

0

Acts 3 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The covenant God made with Abraham

This chapter explains that Jesus came to the Jews in fulfillment of the covenant that God made with Abraham.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Servant”

Twice in this chapter Peter uses the word “Servant” as a title to mean “Messiah” (3:13, 3:26). He and other believers use the word in the same sense twice in chapter 4 as well (4:27, 4:30). The word takes on this meaning by allusion to the book of Isaiah, where Isaiah uses it to mean the person whom God has chosen for the special purpose of bringing salvation. In your translation, indicate in some way that “Servant” is a Messianic title. Jesus was not a servant of God in the more ordinary sense, in which the believers apply it to themselves in 4:29, for example. Jesus was fully the Son of God, sent to earth on a special mission. If you would not be able to make this clear by using the word “Servant,” you may wish to use the word “Messiah” instead.

“You killed” (3:15)

For the same reasons as when he was speaking on the day of Pentecost (2:23), Peter tells people in this chapter that they were guilty of killing Jesus. But he also tells them that they are the first ones to whom God has sent Jesus’ followers to invite them to repent (3:26). For further information and suggestions for how to make clear in your translation what Peter means, see the discussion of this phrase in the General Notes to chapter 2 and the notes to this phrase in 2:23 and 3:15. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]])

Important textual issues in this chapter

“the Lord our God” (3:22)

In 3:22, some ancient manuscripts read “the Lord our God.” ULT follows that reading. Other ancient manuscripts read “the Lord your God,” and still other ancient manuscripts read simply “the Lord God.” If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the reading that it has. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to use the reading of ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

390

ACT

3

1

b5rm

grammar-connect-time-background

δὲ

1

Now

Luke uses the word Now to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. You can translate it with a word or phrase that serves the same purpose in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

391

ACT

3

1

br7i

figs-explicit

εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν

1

to the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “to the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

392

ACT

3

1

a198

τὴν ἐνάτην

1

the ninth hour

In this culture, people began counting the hours each day beginning around daybreak at six o’clock in the morning. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this time in the way the people of your culture reckon time. Alternate translation: “three o’clock in the afternoon”

393

ACT

3

1

a199

translate-ordinal

τὴν ἐνάτην

1

the ninth hour

If you decide to translate this in the way that the biblical culture reckoned time but your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “hour nine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

394

ACT

3

2

f227

figs-activepassive

καί τις ἀνὴρ, χωλὸς ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ ὑπάρχων, ἐβαστάζετο, ὃν ἐτίθουν καθ’ ἡμέραν πρὸς τὴν θύραν τοῦ ἱεροῦ

1

And a certain man, being lame from the womb of his mother, was being carried, whom each day they placed at the gate of the temple

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an active verbal form instead of the passive form was being carried. Alternate translation: “And there was a certain man who had been lame since birth whom people would carry to the temple every day and place at the gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

395

ACT

3

2

u6nu

writing-background

καί τις ἀνὴρ

1

And a certain man

In this verse, Luke provides background information about this man to help readers understand what happens next in the story. In your translation, present this information in a way that would be natural in your own language and culture. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

396

ACT

3

2

j68t

figs-metonymy

ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ

1

from the womb of his mother

Luke is figuratively describing the time of the lame man’s birth by association with the way he came from the womb of his mother when he was born. Alternate translation: “since birth” or “since he was born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

397

ACT

3

2

a200

figs-activepassive

τὴν λεγομένην

1

that is called

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “that people call” or “whose name is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

398

ACT

3

2

a201

translate-names

Ὡραίαν

1

Beautiful

Beautiful is the name of one of the gates of the Jerusalem temple. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

399

ACT

3

2

a202

figs-explicit

εἰς τὸ ἱερόν

1

into the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “into the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

400

ACT

3

3

a203

figs-explicit

ἠρώτα ἐλεημοσύνην λαβεῖν

1

asked to receive alms

The man specifically asked Peter and John to give him alms (that is, a charitable gift). Alternate translation: “asked to receive alms from them” or “asked them to give him alms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

401

ACT

3

4

xq4u

ἀτενίσας…Πέτρος εἰς αὐτὸν σὺν τῷ Ἰωάννῃ εἶπεν

1

Peter, looking intently at him with John, said

This means that both Peter and John looked at the man. It does not mean that Peter looked at the man and at John, and it does not mean that both Peter and John spoke to the man. Alternate translation: “Peter and John looked intently at him, and Peter said”

402

ACT

3

4

e3c6

figs-exclusive

βλέψον εἰς ἡμᾶς

1

Look at us

Peter is asking the man to look at him and John, not to look at himself as well, so use the exclusive form of us in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

403

ACT

3

6

x6bm

figs-metonymy

ἀργύριον καὶ χρυσίον

1

silver and gold

Peter is referring figuratively to money by association with the way that silver and gold were used for money at this time. Alternate translation: “money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

404

ACT

3

6

zi9t

figs-explicit

ὃ δὲ ἔχω, τοῦτό σοι δίδωμι

1

but what I have, this I give to you

What happens next in the story shows that by what I have, Peter implicitly means the authority that Jesus has given him to heal. Alternate translation: “but Jesus has given me the authority to heal, and I will use it on your behalf” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

405

ACT

3

6

t2vf

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου

1

In the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarene

Here the name of Jesus figuratively represents his authority. Alternate translation: “By the authority of Jesus Christ the Nazarene, I command you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

406

ACT

3

6

a204

translate-names

Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου

1

of Jesus Christ the Nazarene

The word Nazarene describes someone who comes from the city of Nazareth. See how you translated it in 2:23. Alternate translation: “of Jesus Christ of Nazareth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

407

ACT

3

6

a205

figs-imperative

περιπάτει

1

walk

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, it was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I give you the ability to walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

408

ACT

3

7

ec6j

writing-pronouns

πιάσας αὐτὸν τῆς δεξιᾶς χειρὸς, ἤγειρεν αὐτόν; παραχρῆμα δὲ ἐστερεώθησαν αἱ βάσεις αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ σφυδρά

1

seizing him by the right hand, he raised him up, and immediately his feet and ankles were made strong

In this verse, the pronoun he refers to Peter, while the pronouns him and his refer to the lame man. You could indicate that specifically in at least some of the cases if that would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “seizing the man by the right hand, Peter raised him up, and immediately the man’s feet and ankles were made strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

409

ACT

3

7

a206

figs-activepassive

ἐστερεώθησαν αἱ βάσεις αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ σφυδρά

1

his feet and ankles were made strong

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “his feet and ankles became strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

410

ACT

3

8

a207

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke is using the word translated And to indicate that the events in this verse happened as a result of the events in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

411

ACT

3

8

abc1

writing-pronouns

ἔστη καὶ περιεπάτει, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν σὺν αὐτοῖς

1

he stood and began to walk, and he entered with them

The pronoun he refers to the man who had been lame, and the pronoun them refers to Peter and John. You could indicate that specifically if it would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “the man stood and began to walk, and the man entered with Peter and John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

412

ACT

3

8

zp7x

figs-explicit

εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν

1

into the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “into the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

413

ACT

3

9

a208

figs-hyperbole

πᾶς ὁ λαὸς

1

all the people

The word all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the crowd that was in the courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

414

ACT

3

10

zy7h

ἐπεγίνωσκον…αὐτὸν, ὅτι αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ…καθήμενος

1

they recognized him, that he was the one sitting

Alternate translation: “they realized that he was the man who had been sitting”

415

ACT

3

10

p2zh

translate-names

τῇ Ὡραίᾳ Πύλῃ

1

the Beautiful Gate

This was the name of one of the entrances to the temple area. See how you translated the similar expression in 3:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

416

ACT

3

10

a209

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν θάμβους καὶ ἐκστάσεως ἐπὶ τῷ συμβεβηκότι αὐτῷ

1

they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “what had happened to him filled them with wonder and amazement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

417

ACT

3

10

j6zf

figs-doublet

ἐπλήσθησαν θάμβους καὶ ἐκστάσεως ἐπὶ τῷ συμβεβηκότι αὐτῷ

1

they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him

The words wonder and amazement mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. You can combine the words in your translation if that might be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “what had happened to him filled them with complete amazement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

418

ACT

3

10

a210

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήσθησαν θάμβους καὶ ἐκστάσεως ἐπὶ τῷ συμβεβηκότι αὐτῷ

1

they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him

Luke is speaking figuratively as if the people were containers that these responses could fill. Alternate translation: “what had happened to him made them completely amazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

419

ACT

3

10

a211

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπλήσθησαν θάμβους καὶ ἐκστάσεως ἐπὶ τῷ συμβεβηκότι αὐτῷ

1

they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wonder and amazement, you could express the same idea with verbs. Alternate translation: “they wondered and marveled greatly at what had happened to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

420

ACT

3

11

a212

figs-hyperbole

πᾶς ὁ λαὸς

1

all the people

The word all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the crowd that was there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

421

ACT

3

11

rk1m

translate-names

τῇ στοᾷ τῇ καλουμένῃ Σολομῶντος

1

the porch that is called Solomon’s

This is the name of a covered walkway in the Jerusalem temple courtyard. It consisted of rows of pillars that supported a roof. People had named this porch after King Solomon. Alternate translation: “Solomon’s Porch” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

422

ACT

3

11

rj43

figs-activepassive

τῇ καλουμένῃ

1

that is called

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “that people call” or “whose name is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

423

ACT

3

12

ndi3

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, Ἰσραηλεῖται

1

Men, Israelites

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “My fellow Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

424

ACT

3

12

uyg1

figs-rquestion

τί θαυμάζετε ἐπὶ τούτῳ

1

why do you marvel at this?

Peter does not expect the crowd to tell him why they are marveling. He is using the question form for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “you should not marvel at this!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

425

ACT

3

12

j6ld

figs-rquestion

ἢ ἡμῖν τί ἀτενίζετε, ὡς ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει ἢ εὐσεβείᾳ πεποιηκόσιν τοῦ περιπατεῖν αὐτόν?

1

Or why do you look intently at us, as if we have made him to walk by our own power or godliness?

Peter is using the question form for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “Do not stare at us. We did not make him walk by our own power or godliness!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

426

ACT

3

12

g4y1

figs-exclusive

ἡμῖν…ἰδίᾳ

1

at us … our own

By us and our own, Peter means himself and John but not also the people in the crowd. So use the exclusive forms of us and our in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

427

ACT

3

12

mwd9

figs-hendiadys

ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει ἢ εὐσεβείᾳ

1

by our own power or godliness

Peter may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with or. The term godliness describes what the crowd may consider the source or nature of the power that he and John have. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “by our own godly power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

428

ACT

3

13

q8q2

translate-names

Ἀβραὰμ…Ἰσαὰκ…Ἰακώβ

1

Abraham … Isaac … Jacob

These are the names of three men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

429

ACT

3

13

a213

figs-metaphor

τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

1

our fathers

Peter is using the term fathers figuratively to mean “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “of our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

430

ACT

3

13

kmqw

figs-gendernotations

τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

1

The term fathers could mean: (1) in a generic sense that includes both men and women, the ancestors of the Israelites. If you decide to retain this metaphor in your translation, you could say “fathers and mothers” to indicate this. (2) Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. In that case, Peter would be repeating the meaning of the previous phrase, and the term would have a masculine meaning. Alternate translation: “of the patriarchs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

431

ACT

3

13

a214

τὸν παῖδα αὐτοῦ, Ἰησοῦν

1

his Servant Jesus

See the discussion of the term Servant in the General Notes to this chapter. Alternate translation: “Jesus his Messiah”

432

ACT

3

13

a215

παρεδώκατε

1

delivered up

Alternate translation: “handed over for trial”

433

ACT

3

13

cp1j

figs-idiom

κατὰ πρόσωπον Πειλάτου

1

before the face of Pilate

Here the phrase before the face of means “in the presence of.” Alternate translation: “in the presence of Pilate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

434

ACT

3

13

a216

translate-names

Πειλάτου

1

Pilate

Pilate is the name of a man. His full name was Pontius Pilate. He was the governor of Judea during the time of Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

435

ACT

3

13

yy96

figs-nominaladj

κρίναντος ἐκείνου ἀπολύειν

1

when that one had decided to release him

Peter is using the demonstrative adjective that as a noun to refer to a certain person, Pilate. (ULT adds one to indicate that.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could indicate specifically whom Peter means. Alternate translation: “when Pilate had decided to release him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

436

ACT

3

14

a217

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

But

Peter uses this word to introduce a contrast between what Pilate wanted to do and what these people demanded he do instead. Alternate translation: “Even though Pilate wanted to release Jesus,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

437

ACT

3

14

a218

figs-nominaladj

τὸν Ἅγιον καὶ Δίκαιον

1

the Holy and Righteous One

Peter is using both the adjective Holy and the adjective Righteous to indicate a certain person, Jesus. (ULT adds One to indicate that.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could indicate specifically whom Peter means. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who was holy and righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

438

ACT

3

14

a219

figs-doublet

τὸν Ἅγιον καὶ Δίκαιον

1

the Holy and Righteous One

The terms Holy and Righteous mean similar things. Peter is using the two terms together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the Supremely Holy One” or “Jesus, who was supremely holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

439

ACT

3

14

a220

figs-explicit

τὸν Ἅγιον καὶ Δίκαιον

1

the Holy and Righteous One

This description of Jesus is an implicit assertion that he is the Messiah. Alternate translation: “Jesus, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

440

ACT

3

14

s6qj

figs-activepassive

ᾐτήσασθε ἄνδρα, φονέα χαρισθῆναι ὑμῖν

1

for a man, a murderer, to be granted to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “asked Pilate to release to you a man who was a murderer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

441

ACT

3

15

a221

figs-synecdoche

ἀπεκτείνατε

1

you killed

It was the Romans who literally killed Jesus, but Peter says figuratively that the Jewish people in the crowd killed him because their demands led to his death. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:23. Alternate translation: “you demanded the death of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

442

ACT

3

15

ljn8

figs-explicit

τὸν…Ἀρχηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς

1

the Originator of Life

Peter is using the expression the Originator of Life as another title for Jesus. This expression could be a reference to the way Jesus, as the Son of God, took part in the original creation of all life. It could also be a reference to the way Jesus gives spiritual life to all who believe in him. Or it could mean both things. In any event, Peter is drawing a contrast between the life-giving Jesus whom the people rejected and the life-taking murderer whom they asked Pilate to release. It may be best in your translation to bring out this contrast while leaving the specific meaning open. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who gives life rather than taking it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

443

ACT

3

15

a222

figs-nominaladj

ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

from the dead

Peter is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “from among those who have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

444

ACT

3

15

jwb1

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

1

we

Peter is speaking at least of himself and John, and perhaps also of the other apostles, but not of the people he is addressing. So use the exclusive form of we in your translation if your language marks that distinction. Other languages may have other ways of indicating that we is exclusive here. Alternate translation: “we and the other apostles whom Jesus chose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

445

ACT

3

15

a223

writing-pronouns

ἡμεῖς

1

we

If you conclude that Peter is referring only to himself and John, and if your language uses dual forms, use the dual form of the pronoun we here, since it would apply to two people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

446

ACT

3

16

abc2

figs-infostructure

ἐπὶ τῇ πίστει τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ, τοῦτον ὃν θεωρεῖτε καὶ οἴδατε, ἐστερέωσεν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

by faith in his name, this one whom you see and know, his name has made strong

Your language might naturally present the phrases in this sentence in a different order. Alternate translation: “this man whom you see and know had faith in his name, and his name has made him strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

447

ACT

3

16

qt8w

writing-pronouns

τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ…τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

in his name … his name

The pronoun his refers to Jesus in both of these instances. Alternate translation: “in the name of Jesus … that name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

448

ACT

3

16

a224

figs-metonymy

τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ…τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

in his name … his name

Peter is using the name of Jesus figuratively to mean his authority or power. Alternate translation: “in the authority of Jesus … the authority of Jesus” or “in the power of Jesus … the power of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

449

ACT

3

16

abc3

writing-pronouns

ἡ πίστις ἡ δι’ αὐτοῦ, ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ

1

the faith that is through him has given to him

The first instance of the pronoun him refers to Jesus, and the second instance refers to the man who had been lame. Alternate translation: “the faith that is through Jesus has given to this man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

450

ACT

3

16

a225

figs-personification

ἡ πίστις ἡ δι’ αὐτοῦ, ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ τὴν ὁλοκληρίαν ταύτην

1

the faith that is through him has given to him this complete health

Peter is speaking of faith figuratively as if it were a living thing that could have given complete health to the man. Alternate translation: “because this man had faith in Jesus, Jesus has given him this complete health” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

451

ACT

3

17

v45t

καὶ νῦν

1

And now

Peter uses the expression And now to shift the people’s attention away from the lame man so that he can speak to them directly. In your translation, use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that would be natural for this same purpose.

452

ACT

3

17

a226

figs-metaphor

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Peter addresses the people figuratively as his brothers because they are related to him as fellow descendants of the founders of the Jewish nation. Alternate translation: “my kinsmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

453

ACT

3

17

a227

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Although the term brothers is masculine, Peter is using the word in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “brothers and sisters” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

454

ACT

3

17

x62k

figs-explicit

κατὰ ἄγνοιαν ἐπράξατε

1

you acted in ignorance

Peter likely means that the people acted in ignorance of the fact that Jesus was the Messiah. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “you acted in ignorance of the fact that Jesus was the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

455

ACT

3

17

a228

figs-ellipsis

ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες ὑμῶν

1

as also your rulers

Peter is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. You can supply these words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “and that your rulers also acted in ignorance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

456

ACT

3

18

gcc1

figs-infostructure

ὁ δὲ Θεὸς ἃ προκατήγγειλεν διὰ στόματος πάντων τῶν προφητῶν, παθεῖν τὸν Χριστὸν αὐτοῦ, ἐπλήρωσεν οὕτως

1

But what God foretold through the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ would suffer, he has fulfilled thus

Your language might naturally put first in this sentence the information that God fulfilled prophecies when Christ suffered. Alternate translation: “But in this way God has fulfilled what he foretold through the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ would suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

457

ACT

3

18

ms6d

διὰ στόματος πάντων τῶν προφητῶν

1

through the mouth of all the prophets

Since Peter is speaking of a group of people, the prophets, it might be more natural in your language to use the plural form of mouth. Alternate translation: “through the mouths of all the prophets”

458

ACT

3

18

z3l7

figs-metonymy

διὰ στόματος πάντων τῶν προφητῶν

1

through the mouth of all the prophets

Peter is figuratively using the mouth of the prophets to represent what they said by using their mouths. Alternate translation: “through what all the prophets said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

459

ACT

3

18

a229

figs-hyperbole

πάντων τῶν προφητῶν

1

of all the prophets

Peter is using the word all as a generalization. It is true that the overall witness of Old Testament prophecy is that the Messiah would come first in humility and suffering, but not every prophet spoke specifically of the sufferings of Christ. Alternate translation: “of many prophets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

460

ACT

3

19

cw18

figs-metaphor

ἐπιστρέψατε

1

turn back

Peter is speaking of his listeners figuratively as if they were traveling somewhere and had taken the wrong way and needed to turn back onto the right way. Alternate translation: “start obeying the Lord again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

461

ACT

3

19

zm6y

figs-activepassive

πρὸς τὸ ἐξαλειφθῆναι ὑμῶν τὰς ἁμαρτίας

1

for your sins to be wiped away

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “so that God will wipe away your sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

462

ACT

3

19

a230

figs-metaphor

πρὸς τὸ ἐξαλειφθῆναι ὑμῶν τὰς ἁμαρτίας

1

for your sins to be wiped away

Peter is speaking of sins as if they would be physically wiped away when God forgave them. Alternate translation: “so that God will forgive your sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

463

ACT

3

20

a231

figs-personification

ὅπως ἂν ἔλθωσιν καιροὶ ἀναψύξεως ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ Κυρίου

1

so that times of refreshment may come from the face of the Lord

Peter is speaking of these times figuratively as if they could actively come to his listeners on their own. Alternate translation: “so that the Lord may send you times of refreshing from his face” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

464

ACT

3

20

x3ca

figs-abstractnouns

καιροὶ ἀναψύξεως

1

times of refreshment

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word refreshment, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “refreshing” or “restful.” Alternate translation: “refreshing times” or “restful times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

465

ACT

3

20

f2wm

figs-metaphor

ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ Κυρίου

1

from the face of the Lord

Peter is using the term face figuratively to represent the presence of the Lord. Alternate translation: “from the presence of the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

466

ACT

3

20

h3nk

figs-explicit

ἀποστείλῃ

1

he may send

Peter is referring implicitly to Christ’s coming again. Alternate translation: “he may again send” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

467

ACT

3

20

yzr6

figs-activepassive

τὸν προκεχειρισμένον ὑμῖν

1

the one appointed for you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the one whom he has appointed for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

468

ACT

3

21

vgn8

figs-personification

ὃν δεῖ οὐρανὸν μὲν δέξασθαι

1

whom it is necessary for heaven to receive

Peter is speaking figuratively of heaven as if it were a person who has welcomed Jesus into his home. Alternate translation: “who must remain in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

469

ACT

3

21

x2f3

figs-abstractnouns

ἄχρι χρόνων ἀποκαταστάσεως πάντων

1

the times of the restoration of all things

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word restoration, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “restore.” Alternate translation: “until the times when God will restore all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

470

ACT

3

21

a2m8

figs-idiom

ἀπ’ αἰῶνος

1

from the age

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “long ago” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

471

ACT

3

21

a12i

figs-metonymy

διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων…αὐτοῦ προφητῶν

1

through the mouth of his holy prophets

Peter is figuratively using the mouth of the prophets to represent what they said by using their mouths. Alternate translation: “through what his holy prophets said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

472

ACT

3

22

a232

figs-quotesinquotes

Μωϋσῆς μὲν εἶπεν, ὅτι προφήτην ὑμῖν ἀναστήσει Κύριος, ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν ἐκ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ὑμῶν, ὡς ἐμέ αὐτοῦ ἀκούσεσθε κατὰ πάντα, ὅσα ἂν λαλήσῃ πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

Moses indeed said, ‘The Lord our God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brothers. You will listen to him according to everything—whatever he may speak to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “Moses indeed said that the Lord our God would raise up a prophet like himself for us Israelites from among our brothers. Moses said that we were to listen to him according to everything—whatever he might speak to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

473

ACT

3

22

a233

translate-names

Μωϋσῆς

1

Moses

Moses is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

474

ACT

3

22

a249

translate-textvariants

Κύριος, ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν

1

The Lord our God

See the discussion in the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to use this reading or one of two other possible readings, “The Lord your God” or “The Lord God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

475

ACT

3

22

a250

figs-exclusive

Κύριος, ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν

1

The Lord our God

Moses is speaking of himself and his fellow Israelites, whom he is addressing, so use the inclusive form of the word our in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

476

ACT

3

22

v5nf

figs-idiom

ὑμῖν ἀναστήσει

1

will raise up for you

Here the expression raise up does not mean “bring back to life,” as it did in 2:24 and 2:32. In this context, it refers instead to God giving someone the mission to go as a prophet to certain people with a message for them. Alternate translation: “will send to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

477

ACT

3

22

t8di

figs-metaphor

τῶν ἀδελφῶν ὑμῶν

1

your brothers

Moses is using the term brothers to mean people who are fellow descendants with his listeners of the founders of the Jewish nation. Alternate translation: “your kinsmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

478

ACT

3

22

a234

figs-declarative

αὐτοῦ ἀκούσεσθε κατὰ πάντα

1

You will listen to him according to everything

Moses is using a future statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must listen to everything he tells you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

479

ACT

3

22

a235

figs-idiom

αὐτοῦ ἀκούσεσθε κατὰ πάντα

1

You will listen to him according to everything

Here, listen is an idiom that means “obey.” Alternate translation: “You must obey every command that he gives you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

480

ACT

3

23

a236

figs-quotesinquotes

ἔσται δὲ πᾶσα ψυχὴ, ἥτις ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ τοῦ προφήτου ἐκείνου, ἐξολεθρευθήσεται ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ

1

But it will be that every soul that does not listen to that prophet will be destroyed from the people

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “Moses also said that every soul that did not listen to that prophet would be destroyed from the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

481

ACT

3

23

t8a5

figs-activepassive

πᾶσα ψυχὴ, ἥτις ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ τοῦ προφήτου ἐκείνου, ἐξολεθρευθήσεται ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ

1

every soul that does not listen to that prophet will be destroyed from the people

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God will destroy from the people every soul that does not listen to that prophet” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

482

ACT

3

23

a237

figs-declarative

πᾶσα ψυχὴ, ἥτις ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ τοῦ προφήτου ἐκείνου, ἐξολεθρευθήσεται ἐκ τοῦ λαοῦ

1

every soul that does not listen to that prophet will be destroyed from the people

Moses could be using a future statement to give a command, in which case he would be telling the people to take this action. Alternate translation: “you must destroy from the people every soul that does not listen to that prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

483

ACT

3

23

a238

figs-synecdoche

πᾶσα ψυχὴ, ἥτις

1

every soul that

Moses is using one part of a person, the soul, to mean the entire person. Alternate translation: “every person who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

484

ACT

3

23

a239

figs-idiom

ἥτις ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ τοῦ προφήτου ἐκείνου

1

does not listen to that prophet

Here, listen is an idiom that means “obey.” Alternate translation: “does not obey that prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

485

ACT

3

24

u6x3

figs-hyperbole

πάντες…οἱ προφῆται

1

all the prophets

Here the phrase all the prophets is probably not the same kind of generalization that it seems to be in 3:18. It is true in a more literal sense that all the prophets announced these days. There was something in the messages of each one of them that pointed to the culmination of God’s work in the coming of Jesus. So even if your language does not use generalizations for emphasis, you can translate these words just as Peter says them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

486

ACT

3

24

xp9h

ἀπὸ Σαμουὴλ καὶ τῶν καθεξῆς

1

from Samuel and those after him

Alternate translation: “beginning with Samuel and continuing with those who lived after he did”

487

ACT

3

24

a240

translate-names

Σαμουὴλ

1

Samuel

Samuel is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

488

ACT

3

24

m9pr

figs-idiom

τὰς ἡμέρας ταύτας

1

these days

Peter is using the word days idiomatically to mean a specific time. Alternate translation: “this time” or “these times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

489

ACT

3

24

a241

figs-explicit

τὰς ἡμέρας ταύτας

1

these days

Peter is referring to a specific time to mean implicitly what is happening at that time. Alternate translation: “the things that are happening now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

490

ACT

3

25

rh2n

figs-metonymy

ὑμεῖς ἐστε οἱ υἱοὶ τῶν προφητῶν

1

You are the sons of the prophets

Peter is using the word sons figuratively in the sense of “heirs,” by association with the way that children inherit from their parents. He means that the Israelites living at this time are going to receive something as a legacy from those who lived before them. Alternate translation: “You are the ones who are going to receive what the prophets promised” or “You are the ones who are going to experience what the prophets foretold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

491

ACT

3

25

a242

figs-gendernotations

οἱ υἱοὶ

1

the sons

Although the term sons is masculine, Peter is using the word in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “the sons and daughters” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

492

ACT

3

25

a243

figs-metonymy

καὶ τῆς διαθήκης ἧς διέθετο ὁ Θεὸς πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ὑμῶν

1

and of the covenant that God made with your fathers

The figurative sense of sons as “heirs” continues in this phrase. Alternate translation: “and who are going to receive what God promised to your fathers when he made a covenant with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

493

ACT

3

25

a244

figs-quotesinquotes

πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ὑμῶν, λέγων πρὸς Ἀβραάμ, καὶ ἐν τῷ σπέρματί σου ἐνευλογηθήσονται πᾶσαι αἱ πατριαὶ τῆς γῆς

1

with your fathers, saying to Abraham, ‘And in your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “with your fathers when he said to Abraham that in his seed all the families of the earth would be blessed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

494

ACT

3

25

a245

figs-metaphor

τοὺς πατέρας ὑμῶν

1

your fathers

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “your ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

495

ACT

3

25

wid4

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς πατέρας ὑμῶν

1

Although the term fathers is masculine, Peter is using the word in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “your fathers and mothers” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

496

ACT

3

25

mad5

figs-metaphor

ἐν τῷ σπέρματί σου

1

in your seed

The term seed figuratively means “offspring.” It is a word picture. Just as plants produce seeds that grow into many more plants, so people can have many offspring. Alternate translation: “through your descendants” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

497

ACT

3

25

a246

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ σπέρματί σου

1

in your seed

As the apostle Paul notes in Galatians 3:16, God used the singular form of the word seed when he said this to Abraham, and so the ultimate fulfillment of this promise came when God sent Jesus as the Savior for everyone in the world who would believe in him. That may also be what Peter has in view here, since he refers in the next verse to God’s “Servant,” meaning the Messiah. Alternate translation: “through the Messiah, who will be your descendant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

498

ACT

3

25

a247

figs-activepassive

ἐνευλογηθήσονται πᾶσαι αἱ πατριαὶ τῆς γῆς

1

will all the families of the earth be blessed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I will bless all the families of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

499

ACT

3

25

g31m

figs-metonymy

πᾶσαι αἱ πατριαὶ τῆς γῆς

1

all the families of the earth

Here, families refers figuratively to people groups or nations by association with the way that many of them consist of people who have a common ancestry. Alternate translation: “all the nations of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

500

ACT

3

26

b7tz

figs-idiom

ἀναστήσας ὁ Θεὸς τὸν παῖδα αὐτοῦ, ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν

1

God, having raised up his Servant, sent him

The expression raised up has the same meaning here as in 3:22. See how you translated it there. Alternate translation: “When God appointed Jesus as the Messiah, he sent him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

501

ACT

3

26

z5q6

τὸν παῖδα αὐτοῦ

1

his Servant

See the discussion of the term Servant in the General Notes to this chapter, and see how you translated that term in 3:13. Alternate translation: “his Messiah”

502

ACT

3

26

x8ss

figs-metaphor

τῷ ἀποστρέφειν ἕκαστον ἀπὸ τῶν πονηριῶν ὑμῶν

1

by turning each of you from your wickedness

Here, turning someone from something figuratively means leading that person to stop doing that thing. See how you translated the similar expression in 3:19. Alternate translation: “by leading every one of you to repent of your wickedness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

503

ACT

3

26

a248

figs-abstractnouns

τῷ ἀποστρέφειν ἕκαστον ἀπὸ τῶν πονηριῶν ὑμῶν

1

by turning each of you from your wickedness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wickedness, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “wicked.” Alternate translation: “by leading every one of you to stop doing wicked things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

504

ACT

4

intro

pv3a

0

Acts 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set lines of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 4:25–26.

Special concepts in this chapter

Unity

The first Christians wanted very much to be united. They wanted to believe the same things and share everything they owned and help those who needed help.

“Signs and wonders”

This phrase refers to things that only God can do. The Christians wanted God to do what only he could do so that people would believe that what they said about Jesus was true.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

The “head of the corner” or cornerstone (4:11)

The cornerstone was the first piece of stone that people put down when they were building a building out of stone. Peter refers to it as the “head of the corner” in 4:11. This is a metaphor for the most important part of something, the part on which everything else depends. To say that Jesus is the cornerstone of the church is to say that nothing in the church is more important than Jesus and that everything in the church depends on Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“no other name” (4:12)

“There is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12). As a note to this verse explains, in this expression the term “name” figuratively represents a person. So with these words, Peter was saying that no other person who has ever been on the earth or who will ever be on earth can save people. This statement might cause some controversy in some places today, but it is an essential part of the Christian message, and it should be translated so that its meaning is clear.

505

ACT

4

1

abc4

writing-pronouns

λαλούντων…αὐτῶν

1

as they were speaking

The pronoun they refers to Peter and John. Alternate translation: “as Peter and John were speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

506

ACT

4

1

ew3l

figs-explicit

ὁ στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ

1

the captain of the temple

The temple had its own guards, and this man was their commanding officer. Alternate translation: “the commander of the temple guard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

507

ACT

4

1

a253

translate-names

οἱ Σαδδουκαῖοι

1

the Sadducees

Sadducees is the name of a group of Jewish priests. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

508

ACT

4

1

m74s

figs-explicit

οἱ Σαδδουκαῖοι

1

the Sadducees

The Sadducees would have been particularly upset that Peter and John were saying that God raised Jesus from the dead, because they did not believe in the resurrection. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that explicitly here. Alternate translation: “the Sadducees, who do not believe in the resurrection,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

509

ACT

4

1

d3tv

figs-synecdoche

οἱ Σαδδουκαῖοι

1

the Sadducees

Luke is using the name of the whole group to mean some of its members. Alternate translation: “some of the Sadducees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

510

ACT

4

2

abc5

writing-pronouns

διαπονούμενοι διὰ τὸ διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς

1

greatly troubled because they were teaching

The pronoun they refers to Peter and John. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “These men were greatly troubled because Peter and John were teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

511

ACT

4

2

mg5l

figs-abstractnouns

καταγγέλλειν ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ τὴν ἀνάστασιν, τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

proclaiming in Jesus the resurrection that is from the dead

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word resurrection, you could express the same idea with an equivalent phrase. Peter and John were saying that God would raise people from the dead in the same way that he had raised Jesus. Translate this in a way that allows the resurrection to refer to both Jesus’ resurrection and the general resurrection of other people. Alternate translation: “proclaiming that God makes people alive again who have died, just as God had done for Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

512

ACT

4

2

np5g

figs-nominaladj

τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

from the dead

Peter is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “from among those who have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

513

ACT

4

3

a254

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke is using the word translated And to introduce what the men who came up to Peter and John did because they were so troubled by their teaching. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

514

ACT

4

3

a255

writing-pronouns

ἐπέβαλον αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας

1

they laid hands on them

The pronoun they refers to the priests, the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees. The pronoun them refers to Peter and John. It may be helpful to clarify this for your readers. Alternate translation: “the priests, the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees laid hands on Peter and John” or “the men who had come up to Peter and John laid hands on them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

515

ACT

4

3

zla7

figs-metonymy

ἐπέβαλον αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας

1

they laid hands on them

The expression laid hands on figuratively means to arrest someone, by association with the way that arresting officers might physically take hold of a person with their hands. Alternate translation: “they arrested them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

516

ACT

4

3

a256

figs-abstractnouns

ἔθεντο εἰς τήρησιν

1

put them in custody

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word custody, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “imprison.” Alternate translation: “they imprisoned them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

517

ACT

4

3

h5f9

figs-explicit

ἦν γὰρ ἑσπέρα ἤδη

1

since it was already evening

The implication is that the ruling council, which Luke describes in 4:5–6, would not meet to question anyone at night. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “since it was already evening and the council would not meet to question them at night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

518

ACT

4

4

a257

writing-endofstory

δὲ

1

But

Luke uses the word But to introduce information about what happened after this much of the story as a result of the events within the story itself. This is not the end of the whole story, but it is the end of a significant part of it. Your language may have its own way of indicating how such information relates to a significant part of a story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

519

ACT

4

4

a258

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον

1

the word

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that Peter and John shared by using words. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

520

ACT

4

4

bm1f

figs-gendernotations

ἀριθμὸς τῶν ἀνδρῶν

1

the number of the men

Luke is not using the word men in a generic sense here. The figure of 5,000 is the number of the men alone. It does not include women and children. So it would not be accurate to translate men as “people.” Instead, if it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this distinction explicitly. Alternate translation: “the number of the men alone, not counting the women and children,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

521

ACT

4

4

qd8g

figs-explicit

ἐγενήθη…ὡς χιλιάδες πέντε

1

became about 5,000

The word translated became could mean: (1) the community of believers in Jesus grew to a total of 5,000 as a result of the professions of faith on this day. Alternate translation: “in the community of believers grew to about 5,000” (2) “was,” and that would indicate that 5,000 men made professions of faith on this day. Alternate translation: “who put their faith in Jesus that day was about 5,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

522

ACT

4

5

lw2d

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a significant development in this story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

523

ACT

4

5

cdj1

figs-explicit

συναχθῆναι αὐτῶν τοὺς ἄρχοντας, καὶ τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους, καὶ τοὺς γραμματεῖς

1

their rulers and elders and scribes were gathered together

Luke is implicitly describing the Sanhedrin, the Jewish ruling council, which consisted of these three groups of people. Luke describes this council explicitly as “the Sanhedrin” in 4:15. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could identify it by name here. Alternate translation: “the Sanhedrin, consisting of their rulers and elders and scribes, was gathered together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

524

ACT

4

5

j6p8

writing-pronouns

αὐτῶν τοὺς ἄρχοντας, καὶ τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους, καὶ τοὺς γραμματεῖς

1

their rulers and elders and scribes

The pronoun their refers to the Jewish people. Alternate translation: “the rulers and elders and scribes of the Jewish people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

525

ACT

4

5

i9tj

figs-activepassive

συναχθῆναι

1

were gathered together

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “gathered together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

526

ACT

4

6

a259

figs-explicit

Ἅννας ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς, καὶ Καϊάφας

1

Annas the high priest, and Caiaphas

Luke describes Annas as the high priest, but the actual situation was complicated. At this time the Romans were appointing the high priests for Judea. One Roman official had appointed Annas some years earlier, but ten years after that, another official deposed him and named his son-in-law Caiaphas high priest instead. However, the Jews still recognized Annas’ claim to the position. If you decide to clarify this for your readers, it would probably be best to state the matter as simply as possible. Alternate translation: “Annas, whom the Jews recognized as the high priest, and Caiaphas, whom a Roman official had appointed as the high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

527

ACT

4

6

l44n

translate-names

Ἅννας…Καϊάφας…Ἰωάννης…Ἀλέξανδρος

1

Annas … Caiaphas … John … Alexander

These are the names of four men. The John mentioned here was a member of the high priest’s family. This is not the same John as the apostle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

528

ACT

4

6

a260

ὅσοι ἦσαν ἐκ γένους ἀρχιερατικοῦ

1

as many as were from the high priestly family

Alternate translation: “all the other members of the high priestly family who were members of the council”

529

ACT

4

7

abc6

writing-pronouns

στήσαντες αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ μέσῳ, ἐπυνθάνοντο

1

having set them in their midst, they asked them

The pronoun them refers to Peter and John, and the pronouns their and they refer to the council members. It may be helpful to clarify this for your readers. Alternate translation: “when the council members had set Peter and John in their midst, the members asked them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

530

ACT

4

7

t1eq

figs-doublet

ἐν ποίᾳ δυνάμει ἢ ἐν ποίῳ ὀνόματι ἐποιήσατε τοῦτο ὑμεῖς?

1

By what power or in what name have you done this?

