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Introduction to the Gospel of Luke

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the book of Luke

  1. Dedication to Theophilus (1:1-4)
  2. Prologue
    • The birth of John the Baptist (1:5-80)
    • The birth and youth of Jesus (2:1-51)
    • The ministry of John the Baptist (3:1-20)
    • The baptism, genealogy, and temptation of Jesus (3:21-4:13)
  3. The teaching and healing ministry of Jesus in Galilee (4:14-9:50)
  4. Jesus teaches along his journey to Jerusalem
    • Judgment by God, and people’s judgments about Jesus (9:51-13:21)
    • Who will be part of the kingdom of God (13:22-17:10)
    • Responding to Jesus by welcoming or rejecting him (17:11-19:27)
  5. Jesus in Jerusalem
    • Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem (19:28-44)
    • Jesus teaches in the temple: conflict over his identity and authority (19:45-21:38)
    • Jesus’ death, burial, and resurrection (22:1-24:53)

What is the Gospel of Luke about?

The Gospel of Luke is one of four books in the New Testament that describe the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. These books are called “Gospels,” which means “good news.” Their authors wrote about different aspects of who Jesus was and what he did. Luke wrote his Gospel for a person named Theophilus and dedicated it to him. Luke wrote an accurate description of the life and teachings of Jesus so that Theophilus would be certain that what he had been taught about Jesus was true. However, Luke expected that what he wrote would encourage all followers of Jesus.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Gospel of Luke” or “The Gospel According to Luke.” Or they may choose a different title, such as “The Good News About Jesus that Luke Wrote.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Who wrote the book of Luke?

This book does not give the name of its author. However, the same person who wrote this book also wrote the book of Acts, which is also dedicated to Theophilus. In parts of the book of Acts, the author uses the word “we.” This indicates that the author traveled with Paul. Most scholars think that Luke was this person traveling with Paul. Therefore, since early Christian times, most Christians have recognized Luke as the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts.

Luke was a medical doctor. His way of writing shows that he was an educated man. He was probably a Gentile. Luke himself probably did not witness what Jesus said and did. But he tells Theophilus in his dedication that he talked to many people who did.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

The kingdom of God

“The kingdom of God” is a major concept in the Gospel of Luke. It is very rich in meaning. It includes the idea of eternal life in the presence of God, but it also includes the idea of what the earth will be like in the future when God rules everything, and the idea of life on earth right now, when and where God’s wishes are carried out fully. The unifying concept behind all of these ideas is that of God ruling and of people embracing God’s rule over their lives. Wherever the expression “the kingdom of God” occurs, translation notes will suggest communicating the idea behind the abstract noun “kingdom” with some phrase that uses the verb “rule.” UST models this approach consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

Why does Luke write so much about the final week of Jesus’ life?

Luke wrote much about Jesus’ final week. He wanted his readers to think deeply about Jesus’ final week and his death on the cross. He wanted people to understand that Jesus willingly died on the cross so that God could forgive them for sinning against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

What are the roles of women in the Gospel of Luke?

Luke described women in a very positive way in his Gospel. For example, he often showed women being more faithful to God than most men. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faithful]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What are the Synoptic Gospels?

The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are called the Synoptic Gospels because they tell the story of many of the same events. The word “synoptic” means to “see together.”

Passages are considered “parallel” when they are the same or almost the same among two or three Gospels. When translating parallel passages, translators should use the same wording and make them as similar as possible.

Why does Jesus refer to himself as the “Son of Man”?

In the Gospels, Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man.” This is a reference to Daniel 7:13-14. In that passage, there is a person who is described as like a “son of man.” That means that the person was someone who looked like a human being. God gave authority to this “son of man” to rule over the nations forever. All people will worship him forever.

Jews of Jesus’ time did not use “Son of Man” as a title for anyone. But Jesus used it for himself to help them understand who he truly was. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]])

Translating the title “Son of Man” can be difficult in many languages. Readers may misunderstand a literal translation. Translators can consider alternatives, such as “The Human One.” It may also be helpful to include a footnote to explain the title.

Major issues in the text of the book of Luke

ULT follows the readings of the most accurate ancient manuscripts of the Bible. However, there may already be older versions of the Bible in the translators’ regions that follow the readings of other manuscripts. In the most significant cases, the General Notes to the chapters in which these differences occur will discuss them and recommend approaches. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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Luke 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Dedication to Theophilus (1:1-4)
  2. The angel Gabriel announces to Zechariah that his wife Elizabeth is going to bear a son, John the Baptist (1:5-25)
  3. The angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she is going to become the mother of Jesus (1:26-38)
  4. Mary goes to visit Elizabeth (1:39-56)
  5. John the Baptist is born (1:57-80)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in Mary’s song about becoming the mother of Jesus in 1:46-55 and Zechariah’s song about the birth of his son John the Baptist in 1:68-79.

Special concepts in this chapter

“He will be called John”

Most people in the ancient Near East would give a child the same name as someone in their families. People were surprised that Elizabeth and Zechariah named their son John because there was no one else in their family with that name.