The words power and name (meaning authority; see next note) mean similar things. The council members may be using them together to ask a comprehensive or emphatic question. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine these terms in your translation. Alternate translation: “By whatever means were you able to do this?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

531

ACT

4

7

jc21

figs-metonymy

ἐν ποίῳ ὀνόματι

1

in what name

Here, name refers figuratively to authority. Alternate translation: “by what authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

532

ACT

4

7

a261

figs-youdual

ὑμεῖς

1

you

Since the council members are speaking to two men, you would be dual if your language uses that form. (All other pronouns in this account that refer to Peter and John would also be dual, such as them in its two instances in this verse.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

533

ACT

4

8

su5x

figs-activepassive

Πέτρος πλησθεὶς Πνεύματος Ἁγίου, εἶπεν

1

Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. See how you translated the comparable expression in 2:4. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit filled Peter and he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

534

ACT

4

8

a262

figs-metaphor

Πέτρος πλησθεὶς Πνεύματος Ἁγίου, εἶπεν

1

Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said

Luke is speaking figuratively of Peter as if he were a container that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit inspired Peter and he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

535

ACT

4

8

a263

figs-merism

ἄρχοντες τοῦ λαοῦ καὶ πρεσβύτεροι

1

Rulers of the people and elders

Peter is addressing the entire council by referring to its two components. Some of the members had ruling responsibilities. Others, the elders, were added to the council to bring its total membership up to 70, since according to Exodus 24:1, that was the number of elders who accompanied Moses when God confirmed the covenant with Israel at Mount Sinai. Alternate translation: “You members of the Sanhedrin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

536

ACT

4

8

a264

figs-explicit

τοῦ λαοῦ

1

of the people

Here, the people means specifically the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

537

ACT

4

9

pq85

figs-irony

εἰ ἡμεῖς σήμερον ἀνακρινόμεθα ἐπὶ εὐεργεσίᾳ ἀνθρώπου ἀσθενοῦς, ἐν τίνι οὗτος σέσωσται

1

if we are being questioned today concerning a good deed to a sick man, by what means he was made well

Peter is not suggesting seriously that the subject of the questioning is uncertain. He knows the subject, but he is suggesting ironically that it is uncertain so that he can describe it from his own perspective. The council asked by what power or authority he and John did “this,” implying that “this” was something bad, a public disturbance that troubled the authorities. In response, Peter asserts that “this” was instead something good, a good deed to a sick man. If it would be helpful to your readers, in your translation you could indicate the meaning that Peter is communicating through this irony. Alternate translation: “what we actually did was a good deed for a sick man, and if you want to know by what means he was made well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

538

ACT

4

9

je6d

figs-activepassive

ἡμεῖς…ἀνακρινόμεθα

1

we are being questioned

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “you are questioning us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

539

ACT

4

9

b92n

figs-activepassive

οὗτος σέσωσται

1

he was made well

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “he became healthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

540

ACT

4

10

snd5

figs-activepassive

γνωστὸν ἔστω πᾶσιν ὑμῖν καὶ παντὶ τῷ λαῷ Ἰσραὴλ

1

let it be known to you all and to all the people of Israel

The word translated known is an adjective, so this is not a passive verbal form. However, if your language does not use passive forms, it might be helpful to your readers to use an expression that does not seem to be a passive verbal form. Alternate translation: “then we want you and all the people of Israel to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

541

ACT

4

10

j3px

writing-pronouns

πᾶσιν ὑμῖν

1

to you all

The pronoun you refers to the council members. Alternate translation: “to all of you council members” or “to all of you who are questioning us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

542

ACT

4

10

khn7

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι

1

in the name

Here, name refers figuratively to power and authority. Alternate translation: “through the power” or “by the authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

543

ACT

4

10

a265

translate-names

Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου

1

of Jesus Christ the Nazarene

See how you translated this in 2:22 and 3:6. Alternate translation: “of Jesus Christ of Nazareth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

544

ACT

4

10

a266

figs-synecdoche

ὃν ὑμεῖς ἐσταυρώσατε

1

whom you crucified

It was the Romans who literally crucified Jesus, but Peter says figuratively that these Jewish leaders crucified him because their demands led to his death. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:23. Alternate translation: “whom you demanded to be crucified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

545

ACT

4

10

jyj6

figs-idiom

ὃν ὁ Θεὸς ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

whom God raised from the dead

As in 2:24, the idiom raised up means that God made Jesus alive again after he died. Alternate translation: “whom God made alive again after he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

546

ACT

4

10

a267

figs-nominaladj

ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

from the dead

Peter is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “from among those who have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

547

ACT

4

11

nwg6

writing-pronouns

οὗτός

1

He

The pronoun He refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

548

ACT

4

11

w195

figs-metaphor

ὁ λίθος ὁ ἐξουθενηθεὶς ὑφ’ ὑμῶν, τῶν οἰκοδόμων, ὁ γενόμενος εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας

1

the stone that was rejected by you, the builders, which has been made into the head of the corner

Peter is quoting from Psalm 118:22, and the quotation contains a metaphor. This psalm is figuratively describing the Messiah as if he were a stone that builders chose not to use. This means that people will reject him. When the psalm says that this stone became the cornerstone, this means figuratively that God will nevertheless make the Messiah the ruler of these people. However, since this is a quotation from Scripture, we recommend that you translate the words directly rather than providing a non-figurative explanation of them, even if your language does not customarily use such figures of speech. If you want to explain the meaning of the metaphor, we recommend that you do that in a footnote rather than in the Bible text. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

549

ACT

4

11

c1bh

figs-activepassive

ὁ ἐξουθενηθεὶς ὑφ’ ὑμῶν, τῶν οἰκοδόμων

1

that was rejected by you, the builders

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “that you, the builders, rejected” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

550

ACT

4

11

f1nx

figs-idiom

κεφαλὴν γωνίας

1

the head of the corner

The phrase the head of the corner is an idiom that refers to a large stone with straight edges that builders would place down first and use as a reference to make sure that the walls of a stone building were straight and that the building was oriented in the right direction. Your language may have its own term for such a stone. You could also use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the cornerstone” or “the reference stone for the whole building” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

551

ACT

4

12

a268

figs-doublenegatives

οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἄλλῳ οὐδενὶ ἡ σωτηρία

1

there is no salvation in anyone else

In Greek this is a double negative for emphasis, “there is no salvation in no one else.” The second negative does not cancel the first to create a positive meaning. If for emphasis your language uses double negatives that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. You could also state the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “he is the only one in whom there is salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

552

ACT

4

12

tq3z

figs-abstractnouns

οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἄλλῳ οὐδενὶ ἡ σωτηρία

1

there is no salvation in anyone else

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “save.” Alternate translation: “he is the only one who is able to save” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

553

ACT

4

12

l66w

figs-activepassive

οὐδὲ…ὄνομά ἐστιν ἕτερον ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν τὸ δεδομένον

1

there is no other name under heaven given

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God has not given any other name under heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

554

ACT

4

12

iz7k

figs-metonymy

οὐδὲ…ὄνομά ἐστιν ἕτερον…ἐν ᾧ δεῖ σωθῆναι ἡμᾶς

1

there is no other name … by which we must be saved

Here, name figuratively represents a person, by association with the way that each person has a name. Alternate translation: “there is no other person … by whom we must be saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

555

ACT

4

12

jm25

figs-idiom

ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν

1

under heaven

This is an idiom. See how you translated it in 2:5. Alternate translation: “on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

556

ACT

4

12

a269

figs-gendernotations

ἐν ἀνθρώποις

1

among men

Peter is using the term men in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “among people” or “to people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

557

ACT

4

12

gg8h

figs-activepassive

ἐν ᾧ δεῖ σωθῆναι ἡμᾶς

1

by which we must be saved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “that can save us” or, if you translate “name” as “person,” “who can save us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

558

ACT

4

12

tdw8

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

we

Peter is using the word we to refer to himself and his listeners, so use the inclusive form of that word if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

559

ACT

4

13

r6d6

figs-idiom

θεωροῦντες

1

seeing

Luke is using the word seeing idiomatically to mean that the council members noticed this and found it significant. Alternate translation: “taking note of” or “impressed with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

560

ACT

4

13

t6kc

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν τοῦ Πέτρου παρρησίαν καὶ Ἰωάννου

1

the boldness of Peter and John

Here the abstract noun boldness refers to the way in which Peter and John responded to the Jewish leaders. If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the same idea with an adverb or an adjective. Alternate translation: “how boldly Peter and John had spoken” or “how bold Peter and John were” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

561

ACT

4

13

qaa5

figs-explicit

καταλαβόμενοι

1

realizing

The implication is that the Jewish leaders realized this because of the way Peter and John spoke. Alternate translation: “realizing from the way they spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

562

ACT

4

13

xn39

writing-pronouns

ἐθαύμαζον; ἐπεγίνωσκόν τε αὐτοὺς, ὅτι σὺν τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἦσαν

1

they marveled, and they recognized them, that they had been with Jesus

Here the pronoun they refers in its first two instances to the council members, and in its third instance it refers to Peter and John, as does the pronoun them. It may be helpful to your readers to clarify this and to state the meaning here more concisely. Alternate translation: “the council members marveled, and they recognized that Peter and John had been with Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

563

ACT

4

13

erv7

figs-doublet

ἄνθρωποι ἀγράμματοί εἰσιν καὶ ἰδιῶται

1

they were uneducated and ordinary men

The words uneducated and ordinary mean similar things. Both words indicate that Peter and John had no formal education. Luke uses them together for emphasis, to express from the council members’ perspective how amazed they were. Alternate translation: “they had no formal education at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

564

ACT

4

14

h3cy

figs-activepassive

τόν…ἄνθρωπον…τὸν τεθεραπευμένον

1

the man who had been healed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the man whom Peter and John had healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

565

ACT

4

14

a270

writing-pronouns

σὺν αὐτοῖς ἑστῶτα, τὸν τεθεραπευμένον, οὐδὲν εἶχον

1

standing with them, they had nothing

The pronoun them refers to Peter and John, and the pronoun they refers to the council members. It may be helpful to your readers to clarify this. Alternate translation: “standing with Peter and John, the council members had nothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

566

ACT

4

14

fq4w

figs-explicit

οὐδὲν εἶχον ἀντειπεῖν

1

they had nothing to say in opposition

The implication is that anything the council members said in opposition would have been in an attempt to discredit the claim that the man had been healed in the name of Jesus. But there was nothing they could say, since the evidence that the claim was true was right in front of them in the person of the formerly lame man standing on his own. Alternate translation: “they had nothing to say to discredit the account” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

567

ACT

4

15

ql31

writing-pronouns

κελεύσαντες…αὐτοὺς ἔξω τοῦ Συνεδρίου ἀπελθεῖν, συνέβαλλον πρὸς ἀλλήλους

1

having commanded them to go outside the Sanhedrin, they conferred among themselves

The pronoun them refers at least to Peter and John, and probably also to the man who was healed, while the pronoun they refers to the council members. It may be helpful to your readers to clarify this. Alternate translation: “having commanded Peter and John and the man who was healed to go outside the Sanhedrin, the council members conferred among themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

568

ACT

4

15

a271

translate-names

τοῦ Συνεδρίου

1

the Sanhedrin

Sanhedrin is the name of the Jewish ruling council. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

569

ACT

4

15

a272

figs-metonymy

τοῦ Συνεδρίου

1

the Sanhedrin

Luke is figuratively using the name of the Jewish ruling council to mean the meeting place of that council. Alternate translation: “the place where the Sanhedrin met” or “the council chamber” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

570

ACT

4

16

p4g6

figs-rquestion

τί ποιήσωμεν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τούτοις?

1

What should we do to these men?

This could mean: (1) the Jewish leaders were using the question form to express their frustration because they realize that they cannot punish Peter and John. As 4:21 indicates explicitly, and as the leaders suggest here, they are afraid of how the people might respond if they do. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “It is very difficult to know what we should do to these men!” (2) the leaders were asking one another a genuine question, because ultimately they do decide to do something to Peter and John. They warn them not to speak or teach in the name of Jesus, with an implied threat of punishment if they do. In that case it would be accurate to translate this as a question. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

571

ACT

4

16

jn12

figs-hyperbole

πᾶσιν τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Ἰερουσαλὴμ

1

everyone who lives in Jerusalem

This is a generalization that the leaders are making to emphasize how widely the news of the healing has spread. Alternate translation: “people who live throughout Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

572

ACT

4

16

nh5s

γνωστὸν σημεῖον

1

a notable sign

Here the word sign has the same sense that it has in the phrase “wonders and signs” in 2:22 and 2:43. It means a miracle. Alternate translation: “a remarkable miracle”

573

ACT

4

17

a273

figs-activepassive

ἵνα μὴ ἐπὶ πλεῖον διανεμηθῇ

1

so that it may not be spread

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “so that it does not spread” or “so that they will not spread it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

574

ACT

4

17

f71l

figs-explicit

ἵνα μὴ ἐπὶ πλεῖον διανεμηθῇ

1

so that it may not be spread

By it, the council members do not mean the news of the man’s healing, since they have already said that everyone in Jerusalem knows about it. They mean the teaching that Jesus is Messiah, since they then try to prevent this from spreading by not allowing the apostles to speak to anyone about Jesus. Alternate translation: “so that this teaching about Jesus does not spread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

575

ACT

4

17

a274

ἐπὶ πλεῖον

1

unto more

Alternate translation: “any further”

576

ACT

4

17

w52j

figs-metonymy

λαλεῖν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

1

to speak in this name

Here, name figuratively represents a person, by association with the way that each person has a name. Alternate translation: “to speak about this person Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

577

ACT

4

17

a275

figs-doublenegatives

μηκέτι λαλεῖν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ μηδενὶ ἀνθρώπων

1

no longer to speak in this name to any of men

In Greek this is a double negative for emphasis, “no longer to speak in this name to none of men.” The second negative does not cancel the first to create a positive meaning. If for emphasis your language uses double negatives that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. You could also state the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “to stop speaking in this name to any of men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

578

ACT

4

17

a276

figs-gendernotations

μηδενὶ ἀνθρώπων

1

to any of men

Here, men has a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “to any person” or “to anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

579

ACT

4

18

a277

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

So

Luke uses the word translated And to introduce what the council members did as a result of their discussion. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

580

ACT

4

18

a278

writing-pronouns

καλέσαντες αὐτοὺς, παρήγγειλαν

1

summoning them, they commanded them

The pronoun them refers in both instances to Peter and John, and the pronoun they refers to the council members. It may be helpful to your readers to clarify this. Alternate translation: “summoning Peter and John, the council members commanded them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

581

ACT

4

18

a279

figs-doublet

μὴ φθέγγεσθαι μηδὲ διδάσκειν

1

neither to speak nor to teach

The words speak and teach mean similar things. The council members may be using them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “not to say anything publicly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

582

ACT

4

18

a280

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

in the name of Jesus

Here, name figuratively represents a person, by association with the way that each person has a name. Alternate translation: “about this person Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

583

ACT

4

19

a281

figs-hendiadys

ὁ…Πέτρος καὶ Ἰωάννης ἀποκριθέντες εἶπον

1

answering, Peter and John said

Together the words answering and said mean that Peter and John responded to the council. Alternate translation: “Peter and John responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

584

ACT

4

19

a282

figs-explicit

ὁ…Πέτρος καὶ Ἰωάννης ἀποκριθέντες εἶπον

1

answering, Peter and John said

This could mean: (1) Peter and John each said different parts of the quotation in 4:19–20. (2) Peter spoke these words on behalf of both of them, since the Holy Spirit had inspired him to speak to the council in 4:8–12. Alternate translation: “Peter responded on their behalf” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

585

ACT

4

19

jf1d

figs-metonymy

εἰ δίκαιόν ἐστιν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Whether it is right before God

Here the phrase before God refers to God’s opinion, by association with the way that God would assess anything that came to his attention in front of him. Alternate translation: “Whether God thinks it is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

586

ACT

4

19

a283

figs-idiom

ὑμῶν ἀκούειν μᾶλλον ἢ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

to listen to you rather than to God

Here, listen is an idiom that means “obey.” Alternate translation: “to obey you rather than God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

587

ACT

4

20

a284

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Peter and John are using the word For to introduce the reason why the council needs to judge whether it would be right for them to obey the council rather than God. Alternate translation: “The reason why you must judge whom we should obey is that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

588

ACT

4

20

hf3u

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς…εἴδαμεν καὶ ἠκούσαμεν

1

we … we have seen and heard

Peter and John are using the word we to refer to themselves but not to their listeners, so use the exclusive form of the word in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

589

ACT

4

20

a285

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ δυνάμεθα…ἡμεῖς…μὴ λαλεῖν

1

we are not able not to speak

You could state the meaning of this double negative positively. Alternate translation: “we must speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

590

ACT

4

21

y5y1

writing-pronouns

οἱ δὲ προσαπειλησάμενοι ἀπέλυσαν αὐτούς

1

having warned them further, they released them

The pronoun them refers in both instances to Peter and John, and the pronoun they refers to the council members. It may be helpful to your readers to clarify this. Alternate translation: “having warned Peter and John further, the council members released them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

591

ACT

4

21

z2bx

figs-explicit

διὰ τὸν λαόν

1

on account of the people

The implication is that the Jewish leaders were afraid that the people would riot if they punished Peter and John. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “They were afraid that if they did punish Peter and John, the people would riot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

592

ACT

4

21

jbl6

figs-hyperbole

πάντες ἐδόξαζον τὸν Θεὸν

1

they were all glorifying God

Here, all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “large numbers of them were glorifying God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

593

ACT

4

22

gy8d

writing-background

ἐτῶν γὰρ ἦν πλειόνων τεσσεράκοντα ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ἐφ’ ὃν γεγόνει τὸ σημεῖον τοῦτο τῆς ἰάσεως

1

For the man to whom this sign of healing had happened was more than 40 years old

In this verse, Luke provides background information about the age of the man who was healed to help readers understand why the people considered his healing such a remarkable miracle. In your translation, present this background information in a way that would be natural in your own language and culture. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

594

ACT

4

22

a286

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Luke is using the word For to introduce the reason why the people were glorifying God. Alternate translation: “The people were glorifying God because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

595

ACT

4

22

ju4w

figs-personification

ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ἐφ’ ὃν γεγόνει τὸ σημεῖον τοῦτο τῆς ἰάσεως

1

the man to whom this sign of healing had happened

Luke is speaking figuratively as if the healing had happened on its own. Alternate translation: “the man whom Peter and John had miraculously healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

596

ACT

4

22

a287

figs-possession

τὸ σημεῖον τοῦτο τῆς ἰάσεως

1

this sign of healing

Luke is using the possessive form to describe a sign that consisted of a healing. The word sign has the same sense here that it has in the phrase “wonders and signs” in 2:22 and 2:43. It means a miracle. Alternate translation: “this miraculous healing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

597

ACT

4

23

a288

figs-activepassive

ἀπολυθέντες

1

having been released

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “after the council members had released Peter and John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

598

ACT

4

23

a289

figs-go

ἦλθον πρὸς τοὺς ἰδίους

1

they came to their own people

In a context such as this, your language might say “went” instead of came. Alternate translation: “they went to their own people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

599

ACT

4

23

j2cx

figs-explicit

τοὺς ἰδίους

1

their own people

The phrase their own people refers to the community of believers in Jesus. Alternate translation: “the other believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

600

ACT

4

23

a290

figs-merism

οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι

1

the chief priests and the elders

As Peter does in 4:8, here Luke is referring to the entire council by naming its two components. Alternate translation: “the members of the Sanhedrin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

601

ACT

4

24

j3ap

writing-pronouns

οἱ…ἀκούσαντες…ἦραν

1

having heard, they raised

The phrase having heard refers to the other believers, but the pronoun they seems to include Peter and John as well, since those who pray ask for boldness to keep speaking the message about Jesus (4:29). It may be helpful to clarify this for your readers. Alternate translation: “when the other believers heard this report, together with Peter and John they raised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

602

ACT

4

24

a291

ἦραν φωνὴν

1

they raised their voice

Since Luke is referring to a group of people, it might be more natural in your language to use the plural form of voice. Alternate translation: “they raised their voices”

603

ACT

4

24

zu28

figs-idiom

ἦραν φωνὴν

1

they raised their voice

The expression they raised their voice is an idiom that means they spoke loudly. Alternate translation: “they prayed loudly” or “they prayed out loud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

604

ACT

4

24

a292

ὁμοθυμαδὸν

1

unanimously

The word unanimously indicates that the apostles and other believers shared a common commitment and purpose and that there was no strife among them. See how you translated the same expression in 1:14. Alternate translation: “with one accord” or “harmoniously”

605

ACT

4

24

a293

figs-youformal

σὺ

1

you

The word you is singular, and it refers to God. The same is true of the words “you” and “your” in 4:25–30. You may have decided to use a formal form of “you” in your translation in such cases. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

606

ACT

4

24

a160

figs-merism

ποιήσας τὸν οὐρανὸν, καὶ τὴν γῆν, καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς

1

who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all that is in them

The believers are referring to all of creation by naming its components. Alternate translation: “who created everything that exists” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

607

ACT

4

24

a294

τὸν οὐρανὸν

1

the heaven

The believers are using the word translated heaven in one of its specific senses to mean the sky. Alternate translation: “the sky”

608

ACT

4

25

ka83

figs-metonymy

ὁ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν, διὰ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου στόματος Δαυεὶδ παιδός σου εἰπών

1

the one who said by the Holy Spirit from the mouth of our father David, your servant

The word mouth refers figuratively to what David said by using his mouth. Alternate translation: “the one whose Holy Spirit inspired our father David, your servant, to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

609

ACT

4

25

vc5z

figs-quotesinquotes

τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν, διὰ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου στόματος Δαυεὶδ παιδός σου εἰπών, ἵνα τί ἐφρύαξαν ἔθνη, καὶ λαοὶ ἐμελέτησαν κενά?

1

who said by the Holy Spirit from the mouth of our father David, your servant, ‘Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples imagine useless things?’

As the believers pray together, they quote from one of the psalms that David composed, Psalm 2:1–2. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “whose Holy Spirit inspired our father David, your servant, to ask why the Gentiles raged and why the peoples imagined useless things.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

610

ACT

4

25

a295

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

our

The believers are using the word our to refer to themselves but not to God, so use the exclusive form of that word in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

611

ACT

4

25

kat6

figs-metaphor

τοῦ πατρὸς

1

father

Here, father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

612

ACT

4

25

a296

παιδός

1

servant

The believers are using the word servant here in its ordinary sense, not as a title for the Messiah, so it would not be appropriate to translate it as “Messiah,” as you may have done when it was a title in 3:13 and 3:26.

613

ACT

4

25

a297

figs-ellipsis

ἵνα τί ἐφρύαξαν ἔθνη, καὶ λαοὶ ἐμελέτησαν κενά

1

Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples imagine useless things

Here some words have been left out that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. You can supply these words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “Why did the Gentiles rage, and why did the peoples imagine useless things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

614

ACT

4

25

a298

figs-parallelism

ἵνα τί ἐφρύαξαν ἔθνη, καὶ λαοὶ ἐμελέτησαν κενά

1

Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples imagine useless things

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. The second emphasizes the meaning of the first by repeating the same idea with different words. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be good to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a word other than and in order to show that the second phrase is repeating the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “Why did the Gentiles rage, indeed, why did the peoples imagine useless things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

615

ACT

4

25

f1x6

figs-rquestion

ἵνα τί ἐφρύαξαν ἔθνη, καὶ λαοὶ ἐμελέτησαν κενά?

1

Why did the Gentiles rage, and the peoples imagine useless things?

In this psalm, David uses the question form to emphasize the futility of opposing God. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “The Gentiles should not have raged, and the peoples should not have imagined useless things!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

616

ACT

4

25

h6rc

translate-names

ἔθνη

1

the Gentiles

Gentiles is the name for people groups that are not Jewish. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

617

ACT

4

25

w622

figs-explicit

κενά

1

useless things

The phrase useless things implicitly describes plans to oppose God, which can never succeed. Alternate translation: “ways to oppose God, which always prove useless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

618

ACT

4

26

fb5a

figs-quotesinquotes

παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ κατὰ τοῦ Κυρίου, καὶ κατὰ τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

The kings of the earth took their stand and the rulers were gathered to the same against the Lord and against his Christ

This is the rest of the quotation from Psalm 2 that the believers started in 4:25. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “David said that the kings of the earth had taken their stand and the rulers had gathered to the same against the Lord and against his Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

619

ACT

4

26

w2by

figs-parallelism

παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ

1

The kings of the earth took their stand and the rulers were gathered to the same

In keeping with the conventions of Hebrew poetry, these two phrases mean basically the same thing. If the repetition might be confusing for your readers, you could connect the phrases with a word other than and in order to show that the second phrase is repeating the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “The kings of the earth took their stand, yes, the rulers were gathered to the same” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

620

ACT

4

26

w64b

figs-idiom

παρέστησαν οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς

1

The kings of the earth took their stand

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “The kings of the earth lined up their troops for battle” or “The kings of the earth formed their battle lines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

621

ACT

4

26

a299

figs-activepassive

οἱ ἄρχοντες συνήχθησαν

1

the rulers were gathered

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the rulers gathered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

622

ACT

4

26

a300

ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ

1

to the same

See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the Introduction to Acts. Here it could mean “by agreement” or “in the same place.” You could use either phrase as an alternate translation.

623

ACT

4

26

yv19

figs-explicit

τοῦ Κυρίου…τοῦ Χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

the Lord … his Christ

Here the word Lord refers to God and the word Christ refers to the Messiah. Alternate translation: “God the Lord … his Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

624

ACT

4

27

a301

translate-names

Ἡρῴδης

1

Herod

Herod is the name of a man. He was the official whom the Romans appointed to rule Galilee during the time of Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

625

ACT

4

27

a302

translate-names

Πόντιος Πειλᾶτος

1

Pontius Pilate

This is the full name of the man who was the governor of Judea during the time of Jesus. See how you translated the name Pilate in 3:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

626

ACT

4

27

b1g9

figs-activepassive

συνήχθησαν

1

were gathered together

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “gathered together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

627

ACT

4

27

nuc1

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ

1

in this city

The phrase this city refers to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “here in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

628

ACT

4

27

ca33

παῖδά

1

Servant

Here the word Servant is a title for the Messiah. See the discussion of that term in the General Notes to chapter 3, and see how you translated it in 3:13 and 3:26. Alternate translation: “Messiah”

629

ACT

4

27

a303

figs-metaphor

ὃν ἔχρισας

1

whom you anointed

In the Old Testament, ceremonial oil was poured on a person who was being given the authority to assume an office or to do a special task. The believers are speaking figuratively of anointing to indicate that God appointed Jesus to be the Messiah. Alternate translation: “whom you appointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

630

ACT

4

28

yz7m

figs-metonymy

ὅσα ἡ χείρ σου, καὶ ἡ βουλὴ σου προώρισεν γενέσθαι

1

all that your hand and your counsel had predetermined to happen

Here, hand figuratively means God’s power and counsel figuratively means God’s plan. Alternate translation: “all that your power and your plan had predetermined to happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

631

ACT

4

28

a304

figs-hendiadys

ὅσα ἡ χείρ σου, καὶ ἡ βουλὴ σου προώρισεν γενέσθαι

1

all that your hand and your counsel had predetermined to happen

The words hand and counsel, joined by and, are expressing a single idea. The word hand, meaning “power,” tells by what means God intended to carry out his counsel, that is, his plan. Alternate translation: “all that you planned in advance to make happen by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

632

ACT

4

28

a305

figs-personification

ὅσα ἡ χείρ σου, καὶ ἡ βουλὴ σου προώρισεν γενέσθαι

1

all that your hand and your counsel had predetermined to happen

The believers are speaking figuratively of God’s hand and his counsel (that is, his power and his plan) as if they had predetermined what would happen to Jesus. They mean that God himself had done this. Alternate translation: “all that you planned in advance to make happen by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

633

ACT

4

29

b38z

καὶ τὰ νῦν

1

And now

The believers use the expression And now to direct God’s attention to the request they are making in light of what they have said to this point in their prayer. In your translation, use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this same purpose.

634

ACT

4

29

t5qm

figs-idiom

ἔπιδε ἐπὶ τὰς ἀπειλὰς αὐτῶν

1

look upon their threats

The phrase look upon is an idiomatic way of asking God to pay attention to the threats that the Jewish leaders have made against the believers. Alternate translation: “pay attention to the threats they have made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

635

ACT

4

29

a306

figs-123person

τοῖς δούλοις σου

1

to your servants

The believers are speaking of themselves in the third person. If that would be confusing to your readers, you can use the first person in your translation. Alternate translation: “to us, your servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

636

ACT

4

29

zh7j

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον σου

1

your word

The believers are using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that God has told them to share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

637

ACT

4

29

a307

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ παρρησίας πάσης

1

with all boldness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word boldness, you could express the same idea with an adverb such as “boldly.” The word all is an intensifier. Alternate translation: “very boldly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

638

ACT

4

30

x9r1

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ τὴν χεῖρά σου, ἐκτείνειν σε εἰς ἴασιν, καὶ σημεῖα, καὶ τέρατα, γίνεσθαι

1

as you stretch out your hand to heal and for signs and wonders to happen

Here the hand figuratively represents God’s power. To stretch out the hand means to use it. So this is a prayer for God to do powerful things. Alternate translation: “as you do powerful things to heal people and to make signs and wonders happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

639

ACT

4

30

a308

figs-doublet

σημεῖα, καὶ τέρατα

1

signs and wonders

The terms signs and wonders mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:43. Alternate translation: “great miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

640

ACT

4

30

t5uw

figs-metonymy

διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος

1

through the name

Here, name refers figuratively to authority. Alternate translation: “by the authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

641

ACT

4

30

txb5

τοῦ ὀνόματος τοῦ ἁγίου παιδός σου, Ἰησοῦ

1

the name of your holy Servant Jesus

Here the word Servant is a title for the Messiah. See the discussion of that term in the General Notes to chapter 3, and see how you translated it in 3:13, 3:26, and 4:27. Alternate translation: “the name of Jesus, your holy Messiah”

642

ACT

4

31

a309

writing-endofstory

καὶ

1

And

This verse is the end of the whole story of how the lame man was healed and how Peter and John were arrested as a result. Luke uses the word translated And to introduce information about what happened after the story as a result of the events within the story itself. Your language may have its own way of indicating how such information relates to a story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

643

ACT

4

31

a310

figs-activepassive

ἐν ᾧ ἦσαν συνηγμένοι

1

in which they were gathered together

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “where they had gathered together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

644

ACT

4

31

x9b3

figs-activepassive

ἐσαλεύθη

1

was shaken

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “shook” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

645

ACT

4

31

ps3m

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν ἅπαντες τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος

1

they were all filled with the Holy Spirit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. See how you translated the same expression in 2:4. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit filled them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

646

ACT

4

31

a311

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήσθησαν ἅπαντες τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος

1

they were all filled with the Holy Spirit

Luke is speaking figuratively as if the believers were containers that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit inspired them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

647

ACT

4

31

a312

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message that God wanted the believers to share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

648

ACT

4

31

a313

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ παρρησίας

1

with boldness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word boldness, you could express the same idea with an adverb such as “boldly.” Alternate translation: “boldly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

649

ACT

4

32

a314

grammar-connect-time-background

δὲ

1

Now

Luke uses the word Now to introduce background information in 4:32–37 that will help readers understand further episodes in the story. These verses introduce Barnabas, who will be an important character in the book, and they also help account for what happens to Ananias and Sapphira in the next chapter. You can translate the word Now with a term or phrase that serves the same purpose in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

650

ACT

4

32

xu3j

figs-metonymy

ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία

1

was one in heart and soul

Here the word heart seems to represent the emotions and the word soul seems to represent the desires. Alternate translation: “thought the same way and desired the same things” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

651

ACT

4

32

a315

figs-doublet

ἦν καρδία καὶ ψυχὴ μία

1

was one in heart and soul

The terms heart and soul mean similar things, and Luke may be using them together for emphasis. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine the terms in your translation. Alternate translation: “was genuinely united” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

652

ACT

4

32

a316

τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτῷ

1

of the things that were to him

Alternate translation: “of the things that he owned”

653

ACT

4

32

zyp5

figs-hyperbole

ἦν αὐτοῖς πάντα κοινά

1

everything was common to them

The word everything may be a generalization that emphasizes the powerful spirit of generosity among the believers. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:44. Alternate translation: “they shared their belongings with one another” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

654

ACT

4

33

a317

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ

1

of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word resurrection, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “alive.” Alternate translation: “of how God made the Lord Jesus alive again after he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

655

ACT

4

33

a318

writing-pronouns

χάρις τε μεγάλη ἦν ἐπὶ πάντας αὐτούς

1

great grace was upon them all

The pronoun them refers back to “the multitude of those who believed” in 4:32. It does not refer just to the apostles, who are mentioned in this verse. Alternate translation: “great grace was upon all of the believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

656

ACT

4

33

d8dr

figs-abstractnouns

χάρις τε μεγάλη ἦν ἐπὶ πάντας αὐτούς

1

great grace was upon them all

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word grace, you could express the same idea with an equivalent expression. The word could describe: (1) how God was blessing the believers. Alternate translation: “God was blessing all of the believers in wonderful ways” (2) how the people in Jerusalem held the believers in high esteem. Alternate translation: “the people of Jerusalem thought very highly of all the believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

657

ACT

4

34

a331

translate-versebridge

οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐνδεής τις ἦν ἐν αὐτοῖς

1

For there was not anyone needy among them

This statement expresses the result of the rest of what Luke says in this verse and what he says in the next verse. If your readers would misunderstand this to put this result after the reasons for it, you could create a verse bridge by moving this statement to the end of the next verse and beginning it with the word “So” instead of For. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

658

ACT

4

34

a319

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Luke uses the word For in its first instance in this verse to introduce the evidence or reason for his statement at the end of the previous verse that “great grace was upon them all.” The meaning here depends on the meaning there. Alternate translation: (1) “The way God was blessing the believers could be seen in the fact that” or (2) “One thing that made the people think very highly of the believers was that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

659

ACT

4

34

a320

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

2

for

Luke uses the word for in its second instance in this verse to introduce the reason why no one in the community of believers was needy. Alternate translation: “and the reason for this was that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

660

ACT

4

34

gw3v

figs-hyperbole

ὅσοι γὰρ κτήτορες χωρίων ἢ οἰκιῶν ὑπῆρχον

1

all who were owners of lands or houses

The word all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “many believers who owned lands or houses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

661

ACT

4

34

l938

figs-activepassive

τὰς τιμὰς τῶν πιπρασκομένων

1

the price of the things being sold

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the money that they received from the things they sold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

662

ACT

4

35

a321

translate-symaction

ἐτίθουν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τῶν ἀποστόλων

1

they were laying it at the feet of the apostles

The expression laying it at the feet indicates that believers who sold possessions were putting the money they got on the ground in front of the apostles. In this culture, that was a symbolic way of presenting it to them as a gift to be used to help others in the community. If there is a comparable symbolic action in your culture, you could use that in your translation. You could also use a general expression. Alternate translation: “they were presenting it to the apostles” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction)

663

ACT

4

35

vv4z

translate-symaction

ἐτίθουν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τῶν ἀποστόλων

1

they were laying it at the feet of the apostles

In this culture, putting the money on the ground in front of the apostles was a symbolic way of presenting it to them as a gift to be used to help others in the community. If there is a comparable symbolic action in your culture, you could use that in your translation. You could also use a general expression. Alternate translation: “they were presenting it to the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

664

ACT

4

35

a322

figs-activepassive

διεδίδετο

1

it was being distributed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the apostles were distributing it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

665

ACT

4

35

ps4s

figs-abstractnouns

ἑκάστῳ, καθότι ἄν τις χρείαν εἶχεν

1

to each one, according as anyone had need

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word need, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “need.” Alternate translation: “to every person in the amount that he needed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

666

ACT

4

36

uc2a

writing-participants

Ἰωσὴφ δὲ

1

Then Joseph

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

667

ACT

4

36

a323

translate-names

Ἰωσὴφ…Βαρναβᾶς

1

Joseph … Barnabas

Joseph and Barnabas are two names for the same man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

668

ACT

4

36

a324

figs-activepassive

ὁ ἐπικληθεὶς Βαρναβᾶς, ἀπὸ τῶν ἀποστόλων

1

who was called Barnabas by the apostles

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom the apostles called Barnabas” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

669

ACT

4

36

a325

figs-activepassive

ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον, υἱὸς παρακλήσεως

1

which, being translated, is Son of Encouragement

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning of the passive verbal form being translated with an active form. Alternate translation: “which means Son of Encouragement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

670

ACT

4

36

a326

figs-explicit

ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον, υἱὸς παρακλήσεως

1

which, being translated, is Son of Encouragement

Luke assumes that his readers will know that he is saying what the name Barnabas means when translated from the Aramaic language. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “which means Son of Encouragement in Aramaic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

671

ACT

4

36

nr4v

figs-idiom

υἱὸς παρακλήσεως

1

Son of Encouragement

The expression Son of figuratively describes a person who shares the qualities of something. The apostles used this name to describe Joseph’s behavior and character, since he was a person who encouraged others. Alternate translation: “the Encourager” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

672

ACT

4

36

a327

figs-abstractnouns

υἱὸς παρακλήσεως

1

Son of Encouragement

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word Encouragement, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “encourage.” Alternate translation: “the One who Encourages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

673

ACT

4

36

a328

translate-names

Λευείτης

1

a Levite

The name Levite describes a person from the tribe of Levi. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

674

ACT

4

36

a329

translate-names

Κύπριος

1

Cyprus

Cyprus is the name of an island. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

675

ACT

4

37

a330

ὑπάρχοντος αὐτῷ

1

that was to him

See how you translated the similar expression in 4:32. Alternate translation: “that he owned”

676

ACT

4

37

gtv5

translate-symaction

ἔθηκεν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τῶν ἀποστόλων

1

laid it at the feet of the apostles

See how you translated the similar expression in 4:35. Alternate translation: “presented it to the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

677

ACT

5

intro

k2uh

0

Acts 5 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

“Why has Satan filled your heart for you to lie to the Holy Spirit?” (5:3)

No one knows for sure whether Ananias and Sapphira were truly Christians when they decided to lie about the land that they sold (5:1-10), because Luke does not say. However, Peter knew that they lied to the believers, and he knew that they had listened to and obeyed Satan. When they lied to the believers, they also lied to the Holy Spirit. This is because the Holy Spirit lives inside believers.

Possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Long sentences

Acts 5:36 consists of a single long sentence. ULT represents all of it as a single sentence. It may be helpful to your readers to divide it into several sentences, as UST does.

There is also a long sentence that goes from the beginning of 5:38 to nearly the end of 5:39. In this case as well it may be helpful to your readers to divide it into several sentences, as UST does.

678

ACT

5

1

v27a

writing-participants

ἀνὴρ δέ τις

1

Now a certain man

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

679

ACT

5

1

ysl9

translate-names

Ἁνανίας

1

Ananias

Ananias is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

680

ACT

5

1

a332

writing-participants

σὺν Σαπφείρῃ τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ

1

with Sapphira his wife

Luke uses this phrase to introduce another new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

681

ACT

5

1

a333

translate-names

Σαπφείρῃ

1

Sapphria

Sapphira is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

682

ACT

5

2

a334

figs-explicit

ἐνοσφίσατο ἀπὸ τῆς τιμῆς

1

he kept back from the price

The implication, as the story later makes clear, is that Ananias did not tell anyone except his wife that he was keeping some of the money for himself. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly, and you could say why he did this. Alternate translation: “he kept some of the money from the sale for himself, but he did not admit that he was doing that, because he wanted everyone to think he was being completely generous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

683

ACT

5

2

xm1t

συνειδυίης καὶ τῆς γυναικός, καὶ ἐνέγκας μέρος τι…ἔθηκεν

1

his wife also knowing, and bringing a certain portion, he laid

It may be helpful to make two new sentences here, particularly if you add information to the previous phrase as suggested in the preceding note. Alternate translation: “His wife also knew that he was keeping back part of the sale money. He brought a certain portion of the money and laid it”

684

ACT

5

2

dy8b

figs-idiom

παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τῶν ἀποστόλων ἔθηκεν

1

he laid it at the feet of the apostles

This means that he presented to money to the apostles. See how you translated the same expression in 4:37. Alternate translation: “he presented it to the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

685

ACT

5

3

grr9

figs-rquestion

διὰ τί ἐπλήρωσεν ὁ Σατανᾶς τὴν καρδίαν σου, ψεύσασθαί σε τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, καὶ νοσφίσασθαι ἀπὸ τῆς τιμῆς τοῦ χωρίου?

1

why has Satan filled your heart for you to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back from the price of the land?

Peter is using the question form to rebuke Ananias. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “you should not have let Satan fill your heart so that you lied to the Holy Spirit and kept back from the price of the land!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

686

ACT

5

3

pqd4

figs-metaphor

διὰ τί ἐπλήρωσεν ὁ Σατανᾶς τὴν καρδίαν σου

1

why has Satan filled your heart

Peter is speaking figuratively of the heart of Ananias as if it were a container that Satan had filled. Alternate translation: “why have you allowed Satan to influence your heart so strongly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

687

ACT

5

3

a335

figs-metaphor

τὴν καρδίαν σου

1

your heart

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and motives. Alternate translation: “your thoughts and motives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

688

ACT

5

3

a426

figs-events

ψεύσασθαί σε τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, καὶ νοσφίσασθαι ἀπὸ τῆς τιμῆς τοῦ χωρίου

1

for you to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back from the price of the land

Ananais first withheld some of the money, then he lied to the Holy Spirit about this by pretending he was giving all of the money. To make this clear in your translation, it may be helpful to describe the events in that order. Alternate translation: “for you to keep back from the price of the land and lie to the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

689

ACT

5

3

zz5u

figs-metonymy

ψεύσασθαί σε τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον

1

for you to lie to the Holy Spirit

Ananias did not lie literally to the Holy Spirit, but he did lie to the apostles and to all of the believers who would have learned about his gift, and the Holy Spirit was present in them. So by lying to them, he was effectively also lying to the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “for you to lie to the Holy Spirit, who is present in us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

690

ACT

5

3

a336

figs-explicit

καὶ νοσφίσασθαι ἀπὸ τῆς τιμῆς

1

and to keep back from the price of the land

The implication of what Peter says here is that Ananias claimed or pretended that he was giving the entire amount that he had received from selling his land. Alternate translation: “by pretendng that you were giving us the entire amount when you had kept back some for yourself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

691

ACT

5

4

vu7g

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ μένον σοὶ ἔμενεν, καὶ πραθὲν ἐν τῇ σῇ ἐξουσίᾳ ὑπῆρχεν?

1

While it remained, did it not remain yours, and being sold, was it not in your authority?

Peter continues to use the question form to rebuke Ananias. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement. Alternate translation: “While it remained, it remained yours, and after it was sold, it was still in your authority.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

692

ACT

5

4

vi8w

ἔμενεν

1

While it remained

Alternate translation: “While it remained unsold” or “Before you sold it”

693

ACT

5

4

k7nc

figs-activepassive

πραθὲν

1

being sold

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “once you had sold it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

694

ACT

5

4

a337

writing-pronouns

ἐν τῇ σῇ ἐξουσίᾳ ὑπῆρχεν

1

was it not in your authority

The pronoun it refers to the money that Ananias received from the sale of the land. Alternate translation, as a statement: “you could still do whatever you wanted with the money you received” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

695

ACT

5

4

a338

writing-pronouns

ἐν τῇ σῇ ἐξουσίᾳ ὑπῆρχεν

1

was it not in your authority

The implications are that Ananias was not obligated to give all of the money to the apostles. He was free to keep some if he wished or if he needed it. He could simply have acknowledged that he was doing that, and giving the rest of the money would still have been a generous act because there was no compulsion. Alternate translation, as a statement: “you could have kept some and acknowledged that and you would have still been making a generous gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

696

ACT

5

4

i5dw

figs-rquestion

τί ὅτι ἔθου ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου τὸ πρᾶγμα τοῦτο?

1

How is it that you placed this thing in your heart?

Peter continues to use the question form to rebuke Ananias. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should not have placed this thing in your heart!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

697

ACT

5

4

a339

figs-metaphor

τί ὅτι ἔθου ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου τὸ πρᾶγμα τοῦτο?

1

How is it that you placed this thing in your heart?

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts. Alternate translation, as an exclamation: “You should not have placed this thing in your thoughts!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

698

ACT

5

4

a340

figs-metaphor

τί ὅτι ἔθου ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου τὸ πρᾶγμα τοῦτο?

1

How is it that you placed this thing in your heart?

Peter speaks figuratively of this thing, that is, the plan to keep back some of the money, as if Ananias had placed it in his heart, meaning his thoughts. Alternate translation, as an exclamation: “You should not even have thought of doing such a thing!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

699

ACT

5

4

a341

figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἐψεύσω ἀνθρώποις, ἀλλὰ τῷ Θεῷ

1

You have not lied to men, but to God

Ananaias actually has lied to men, but Peter is speaking of the ultimate implications of his act. As in the previous verse, where Peter says that Ananias has lied to the Holy Spirit, here he means that Ananias has lied to the apostles and other believers, and God is present in them. So by lying to them, he has effectively also lied to God. Alternate translation: “You have not lied merely to men, but also to God, who is present in us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

700

ACT

5

4

a342

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώποις

1

to men

Peter is using the term men in a generic sense to mean “human beings.” Alternate translation: “to human beings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

701

ACT

5

5

a343

figs-metonymy

ἀκούων δὲ…τοὺς λόγους τούτους

1

And hearing these words

Luke is using the term words figuratively to mean what Peter used words to say. Alternate translation: “When he heard what Peter said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

702

ACT

5

5

cc5y

figs-euphemism

πεσὼν ἐξέψυξεν

1

falling down, expired

The word translated expired means that Ananias “breathed out for the last time.” It is a mild way of saying that he died. Alternate translation: “fell down and died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

703

ACT

5

5

a344

figs-events

πεσὼν ἐξέψυξεν

1

falling down, expired

Ananias fell down because he died. He did not die because he fell down. To make this clear in your translation, it may be helpful to say first that he died and then that he fell. Alternate translation: “died and fell to the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

704

ACT

5

5

a345

figs-personification

ἐγένετο φόβος μέγας ἐπὶ πάντας τοὺς ἀκούοντας

1

great fear came upon all who heard

Luke describes this fear figuratively as if it were a living thing that could come onto people. Here the word fear describes a deep respect for God. Alternate translation: “everyone who heard about it came to feel a very deep respect for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

705

ACT

5

6

a346

figs-idiom

ἀναστάντες δὲ, οἱ νεώτεροι συνέστειλαν αὐτὸν

1

rising up, the young men wrapped him up

Here the expression rising up means that the young men took an action that they recognized they needed to take. It does not mean that they stood up from a seated position. Alternate translation: “the young men took action and wrapped him up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

706

ACT

5

6

a347

figs-explicit

οἱ νεώτεροι

1

the young men

This could refer to: (1) some strong young men who were present who realized that burying Ananias was a task they could help with. Alternate translation: “some strong young men who were present” (2) a group of young men among the believers who regularly helped the apostles with tasks that required physical strength. Alternate translation: “the young men who regularly helped the apostles with physical tasks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

707

ACT

5

6

a348

translate-unknown

συνέστειλαν αὐτὸν

1

wrapped him up

It was the custom in this culture to wrap linen cloths around the bodies of people who had died, in order to prepare the bodies for burial. If your readers would not be familiar with such a custom, you could describe it more specifically, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “wrapped a linen burial cloth around his body” or “prepared his body for burial” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

708

ACT

5

7

a349

figs-idiom

ἐγένετο δὲ ὡς ὡρῶν τριῶν διάστημα, καὶ

1

And an interval of about three hours happened, and

This is an idiomatic way of speaking about time passing. Your language may have its own way of describing that. Alternate translation: “After about three hours had gone by,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

709

ACT

5

7

ry54

writing-pronouns

ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ

1

his wife

The pronoun his refers to Ananias. Alternate translation: “the wife of Ananias” or “Sapphira” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

710

ACT

5

7

k3c9

figs-explicit

τὸ γεγονὸς

1

what had happened

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly what this means. Alternate translation: “that Peter had exposed their lie and that her husband was dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

711

ACT

5

8

a350

ἀπεκρίθη…πρὸς αὐτὴν

1

said to her

The word translated said means to continue or resume a conversation. Alternate translation: “asked her, based on what her husband had said”

712

ACT

5

8

a351

figs-youdual

ἀπέδοσθε

1

you sold

Since Peter is speaking of two people, Ananaias and Sapphira, you would be dual if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

713

ACT

5

8

bcf6

figs-explicit

τοσούτου…ναί, τοσούτου

1

for so much … yes, for so much

This refers to the amount of money that Ananias had given to the apostles. Peter may be naming the amount or, as UST suggests, he may be showing Sapphira the money. Alternate translation: “for this amount of money … yes, for that amount of money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

714

ACT

5

9

v7sw

figs-rquestion

τί ὅτι συνεφωνήθη ὑμῖν πειράσαι τὸ Πνεῦμα Κυρίου?

1

How is it that it was agreed together by you to test the Spirit of the Lord?

Peter is using the question form to rebuke Sapphira. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should not have agreed together to test the Spirit of the Lord!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

715

ACT

5

9

hc22

figs-activepassive

συνεφωνήθη ὑμῖν

1

it was agreed together by you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “you agreed together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

716

ACT

5

9

w1lb

figs-you

ὑμῖν…σου…σε

1

by you … your … you

The word you in its first instance refers to two people, Ananias and Sapphira, so it would be dual if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. The word your and the word you in its second instance refer only to Sapphira, so those words are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

717

ACT

5

9

pg1e

πειράσαι τὸ Πνεῦμα Κυρίου

1

to test the Spirit of the Lord

Here the word test means to challenge. Ananias and Sapphira were trying to see if they could get away with lying about how much they received for the land they sold. Alternate translation: “to challenge the Spirit of the Lord”

718

ACT

5

9

a352

figs-metonymy

πειράσαι τὸ Πνεῦμα Κυρίου

1

to test the Spirit of the Lord

Ananias and Sapphira actually tested or challenged the apostles, but Peter is speaking of the ultimate implications of their act, as he does similarly in 5:3 and 5:4. Since the Spirit of the Lord was present in the apostles, by challenging them, Ananias and Sapphira effectively lied to the Spirit. Alternate translation: “to test the Spirit of the Lord, who is present in us apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

719

ACT

5

9

a353

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ, οἱ πόδες

1

Behold, the feet

Peter says Behold to get Sapphira to focus her attention on what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here in your translation. Alternate translation: “And now the feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

720

ACT

5

9

xj1l

figs-metonymy

οἱ πόδες τῶν θαψάντων τὸν ἄνδρα σου ἐπὶ τῇ θύρᾳ

1

the feet of those who buried your husband are at the door

Peter is referring figuratively to the return of the young men who buried Ananaias. Their feet represent them by association with the way they are using their feet to walk back. The door represents their return by association with the way they will come through the door when they return. Alternate translation: “the young men who buried your husband are just now returning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

721

ACT

5

9

a354

figs-explicit

οἱ πόδες τῶν θαψάντων τὸν ἄνδρα σου ἐπὶ τῇ θύρᾳ

1

the feet of those who buried your husband are at the door

Peter is telling Sapphira implicitly that her husband died as a judgment from God when Peter confronted him with the lie about the price of the land. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “your husband died as a judgment from God when I confronted him with the lie you both told about the price of the land, and the young men who buried him are just now returning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

722

ACT

5

9

a355

figs-explicit

καὶ ἐξοίσουσίν σε

1

and they will carry you out

The implications are that Sapphira is also going to die and that the same young men will carry her out to bury her. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “You are also going to die as a judgment from God, and those same young men are going to carry you out and bury you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

723

ACT

5

10

s7en

figs-euphemism

ἔπεσεν…πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξέψυξεν

1

she fell down at his feet and expired

The word translated expired means that Sapphira “breathed out for the last time.” It is a mild way of saying that she died. Alternate translation: “she fell down at his feet and died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

724

ACT

5

10

a356

figs-events

ἔπεσεν…πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξέψυξεν

1

she fell down at his feet and expired

Sapphira fell down because she died. She did not die because she fell down. To make this clear in your translation, it may be helpful to say first that she died and then that she fell. Alternate translation: “she died and fell down at his feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

725

ACT

5

10

nwb9

figs-metonymy

ἔπεσεν…πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ

1

she fell down at his feet

This means that she fell to the ground in front of Peter. This expression should not be confused with the idea of “falling down at a person’s feet,” that is, bowing down to the ground in front of someone as a sign of humility. Alternate translation: “she collapsed onto the ground in front of him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

726

ACT

5

10

a357

figs-explicit

οἱ νεανίσκοι

1

the young men

See how you translated this expression in 5:6. However, it may not be necessary to explain again here who these young men were in terms of their role in the community. Instead, you could identify them by their role in the story. Alternate translation: “the same young men who had buried Ananias” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

727

ACT

5

11

vym8

writing-endofstory

καὶ

1

And

This verse is the end of the story about Ananias and Sapphira. Luke uses the word translated And to introduce information about what happened after the story as a result of the events within the story itself. Your language may have its own way of indicating how such information relates to a story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

728

ACT

5

11

a358

figs-personification

ἐγένετο φόβος μέγας ἐφ’ ὅλην τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, καὶ ἐπὶ πάντας τοὺς ἀκούοντας ταῦτα

1

great fear came upon the whole church and upon all those hearing these things

Luke describes this fear figuratively as if it were a living thing that could come onto people. See how you translated the similar expression in 5:5. Alternate translation: “the whole church and everyone who heard about these things came to feel a very deep respect for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

729

ACT

5

12

c2e7

grammar-connect-time-background

δὲ

1

And

Luke uses the word translated And to introduce background information in 5:12–16 that will help readers understand what happens next in the story. You can translate this word with a word or phrase that serves the same purpose in your language. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

730

ACT

5

12

sri8

figs-metonymy

διὰ…τῶν χειρῶν τῶν ἀποστόλων, ἐγίνετο σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα πολλὰ

1

many signs and wonders were happening through the hands of the apostles

Luke is using the hands of the apostles figuratively to represent their actions. Alternate translation: “the apostles were doing many signs and wonders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

731

ACT

5

12

ux3n

figs-doublet

σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα

1

signs and wonders

The terms signs and wonders mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. See how you translated this expression in 4:30. Alternate translation: “great miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

732

ACT

5

12

aud2

writing-pronouns

ἦσαν…πάντες

1

they were all

The pronoun they refers to the whole community of believers. Alternate translation: “the whole community of believers was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

733

ACT

5

12

a359

ὁμοθυμαδὸν

1

unanimously

The word unanimously indicates that the apostles and other believers shared a common commitment and purpose and that there was no strife among them. See how you translated the same expression in 1:14. Alternate translation: “meeting together with one accord” or “meeting together harmoniously”

734

ACT

5

12

k99k

translate-names

τῇ Στοᾷ Σολομῶντος

1

the Porch of Solomon

This was a covered walkway that consisted of rows of pillars that supported a roof. It was named after King Solomon. See how you translated the phrase “the porch that is called Solomon’s” in 3:11, which is a description of this same walkway. Alternate translation: “Solomon’s Porch” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

735

ACT

5

13

a360

figs-explicit

τῶν…λοιπῶν, οὐδεὶς

1

none of the others

The expression the others refers to people who were not believers in Jesus. Alternate translation: “none of the people who were not believers in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

736

ACT

5

13

a361

figs-explicit

ἐτόλμα κολλᾶσθαι αὐτοῖς

1

dared to join them

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say explicitly why no unbelievers dared to join them. The reason seems to be that the Jewish leaders had commanded the apostles not to speak or teach about Jesus (4:18), but they were still doing that. Later in this chapter, in 5:28, the Sanhedrin indicates that it has arrested the apostles for violating that command. Alternate translation: “would meet with them, because the apostles were still preaching about Jesus even though the Jewish leaders had commanded them not to do so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

737

ACT

5

14

a362

figs-metonymy

προσετίθεντο…τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

were being added to the Lord

Luke says the Lord figuratively to mean the community of people who believed in the Lord. Alternate translation: “were being added to the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

738

ACT

5

14

m9wx

figs-activepassive

προσετίθεντο…τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

were being added to the Lord

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:41. Alternate translation: “were becoming part of the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

739

ACT

5

15

a364

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὥστε

1

so that

Luke says so that to introduce a result, but it is not the direct result of what he said just before, that many men and women became part of the church. It is the result of what he said in 5:12, that the apostles were doing “many signs and wonders.” All of 5:12–15 could be understood as a single sentence, and in that case what Luke says here would more clearly follow logically and grammatically from what he says in 5:12. However, ULT divides the material into several sentences, which is another way in which it can be understood. UST models a way to show how what Luke says here introduces a result of what he said in 5:12 about the “signs and wonders” that the apostles were doing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

740

ACT

5

15

l9bs

writing-pronouns

ἐκφέρειν

1

they … carried

The pronoun they refers to the people who lived in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “people who lived in Jerusalem … carried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

741

ACT

5

15

a365

figs-nominaladj

τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς

1

the sick

Luke is using the adjective sick as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who were sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

742

ACT

5

15

a366

figs-doublet

κλιναρίων καὶ κραβάττων

1

cots and mats

The words cots and mats mean similar things. Luke could be using them together for emphasis, although he could also be describing two different ways that people managed to make their sick relatives and friends reasonably comfortable as they waited in the streets for Peter to walk by. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine these terms in your translation. Alternate translation: “improvised beds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

743

ACT

5

15

y2ev

figs-explicit

ἡ σκιὰ ἐπισκιάσῃ τινὶ αὐτῶν

1

his shadow might overshadow any one of them

The implication is that God was healing sick people whom Peter’s shadow touched. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “his shadow might overshadow any one of them and God would heal that person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

744

ACT

5

15

a367

ἡ σκιὰ ἐπισκιάσῃ τινὶ αὐτῶν

1

his shadow might overshadow

Luke is using a construction in which the subject and verb come from the same root. You may be able to use the same construction in your language to express the meaning here. Alternatively, your language may have its own way of describing this. Alternate translation: “his shadow might fall on”

745

ACT

5

16

a368

figs-nominaladj

ἀσθενεῖς

1

the sick

See how you translated the expression the sick in 5:15. Alternate translation: “people who were sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

746

ACT

5

16

fu1a

figs-activepassive

ὀχλουμένους ὑπὸ πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων

1

those afflicted by unclean spirits

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “those whom unclean spirits were afflicting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

747

ACT

5

16

lyc7

figs-activepassive

οἵτινες ἐθεραπεύοντο ἅπαντες

1

who were all healed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “and the apostles healed them all” or “and God used the apostles to heal them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

748

ACT

5

16

a369

figs-hyperbole

οἵτινες ἐθεραπεύοντο ἅπαντες

1

who were all healed

It does not appear that all is a generalization for emphasis in this case. So it would not be accurate to treat all as figurative and say something like “and large numbers of them were healed.” Luke is describing what remarkable things God did through the apostles at this time, and he does seem to mean that every sick person whom the people brought to Jerusalem was healed. So it would be appropriate to say in your translation just what ULT says here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

749

ACT

5

17

x2ed

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

But

Luke uses the word But to introduce a strong contrast into the story. Your language may have its own way of introducing a contrasting narrative. You could also refer back to the previous action in order to highlight the contrast. Alternate translation: “But even though the apostles were doing so much good,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

750

ACT

5

17

f9ye

figs-events

ἀναστὰς…ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ πάντες οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ, ἡ οὖσα αἵρεσις τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, ἐπλήσθησαν ζήλου,

1

rising up, the high priest and all those with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees) were filled with jealousy

The high priest and these Sadducees were first filled with jealousy and then they rose up (took action) against the apostles. To make this clear in your translation, it may be helpful to describe the events in that order. Alternate translation: “the high priest and all those with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees) were filled with jealousy and they rose up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

751

ACT

5

17

pc45

figs-activepassive

ἀναστὰς…ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς καὶ πάντες οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ, ἡ οὖσα αἵρεσις τῶν Σαδδουκαίων, ἐπλήσθησαν ζήλου,

1

rising up, the high priest and all those with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees) were filled with jealousy

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an active verbal form instead of the passive form were filled. Alternate translation: “jealousy filled the high priest and all those with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees) and they rose up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

752

ACT

5

17

a370

figs-idiom

ἀναστὰς

1

rising up

Here the expression rising up means that the high priest decided to take action, not that he stood up from a seated position. Alternate translation: “taking action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

753

ACT

5

17

a371

figs-explicit

πάντες οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ, ἡ οὖσα αἵρεσις τῶν Σαδδουκαίων

1

all those with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees)

The phrase all those with him means specifically all the other priests who joined the high priest in taking action against the apostles. Luke observes here that those other priests were from the group known as the Sadducees. As a note to 4:1 explains, they opposed the apostles’ teaching because they did not believe in the resurrection. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and all of the priests from the group known as the Sadducees who wanted to oppose the apostles’ teaching because they did not believe in the resurrection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

754

ACT

5

17

a372

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπλήσθησαν ζήλου

1

were filled with jealousy

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word jealousy, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “jealous.” Alternate translation: “became very jealous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

755

ACT

5

17

a373

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήσθησαν ζήλου

1

were filled with jealousy

Luke is speaking figuratively as if the high priest and his allies were containers that jealousy filled. Alternate translation: “became very jealous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

756

ACT

5

18

j58p

figs-metonymy

ἐπέβαλον τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀποστόλους

1

they laid hands on the apostles

The expression laid hands on figuratively means to arrest someone, by association with the way that arresting officers might physically take hold of a person with their hands. Alternate translation: “they arrested the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

757

ACT

5

18

a374

figs-synecdoche

ἐπέβαλον τὰς χεῖρας ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀποστόλους

1

they laid hands on the apostles

The high priest and his allies did not arrest the apostles personally. They would have ordered the temple guards to arrest them. But Luke speaks figuratively as if the high priest and his allies did this action because they had a significant part in it by ordering it. Alternate translation: “they had the temple guards arrest the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

758

ACT

5

19

wd37

writing-pronouns

ἐξαγαγών…αὐτοὺς

1

bringing them out

The pronoun them refers to the apostles. Alternate translation: “bringing the apostles out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

759

ACT

5

20

qm16

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

1

in the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “in the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

760

ACT

5

20

z1x3

figs-metonymy

πάντα τὰ ῥήματα τῆς ζωῆς ταύτης

1

all the words of this life

The angel is using the term words figuratively to mean the message that the apostles were to share by using words. Alternate translation: “the entire message about this life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

761

ACT

5

20

a375

τῆς ζωῆς ταύτης

1

of this life

Alternate translation: “about the everlasting life that God gives through Jesus” or “about the new way of living that people can have as followers of Jesus”

762

ACT

5

21

a376

figs-idiom

ἀκούσαντες

1

having heard this

Luke may be using the word “hear” in an idiomatic sense to mean “obey.” Alternate translation: “in obedience to this command from the angel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

763

ACT

5

21

df1u

figs-explicit

εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν

1

into the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “into the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

764

ACT

5

21

l7uf

figs-explicit

ὑπὸ τὸν ὄρθρον

1

about daybreak

The implication is that although the angel led the apostles out of the jail during the night, the sun was rising by the time they reached the temple courtyard. Alternate translation: “as it was beginning to get light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

765

ACT

5

21

a377

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

δὲ

1

And

Luke is using the word translated And to introduce other events that took place around the same time as the events he has just described. Alternate translation: “Meanwhile,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

766

ACT

5

21

a378

figs-explicit

παραγενόμενος

1

having arrived

This does not mean that the high priest and his allies arrived in the temple courtyard where the apostles were. Rather, it means that they went into the chamber where the Sanhedrin met so that they could summon the rest of its members to join them there. Alternate translation: “having arrived in the council chamber” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

767

ACT

5

21

a379

figs-explicit

τὸ Συνέδριον καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Γερουσίαν τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ

1

the Sanhedrin, even all the elders of the sons of Israel

The phrase even all the elders of the sons of Israel clarifies the name Sanhedrin by describing it membership. Luke is using the word elders here in a general sense to mean “leaders.” He is not making a distinction between “elders” and “rulers” as he does in 4:5. Alternate translation: “the Sanhedrin, which was composed of the leaders of the sons of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

768

ACT

5

21

a380

figs-metaphor

τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ

1

the sons of Israel

Here, sons figuratively means “descendants.” Luke is identifying the Israelites as descendants of their ancestor Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

769

ACT

5

21

li6a

figs-ellipsis

ἀπέστειλαν εἰς τὸ δεσμωτήριον

1

sent to the prison

Luke is leaving out a word that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. He means that the high priest and his allies sent someone to the prison to get the apostles. Alternate translation: “sent someone to the prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

770

ACT

5

23

a381

figs-activepassive

τὸ δεσμωτήριον εὕρομεν κεκλεισμένον ἐν πάσῃ ἀσφαλείᾳ, καὶ τοὺς φύλακας

1

We found the prison shut in all security and the guards

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an active verbal form in place of the passive form shut, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “We found that the guards had shut the prison in all security and we found the guards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

771

ACT

5

23

a382

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πάσῃ ἀσφαλείᾳ

1

in all security

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word security, you could express the same idea with an adverb such as “securely.” The word all is an intensifier. Alternate translation: “very securely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

772

ACT

5

23

a383

figs-explicit

ἀνοίξαντες

1

having opened

Your language may require you to specify the object of opened. Alternate translation: “once we opened the doors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

773

ACT

5

23

ld7d

figs-hyperbole

ἔσω οὐδένα εὕρομεν

1

we found no one inside

By no one, the officers mean that they found none of the men they had been sent to bring, that is, none of the apostles. It is possible that other people were also being held in the prison, but the angel would not have released them, and they would still have been inside. Alternate translation: “we did not find any of the apostles inside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

774

ACT

5

24

k5g6

figs-metonymy

τοὺς λόγους τούτους

1

these words

Luke is using the term words figuratively to mean the report that the officers gave. Alternate translation: “this report” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

775

ACT

5

24

baw2

writing-pronouns

περὶ αὐτῶν

1

concerning them

The pronoun them does not refer to the apostles but to the words that the officers spoke in giving their report. Alternate translation: “about the things the officers had told them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

776

ACT

5

24

p78m

figs-idiom

τί ἂν γένοιτο τοῦτο

1

as to what this might become

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “wondering what would happen as a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

777

ACT

5

25

a384

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ, οἱ ἄνδρες

1

Behold, the men

This person says Behold to get the council members to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here in your translation. Alternate translation: “Right now the men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

778

ACT

5

25

a8dz

figs-you

ἔθεσθε

1

you put

Here the word you refers to the captain of the temple and the chief priests and so it is plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

779

ACT

5

25

c1am

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, ἑστῶτες

1

standing in the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “standing in the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

780

ACT

5

26

e24h

writing-pronouns

τότε ἀπελθὼν, ὁ στρατηγὸς σὺν τοῖς ὑπηρέταις ἦγεν αὐτούς, οὐ μετὰ βίας, ἐφοβοῦντο γὰρ τὸν λαόν, μὴ λιθασθῶσιν

1

Then the captain, going with the officers, brought them back, not with violence, for they feared the people, lest they stone them

The first instance of them refers to the apostles, but the second instance of them refers to the captain and the officers. The captain and officers were not afraid that the people would stone the apostles. They were afraid that they would be stoned themselves if they used violence against the apostles. You could reword this to make the referents clear. It may be helpful to make this two sentences. Alternate translation: “Then the captain went with the officers and brought the apostles back. But the captain and officers did not use any violence, because they were afraid that the people would stone them if they did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

781

ACT

5

27

iq7w

writing-pronouns

ἀγαγόντες δὲ αὐτοὺς

1

And having brought them

The pronoun them refers to the apostles in all three instances in this verse. It may be helpful to specify this here in the first instance. Alternate translation: “Once they had brought the apostles back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

782

ACT

5

28

a385

παραγγελίᾳ παρηγγείλαμεν ὑμῖν

1

We commanded you with a command

For emphasis, the high priest is using a construction in which a verb and its object come from the same root. If your language uses the same construction for emphasis, it would be appropriate to use it here in your translation. Other languages may have other ways of conveying this emphasis. Alternate translation: “we commanded you very strictly”

783

ACT

5

28

f7pz

figs-you

ὑμῖν…πεπληρώκατε…ὑμῶν…βούλεσθε

1

you … you have filled … your … you desire

In this verse the words you and your refer to the apostles, and so those words are plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

784

ACT

5

28

g2hi

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

1

in this name

Here, name figuratively means the person of Jesus. See how you translated the similar expression in 4:17. Alternate translation: “about this person Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

785

ACT

5

28

a386

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ, πεπληρώκατε

1

behold, you have filled

The high priest says behold to get the apostles to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here in your translation. Alternate translation: “nevertheless you have filled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

786

ACT

5

28

j4kr

figs-metaphor

πεπληρώκατε τὴν Ἰερουσαλὴμ τῆς διδαχῆς ὑμῶν

1

you have filled Jerusalem with your teaching

The high priest is speaking figuratively of Jerusalem as if it were a container that the apostles had filled with their teaching. Alternate translation: “you have taught people who live in every part of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

787

ACT

5

28

a387

figs-metaphor

βούλεσθε ἐπαγαγεῖν ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς

1

you desire to bring upon us

The high priest is speaking figuratively as if the apostles wanted to put the blood of Jesus on him and his fellow Jewish leaders. Alternate translation: “you want to make us responsible for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

788

ACT

5

28

a388

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

us

By us, the high priest means himself and his fellow Jewish leaders, but not the apostles to whom he is speaking, so use the exclusive form of that word in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

789

ACT

5

28

ym1k

figs-metonymy

τὸ αἷμα

1

the blood

The high priest is using the term blood figuratively to mean death, by association with the way Jesus’ blood was shed when he died. Alternate translation: “the death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

790

ACT

5

28

a389

figs-explicit

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου

1

this man

The phrase this man refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “this man Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

791

ACT

5

29

a390

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς…Πέτρος καὶ οἱ ἀπόστολοι εἶπαν

1

answering, Peter and the apostles said

Together the words answering and said mean that Peter and the other apostles responded to the high priest. Alternate translation: “Peter and the apostles responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

792

ACT

5

29

di9u

figs-explicit

Πέτρος καὶ οἱ ἀπόστολοι εἶπαν

1

Peter and the apostles said

Luke seems to mean implicitly that Peter said what follows on behalf of all of the apostles. Alternate translation: “Peter said on behalf of all of the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

793

ACT

5

29

a391

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώποις

1

men

Peter is using the term men in a generic sense to mean “human beings.” Alternate translation: “human beings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

794

ACT

5

30

a392

figs-metaphor

τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

1

of our fathers

Peter is using the term fathers figuratively to mean “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “of our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

795

ACT

5

30

kwsc

figs-gendernotations

τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

1

Although the term fathers is masculine, Peter is using the word in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “of our fathers and mothers” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

796

ACT

5

30

r7av

figs-idiom

ἤγειρεν Ἰησοῦν

1

raised up Jesus

As in 2:24, the idiom raised up means that God made Jesus alive again after he died. Alternate translation: “brought Jesus back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

797

ACT

5

30

a393

figs-you

ὃν ὑμεῖς διεχειρίσασθε

1

whom you killed

The word you is plural. Even though Peter is responding to the high priest, who has been interrogating the apostles, Peter is referring here to the entire council. If your language does not use separate forms for singular and plural “you,” you could indicate that in some other way. Alternate translation: “whom you Sanhedrin members killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

798

ACT

5

30

a394

figs-synecdoche

ὃν ὑμεῖς διεχειρίσασθε

1

whom you killed

It was the Romans who literally killed Jesus, but Peter says figuratively that the Sanhedrin members killed him because their demands led to his death. Alternate translation: “whom you demanded to be killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

799

ACT

5

30

pu5j

figs-metonymy

κρεμάσαντες ἐπὶ ξύλου

1

having hung him on a tree

The word translated as tree can mean either an actual tree or something made of wood. Peter is using the word to refer to the cross, which was made out of wood. Alternate translation: “having hung him on a wooden cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

800

ACT

5

30

a395

figs-explicit

κρεμάσαντες ἐπὶ ξύλου

1

having hung him on a tree

In some languages the word hung would suggest a different method of execution. For clarity, you could use a different word that might indicate the actual meaning better. Alternate translation: “having suspended him from a wooden cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

801

ACT

5

31

a396

figs-nominaladj

τοῦτον

1

this one

Peter is using the demonstrative adjective this as a noun to refer to a specific person, Jesus. (ULT shows that by adding one.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could specify whom Peter means. Alternate translation: “Jesus” or “this Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

802

ACT

5

31

a397

figs-nominaladj

τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ

1

to his right

Peter is using the adjective right as a noun in order to indicate the right side. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:25. Alternate translation: “to his right side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

803

ACT

5

31

uh2d

translate-symaction

τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ

1

to his right

God placing Jesus at his right side was a symbolic way of giving him great honor. Alternate translation: “to a place of great honor next to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

804

ACT

5

31

mr1d

figs-abstractnouns

τοῦ δοῦναι μετάνοιαν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν

1

to give repentance and forgiveness of sins to Israel

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words repentance and forgiveness, you could express the same ideas with verbs. Alternate translation: “to give the people of Israel an opportunity to repent and have God forgive their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

805

ACT

5

31

q1il

figs-personification

Ἰσραὴλ

1

Israel

Peter is referring figuratively to all of the people of Israel as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

806

ACT

5

32

a398

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

1

we

Peter is addressing the Sanhedrin, but he is using the word we to refer only to himself and the other apostles. So if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive “us,” it would be accurate to use the exclusive form here. Other languages may have other ways of indicating that we is exclusive here. Alternate translation: “we apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

807

ACT

5

32

a399

figs-ellipsis

καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, ὃ ἔδωκεν ὁ Θεὸς τοῖς πειθαρχοῦσιν αὐτῷ

1

and the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those obeying him

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “and the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those obeying him, is also a witness of these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

808

ACT

5

32

yml6

figs-explicit

ὃ ἔδωκεν ὁ Θεὸς τοῖς πειθαρχοῦσιν αὐτῷ

1

whom God has given to those obeying him

Here at the end of his response to the high priest, Peter is echoing what he said at the beginning: “It is necessary to obey God rather than men.” He is defining himself and his fellow apostles as people who are committed to obeying God and to testifying about Jesus even if the authorities forbid them to do that. Peter is saying that God has given the apostles the Holy Spirit to empower them to give that testimony in obedience to him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “whom God has given us to empower us to obey him by testifying about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

809

ACT

5

33

abx6

writing-pronouns

οἱ…ἀκούσαντες διεπρίοντο, καὶ ἐβούλοντο ἀνελεῖν αὐτούς

1

having heard this, they were furious and wanted to kill them

The pronoun they refers to the council members and the pronoun them refers to the apostles. Alternate translation: “the council members were furious when they heard this, and they wanted to kill the apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

810

ACT

5

34

i2rr

writing-participants

τις…Φαρισαῖος ὀνόματι Γαμαλιήλ

1

a certain Pharisee, Gamaliel by name

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

811

ACT

5

34

a400

translate-names

Φαρισαῖος

1

Pharisee

The name Pharisee describes a member of a group of Jewish priests. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

812

ACT

5

34

a401

translate-names

Γαμαλιήλ

1

Gamaliel

Gamaliel is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

813

ACT

5

34

a402

writing-background

νομοδιδάσκαλος τίμιος παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

1

a law teacher, honored by all the people

Luke provides this background information about Gamaliel to help readers understand what happens next in the story, when the council members follow Gamaliel’s advice to be patient rather than acting immediately against the apostles. In your translation, present this information in a way that would be natural in your own language and culture. It may be helpful to do that in a separate sentence, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

814

ACT

5

34

fpr4

figs-activepassive

τίμιος παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

1

honored by all the people

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom all the people honored” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

815

ACT

5

34

a403

figs-hyperbole

τίμιος παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

1

honored by all the people

The word all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “whom the people greatly honored” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

816

ACT

5

34

a404

translate-symaction

ἀναστὰς

1

rising up

Here, rising up means that Gamaliel stood up. He did that to indicate that he had something important to say. Alternate translation: “standing up to show that he had something important to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

817

ACT

5

34

xk6g

figs-explicit

ἐκέλευσεν ἔξω…τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ποιῆσαι

1

commanded to put the apostles outside

Your language may require you to specify the object of commanded. Alternate translation: “commanded the officers to take the apostles outside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

818

ACT

5

34

a405

figs-nominaladj

βραχὺ

1

for a little

Luke is using the adjective little as a noun in order to indicate a length of time. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can supply a word such as “while” to show this. Alternate translation: “for a little while” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

819

ACT

5

35

a406

grammar-connect-time-sequential

τε

1

And

Luke is using the word translated And to indicate that Gamaliel spoke after the officers had taken the apostles out of the council chamber. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

820

ACT

5

35

a407

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, Ἰσραηλεῖται

1

Men, Israelites

This is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “My fellow Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

821

ACT

5

35

ae1u

figs-explicit

προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τούτοις τί μέλλετε πράσσειν

1

pay attention to yourselves, what you are about to do to these men

Gamaliel is warning the council members not to do something that they will later regret. He means “be very careful about what you do to these men,” and you could say that as an alternate translation. However, the implication is that the council should not kill the apostles, as 5:33 says they want to do. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “you need to be very cautious and not kill these men, because you might deeply regret that later” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

822

ACT

5

36

a408

figs-idiom

πρὸ…τούτων τῶν ἡμερῶν

1

before these days

Gamaliel is using the term days idiomatically to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “some time ago” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

823

ACT

5

36

a409

translate-names

Θευδᾶς

1

Theudas

Theudas is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

824

ACT

5

36

uaj6

figs-metaphor

ἀνέστη

1

rose up

In this context, rose up figuratively means that Theudas rebelled against the Roman government. Alternate translation: “rebelled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

825

ACT

5

36

b3nl

figs-idiom

λέγων εἶναί τινα ἑαυτόν

1

saying himself to be somebody

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “saying that he was somebody important” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

826

ACT

5

36

a410

figs-activepassive

ᾧ προσεκλίθη ἀνδρῶν ἀριθμὸς

1

to whom was joined a number of men

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. As the General Notes to this chapter suggest, it may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “whom a number of men joined” or, as a new sentence, “A number of men joined him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

827

ACT

5

36

ie3x

figs-activepassive

ὃς ἀνῃρέθη

1

who was killed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. It may be helpful to begin another new sentence here. Alternate translation: “whom the Romans killed” or, as a new sentence, “But the Romans killed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

828

ACT

5

36

juz1

figs-activepassive

ὅσοι ἐπείθοντο αὐτῷ

1

as many as were persuaded by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “as many as he had persuaded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

829

ACT

5

36

a411

figs-activepassive

διελύθησαν

1

were dispersed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “dispersed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

830

ACT

5

36

rzg5

καὶ ἐγένοντο εἰς οὐδέν

1

and they came to nothing

Alternate translation: “and their plans did not succeed”

831

ACT

5

37

f33y

figs-nominaladj

μετὰ τοῦτον

1

After this one

Gamaliel is using the demonstrative adjective this as a noun to refer to a specific person, Theudas. (ULT shows that by adding one.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could use a pronoun or this man’s name. Alternate translation: “After him” or “After Theudas” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

832

ACT

5

37

a412

translate-names

Ἰούδας ὁ Γαλιλαῖος

1

Judas the Galilean

Judas is the name of a man. See how you translated the same name in 1:13 and 1:16. (Those verses describe two other men with this name, not the same Judas as here.) Galilean is the name for someone who is from the region of Galilee. See how you translated that name in 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

833

ACT

5

37

a413

figs-metaphor

ἀνέστη

1

rose up

As in 5:36, rose up here figuratively means that Judas rebelled against the Roman government. Alternate translation: “rebelled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

834

ACT

5

37

p56f

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῆς ἀπογραφῆς

1

in the days of the census

Gamaliel is using the term days idiomatically to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “at the time of the census” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

835

ACT

5

37

kz4s

figs-idiom

ἀπέστησε λαὸν ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ

1

drew away people after him

Here, drew away is an idiom that means Judas persuaded people to rebel with him against the Roman government. Alternate translation: “persuaded people to join him in rebellion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

836

ACT

5

37

a414

figs-nominaladj

κἀκεῖνος

1

That one also

Gamaliel is using the demonstrative adjective that as a noun to refer to a specific person, Judas. (ULT shows that by adding one.) Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you use a pronoun or this man’s name. Alternate translation: “He also” or “Judas also” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

837

ACT

5

37

a415

figs-activepassive

ὅσοι ἐπείθοντο αὐτῷ

1

as many as were persuaded by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “as many as he had persuaded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

838

ACT

5

37

a416

figs-activepassive

διεσκορπίσθησαν

1

were scattered

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “scattered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

839

ACT

5

38

i4bw

καὶ τὰ νῦν λέγω ὑμῖν

1

And now I say these things to you

Gamaliel uses this expression to shift the council members’ attention away from the stories of Theudas and Judas so that he could give them some direct advice. In your translation, use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that would be natural for this same purpose.

840

ACT

5

38

a417

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Gamaliel is using the word translated And to introduce what he wants the council to conclude as a result of the two examples he has given. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

841

ACT

5

38

wz89

ἀπόστητε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τούτων καὶ ἄφετε αὐτούς

1

keep away from these men and release them

When Gamaliel tells the council to keep away from these men, he implicitly means that they should not execute them, as 5:33 says they wanted to do. Alternate translation: “do not execute these men or put them back in prison”

842

ACT

5

38

zh1d

ἐὰν ᾖ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, ἡ βουλὴ αὕτη ἢ τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο

1

if this counsel or this work is from men

Alternate translation: “if men have devised this plan or are doing this work”

843

ACT

5

38

a418

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων

1

men

Gamaliel is using the term men in a generic sense to mean “humans.” Since he contrasts from men here with “from God” in the next verse, it may be appropriate to add the word “mere” to help show that contrast. Alternate translation: “mere humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

844

ACT

5

38

uql8

figs-activepassive

καταλυθήσεται

1

it will be destroyed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “someone will destroy it” or “it will not last” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

845

ACT

5

39

a419

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

but

Gamaliel uses this word to introduce a contrast between what would happen if the work the apostles are doing were “from men” and what would happen if it were from God. As the General Notes to this chapter suggest, it may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation, as a new sentence: “However,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

846

ACT

5

39

j819

writing-pronouns

εἰ…ἐκ Θεοῦ ἐστιν

1

if it is from God

Here the pronoun it refers back to the phrase “this counsel or this work” in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “if God has devised this plan or commanded these men to do this work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

847

ACT

5

39

a420

figs-explicit

μήποτε

1

lest

It may be helpful to state the implications of the word lest explicitly. Alternate translation: “and if you do try to destroy them,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

848

ACT

5

39

a421

figs-activepassive

καὶ θεομάχοι εὑρεθῆτε

1

you may even be found

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. However, since this is also an idiom (see next note), it would only be meaningful to do that in your translation if your language uses the verb “find” in the same idiomatic sense. Alternate translation: “people may even find you to be” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

849

ACT

5

39

a422

figs-activepassive

εὑρεθῆτε

1

be found

The expression be found is an idiom. Alternate translation: “turn out to be” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

850

ACT

5

39

cyp1

figs-activepassive

ἐπείσθησαν…αὐτῷ

1

they were persuaded by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Gamaliel persuaded them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

851

ACT

5

40

z31c

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses the word translated And to introduce what the Sanhedrin did as a result of Gamaliel’s advice. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

852

ACT

5

40

p6lz

figs-synecdoche

προσκαλεσάμενοι τοὺς ἀποστόλους, δείραντες παρήγγειλαν

1

summoning the apostles, having beaten them, they commanded them

The Sanhedrin would have ordered their officers to bring back the apostles and beat them. They did not do those things personally. But Luke speaks figuratively as if they did do those things because they ordered them to be done. Alternate translation: “they had their officers bring back the apostles and beat them, and then they commanded them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

853

ACT

5

40

fca9

figs-metonymy

λαλεῖν ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

to speak in the name of Jesus

Here, name figuratively means the person of Jesus. See how you translated the similar expression in 4:17. Alternate translation: “to speak about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

854

ACT

5

41

a423

figs-metaphor

ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ Συνεδρίου

1

from the face of the Sanhedrin

Luke is using the word face figuratively to mean “presence.” Alternate translation: “from the presence of the Sanhedrin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

855

ACT

5

41

cv8y

figs-activepassive

κατηξιώθησαν

1

they had been considered worthy

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God had considered them worthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

856

ACT

5

41

lk82

figs-metonymy

ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος

1

for the Name

Here, the Name figuratively means Jesus. Alternate translation: “for Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

857

ACT

5

42

jj94

writing-endofstory

τε

1

And

Luke uses the word translated And to introduce information about what happened after this story as a result of the events within the story itself. Your language may have its own way of indicating how such information relates to a story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

858

ACT

5

42

kyp6

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

1

in the temple

Only priests were allowed inside the temple building, so the temple means the courtyard around the temple. Alternate translation: “in the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

859

ACT

5

42

x424

figs-litotes

οὐκ ἐπαύοντο, διδάσκοντες καὶ εὐαγγελιζόμενοι

1

they did not cease teaching and proclaiming the gospel

Luke is expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “they continued to teach and to proclaim the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

860

ACT

6

intro

z5r5

0

Acts 6 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The distribution to the widows

The believers in Jerusalem gave food every day to women whose husbands had died. All of them had been raised as Jews, but some of them spoke Hebrew and had lived mostly in Judea, while others spoke Greek and may have lived in Gentile areas. Those who gave out the food gave it to the Hebrew-speaking widows but not equally to the Greek-speaking widows. To please God, the church leaders appointed Greek-speaking men to make sure the Greek-speaking widows received their share of the food. One of these Greek-speaking men was Stephen.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“His face was like the face of an angel”

No one knows for sure what it was about Stephen’s face that was like the face of an angel, because Luke does not tell us. A note to this phrase offers one suggestion, which you may choose to follow. However, you might also decide to say only what the ULT says about this.