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qhd9

figs-activepassive

περὶ τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ἐν ἡμῖν πραγμάτων

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concerning the things that have been fulfilled among us

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “about those things that have happened among us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-exclusive

ἐν ἡμῖν

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among us

Luke dedicates this book to a man named Theophilus. It is no longer known exactly who he was. But since Luke says in 1:4 that he wants Theophilus to know that the things he has been taught are reliable, it appears that he was a follower of Jesus. So here the word us would include him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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2

hud2

figs-metonymy

οἱ…αὐτόπται…γενόμενοι

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who … were eyewitnesses

The term eyewitness describes someone who saw something happen personally, “with their own eyes.” The term describes such a person figuratively by reference to something associated with sight, the eye. Alternate translation: “who … saw these things personally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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z9dq

figs-metonymy

ὑπηρέται…τοῦ λόγου

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servants of the word

Here, word figuratively describes the things that the people who brought the message conveyed by using words. Alternate translation: “servants of the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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figs-metaphor

ὑπηρέται…τοῦ λόγου

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servants of the word

The people who brought this message were actually serving God by doing that. But Luke describes them figuratively as servants of the word, as if they were serving the message from God. Alternate translation: “served God by telling people his message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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fud1

writing-background

παρηκολουθηκότι ἄνωθεν πᾶσιν ἀκριβῶς

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having carefully investigated everything from the beginning

Luke provides this background information to explain that he was careful to find out exactly what happened. He probably talked to different people who saw what happened to make sure that what he wrote down about these events was correct. Alternate translation: “because I have conducted careful research and interviews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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l001

figs-youformal

σοι…κράτιστε Θεόφιλε

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you … most excellent Theophilus

If your language has a formal form of you that it uses to address a superior respectfully, it would be appropriate to use that form here. There are many other places in the book of Luke where your language might use formal you, and these notes will not address all of them. Rather, as you translate, use formal and informal you in the way that would be most natural in your language. The notes will address a few cases where a careful decision should be made between the two forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

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κράτιστε Θεόφιλε

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most excellent Theophilus

Luke is dedicating this work to Theophilus, and within his dedication, this is the conventional personal greeting. If it would be more customary in your language and culture, you could put this greeting in 1:1 at the start of the dedication, at the very beginning of the book. Alternate translation: “To most excellent Theophilus”

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κράτιστε

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most excellent

Luke uses the term most excellent to address Theophilus in a way that shows honor and respect. This may mean that Theophilus was an important government official. In your translation, it would be appropriate to use the form of address that your culture uses for people of high status. Alternate translation: “Honorable”

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translate-names

Θεόφιλε

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Theophilus

This name means “friend of God.” It may describe this man’s character, or it may have been his actual name. Most translations treat it as a name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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l002

figs-activepassive

ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων

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the things that you have been taught

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “what people have taught you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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l003

figs-explicit

ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων

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the things that you have been taught

Luke assumes that Theophilus will know that he means what he has been taught about Jesus. Alternate translation: “what people have taught you about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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gb16

writing-newevent

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου βασιλέως τῆς Ἰουδαίας

1

In the days of Herod, king of Judea

This time reference introduces a new event. Alternate translation: “During the time when King Herod ruled over Judea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

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l004

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις

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In the days of

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular period of time. Alternate translation: “During the time when” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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l005

translate-names

Ἡρῴδου

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Herod

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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translate-names

Ἰουδαίας

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Judea

Judea is the name of a kingdom. (It was not an independent kingdom at this time. Herod ruled it as a vassal of the Roman Empire.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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writing-participants

ἐγένετο…ἱερεύς τις

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there was a certain priest

This phrase introduces a new character in a story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

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translate-names

Ζαχαρίας

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Zechariah

Zechariah is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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l228

figs-explicit

ἐξ ἐφημερίας Ἀβιά

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from the division of Abijah

Luke assumes that his readers will know that this expression refers one of the different groups of priests who each served in the temple for a certain number of days at a time, and that the name of the group means that Abijah was the ancestor of these priests. Alternate translation: “who belonged to the group of priests who were descended from Abijah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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gzw1

translate-names

Ἀβιά

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Abijah

Abijah is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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d3ua

figs-metaphor

γυνὴ αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν θυγατέρων Ἀαρών

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his wife was from the daughters of Aaron

Here, the word daughters figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “his wife was a descendant of Aaron” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-explicit

ἐκ τῶν θυγατέρων Ἀαρών

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from the daughters of Aaron

This means implicitly that she, like Zechariah, was descended from the line of priests going back to Aaron, the first high priest. Alternate translation: “his wife also came from the line of priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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l008

translate-names

Ἐλεισάβετ

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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figs-metaphor

ἐναντίον τοῦ Θεοῦ

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in front of God

Luke uses this expression to mean “where God could see them.” Seeing, in turn, figuratively means attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “in God’s judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metaphor

πορευόμενοι ἐν πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ Κυρίου

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walking … in all the commandments and statutes of the Lord

The term walking figuratively means “obeying.” Alternate translation: “obeying … everything that the Lord had commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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csc9

figs-doublet

πάσαις ταῖς ἐντολαῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν τοῦ Κυρίου

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in all the commandments and statutes of the Lord

The words commandments and statutes mean similar things. Luke uses the two terms together to make a comprehensive statement. You do not need to repeat both words in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “everything that the Lord had commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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c7cj

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

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But

This word indicates a contrast, showing that what follows is the opposite of what would be expected. People expected that if they did what was right, God would allow them to have children. Although this couple did what was right, they did not have any children. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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l010

figs-idiom

ἀμφότεροι προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῶν

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they had both advanced in their days

To have moved forward or to have advanced means figuratively to have aged. Alternate translation: “they had both grown old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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l011

figs-idiom

ἀμφότεροι προβεβηκότες ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῶν

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they had both advanced in their days

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time, the lifetimes of Zechariah and Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “they had both grown old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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jr7f

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

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And it happened that

This phrase marks a shift from the background information that Luke has been providing about the participants to the first event in their story. If your language has a similar expression that it uses to introduce an event, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