861

ACT

6

1

f8br

writing-newevent

ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

Now in those days

Luke uses this time reference to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

862

ACT

6

1

cg5t

figs-idiom

ἐν…ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

in those days

Luke is using the term days idiomatically to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “at that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

863

ACT

6

1

e7vb

translate-names

τῶν Ἑλληνιστῶν

1

of the Hellenists

Hellenists was the name for Jews in the Roman Empire who spoke the Greek language and followed Greek customs. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

864

ACT

6

1

ftz8

translate-names

τοὺς Ἑβραίους

1

the Hebrews

In this context, Luke is using the name Hebrews to mean Jews in the Roman Empire who spoke Aramaic, a language closely related to Hebrew, and who did not follow Greek customs. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

865

ACT

6

1

s4qy

figs-activepassive

παρεθεωροῦντο ἐν τῇ διακονίᾳ τῇ καθημερινῇ αἱ χῆραι αὐτῶν

1

their widows were being overlooked in the daily service

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form, and you can say who was doing the action. Alternate translation: “those who were distributing food each day were overlooking their widows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

866

ACT

6

1

rde8

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ διακονίᾳ τῇ καθημερινῇ

1

in the daily service

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word service, you could express the same idea with an equivalent expression. Alternate translations: “by those who were distributing food each day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

867

ACT

6

2

kwvo

grammar-connect-logic-result

δὲ

1

So

Luke is using the word So to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this same purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

868

ACT

6

2

n5r4

figs-nominaladj

οἱ δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

Luke is using the adjective Twelve as a noun in order to indicate a group of people, the apostles who led the church. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the 12 apostles” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

869

ACT

6

2

is74

translate-names

οἱ δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

Alternatively, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns, you may be able to do that in this case, since this is a title by which the apostles were known. Even though it is a number, if you translate it as a title, as ULT does, follow the conventions for titles in your language. For example, capitalize main words and write out numbers rather than use digits. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

870

ACT

6

2

jm17

figs-metaphor

καταλείψαντας τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

to leave behind the word of God

The apostles are speaking figuratively as if they would walk away from the word of God and leave it behind them. Alternate translation: “to stop preaching and teaching the word of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

871

ACT

6

2

w9re

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message that God wanted the believers to share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

872

ACT

6

2

fwk6

figs-metaphor

διακονεῖν τραπέζαις

1

to serve tables

To describe the work that would be required for them personally to monitor the church’s program of distributing food to people in need, the apostles speak figuratively as if they would be bringing food to people who were sitting at tables. Alternate translation: “to give our attention to food distribution” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

873

ACT

6

3

lcyx

figs-metaphor

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

See how you translated the term brothers in 1:15. Alternate translation: “my fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

874

ACT

6

3

p1yz

figs-activepassive

ἄνδρας…μαρτυρουμένους

1

men being attested

The expression being attested is a passive verbal form. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the same meaning with an active form. Alternate translation: “men to whose honesty people attest” or “men whom people say they trust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

875

ACT

6

3

mgid

figs-metaphor

πλήρεις Πνεύματος καὶ σοφίας

1

full of the Spirit and of wisdom

The apostles are speaking figuratively of these men as if they were containers that the Holy Spirit and wisdom could fill. Alternate translation: “in whose lives the Spirit is evidently present and who possess great wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

876

ACT

6

3

pxe5

figs-abstractnouns

πλήρεις Πνεύματος καὶ σοφίας

1

full of the Spirit and of wisdom

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wisdom, you could express the same idea with an adverb such as “wisely.” Alternate translation: “in whose lives the Spirit is evidently present and who act very wisely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

877

ACT

6

3

i27a

figs-metaphor

ἐπὶ τῆς χρείας ταύτης

1

over this task

When the apostles say that they will appoint these men over the work of food distribution, they are using a spatial metaphor. Alternate translation: “to be responsible for this task” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

878

ACT

6

4

b3bj

figs-metonymy

τοῦ λόγου

1

of the word

The apostles are using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that God has told them to teach and preach by using words. Alternate translation: “of teaching and preaching the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

879

ACT

6

5

wh9t

figs-metonymy

ἤρεσεν ὁ λόγος ἐνώπιον παντὸς τοῦ πλήθους

1

the statement was pleasing before the whole multitude

Luke is using the word before to refer to the opinion of the believers, since people assess things that come to their attention in front of them. Alternate translation: “what the apostles recommended pleased all of the other believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

880

ACT

6

5

jayc

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

2

And

Luke is using the word translated And to introduce what the believers did as a result of the apostles’ request. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

881

ACT

6

5

ajq1

translate-names

Στέφανον…Φίλιππον…Πρόχορον…Νικάνορα…Τίμωνα…Παρμενᾶν…Νικόλαον

1

Stephen…Philip…Prochorus…Nicanor…Timon…Parmenas…Nicolaus

These are the names of seven men. They are all Greek names, and this suggests that all of the men selected were from the group of Greek-speaking Jews among the believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

882

ACT

6

5

vsyk

figs-metaphor

ἄνδρα πλήρης πίστεως καὶ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit

Luke is speaking figuratively of Stephen as if they were a container that faith and the Holy Spirit had filled. Alternate translation: “a man who possessed great wisdom and in whose life the Holy Spirit was evidently present” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

883

ACT

6

5

yqsj

figs-abstractnouns

ἄνδρα πλήρης πίστεως καὶ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faith, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “trust.” Alternate translation: “a man who confidently trusted in God and in whose life the Holy Spirit was evidently present” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

884

ACT

6

5

cg5s

translate-names

Ἀντιοχέα

1

an Antiochian

The name Antiochian describes a person who comes from the city of Antioch. Alternate translation: “who came from Antioch” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

885

ACT

6

6

lvaj

figs-events

προσευξάμενοι, ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας

1

This could mean: (1) that the apostles first prayed and then placed their hands on these men. Alternate translation: “after they had prayed, they placed their hands upon them” (2) that the apostles placed their hands on the men while they were praying for them. Alternate translation: “they prayed for them with their hands placed upon them” or “they placed their hands upon them and prayed for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

886

ACT

6

6

wu1y

translate-symaction

ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας

1

and placed their hands upon them

The apostles placed their hands on the seven men to show publicly that they were giving them the responsibility and authority to oversee the food distribution. Alternate translation: “and placed their hands on them to show that they were giving them responsibility and authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

887

ACT

6

7

x48w

writing-endofstory

0

As the outline in the General Introduction indicates, this verse is the end of the first major section of the book of Acts. That section describes how the apostles spread the good news about Jesus in Jerusalem. Luke uses this verse to summarize what happened as a result of the events within this whole section of the book. You language may have its own way of indicating how such a summary relates to a significant part of a story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

888

ACT

6

7

wu4l

figs-metaphor

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ ηὔξανεν

1

the word of God was growing

Luke is speaking figuratively of the way the message about Jesus kept becoming more widespread as if the word of God itself were growing. Alternate translation: “more and more people were hearing the word of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

889

ACT

6

7

ueie

figs-metonymy

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ ηὔξανεν

1

the word of God was growing

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that God told the believers to spread by using words. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus kept becoming more widespread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

890

ACT

6

7

jg8y

figs-synecdoche

ὑπήκουον τῇ πίστει

1

became obedient to the faith

Luke speaks generally of the faith (that is, belief in Jesus) to indicate that these priests became obedient to one part of it, Jesus’ teachings about how to live. But that obedience showed that the priests genuinely embraced faith in Jesus as Messiah in its entirety. Alternate translation: “came to believe in Jesus and so started obeying his teachings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

891

ACT

6

7

qq3l

figs-abstractnouns

ὑπήκουον τῇ πίστει

1

became obedient to the faith

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faith, you could express the same idea with a verb such as “believe.” Alternate translation: “came to believe in Jesus and so started obeying his teachings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

892

ACT

6

8

et2j

writing-participants

Στέφανος δὲ

1

Now Stephen

Luke uses this phrase to introduce Stephen as the main character in this part of the story. Your language may have its own way of doing that. If so, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

893

ACT

6

8

pzr0

figs-metaphor

Στέφανος…πλήρης χάριτος καὶ δυνάμεως, ἐποίει

1

Stephen, full of grace and power, was doing

Luke is speaking figuratively as if Stephen were a container that grace and power were filling. Alternate translation: “Stephen had abundant grace and power, and so he was doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

894

ACT

6

8

h8sg

figs-hendiadys

Στέφανος…πλήρης χάριτος καὶ δυνάμεως, ἐποίει

1

Stephen, full of grace and power, was doing

Luke may be using the two words grace and power together to express a single idea. The word grace would describe the character of the power that Stephen had. Specifically, it would be power that God was giving him. Alternate translation: “Stephen, full of gracious power, was doing” or “Stephen, full of power from God, was doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

895

ACT

6

8

xscq

figs-abstractnouns

Στέφανος…πλήρης χάριτος καὶ δυνάμεως, ἐποίει

1

Stephen, full of grace and power, was doing

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words grace and power, you could express the same ideas with adverbs. Alternate translation: “Stephen was supernaturally and powerfully doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

896

ACT

6

8

m0zh

figs-doublet

τέρατα καὶ σημεῖα μεγάλα

1

great wonders and signs

The terms wonders and signs mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:22. Alternate translation: “many great miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

897

ACT

6

9

d74m

figs-idiom

ἀνέστησαν

1

rose up

Here the expression rose up means that these people took action, specifically to oppose Stephen, not that they stood up from a seated position. Alternate translation: “took action to oppose Stephen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

898

ACT

6

9

nei0

figs-activepassive

τῆς συναγωγῆς, τῆς λεγομένης Λιβερτίνων

1

the synagogue called Freedmen

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the synagogue whose name was Freedmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

899

ACT

6

9

k88n

figs-explicit

τῆς συναγωγῆς, τῆς λεγομένης Λιβερτίνων

1

the synagogue called Freedmen

The word Freedmen probably refers to former slaves. Alternate translation: “the synagogue that former slaves attended” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

900

ACT

6

9

e7b0

translate-names

Κυρηναίων…Ἀλεξανδρέων…Κιλικίας…Ἀσίας

1

of the Cyrenians…of the Alexandrians…Cilicia…Asia

Cyrenians is the name for people from the city of Cyrene, and Alexandrians is the name for people from the city of Alexandria. Cilicia and Asia are the names of two Roman provinces. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

901

ACT

6

10

v5ia

figs-idiom

οὐκ ἴσχυον ἀντιστῆναι

1

they were not able to stand against

The expression stand against is an idiom. Alternate translation: “they could not argue successfully against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

902

ACT

6

10

fnb2

figs-hendiadys

τῇ σοφίᾳ καὶ τῷ Πνεύματι, ᾧ ἐλάλει

1

the wisdom and the Spirit with which he spoke

Luke may be using the two words wisdom and Spirit together to express a single idea. The word Spirit would describe the source and character of the wisdom that Stephen was displaying. The word Spirit refers to the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “the Spirit-inspired wisdom by which he spoke” or “the wisdom that the Holy Spirit gave him as he spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

903

ACT

6

10

psha

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ σοφίᾳ καὶ τῷ Πνεύματι, ᾧ ἐλάλει

1

the wisdom and the Spirit with which he spoke

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wisdom, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “the wise things he said as the Spirit inspired him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

904

ACT

6

11

ren5

figs-explicit

ὑπέβαλον ἄνδρας λέγοντας

1

they instigated men to say

The word instigated means that Stephen’s opponents in some way persuaded these men to lie about what Stephen was saying. They may have offered them money, or they may have convinced them that Stephen was a dangerous person who needed to be stopped. Since Luke does not specify the means, it may be best not to suggest a means in your translation. But it would be appropriate to indicate that what these men were recruited to say about Stephen was a lie. Alternate translation: “recruited some men to lie about Stephen by saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

905

ACT

6

11

s2cl

figs-exclusive

ἀκηκόαμεν

1

We have heard

The men are using the word We to refer only to themselves, so use the exclusive form of that word in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

906

ACT

6

11

x747

figs-metonymy

λαλοῦντος ῥήματα βλάσφημα

1

speaking blasphemous words

The men are using the term words figuratively to mean the things that Stephen has been saying by using words. Alternate translation: “saying blasphemous things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

907

ACT

6

11

dgxi

translate-names

Μωϋσῆν

1

Moses

Moses is the name of a man. God gave him the law to give to Israel. See how you translated his name in 3:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

908

ACT

6

12

tqk9

writing-pronouns

συνεκίνησάν

1

They…stirred up

In this verse and the next one, the word “they” continues to refer back to the opponents of Stephen who are named in 6:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

909

ACT

6

12

l251

figs-metaphor

συνεκίνησάν τε τὸν λαὸν, καὶ τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους, καὶ τοὺς γραμματεῖς

1

They also stirred up the people, the elders, and the scribes

Luke says figuratively that Stephen’s opponents stirred up these other groups to mean that they said things to make them very upset with Stephen. Alternate translation: “They also said things that made the people, the elders, and the scribes very upset with Stephen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

910

ACT

6

12

dkbj

translate-names

Συνέδριον

1

Sanhedrin

Sanhedrin is the name of the Jewish ruling council. See how you translated it in 4:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

911

ACT

6

13

zv6s

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ παύεται λαλῶν

1

does not stop speaking

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use a positive expression to translate this double negative that consists of the negative particle not and the negative verb stop. Alternate translation: “continually speaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

912

ACT

6

13

ju6w

figs-metonymy

λαλῶν ῥήματα

1

speaking words

The men are using the term words figuratively to mean things that Stephen has been saying by using words. Alternate translation: “saying things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

913

ACT

6

13

o3j2

figs-metonymy

τοῦ τόπου τοῦ ἁγίου

1

the holy place

The men are describing the temple in Jerusalem figuratively by referring to it by something associated with it, that it is a holy place. Alternate translation: “the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

914

ACT

6

14

c5l9

translate-names

ὁ Ναζωραῖος

1

the Nazarene

The word Nazarene describes someone who comes from the city of Nazareth. See how you translated it in 2:23. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

915

ACT

6

14

uok4

figs-explicit

τὸν τόπον τοῦτον

1

this place

By this place, the false witnesses mean the temple, which they described as “the holy place” in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “this temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

916

ACT

6

14

vak4

figs-metonymy

τὰ ἔθη ἃ παρέδωκεν ἡμῖν Μωϋσῆς

1

the customs that Moses handed down to us

The phrase handed down is an idiom that refers to something that is passed from generation to generation. The false witnesses are describing how the ancestors of the Jews have passed on the teachings originally received from Moses to each successive generation. Alternate translation: “the customs that our ancestors learned from Moses and have taught each successive generation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

917

ACT

6

15

k8rw

figs-simile

εἶδον τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ, ὡσεὶ πρόσωπον ἀγγέλου

1

saw his face as the face of an angel

Luke offers this comparison but he does not say specifically in what way Stephen’s face was like the face of an angel. However, this may mean that his face was shining brightly, since descriptions of angels in the Bible often say they were shining brightly. So you might choose to say that in your translation. Alternate translation: “saw that his face was shining brightly, like the face of an angel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

918

ACT

7

intro

p9h4

0

Acts 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter presents Stephen’s defense against the charges that false witnesses had made against him, as Luke describes in 6:13–14. Those witnesses had said, “This man does not stop speaking words against the holy place and the law. For we have heard him say that this Jesus the Nazarene will destroy this place and change the customs that Moses handed down to us.” In response, Stephen shows that he respects the law, but he then shows how the Israelites have not kept the law. He next shows that he respects the temple, but he then explains that God does not live in temples made by people. Luke presents Stephen’s speech within the narrative setting of his trial by the Sanhedrin.

  • (v. 1) The high priest asks Stephen to answer the charges against him
  • (vv. 2–19) Stephen tells the story of the Israelites up to the time of Moses
  • (vv. 20–37) Stephen explains how Moses gave the law
  • (vv. 38–43) Stephen shows that the Israelites did not keep the law that Moses gave
  • (vv. 44–47) Stephen tells how the tabernacle and temple were built
  • (vv. 48–50) Stephen explains that God does not live in temples that people build
  • (vv. 51–54) Stephen makes his own charges against the Sanhedrin members
  • (vv. 55–60) The Sanhedrin members, enraged, execute Stephen by stoning

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 7:42–43 and 49–50.

A note to 7:36–38 suggests making each of these verses a separate paragraph or using formatting in some other way to highlight the repeated phrases that Stephen uses to describe Moses.

It appears that 8:1 is part of the narrative of this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

“Stephen said”

Stephen told the history of Israel very briefly. He paid special attention to the times that the Israelites had rejected the people God had chosen to lead them. At the end of the story, he said that the Jewish leaders he was talking to had rejected Jesus just as the evil Israelites had always rejected the leaders God had appointed for them.

“Full of the Holy Spirit”

The Holy Spirit completely controlled Stephen so that he said only and all of what God wanted him to say.

Foreshadowing

When an author speaks of something that is not important at that time but will be important later in the story, this is called foreshadowing. Luke mentions Saul in 7:58, even though he is not an important person in this part of the story. This is because Saul, also known as Paul, is an important person in the rest of the Book of Acts.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Implied information

Stephen was talking to Jews who knew the law of Moses well, so he did not explain things that his hearers already knew. But you may need to explain some of these things so that your readers will be able to understand what Stephen was saying. For example, you may need to make explicit that when Joseph’s brothers “sold him into Egypt” (Acts 7:9), Joseph was going to be a slave in Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Metonymy

Stephen spoke of Joseph ruling “over Egypt” and over all of Pharaoh’s household. By this he meant that Joseph ruled over the people of Egypt and of the people and possessions in Pharaoh’s household. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Important textual issues in this chapter

“a dwelling for the house of Jacob” (7:46)

In 7:46, some ancient manuscripts read “a dwelling for the house of Jacob.” ULT follows that reading. Other ancient manuscripts read “a dwelling for the God of Jacob.” If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the reading that it has. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to use the reading of ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Background knowledge

The Jewish leaders to whom Stephen spoke already knew much about the events he was describing. They knew what Moses had written in the book of Genesis. If the book of Genesis has not been translated into your language, it may be difficult for your readers to follow what Stephen said. It may be helpful to provide some background information, either in the text or in notes.

919

ACT

7

1

hy9r

figs-explicit

ὁ ἀρχιερεύς

1

Connecting Statement:

Luke assumes that his readers will know that the high priest was there and that he asked Stephen to testify because he was a member of the Sanhedrin and its leader. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the high priest, who was the leader of the Sanhedrin,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

920

ACT

7

2

abc7

writing-pronouns

ὁ δὲ ἔφη

1

Then he said

The pronoun he refers to Stephen, not the high priest. Alternate translation: “Then Stephen said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

921

ACT

7

2

zbq0

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοὶ καὶ πατέρες

1

Men, brothers and fathers is an idiomatic form of address. Alternate translation: “You brothers and fathers of mine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

922

ACT

7

2

v5si

figs-metaphor

ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοὶ καὶ πατέρες

1

brothers, and fathers, listen to me

Stephen is using the word brothers figuratively to refer to his fellow Israelites. He is likely using the word fathers figuratively to refer to the leaders of Israel, the members of the Sanhedrin. In both cases he is speaking respectfully. Alternate translation: “My fellow Israelites and you leaders of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

923

ACT

7

2

kfep

figs-abstractnouns

ὁ Θεὸς τῆς δόξης

1

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun glory with an adjective such as “glorious.” Alternate translation: “The glorious God” or “God, who is glorious,” or see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

924

ACT

7

2

n09p

figs-explicit

ὁ Θεὸς τῆς δόξης

1

Stephen apparently chooses to describe God in this way at the beginning of his speech in order to refute the charge made in 6:11 that he says blasphemous things about God. Calling him the God of glory acknowledges that people should rightfully give glory to God. You might choose to bring out this implication in your translation. Alternate translation: “God, to whom we should rightfully give glory,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

925

ACT

7

2

pt4h

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

Here and throughout this chapter, Stephen is using the word our to refer to himself and to his listeners, so use the inclusive form of that word if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

926

ACT

7

2

w1ya

figs-metaphor

τῷ πατρὶ ἡμῶν Ἀβραὰμ

1

Stephen is using the term father figuratively to mean “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “to Abraham our ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

927

ACT

7

2

ust7

translate-names

Μεσοποταμίᾳ…Χαρράν

1

Mesopotamia is the name of a region, and Harran is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

928

ACT

7

3

uksj

figs-quotesinquotes

εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν, ἔξελθε ἐκ τῆς γῆς σου καὶ ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου, καὶ δεῦρο εἰς τὴν γῆν ἣν ἄν σοι δείξω

1

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “God told Abraham to go out from his land and from his relatives and come into the land that he would show him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

929

ACT

7

3

kgef

writing-pronouns

εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν

1

The pronoun he refers to God, while the pronoun him refers to Abraham. Alternate translation: “God said to Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

930

ACT

7

4

pfg3

writing-pronouns

κατῴκησεν…αὐτοῦ…μετῴκισεν αὐτὸν

1

The pronouns his and him and the first instance of he refer to Abraham, while the second instance of he refers to God. For clarity, in your translation you might say “Abraham lived” and “God brought him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

931

ACT

7

4

mv26

translate-names

γῆς Χαλδαίων

1

Chaldeans is the name of a people group. This group lived in Mesopotamia, so as 7:2 indicates, Abraham had been living among these people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

932

ACT

7

4

pfg4

figs-you

ὑμεῖς

1

you

The word you is plural. Stephen is using it to refer not just to the high priest, whose question he is answering, but also to all of the council members and the others who are listenting to him. So you can use the plural form of the word in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

933

ACT

7

5

tnsm

writing-pronouns

οὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ…ἐπηγγείλατο…αὐτῷ…αὐτοῦ…αὐτόν…οὐκ ὄντος αὐτῷ

1

The pronouns him and his and the third instance of he refer to Abraham, while the first two instances of he refer to God. For clarity, in your translation you might say “God did not give Abraham,” “God promised,” and “although Abraham did not have.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

934

ACT

7

5

ax1j

οὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ κληρονομίαν ἐν αὐτῇ

1

he did not give him an inheritance in it

Alternate translation: “he did not give any of it to him as an inheritance”

935

ACT

7

5

qff6

figs-explicit

οὐδὲ βῆμα ποδός

1

not even a stride of a foot

This could mean: (1) not enough ground to stand on or (2) not enough ground on which to take a step. Either way, the expression is implicitly describing a very small area. Alternate translation: “not even a tiny piece of ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

936

ACT

7

5

u6iw

figs-metaphor

αὐτῷ εἰς κατάσχεσιν…καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτόν

1

to him for a possession, and to his seed after him

The term seed figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “to him for a possession, and to his descendants after him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

937

ACT

7

5

j09v

figs-abstractnouns

αὐτῷ εἰς κατάσχεσιν…καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτόν

1

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun possession with a verb such as “possess.” Stephen is saying that Abraham possessed the land in the sense that it was something that God had promised to him but that it was his descendants who came into actual possession of it. Alternate translation: “as something that his descendants would one day possess” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

938

ACT

7

6

tn6b

figs-explicit

ἐλάλησεν…οὕτως ὁ Θεὸς

1

God spoke to him like this

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that this occurred some time after the statement in the previous verse. It may be helpful to state that in your translation. Alternate translation: “Subsequently God told Abraham that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

939

ACT

7

6

jymv

writing-pronouns

ἔσται τὸ σπέρμα αὐτοῦ, πάροικον ἐν γῇ ἀλλοτρίᾳ, καὶ δουλώσουσιν αὐτὸ καὶ κακώσουσιν

1

Stephen is using the singular word seed figuratively to mean “descendants,” and so he uses the singular noun stranger and the singular pronoun him. For clarity in your translation, to show that he is not referring to a single individual, you could say “descendants” and “strangers” and use the plural pronoun them. Alternate translation: “his descendants would be strangers in a foreign land, whose people would enslave them and treat them badly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

940

ACT

7

7

k8pz

figs-quotesinquotes

καὶ τὸ ἔθνος ᾧ ἐὰν δουλεύσωσιν κρινῶ ἐγώ, ὁ Θεὸς εἶπεν; καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα, ἐξελεύσονται καὶ λατρεύσουσίν μοι ἐν τῷ τόπῳ τούτῳ

1

If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “But God said that he would judge the nation that would enslave him and that after that they would come out and serve him in this place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

941

ACT

7

7

f7fw

figs-metonymy

τὸ ἔθνος

1

I will judge the nation

Here, nation refers to the people who belong to that nation. Alternate translation: “the people of the nation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

942

ACT

7

7

q7y6

writing-pronouns

ἐὰν δουλεύσωσιν

1

the nation that will enslave him

As in 7:6, Stephen is using the singular pronoun him because he is using the singular word seed figuratively to mean “descendants.” For clarity, particularly if you said “descendants” in the previous verse, you could use the plural pronoun “them” instead. That would help readers recognize that Stephen also means Abraham’s descendants when he says “they” later in the verse. Alternate translation: “will enslave them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

943

ACT

7

8

iwfx

writing-pronouns

ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ…ἐγέννησεν

1

The first instance of he refers to God, while the word him and the second instance of he refer to Abraham. For clarity, in your translation you might say “God gave Abraham … Abraham fathered.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

944

ACT

7

8

mwc9

figs-explicit

ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ διαθήκην περιτομῆς

1

God gave him the covenant of circumcision

Stephen’s listeners would have known that this covenant required Abraham to circumcise the males of his family. Alternate translation: “he made a covenant that required Abraham to circumcise the males of his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

945

ACT

7

8

oel3

translate-names

τὸν Ἰσαὰκ…τὸν Ἰακώβ

1

Isaac and Jacob are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

946

ACT

7

8

g67f

translate-names

τὸν Ἰσαὰκ…τὸν Ἰακώβ

1

These are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

947

ACT

7

8

ams1

figs-ellipsis

καὶ Ἰσαὰκ τὸν Ἰακώβ, καὶ Ἰακὼβ τοὺς δώδεκα πατριάρχας

1

Jacob of the 12 patriarchs

Stephen is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “and Isaac fathered Jacob, and Jacob fathered the 12 patriarchs” or “and Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob became the father of the 12 patriarchs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

948

ACT

7

8

gaww

figs-explicit

τοὺς δώδεκα πατριάρχας

1

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that he is using the word patriarchs to mean the sons of Jacob who became the ancestors of the tribes of Israel. Alternate translation: “12 sons who became the ancestors of the tribes of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

949

ACT

7

9

n981

translate-kinship

οἱ πατριάρχαι

1

the patriarchs

Here the word patriarchs refers to the older sons of Jacob in their relationship with Joseph. If you refer to them in your translation as Joseph’s brothers, use the word for an older brother if your language makes that distinction. Alternate translation: “Jacob’s older sons” or “Joseph’s older brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

950

ACT

7

9

fq7w

translate-names

τὸν Ἰωσὴφ

1

Joseph is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

951

ACT

7

9

tik7

figs-explicit

ἀπέδοντο εἰς Αἴγυπτον

1

sold him into Egypt

Stephen’s listeners would have known that this meant that their ancestors sold Joseph into slavery and that he was taken to Egypt to be a slave there. Alternate translation: “sold him into slavery and he was taken to Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

952

ACT

7

9

u3dp

translate-names

Αἴγυπτον

1

Egypt is the name of a place. See how you translated it in 2:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

953

ACT

7

9

w1is

figs-idiom

ἦν…μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

was with him

When Stephen says that God was with Joseph, this is an idiom that means God helped him. Alternate translation: “helped him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

954

ACT

7

10

kxgk

writing-pronouns

ἐξείλατο αὐτὸν ἐκ πασῶν τῶν θλίψεων αὐτοῦ; καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ

1

In these phrases the word he refers to God and the words him and his refer to Joseph. Alternate translation: “God rescued Joseph from all his afflictions, and God gave Joseph” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

955

ACT

7

10

bfoo

figs-abstractnouns

ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ χάριν καὶ σοφίαν ἐναντίον Φαραὼ

1

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns favor and wisdom with adjectives. Alternate translation: “God made Pharaoh favorable towards Joseph and enabled Joseph to give Pharaoh wise advice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

956

ACT

7

10

vpir

figs-idiom

ἐναντίον Φαραὼ

1

Here the phrase before Pharaoh may be an idiom that means “in the presence of.” Alternate translation: “whenever he was in the presence of Pharaoh” or see next note for another possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

957

ACT

7

10

s5vk

figs-metonymy

ἐναντίον Φαραὼ

1

The phrase before Pharaoh could also refer to Pharaoh’s opinion, by association with the way that Pharaoh would assess anything that came to his attention in front of him. Alternate translation: “in Pharaoh’s perspective” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

958

ACT

7

10

nycs

writing-pronouns

κατέστησεν αὐτὸν ἡγούμενον ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον, καὶ ὅλον τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

1

In these phrases the words he and his refer to Pharaoh and the word him refers to Joseph. Alternate translation: “Pharaoh appointed Joseph governor over Egypt and all his household” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

959

ACT

7

10

yr7m

figs-metonymy

ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον

1

over Egypt

The word Egypt refers to the people of Egypt. Alternate translation: “over all the people of Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

960

ACT

7

10

pb4p

figs-metonymy

ὅλον τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

1

over all his household

The word household refers to Pharaoh’s own servants and all his possessions. Alternate translation: “over all his servants and everything he owned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

961

ACT

7

11

p42j

figs-personification

ἦλθεν…λιμὸς ἐφ’ ὅλην τὴν Αἴγυπτον καὶ Χανάαν, καὶ θλῖψις μεγάλη

1

came a famine

Here, Stephen speaks figuratively of famine and tribulation as if they came to Egypt and Canaan on their own. If this might be confusing for your readers, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “there was a famine over all Egypt and Canaan, and there was great tribulation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

962

ACT

7

11

ncnr

translate-names

Χανάαν

1

Canaan is the name of a place, the land where the Israelites eventually settled. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

963

ACT

7

11

frd4

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ θλῖψις μεγάλη

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of tribulation, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “and people suffered greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

964

ACT

7

11

p37v

figs-explicit

οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν

1

our fathers

Stephen is using the term fathers figuratively to mean “ancestors.” He means specifically Jacob and his sons (Joseph’s older brothers), as UST indicates. Alternate translation: “our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

965

ACT

7

12

pia8

figs-explicit

ὄντα σιτία εἰς Αἴγυπτον

1

grain

Stephen assumes that his readers will know that with Joseph as his administrator, Pharaoh had stored up grain during prosperous years and was now selling it. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this explicitly. Alternate translation: “that people could buy stored grain from Pharaoh in Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

966

ACT

7

12

cvhm

figs-explicit

ἐξαπέστειλεν τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν πρῶτον

1

By first, Stephen does not mean that Jacob sent Joseph’s older brothers to Egypt before he sent anyone else, or before he did anything else. He means that Jacob sent them for a first time and would later send them for a second time, as Stephen’s listeners would have understood. Alternate translation: “he sent our fathers on a first trip there to buy food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

967

ACT

7

12

mbg8

figs-metaphor

τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν

1

our fathers

Stephen is using the term fathers figuratively to mean “ancestors.” Here he means specifically Joseph’s older brothers, as UST indicates. Alternate translation: “our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

968

ACT

7

13

a5f3

figs-nominaladj

ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ

1

Stephen is using the adjective second as a noun, to mean the second time that Joseph’s brothers went to Egypt. ULT adds time to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “when Jacob sent them to Egypt again to buy more food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

969

ACT

7

13

ce2b

translate-ordinal

ἐν τῷ δευτέρῳ

1

On their second time

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here or an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “during trip number two” or “on their next trip” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

970

ACT

7

13

m37e

figs-activepassive

ἀνεγνωρίσθη Ἰωσὴφ τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς αὐτοῦ

1

was made known

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Joseph made himself known to his brothers” or “Joseph revealed to his brothers his identity as their brother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

971

ACT

7

13

jxk8

figs-activepassive

φανερὸν ἐγένετο τῷ Φαραὼ τὸ γένος Ἰωσήφ

1

the family of Joseph became known to Pharaoh

The phrase became known is not actually a passive from in Greek, but it might sound like one in other languages. If your language does not use passive forms, you could state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Pharaoh learned that they were Joseph’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

972

ACT

7

14

aam5

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἀποστείλας…Ἰωσὴφ μετεκαλέσατο Ἰακὼβ

1

sending them back

Stephen means that Joseph sent his brothers back home in order to get their father Jacob. Alternate translation: “Joseph sent his brothers back to Canaan to get Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

973

ACT

7

14

wl32

figs-idiom

ἐν ψυχαῖς ἑβδομήκοντα πέντε

1

Stephen is using a Hebrew idiom here. Alternate translation: “who amounted to 75 people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

974

ACT

7

15

zasp

figs-idiom

κατέβη Ἰακὼβ εἰς Αἴγυπτον

1

Stephen says that Jacob went down because he traveled from the hilly and mountainous terrain of Canaan to the lowlying land of Egypt. Alternate translation: “Jacob traveled to Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

975

ACT

7

15

w2sm

figs-explicit

ἐτελεύτησεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν

1

he and our fathers died

Stephen’s listeners would have known that Jacob and his sons lived in Egypt for some time. Make sure that your translation does not make it sound as if they died as soon as they arrived in Egypt. Alternate translation: “eventually Jacob and our ancestors died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

976

ACT

7

15

fe56

figs-metaphor

αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν

1

he and our fathers

Stephen is using the term fathers figuratively to mean “ancestors.” Here he means specifically Jacob’s sons (Joseph’s older brothers), as UST indicates. Alternate translation: “Jacob and his sons who became our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

977

ACT

7

16

slg3

figs-activepassive

μετετέθησαν εἰς Συχὲμ, καὶ ἐτέθησαν

1

they were carried over … and laid

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Jacob’s descendants brought his body and his son’s bodies to Shechem and buried them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

978

ACT

7

16

pnur

translate-names

Συχὲμ

1

Shechem is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

979

ACT

7

16

la8a

translate-bmoney

τιμῆς ἀργυρίου

1

for a price in silver

In biblical times, people used silver as money. Alternate translation: “for a sum of money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

980

ACT

7

16

pk1p

translate-names

τῶν υἱῶν Ἑμμὼρ

1

Hamor is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

981

ACT

7

17

tuq2

figs-events

καθὼς δὲ ἤγγιζεν ὁ χρόνος τῆς ἐπαγγελίας…ηὔξησεν ὁ λαὸς καὶ ἐπληθύνθη

1

And as the time of the promise … approached, the people increased and multiplied

In your language it may be helpful to say that the people increased and multiplied before saying that the time of the promise approached. Alternate translation: “the people increased and multiplied in Egypt as the time of the promise … approached” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

982

ACT

7

17

kh8g

figs-personification

καθὼς…ἤγγιζεν ὁ χρόνος τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, ἧς ὡμολόγησεν ὁ Θεὸς τῷ Ἀβραάμ

1

Stephen is speaking figuratively of this time as if it were a person and could have approached on its own. If this might be confusing for your readers, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “when it was almost time for God to fulfill the promise he had sworn to Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

983

ACT

7

17

tlh9

figs-explicit

καθὼς…ἤγγιζεν ὁ χρόνος τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, ἧς ὡμολόγησεν ὁ Θεὸς τῷ Ἀβραάμ

1

the time of the promise … approached

Stephen is referring to the promise that he described in 7:7. God promised Abraham that he would deliver his descendants from a nation that would enslave them and that he would bring them back to the land of Canaan. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “as the time approached of the promise that God had sworn to Abraham, that he would deliver his descendants from slavery and bring them back to Canaan,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

984

ACT

7

17

s2oe

figs-hendiadys

ηὔξησεν ὁ λαὸς καὶ ἐπληθύνθη

1

Stephen is using the two words increased and multiplied together to express a single idea. The word multiplied tells in what way the people increased. If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase that does not use and. Alternate translation: “the people increased greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

985

ACT

7

18

whe7

figs-metaphor

ἀνέστη βασιλεὺς ἕτερος ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον

1

there arose over Egypt another king

When Stephen says that this next king arose, he is using a spatial metaphor to mean that this king began his reign. Alternate translation: “another king began to rule over Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

986

ACT

7

18

g2wq

figs-metonymy

ἐπ’ Αἴγυπτον

1

over Egypt

The word Egypt refers to the people of Egypt. Alternate translation: “over the people of Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

987

ACT

7

18

e2y6

figs-metonymy

ὃς οὐκ ᾔδει τὸν Ἰωσήφ

1

who did not know Joseph

Stephen is not saying that this king did not know Joseph personally. Joseph had been dead for centuries by this point. Rather, Joseph refers to the reputation of Joseph. Alternate translation: “who did not know that Joseph had helped Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

988

ACT

7

19

qwbi

writing-pronouns

οὗτος

1

He refers to the new king of Egypt, not to Joseph. Alternate translation: “This king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

989

ACT

7

19

z312

figs-metaphor

τοὺς πατέρας

1

Here and frequently throughout the rest of his speech to the Sanhedrin, Stephen is using the term fathers figuratively to mean “ancestors.” If your readers might not understand this, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

990

ACT

7

19

ug6c

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς πατέρας

1

Although the term fathers is masculine, when Stephen uses it to mean “ancestors,” it has a generic sense that includes both men and women. Here and throughout the speech, if you retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “our fathers and mothers” to indicate this generic sense. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

991

ACT

7

19

rh3k

figs-explicit

τοῦ ποιεῖν τὰ βρέφη ἔκθετα αὐτῶν

1

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that by exposed he means “left outside.” This was an unfortunate means of infanticide in the ancient world. Alternate translation: “forcing them to leave their babies outside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

992

ACT

7

19

n2vl

figs-doublenegatives

εἰς τὸ μὴ ζῳογονεῖσθαι

1

Stephen is using a double negative that consists of the negative particle not and the verb keep alive, which was negative from Pharaoh’s perspective, since it was contrary to his intentions. If your readers might misunderstand this double negative, , you could translate it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “in order to kill them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

993

ACT

7

20

nib6

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ἐν ᾧ καιρῷ

1

Stephen uses this phrase to introduce something that happened while Pharaoh was trying to kill the Israelite babies. Alternate translation: “While this was happening,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

994

ACT

7

20

q66s

writing-participants

ἐγεννήθη Μωϋσῆς

1

At that time Moses was born

Here Stephen introduces Moses into his story. See how you translated his name in 3:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

995

ACT

7

20

cz9w

figs-activepassive

ἐγεννήθη Μωϋσῆς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the birth of Moses took place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

996

ACT

7

20

cd5z

figs-idiom

ἦν ἀστεῖος τῷ Θεῷ

1

he was beautiful to God

This could mean: (1) that Moses was beautiful in God’s perspective. Alternate translation: “God considered him to be beautiful” (2) in an idiiom, that Moses was very beautiful. Alternate translation: “he was very beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

997

ACT

7

20

pnb1

figs-activepassive

ὃς ἀνετράφη…ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ πατρός

1

was nourished

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, you can make Moses’ parents the subject. Alternate translation: “his parents cared for him … in their home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

998

ACT

7

21

w3iu

figs-activepassive

ἐκτεθέντος δὲ αὐτοῦ

1

But when he was exposed

Moses was exposed because of Pharaoh’s command. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, the context suggests that it was Moses’ parents. Alternate translation: “when his parents had to place him outside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

999

ACT

7

21

el3b

figs-metaphor

ἀνείλατο αὐτὸν

1

This could mean: (1) that Pharaoh’s daughter adopted Moses. The verb can have this figurative legal meaning. Alternate translation: “adopted him” (2) that she lifted him up out of the basket he was in on the banks of the Nile. (This story is told in Exodus 2:1-10.) Alternate translation: “rescued him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1000

ACT

7

22

c9nw

figs-activepassive

ἐπαιδεύθη Μωϋσῆς πάσῃ σοφίᾳ Αἰγυπτίων

1

Moses was educated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the Egyptians educated Moses in all of their wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1001

ACT

7

22

att9

figs-hyperbole

πάσῃ σοφίᾳ Αἰγυπτίων

1

in all the wisdom of the Egyptians

Stephen says all as an exaggeration for emphasis. Alternate translation: “thoroughly in the wisdom of the Egyptians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1002

ACT

7

22

m3dm

δυνατὸς ἐν λόγοις καὶ ἔργοις αὐτοῦ

1

mighty in his words and works

Alternate translation: “effective in his speech and actions” or “influential in what he said and did”

1003

ACT

7

23

o4cg

figs-idiom

ὡς…ἐπληροῦτο αὐτῷ τεσσερακονταετὴς χρόνος

1

This is an idiomatic way of speaking about time. Alternate translation: “after Moses had turned forty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1004

ACT

7

23

b9gd

figs-activepassive

ὡς…ἐπληροῦτο αὐτῷ τεσσερακονταετὴς χρόνος

1

Since this is an idiom, it would probably not be meaningful in most languages to retain the verb “fill” and use an active verbal form instead of the passive form. However, if your language does speak of someone or something “filling” days or times so that they arrive, and if your language does not use passive verbal forms, you could use an active form of “fill” here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1005

ACT

7

23

ckxj

figs-idiom

ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ

1

The phrase it came up on his heart is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he felt a desire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1006

ACT

7

23

fj9s

figs-metonymy

ἀνέβη ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ

1

it came into his heart

Here, heart is a metonym for the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “he felt a desire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1007

ACT

7

23

x493

figs-metaphor

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ, τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ

1

to visit his brothers, the sons of Israel

Stephen is using the word brothers figuratively to mean “kinsmen,” and he is using the word sons figuratively to mean “descendants.” Alternate translation: “his kinsmen, the descendants of Israel” or, if the word “Israel” might make your readers think of the nation rather than the person, “his kinsmen, the descendants of Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1008

ACT

7

23

i4ko

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ, τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ

1

Although the terms brothers and sons are masculine, Stephen is using these words in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you decide to retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “brothers and sisters” and “sons and daughters” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1009

ACT

7

24

l4zv

figs-activepassive

ἰδών τινα ἀδικούμενον

1

And seeing a certain one being mistreated, he defended him and made vengeance for the one being oppressed by striking the Egyptian

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, it is clear from the context that it was the Egyptian who is mentioned later in the verse. Alternate translation: “seeing an Egyptian mistreating an Israelite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1010

ACT

7

24

y3yh

figs-activepassive

ἐποίησεν ἐκδίκησιν τῷ καταπονουμένῳ, πατάξας τὸν Αἰγύπτιον

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “avenged him by striking the Egyptian who was oppressing him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1011

ACT

7

24

r2e8

figs-explicit

πατάξας τὸν Αἰγύπτιον

1

by striking the Egyptian

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that Moses hit the Egyptian so hard that he died. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “striking and killing the Egyptian” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1012

ACT

7

25

hrsh

figs-metaphor

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς

1

Stephen is using the word brothers figuratively to mean “kinsmen.” Alternate translation: “his kinsmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1013

ACT

7

25

mug9

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς

1

Although the term brothers is masculine, Stephen is using the word in a generic sense that includes both men and women. If you decide to retain the metaphor in your translation, you could say “brothers and sisters” to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1014

ACT

7

25

f6sn

figs-abstractnouns

δίδωσιν σωτηρίαν αὐτοῖς

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of salvation, you could express the same idea in another way. In context, the word refers to God using Moses to deliver the Israelites from slavery. Alternate translation: “was delivering them from slavery” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1015

ACT

7

25

nhb9

figs-metonymy

διὰ χειρὸς αὐτοῦ

1

by his hand was giving salvation to them

Here, hand refers to the actions of Moses. Alternate translation: “through his actions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1016

ACT

7

26

t2vc

figs-explicit

αὐτοῖς

1

to them as they were quarreling

It is clear from the context that these were two Israelite men, though Stephen does not say that specifically. Alternate translation: “to two Israelite men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1017

ACT

7

26

qyc2

figs-youdual

αὐτοῖς…αὐτοὺς…ἐστε…ἀδικεῖτε

1

Since Moses is speaking to two people, these uses of them and you would be dual if your language uses that form. Otherwise, they would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1018

ACT

7

26

mpc7

figs-abstractnouns

συνήλλασσεν αὐτοὺς εἰς εἰρήνην

1

he urged them to peace

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of peace, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “he urged them to stop fighting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1019

ACT

7

26

kyde

figs-quotesinquotes

εἰπών, ἄνδρες, ἀδελφοί ἐστε. ἱνα τί ἀδικεῖτε ἀλλήλους?

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “telling them that they were brothers and asking them why they were hurting each other” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1020

ACT

7

26

zzt4

figs-idiom

ἄνδρες

1

Men, you are brothers

This is an idiomatic form of address. Translate it with an expression that would be natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Friends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1021

ACT

7

26

z5g2

figs-metaphor

ἀδελφοί

1

Moses is using the word brothers figuratively to mean “kinsmen.” Alternate translation: “kinsmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1022

ACT

7

26

k1ku

figs-rquestion

ἱνα τί ἀδικεῖτε ἀλλήλους?

1

Why is it that you are hurting each other?

Moses is using a rhetorical question here to emphasize the truth of what he is saying. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You should not be hurting each other!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1023

ACT

7

27

xef7

writing-pronouns

αὐτὸν

1

The word him refers to Moses, not to the neighbor. Alternate translation: “Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1024

ACT

7

27

iq30

figs-quotesinquotes

εἰπών, τίς σε κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστὴν ἐφ’ ἡμῶν?

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “asking him who appointed him a ruler and a judge over them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1025

ACT

7

27

q2r4

figs-rquestion

τίς σε κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστὴν ἐφ’ ἡμῶν?

1

Who appointed you a ruler and a judge over us?

The man is using a rhetorical question to emphasize the truth of what he is saying. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “No one appointed you a ruler and judge over us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1026

ACT

7

27

wtq4

figs-doublet

ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστὴν

1

In this context, the words ruler and judge mean basically the same thing. The man is using repetition to emphasize the fact that he feels that Moses has no authority over them. If your language does not use repetition for such a purpose, you could use a single phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “an authority with power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1027

ACT

7

27

t1hw

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

The man is using the word our to refer to himself and to his neighbor, but not to Moses, so use the exclusive form of that word if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1028

ACT

7

28

vow8

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ ἀνελεῖν με σὺ θέλεις, ὃν τρόπον ἀνεῖλες ἐχθὲς τὸν Αἰγύπτιον

1

The first word of this sentence in Greek is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding do you? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “Do you want to kill me the way you killed the Egyptian yesterday” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1029

ACT

7

28

hk1g

figs-rquestion

μὴ ἀνελεῖν με σὺ θέλεις, ὃν τρόπον ἀνεῖλες ἐχθὲς τὸν Αἰγύπτιον?

1

You do not want to kill me in the same way you killed the Egyptian yesterday, do you?

The man is using a rhetorical question implicitly to threaten Moses by indicating that he and probably others knew that Moses had killed the Egyptian. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “I suppose you want to kill me the way you killed the Egyptian yesterday!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1030

ACT

7

28

qfxh

figs-quotesinquotes

μὴ ἀνελεῖν με σὺ θέλεις, ὃν τρόπον ἀνεῖλες ἐχθὲς τὸν Αἰγύπτιον?