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l012

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν, ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ

1

in his performing as priest in the order of his division

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the results that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because it was his group’s turn, Zechariah was serving as a priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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vyl8

figs-metaphor

ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν…ἔναντι τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

in his performing as priest before God

The expression before God, that is, “in front of God,” means that Zechariah was offering his service as a priest in the presence of God. Alternate translation: “while Zechariah was serving God as a priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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abc1

writing-pronouns

ἐν τῷ ἱερατεύειν αὐτὸν

1

in his performing as priest

The pronoun his refers to Zechariah. Alternate translation: “while Zechariah was serving as a priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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wed9

writing-background

ἐν τῇ τάξει τῆς ἐφημερίας αὐτοῦ

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in the order of his division

This is background information that explains why Zechariah was serving as a priest at this time. Alternate translation: “because it was his group’s turn to serve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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vq5g

writing-background

κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατείας, ἔλαχε

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according to the custom of the priesthood, he came up by lot

Luke is providing background information about how the priests selected members of their group to perform specific duties. Alternate translation: “The priests chose him in their customary way, by casting a lot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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pa9c

translate-unknown

ἔλαχε

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came up by lot

A lot was a marked stone that was thrown or rolled on the ground in order to help decide something. The priests believed that God would guide the lot and show them which priest he wanted them to choose for a particular duty. If your culture has a similar object, you can use the word for that in your language here. Alternate translation: “by casting a marked stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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l013

grammar-connect-logic-result

τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι, εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν ναὸν τοῦ Κυρίου

1

to enter into the temple of the Lord to burn incense

ULT puts these phrases in the chronological order of what Zechariah needed to do. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could put them in logical order instead. Alternate translation: “to burn incense, and so he went into the temple to do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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ph9z

translate-unknown

τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι

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to burn incense

The word incense describes a substance that gives off a sweet smell when it is burned. The priests were to burn it as an offering to God each morning and evening on a special altar inside the temple. If your language has a word for this substance, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “to burn a substance that would create a sweet smell as an offering to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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bjl6

figs-hyperbole

πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος…τοῦ λαοῦ

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the whole crowd of the people

This expression, if taken literally, could mean every single one of the Jews, but it is actually a generalization that Luke is using to emphasize how big this crowd was. Alternate translation: “A large number of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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ntl8

figs-explicit

ἔξω

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outside

This word refers implicitly to the enclosed area or courtyard that surrounded the temple. Alternate translation: “in the courtyard outside the temple building” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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uwu7

figs-metaphor

τῇ ὥρᾳ τοῦ θυμιάματος

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at the hour of the incense offering

The word hour figuratively means “time.” This could mean either the morning or evening time for the incense offering. Alternate translation: “when it was time to offer the incense” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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b8b7

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

δὲ

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Then

This word indicates that the event it introduces took place at the same time as the event the story has just related. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could show this relationship by using a phrase such as “right at that time.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

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c8ss

figs-idiom

ὤφθη…αὐτῷ

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appeared to him

When Luke says that the angel appeared, this does not mean that Zechariah simply saw the angel in a vision. Rather, this expression indicates that the angel was actually present with Zechariah. Alternate translation: “suddenly was there with Zechariah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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r3aa

figs-parallelism

ἐταράχθη Ζαχαρίας…φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

Zechariah was troubled … fear fell on him

These two phrases mean similar things. Luke is using them together to emphasize how afraid Zechariah was. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “Zechariah became very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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d1zm

figs-explicit

ἰδών

1

when he saw him

The implication is that Zechariah was afraid because the angel appeared glorious and powerful. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. (Luke has just said that Zechariah was righteous and blameless, so it would be good not to leave your readers with the impression that he had done something wrong and was afraid that the angel was going to punish him for it.) Alternate translation: “when he saw how glorious and powerful the angel was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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l014

figs-metaphor

φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

fear fell upon him

Luke is using the expression fell upon figuratively to speak of fear as if it attacked and overcame Zechariah. Alternate translation: “this made him very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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sfb1

figs-personification

φόβος ἐπέπεσεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

fear fell upon him

Luke describes Zechariah’s fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively attack and overpower him. Alternate translation: “this made him very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

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ki8l

figs-imperative

μὴ φοβοῦ

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Do not be afraid

While the angel speaks these words in the form of a command, he is actually telling Zechariah something to help and encourage him. Alternate translation: “You do not need to be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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13

es4l

figs-activepassive

εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου

1

your prayer has been heard

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has heard your prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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l015

figs-idiom

εἰσηκούσθη ἡ δέησίς σου

1

your prayer has been heard

This is an idiom that means that God is going to give Zechariah what he has been asking for. Alternate translation: “God is going to give you what you have been asking for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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l016

figs-declarative

καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην

1

you will call his name John

The angel is using a statement as a command in order to tell Zechariah what to do. Alternate translation: “and you are to name him John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

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l017

figs-idiom

καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην

1

call his name John

The expression call his name is an idiom that means to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “name him John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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l018

translate-names

Ἰωάννην

1

John

John is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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LUK

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n654

figs-doublet

ἔσται χαρά σοι καὶ ἀγαλλίασις

1

there will be joy and gladness to you

The words joy and gladness mean the same thing. The angel uses them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “you will be very happy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

58

LUK

1

14

q1p8

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐπὶ τῇ γενέσει αὐτοῦ

1

at his birth

The word at introduces the reason why many people will rejoice. Alternate translation: “because he has been born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