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “The man asked Moses if he wanted to kill him the way he had killed the Egyptian the day before.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1031

ACT

7

28

jxka

ὃν τρόπον

1

Alternate translation: “in the same way in which”

1032

ACT

7

29

l149

figs-explicit

ἔφυγεν…Μωϋσῆς ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ

1

General Information:

The implication is that Moses fled because he recognized that these Israelites, and probably others, knew that he had killed an Egyptian. Moses feared that he would be punished or even killed for this crime. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Moses ran away at this word to try to escape from being punished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1033

ACT

7

29

rbhm

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ

1

Stephen is using the term word figuratively to mean what the man said by using words. Alternate translation: “at this statement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1034

ACT

7

29

pit4

translate-names

Μαδιάμ

1

Midian is the name of a country. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1035

ACT

7

29

q8qv

figs-explicit

οὗ ἐγέννησεν υἱοὺς δύο

1

at this statement

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that Moses married a Midianite woman when he fled from Egypt. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “where he married a Midianite woman and fathered two sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1036

ACT

7

30

zx1c

figs-explicit

πληρωθέντων ἐτῶν τεσσεράκοντα

1

And when 40 years were past

This is an idiomatic way of speaking about time. Alternate translation: “after 40 years had gone by” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1037

ACT

7

30

qci0

figs-activepassive

πληρωθέντων ἐτῶν τεσσεράκοντα

1

Since this is an idiom, it would probably not be meaningful in most languages to retain the verb “fill” and use an active verbal form instead of the passive form. However, if your language does speak of someone or something “filling” days or times so that they arrive, and if your language does not use passive verbal forms, you could use an active form of “fill” here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1038

ACT

7

30

veft

figs-idiom

ὤφθη αὐτῷ…ἄγγελος

1

The word appeared does not mean that Moses simply saw this angel in a vision. Rather, this expression indicates that the angel was actually present with Moses. Alternate translation: “suddenly an angel was there with Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1039

ACT

7

30

f7yu

figs-explicit

ὤφθη αὐτῷ…ἄγγελος

1

an angel appeared

Stephen assumes that his listeners know that God came to speak with Moses through the angel. The UST makes this explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1040

ACT

7

31

q6w6

figs-explicit

ἐθαύμασεν τὸ ὅραμα

1

he marveled at the sight

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that Moses admired the sight because the bush was not burning up, even though it was on fire. Alternate translation: “marveled at what he saw, because the fire was not consuming the bush” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1041

ACT

7

31

uk7u

figs-personification

ἐγένετο φωνὴ Κυρίου

1

and as he approached to look at it

Stephen is speaking figuratively of the voice of the Lord as if it were a person and that it came on its own. If this might be confusing for your readers, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “the Lord spoke to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1042

ACT

7

32

b26o

figs-quotesinquotes

ἐγὼ ὁ Θεὸς τῶν πατέρων σου, ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ, καὶ Ἰσαὰκ, καὶ Ἰακώβ

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “The Lord told Moses that he was the God of his fathers, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1043

ACT

7

33

bpml

figs-quotesinquotes

εἶπεν…αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος, λῦσον τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν σου, ὁ γὰρ τόπος ἐφ’ ᾧ ἕστηκας γῆ ἁγία ἐστίν

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “the Lord told Moses to untie the sandals that were on his feet, because the place on which he was standing was holy ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1044

ACT

7

33

x7cd

translate-symaction

λῦσον τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν σου, ὁ γὰρ τόπος ἐφ’ ᾧ ἕστηκας γῆ ἁγία ἐστίν

1

Untie the sandals

In this culture, removing footwear was a symbolic way of acknowledging that a place was sacred. Footwear that had been worn elsewhere should not touch it. Your readers may understand the symbolic meaning of this action. If not, you could explain it in your translation. Alternate translation: “Untie your sandals and remove them to acknowledge that the place on which you are standing is holy ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1045

ACT

7

33

rxnj

figs-explicit

λῦσον τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

The implication is that God wanted Moses not only to untie his sandals but also to remove them. Alternate translation: “Untie your sandals and remove them from your feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1046

ACT

7

33

xl9p

τὸ ὑπόδημα τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

Since this refers to both sandals, it might be more natural in your language to use the plural form of sandals. If your language uses the dual form, it would be appropriate to use that here. Alternate translation: “the sandals on your feet” or “the sandals you are wearing”

1047

ACT

7

33

clk4

figs-explicit

ὁ γὰρ τόπος ἐφ’ ᾧ ἕστηκας γῆ ἁγία ἐστίν

1

for the place on which you are standing is holy ground

The implication is that where God is present, the immediate area around God is considered or made holy by God. Alternate translation: “for the place on which you are standing has been made holy by my presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1048

ACT

7

34

l0au

figs-quotesinquotes

ἰδὼν, εἶδον τὴν κάκωσιν τοῦ λαοῦ μου τοῦ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, καὶ τοῦ στεναγμοῦ αὐτῶν ἤκουσα, καὶ κατέβην ἐξελέσθαι αὐτούς; καὶ νῦν δεῦρο, ἀποστείλω σε εἰς Αἴγυπτον.

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “The Lord said that he had certainly seen the oppression of his people who were in Egypt and that he had heard their groaning and that he had come down to rescue them. He told Moses to get ready because he was sending him to Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1049

ACT

7

34

yz7b

figs-idiom

ἰδὼν, εἶδον

1

I have certainly seen

Stephen is reproducing a Hebrew idiom from the biblical account of Moses at the burning bush. The verb seen is repeated in Hebrew. This repetition expresses the intensity, certainty, or clarity of Yahweh’s having seen how his people were being oppressed. This Hebrew practice of verb repetition for intensification cannot be directly translated into English. Use a natural form of strengthening a verb from your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1050

ACT

7

34

x5bg

figs-possession

τοῦ λαοῦ μου

1

of my people

God uses the possessive word my to emphasize that these people were in a covenant relationship with him based on his promises to their ancestors. Alternate translation: “of the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1051

ACT

7

34

j32c

figs-metaphor

κατέβην ἐξελέσθαι αὐτούς

1

I have come down to rescue them

God describes himself as having come down from heaven to earth to help the Israelites. His presence was in the burning bush, but he also means figuratively that he is taking action to rescue them. Alternate translation: “I will personally bring about their release” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1052

ACT

7

34

atdo

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

3

God is using the word translated And to introduce what he wants Moses to do as a result of what he has told him. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1053

ACT

7

34

sq8y

figs-imperative

νῦν δεῦρο

1

now come

God is giving an order here. Alternate translation: “get ready” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1054

ACT

7

34

x34c

figs-declarative

ἀποστείλω σε εἰς Αἴγυπτον

1

God is not asking Moses’ permission when he says let me send you to Egypt. This is a way of saying “I will send you to Egypt,” and that statement in turn is functioning as a command. Alternate translation: “you must go to Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

1055

ACT

7

35

x4p2

figs-litany

τοῦτον τὸν Μωϋσῆν

1

General Information:

Verses 35, 36, 37, and 38 contains a series of similar phrases emphasizing the role of Moses. Stephen says This Moses, “This one,” “This is the Moses,” and “This is the one.” If possible, use similar statements in your own translation to emphasize Moses. You may also wish to make each of these verses a separate paragraph or use formatting in some other way to highlight the repeated phrases. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litany]])

1056

ACT

7

35

nv5g

figs-quotesinquotes

εἰπόντες, τίς σε κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστήν?

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. See what you did in 7:27. Alternate translation: “asking him who appointed him a ruler and a judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1057

ACT

7

35

vuqy

figs-rquestion

τίς σε κατέστησεν ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστήν?

1

See how you translated this rhetorical question in 7:27. Alternate translation: “No one appointed you a ruler and a judge!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1058

ACT

7

35

oic6

translate/figs-doublet

ἄρχοντα καὶ δικαστήν

1

See how you translated the combination of ruler and judge in 7:27. Alternate translation: “an authority with power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1059

ACT

7

35

vp7e

λυτρωτὴν

1

a redeemer

In this context, the word translated redeemer refers to someone who delivers people from earthly troubles, not someone who brings eternal salvation. Alternate translation: “a rescuer”

1060

ACT

7

35

yjz9

figs-metonymy

σὺν χειρὶ ἀγγέλου

1

with the hand of the angel who appeared to him in the bush

Here, hand is a metonym for the capability and actions of someone. Alternate translation: “accompanied by the power of the angel” or “through the actions of the angel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1061

ACT

7

35

abc9

figs-idiom

ὀφθέντος αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ βάτῳ

1

appeared to him

See how you translated the word appeared in 7:30. Here as well, the word does not mean that Moses simply saw this angel in a vision. Alternate translation: “who was with him at the bush” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1062

ACT

7

36

gz9r

figs-doublet

τέρατα καὶ σημεῖα

1

during 40 years

The terms wonders and signs mean similar things. Stephen is using them together for emphasis. See how you translated the similar expression in 2:22. Alternate translation: “great miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1063

ACT

7

36

n75x

translate-names

Ἐρυθρᾷ Θαλάσσῃ

1

Stephen is using the name that was common in his culture, the Red Sea, to refer to the body of water that the Old Testament calls “the Sea of Reeds.” Decide whether you want to use the name that Stephen uses here or the name that you are using in your translation in the Old Testament, if they are different. Alternate translation: “the Sea of Reeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1064

ACT

7

37

k710

figs-quotesinquote

ὁ εἴπας τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραήλ, προφήτην ὑμῖν ἀναστήσει ὁ Θεὸς, ἐκ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ὑμῶν, ὡς ἐμέ

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “who told the sons of Israel that God would raise up a prophet like him for them from their brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1065

ACT

7

37

vykp

figs-metaphor

τοῖς υἱοῖς Ἰσραήλ

1

Stephen is using the word sons figuratively to mean “descendants.” Alternate translation: “to the descendants of Israel” or “to the descendants of Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1066

ACT

7

37

b4sg

figs-idiom

προφήτην ὑμῖν ἀναστήσει…ὡς ἐμέ

1

will raise up a prophet

Here, the expression raise up describes God giving someone the mission to go as a prophet to certain people. See how you translated it in 3:22. Alternate translation: “will send you a prophet like me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1067

ACT

7

37

j2rx

figs-metaphor

τῶν ἀδελφῶν ὑμῶν

1

from among your brothers

Stephen is using the word brothers figuratively to mean “kinsmen.” Alternate translation: “your kinsmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1068

ACT

7

38

fd25

writing-pronouns

οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ

1

This is the one

This is the one refers to Moses. You may have decided to use similar language and special formatting in verses 35–38 to highlight the way Stephen is emphasizing Moses. However, if you think the reference would not be clear at this point, you could state his name. Alternate translation: “Moses is the one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1069

ACT

7

38

z1z7

figs-infostructure

μετὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου τοῦ λαλοῦντος αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ Ὄρει Σινά, καὶ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, ὃς ἐδέξατο λόγια ζῶντα

1

It might be more natural to put the information about Mount Sinai next to the information about Moses receiving living words. Alternate translation: “with our fathers and with the angel who was speaking to him on Mount Sinai, who received living words” or “with our fathers and with the angel who was speaking to him on Mount Sinai, where he received living words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1070

ACT

7

38

vdnz

writing-pronouns

τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, ὃς ἐδέξατο

1

This second instance of who in the verse refers to Moses, not to the fathers. For clarity, you could state his name and start a new sentence. Alternate translation: “with our fathers. Moses received” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1071

ACT

7

38

y2zu

figs-explicit

ὃς ἐδέξατο λόγια ζῶντα

1

who received living words to give to us

It may be helpful in your language to specify who gave Moses the words that he received. Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that this was God. Alternate translation: “to whom God gave living words” or “to whom God spoke living words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1072

ACT

7

38

p3xk

figs-metonymy

λόγια ζῶντα

1

living words

Stephen is using the term words to mean the message that God communicated through words. Alternate translation: “a living message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1073

ACT

7

38

w2gs

figs-metaphor

λόγια ζῶντα

1

Stephen is using the term living figuratively to describe God’s words as if they were alive. This could mean: (1) that God’s message is always effective. Alternate translation: “an enduring message” (2) that God’s message shows how to live as God wishes. Alternate translation: “a life-giving message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1074

ACT

7

39

ab0s

writing-pronouns

ᾧ οὐκ ἠθέλησαν ὑπήκοοι γενέσθαι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν

1

The word whom refers to Moses. It may be helpful to state his name and to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Our fathers were not willing to be obedient to Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1075

ACT

7

39

mvz8

figs-metaphor

ἀπώσαντο

1

they pushed him away

Stephen is speaking figuratively to emphasize the Israelites’ rejection of Moses. Alternate translation: “they rejected him as their leader” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1076

ACT

7

39

z3ze

figs-metonymy

ἐστράφησαν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν εἰς Αἴγυπτον

1

turned back in their hearts

Here, hearts is a metonym for people’s desires. Alternate translation: “made it their desire to return to Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1077

ACT

7

40

l8u7

figs-quotesinquotes

εἰπόντες τῷ Ἀαρών, ποίησον ἡμῖν θεοὺς οἳ προπορεύσονται ἡμῶν. ὁ γὰρ Μωϋσῆς οὗτος, ὃς ἐξήγαγεν ἡμᾶς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, οὐκ οἴδαμεν τί ἐγένετο αὐτῷ.

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “They asked Aaron to make gods for them who would go ahead of them, because they did not know what had happened to Moses, who had brought them from the land of Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1078

ACT

7

40

kb3o

εἰπόντες τῷ Ἀαρών

1

It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “They said to Aaron”

1079

ACT

7

40

fzsq

translate-names

τῷ Ἀαρών

1

Aaron is the name of a man, the older brother of Moses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1080

ACT

7

40

a68q

figs-infostructure

ὁ γὰρ Μωϋσῆς οὗτος, ὃς ἐξήγαγεν ἡμᾶς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, οὐκ οἴδαμεν τί ἐγένετο αὐτῷ

1

It may be more natural to put the information about Moses at the end of the sentence. Alternate translation: “For we do not know what has happened to this Moses who brought us from the land of Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1081

ACT

7

41

ux1j

figs-explicit

ἐμοσχοποίησαν

1

they made an image of a calf

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that this image of a calf was a statue that the Israelites wanted to worship as an idol. Stephen refers to it as the idol later in the sentence. Alternate translation: “they made a statue that looked like a calf to worship as an idol” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1082

ACT

7

41

v6tx

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

1

Stephen is using the term days idiomatically to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1083

ACT

7

41

hjp0

writing-pronouns

ἐμοσχοποίησαν

1

The pronoun they refers back to “our fathers” in verse 39, that is, to the Israelites whom Moses led out of Egypt. Alternate translation: “the Israelites made an image of a calf” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1084

ACT

7

41

hh77

figs-metonymy

τοῖς ἔργοις τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν

1

they made an image of a calf … to the idol … the work of their hands

Stephen describes what he also calls the calf and the idol as the works of their hands, by association with the way the Israelites used their hands to make the calf. Alternate translation: “the statue they had made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1085

ACT

7

42

d3dd

figs-metaphor

ἔστρεψεν…ὁ Θεὸς

1

God turned away

Stephen is speaking figuratively as if God had physically turned away. He speaks this way to emphasize that God was not pleased with the Israelites and no longer helped them. Alternate translation: “God stopped helping them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1086

ACT

7

42

u7lx

figs-metaphor

τῇ στρατιᾷ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

the host of heaven

Here, the word host means “army,” and the word heaven means “sky.” Stephen is speaking figuratively of the stars in the sky as if they were an army. Alternate translation, as in UST: “the stars in the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1087

ACT

7

42

ya6v

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ τῶν προφητῶν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the book of the prophets says” or “the book of the prophets records” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1088

ACT

7

42

f314

figs-explicit

βίβλῳ τῶν προφητῶν

1

the book of the prophets

This was apparently a collection of the writings of several of the Old Testament prophets on one scroll. Alternate translation: “the scroll that records sayings of the prophets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1089

ACT

7

42

w38i

figs-quotemarks

μὴ σφάγια καὶ θυσίας προσηνέγκατέ μοι, ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

1

This is the beginning of a quotation from the prophet Amos, which continues through the end of verse 43. Even if your language does not customarily put one direct quotation inside another, it would be good to present this quotation from Amos as a direct quotation if possible, since God is addressing the Israelites directly in it. You may be able to indicate its beginning with an opening second-level quotation mark or with some other punctuation or convention that your language uses to indicate the start of a second-level quotation. You may also be able to use special formatting to set off the quotation, as ULT does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

1090

ACT

7

42

o5ly

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ σφάγια καὶ θυσίας προσηνέγκατέ μοι, ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ?

1

The first word of this sentence in Greek is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding did you? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “Did you offer slain beasts and offerings to me for 40 years in the wilderness, O house of Israel?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1091

ACT

7

42

gd1b

figs-rquestion

μὴ σφάγια καὶ θυσίας προσηνέγκατέ μοι, ἔτη τεσσεράκοντα ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, οἶκος Ἰσραήλ?

1

You did not offer to me slain beasts and sacrifices for 40 years in the wilderness, did you, O house of Israel?

Speaking through the prophet Amos, God used the question form to emphasize to the people of Israel that they did not really worship Him in the wilderness with their sacrifices. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate these words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You did not honor me when you offered slain beasts and sacrifices for 40 years in the wilderness, O house of Israel!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1092

ACT

7

43

zek5

καὶ ἀνελάβετε τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ Μολὸχ, καὶ τὸ ἄστρον τοῦ θεοῦ ὑμῶν Ῥαιφάν, τοὺς τύπους οὓς ἐποιήσατε προσκυνεῖν αὐτοῖς. καὶ μετοικιῶ ὑμᾶς ἐπέκεινα Βαβυλῶνος.

1

The quotation from the prophet Amos continues here.

1093

ACT

7

42

q9rr

figs-yousingular

μὴ…προσηνέγκατέ

1

You is plural in these instances, even though the addressee (house) is singular, because God is actually speaking to all of the Israelites. If it would not be natural in your language to use the plural in such a case, you can use singular you in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

1094

ACT

7

42

tck0

figs-merism

σφάγια καὶ θυσίας

1

In a figure of speech, God is using the two main categories of sacrifices, those that involve shedding blood (slain beasts) and those that are bloodless (offerings), to mean sacrifices of all kinds. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or non-figurative language. Alternate translation: “all kinds of sacrifices” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1095

ACT

7

42

j4q8

figs-metaphor

οἶκος Ἰσραήλ

1

O house of Israel

Here, house means all the people descended from a particular person. It envisions them as if they were one household living together. So the house of Israel figuratively means all the people descended from the patriarch Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “nation of Israel” or “people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1096

ACT

7

43

h20h

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

And at the beginning of this verse introduces God’s own answer to the question he asked in the previous verse, 7:42: “You did not offer slain beasts and offerings to me …, did you?” The answer is in contrast to what the question asks. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a contrast. Alternate translation, followed by a sentence break: “No!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1097

ACT

7

43

q85n

figs-irony

ἀνελάβετε…μετοικιῶ ὑμᾶς

1

The term took up indicates that the Israelites carried the idols this verse describes around with them as they traveled in the wilderness. The term remove in this context means that God will send them into exile as a punishment, with the sense of carrying them away from their homeland. So the punishment is ironic; if possible, use similar terms in your language that will bring out this irony. Alternate translation: “you carried around … I will carry you away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1098

ACT

7

43

gxh2

figs-yousingular

ἀνελάβετε…ὑμῶν…ἐποιήσατε…ὑμᾶς

1

As in 7:42, you is plural here, even though the addressee (“house”) is singular, since God is speaking to all of the Israelites. In this verse your is also plural. If it would not be natural in your language to use the plural in these cases, you can use the singular in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

1099

ACT

7

43

im7e

figs-explicit

τὴν σκηνὴν τοῦ Μολὸχ

1

the tabernacle of Molech

The tabernacle of Molech was a tent or shrine that housed an idol of the false god Molech. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1100

ACT

7

43

cq47

figs-explicit

τὸ ἄστρον τοῦ θεοῦ ὑμῶν Ῥαιφάν

1

the star of your god Rephan

The Israelites were not carrying around an actual star, but an image designed to look like a star. This image was used in the worship of the false god Rephan. (This may have been the planet Saturn.) Alternate translation: “the star-shaped image of your god Rephan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1101

ACT

7

43

gm4g

figs-explicit

τοὺς τύπους οὓς ἐποιήσατε

1

and the images that you made

The word images refers to the idol of Molech and the star-shaped image of Rephan. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “You made that idol of Molech and that star-shaped image of Rephan so that you could worship those false gods.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1102

ACT

7

43

zgq6

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

3

I will carry you away beyond Babylon

Speaking through Amos, God uses the word translated and to introduce what he will do as a result of the Israelites’ unfaithfulness and disobedience. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1103

ACT

7

44

fs4q

0

Connecting Statement:

Stephen continues his response to the high priest and the council which he began in Acts 7:2.

1104

ACT

7

43

rrn8

figs-quotemarks

μετοικιῶ ὑμᾶς ἐπέκεινα Βαβυλῶνος

3

This is the end of the quotation from the prophet Amos that began in verse 42. See how you marked the beginning of the quotation there. It would be appropriate to mark its ending here with a closing second-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a second-level quotation. If you used special formatting to set off the quotation, you can return to regular formatting after this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

1105

ACT

7

44

hfmx

figs-ellipsis

ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἦν τοῖς πατράσιν ἡμῶν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, καθὼς διετάξατο ὁ λαλῶν τῷ Μωϋσῇ

1

Stephen is not saying that the tabernacle was with the Israelites just as God had commanded. He means that the tabernacle was built according to the pattern that Moses saw on Mount Sinai. To make this clear, it may be helpful to supply some of the words that Stephen is leaving out. It may also be helpful to introduce a sentence break. Alternate translation: “The tabernacle of the testimony was with our fathers in the wilderness. It was built just as the one speaking to Moses had commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1106

ACT

7

44

m9gw

figs-metonymy

ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου

1

The tabernacle of the testimony

Stephen calls this tent the tabernacle of the testimony by association with the way it housed the ark of the covenant, which was also known as the ark of the testimony. The “testimony” of the ark, as UST indicates, was to the covenant between God and the Israelites and to his presence with them wherever they went in the wilderness. Alternate translation: “the tent that housed the ark of the covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1107

ACT

7

44

fk06

figs-infostructure

καθὼς διετάξατο ὁ λαλῶν τῷ Μωϋσῇ, ποιῆσαι αὐτὴν κατὰ τὸν τύπον ὃν ἑωράκει

1

It may be more natural to put the information about the command to Moses before the information about how Moses fulfilled the command. It may also be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “The one speaking to Moses had commanded him to make the tabernacle according to the pattern that he had seen, and he made it just that way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1108

ACT

7

44

masq

figs-explicit

διετάξατο ὁ λαλῶν τῷ Μωϋσῇ

1

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that he is referring to the way God spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai. Alternate translation: “God commanded Moses when he spoke to him on Mount Sinai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1109

ACT

7

44

avqh

figs-explicit

τὸν τύπον ὃν ἑωράκει

1

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that he is referring to the pattern for the tabernacle that God showed Moses on Mount Sinai. Alternate translation: “the pattern that he showed him on Mount Sinai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1110

ACT

7

45

uqca

writing-pronouns

ἣν καὶ εἰσήγαγον, διαδεξάμενοι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν

1

The pronoun which refers to the tabernacle. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Our ancestors received the tabernacle from their ancestors and they brought it in”

1111

ACT

7

45

qjov

διαδεξάμενοι

1

The phrase having received … in turn translates a Greek verb that refers to receiving something in succession, in this case from one’s ancestors. Alternate translation: “having received it from their ancestors”

1112

ACT

7

45

n2sc

εἰσήγαγον…μετὰ Ἰησοῦ

1

Our fathers, under Joshua, received it and brought it with them

When Stephen says that the Israelites brought in the tabernacle with Joshua, he does not mean that they brought in both the tabernacle and Joshua. He means that the Israelites did the things he describes in obedience to Joshua’s directions. Alternate translation: “brought in as Joshua directed them”

1113

ACT

7

45

e3gu

figs-explicit

εἰσήγαγον

1

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that he is referring to the Israelites entering the land of Canaan. Alternate translation: “brought in to the land of Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1114

ACT

7

45

znov

translate-names

Ἰησοῦ

1

Joshua is the name of a man, the successor of Moses as leader of the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1115

ACT

7

45

eww5

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῇ κατασχέσει τῶν ἐθνῶν

1

Stephen is using the term nations to mean the land that these people groups occupied. Alternate translation: “when they took possession of land that had been occupied by the nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1116

ACT

7

45

spm5

figs-metaphor

ἀπὸ προσώπου τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

1

when they took possession of the nations who God drove out from the face of our fathers

Stephen is using the word face figuratively to mean “presence.” Alternate translation: “from the presence of our ancestors” or “so that our ancestors alone would live there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1117

ACT

7

45

zjlj

figs-ellipsis

ἕως τῶν ἡμερῶν Δαυείδ

1

Stephen is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “The tabernacle remained there until the days of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1118

ACT

7

45

wot8

figs-idiom

τῶν ἡμερῶν Δαυείδ

1

Stephen is using the term days idiomatically to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “the time of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1119

ACT

7

46

k9vh

figs-idiom

εὑρεῖν

1

Stephen is speaking idiomatically. David did not ask God if he could go look for this dwelling. David asked God if he could build it. Alternate translation: “to build” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1120

ACT

7

45

bux7

translate-names

Δαυείδ

1

David is the name of a man. See how you translated it in 1:16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1121

ACT

7

46

x4kl

writing-pronouns

ὃς εὗρεν χάριν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The pronoun who refers to David. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “David found favor before God”

1122

ACT

7

46

ykio

figs-metonymy

ὃς εὗρεν χάριν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here the phrase before God refers to God’s opinion, by association with the way that God would assess anything that came to his attention in front of him. Alternate translation: “God regarded David with favor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1123

ACT

7

46

yl80

figs-idiom

εὑρεῖν

1

Stephen is speaking idiomatically. David did not ask God if he could go look for this dwelling. David asked God if he could build it. Alternate translation: “to build” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1124

ACT

7

46

w3cu

figs-metaphor

σκήνωμα

1

a dwelling place for the house of Jacob

The word dwelling refers to a permanent habitation, that is, a house. Stephen is using the word figuratively to mean a temple. He is speaking of this temple as if it was a house in which God lived, since God’s presence was there. Alternate translation: “a temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1125

ACT

7

46

in7m

translate-textvariants

τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰακώβ

1

See the discussion in the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to use the reading the house of Jacob or another possible reading, “the God of Jacob.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1126

ACT

7

46

fsmp

figs-metaphor

τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰακώβ

1

Here, house means all the people descended from a particular person. It envisions them as if they were one household living together. So the house of Jacob figuratively means all the people descended from the patriarch Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1127

ACT

7

47

bo1q

translate-names

Σολομῶν

1

Solomon is the name of a man. See how you translated it in 3:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1128

ACT

7

47

k54c

figs-metaphor

αὐτῷ οἶκον

1

Stephen is using the word house figuratively to mean a temple. Alternate translation: “a temple for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1129

ACT

7

47

dlk8

writing-pronouns

αὐτῷ οἶκον

1

The pronoun him refers to God. Alternate translation: “a temple for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1130

ACT

7

48

wuce

ὁ Ὕψιστος

1

This is a respectful title for God. UST suggests one way to express its meaning.

1131

ACT

7

48

fwvu

figs-nominaladj

χειροποιήτοις

1

Stephen is using the adjective made with hands (or “handmade”) as a noun, to mean structures built by humans. ULT adds houses to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “temples that people build” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1132

ACT

7

48

c822

figs-synecdoche

χειροποιήτοις

1

houses made with hands

Stephen is using the word hand, one part of a person, figuratively to mean the whole person. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternate translation: “houses that people build” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1133

ACT

7

48

ota0

figs-metaphor

χειροποιήτοις

1

The word houses figuratively means “temples.” Alternate translation: “temples that people build” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1134

ACT

7

48

d4fh

figs-explicit

καθὼς ὁ προφήτης λέγει

1

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that by the prophet, he means Isaiah. Alternate translation: “as the prophet Isaiah says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1135

ACT

7

49

oyax

figs-quotemarks

ὁ οὐρανός μοι θρόνος, ἡ δὲ γῆ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν μου

1

This is the beginning of a quotation from the prophet Isaiah, which continues through the end of verse 50. Even if your language does not customarily put one direct quotation inside another, it would be good to present this quotation from Isaiah as a direct quotation if possible, since God is addressing the Israelites directly in it. You may be able to indicate its beginning with an opening second-level quotation mark or with some other punctuation or convention that your language uses to indicate the start of a second-level quotation. You may also be able to use special formatting to set off the quotation, as ULT does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

1136

ACT

7

49

k2vn

figs-metaphor

ὁ οὐρανός μοι θρόνος, ἡ δὲ γῆ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν μου

1

Heaven is my throne, and the earth is the footstool for my feet

Speaking through Isaiah, God figuratively describes Heaven as his throne and the earth as his footstool. If your readers would not understand what these figures mean, you could use equivalent metaphors from your culture, or you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. This could mean: (1) that God is present both in heaven and on earth. Alternate translation: “I dwell in heaven and I am also present throughout the earth” (2) that God rules over heaven and earth. Alternative translation: “I rule from heaven and I have complete authority over the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1137

ACT

7

49

i4u3

figs-merism

ὁ οὐρανός μοι θρόνος, ἡ δὲ γῆ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν μου

1

God is using the two parts of creation, Heaven and earth, to mean all of creation. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. This could mean: (1) Alternate translation: “I am present everywhere in creation” (2) Alternate translation: “I rule over all of creation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1138

ACT

7

49

wc9m

figs-rquestion

ποῖον οἶκον οἰκοδομήσετέ μοι? λέγει Κύριος, ἢ τίς τόπος τῆς καταπαύσεώς μου?

1

What kind of house will you build for me?

God is using the question form to emphasize that human beings cannot build a temple worthy of him or adequate for him. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate these words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You can not build a temple that is worthy of me or a place to live that is adequate for me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1139

ACT

7

49

rqr4

figs-parallelism

ποῖον οἶκον οἰκοδομήσετέ μοι? λέγει Κύριος, ἢ τίς τόπος τῆς καταπαύσεώς μου?

1

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. God says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize the truth of what he is saying. If saying the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you can combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “You can not build a temple that is worthy for me to live in!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1140

ACT

7

49

mshp

figs-metaphor

ποῖον οἶκον

1

The word house figuratively means a “temple.” Alternate translation: “What kind of temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1141

ACT

7

49

vjaq

figs-abstractnouns

τόπος τῆς καταπαύσεώς μου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of rest, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “the place where I can live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1142

ACT

7

50

hqjr

figs-quotemarks

οὐχὶ ἡ χείρ μου ἐποίησεν ταῦτα πάντα?

1

This is the end of the quotation from the prophet Isaiah that began in verse 49. See how you marked the beginning of the quotation there. It would be appropriate to mark its ending here with a closing second-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a second-level quotation. If you used special formatting to set off the quotation, you can return to regular formatting after this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

1143

ACT

7

50

rfk1

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ ἡ χείρ μου ἐποίησεν ταῦτα πάντα?

1

Did my hand not make all these things?

God is using the question form for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express its meaning as a statement or an exclamation. Alternate translation: “My hand made all these things!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1144

ACT

7

50

jlg1

figs-synecdoche

οὐχὶ ἡ χείρ μου ἐποίησεν ταῦτα πάντα?

1

God is using one part of himself, his hand, to represent all of himself figuratively in the act of creating. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternate translation: “Did I not make all these things?” or, if you choose to represent the rhetorical question as an exclamation, “I made all these things!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1145

ACT

7

50

gzw0

figs-explicit

ταῦτα πάντα

1

The phrase all these things refers back to “Heaven” and “earth” in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “everything in creation”

1146

ACT

7

51

umq6

figs-exclamations

σκληροτράχηλοι καὶ ἀπερίτμητοι καρδίαις καὶ τοῖς ὠσίν

1

O stiff-necked

Stephen is using the exclamatory word O to make a transition in his speech. Up to this point, he has been identifying with the Sanhedrin members, saying “our fathers” as he describes what earlier generations of Israelites did. Now, as he shifts to rebuking them, he addresses them with the vocative O. Use an exclamation that is natural in your language for this same purpose. Alternate translation: “You stiff-necked people who are uncircumcised in your heart and ears” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1147

ACT

7

51

yxe3

figs-nominaladj

σκληροτράχηλοι καὶ

1

Stephen is using the adjective stiff-necked as a noun, to describe a kind of person. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “O people who are stiff-necked and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1148

ACT

7

51

vn7h

figs-metaphor

σκληροτράχηλοι

1

O stiff-necked

Stephen is speaking figuratively of the Sanhedrin members as if they were horses or mules that stiffened their necks in order not to be turned in one direction or another. He means that they are being stubborn. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture, or you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “O stubborn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1149

ACT

7

51

zp55

figs-metonymy

ἀπερίτμητοι καρδίαις καὶ τοῖς ὠσίν

1

uncircumcised in heart and ears

Stephen speaks figuratively of the Sanhedrin members’ heart and ears as uncircumcised by association with the way that Gentiles, who are uncircumcised because they are not part of the covenant community, do not obey or listen to God. Alternate translation: “unwilling to obey or listen to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1150

ACT

7

51

esfc

figs-synecdoche

ἀπερίτμητοι καρδίαις καὶ τοῖς ὠσίν

1

Stephen is using one part of a person, the heart, figuratively meaning the desires and will, to represent all of a person in the act of obeying or disobeying. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternate translation: “unwilling to obey or listen to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1151

ACT

7

51

jslb

figs-synecdoche

ἀπερίτμητοι καρδίαις καὶ τοῖς ὠσίν

1

Stephen is figuratively using one part of a person, the ears, to represent all of a person in the act of listening. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternate translation: “unwilling to obey or listen to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1152

ACT

7

51

zgon

figs-hyperbole

ὑμεῖς ἀεὶ τῷ Πνεύματι τῷ Ἁγίῳ ἀντιπίπτετε

1

The word always is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “You keep resisting the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1153

ACT

7

51

w164

figs-youplural

ὑμεῖς…ὑμῶν…ὑμεῖς

1

The words you and your are plural, since Stephen is speaking to all the members of the Sanhedrin. So use plural forms in your translation if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youplural]])

1154

ACT

7

51

d2v8

figs-ellipsis

ὡς οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν, καὶ ὑμεῖς

1

Stephen is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “As your ancestors disobeyed God and did not listen to him, so you disobey God and do not listen to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1155

ACT

7

52

x7kf

figs-rquestion

τίνα τῶν προφητῶν οὐκ ἐδίωξαν οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν?

1

Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute?

Stephen is not asking for information. He is using the question form for emphasis. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Your ancestors persecuted each of the prophets!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1156

ACT

7

52

eiw2

figs-hyperbole

τίνα τῶν προφητῶν οὐκ ἐδίωξαν οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν?

1

Stephen’s rhetorical question has an implicit generalization for emphasis. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression from your language that conveys emphasis. Alternate translation: “Your ancestors kept persecuting the prophets!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1157

ACT

7

52

q8wb

figs-nominaladj

τοῦ Δικαίου

1

of the Righteous One

Stephen is using the adjective Righteous as a noun in order to describe a specific person. ULT adds One to show this. This is a title that refers to the Christ, the Messiah. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “of the Messiah, who was righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1158

ACT

7

52

agd9

οὗ νῦν ὑμεῖς προδόται καὶ φονεῖς ἐγένεσθε

1

of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers

It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “You have now betrayed and murdered him”

1159

ACT

7

53

axhl

writing-pronouns

οἵτινες ἐλάβετε

1

The pronoun who refers to the Sanhedrin members whom Stephen is addressing. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “You received” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1160

ACT

7

53

t92q

figs-synecdoche

οἵτινες ἐλάβετε

1

The Sanhedrin members whom Stephen is addressing did not receive the law themselves. Rather, Stephen is using them figuratively to represent the entire Jewish community down through the years. If your readers might misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternate translation: “whose community received” or, if you choose to start a new sentence, “Your community received” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1161

ACT

7

53

euw5

figs-explicit

εἰς διαταγὰς ἀγγέλων

1

the law as ordained by angels

Stephen assumes that his listeners will know that he is referring to God giving the law to the Israelites at Mount Sinai. A later Jewish tradition said that angels acted as God’s intermediaries at that time. (Stephen says in 7:38 that an angel was speaking to Moses on Mount Sinai.) If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “as angels delivered it on Mount Sinai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1162

ACT

7

54

ef2g

figs-activepassive

ἀκούοντες…ταῦτα διεπρίοντο ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν

1

Now hearing these things

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “these things cut them to their hearts when they heard them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1163

ACT

7

54

u4l7

figs-idiom

διεπρίοντο ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν

1

they were cut to their hearts

Here, the expression they were cut to their hearts is an idiom that means the Sanhedrin members became very angry. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “they became furious at Stephen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1164

ACT

7

54

ae9s

translate-symaction

ἔβρυχον τοὺς ὀδόντας ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

they ground their teeth at him

This action expressed their strong anger at Stephen. If there is a gesture with similar meaning in your culture, you could consider using it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “they became so angry at Stephen that they ground their teeth together” or “they moved their teeth back and forth as they looked angrily at Stephen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1165

ACT

7

55

dlux

figs-explicit

πλήρης Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

Luke is speaking figuratively of Stephen as if he were a container that the Holy Spirit could fill. Alternate translation: “inspired by the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1166

ACT

7

55

ntp4

figs-explicit

ἀτενίσας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν, εἶδεν

1

and looking intently into heaven

The implication is that only Stephen saw this vision, not anyone else who was present. Alternate translation: “staring up into heaven, he saw in a vision” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1167

ACT

7

55

bl2j

figs-explicit

δόξαν Θεοῦ

1

he saw the glory of God

The implication is that Stephen saw a bright light that expressed the magnificent presence of God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “a bright light that expressed the glorious presence of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1168

ACT

7

55

zpry

figs-nominaladj

Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Luke is using the adjective right as a noun in order to indicate the right side. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “Jesus standing at the right side of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1169

ACT

7

55

vamz

figs-explicit

Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

In this culture, the place at the right side of a ruler was a position of honor. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus standing in a place of honor next to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1170

ACT

7

55

vyz3

translate-symaction

Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

and Jesus standing at the right hand of God

Elsewhere in the New Testament, Jesus is described as “sitting” at the right of God. Many interpreters believe that Jesus stood on this occasion to honor Stephen for his courage and faithful testimony. If there is a gesture with similar meaning in your culture, you could consider using it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “Jesus, in a place of honor next to God, standing to honor him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1171

ACT

7

56

gzvv

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Stephen is using the term behold to focus his listener’ attention on what he is about to say. You language may have a comparable expression that you can use in your translation. Alternate translation: “Now listen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1172

ACT

7

56

p0jg

figs-metaphor

θεωρῶ τοὺς οὐρανοὺς διηνοιγμένους, καὶ

1

Stephen is speaking figuratively of the heavens being opened to mean that they are open to his view. Alternate translation: “the heavens are open to my view, and I see” or “I can see into heaven, and I see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1173

ACT

7

56

aqp8

figs-explicit

τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

Son of Man

The title Son of Man is equivalent to “Messiah.” Jesus himself used that title to claim that role subtly and implicitly. You may want to translate the title directly into your language. Alternatively, if you think it would be helpful to your readers, you could express what it means. Alternate translation: “Jesus the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1174

ACT

7

56

imoa

figs-nominaladj

ἐκ δεξιῶν ἑστῶτα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

See how you translated the nominal adjective right in 7:55. Alternate translation: “standing at the right side of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1175

ACT

7

56

cr19

figs-explicit

ἐκ δεξιῶν ἑστῶτα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

See how you expressed the implicit significance of the phrase at the right of God in 7:55. Alternate translation: “standing in a place of honor next to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1176

ACT

7

56

rvwp

translate-symaction

ἐκ δεξιῶν ἑστῶτα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

See how you expressed the significance of the symbolic action of Jesus standing in 7:55. Alternate translation: “, in a place of honor next to God, standing to honor me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1177

ACT

7

57

p4cg

translate-symaction

κράξαντες…φωνῇ μεγάλῃ, συνέσχον τὰ ὦτα αὐτῶν

1

they covered their ears

The Sanhedrin members did these things to demonstrate that they did not want to hear any more of what Stephen said. Alternate translation: “shouting loudly to drown out Stephen, they put their hands over their ears to show that they did not want to hear any more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1178

ACT

7

57

wtwk

figs-idiom

κράξαντες…φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

1

This is an idiom that suggests figuratively that the Sanhedrin members had another, louder voice that they could use. It means that they raised the volume of their voices. Alternate translation: “shouting loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1179

ACT

7

57

hm0q

κράξαντες…φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

1

If you would like to reproduce this idiom but it would be unusual in your language to speak as if a whole group of people had one voice, you could make this plural. Alternate translation: “with loud voices” or “in loud voices”

1180

ACT

7

57

uxvc

figs-idiom

1

1181

ACT

7

57

t287

ὥρμησαν ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

This could mean: (1) that the Sanhedrin members all rushed at Stephen at the same time. Alternate translation: “rushed at him all at once” (2) that every one of the Sanhedrin members rushed at Stephen. Alternate translation: “every one of them rushed at him”

1182

ACT

7

58

ks1u

figs-metaphor

ἐκβαλόντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως

1

throwing him outside the city

Luke is likely speaking figuratively when he speaks of the Sanhedrin members throwing Stephen outside the city. It is unlikely that they actually picked him up and heaved him through the air. Alternate translation: “seizing Stephen and forcefully taking him out of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1183

ACT

7

58

teas

figs-explicit

οἱ μάρτυρες

1

These were the “false witnesses” whom the Sanhedrin brought in to accuse Stephen, as described in 6:13. According to the Law of Moses, it was their responsibility to carry out the execution of the man they had accused. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the false witnesses, who were responsible to carry out the execution,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1184

ACT

7

58

ryrh

figs-explicit

ἀπέθεντο τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν, παρὰ τοὺς πόδας νεανίου καλουμένου Σαύλου

1

The implications are that the witnesses took off their long robes so that they could throw stones at Stephen more easily and that they left them with Saul for safekeeping. UST models one way to make these implications explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1185

ACT

7

58

wy7n

translate-unknown

τὰ ἱμάτια

1

outer garments

These outer garments were long cloaks or robes that people wore outside to stay warm. They were also a sign of wealth and status. If your readers would not be familiar with this kind of garment, you could use the name of another garment that they would recognize, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “coats” or “robes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1186

ACT

7

58

sx2p

figs-idiom

παρὰ τοὺς πόδας

1

at the feet

The expression at the feet is an idiom. Alternate translation: “on the ground in front of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1187

ACT

7

58

e2vl

translate-names

Σαύλου

1

of a young man

Saul is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1188

ACT

7

59

fxhz

figs-hendiadys

ἐπικαλούμενον καὶ λέγοντα

1

This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The phrase calling out tells how Stephen was saying what he said. If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase that does not use “and.” Alternate translation: “as he was saying loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1189

ACT

7

59

k2el

figs-imperative

δέξαι τὸ πνεῦμά μου

1

receive my spirit

This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “please receive my spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1190

ACT

7

60

u86q

translate-symaction

θεὶς…τὰ γόνατα

1

But having knelt down on his knees

Kneeling down was an act of submission to God and a revernt posture of prayer. Alternate translation: “after he had knelt down reverently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1191

ACT

7

60

hi24

figs-idiom

ἔκραξεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

1

This is an idiom that means that Stephen raised the volume of his voice. Alternate translation: “he cried out loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1192

ACT

7

60

dfjs

figs-imperative

μὴ στήσῃς αὐτοῖς ταύτην τὴν ἁμαρτίαν

1

This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “please do not hold this sin against them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1193

ACT

7

60

tvf8

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ στήσῃς αὐτοῖς ταύτην τὴν ἁμαρτίαν

1

do not hold this sin against them

If it would be clearer in your language, you could use a positive expression to translate this double negative that consists of the negative particle not and the negative verb hold … against. Alternate translation: “forgive them for this sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1194

ACT

7

60

r9vi

figs-euphemism

ἐκοιμήθη

1

he fell asleep

Luke is describing the death of Stephen when he says he fell asleep. This is a polite way of referring to something unpleasant. If this would be misunderstood in your language, use a different polite way of referring to this or use plain language. Alternate translation: “he passed away” or, as in UST, “he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1195

ACT

8

intro

q9d9

0

Acts 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 8:32-33.