59

LUK

1

15

td57

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἔσται γὰρ μέγας

1

For he will be great

The word for introduces the reason why people will rejoice at John's birth. Alternate translation: “This will be because they will be able to tell that he is going to be a great man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

60

LUK

1

15

sz79

figs-metaphor

ἔσται γὰρ μέγας ἐνώπιον τοῦ Κυρίου

1

For he will be great before the Lord

This expression means “in front of the Lord,” that is, “where the Lord can see him.” Sight, in turn, figuratively represents attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “God will consider him to be very important” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

61

LUK

1

15

abc2

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ μὴ πίῃ

1

he must never drink

The phrase must never translates two negative words in Greek. The angel uses them together to emphasize how important it is that the child not drink wine or strong drink. If your language can use two negatives together for emphasis without them cancelling each other to create a positive meaning, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

62

LUK

1

15

hgb9

figs-activepassive

Πνεύματος Ἁγίου πλησθήσεται

1

he will be filled with the Holy Spirit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit will fill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

63

LUK

1

15

l019

figs-metaphor

Πνεύματος Ἁγίου πλησθήσεται

1

he will be filled with the Holy Spirit

The angel speaks figuratively as if John would be a container that the Holy Spirit would fill. He means that the Holy Spirit will empower and influence John. Be sure that in your translation, this does not sound similar to what an evil spirit might do to in taking control of a person. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit will empower him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

64

LUK

1

15

ie95

ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ

1

even from his mother’s womb

Alternate translation: “while he is still in his mother’s womb”

65

LUK

1

16

x36x

figs-metaphor

πολλοὺς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψει ἐπὶ Κύριον

1

he will turn many of the sons of Israel back to the Lord

To turn a person back figuratively means to lead them to repent and obey the Lord once again. Alternate translation: “he will cause many of the people of Israel to repent and obey the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

66

LUK

1

16

l020

figs-metaphor

πολλοὺς τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ

1

many of the sons of Israel

Here, the word sons figuratively means “descendants.” This expression envisions all of the Israelites as if they were their ancestor Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “many of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

67

LUK

1

16

l021

translate-names

Ἰσραὴλ

1

Israel

Israel is the name of a man. Luke uses it many times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

68

LUK

1

17

c52s

figs-idiom

αὐτὸς προελεύσεται ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ

1

he will go before him

To go before is an idiom that indicates that before the Lord comes, John will announce to the people that the Lord is going to come to them. Alternate translation: “John will announce that the Lord is coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

69

LUK

1

17

p472

figs-doublet

ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει Ἠλεία

1

in the spirit and power of Elijah

In this context, the words spirit and power mean similar things. The angel may be using them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “with the same great power that Elijah had” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

70

LUK

1

17

l022

figs-hendiadys

ἐν πνεύματι καὶ δυνάμει Ἠλεία

1

in the spirit and power of Elijah

Alternatively, the angel may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The term power may tell what kind of spirit Elijah had. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “in the powerful spirit of Elijah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

71

LUK

1

17

l023

translate-names

Ἠλεία

1

Elijah

Elijah is the name of a man, a great prophet of Israel. It occurs several times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

72

LUK

1

17

w32h

figs-personification

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα

1

to turn the hearts of fathers back to their children

The angel speaks of hearts as if they were living things that could be turned to go in a different direction. This expression figuratively means to change someone’s attitude toward something. Alternate translation: “to make fathers care about their children once again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

73

LUK

1

17

qe48

figs-synecdoche

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα

1

to turn the hearts of fathers back to their children

The angel uses the relationship between fathers and children figuratively to represent all relationships. Luke relates in 3:10-14 how John encouraged reconciliation in a variety of different relationships. Alternate translation: “to restore broken relationships” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

74

LUK

1

17

l024

figs-explicit

ἐπιστρέψαι καρδίας πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα

1

to turn the hearts of fathers back to their children

It is assumed that readers will know that this is what the prophet Malachi had said Elijah would do before the Lord came. The implication in context is that John will fulfill this prophecy by using the same empowerment that Elijah had. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to restore broken relationships, just as the prophet Malachi said Elijah would do before the Lord came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

75

LUK

1

17

l025

figs-explicit

ἀπειθεῖς ἐν φρονήσει δικαίων

1

to turn … the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous

Gabriel is using the term wisdom in the Old Testament sense as a moral term that refers to choosing the way in life that God has shown to be best. The people who make this choice are righteous, meaning that God considers them to be living in the right way. Alternate translation: “to lead people who are disobeying God to choose his ways and become people who live right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

76

LUK

1

17

j49j

figs-nominaladj

ἀπειθεῖς…δικαίων

1

the disobedient … of the righteous

Gabriel is using the adjectives disobedient and righteous as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate these words with equivalent phrases. Alternate translation: “people who are disobeying God … people who live right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

77

LUK

1

17

ujs1

figs-explicit

λαὸν κατεσκευασμένον

1

a people prepared

You could state explicitly in your translation what the people will be prepared to do. Alternate translation: “a people who will be prepared to believe his message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

78

LUK

1

18

asn2

figs-explicit

κατὰ τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο

1

How will I know this

Zechariah is implicitly asking for a sign as proof. Alternate translation: “What sign can you show me to prove that this will happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

79

LUK

1

18

l026

grammar-connect-logic-result

γάρ

1

For

This word introduces the reason why Zechariah wants a sign. He and his wife are both too old to have children, so he is finding it hard to believe what the angel has told him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

80

LUK

1

18

l027

figs-idiom

προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτῆς

1

my wife is advanced in her days

Zechariah is using two idioms. As in 1:7, to be advanced means figuratively to have aged, and days figuratively refers a particular period of time, in this case the lifetime of Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “my wife has also grown old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

81

LUK

1

19

l028

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν

1

answering the angel said

Together the words answering and said mean that the angel responded to the question that Zechariah asked. Alternate translation: “the angel responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

82

LUK

1

19

p3jn

figs-declarative

ἐγώ εἰμι Γαβριὴλ, ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

I am Gabriel, the one standing before God

Gabriel says this in the form of a statement, but he means it as a rebuke to Zechariah. The presence of an angel coming directly from God should be enough proof for him. Alternate translation: “You should have believed me, Gabriel, coming to you straight from God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

83

LUK

1

19

l029

translate-names

Γαβριὴλ

1

Gabriel

Gabriel is the name of an angel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

84

LUK

1

19

yp6z

figs-metaphor

ὁ παρεστηκὼς ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the one standing before God

To stand before or “in front of” a master, that is, in the presence of that master, figuratively means to be available to serve them at all times in any capacity. Alternate translation: “I serve God personally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

85

LUK

1

19

pd7h

figs-activepassive

ἀπεστάλην λαλῆσαι πρὸς σὲ

1

I was sent to speak to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God sent me to speak to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

86

LUK

1

20

x9qk

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἰδοὺ

1

and behold

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Though it literally means “look” or “see,” in this case seeing figuratively means giving notice and attention. Alternate translation: “Pay attention!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

87

LUK

1

20

l030

figs-explicit

ἔσῃ σιωπῶν καὶ μὴ δυνάμενος λαλῆσαι

1

you will be silent, and not able to speak

The implication is that God will make this happen, to show that Zechariah should have believed what Gabriel told him. Alternate translation: “God will make you completely unable to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

88

LUK

1

20

g5t1

figs-doublet

σιωπῶν καὶ μὴ δυνάμενος λαλῆσαι

1

silent, and not able to speak

These two phrases mean the same thing. Gabriel uses the repetition to emphasize how complete the silence of Zechariah will be. Alternate translation: “completely unable to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

89

LUK

1

20

q6y3

figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἐπίστευσας τοῖς λόγοις μου

1

you did not believe my words

Gabriel uses the term words figuratively to describe the content of his message by reference to something associated with it, the words he used to communicate it. Alternate translation: “you did not believe what I told you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

90

LUK

1

20

l031

figs-activepassive

οἵτινες πληρωθήσονται

1

which will be fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “which will happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

91

LUK

1

20

hgu3

figs-idiom

εἰς τὸν καιρὸν αὐτῶν

1

in their time

This is an idiom that means “the time that pertains to them.” Alternate translation: “at the appointed time” or “at the time that God has chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

92

LUK

1

21

e14e

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

καὶ

1

And

This word marks a shift in the story from what happened inside the temple to what happened outside. Alternate translation: “While that was happening” or “While the angel and Zechariah were talking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

93

LUK

1

22

h6vt

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐπέγνωσαν ὅτι ὀπτασίαν ἑώρακεν ἐν τῷ ναῷ. καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν διανεύων αὐτοῖς, καὶ διέμενεν κωφός

1

they concluded that he had seen a vision in the temple; and he was making signs to them, and remained unable to speak

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “He kept on making signs to them but said nothing. So they concluded that he must have seen a vision while he was in the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

94

LUK

1

22

r2ak

figs-explicit

ἐπέγνωσαν ὅτι ὀπτασίαν ἑώρακεν ἐν τῷ ναῷ

1

they perceived that he had seen a vision

Gabriel was actually present with Zechariah in the temple. He explains in 1:19 that God sent him there. The people, not knowing this, assumed that Zechariah had seen a vision. While the Greek says that they “perceived” this, it means that they thought they recognized what had happened. Alternate translation: “they thought that he had seen a vision” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

95

LUK

1

23

duy9

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

96

LUK

1

23

l032

figs-activepassive

ὡς ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ

1

when the days of his priestly service were fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “when Zechariah had finished his time of service at the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

97

LUK

1

23

l033

figs-idiom

αἱ ἡμέραι τῆς λειτουργίας αὐτοῦ

1

the days of his priestly service

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “his time of service at the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

98

LUK

1

23

sa5y

figs-explicit

ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

1

he went away to his home

This expression indicates implicitly that Zechariah did not live in Jerusalem, where the temple was located. Luke indicates in 1:39 that Zechariah and Elizabeth lived instead in a city in the hill country of Judah, the area to the south of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “he traveled back to his hometown” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

99

LUK

1

24

l034

grammar-connect-time-sequential

δὲ

1

And

This word indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the events it has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

100

LUK

1

24

cda2

figs-idiom

μετὰ δὲ ταύτας τὰς ἡμέρας

1

after these days

Here, Luke uses the term days to refer figuratively to a particular period of time, specifically, the time when Zechariah was serving in the temple. Alternate translation: “after Zechariah had finished serving at the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

101

LUK

1

24

kpw1

figs-explicit

περιέκρυβεν ἑαυτὴν μῆνας πέντε

1

she hid herself for five months

This expression means that Elizabeth did not leave her house during that time. She seems to state the reason for this in the next verse. She had felt disgraced because she was not able to have children. But if she stayed in her house for five months, the next time people saw her, her pregnancy would show, and it would be clear that she was able to have children. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “She did not leave her house for five months so that by the next time people saw her, it would be clear that she was going to have a baby” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