The first sentence of verse 1 ends the description of the events in chapter 7. Luke begins a new part of his history with the words “And on that day.”

Special concepts in this chapter

Receiving the Holy Spirit

In this chapter Luke speaks for the first time of people receiving the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:15-19). The Holy Spirit had already enabled the believers to speak in tongues, to heal the sick, and to live as a community, and he had filled Stephen. But when the Jews started putting believers in prison, those believers who could leave Jerusalem did leave, and as they went, they told people about Jesus. When the people who heard about Jesus received the Holy Spirit, the church leaders knew that those people had truly become believers.

Proclaimed

This chapter, more than any other in the book of Acts, speaks of the believers proclaiming the word, proclaiming the good news, and proclaiming that Jesus is the Christ. The word “proclaim” translates a Greek word that means to tell good news about something.

1196

ACT

8

1

ez88

writing-background

Σαῦλος δὲ ἦν συνευδοκῶν τῇ ἀναιρέσει αὐτοῦ

1

there began on that day a great persecution against the church that was in Jerusalem, and they all were scattered throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except the apostles

Luke is providing this background information to help readers understand why Saul was persecuting the church, as he relates in 8:3 and in chapter 9. Use a natural way in your language for introducing background information. Alternate translation: “Now Saul approved of the Sanhedrin executing Stephen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

1197

ACT

8

1

i1tc

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, διωγμὸς μέγας ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν

1

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story, the scattering of the church and its witness beyond Jerusalem. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “And so began that day a great persecution against the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1198

ACT

8

1

vc8x

figs-explicit

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ

1

that day

Here, day is not a figurative word for “time.” Luke is referring to a specific day, the day on which Stephen was killed. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “on the day Stephen was killed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1199

ACT

8

1

xp25

figs-activepassive

πάντες…διεσπάρησαν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they all fled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1200

ACT

8

1

u5pi

figs-hyperbole

πάντες…διεσπάρησαν

1

they were all scattered

The word all is a generalization that emphasizes that a large number of the believers were affected. Alternate translation: “many of the believers were scattered” or “many of the believers fled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1201

ACT

8

1

ok0h

translate-names

τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ Σαμαρείας

1

Judea and Samaria are the names of regions. See how you translated them in 1:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1202

ACT

8

1

k5a2

figs-explicit

πλὴν τῶν ἀποστόλων

1

except the apostles

The implication is that the apostles remained in Jerusalem, even though they too experienced this great persecution. Alternate translation: “except the apostles, who remained in Jerusalem despite the persecution” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1203

ACT

8

2

tp9e

translate-versebridge

συνεκόμισαν δὲ τὸν Στέφανον ἄνδρες εὐλαβεῖς, καὶ ἐποίησαν κοπετὸν μέγαν ἐπ’ αὐτῷ

1

General Information:

It may be helpful to your readers to move these parts of the story about Stephen together by using a verse bridge for verses 1-2 as the UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

1204

ACT

8

2

sjc8

figs-explicit

συνεκόμισαν…τὸν Στέφανον

1

devout men

The word translated carried away means to carry away for burial. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. You could also say explicitly that it was Stephen’s body that these men carried away. Alternate translation: “carried Stephen’s body away to bury it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1205

ACT

8

3

yd2i

κατὰ τοὺς οἴκους

1

according to the houses

Alternate translation: “entering one house after another”

1206

ACT

8

3

w6vk

figs-explicit

κατὰ τοὺς οἴκους… τε ἄνδρας καὶ γυναῖκας

1

men and women

Luke may mean houses where Christians met, as described in 2:46, and he means men and women who believed in Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the houses where Christians met…believers in Jesus, both men and women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1207

ACT

8

4

n52l

figs-nominaladj

οἱ…διασπαρέντες

1

Luke is using the participle having been scattered, which functions as an adjective, as a noun. ULT adds the term ones to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the believers who had been scattered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1208

ACT

8

4

ymy5

figs-activepassive

οἱ…διασπαρέντες

1

had been scattered

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. See how you translated it in 8:1. Alternate translation: “the believers who had fled from the persecution” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1209

ACT

8

4

su6i

figs-metonymy

εὐαγγελιζόμενοι τὸν λόγον

1

the word

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that these believers shared by using words. See how you translated the term in 4:4. Also see the General Notes to this chapter for the meaning of the word translated proclaiming here and many other times in this chapter. Alternate translation: “telling the good news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1210

ACT

8

5

dh3x

translate-names

Φίλιππος

1

Connecting Statement:

Philip is the name of a man. See how you translated it in 1:13. Philip was one of the apostles. A man by that same name, possibly the same man, was chosen as one of the deacons in 6:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1211

ACT

8

5

gz5m

figs-idiom

κατελθὼν

1

went down to the city of Samaria

Luke speaks of Philip going down from Jerusalem because that was the customary way of speaking about traveling from Jerusalem, since that city is up on a mountain. Alternate translation: “traveling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1212

ACT

8

5

f45b

figs-idiom

τὴν πόλιν τῆς Σαμαρείας

1

the city of Samaria

This is an idiom that means the principal city in the region of Samaria, probably the one known at that time as Sebaste, although some interpreters believe that Luke may have had the city of Sychar in mind instead. Alternate translation: “the main city in Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1213

ACT

8

5

pk1l

figs-metonymy

τὸν Χριστόν

1

proclaimed to them the Christ

Luke is using the name Christ figuratively by association to mean the message about Christ. Alternate translation: “the good news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1214

ACT

8

6

cnt9

figs-explicit

οἱ ὄχλοι

1

And the crowds

Luke implicitly means the crowds in the city that Philip traveled to. Alternate translation: “the people in that city of Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1215

ACT

8

6

jyvw

ὁμοθυμαδὸν

1

Alternate translation: “all together”

1216

ACT

8

6

tt0i

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς λεγομένοις ὑπὸ τοῦ Φιλίππου

1

Luke is using the participle being spoken, which functions as an adjective, as a noun. ULT adds the term things to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the things that Philip was saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1217

ACT

8

6

g0ft

figs-activepassive

τοῖς λεγομένοις ὑπὸ τοῦ Φιλίππου

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the things that Philip was saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1218

ACT

8

6

wm83

τὰ σημεῖα

1

were paying attention to

Here the word signs has the same sense that it has in the phrase “wonders and signs” in 2:22 and elsewhere in Acts. It means a miracle. Alternate translation: “the miracles”

1219

ACT

8

7

un6b

figs-infostructure

πολλοὶ γὰρ τῶν ἐχόντων πνεύματα ἀκάθαρτα, βοῶντα φωνῇ μεγάλῃ, ἐξήρχοντο

1

As Luke tells the story of this event, he changes from the people who had unclean spirits being the subject of the sentence to the unclean spirits themselves being the subject. This may be because the unclean spirits controlled people such an extent that the spirits seemed to be the people themselves. It may be helpful to your readers to put the information about the spirits before the information about the people who had them. Alternate translation: “unclean spirits, shouting with a loud voice, were coming out of many of those who had them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1220

ACT

8

7

pehe

figs-nominaladj

τῶν ἐχόντων

1

Luke is using the participle having, which functions as an adjective, as a noun. ULT adds the term those to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the people who had” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1221

ACT

8

7

xb2n

ἐχόντων πνεύματα ἀκάθαρτα

1

having unclean spirits

Alternate translation: “who were controlled by unclean spirits”

1222

ACT

8

7

nz7y

figs-idiom

βοῶντα φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

1

This is an idiom that means that the unclean spirits raised the volume of their voices. Alternate translation: “shouting loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1223

ACT

8

7

v8uj

figs-activepassive

πολλοὶ…παραλελυμένοι καὶ χωλοὶ ἐθεραπεύθησαν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, it would be appropriate to say Jesus, since the book of Acts shows that the apostles healed people in the name of Jesus, for example, in 4:10. Alternate translation: “Jesus, through the power of his name, healed many who had been paralyzed and lame” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1224

ACT

8

7

imbh

figs-nominaladj

πολλοὶ…παραλελυμένοι

1

Luke is using the participle ** having been paralyzed** as an adjective. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “many who had been paralyzed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1225

ACT

8

7

anq3

figs-activepassive

πολλοὶ…παραλελυμένοι

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “many who had paralysis” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1226

ACT

8

8

s8bm

grammar-connect-logic-result

δὲ

1

Luke is using the word translated And to introduce what the people in the city did as a result of the many healings that Philip performed. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1227

ACT

8

8

z5z3

figs-metonymy

ἐγένετο…πολλὴ χαρὰ ἐν τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ

1

And there was much joy in that city

The phrase that city refers figuratively by association to the people who lived in that city. Alternate translation: “there was much joy among the people of that city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1228

ACT

8

8

r0nz

figs-abstractnouns

ἐγένετο…πολλὴ χαρὰ ἐν τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of joy, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “the people of that city rejoiced greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1229

ACT

8

9

jm7n

writing-background

ἀνὴρ δέ τις ὀνόματι Σίμων, προϋπῆρχεν ἐν τῇ πόλει μαγεύων

1

Luke is providing background information to help readers understand who Simon was and why he said and did the things Luke describes in the rest of this chapter. Use a natural way in your language for introducing background information. Alternate translation: “Now there was a man named Simon who had been practicing sorcery in that city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1230

ACT

8

9

bed1

writing-participants

ἀνὴρ…τις ὀνόματι Σίμων

1

But … a certain man named Simon

Luke uses this phrase to introduce Simon as a new character in the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1231

ACT

8

9

cx7a

translate-names

Σίμων

1

the city

Simon is the name of a man. See how you translated this name, for a different man, in 1:13.

1232

ACT

8

10

mvcm

writing-pronouns

ᾧ προσεῖχον πάντες ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου

1

The phrase to whom refers to Simon. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “All of them, from little to great, were paying attention to Simon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1233

ACT

8

10

evt7

figs-hyperbole

πάντες

1

they all … were paying attention

Luke is using the word all as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the Samaritans in that city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1234

ACT

8

10

h51l

figs-nominaladj

ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου

1

Luke is using the adjectives little and great as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate these words with equivalent phrases. Alternate translation: “from the least important people to the most important ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1235

ACT

8

10

ibl1

figs-merism

ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου

1

from least to greatest

Luke is speaking figuratively, using these two extremes in order to include all of the people in between. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “no matter how important they were” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1236

ACT

8

10

h5ya

writing-pronouns

οὗτός

1

The demonstrative pronoun This stands for Simon. Alternate translation: “This man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1237

ACT

8

10

j3d8

translate-names

ἡ Δύναμις τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἡ καλουμένη Μεγάλη

1

This man is the power of God which is called Great

The Samaritans believed that Simon must be the embodiment of some great power, and thinking that this power was God, the highest of powers, they called it Great. Alternate translation: “an embodiment of the Great God” or “an embodiment of the supreme God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1238

ACT

8

10

yw5v

figs-activepassive

ἡ καλουμένη

1

the power of God which is called Great

If your language does not use the passive form called, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “that people call” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1239

ACT

8

11

pxj8

writing-background

προσεῖχον δὲ αὐτῷ

1

General Information:

This verse gives additional background information about Simon and what he was doing among the Samaritans. Alternate translation: “Now they were paying attention to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translatewriting-background]])

1240

ACT

8

12

h1hg

writing-pronouns

ἐπίστευσαν

1

The pronoun they refers to the Samaritans. Alternate translation: “the Samaritans believed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1241

ACT

8

12

zwoj

figs-abstractnouns

εὐαγγελιζομένῳ περὶ τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of a kingdom, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “proclaiming the good news that God had begun to rule and that Jesus the Messiah had come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1242

ACT

8

12

zjh5

figs-metonymy

εὐαγγελιζομένῳ περὶ τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Here the name of Jesus figuratively represents his authority, specifically as the Messiah, as the title Christ indicates. Alternate translation: “proclaiming the good news that God had begun to rule and that Jesus the Messiah had come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1243

ACT

8

12

jg1w

figs-infostructure

εὐαγγελιζομένῳ περὶ τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Since Jesus inaugurated the kingdom of God when he came to earth, it may be helpful to put the information about Jesus before the information about the kingdom of God. Alternate translation: “proclaiming the gospel about the name of Jesus Christ and the kingdom of God” or “proclaiming the good news that Jesus the Messiah had come and that God had begun to rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1244

ACT

8

12

vsy8

figs-activepassive

ἐβαπτίζοντο

1

they were baptized

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “Philip was baptizing them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1245

ACT

8

13

k2th

figs-rpronouns

ὁ δὲ Σίμων καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπίστευσεν

1

Simon himself also believed

Luke uses the word himself to emphasize how significant it was that Simon, who had claimed to be an embodiment of God, had believed in Jesus as the Messiah whom God sent. Use a way that is natural in your language to indicate this significance. Alternate translation: “Even Simon believed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

1246

ACT

8

13

bayg

ἦν προσκαρτερῶν τῷ Φιλίππῳ

1

Alternate translation: “he followed Philip around everywhere”

1247

ACT

8

13

v91t

figs-activepassive

βαπτισθεὶς

1

having been baptized

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “after Philip baptized him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1248

ACT

8

13

rnr3

figs-irony

θεωρῶν τε σημεῖα καὶ δυνάμεις μεγάλας

1

The word that ULT translates as works here is the same word that it translates as “power” in 8:10. It can mean either power or works that demonstrate power. Luke is using the word to show what an ironic situation Simon is in. He claimed to be “the power … that is called Great,” but now he recognizes that works of power that are truly great are done in the name of Jesus. If your language has a word for works that demonstrate power that has the same root as its word for power, it would be appropriate to use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1249

ACT

8

13

d4yb

figs-doublet

τε σημεῖα καὶ δυνάμεις

1

The terms signs and works mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. Alternate translation, as in UST: “miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1250

ACT

8

14

s7lr

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

Now when the apostles in Jerusalem heard

Luke is using the word translated And to introduce a new event in the story of the Samaritans becoming believers. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1251

ACT

8

14

ju21

figs-metonymy

ἡ Σαμάρεια

1

Samaria

Luke is using the word Samaria figuratively by association to mean the people of Samaria. Alternate translation: “the people of Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1252

ACT

8

14

e682

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

had received

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that Philip shared by using words. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1253

ACT

8

14

td5t

translate-names

Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάννην

1

Peter and John are the names of two men. See how you translated them in 1:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1254

ACT

8

15

af1n

writing-pronouns

οἵτινες καταβάντες, προσηύξαντο περὶ αὐτῶν

1

who, having come down

The pronoun who stands for Peter and John, and the pronoun them stands for the Samaritans. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “When Peter and John had come down, they prayed for the Samaritans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1255

ACT

8

15

hd1w

figs-youdual

οἵτινες

1

Since the pronoun who stands for two men, it should be in the dual if your language uses that form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1256

ACT

8

15

hk1m

figs-idiom

καταβάντες

1

having come down

Luke speaks of Philip having come down from Jerusalem because that was the customary way of speaking about traveling from Jerusalem, since that city is up on a mountain. Alternate translation: “having traveled from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1257

ACT

8

15

bun9

figs-go

καταβάντες

1

prayed for them

Your language may say “gone” rather than come in contexts such as this. Use whichever is more natural. Alternate translation: “having gone down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1258

ACT

8

16

d2z9

figs-metaphor

οὐδέπω…ἦν ἐπ’ οὐδενὶ αὐτῶν ἐπιπεπτωκός

1

Luke is speaking figuratively of the Holy Spirit as if it could fall on the Samaritan believers. Alternate translation: “none of them had yet received the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1259

ACT

8

16

l4ez

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Luke is using the word For to introduce the reason why Peter and John had to pray for the Samaritans to receive the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “They prayed for them because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1260

ACT

8

16

bpzz

writing-pronouns

οὐδέπω…ἦν…ἐπιπεπτωκός

1

The pronoun he stands for the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit had not yet fallen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1261

ACT

8

16

rn3c

figs-metonymy

μόνον…βεβαπτισμένοι ὑπῆρχον εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ

1

they had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus

Here, the name of the Lord Jesus represents his authority, and being baptized into his name represents being baptized in order to be under his authority. Alternate translation: “they had only been baptized to become disciples of the Lord Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1262

ACT

8

16

m1nw

figs-activepassive

μόνον…βεβαπτισμένοι ὑπῆρχον

1

they had only been baptized

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. If you must state who did the action, the context suggests it was Philip. Alternate translation: “Philip had only baptized them” or “Philip had only baptized the Samaritan believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1263

ACT

8

17

bsll

writing-pronouns

ἐπετίθεσαν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ’ αὐτούς, καὶ ἐλάμβανον

1

The first instance of the pronoun they stands for Peter and John, and the pronoun them and the second instance of they stand for the Samaritans. Alternate translation: “When Peter and John were laying their hands on the Samaritans, and the Samaritans were receiving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1264

ACT

8

17

bldf

figs-youdual

ἐπετίθεσαν

1

Since this instance of the pronoun they stands for two men, it should be in the dual if your language uses that form. The same is true of “them” in 8:18 and “they” and “the ones” in 8:25. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1265

ACT

8

17

q7gd

translate-symaction

ἐπετίθεσαν τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ’ αὐτούς

1

they were laying their hands on them

Peter and John laying their hands on the Samaritans who had believed Philip’s message of the gospel was a symbolic action that showed that Peter and John wanted God to give the Holy Spirit to these believers. If there is a gesture with similar meaning in your culture, you could consider using it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])d John placed their hands on the Samaritan people who had believed Stephen’s message of the gospel. This symbolic action shows that Peter and John wanted God to give the Holy Spirit to the believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1266

ACT

8

18

rh79

figs-activepassive

δίδοται τὸ Πνεῦμα

1

the Holy Spirit was being given through the laying on of the hands of the apostles

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, it is clear from the context that this was God. Alternate translation: “God was giving the Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1267

ACT

8

19

fbw9

δότε κἀμοὶ τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην, ἵνα ᾧ ἐὰν ἐπιθῶ τὰς χεῖρας, λαμβάνῃ Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον

1

so that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit

Alternate translation: “Give me the authority to give the Holy Spirit to anyone I lay my hands on”

1268

ACT

8

20

df1j

figs-exclamations

τὸ ἀργύριόν σου, σὺν σοὶ εἴη εἰς ἀπώλειαν

1

Peter is using the exclamation form to emphasize how forcefully he rejects Simon’s offer. You may want to use an exclamation to convey this same emphasis in your language. Alternate translation: “I refuse your offer! I can see that you are going to perdition, and you can take your money with you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1269

ACT

8

20

y4ny

figs-metonymy

τὸ ἀργύριόν

1

Peter is referring figuratively to money, by association with the way that silver was used for money at this time. Alternate translation: “money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1270

ACT

8

20

gh12

figs-metonymy

τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the gift of God

Peter is referring figuratively to the ability to confer the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands. Since this is an ability that only God can give, by association Peter calls it the gift of God. Alternate translation: “the power to confer the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1271

ACT

8

21

p2ev

figs-doublet

οὐκ ἔστιν σοι μερὶς οὐδὲ κλῆρος ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ

1

There is to you no part or share in this matter

The terms part and share mean similar things. Peter is using them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “We will not let you have anything to do with this work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1272

ACT

8

21

ufk3

figs-doublet

σοι

1

The phrase to you represents a possessive form. Alternate translation: “yours” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1273

ACT

8

21

xbh2

figs-metaphor

ἡ γὰρ καρδία σου οὐκ ἔστιν εὐθεῖα

1

because your heart is not right

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and motives. Alternate translation: “your thoughts and motives are not right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1274

ACT

8

21

p9v4

figs-metonymy

ἔναντι τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

This could mean: (1) that Simon’s heart is not right in God’s opinion, by association with the way that God would assess anything that came to his attention in front of him. Alternate translation: “as far as God is concerned” (2) that Simon does not have the right thoughts about God or intentions towards God. Alternate translation: “in its attitude towards God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1275

ACT

8

22

sa6s

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπὸ τῆς κακίας σου ταύτης

1

this wickedness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of wickedness, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “for trying to buy God’s gift with money” or “for trying to bribe God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1276

ACT

8

22

ppk5

figs-metaphor

ἡ ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας σου

1

the intention of your heart

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and motives. Alternate translation: “what you intended to do” or “what you were thinking of doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1277

ACT

8

22

pe2u

grammar-connect-condition-fact

δεήθητι τοῦ Κυρίου, εἰ ἄρα ἀφεθήσεταί σοι ἡ ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας σου

1

if therefore the intention of your heart will be forgiven to you

Peter is using the conditional word if to introduce a desired result. There is actually no doubt about whether God will forgive someone who sincerely repents and prays for forgiveness. Alternate translation: “pray to the Lord so that, as a result, the intention of your heart will be forgiven to you” or “pray to the Lord and ask him to forgive you for the intention of your heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1278

ACT

8

22

lq4i

figs-activepassive

ἀφεθήσεταί σοι ἡ ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας σου

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he will forgive you for the intention of your heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1279

ACT

8

23

tf3s

translate-unknown

εἰς…χολὴν πικρίας

1

The gall plant has a bitter taste and is poisonous. If your readers would not be familiar with this plant, you could use the name of a similar plant in your area. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1280

ACT

8

23

kpu6

figs-metonymy

εἰς…χολὴν πικρίας

1

Peter is using the gall plant figuratively by association to mean “poison.” Alternate translation: “in the poison of bitterness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1281

ACT

8

23

d3v7

figs-metaphor

εἰς…χολὴν πικρίας

1

in the poison of bitterness

Peter is describing bitterness figuratively as if it were made of gall or poison. He means that bitterness, here in the sense of envy, spiritually poisons a person, that is, it leads them towards spiritual death. Alternate translation: “dangerously envious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1282

ACT

8

23

j696

figs-metaphor

σύνδεσμον ἀδικίας

1

the bond of unrighteousness

Peter speaks figuratively of the bond of unrighteousness as if unrighteousness were restraining Simon and keeping him a prisoner. He means Simon is not able to stop himself from sinning. Alternate translation: “unable to stop sinning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1283

ACT

8

24

n5cw

figs-youdual

ὑμεῖς…εἰρήκατε

1

Even though it was only Peter who spoke to Simon, in his response, Simon is addressing both Peter and John, since he offered money to both of them, as 8:18 describes. Since Simon is speaking to two men, You and you would be dual if your language uses that form. Otherwise it would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1284

ACT

8

24

v2wy

figs-imperative

δεήθητε ὑμεῖς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὸν Κύριον

1

This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “Please pray to the Lord for me” or “I ask you to pray to the Lord for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1285

ACT

8

24

hwc6

writing-pronouns

δεήθητε ὑμεῖς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὸν Κύριον

1

Simon is stating the pronoun You, which is already implied in the verb pray, for emphasis. If your language can state implied pronouns explicitly for emphasis, you may want to use that construction here. Other languages may have other ways of bringing out this emphasis. Alternate translation: “Pray to the Lord for me yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1286

ACT

8

24

u1a4

ὅπως μηδὲν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπ’ ἐμὲ ὧν εἰρήκατε

1

so that nothing of which you have spoken may happen to me

Alternate translation: “so that the things you have said may not happen to me”

1287

ACT

8

24

sk5w

figs-explicit

μηδὲν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπ’ ἐμὲ ὧν εἰρήκατε

1

nothing … of which you have spoken

Simon is referring implicitly to Peter’s rebuke, in which Peter spoke of Simon’s silver perishing along with him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “I will not perish as you said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1288

ACT

8

25

nzvg

grammar-connect-time-sequential

οὖν

1

Luke is using the word translated Then to introduce what Peter and John did after being in the city where Philip had been telling the Samaritans about Jesus. Alternate translation: “After that,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

1289

ACT

8

25

p3rj

figs-explicit

οἱ…διαμαρτυράμενοι καὶ λαλήσαντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ Κυρίου

1

The ones Luke is describing are Peter and John. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Peter and John, after they had testified and spoken the word of the Lord,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1290

ACT

8

25

uz15

figs-nominaladj

οἱ…διαμαρτυράμενοι καὶ λαλήσαντες

1

when they had testified

Luke is using the participles having testified and having spoken, which function as adjectives, as nouns. ULT adds the term ones to show this. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the ones who had testified and spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1291

ACT

8

25

ww9k

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Κυρίου

1

spoken the word of the Lord

Luke is using the term word figuratively to mean the message about Jesus that Peter and John shared by using words. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1292

ACT

8

25

eu66

figs-metonymy

πολλάς…κώμας τῶν Σαμαρειτῶν

1

to many villages of the Samaritans

The term villages refers figuratively by association to the people who lived in these villages. Alternate translation: “to the people in many Samaritan villages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1293

ACT

8

26

mbj9

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

Now

Luke is using the word translated But to introduce a new event. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1294

ACT

8

26

w1nk

figs-idiom

ἀνάστηθι

1

Arise and go

Here the word arise means that the angel wanted Philip to take action, not that the angel wanted him to stand up from a seated position. Alternate translation: “Pack for a journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1295

ACT

8

26

le2c

figs-idiom

τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν καταβαίνουσαν ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ εἰς Γάζαν

1

that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza

The angel speaks of the road going down from Jerusalem because that was the customary way of speaking about traveling from Jerusalem, since that city is up on a mountain. Alternate translation: “the road that leads from Jerusalem to Gaza” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1296

ACT

8

26

a18y

writing-background

αὕτη ἐστὶν ἔρημος

1

This is desert

This sentence could be: (1) something that Luke adds to provide background information about the area through which Philip would be travelling. Alternate translation: “from Jerusalem to Gaza.’ (Now that road leads through a desert.)” (2) part of what the angel is saying to Philip. Alternate translation: “from Jerusalem to Gaza, which is a desert road.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1297

ACT

8

27

s0yn

figs-idiom

ἀναστὰς, ἐπορεύθη

1

As in the previous verse, the word arising means that Philip took preparatory action, not that he stood up from a seated position. Alternate translation: “he prepared for a journey and left” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1298

ACT

8

27

xy7x

writing-participants

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke is using the word behold to alert his audience to a new person in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1299

ACT

8

27

zkc5

writing-background

ἀνὴρ, Αἰθίοψ εὐνοῦχος, δυνάστης Κανδάκης βασιλίσσης Αἰθιόπων, ὃς ἦν ἐπὶ πάσης τῆς γάζης αὐτῆς, ὃς ἐληλύθει προσκυνήσων εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

This verse provides background information about this Ethiopian official and why he was travelling along this road. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence and to use a natural form for introducing background information. Alternate translation: “a man from Ethiopia. Now this man was a eunuch, an official of the Kandake, the queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, and he had come to Jerusalem to worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translatewriting-background]])

1300

ACT

8

27

i5zh

figs-idiom

ἀνὴρ, Αἰθίοψ

1

This is an idiomatic way of describing someone. Alternate translation: “a man from Ethiopia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1301

ACT

8

27

s1uf

translate-unknown

εὐνοῦχος, δυνάστης Κανδάκης

1

a eunuch

While the word eunuch describes a man who has been castrated, as men sometimes were who served in royal courts in the ancient world, the emphasis here is on the fact that this man was a high government official, not on his physical state. Alternate translation: “an important official in the court of the Kandake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1302

ACT

8

27

t5t1

translate-names

Κανδάκης

1

of Candace

Kandake was a title for the queens of Ethiopia. It is similar to the word Pharaoh, the title that was used for the kings of Egypt. So in your translation, make clear that it is a title rather than a name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1303

ACT

8

27

nm48

figs-metaphor

ὃς ἦν ἐπὶ πάσης τῆς γάζης αὐτῆς

1

Luke is using a spatial metaphor when says that this man was over the treasure of the Kandake. He means that the man was responsible for it. Alternate translation: “who was in charge of her treasury” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1304

ACT

8

27

v8q7

figs-explicit

ὃς ἐληλύθει προσκυνήσων εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

who had come to Jerusalem to worship

The implication is that this man was a Gentile who believed in the true God and had come to worship at the Jewish temple. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Even though he was a Gentile, he had come to worship the true God at the temple in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1305

ACT

8

27

uk32

figs-go

ὃς ἐληλύθει

1

Your language may say “gone” rather than come in a context such as this. Use whichever is more natural. Alternate translation: “who had gone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1306

ACT

8

28

d3kv

translate-unknown

τοῦ ἅρματος

1

chariot

Here and in 8:29 and 8:38, the term chariot probably means something like “carriage.” Chariots were vehicles for war, not for long-distance travel, and people stood to ride in chariots, while this man was seated. Alternate translation, as in UST: “his carriage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1307

ACT

8

28

bx2j

figs-metonymy

ἀνεγίνωσκεν τὸν προφήτην Ἠσαΐαν

1

was reading the prophet Isaiah

Luke is using the phrase the prophet Isaiah figuratively to mean the prophecies that Isaiah spoke and recorded. Alternate translation: “he was reading from the book of Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1308

ACT

8

28

n40c

figs-explicit

ἀνεγίνωσκεν

1

Since Philip was able to hear what the man was reading, as 8:30 explains, the implication is that the man was reading aloud. Alternate translation: “he was reading aloud from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1309

ACT

8

29

llh1

figs-metonymy

πρόσελθε καὶ κολλήθητι τῷ ἅρματι τούτῳ

1

be joined to this chariot

The Spirit means figuratively that Philip is to stay close to the person riding in the chariot. Alternate translation: “Go over to that chariot so you can be near the man in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1310

ACT

8

29

soil

figs-activepassive

κολλήθητι τῷ ἅρματι τούτῳ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “join yourself to this chariot” or “keep pace with this chariot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1311

ACT

8

30

ffh7

figs-metonymy

ἀναγινώσκοντος Ἠσαΐαν τὸν προφήτην

1

reading Isaiah the prophet

Luke is using the phrase Isaiah the prophet figuratively to mean the prophecies that Isaiah spoke and recorded. Alternate translation: “reading from the book of Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1312

ACT

8

30

x98i

figs-explicit

ἆρά γε γινώσκεις ἃ ἀναγινώσκεις

1

Do you understand what you are reading?

The Ethiopian was a literate, educated man who could read, but he lacked spiritual discernment. Philip is asking implicitly whether he understands the meaning of the passage from Isaiah. Alternate translation: “Do you understand the meaning of what you are reading?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1313

ACT

8

31

r5g2

figs-rquestion

πῶς γὰρ ἂν δυναίμην ἐὰν μή τις ὁδηγήσει με?

1

how would I be able, unless someone will guide me?

The man is not asking for information. He is using the question form for emphasis. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “No, I cannot understand unless someone guides me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1314

ACT

8

31

zx9h

figs-explicit

παρεκάλεσέν…τὸν Φίλιππον, ἀναβάντα καθίσαι σὺν αὐτῷ

1

he summoned Philip, having come up, to sit with him

The implication is that when the man invited Philip to come up and sit with him, Philip agreed to travel down the road with him to explain the Scriptures. Alternate translation: “he invited Philip to come up and sit with him and explain the Scriptures, and Philip accepted the invitation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1315

ACT

8

32

nd93

figs-explicit

ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤχθη

1

This a quotation from Isaiah 53:7–8. It describes the Messiah, whom Isaiah calls “the servant of the Lord.” But since the Ethiopian official did not know whom Isaiah was describing and had to ask Philip, it would be better not to specify that at this point by saying, for example, “The Messiah was led like a sheep to the slaugher” or “The servant of the Lord was led like a sheep to the slaughter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1316

ACT

8

32

bgk9

figs-abstractnouns

ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤχθη

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of slaughter, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “He was led like a sheep that was going to be slaughtered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1317

ACT

8

32

kh97

figs-activepassive

ἤχθη

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “People led him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1318

ACT

8

32

lu3j

translate-unknown

ἐναντίον τοῦ κείραντος αὐτὸν ἄφωνος

1

like a lamb before its shearer is silent

A shearer is a person who cuts the wool off the sheep so that it may be used. If your readers would not be familiar with this word and you have no comparable word in your language, you could express the meaning in another way. Alternate translation: “is silent while its wool is being cut off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1319

ACT

8

32

k8sy

figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἀνοίγει τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ

1

This means that the Messiah does not speak, by association with the way a person would open his mouth in order to speak. Alternate translation: “he says nothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1320

ACT

8

33

dwur

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ταπεινώσει, ἡ κρίσις αὐτοῦ ἤρθη

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of humiliation and justice, you could express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “Because he acted humbly and did not defend himself, his enemies were able to treat him unjustly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1321

ACT

8

33

y2a1

figs-activepassive

ἡ κρίσις αὐτοῦ ἤρθη

1

In humiliation his justice was taken away

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “his enemies denied him justice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1322

ACT

8

33

k3uz

figs-rquestion

τὴν γενεὰν αὐτοῦ τίς διηγήσεται?

1

Who can fully describe his generation?

Isaiah is using the question form for emphasis. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “No one will describe his generation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1323

ACT

8

33

ec09

figs-declarative

τὴν γενεὰν αὐτοῦ τίς διηγήσεται?

1

Isaiah is using a future statement to describe capability. If this would be confusing for your readers, you could use form that is more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Who can describe his generation?” or “No one will be able to describe his generation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

1324

ACT

8

33

yxxn

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν γενεὰν αὐτοῦ τίς διηγήσεται?

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of generation, you could express the same idea in another way. This could mean: (1) that no one will be able to describe the Messiah’s descendants because he will die without having any children. Alternate translation: “No one will be able to describe his descendants.” (2) that no one will be able to describe the other people living at the same time as the Messiah because they will be so wicked. Alternate translation: “No one will be able to describe how wicked his contemporaries are.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1325

ACT

8

33

idk8

figs-activepassive

αἴρεται ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἡ ζωὴ αὐτοῦ

1

his life was taken from the earth

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “his enemies will take his life from the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1326

ACT

8

34

agq5

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ εὐνοῦχος τῷ Φιλίππῳ εἶπεν

1

Together the words answering and said mean that the Ethiopian official responded to Philip’s question about whether he understood what he was reading. Alternate translation: “The eunuch responded to Philip’s question by saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1327

ACT

8

34

htb2

figs-idiom

δέομαί σου

1

I am begging you

The Ethiopian official is using a polite, idiomatic expression. Alternate translation: “Please tell me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1328

ACT

8

34

pa3m

writing-pronouns

ἑτέρου τινός

1

In this context, the pronoun other means “other person.” Alternate translation: “some other person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1329

ACT

8

35

j7xw

figs-metonymy

ἀνοίξας…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ

1

This means that Philip spoke, by association with the way a person would be opening his mouth in order to speak. The image of the open mouth suggests a certain confidence and freedom in speaking. Alternate translation: “speaking confidently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1330

ACT

8

35

uw21

figs-explicit

τῆς Γραφῆς ταύτης

1

this scripture

By this scripture, Luke implicitly means the passage that the official had been reading. Alternate translation: “the passage from Isaiah that the official had been reading” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1331

ACT

8

35

xg4i

figs-metonymy

εὐηγγελίσατο αὐτῷ τὸν Ἰησοῦν

1

Luke is using the name Jesus figuratively by association to mean the message about Jesus. Alternate translation: “the good news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1332

ACT

8

36

ip13

figs-metonymy

τι ὕδωρ…ὕδωρ

1

they were going along the road

Luke and the official are using the word water figuratively to mean a body of water, such as a pool at a desert oasis. Alternate translation: “a pool of water … there is a pool of water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1333

ACT

8

36

muz2

figs-rquestion

τί κωλύει με βαπτισθῆναι?

1

What is preventing me from being baptized?

This question could be: (1) a rhetorical question that the eunuch is using as a polite way to ask Philip to baptize him. Alternate translation: “Please allow me to be baptized.” (2) a genuine request for information, since Philip seems to answer this question in 8:37 by identifying something that could keep the official from being baptized. Alternate translation: “Is there a condition I must meet in order to be baptized?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1334

ACT

8

36

wb9j

figs-activepassive

με βαπτισθῆναι

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you from baptizing me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1335

ACT

8

37

ov75

translate-textvariants

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Φίλιππος ἐὰν πιστεύεις ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου σωθήσει; ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ εἶπεν Πιστεύω εἰς τὸν Χριστὸν τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ

1

As the General Introduction to Acts explains, this verse is found in many traditional versions of the Bible, but it is not found in the most accurate ancient manuscripts of the Bible. ULT and UST indicate this by putting the verse in brackets. If a translation of the Bible already exists in your area, you could consider including this verse if that translation does. If there is not already a Bible translation in your area, we recommend that you indicate in some way that this verse may not be original, such as by putting it in brackets or in a footnote. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1336

ACT

8

37

qj5i

figs-metaphor

ἐὰν πιστεύεις ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου

1

Here, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and intentions. Alternate translation: “If you genuinely believe in Jesus and want to be his disciple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1337

ACT

8

37

djq2

figs-activepassive

σωθήσει

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will save you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1338

ACT

8

37

e3uu

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς…εἶπεν

1

Together the words answering and said mean that the eunuch responded to the what Philip told him. Alternate translation: “the eunuch responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1339

ACT

8

38

l8wl

figs-metonymy

ἐκέλευσεν στῆναι τὸ ἅρμα

1

he commanded the chariot to stop

Luke is using the term chariot figuratively by association to mean the driver of the chariot. Alternate translation: “the official told the driver of the chariot to stop” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1340

ACT

8

38

nn00

writing-pronouns

ἐβάπτισεν αὐτόν

1

The pronoun he stands for Philip, and the pronoun him stands for the eunuch. Alternate translation: “Philip baptized the eunuch” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1341

ACT

8

39

xp52

grammar-connect-time-sequential

γὰρ

1

the eunuch did not see him anymore

While the word translated for often introduces a reason, that does not seem to be its function here. Luke is not saying that the eunuch did not see Philip any more because he did not look for him but instead went on his way. Rather, the word for seems simply to introduce a continuation of the narrative. Alternate translation: “but” or “nevertheless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

1342

ACT

8

40

r1x7

figs-explicit

Φίλιππος…εὑρέθη εἰς Ἄζωτον

1

Philip was found at Azotus

The implication is that there was no indication of Philip traveling between where he baptized the Ethiopian and Azotus. He suddenly disappeared along the road to Gaza and reappeared at the town of Azotus. Alternate translation: “Philip suddenly reappeared at Azotus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1343

ACT

8

40

bbws

figs-activepassive

Φίλιππος…εὑρέθη εἰς Ἄζωτον

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Philip reappeared at Azotus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1344

ACT

8

40

arh5

διερχόμενος

1

passed through

Alternate translation: “as he passed through that area, he was”

1345

ACT

8

40

zfn6

figs-hyperbole

τὰς πόλεις πάσας

1

to all the cities

Luke says all as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: Alternate translation: “to the cities in that region” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1346

ACT

8

40

yf7i

translate-names

Ἄζωτον… Καισάρειαν

1

Azotus and Caesarea are the names of cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1347

ACT

9

1

yt9e

ὁ…Σαῦλος

1

Connecting Statement:

The story shifts back to Saul and his salvation.

1348

ACT

9

intro

jm6x

0

Acts 9 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

“The Way”

No one knows for sure who first started calling believers “followers of the Way.” This is probably what the believers called themselves, because the Bible often speaks of a person living his life as if that person were walking on a path or “way.” If this is true, the believers were “following the way of the Lord” by living in a way that pleased God.

“Letters for the synagogues in Damascus”

The “letters” Paul asked for were probably legal papers that permitted him to put Christians in prison. The synagogue leaders in Damascus would have obeyed the letter because it was written by the high priest. If the Romans had seen the letter, they also would have allowed Saul to persecute the Christians, because they permitted the Jews to do as they desired to people who broke their religious laws.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

What Saul saw when he met Jesus

It is clear that Saul saw a light and that it was because of this light that he “fell upon the ground.” Some people think that Saul knew that it was the Lord speaking to him without seeing a human form, because the Bible often speaks of God as being light and living in light. Other people think that later in his life he was able to say, “I have seen the Lord Jesus” because it was a human form that he saw here.

1349

ACT

9

1

r4n5

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

General Information:

Luke uses the word translated But to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1350

ACT

9

1

anb6

figs-hendiadys

ἐμπνέων ἀπειλῆς καὶ φόνου εἰς

1

still speaking threats even of murder against the disciples

Luke is using the two words threat and murder together to express a single idea. The word murder tells what kind of threat Saul was making. If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase that does not use and. Alternate translation: “making murderous threats against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1351

ACT

9

1

lrre

figs-metonymy

ἐμπνέων

1

Luke is using the term breathing figuratively by association to mean “speaking,” since people breathe out while they speak. Alternate translation: “speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1352

ACT

9

2

wyfp

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ…εὕρῃ…ἀγάγῃ

1

The pronoun him refers to the high priest and both instances of the pronoun he refer to Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1353

ACT

9

2

v9lw

figs-metonymy

εἰς Δαμασκὸν πρὸς τὰς συναγωγάς

1

to the synagogues

Luke is using the terms Damascus and synagogues figuratively by association to mean the people, probably the leaders, of the synagogues in Damascus. Alternate translation: “to the people in the synagogues of Damascus” or “to the leaders of the synagogues in Damascus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1354

ACT

9

2

lvzt

translate-names

Damascus

1

Damascus is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1355

ACT

9

2

thuy

translate-names

τῆς ὁδοῦ, ὄντας

1

As the General Introduction to Acts explains, the Way was one of the first names that people used to describe the community of believers in Jesus. Alternate translation: “who belonged to the Way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1356

ACT

9

2

a6z4

figs-explicit

δεδεμένους ἀγάγῃ εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

having bound them, he might bring them to Jerusalem

The implication is that Saul wanted to bring believers in Jesus to Jerusalem for trial and punishment by the Jewish leaders. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “he might take them as prisoners to Jerusalem so that the Jewish leaders there could judge and punish them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1357

ACT

9

3

jf4g

figs-explicit

ἐν…τῷ πορεύεσθαι

1

as he was traveling

Luke means implicitly that the high priest gave Saul the letters he asked for and that Saul then left Jerusalem to go to Damascus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “as he was traveling to Damascus with letters that the high priest gave him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1358

ACT

9

3

by55

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο

1

it happened that

Luke uses the phrase it happened that to introduce a significant development in this story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1359

ACT

9

3

dm6c

αὐτὸν περιήστραψεν φῶς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

there shone on him a light from heaven

Alternate translation: “a light from heaven shone all around him”

1360

ACT

9

3

gua8

ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

from heaven

This could mean: (1) heaven, where God lives or (2) the sky. The first meaning is preferable. Use that meaning if your language has a separate word for it.