102

LUK

1

25

w8yq

figs-exclamations

οὕτως μοι πεποίηκεν Κύριος

1

Thus the Lord has done for me

This is a positive exclamation. Elizabeth is very happy with what the Lord has done for her. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could show this by making it a separate sentence and indicating with the conventions of your language that it is an exclamation. Alternate translation: “What a marvelous thing the Lord has done for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

103

LUK

1

25

z1xr

figs-explicit

οὕτως μοι πεποίηκεν Κύριος

1

Thus the Lord has done for me

It is implicit that Elizabeth is referring to the fact that the Lord has allowed her to become pregnant. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “What a marvelous thing the Lord has done for me by allowing me to become pregnant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

104

LUK

1

25

pn2a

figs-idiom

ἐπεῖδεν

1

he looked upon me

Here, the expression looked upon is an idiom that means “shown regard for” or “treated well.” Alternate translation: “he treated me kindly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

105

LUK

1

25

lx3p

figs-explicit

ἀφελεῖν ὄνειδός μου ἐν ἀνθρώποις

1

to take away my disgrace among people

By disgrace, Elizabeth means the shame she felt because she was not able to have children. Alternate translation: “so that I no longer have to feel ashamed when I am around other people because I cannot have children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

106

LUK

1

26

v9w2

figs-explicit

ἐν…τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ

1

in the sixth month

Luke assumes that readers will recognize that this does not mean the sixth month of the year, but the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy. If you think there could be some confusion about this, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “after Elizabeth had been pregnant for six months” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

107

LUK

1

26

l035

translate-ordinal

τῷ μηνὶ τῷ ἕκτῳ

1

the sixth month

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “month 6” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

108

LUK

1

26

rl4c

figs-activepassive

ἀπεστάλη ὁ ἄγγελος Γαβριὴλ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the angel Gabriel was sent from God

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God sent the angel Gabriel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

109

LUK

1

26

l036

translate-names

Γαλιλαίας

1

Galilee

Galilee is the name of a region. It occurs many times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

110

LUK

1

26

l037

translate-names

Ναζαρὲτ

1

Nazareth

Nazareth is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

111

LUK

1

27

l038

writing-participants

ἀνδρὶ, ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰωσὴφ

1

a man whose name was Joseph

This introduces Joseph as a new character in the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

112

LUK

1

27

l039

translate-names

Ἰωσὴφ

1

Joseph

Joseph is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

113

LUK

1

27

tzh2

figs-metaphor

ἐξ οἴκου Δαυεὶδ

1

of the house of David

In this expression, the word house describes all the people descended from a particular person. The term views all of those descendants figuratively as if they were one household living together. Alternate translation: “who was a descendant of King David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

114

LUK

1

27

l040

writing-background

ἐξ οἴκου Δαυεὶδ

1

of the house of David

This is background information that helps identify Joseph further. It is important for readers to know because it means that as 1:32 indicates, Jesus, as the adoptive son of Joseph, will be an eligible successor to King David as the Messiah. Alternate translation: “who came from the royal line of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

115

LUK

1

27

w9tm

writing-participants

τὸ ὄνομα τῆς παρθένου Μαριάμ

1

the name of the virgin was Mary

This introduces Mary as a new character in the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

116

LUK

1

27

l041

translate-names

Μαριάμ

1

Mary

Mary is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

117

LUK

1

28

i7h4

figs-idiom

χαῖρε

1

Rejoice

This word was used as a greeting. Alternate translation: “Greetings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

118

LUK

1

28

bp2n

κεχαριτωμένη

1

favored one

Alternate translation: “you who have received great grace” or “you who have received special kindness”

119

LUK

1

28

jmq9

figs-idiom

ὁ Κύριος μετὰ σοῦ

1

The Lord is with you

The expression with you is an idiom that indicates favor and acceptance. Alternate translation: “The Lord is pleased with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

120

LUK

1

29

l042

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ

1

by his words

Luke is using the term words figuratively to mean what Gabriel said by using words. Alternate translation: “by what he said” or “when he said this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

121

LUK

1

29

ytx7

διελογίζετο ποταπὸς εἴη ὁ ἀσπασμὸς οὗτος

1

she was considering what kind of greeting this might be

Alternate translation: “she wondered why an angel would greet her in this way”

122

LUK

1

30

l043

grammar-connect-logic-result

μὴ φοβοῦ, Μαριάμ; εὗρες γὰρ χάριν παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ

1

Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “God is showing you his kindness, Mary, so you do not need to be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

123

LUK

1

30

d3rx

figs-imperative

μὴ φοβοῦ

1

Do not be afraid

While the angel speaks these words in the form of a command, he is actually telling Mary something that he thinks will help and encourage her. Alternate translation: “You do not need to be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

124

LUK

1

30

a3eb

figs-activepassive

εὗρες…χάριν παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ

1

you have found favor with God

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God is showing you his kindness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

125

LUK

1

31

l044

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἰδοὺ

1

And behold

As in 1:20, behold is a term that focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

126

LUK

1

31

fi5q

figs-explicitinfo

συνλήμψῃ ἐν γαστρὶ, καὶ τέξῃ υἱόν

1

you will conceive in your womb and bear a son

The phrase conceive in your womb might seem to express unnecessary extra information, and so if you represent all of it in your language, that might not seem natural. However, the details are important here. The expression emphasizes that Jesus was a human son born of a human mother. So be sure to translate this expression in a way that conveys that. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