1361

ACT

9

4

y4u4

πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν

1

he fell to the ground

This could mean: (1) “Saul threw himself to the ground” or (2) “The light caused him to fall to the ground” or (3) “Saul fell to the ground the way one who fainted fell.” Saul did not fall accidentally.

1362

ACT

9

4

c9l4

figs-rquestion

τί με διώκεις?

1

why are you persecuting me?

This rhetorical question communicates a rebuke to Saul. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as either a statement or as a command. Alternate translation: “You are persecuting me!” or “Stop persecuting me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1363

ACT

9

5

q8ge

εἶ…σὺ

1

Both occurrences of the word you here are singular.

1364

ACT

9

5

jaq2

τίς εἶ, κύριε?

1

Who are you, Lord?

Saul was not acknowledging that Jesus is the Lord. He uses that title because he understood that he spoke to someone of supernatural power.

1365

ACT

9

5

abc0

1

he

Jesus is speaking. Alternate translation: “he replied”

1366

ACT

9

6

i1kj

ἀνάστηθι καὶ εἴσελθε εἰς τὴν πόλιν

1

get up and enter into the city

Alternate translation: “get up and go into Damascus”

1367

ACT

9

6

fbi6

figs-activepassive

λαληθήσεταί σοι

1

it will be told to you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “someone will tell you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1368

ACT

9

7

xu7c

ἀκούοντες μὲν τῆς φωνῆς, μηδένα δὲ θεωροῦντες

1

hearing the voice, but seeing no one

Alternate translation: “they heard the voice, but they did not see anyone”

1369

ACT

9

7

f9fe

μηδένα δὲ θεωροῦντες

1

but seeing no one

Apparently only Saul experienced the light. Alternate translation: “but saw no one”

1370

ACT

9

8

puw3

figs-explicit

ἀνεῳγμένων…τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ

1

his eyes being opened

This implies that he had closed his eyes because the light was too bright. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1371

ACT

9

8

dgg8

οὐδὲν ἔβλεπεν

1

he was seeing nothing

Saul was blind. Alternate translation: “he could not see anything”

1372

ACT

9

9

fhn6

ἦν ἡμέρας τρεῖς μὴ βλέπων

1

he was … without sight

Alternate translation: “he was blind for three days” or “he could not see anything for three days”

1373

ACT

9

9

t8uc

οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲ ἔπιεν

1

neither ate nor drank

It is not stated whether he chose not to eat or drink as a form of worship, or if he had no appetite because he was too distressed from his situation. It is preferable not to specify the reason.

1374

ACT

9

10

kgn9

translate-names

Ἁνανίας

1

The story of Saul continues but Luke introduces another man named Ananias. This is not the same Ananias who died earlier in Acts Acts 5:3. You may translate this name the same way though as you did in Acts 5:1. Though there is more than one Judas mentioned in the New Testament, it is likely this is the only appearance of this Judas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1375

ACT

9

10

j847

writing-participants

ἦν δέ

1

Now there was

This introduces Ananias as a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1376

ACT

9

10

vl8k

ὁ…εἶπεν

3

he said

Alternate translation: “Ananias said”

1377

ACT

9

11

mn24

πορεύθητι ἐπὶ τὴν ῥύμην τὴν καλουμένην Εὐθεῖαν

1

go to the street which is called Straight

Alternate translation: “go to Straight Street”

1378

ACT

9

11

ie1l

οἰκίᾳ Ἰούδα

1

the house of Judas

This Judas is not the disciple who betrayed Jesus. This Judas was owner of a house in Damascus where Saul was staying.

1379

ACT

9

11

u5j8

Σαῦλον ὀνόματι Ταρσέα

1

a man named Saul, from Tarsus

Alternate translation: “a man from the city of Tarsus named Saul” or “Saul of Tarsus”

1380

ACT

9

12

jk46

translate-symaction

ἐπιθέντα αὐτῷ χεῖρας

1

laying hands on him

This was a symbol of giving a spiritual blessing to Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1381

ACT

9

12

nx5q

ἀναβλέψῃ

1

he might see again

Alternate translation: “he might regain his ability to see”

1382

ACT

9

13

la9t

ἁγίοις σου

1

to your saints

Here, saints refers to Christians. Alternate translation: “the people in Jerusalem who believe in you”

1383

ACT

9

14

ptd6

figs-explicit

ἔχει ἐξουσίαν…δῆσαι πάντας

1

he has authority … to bind all

It is implied that the extent of the power and authority granted Saul was limited to the Jewish people at this point in time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1384

ACT

9

14

t3fl

figs-metonymy

τοὺς ἐπικαλουμένους τὸ ὄνομά σου

1

who call upon your name

Here, your name refers to Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1385

ACT

9

15

jmt7

figs-metonymy

σκεῦος ἐκλογῆς ἐστίν μοι οὗτος

1

this one is a chosen instrument of mine

Here, chosen instrument refers to something that is set apart for service. Alternate translation: “I have chosen him to serve me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1386

ACT

9

15

z5fj

figs-metonymy

τοῦ βαστάσαι τὸ ὄνομά μου

1

who will carry my name

This is an expression for identifying or speaking out for Jesus. Alternate translation: “in order that he might speak about me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1387

ACT

9

16

kty3

figs-metonymy

ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματός μου

1

for my name

This is an expression meaning “for telling people about me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1388

ACT

9

17

q61x

figs-you

σοι…ἤρχου…ἀναβλέψῃς

1

All occurrences of the word you here are singular and refer to Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1389

ACT

9

17

j2pf

0

Connecting Statement:

Ananias goes to the house where Saul is staying. After Saul is healed, the story shifts from Ananias back to Saul.

1390

ACT

9

17

s8ms

ἀπῆλθεν δὲ Ἁνανίας καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν

1

And Ananias departed, and entered into the house

It may be helpful to state that Ananias went to the house before he entered into it. Alternate translation: “So Ananias went, and after he found the house where Saul was, he entered it”

1391

ACT

9

17

my6m

translate-symaction

ἐπιθεὶς ἐπ’ αὐτὸν τὰς χεῖρας

1

having laid his hands on him

Ananias laid his hands on Saul. This was a symbol of giving a blessing to Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1392

ACT

9

17

a89q

figs-activepassive

ὅπως ἀναβλέψῃς καὶ πλησθῇς Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

so that you might see again and be filled with the Holy Spirit

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “has sent me so that you might see again and that the Holy Spirit might fill you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1393

ACT

9

18

m1hx

ἀπέπεσαν…ὡς λεπίδες

1

something like scales fell

Alternate translation: “something that appeared like fish scales fell”

1394

ACT

9

18

efs9

figs-activepassive

ἀναστὰς ἐβαπτίσθη

1

rising up, he was baptized

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “he got up and Ananias baptized him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1395

ACT

9

20

rc49

ἐκήρυσσεν…οὗτός

1

Here, he refers to Saul, and this one refers to Jesus, the Son of God.

1396

ACT

9

20

w65r

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Son of God

Son of God is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1397

ACT

9

21

xid8

figs-hyperbole

πάντες οἱ ἀκούοντες

1

all who were hearing

The word allis a generalization. Alternate translation: “those who heard him” or “many who heard him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1398

ACT

9

21

f4fd

figs-rquestion

οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ πορθήσας ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ τοὺς ἐπικαλουμένους τὸ ὄνομα τοῦτο

1

Is not this the one who destroyed those in Jerusalem who call on this name?

This is a rhetorical and negative question that emphasizes that Saul was indeed the man who had persecuted the believers. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “This is the man who destroyed those in Jerusalem who called on this name Jesus!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1399

ACT

9

21

ctg3

figs-metonymy

τὸ ὄνομα τοῦτο

1

this name

Here, name refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “the name of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1400

ACT

9

22

r1np

συνέχυννεν τοὺς Ἰουδαίους

1

was stirring up the Jews

They were distressed in the sense that they could not find a way to refute Saul’s arguments that Jesus was the Christ.

1401

ACT

9

23

g6gw

αὐτόν

1

The word him refers to Saul.

1402

ACT

9

23

g74c

figs-synecdoche

οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι

1

the Jews

This refers to the leaders of the Jews. Alternate translation: “the Jewish leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1403

ACT

9

24

lv62

figs-activepassive

ἐγνώσθη δὲ τῷ Σαύλῳ ἡ ἐπιβουλὴ αὐτῶν

1

But their plan became known to Saul

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “But someone told their plan to Saul” or “But Saul learned about their plan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1404

ACT

9

24

cy9n

παρετηροῦντο…καὶ τὰς πύλας

1

indeed they were watching the gates

This city had a wall surrounding it. People could normally only enter and exit the city through the gates.

1405

ACT

9

25

lc8m

οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ

1

his disciples

The disciples were people who believed Saul’s message about Jesus and were following his teaching.

1406

ACT

9

25

u8g8

διὰ τοῦ τείχους, καθῆκαν αὐτὸν, χαλάσαντες ἐν σπυρίδι

1

let him down through the wall, lowering him in a basket

Alternate translation: “used ropes to lower him in a large basket through an opening in the wall”

1407

ACT

9

26

j1el

παραγενόμενος…ἐπείραζεν…αὐτόν…ἐστὶν

1

Here all occurrences of the words he and him refer to Saul.

1408

ACT

9

26

e38m

figs-hyperbole

καὶ πάντες ἐφοβοῦντο αὐτόν

1

but they were all afraid of him

Here, they were all is a generalization, but it is possible that it refers to every person. Alternate translation: “but they were afraid of him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1409

ACT

9

27

abca

διηγήσατο αὐτοῖς

1

told them

Alternate translation: “Barnabas told the apostles”

1410

ACT

9

27

abcb

εἶδεν

1

he had seen

Alternate translation: “Saul had seen”

1411

ACT

9

27

abcc

ἐλάλησεν αὐτῷ

1

he had spoken to him

Alternate translation: “the Lord had spoken to Saul”

1412

ACT

9

27

n9f1

figs-metonymy

ἐπαρρησιάσατο ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

he had spoken boldly in the name of Jesus

This is a way of saying he preached or taught the gospel message of Jesus Christ without fear. Alternate translation: “had openly preached the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1413

ACT

9

28

m5rs

ἦν μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

he was with them

Here the word he refers to Paul. The word them probably refers to the apostles and other disciples in Jerusalem.

1414

ACT

9

28

fbb7

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Κυρίου

1

in the name of the Lord

This could mean: (1) this simply refers to the Lord Jesus and tells who Paul spoke about. Alternate translation: “about the Lord Jesus” or (2) name is a metonym for authority. Alternate translation: “under the authority of the Lord Jesus” or “with the authority that the Lord Jesus gave him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1415

ACT

9

29

d7lm

συνεζήτει πρὸς τοὺς Ἑλληνιστάς

1

debated with the Hellenists

Saul tried to reason with the Jews who spoke Greek.

1416

ACT

9

30

uz9a

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ

1

the brothers

The words the brothers refers to the believers in Jerusalem.

1417

ACT

9

30

j4mt

κατήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς Καισάρειαν

1

they brought him down to Caesarea

The phrase brought him down is used here because Caesarea is lower in elevation than Jerusalem.

1418

ACT

9

30

aqn6

figs-explicit

ἐξαπέστειλαν αὐτὸν εἰς Ταρσόν

1

sent him away to Tarsus

Caesarea was a seaport. They brothers probably sent Saul to Tarsus by ship. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1419

ACT

9

31

vk8y

0

General Information:

This verse is a statement that gives an update on the church’s growth.

1420

ACT

9

31

fh2g

εἶχεν εἰρήνην

1

had peace

This means the persecution that started with the murder of Stephen was finished. Alternate translation: “lived peacefully”

1421

ACT

9

31

s4bn

ἡ…ἐκκλησία καθ’ ὅλης τῆς Ἰουδαίας, καὶ Γαλιλαίας, καὶ Σαμαρείας

1

the church throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria

This is the first use of the singular church to refer to more than one local congregation. Here it refers to all the believers in all the groups throughout Israel.

1422

ACT

9

31

elq7

figs-activepassive

οἰκοδομουμένη καὶ πορευομένη

1

being built up and going on

The agent was either God or the Holy Spirit. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God helped them grow and to go on” or “the Holy Spirit built them up and they continued on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1423

ACT

9

31

j8c9

figs-metaphor

πορευομένη τῷ φόβῳ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

walking in the fear of the Lord

Traveling is here a metaphor for “living.” Alternate translation: “living in obedience to the Lord” or “continuing to honor the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1424

ACT

9

31

hl24

τῇ παρακλήσει τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος

1

in the comfort of the Holy Spirit

Alternate translation: “with the Holy Spirit strengthening and encouraging them”

1425

ACT

9

32

n7c5

Πέτρον

1

Connecting Statement:

In this verse, the story shifts from Saul to a new part of the story about Peter.

1426

ACT

9

32

w68g

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

Now it happened that

This phrase is used to mark a new part of the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1427

ACT

9

32

m9sg

figs-hyperbole

διὰ πάντων

1

throughout the whole region

This is an generalization for Peter’s visiting the believers in many places in the region of Judea, Galilee, and Samaria. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1428

ACT

9

32

ad7g

κατελθεῖν

1

to come down

The phrase come down is used here because Lydda is lower in elevation than the other places where he was traveling.

1429

ACT

9

32

g5c4

Λύδδα

1

in Lydda

Lydda is a city located about 18 kilometers southeast of Joppa. This city was called Lod in the Old Testament and in modern Israel.

1430

ACT

9

33

hzd7

εὗρεν…ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπόν τινα

1

he found there a certain man

Peter was not intentionally searching for a paralyzed person, but happened upon him. Alternate translation: “There Peter met a man”

1431

ACT

9

33

jnc4

writing-participants

ἄνθρωπόν τινα ὀνόματι Αἰνέαν

1

a certain man named Aeneas

This introduces Aeneas as a new character in the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1432

ACT

9

33

uj5f

writing-background

ἐξ ἐτῶν ὀκτὼ κατακείμενον ἐπὶ κραβάττου, ὃς ἦν παραλελυμένος

1

lying in a bed … who was paralyzed

This is background information about Aeneas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1433

ACT

9

33

k7hw

παραλελυμένος

1

paralyzed

Aeneas was unable to walk, and probably unable to move below the waist.

1434

ACT

9

34

ff2a

στρῶσον σεαυτῷ

1

make your bed

Alternate translation: “roll up your mat”

1435

ACT

9

35

z3fp

figs-hyperbole

πάντες οἱ κατοικοῦντες Λύδδα καὶ τὸν Σαρῶνα

1

all who were living in Lydda and in Sharon

This is a generalization referring to many of the people there. Alternate translation: “those who lived in Lydda and in Sharon” or “many people who lived in Lydda and Sharon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1436

ACT

9

35

qkv4

Λύδδα καὶ τὸν Σαρῶνα

1

in Lydda and in Sharon

The city of Lydda was located in the Plain of Sharon.

1437

ACT

9

35

pf23

εἶδαν αὐτὸν

1

saw him

It may be helpful to state that they saw that the man was healed. Alternate translation: “saw the man whom Peter had healed”

1438

ACT

9

35

x9yw

figs-metaphor

οἵτινες ἐπέστρεψαν ἐπὶ τὸν Κύριον

1

and they turned to the Lord

Here, turned to the Lord is a metaphor for starting to obey the Lord. Alternate translation: “and they repented of their sins and started obeying the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1439

ACT

9

36

zgq5

writing-newevent

δέ…ἦν

1

Now there was

This introduces a new part in the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1440

ACT

9

36

gy8u

writing-background

0

General Information:

Verses 36-37 give background information about the woman named Tabitha. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1441

ACT

9

36

gwr4

translate-names

Ταβειθά, ἣ διερμηνευομένη λέγεται, Δορκάς

1

Tabitha, which is translated to say “Dorcas.”

Tabitha is her name in the Aramaic language, and Dorcas is her name in the Greek language. Both names mean “gazelle.” Alternate translation: “Tabitha, which was Dorcas in the Greek language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1442

ACT

9

36

q2rn

πλήρης ἔργων ἀγαθῶν

1

full of good works

Alternate translation: “doing many good things”

1443

ACT

9

37

mg72

figs-explicit

ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

1

And it happened that in those days

This refers to the time when Peter was in Joppa. You can state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “And it came about while Peter was nearby” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1444

ACT

9

37

y8sx

λούσαντες…αὐτὴν

1

having washed her

This was washing to prepare for her burial.

1445

ACT

9

37

znj4

ἔθηκαν ἐν ὑπερῴῳ

1

they laid her in an upper room

This was a temporary display of the body during the funeral process.

1446

ACT

9

39

k1se

εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον

1

to the upper room

Alternate translation: “to the upstairs room where Dorcas’ body was lying”

1447

ACT

9

39

me79

πᾶσαι αἱ χῆραι

1

all the widows

It is possible that all the widows of the town were there since it was not a large town.

1448

ACT

9

39

piu7

χῆραι

1

widows

These widows would have need help since their husbands had died.

1449

ACT

9

39

y6q5

μετ’ αὐτῶν οὖσα

1

while being with them

Alternate translation: “while she was still alive with the disciples”

1450

ACT

9

40

yp2u

ἐκβαλὼν…ἔξω πάντας

1

put out all of them

Peter had everyone leave so he could be alone to pray for Tabitha. Alternate translation: “told them all to leave the room”

1451

ACT

9

41

r7n6

δοὺς…αὐτῇ χεῖρα, ἀνέστησεν αὐτήν

1

having given his hand to her, he raised her up

Peter extended his hand to her to help her stand up.

1452

ACT

9

41

b73s

τοὺς ἁγίους καὶ τὰς χήρας

1

the saints and the widows

The widows were possibly also believers but are mentioned specifically because Tabitha was so important to them.

1453

ACT

9

42

nda9

figs-activepassive

γνωστὸν δὲ ἐγένετο καθ’ ὅλης τῆς Ἰόππης

1

And this became known throughout all Joppa

This refers to the miracle of Peter’s raising Tabitha from the dead. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “People throughout all Joppa heard about this matter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1454

ACT

9

42

fyz4

ἐπίστευσαν…ἐπὶ τὸν Κύριον

1

believed on the Lord

Alternate translation: “believed in the gospel of the Lord Jesus”

1455

ACT

9

43

k9ik

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

Now it happened that

This introduces the beginning of the next event in the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1456

ACT

9

43

qar2

Σίμωνι, βυρσεῖ

1

Simon, a tanner

Alternate translation: “a man named Simon who made leather from animal skins”

1457

ACT

10

intro

ym7z

0

Acts 10 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Unclean

The Jews believed that they could become unclean in God’s sight if they visited or ate food with a Gentile. This was because the Pharisees had made a law against it because they wanted to keep people from eating foods that the law of Moses said were unclean. The law of Moses did say that some foods were unclean, but it did not say that God’s people could not visit or eat with Gentiles. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/clean]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]])

Baptism and the Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit “fell on” those who were listening to Peter. This showed the Jewish believers that Gentiles could receive the word of God and receive the Holy Spirit just as the Jewish believers had. After that, the Gentiles were baptized.

1458

ACT

10

1

nfy5

0

Connecting Statement:

This is the beginning of the part of the story about Cornelius.

1459

ACT

10

1

m1vx

writing-background

Κορνήλιος

1

Verses 1-2 give background information about Cornelius. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1460

ACT

10

1

wtb9

writing-participants

ἀνὴρ δέ τις

1

Now there was a certain man

This was a way of introducing a new person to this part of the historical account. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1461

ACT

10

1

x476

ὀνόματι Κορνήλιος, ἑκατοντάρχης ἐκ Σπείρης τῆς καλουμένης Ἰταλικῆς

1

named Cornelius, a centurion from the regiment that was called ‘Italian.’

Alternate translation: “whose name was Cornelius. He was an officer in charge of 100 soldiers from the Italian section of the Roman army”

1462

ACT

10

1

abcd

Σπείρης τῆς καλουμένης Ἰταλικῆς

1

the regiment that was called ‘Italian.’

Alternate translation: “the Italian Regiment”

1463

ACT

10

2

s6rh

εὐσεβὴς καὶ φοβούμενος τὸν Θεὸν

1

devout and fearing God

Alternate translation: “believing in God and seeking to honor and worship God in his life”

1464

ACT

10

2

n8i3

φοβούμενος τὸν Θεὸν

1

fearing God

The word fearing here has the sense of deep respect and awe.

1465

ACT

10

2

abce

τῷ λαῷ

1

to the people

Here, the people refers to Jewish people who were in need.

1466

ACT

10

2

w2kx

figs-hyperbole

δεόμενος τοῦ Θεοῦ διὰ παντός

1

praying to God through all

The phrase through all is a generalization. Alternate translation: “he prayed to God a lot” or “he prayed to God regularly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1467

ACT

10

3

up3j

ὥραν ἐνάτην

1

the ninth hour

This is the normal afternoon prayer time for Jews. Alternate translation: “three o’clock in the afternoon”

1468

ACT

10

3

g3lv

εἶδεν…φανερῶς

1

he clearly saw

Alternate translation: “Cornelius clearly saw”

1469

ACT

10

4

abcf

ὁ δὲ, ἀτενίσας αὐτῷ

1

But he stared at him

Cornelius looked intently at the angel.

1470

ACT

10

4

abcg

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ

1

And he said to him

Alternate translation: “Then the angel said to Cornelius”

1471

ACT

10

4

p5ml

figs-explicit

αἱ προσευχαί σου, καὶ αἱ ἐλεημοσύναι σου, ἀνέβησαν εἰς μνημόσυνον ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Your prayers and your alms have gone up for a memorial offering before God

It is implied that his gifts and prayers had been accepted by God. Alternate translation: “God is pleased by your prayers and your gifts that have gone up to him as a memorial offering to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1472

ACT

10

6

lt9n

βυρσεῖ

1

a tanner

A tanner is a person who makes leather from animal skins.

1473

ACT

10

7

g6lq

ὡς δὲ ἀπῆλθεν ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ λαλῶν αὐτῷ

1

And when the angel who spoke to him had left

Alternate translation: “And when Cornelius’ vision of the angel had ended”

1474

ACT

10

7

i3x7

στρατιώτην εὐσεβῆ τῶν προσκαρτερούντων αὐτῷ

1

a devout soldier of those who served him

This soldier worshiped God. That was rare in the Roman army, so Cornelius’ other soldiers probably did not worship God. Alternate translation: “one of the soldiers who served him, who also worshiped God”

1475

ACT

10

7

yg7g

εὐσεβῆ

1

devout

The adjective devout describes a person who worshiped God and served him.

1476

ACT

10

8

pcg2

ἐξηγησάμενος ἅπαντα αὐτοῖς

1

having told them everything

Cornelius explained his vision to his two servants and to one of his soldiers.

1477

ACT

10

8

d2p3

ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν Ἰόππην

1

he sent them to Joppa

Alternate translation: “he sent two of his two servants and the one soldier to Joppa”

1478

ACT

10

9

ey9n

ὁδοιπορούντων ἐκείνων

1

Here the word they refers to Cornelius’ two servants and the soldier under Cornelius’ command (Acts 10:7).

1479

ACT

10

9

w3g4

0

Connecting Statement:

The story shifts away from Cornelius to tell us what God is doing with to Peter.

1480

ACT

10

9

tu7n

περὶ ὥραν ἕκτην

1

at about the sixth hour

Alternate translation: “at around noon”

1481

ACT

10

9

r6l8

ἀνέβη…ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα

1

went up to the housetop

The roofs of the houses were flat, and people often did many different activities on them.

1482

ACT

10

10

slq7

παρασκευαζόντων…αὐτῶν

1

while they were preparing

Alternate translation: “before the people finished cooking the food”

1483

ACT

10

10

im7x

figs-activepassive

ἐγένετο ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἔκστασις

1

a vision came upon him

Alternate translation: “God gave him a vision” or “he saw a vision” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1484

ACT

10

11

n4hi

θεωρεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεῳγμένον

1

he sees the sky having been opened

This was the beginning of Peter’s vision. It can be a new sentence.

1485

ACT

10

11

u9u4

ὡς ὀθόνην μεγάλην, τέσσαρσιν ἀρχαῖς

1

like a large sheet … by four corners

The container holding the animals had the appearance of a large square piece of cloth.

1486

ACT

10

11

jh1m

τέσσαρσιν ἀρχαῖς καθιέμενον

1

being let down by four corners

Alternate translation: “suspended by its four corners”

1487

ACT

10

12

ua3j

figs-explicit

πάντα τὰ τετράποδα, καὶ ἑρπετὰ τῆς γῆς, καὶ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

all the four-footed animals and creeping things on the earth, and birds of the sky

From Peter’s response in the next verse, it can be implied that the law of Moses commanded the Jews not to eat some of them. Alternate translation: “every kind of animal and reptile and bird that the Mosaic laws forbade Jews to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1488

ACT

10

13

a2z4

figs-synecdoche

ἐγένετο φωνὴ πρὸς αὐτόν

1

a voice came to him

The person speaking is not specified. The voice was probably God, although it could possibly have been an angel from God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1489

ACT

10

14

z7r5

μηδαμῶς

1

Not at all

Alternate translation: “I will not do that”

1490

ACT

10

14

a2jj

figs-explicit

οὐδέποτε ἔφαγον πᾶν κοινὸν καὶ ἀκάθαρτον

1

I have never eaten anything defiled and unclean

It is implied that some the animals in the container were unclean as defined by the law of Moses and were not to be eaten by believers who lived before Christ died. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1491

ACT

10

15

xs5s

figs-123person

ἃ ὁ Θεὸς ἐκαθάρισεν

1

What God has cleansed

If God is the speaker, he is referring to himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “What I, God, have cleansed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1492

ACT

10

16

rlr9

τοῦτο…ἐγένετο ἐπὶ τρίς

1

this happened three times

It is possible that everything Peter saw happened did not happen three times, but that the phrase, “What God has cleansed, do not call it defiled,” was repeated three times. However, it may be best to simply say “This happened three times.”

1493

ACT

10

17

d4zi

ἐν ἑαυτῷ διηπόρει ὁ Πέτρος

1

Peter was very confused … about

This means that Peter was having difficulty understanding what the vision meant.

1494

ACT

10

17

n6da

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

The word behold here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows, in this case, the two men standing at the gate.

1495

ACT

10

17

e62m

figs-explicit

ἐπέστησαν ἐπὶ τὸν πυλῶνα

1

stood before the gate

It is implied that this house had a wall with a gate in it to enter the property. Alternate translation: “stood before the gate to the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1496

ACT

10

17

h72m

διερωτήσαντες τὴν οἰκίαν

1

having found by inquiry the house

This happened before they arrived at the house. This could be stated earlier in the verse, as the UST does.

1497

ACT

10

18

qe9d

φωνήσαντες

1

they called out

Cornelius’ men remained outside the gate while asking about Peter.

1498

ACT

10

19

e8ai

τοῦ…Πέτρου διενθυμουμένου περὶ τοῦ ὁράματος

1

while … was still thinking about the vision

Alternate translation: “as Peter was still wondering about the meaning of the vision”

1499

ACT

10

19

d9q8

τὸ Πνεῦμα

1

the Spirit

Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit”

1500

ACT

10

19

iqx5

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Alternate translation: “Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: three”

1501

ACT

10

19

va39

translate-textvariants

ἄνδρες τρεῖς ζητοῦσιν σε

1

three men are looking for you

Cornelius sent two of his servants and one soldier. Some ancient texts have a different number of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1502

ACT

10

20

ym1x

κατάβηθι

1

go down

Alternate translation: “go down from the roof of the house”

1503

ACT

10

20

wx4n

πορεύου σὺν αὐτοῖς, μηδὲν διακρινόμενος

1

go with them. Do not hesitate

It would be natural for Peter not to want to go with them, because they were strangers and they were Gentiles.

1504

ACT

10

21

lj1f

ἐγώ εἰμι ὃν ζητεῖτε

1

I am he whom you are seeking

Alternate translation: “I am the man you are looking for”

1505

ACT

10

22

i4zh

οἱ…εἶπαν

1

Here, they refers to the two servants and the soldier from Cornelius (Acts 10:7).

1506

ACT

10

22

baa3

figs-activepassive

Κορνήλιος, ἑκατοντάρχης ἀνὴρ δίκαιος, καὶ φοβούμενος τὸν Θεὸν, μαρτυρούμενός τε ὑπὸ ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἐχρηματίσθη ὑπὸ ἀγγέλου ἁγίου, μεταπέμψασθαί σε εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀκοῦσαι ῥήματα παρὰ σοῦ

1

Cornelius, a centurion, a man righteous and fearing God, and well-testifed to by the whole nation of the Jews, was instructed by a holy angel to summon you to his house and to hear a word from you

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form as the UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1507

ACT

10

22

wvl1

φοβούμενος τὸν Θεὸν

1

fearing God

The word fearing here has the sense of deep respect and awe.

1508

ACT

10

22

gv91

figs-hyperbole

ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους τῶν Ἰουδαίων

1

the whole nation of the Jews

This number of people is exaggerated with the word whole to emphasize how widely this was known among the Jews. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1509

ACT

10

23

jlc7

εἰσκαλεσάμενος οὖν αὐτοὺς ἐξένισεν

1

Therefore, having invited them in, he hosted them

The journey to Caesarea was too long for them to begin that afternoon.

1510

ACT

10

23

shs5

ἐξένισεν

1

he hosted them

Alternate translation: “he invited them to be his guests”

1511

ACT

10

23

t7cz

τινες τῶν ἀδελφῶν τῶν ἀπὸ Ἰόππης

1

some of the brothers who were from Joppa

This phrase refers to believers who lived in Joppa.

1512

ACT

10

24

c3s6

τῇ…ἐπαύριον

1

the following day

This was the next day after they left Joppa. The journey to Caesarea took longer than one day.

1513

ACT

10

24

g2up

ὁ δὲ Κορνήλιος ἦν προσδοκῶν αὐτοὺς

1

And Cornelius was waiting for them

Alternate translation: “And Cornelius expected them”

1514

ACT

10

25

wxt8

ὡς…τοῦ εἰσελθεῖν τὸν Πέτρον

1

as Peter entered

Alternate translation: “when Peter entered the house”

1515

ACT

10

25

b4pn

translate-symaction

πεσὼν ἐπὶ τοὺς πόδας

1

and falling down at his feet

He did this to honor Peter. Alternate translation: “and kneeling down and putting his face close to Peter’s feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1516

ACT

10

26

s7n5

ἀνάστηθι, καὶ ἐγὼ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπός εἰμι

1

Get up! I too am a man myself

This was a mild rebuke or correction to Cornelius not to worship Peter. Alternate translation: “Stop doing that! I am only a man, as you are”

1517

ACT

10

27

f9x6

αὐτῷ

1

The word him here refers to Cornelius.

1518

ACT

10

27

twp9

figs-explicit

συνεληλυθότας πολλούς

1

many people gathered together

It is implied that these people Cornelius had invited were Gentiles. Alternate translation: “many Gentile people gathered together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1519

ACT

10

28

xhuo

figs-you

ὑμεῖς ἐπίστασθε

1

Here, You yourselves is plural and include Cornelius as well as the Gentiles who were present. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1520

ACT

10

28

iyx6

ὡς ἀθέμιτόν ἐστιν ἀνδρὶ Ἰουδαίῳ

1

how unlawful it is for a Jewish man

This phrase refers to the requirements of the Jewish religious law. Alternate translation: “that it is forbidden for a Jewish man”

1521

ACT

10

28

k3we

ἀλλοφύλῳ

1

a foreigner

Here, foreigner refers to people who were not Jews and not specifically to where they lived.

1522

ACT

10

30

n5fs

καὶ ὁ Κορνήλιος ἔφη

1

Connecting Statement:

Cornelius responds to Peter’s question.

1523

ACT

10

30

na4u

ἀπὸ τετάρτης ἡμέρας

1

Four days ago

Cornelius is referring to the day before the third night before he is speaking to Peter. Biblical culture counts the current day, so the day before three nights ago is four days ago. Current Western culture does not count the current day, so many Western translations read, “three days ago.”

1524

ACT

10

30

mqv8

translate-textvariants

προσευχόμενος

1

praying

Some ancient authorities say “fasting and praying” instead of simply praying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1525

ACT

10

30

yy6e

τὴν ἐνάτην

1

at the ninth hour

This was the normal afternoon time when the Jews pray to God.

1526

ACT

10

31

krz8

0

General Information:

In verses 31 and 32 Cornelius quotes what the angel had said to him when he appeared to him at the ninth hour.

1527

ACT

10

31

x6d0

figs-you

σου…σου

1

Both occurrences of your are singular and refer to Cornelius. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1528

ACT

10

31

heh3

figs-activepassive

εἰσηκούσθη σου ἡ προσευχὴ

1

your prayer has been heard

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God has heard your prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1529

ACT

10

31

s6nz

ἐμνήσθησαν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

have been remembered before God

This does not imply that God had forgotten. Alternate translation: “brought you to God’s attention”

1530

ACT

10

32

ci31

μετακάλεσαι Σίμωνα, ὃς ἐπικαλεῖται Πέτρος

1

summon Simon who is called Peter

Alternate translation: “tell Simon who is also called Peter to come to you”

1531

ACT

10

33

p5ee

ἐξαυτῆς

1

immediately

Alternate translation: “right away”

1532

ACT

10

33

ruf3

σύ τε καλῶς ἐποίησας παραγενόμενος

1

and you did well in coming

This expression is a polite way of thanking Peter for coming. Alternate translation: “and I certainly thank you for coming”

1533

ACT

10

33

lzie

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

1

The word we here does not include Peter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1534

ACT

10

33

ry21

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

before God

This refers to the presence of God.

1535

ACT

10

33

xt4x

figs-activepassive

τὰ προστεταγμένα σοι ὑπὸ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

that you have been instructed by the Lord

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “that the Lord has told you to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1536

ACT

10

34

ku8u

0

Connecting Statement:

Peter begins speaking to everyone in the house of Cornelius.

1537

ACT

10

34

cyn8

ἀνοίξας δὲ Πέτρος τὸ στόμα εἶπεν

1

And Peter opened his mouth and said

Alternate translation: “And Peter began to speak to them”

1538

ACT

10

34

ha31

ἐπ’ ἀληθείας

1

In truth

This phrase means that what Peter is about to say is especially important.

1539

ACT

10

34

iii7

οὐκ ἔστιν προσωπολήμπτης ὁ Θεός

1

God is not one who shows partiality

Alternate translation: “God does not favor certain people”

1540

ACT

10

35

j78e

ὁ φοβούμενος αὐτὸν καὶ ἐργαζόμενος δικαιοσύνην, δεκτὸς αὐτῷ ἐστιν

1

the one who fears him and works righteous deeds is acceptable to him

Alternate translation: “he accepts anyone who worships him and does righteous deeds”

1541

ACT

10

35

b5cr

φοβούμενος

1

fears

The word fears here has the sense of deep respect and awe.

1542

ACT

10

36

jtr3

0

Jesus who is from Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him

The long sentence in verse 36-38 can be shortened into several sentences as in the UST.

1543

ACT

10

36

md1l

οὗτός ἐστιν πάντων Κύριος

1

he is Lord of all

Here, all means “all people.”

1544

ACT

10

37

ch65

figs-hyperbole

καθ’ ὅλης τῆς Ἰουδαίας

1

throughout all Judea

The word all is a generalization. Alternate translation: “throughout Judea” or “in many places in Judea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1545

ACT

10

37

sq2i

μετὰ τὸ βάπτισμα ὃ ἐκήρυξεν Ἰωάννης

1

after the baptism that John proclaimed

Alternate translation: “after John preached to the people to repent and then baptized them”

1546

ACT

10

38

ku82

figs-metaphor

ἔχρισεν αὐτὸν ὁ Θεὸς Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ καὶ δυνάμει

1

God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power

The Holy Spirit and God’s power are spoken of as if they are something that can be poured out onto a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1547

ACT

10

38

y5ya

figs-hyperbole

πάντας τοὺς καταδυναστευομένους ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου

1

all who were oppressed by the devil

The word all is a generalization. Alternate translation: “those who were oppressed by the devil” or “many people who were oppressed by the devil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1548

ACT

10

38

tj3u

figs-idiom

ὁ Θεὸς ἦν μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

God was with him

The idiom was with him means “was helping him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1549

ACT

10

39

kal7

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς…ἐποίησεν…ὃν…κρεμάσαντες

1

Here, we refers to Peter and the apostles and believers who were with Jesus when he was on earth. The words he and him here refer to Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1550

ACT

10

39

sx3a

ἔν…τῇ χώρᾳ τῶν Ἰουδαίων

1

in the country of the Jews

This refers mainly to Judea at that time.

1551

ACT

10

39

z4dt

κρεμάσαντες ἐπὶ ξύλου

1

by hanging him on a tree

This is another expression that refers to crucifixion. Alternate translation: “by nailing him to a wooden cross”

1552

ACT

10

40

cxj5

figs-idiom

τοῦτον ὁ Θεὸς ἤγειρεν

1

but God raised up this one

Here, raised up is an idiom for causing someone who has died to become alive again. Alternate translation: “but God caused him to live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1553

ACT

10

40

w8kv

τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ

1

on the third day

Alternate translation: “on the third day after he died”

1554

ACT

10

40

iz8l

ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν ἐμφανῆ γενέσθαι

1

caused him to be seen

Alternate translation: “permitted many people to see him after he was raised from the dead”

1555

ACT

10

41

q7d1

ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

from the dead

From among all those who have died. This expression describes all dead people together in the underworld.

1556

ACT

10

42

ik96

figs-exclusive

ἡμῖν

1

Here the word us includes Peter and believers. It excludes his audience. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1557

ACT

10

42

zne5

0

Connecting Statement:

Peter finishes his speech to everyone in the house of Cornelius, which he began in Acts 10:34.

1558

ACT

10

42

c1ak

figs-activepassive

ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ὡρισμένος ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

that he is the one who has been chosen by God

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “that God chose this Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1559

ACT

10

42

ws4t

figs-nominaladj

ζώντων καὶ νεκρῶν

1

of the living and the dead

This refers to people who are still living and people who have died. Alternate translation: “of the people who are alive and the people who are dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1560

ACT

10

43

ub5d

τούτῳ πάντες οἱ προφῆται μαρτυροῦσιν

1

To this one, all the prophets bear witness that

Alternate translation: “All the prophets bear witness to Jesus that”

1561

ACT

10

43

vq6l

figs-activepassive

ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν λαβεῖν διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ, πάντα τὸν πιστεύοντα εἰς αὐτὸν

1

everyone who believes in him shall receive forgiveness of sins through his name

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will forgive the sins of everyone who believes in Jesus because of what Jesus has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1562

ACT

10

43

y6d1

figs-metonymy

διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ

1

through his name

Here, his name refers to the actions of Jesus. His name means God who saves. Alternate translation: “through what Jesus has done for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1563

ACT

10

44

cz7x

ἐπέπεσε τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον

1

the Holy Spirit fell

Here the word fell means “happened suddenly.” Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit suddenly came”

1564

ACT

10

44

wf7u

πάντας τοὺς ἀκούοντας

1

all of those who were listening

Here, all refers to all the Gentiles at the house who were listening to Peter.

1565

ACT

10

45

j6wt

ἡ δωρεὰ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος

1

the gift of the Holy Spirit

This refers to the Holy Spirit himself who was given to them.

1566

ACT

10

45

g161

figs-activepassive

ἡ δωρεὰ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος ἐκκέχυται

1

the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God poured out the Holy Spirit as a gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1567

ACT

10

45

mqs8

figs-metaphor

ἐκκέχυται

1

was poured out

The Holy Spirit is spoken of as if he were something that could be poured out upon people. It implies a generous amount. Alternate translation: “was generously given” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1568

ACT

10

45

f33n

καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ ἔθνη

1

also on the Gentiles

Here, also refers to the fact that the Holy Spirit had already been given to the Jewish believers.

1569

ACT

10

46

p6pa

λαλούντων γλώσσαις, καὶ μεγαλυνόντων τὸν Θεόν

1

speaking with tongues and praising God

These were known spoken languages that caused the Jews to acknowledge that the Gentiles were indeed praising God.

1570

ACT

10

47

u5d5

figs-rquestion

μήτι τὸ ὕδωρ δύναται κωλῦσαί τις τοῦ μὴ βαπτισθῆναι τούτους, οἵτινες τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ἔλαβον, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς?

1

No one is able to withhold water, is he, that these are not baptized, who have received the Holy Spirit as we also did?

Peter uses this question to convince the Jewish Christians that the Gentile believers should be baptized. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one has the right to withhold water so that these are not baptized, who have received the Holy Spirit as we also did!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1571

ACT

10

47

kwv5

figs-activepassive

τις τοῦ μὴ βαπτισθῆναι τούτους, οἵτινες τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ἔλαβον, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “No one should keep water from these people! We should baptize them because they have received the Holy Spirit just as we did!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1572

ACT

10

48

t2y9

figs-explicit

προσέταξεν…αὐτοὺς…βαπτισθῆναι

1

he commanded them to be baptized

It is implied that the Jewish Christians were the ones who would baptize them. You can state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Peter commanded the Gentile believers to allow the Jewish Christians to baptize them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1573

ACT

10

48

z4fh

figs-activepassive

προσέταξεν…αὐτοὺς…βαπτισθῆναι

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Peter commanded the Jewish Christians to baptize them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1574

ACT

10

48

ax6x

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ βαπτισθῆναι

1

be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ

Here, in the name of Jesus Christ expresses that the reason for their baptism was that they believed in Jesus. Alternate translation: “be baptized as believers in Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1575

ACT

11

intro

hva5

0

Acts 11 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

“The Gentiles also had received the word of God”

Almost all of the first believers were Jewish. Luke writes in this chapter that many Gentiles started to believe in Jesus. They believed that the message about Jesus was true and so began to “receive the word of God.” Some of the believers in Jerusalem did not believe that Gentiles could truly follow Jesus, so Peter went to them and told them what had happened to him and how he had seen the Gentiles receive the Word of God and receive the Holy Spirit.

1576

ACT

11

1

uw5m

δὲ

1

Now signals the beginning of a new event in the story.

1577

ACT

11

1

ab75

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

Now

This marks a new part of the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1578

ACT

11

1

f1md

οἱ…ἀδελφοὶ

2

the brothers

The phrase the brothers here refers to the believers in Judea.

1579

ACT

11

1

q8wl

οἱ ὄντες κατὰ τὴν Ἰουδαίαν

1

who were throughout Judea

Alternate translation: “who were throughout the province of Judea”

1580

ACT

11

1

w3rx

figs-metonymy

ἐδέξαντο τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

had received the word of God

This expression refers to the fact that the Gentiles believed the gospel message about Jesus. Alternate translation: “had believed the message of God about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1581

ACT

11

2

j7f7

0

Connecting Statement:

Peter arrives in Jerusalem and begins talking to the Jews there.

1582

ACT

11

2

kb4m

ἀνέβη…εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

came up to Jerusalem

Jerusalem was higher than almost any other place in Israel, so it was normal for Israelites to speak of coming up to Jerusalem and going down from it.

1583

ACT

11

2

yar6

figs-metonymy

οἱ ἐκ περιτομῆς

1

those from the circumcision

This is a reference to some of the Jews who believed that every believer must be circumcised. Alternate translation: “some Jewish believers in Jerusalem who wanted all followers of Christ to be circumcised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1584

ACT

11

3

ah7v

figs-metonymy

ἄνδρας, ἀκροβυστίαν ἔχοντας

1

uncircumcised men

The phrase uncircumcised men refers to Gentiles. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1585

ACT

11

3

t9e1

συνέφαγεν αὐτοῖς

1

ate with them

It was against Jewish tradition for Jews to eat with Gentiles.

1586

ACT

11

4

lrh6

0

Connecting Statement:

Peter responds to the Jews by telling them about his vision and about what had happened at Cornelius’ house.

1587

ACT

11

4

bfp5

ἀρξάμενος…Πέτρος ἐξετίθετο

1

Peter began to explain

Peter did not criticize the Jewish believers but reacted in a friendly explanatory manner.

1588

ACT

11

4

nuy6

καθεξῆς

1

in an orderly manner

Alternate translation: “exactly what happened”

1589

ACT

11

5

j37p

ὡς ὀθόνην μεγάλην

1

like a large sheet

The container holding the animals had the appearance of a large square piece of cloth. See how you translated this in Acts 10:11.

1590

ACT

11

5

axu6

τέσσαρσιν ἀρχαῖς

1

by its four corners

See how you translated this in Acts 10:11. Alternate translation: “suspended by its four corners”

1591

ACT

11

6

lbh4

figs-explicit

τὰ τετράποδα τῆς γῆς, καὶ τὰ θηρία, καὶ τὰ ἑρπετὰ, καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

the four-legged animals of the earth, and the wild beasts, and the creeping animals, and the birds of the sky

From Peter’s response, it can be implied that the law of Moses commanded the Jews not to eat some of them. See how you translated a similar phrase in Acts 10:12. Alternate translation: “many kinds of animals and reptiles and birds that the Mosaic laws forbade Jews to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1592

ACT

11

6

ew64

θηρία

1

wild beasts

Here, wild beasts probably refer to the animals people do not or can not tame or control.

1593

ACT

11

6

t36i

ἑρπετὰ

1

creeping animals

These are reptiles.

1594

ACT

11

7

i5ic

figs-synecdoche

ἤκουσα…καὶ φωνῆς

1

I heard … a voice

The person speaking is not specified. The voice was probably God, although it could possibly have been an angel from God. See how you translated a voice in Acts 10:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1595

ACT

11

8

m4mu

μηδαμῶς

1

By no means

See how you translated this in Acts 10:14. Alternate translation: “I will not do that”

1596

ACT

11

8

m5p5

figs-explicit

κοινὸν ἢ ἀκάθαρτον οὐδέποτε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ στόμα μου

1

the profane or unclean has never entered into my mouth

Apparently the animals in the sheet were animals which the Jewish law in the Old Testament forbade the Jews to eat. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1597

ACT

11

8

wwbw

figs-doublenegatives

κοινὸν ἢ ἀκάθαρτον οὐδέποτε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ στόμα μου

1

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative profane or unclean … never entered, you can express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “I have eaten only meat from holy and clean animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1598

ACT

11

8

kj91

ἀκάθαρτον

1

unclean

In the Old Testament Jewish law, a person became ritually unclean in various ways, such as eating certain forbidden animals.

1599

ACT

11

9

n2gn

figs-metonymy

ἃ ὁ Θεὸς ἐκαθάρισεν, σὺ μὴ κοίνου

1

What God has cleansed, do not call unclean

This refers to the animals in the sheet. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1600

ACT

11

10

xrq6

τοῦτο…ἐγένετο ἐπὶ τρίς

1

this happened three times

It is possible that everything Peter saw happened did not happen three times, but that the phrase, “What God has cleansed, do not call it defiled,” was repeated three times. However, it may be best to simply say “this happened three times.” See how you translated This happened three times in Acts 10:16.

1601

ACT

11

11

ias8

figs-exclusive

0

General Information:

Here, we refers to Peter and the believers in Joppa. It does not include his current audience in Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1602

ACT

11

11

b2qv

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

The word behold alerts us to the new people in the story. Your language may have a way of doing this.

1603

ACT

11

11

k44j

ἐξαυτῆς

1

right away

Alternate translation: “immediately” or “at that exact moment”

1604

ACT

11

11

qwn5

figs-activepassive

ἀπεσταλμένοι

1

having been sent

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “someone had sent them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1605

ACT

11

12

lf6m

μηδὲν διακρίναντα

1

not making any distinction

Alternate translation: “not being concerned that they were Gentiles”

1606

ACT

11

12

cf8x

ἦλθον…σὺν ἐμοὶ

1

went with me

Alternate translation: “went with me to Caesarea”

1607

ACT

11

12

xrc6

οἱ ἓξ ἀδελφοὶ οὗτοι

1

these six brothers

Alternate translation: “these six Jewish believers”

1608

ACT

11

12

w6ia

εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ ἀνδρός

1

into the house of the man

This refers to the house of Cornelius.

1609

ACT

11

13

few6

Σίμωνα, τὸν ἐπικαλούμενον Πέτρον

1

Simon, who is called Peter

See how you translated the same phrase in Acts 10:32. Alternate translation: “Simon, who is also called Peter”

1610

ACT

11

14

hpr2

figs-metonymy

πᾶς ὁ οἶκός σου

1

all your household

This refers to all the people in the household. Alternate translation: “everyone who lives in your house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1611

ACT

11

15

qy12

figs-exclusive

0

General Information:

Here the word us refers to Peter, the apostles, and any of the Jewish believers who had received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1612

ACT

11

15

a8jw

ἐν…τῷ ἄρξασθαί με λαλεῖν, ἐπέπεσεν τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς

1

as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit came on them

This implies that Peter had not finished speaking but had intended to say more.

1613

ACT

11

15

ak2p

figs-ellipsis

ἐπέπεσεν τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς, ὥσπερ καὶ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ἐν ἀρχῇ

1

the Holy Spirit came on them, just as also on us in the beginning

Peter leaves out some things to keep the story short. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit came on the Gentile believers, just as he also came on the Jewish believers at Pentecost” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1614

ACT

11

15

th4m

ἐν ἀρχῇ

1

in the beginning

Peter is referring to the day of Pentecost.

1615

ACT

11

16

v116

figs-activepassive

ὑμεῖς…βαπτισθήσεσθε ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ

1

you will be baptized in the Holy Spirit

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will baptize you in the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1616

ACT

11

17

pe42

figs-exclusive

αὐτοῖς…ἡμῖν

1

The word them refers to Cornelius and his Gentile guests and household. Peter does not call them Gentiles in his account to the Jewish believers at Jerusalem. The word us includes all of the Jewish believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1617

ACT

11

17

u3nu

figs-rquestion

εἰ οὖν τὴν ἴσην δωρεὰν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Θεὸς, ὡς καὶ ἡμῖν πιστεύσασιν ἐπὶ τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, ἐγὼ τίς ἤμην δυνατὸς κωλῦσαι τὸν Θεόν?

1

If, therefore, God gave to them the same gift as also to us when we believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I, able to oppose God?

Peter uses this question to emphasize that he was only obeying God. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Since God gave to them the same gift as he also gave to us when we believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, I decided that I could not oppose God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1618

ACT

11

17

y7ag

τὴν ἴσην δωρεὰν

1

the same gift

Peter refers to the gift of the Holy Spirit.

1619

ACT

11

18

xlpt

ἀκούσαντες…ἡσύχασαν

1

The word they refers to the Jewish believers to whom Peter spoke.

1620

ACT

11

18

nr7g

ἡσύχασαν

1

they became quiet

Alternate translation: “they did not argue with Peter”

1621

ACT

11

18

z3fy

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ὁ Θεὸς τὴν μετάνοιαν εἰς ζωὴν ἔδωκεν

1

God has given repentance unto life to the Gentiles also

Here, life refers to eternal life. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words repentance and life, you could express the same ideas with the verbs “repent” and “live.” Alternate translation: “God has allowed the Gentiles also to repent and live eternally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1622

ACT

11

19

bwb8

writing-newevent

οὖν

1

Then

This introduces the new part of the story. He tells about what happened to the believers who fled after the stoning of Stephen.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1623

ACT

11

19

m3i7

οἱ…διασπαρέντες ἀπὸ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς γενομένης ἐπὶ Στεφάνῳ, διῆλθον

1

those who had been scattered from the persecution that happened over Stephen spread

The Jews began persecuting Jesus’ followers because Stephen had said and done things that the Jews did not like. Because of this persecution, many of Jesus’ followers left Jerusalem and went to many different places.

1624

ACT

11

19

whm6

figs-activepassive

οἱ…διασπαρέντες ἀπὸ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς γενομένης ἐπὶ Στεφάνῳ

1

those who had been scattered from the persecution that happened over Stephen

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the ones whom the Jews had been persecuting after they killed Stephen, who had left Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1625

ACT

11

19

w5jn

διῆλθον

1

spread

Alternate translation: “went in many different directions”

1626

ACT

11

19

c8ha

μόνον Ἰουδαίοις

1

only to Jews

The believers thought God’s message was for the Jewish people, and not for the Gentiles.

1627

ACT

11

20

mww9

figs-explicit

ἐλάλουν καὶ πρὸς τοὺς Ἑλληνιστάς

1

and spoke also to Greeks

These Greek-speaking people were Gentiles, not Jews. Alternate translation: “and also spoke to Gentiles who spoke Greek” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1628

ACT

11

21

aj5g

figs-metonymy

ἦν χεὶρ Κυρίου μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

The hand of the Lord was with them

God’s hand signifies his powerful help. Alternate translation: “God was powerfully enabling those believers to preach effectively” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1629

ACT

11

21

n9pq

figs-metaphor

ἐπέστρεψεν ἐπὶ τὸν Κύριον

1

turned to the Lord

Here, turned to the Lord is a metaphor for starting to obey the Lord. Alternate translation: “and they repented of their sins and began to obey the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1630

ACT

11

22

i7vs

figs-metonymy

τὰ ὦτα τῆς ἐκκλησίας

1

the ears of the church

Here, ears refers to the believers’ hearing about the event. Alternate translation: “the believers in the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1631

ACT

11

23

mrg9

ὃς…ἰδὼν…ἐχάρη…παρεκάλει

1

All occurrences of the word he refer to Barnabas. The word them refers to the new believers (Acts 11:20).

1632

ACT

11

23

b7w7

ἰδὼν τὴν χάριν τὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

saw the grace that is of God

Alternate translation: “saw how God acted kindly toward the believers”

1633

ACT

11

23

m1q9

παρεκάλει πάντας

1

exhorted them all

Alternate translation: “kept on encouraging them”

1634

ACT

11

23

qlu4

προσμένειν τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

to remain with the Lord

Alternate translation: “to remain faithful to the Lord” or “to continue to trust in the Lord”

1635

ACT

11

23

bz6w

figs-metonymy

τῇ προθέσει τῆς καρδίας

1

with purpose of heart

Here the heart refers to a person’s will and desire. Alternate translation: “with all their will” or “with complete commitment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1636

ACT

11

24

he5z

πλήρης Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

full of the Holy Spirit

The Holy Spirit controlled Barnabas as he obeyed the Holy Spirit.

1637

ACT

11

24

e57t

figs-metonymy

προσετέθη ὄχλος ἱκανὸς τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

a considerable crowd was added to the Lord

Here, added means they came to believe the same thing as the others. Alternate translation: “many more people also believed in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1638

ACT

11

25

yhl6

ἐξῆλθεν

1

Here the word he refers to Barnabas.

1639

ACT

11

25

dm92

ἐξῆλθεν…εἰς Ταρσὸν

1

he went out to Tarsus

Alternate translation: “he went out to the city of Tarsus”

1640

ACT

11

26

hu2g

καὶ εὑρὼν

1

and when he found him

It probably took some time and effort for Barnabas to locate Saul.

1641

ACT

11

26

wf5l

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο

1

It happened that

This begins a new event in the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1642

ACT

11

26

w4dz

αὐτοῖς…συναχθῆναι ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

they were gathered together with the church

Alternate translation: “Barnabas and Saul were gathered together with the church”

1643

ACT

11

26

x8gx

figs-activepassive

χρηματίσαι τε πρώτως ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ τοὺς μαθητὰς, Χριστιανούς

1

And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch

This implies that other people called the believers by this name. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “The people of Antioch were the first to call the disciples Christians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1644

ACT

11

26

r6sl

πρώτως ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ

1

first in Antioch

Alternate translation: “for the first time in Antioch”

1645

ACT

11

27

h6zw

δὲ

1

Now

The word Now is used here to mark a break in the main story-line.

1646

ACT

11

27

pz7y

writing-background

0

General Information:

Here Luke tells background information about a prophecy in Antioch. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1647

ACT

11

27

d8bb

κατῆλθον ἀπὸ Ἱεροσολύμων…εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν

1

came down from Jerusalem to Antioch

Jerusalem was higher in elevation than Antioch, so it was normal for Israelites to speak of going up to Jerusalem or going down from it.

1648

ACT

11

28

wyk8

ὀνόματι Ἅγαβος

1

named Agabus

Alternate translation: “whose name was Agabus”

1649

ACT

11

28

q3tl

ἐσήμανεν διὰ τοῦ Πνεύματος

1

and indicated by the Spirit that

Alternate translation: “and the Holy Spirit enabled him to prophesy that”

1650

ACT

11

28

l3iz

λιμὸν μεγάλην μέλλειν ἔσεσθαι

1

a great famine was about to occur

Alternate translation: “a great shortage of food would happen”

1651

ACT

11

28

pd2t

figs-hyperbole

ἐφ’ ὅλην τὴν οἰκουμένην

1

over the whole world

Here, whole was a generalization referring to the part of the world that they were interested in. Alternate translation: “all over the inhabited world” or “throughout the Roman Empire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1652

ACT

11

28

jmc5

figs-explicit

ἐπὶ Κλαυδίου

1

in the days of Claudius

Luke’s audience would know that Claudius was the emperor of Rome at that time. Alternate translation: “when Claudius was the Roman emperor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1653

ACT

11

28

fjyk

translate-names

Κλαυδίου

1

Claudius is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1654

ACT

11

29

de92

δὲ

1

So

The word So marks an event that happened because of something else that happened first. In this case, they sent money because of Agabus’ prophesy or the famine.

1655

ACT

11

29

rk9z

καθὼς εὐπορεῖτό τις

1

just as anyone prospered

The richer people sent more; the poorer people sent less.

1656

ACT

11

29

up7a

τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ἀδελφοῖς

1

to the brothers living in Judea

Alternate translation: “to the believers in Judea”

1657

ACT

11

30

lhp8

καὶ ἐποίησαν

1

Here, they refers to the believers in the church in Antioch (Acts 11:27).

1658

ACT

11

30

l8i8

figs-idiom

διὰ χειρὸς Βαρναβᾶ καὶ Σαύλου

1

by the hand of Barnabas and Saul

Here, hand is a synecdoche for the action of the whole person. Alternate translation: “by having Barnabas and Saul take to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1659

ACT

12

intro

f66j

0

Acts 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Chapter 12 tells what happened to King Herod while Barnabas was bringing Saul back from Tarsus and they were delivering money from Antioch Jerusalem (11:25-30). He killed many of the leaders of the church, and he put Peter in prison. After God helped Peter escape the prison, Herod killed the prison guards, and then God killed Herod. In the last verse of the chapter, Luke tells how Barnabas and Saul return to Antioch.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Personification

The “word of God” is spoken of as if it were a living thing that could grow and become many. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wordofgod]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1660

ACT

12

1

ua9p

0

Connecting Statement:

This begins the new persecution, first of James’ death and then of Peter’s imprisonment and then release.

1661

ACT

12

1

ti1y

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

Now

This begins a new part of the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1662

ACT

12

1

f2gr

κατ’ ἐκεῖνον…τὸν καιρὸν

1

about that time

Here, that time refers to the time of the famine.

1663

ACT

12

1

zy6y

figs-idiom

ἐπέβαλεν…τὰς χεῖρας

1

laid hands on

This means Herod had the believers arrested. See how you translated this in Acts 5:18. Alternate translation: “sent soldiers to arrest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1664

ACT

12

1

u1gv

figs-explicit

τινας τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας

1

some of those from the church

Only James and Peter are specified, which implies that these were leaders of the church in Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1665

ACT

12

1

s7lc

κακῶσαί

1

to harm them

Alternate translation: “in order to cause the believers to suffer”

1666

ACT

12

2

u4w7

writing-background

ἀνεῖλεν δὲ Ἰάκωβον, τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἰωάννου, μαχαίρῃ

1

This is background information about Herod’s killing James. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1667

ACT

12

2

r1zv

figs-metonymy

ἀνεῖλεν…Ἰάκωβον

1

he killed James

This could mean: (1) Herod himself killed James or (2) Herod ordered someone to kill James. Alternate translation: “Herod gave the order and they killed James” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1668

ACT

12

3

pms7

ἰδὼν…προσέθετο

1

Here the word he refers to Herod (Acts 12:1).

1669

ACT

12

3

v4ag

ἰδὼν δὲ ὅτι ἀρεστόν ἐστιν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις

1

And when he saw that this is pleasing to the Jews

Alternate translation: “And when Herod realized that putting James to death pleased the Jewish leaders”

1670

ACT

12

3

cu7s

ὅτι…ἐστιν

1

that this is

Alternate translation: “that Herod did this” or “that this happened”

1671

ACT

12

3

wpm1

ἀρεστόν ἐστιν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις

1

this is pleasing to the Jews

Alternate translation: “made the Jewish leaders happy”

1672

ACT

12

3

ly66

ἡμέραι τῶν Ἀζύμων

1

the days of unleavened bread

This phrase refers to a time of Jewish religious feast time during the Passover season. Alternate translation: “the festival when the Jewish people ate bread without yeast”

1673

ACT

12

4

pps1

τέσσαρσιν τετραδίοις στρατιωτῶν

1

to four squads of soldiers

Each squad had four soldiers that guarded Peter, one group at a time. The groups divided the 24-hour day into four shifts. Each time two soldiers would have been at his side and the other two soldiers by the entrance. Alternate translation: “to four groups of soldiers”

1674

ACT

12

4

i23a

βουλόμενος…ἀναγαγεῖν αὐτὸν τῷ λαῷ

1

he was intending to bring him out to the people

Alternate translation: “Herod planned to judge Peter in the presence of the people” or “Herod planned to judge Peter before the Jewish people”

1675

ACT

12

5

v2yz

figs-explicit

ὁ μὲν οὖν Πέτρος ἐτηρεῖτο ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ

1

So Peter was kept in the prison

This implies that the soldiers continually guarded Peter in the prison. Alternate translation: “So Peter was guarded by soldiers in the prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1676

ACT

12

5

xpcx

figs-activepassive

ὁ μὲν οὖν Πέτρος ἐτηρεῖτο ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “So the soldiers guarded Peter in the prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1677

ACT

12

5

f8qc

figs-activepassive

προσευχὴ…ἦν ἐκτενῶς γινομένη ὑπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας πρὸς τὸν Θεὸν περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

prayer was being made earnestly to God for him by the church

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the group of believers in Jerusalem earnestly prayed to God for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1678

ACT

12

6

km83

figs-explicit

ἤμελλεν προαγαγεῖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἡρῴδης τῇ νυκτὶ ἐκείνῃ

1

Herod was going to bring him out for trial, that night

That Herod planned to execute him can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “the same night before Herod was going to bring Peter out from prison to put him on trial and then to execute him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1679

ACT

12

6

g2bh

δεδεμένος ἁλύσεσιν δυσίν

1

bound with two chains

Each chain would have been attached to one of the two guards who stayed beside Peter. Alternate translation: “tied with two chains” or “fastened with two chains”

1680

ACT

12

6

aqv1

ἐτήρουν τὴν φυλακήν

1

were keeping watch over the prison

Alternate translation: “were guarding the prison doors”

1681

ACT

12

7

kk4i

ἐπέστη…αὐτὸν…αὐτοῦ

1

The words him and his refer to Peter.

1682

ACT

12

7

i7g3

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

The word behold alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

1683

ACT

12

7

lu25

ἐπέστη

1

appeared by him

Alternate translation: “appeared next to him” or “suddenly stood beside him”

1684

ACT

12

7

z2i1

ἐν τῷ οἰκήματι

1

in the prison cell

Alternate translation: “in the prison room”

1685

ACT

12

7

dc5b

πατάξας…τοῦ Πέτρου

1

he struck Peter

Peter was evidently sleeping deeply enough that this was required to wake him. Alternate translation: “the angel tapped Peter” or “the angel poked Peter”

1686

ACT

12

7

dqn9

ἐξέπεσαν αὐτοῦ αἱ ἁλύσεις ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν

1

his chains fell away from his hands

The angel caused the chains to fall from Peter without touching them.

1687

ACT

12

8

hxt9

ἐποίησεν…οὕτως

1

he did thus

Alternate translation: “Peter did what the angel told him to do” or “Peter obeyed”

1688

ACT

12

8

abch

λέγει αὐτῷ

1

he said to him

Alternate translation: “the angel said to Peter”

1689

ACT

12

9

gx77

ἠκολούθει…ᾔδει…ἐδόκει

1

Here the word he refers to Peter.

1690

ACT

12

9

abci

ἠκολούθει

1

he followed him

Alternate translation: “Peter followed the angel”

1691

ACT

12

9

sh8k

οὐκ ᾔδει

1

he did not know

Alternate translation: “he did not understand”

1692

ACT

12

9

p9ty

figs-activepassive

ἀληθές ἐστιν τὸ γινόμενον διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου

1

what is done by the angel is real

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the actions of the angel were real” or “what the angel did truly happened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1693

ACT

12

10

ursb

διελθόντες…ἦλθαν…αὐτοῖς…προῆλθον

1

The words they and them refer to Peter and the angel.

1694

ACT

12

10

r7gy

figs-explicit

διελθόντες δὲ πρώτην φυλακὴν καὶ δευτέραν

1

But when they had passed by the first guard and the second

It is implied that the soldiers were not able to see Peter and the angel as they walked by. Alternate translation: “The first and second guards did not see them as they passed by, and then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1695

ACT

12

10

c18q

διελθόντες

1

when they had passed by

Alternate translation: “when they had walked by”

1696

ACT

12

10

e36s

figs-ellipsis

καὶ δευτέραν

1

and the second

The word guard is understood from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “and the second guard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1697

ACT

12

10

y86k

ἦλθαν ἐπὶ τὴν πύλην τὴν σιδηρᾶν

1

they came to the iron gate

Alternate translation: “Peter and the angel arrived at the iron gate”

1698

ACT

12

10

if3c

τὴν φέρουσαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν

1

that led into the city

Alternate translation: “that opened to the city” or “that went from the prison to the city”

1699

ACT

12

10

i3st

figs-rpronouns

ἥτις αὐτομάτη ἠνοίγη αὐτοῖς

1

it opened for them by itself

Here, by itself means neither Peter nor the angel opened it. Alternate translation: “the gate swung open for them” or “the gate opened itself for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

1700

ACT

12

10

j268

προῆλθον ῥύμην μίαν

1

they went down a street

Alternate translation: “they walked along a street”

1701

ACT

12

10

fl89

εὐθέως ἀπέστη ὁ ἄγγελος ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

right away the angel went away from him

Alternate translation: “the angel left Peter suddenly” or “suddenly the angel disappeared”

1702

ACT

12

11

wlb6

figs-idiom

καὶ ὁ Πέτρος ἐν ἑαυτῷ γενόμενος

1

And when Peter had come to himself

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “And when Peter became fully awake and alert” or “And when Peter became aware that what had happened was real” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1703

ACT

12

11

ue4k

figs-metonymy

ἐξείλατό με ἐκ χειρὸς Ἡρῴδου

1

delivered me from the hand of Herod

Here, the hand of Herod refers to “Herod’s power” or “Herod’s plans.” Alternate translation: “brought me from the harm Herod had planned for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1704

ACT

12

11

hw63

ἐξείλατό με

1

delivered me

Alternate translation: “rescued me”

1705

ACT

12

11

p739

figs-synecdoche

πάσης τῆς προσδοκίας τοῦ λαοῦ τῶν Ἰουδαίων

1

from all the expectations of the Jewish people

Here, the Jewish people probably referred mainly to the Jewish leaders. Alternate translation: “from all that the Jewish leaders thought would happen to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1706

ACT

12

12

tfh3

συνιδών

1

having realized this

He became aware that God had rescued him.

1707

ACT

12

12

ux4v

figs-activepassive

Ἰωάννου, τοῦ ἐπικαλουμένου Μάρκου

1

of John, who was called Mark

John was also called Mark. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “John, whom people also called Mark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1708

ACT

12

13

pfn7

κρούσαντος…αὐτοῦ

1

when he knocked

Tapping on the door was a normal Jewish custom to let others know you wish to visit them. You may need to change this to fit your culture. Alternate translation: “when Peter knocked”

1709

ACT

12

13

c634

τὴν θύραν τοῦ πυλῶνος

1

at the door of the gate

Alternate translation: “at the outer door” or “at the door of the entrance from the street to the courtyard”

1710

ACT

12

13

khq1

προσῆλθε…ὑπακοῦσαι

1

came to answer

Alternate translation: “came to the gate to ask who was knocking”

1711

ACT

12

14

x5fg

ἐπιγνοῦσα…οὐκ ἤνοιξεν…ἀπήγγειλεν

1

Here the words she and her all refer to the servant girl Rhoda.

1712

ACT

12

14

y2ff

ἀπὸ τῆς χαρᾶς

1

from joy

Alternate translation: “because she was so joyful” or “being overly excited”

1713

ACT

12

14

m3m7

οὐκ ἤνοιξεν τὸν πυλῶνα

1

she did not open the gate

Alternate translation: “she did not open the door” or “she forgot to open the door”

1714

ACT

12

14

yq3r

ἀπήγγειλεν

1

she reported

Alternate translation: “she told them” or “she said”

1715

ACT

12

14

a19k

ἑστάναι…πρὸ τοῦ πυλῶνος

1

stands at the gate

Peter was still standing outside. Alternate translation: “is standing outside the door”

1716

ACT

12

15

j2kx

οἱ…οἱ

1

Here the word they refers to the people who were inside praying (Acts 12:12).

1717

ACT

12

15

ybz7

μαίνῃ

1

You are insane

The people not only did not believe her, but rebuked her by saying she was crazy. Alternate translation: “You are crazy”

1718

ACT

12

15

xnm2

ἡ…διϊσχυρίζετο οὕτως ἔχειν

1

she insisted that it was thus

Alternate translation: “she insisted that what she said was true”

1719

ACT

12

15

en8b

οἱ…ἔλεγον

2

they said

Alternate translation: “they answered”

1720

ACT

12

15

qa8m

ὁ ἄγγελός ἐστιν αὐτοῦ

1

It is his angel

Some Jews believed in guardian angels and may have thought that Peter’s angel had come to them. Alternate translation: “What you have seen is Peter’s angel”

1721

ACT

12

16

wwg1

εἶδαν

1

Here the word they refers to the people in the house.

1722

ACT

12

16

bi6l

ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἐπέμενεν κρούων

1

But Peter continued knocking

The word continued means that Peter kept knocking the entire time those inside were talking.

1723

ACT

12

17

jx1a

ἀπαγγείλατε…ταῦτα

1

Report these things

Alternate translation: “Tell these things”

1724

ACT

12

17

jf16

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς

1

the brothers

Alternate translation: “the other believers”

1725

ACT

12

18

ail9

δὲ

1

Now

The word Now is used to mark a break in the story-line. Time has passed; it is now the next day.

1726

ACT

12

18

iqv4

γενομένης…ἡμέρας

1

when it became day

Alternate translation: “in the morning”

1727

ACT

12

18

zl7i

figs-litotes

ἦν τάραχος οὐκ ὀλίγος ἐν τοῖς στρατιώταις, τί ἄρα ὁ Πέτρος ἐγένετο

1

there was no small disturbance among the soldiers over what therefore had happened to Peter

This phrase is used to emphasize what really happened. This could be said in a positive way. Alternate translation: “there was a great disturbance among the soldiers over what had happened to Peter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1728

ACT

12

18

ilz4

figs-abstractnouns

ἦν τάραχος οὐκ ὀλίγος ἐν τοῖς στρατιώταις, τί ἄρα ὁ Πέτρος ἐγένετο

1

there was no small disturbance among the soldiers over what had happened to Peter

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas behind the words disturbance, you could express the same ideas with the words “disturbed” or “upset.” Alternate translation: “the soldiers were very disturbed about what had happened to Peter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1729

ACT

12

19

blx5

αὐτὸν…εὑρὼν…διέτριβεν

1

The word him here refers to Peter. The word he refers to Herod.

1730

ACT

12

19

pz6v

Ἡρῴδης δὲ ἐπιζητήσας αὐτὸν

1

And Herod, having searched for him

This could mean: (1) “And when Herod heard Peter was missing, he went himself to search the prison” or (2) “And when Herod heard Peter was missing, he sent other soldiers to search the prison.”

1731

ACT

12

19

c69i

ἀνακρίνας τοὺς φύλακας, ἐκέλευσεν ἀπαχθῆναι

1

questioned the guards and ordered them to be put to death

It was the normal punishment for the Roman government to kill the guards if their prisoner escaped.

1732

ACT

12

19

br16

καὶ κατελθὼν

1

And having gone down

The phrase having gone down is used here because Caesarea is lower in elevation than Judea.

1733

ACT

12

20

n2lw

0

Connecting Statement:

Luke continues with another event in Herod’s life.

1734

ACT

12

20

aip7

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

Now

The word Now is used here to mark the next event in the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1735

ACT

12

20

gxs4

figs-hyperbole

ὁμοθυμαδὸν…παρῆσαν πρὸς αὐτόν

1

they went to him together

Here the word they is a generalization. It is unlikely that all the people of Tyre and Sidon went to Herod. Alternate translation: “men representing the people of Tyre and Sidon went together to talk with Herod” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1736

ACT

12

20

t6mi

πείσαντες Βλάστον

1

having persuaded Blastus

Alternate translation: “these men persuaded Blastus”

1737

ACT

12

20

qsg4

translate-names

Βλάστον

1

Blastus

Blastus was an assistant to or an officer of King Herod. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1738

ACT

12

20

l5r1

ᾐτοῦντο εἰρήνην

1

they asked for peace

Alternate translation: “these men requested peace”

1739

ACT

12

20

j253

figs-explicit

τὸ τρέφεσθαι αὐτῶν τὴν χώραν ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλικῆς

1

their food for their country was from the king’s country

They probably purchased this food. Alternate translation: “the people of Tyre and Sidon bought all their food from the people that Herod ruled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1740

ACT

12

20

dy51

figs-explicit

τὸ τρέφεσθαι αὐτῶν

1

their food

It is implied that Herod restricted this supply of food because he was angry with the people of Tyre and Sidon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1741

ACT

12

21

e3w9

τακτῇ…ἡμέρᾳ

1

on a set day

This was probably the day on which Herod agreed to meet with the representatives. Alternate translation: “on the day when Herod agreed to meet them”

1742

ACT

12

21

kv7g

ἐσθῆτα βασιλικὴν

1

in royal clothing

This royal clothing was expensive clothing that would demonstrate he was the king.

1743

ACT

12

21

g6ir

καθίσας ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος

1

sitting on the throne

The throne was where Herod formally addressed people who came to see him.

1744

ACT

12

23

b4bc

παραχρῆμα…ἄγγελος

1

immediately an angel

Alternate translation: “right away an angel” or “while the people were still praising Herod, an angel”

1745

ACT

12

23

b5s9

ἐπάταξεν αὐτὸν

1

struck him

Alternate translation: “afflicted Herod” or “caused Herod to become very ill”

1746

ACT

12

23

iw57

οὐκ ἔδωκεν τὴν δόξαν τῷ Θεῷ

1

he did not give the glory to God

Herod let those people worship him instead of telling them to worship God.

1747

ACT

12

23

d419

figs-activepassive

γενόμενος σκωληκόβρωτος, ἐξέψυξεν

1

becoming worm-eaten, he died

Here, worm refers to worms inside the body, probably intestinal worms. If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “worms ate Herod’s insides and he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1748

ACT

12

24

m1sw

figs-metaphor

ὁ…λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ ηὔξανεν καὶ ἐπληθύνετο

1

the word of God increased and was multiplied

The word of God is spoken of as if it was a living plant that was able to grow and reproduce. Alternate translation: “the message of God spread to more places and more people believed in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1749

ACT

12

24

wn8m

ὁ…λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God

Alternate translation: “the message God sent about Jesus”

1750

ACT

12

25

j2un

writing-endofstory

0

This verse continues the history from 11:30. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

1751

ACT

12

25

t7d8

Βαρναβᾶς δὲ καὶ Σαῦλος ὑπέστρεψαν εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ

1

And Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem

Although some ancient copies read “Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem,” the reading of “to Jerusalem” is probably correct. We know they went back to Antioch from Jerusalem, Therefore, this verse may indicate that they went somewhere else in Judea, and then returned to Jerusalem before they went back to Antioch.

1752

ACT

12

25

pv6a

figs-explicit

πληρώσαντες τὴν διακονίαν

1

having completed their service

This refers back to when they brought money from the believers at Antioch in Acts 11:29-30. Alternate translation: “when they had delivered the money to the church leaders in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1753

ACT

13

intro

rlh6

0

Acts 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. The ULT does this with the three quotes from Psalms in 13:33-35.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 13:41.

The chapter is where the second half of the Book of Acts begins. Luke writes more about Paul than about Peter, and it describes how it is the Gentiles and not the Jews to whom the believers tell the message about Jesus.

Special concepts in this chapter

A light for the Gentiles

The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. The Jews considered all Gentiles as walking in darkness, but Paul and Barnabas spoke of telling the Gentiles about Jesus as if they were going to bring them physical light. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

1754

ACT

13

1

ce7s

writing-background

0

General Information:

Verse 1 gives background information about the people in the church at Antioch. Here the first word “they” probably refers to these five leaders but may also include the other believers. The next words “they” and “their” probably refer to the other three leaders not including Barnabas and Saul but could include other believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1755

ACT

13

1

qa2i

0

Connecting Statement:

Luke begins to tell about the mission trips on which the church at Antioch send Barnabas and Saul.

1756

ACT

13

1

rej8

δὲ ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ κατὰ τὴν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν

1

Now there were in Antioch, in the church that was there

Alternate translation: “At that time in the church at Antioch”

1757

ACT

13

1

srw6

translate-names

Συμεὼν…Νίγερ…Λούκιος…Μαναήν

1

Simeon … Niger … Lucius … Manaen

These are men’s names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1758

ACT

13

1

u48c

Ἡρῴδου τοῦ τετράρχου σύντροφος

1

one brought up with Herod the tetrarch

Manaen was probably Herod’s playmate or close friend growing up. Some scholars suggest he was Herod’s foster brother.

1759

ACT

13

2

ifb9

ἀφορίσατε

1

Set apart

Alternate translation: “Appoint to serve”

1760

ACT

13

2

j6ym

προσκέκλημαι αὐτούς

1

I have called them

The verb here means that God chose them to do this work.

1761

ACT

13

3

ku45

translate-symaction

ἐπιθέντες τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῖς

1

laid their hands on them

This act showed that the leaders agreed that the Holy Spirit had called Barnabas and Saul to do this work. Alternate translation: “laid their hands on these men whom God had set apart for his service” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1762

ACT

13

3

p1us

ἀπέλυσαν

1

they sent them off

Alternate translation: “they sent those men off” or “they sent those men off to do the work the Holy Spirit told them to do”

1763

ACT

13

4

br2m

0

General Information:

Here the words “they,” “They,” and “their” refer to Barnabas and Silas.

1764

ACT

13

4

mt3h

οὖν

1

So

This word marks an event that happened because of a previous event. In this case, the previous event is Barnabas and Saul being set apart by the Holy Spirit.

1765

ACT

13

4

abcj

αὐτοὶ…ἐκπεμφθέντες

1

they, having been sent out

Alternate translation: “Barnabas and Saul were sent out”

1766

ACT

13

4

iyh8

κατῆλθον

1

went down

The phrase went down is used here because Seleucia is lower in elevation than Antioch.

1767

ACT

13

4

d1q5

Σελεύκιαν

1

Seleucia

a city by the sea

1768

ACT

13

5

at85

Σαλαμῖνι

1

Salamis

The city of Salamis was on Cyprus Island.

1769

ACT

13

5

ct8b

figs-synecdoche

κατήγγελλον τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

they were proclaiming the word of God

Here, word of God is a synecdoche for “message of God.” Alternate translation: “they proclaimed the message of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1770

ACT

13

5

p5t3

συναγωγαῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων

1

synagogues of the Jews

This could mean: (1) “there were multiple Jewish synagogues in the city of Salamis where Barnabas and Saul preached” or (2) “Barnabas and Saul started at the synagogue at Salamis and continued to preach in all the synagogues they found while they traveled around the Island of Cyprus.”

1771

ACT

13

5

sxw6

εἶχον δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννην, ὑπηρέτην

1

And they also had John as an assistant

Alternate translation: “And John Mark went with them and was helping them”

1772

ACT

13

6

h9he

εὗρον

1

Here the word they refers to Paul, Silas, and John Mark.

1773

ACT

13

6

ja1i

ὅλην τὴν νῆσον

1

the whole island

They crossed from one side of the island to the other and shared the gospel message in each town they passed through.

1774

ACT

13

6

cl2z

Πάφου

1

Paphos

Paphos was a major city on Cyprus island where the proconsul lived.

1775

ACT

13

6

zf3b

εὗρον

1

they found

Here, found means they came upon him without looking for him. Alternate translation: “they met” or “they came upon”

1776

ACT

13

6

xe7h

ἄνδρα, τινὰ μάγον

1

a certain man, a magician

Alternate translation: “a particular person who practices witchcraft” or “a person who practices supernatural magic arts”

1777

ACT

13

6

ak38

translate-names

ᾧ ὄνομα Βαριησοῦς

1

whose name was Bar Jesus

Bar Jesus means “Son of Jesus.” There is no relation between this man and Jesus Christ. Jesus was a common name at that time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1778

ACT

13

7

bee2

ἦν σὺν

1

was with

Alternate translation: “was often with” or “was often in the company of”

1779

ACT

13

7

s1su

ἀνθυπάτῳ

1

proconsul

A proconsul was a governor in charge of a Roman province. Alternate translation: “governor”

1780

ACT

13

7

h5xx

writing-background

ἀνδρὶ συνετῷ

1

an intelligent man

This is background information about Sergius Paulus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1781

ACT

13

7

abck

οὗτος, προσκαλεσάμενος

1

He summoned

Alternate translation: “The proconsul summoned”

1782

ACT

13

8

lp2u

translate-names

Ἐλύμας ὁ μάγος

1

Elymas “the magician”

This was Bar-Jesus, who was also called “the magician.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1783

ACT

13

8

qw4j

οὕτως γὰρ μεθερμηνεύεται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

for that is how his name is translated

Alternate translation: “for that was what he was called in Greek”

1784

ACT

13

8

n23s

ἀνθίστατο…αὐτοῖς…ζητῶν διαστρέψαι τὸν ἀνθύπατον

1

opposed them; he sought to turn the proconsul away

Alternate translation: “resisted them by trying to turn the proconsul away” or “attempted to stop them by trying to turn the proconsul away”

1785

ACT

13

8

w2xt

figs-metaphor

ζητῶν διαστρέψαι τὸν ἀνθύπατον ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως

1

he sought to turn the proconsul away from the faith

Here, to turn … away from is a metaphor for convincing someone to not do something. Alternate translation: “he attempted to persuade the governor not to believe the gospel message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1786

ACT

13

9

gws2

αὐτὸν

1

The word him refers to the magician Elymas, who is also called Bar Jesus (Acts 13:6-8).

1787

ACT

13

9

ey6d

figs-activepassive

Σαῦλος…ὁ καὶ Παῦλος

1

Saul, who is also Paul

Saul was his Jewish name, and Paul was his Roman name. Since he was speaking to a Roman official, he used his Roman name. Alternate translation: “Saul, who now called himself Paul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1788

ACT

13

9

xjy9

ἀτενίσας εἰς αὐτὸν

1

stared at him intensely

Alternate translation: “looked at him intensely”

1789

ACT

13

10

r8x2

ὦ πλήρης παντὸς δόλου καὶ πάσης ῥᾳδιουργίας

1

O one full of all deceit and all wickedness

Alternate translation: “O you are always intent in causing others to believe what is not true using falsehood and always doing what is wrong”

1790

ACT

13

10

d2pk

figs-metonymy

υἱὲ διαβόλου

1

son of the devil

Paul is saying the man is acting like the devil. Alternate translation: “you are like the devil” or “you act like the devil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1791

ACT

13

10

pyu7

ῥᾳδιουργίας

1

wickedness

In this context, wickedness means to be lazy and not diligent in following God’s law.

1792

ACT

13

10

hlq9

ἐχθρὲ πάσης δικαιοσύνης

1

enemy of all righteousness

Paul is grouping Elymas with the devil. Just as the devil is an enemy of God and is against righteousness, so also was Elymas.

1793

ACT

13

10

bc9p

figs-rquestion

οὐ παύσῃ διαστρέφων τὰς ὁδοὺς τοῦ Κυρίου τὰς εὐθείας?

1

will you not stop perverting the straight paths of the Lord?

Paul uses this question to rebuke Elymas for opposing God. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “you are always saying that the truth about the Lord God is false!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1794

ACT

13

10

p8sa

figs-idiom

τὰς ὁδοὺς τοῦ Κυρίου τὰς εὐθείας

1

the straight paths of the Lord

Here, straight paths refer to the ways that are true. Alternate translation: “the true ways of the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1795

ACT

13

11

xul9

figs-metonymy

χεὶρ Κυρίου ἐπὶ σέ

1

the hand of the Lord upon you

Here, hand represents the power of God and upon you implies punishment. Alternate translation: “the Lord will punish you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1796

ACT

13

11

rse8

figs-activepassive

ἔσῃ τυφλὸς

1

you will be blind

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God will make you blind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1797

ACT

13

11

w3gh

μὴ βλέπων τὸν ἥλιον

1

not seeing the sun

Elymas will be so completely blind that he not even be able to see the sun. Alternate translation: “you will not even see the sun”

1798

ACT

13

11

b5b8

ἄχρι καιροῦ

1

for a time

Alternate translation: “for a period of time” or “until the time appointed by God”

1799

ACT

13

11

t7j1

ἔπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀχλὺς καὶ σκότος

1

a mist and darkness fell on Elymas

Alternate translation: “the eyes of Elymas became blurry and then dark” or “El