127

LUK

1

31

l045

figs-declarative

καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν

1

you will call his name Jesus

As in 1:13, Gabriel is using a statement as a command in order to tell Mary what to do. Alternate translation: “you are to name him Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

128

LUK

1

31

l046

figs-idiom

καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦν

1

call his name Jesus

As in 1:13, call his name is an idiom that means to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “name him Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

129

LUK

1

31

l047

translate-names

Ἰησοῦν

1

Jesus

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

130

LUK

1

32

l048

figs-idiom

Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται

1

He … will be called the Son of the Most High

To be called is an idiom that means “to be.” (This idiom occurs three times in this episode and in a few other places in the book, such as 1:76, 2:23, and 15:19.) Alternate translation: “He will be the Son of the Most High” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

131

LUK

1

32

hl55

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται

1

He … will be called the Son of the Most High

Gabriel is not saying only that Son of the Most High is a title by which Jesus will be known. Instead, just as the previous verse described how Jesus was a human son born of a human mother, his statement here indicates that Jesus was also the divine Son of a divine Father. You may want to show this by employing capitalization or whatever other convention your language uses to indicate divinity. Alternate translation: “He will be the Son of the Most High” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

132

LUK

1

32

ip26

figs-activepassive

Υἱὸς Ὑψίστου κληθήσεται

1

He … will be called the Son of the Most High

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “He will be the Son of the Most High” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

133

LUK

1

32

z74z

figs-idiom

Ὑψίστου

1

the Most High

This is an idiomatic way of referring to God, as the fuller expression “the Most High God” in 8:38 shows. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate the phrase that way in order to explain its meaning. Or, you could simply reproduce the phrase in the simpler form in which it occurs here in order to show your readers one of the ways in which the people of this time referred to God. Alternate translation: “the Most High God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

134

LUK

1

32

lwd9

figs-metonymy

δώσει αὐτῷ…τὸν θρόνον Δαυεὶδ, τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ

1

will give to him the throne of his father David

The throne figuratively represents a king’s authority to rule. Alternate translation: “will give him authority to rule as king as his ancestor David did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

135

LUK

1

32

l049

figs-metaphor

δώσει αὐτῷ…τὸν θρόνον Δαυεὶδ, τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ

1

will give to him the throne of his father David

Here, the term father figuratively means “ancestor,” but since a line of kings is in view, it also indicates that Jesus will be a successor to David. Alternate translation: “will give him authority to rule as a successor to his ancestor David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

136

LUK

1

33

l050

figs-parallelism

βασιλεύσει…εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας; καὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἔσται τέλος

1

he will reign … to the ages, and there will be no end of his kingdom

These two phrases mean similar things. Gabriel uses them together to emphasize how certain it is that Jesus will always rule. Because Gabriel is making a proclamation, he is speaking in a form much like poetry. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be good to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a word other than and, in order to show that the second phrase is repeating the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “he will rule … forever, yes, his kingship will always continue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

137

LUK

1

33

l051

figs-metaphor

τὸν οἶκον Ἰακὼβ

1

the house of Jacob

In this expression, the word house figuratively describes all the people descended from a particular person, in this case Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “the people descended from Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

138

LUK

1

33

l052

translate-names

Ἰακὼβ

1

Jacob

Jacob is the name of a man. Luke uses it a few more times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

139

LUK

1

33

l053

figs-idiom

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας

1

to the ages

This is an idiom. The term ages means long periods of time. Alternate translation: “forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

140

LUK

1

33

q516

figs-litotes

τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἔσται τέλος

1

there will be no end of his kingship

This is a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “his kingship will always continue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

141

LUK

1

33

l054

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ, οὐκ ἔσται τέλος

1

there will be no end of his kingship

The abstract noun kingship refers to the action of a king reigning. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the idea behind this word with a verb such as “reign.” Alternate translation: “he will always reign” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

142

LUK

1

34

cf3b

figs-explicit

πῶς ἔσται τοῦτο

1

How will this be

The implication is that even though Mary did not understand how this could happen, she did not doubt that it would happen. This is clear from the way that Gabriel responds positively and encouragingly to her, by contrast to the way he rebuked Zechariah in 1:18 for his similar-sounding question. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this explicitly. Alternate translation: “I believe you, though I do not understand how this could happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

143

LUK

1

34

fqt7

figs-euphemism

ἄνδρα οὐ γινώσκω

1

I have not known a man

Mary uses a polite expression to say that she had not engaged in sexual activity. Alternate translation: “I have never had sexual relations with a man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

144

LUK

1

35

l055

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν

1

answering the angel said

Together the words answering and said mean that the angel responded to the question that Mary asked. Alternate translation: “the angel responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

145

LUK

1

35

l056

figs-parallelism

Πνεῦμα Ἅγιον ἐπελεύσεται ἐπὶ σέ, καὶ δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι

1

The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you

These two phrases mean similar things. Once again Gabriel is speaking in a form much like Hebrew poetry. It would be good here as well to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with a term other than and, in order to show that the second phrase is repeating and clarifying the meaning of the first one, not saying something additional. Alternate translation: “The Holy Spirit will come to you, yes, the power of God will cover you like a shadow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

146

LUK

1

35

x53s

figs-metaphor

δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι

1

the power of the Most High will overshadow you

It was the power of God that would supernaturally cause Mary to become pregnant even while she still remained a virgin. It is not clear exactly how this happened, since Gabriel speaks figuratively as if God’s power had a shadow in order to describe it. But make sure that your translation does not imply that there was any physical or sexual union involved. This was a miracle. It might work well to retain Gabriel’s language and change the metaphor to a simile. Alternate translation: “the power of the Most High will cover you like a shadow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

147

LUK

1

35

l057

figs-idiom

Ὑψίστου

1

the Most High

See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. Alternate translation: “the Most High God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

148

LUK

1

35

l058

figs-idiom

διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

1

Therefore, the holy one who will be born will be called the Son of God

As in 1:32, to be called is an idiom that means “to be.” Alternate translation: “Therefore, this holy baby will be the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

149

LUK

1

35

k866

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

1

Therefore, the holy one who will be born will be called the Son of God

Gabriel is not saying only that Son of God is a title by which Jesus will be known. Instead, this is a further statement that Jesus would be the divine Son of a divine Father. (Gabriel says therefore, indicating that this will be the result of the process he has just described.) You may want to show this by employing capitalization or whatever other convention your language uses to indicate divinity. Alternate translation: “Therefore, this holy baby will be the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

150

LUK

1

35

vrz6

figs-activepassive

τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

1

the holy one who will be born will be called the Son of God

If your readers would misunderstand these two passive forms, you could express the meaning of each with an active form. Alternate translation: “people will call this holy baby whom you will bear the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

151

LUK

1

35

l059

figs-parallelism

τὸ γεννώμενον Ἅγιον κληθήσεται, Υἱὸς Θεοῦ

1

the holy one who will be born will be called the Son of God

Depending on how the Greek is understood, this could be another parallel statement. Alternate translation: “The one who will be born will be holy. Yes, he will be the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

152

LUK

1

36

lx9k

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Consider this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

153

LUK

1

36

f88l

καὶ αὐτὴ συνείληφεν υἱὸν ἐν γήρει αὐτῆς

1

she also has conceived a son in her old age

Make sure that your translation does not make it does not sound as if both Mary and Elizabeth were old when they conceived. Alternate translation: “she has also become pregnant with a son, even though she is already very old”

154

LUK

1

36

hck2

figs-idiom

οὗτος μὴν ἕκτος ἐστὶν αὐτῇ

1

this is the sixth month for her

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “she is now in the sixth month of her pregnancy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

155

LUK

1

36

l060

figs-idiom

τῇ καλουμένῃ στείρᾳ

1

who was called barren

This is a further use of the idiom also found in 1:32 and 1:35 in which “to be called” means “to be.” Alternate translation: “who was not able to have children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

156

LUK

1

37

v42f

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

For

This word indicates that the sentence it introduces explains the reason for what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “This shows that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

157

LUK

1

37

g7yt

figs-doublenegatives

οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα

1

every word will not be impossible for God

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “God is able to do anything he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

158

LUK

1

37

l061

figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα

1

every word will not be impossible for God

Here, the term word could mean: (1) since Mary uses the same term figuratively in the next verse to describe the message that Gabriel has brought from God, Gabriel may be using it to mean that message as well. Alternate translation: “God is able to do anything he says” (2) Gabriel may be using the term in a general sense to mean “thing.” Alternate translation: “everything is possible with God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

159

LUK

1

38

tef1

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Here, behold means more literally “look,” that is, “Look at me,” by which Mary means, “This is who I am.” Alternate translation (not followed by a comma): “I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

160

LUK

1

38

kw3g

figs-metaphor

ἡ δούλη Κυρίου

1

the female servant of the Lord

By describing herself as a servant, Mary is responding humbly and willingly. She is not boasting about being in the Lord’s service. Choose an expression in your language that will show her humility and obedience to the Lord. Alternate translation: “someone who will gladly serve the Lord in any way he wishes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

161

LUK

1

38

b9ax

γένοιτό μοι

1

May it happen to me

Once again Mary is expressing her willingness for the things to happen that the angel has told her about. Alternate translation: “I am willing for these things to happen to me”

162

LUK

1

38

l062

figs-metonymy

κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου

1

according to your word

Here, the term word figuratively describes the message that Gabriel has brought. Alternate translation: “just as you have said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

163

LUK

1

39

ka5b

writing-newevent

δὲ…ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

Then … in those days

This time reference sets the stage for a new episode in the story. Alternate translation: “Around that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

164

LUK

1

39

l063

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

in those days

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “Around that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

165

LUK

1

39

wj5i

figs-idiom

ἀναστᾶσα

1

arose

This is an idiom that means not just that Mary stood up, but that she took action to get an enterprise under way. Alternate translation: “started out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

166

LUK

1

39

sii5

figs-explicit

τὴν ὀρινὴν

1

the hill country

This was an area of high hills extending south from the Jerusalem area to the Negev desert. Alternate translation: “the hilly area south of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

167

LUK

1

40

ee51

figs-explicit

εἰσῆλθεν εἰς

1

entered into

The implication is that Mary finished her journey before she went into Zechariah’s house. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “Once she arrived, she went inside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

168

LUK

1

41

bx82

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. One method that is natural in some languages is to introduce this event without such a phrase. UST often models this approach. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

169

LUK

1

41

v99g

writing-pronouns

ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ αὐτῆς

1

in her womb

The pronoun her refers to Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “in Elizabeth’s womb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

170

LUK

1

41

ya5v

figs-metaphor

ἐσκίρτησεν

1

leaped

Luke says that Elizabeth’s baby leaped, but this was not literally possible. The expression refers figuratively to the baby making a sudden movement in response to the sound of Mary’s voice. Alternate translation: “moved suddenly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

171

LUK

1

41

l064

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου ἡ Ἐλεισάβετ

1

Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit filled Elizabeth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

172

LUK

1

41

l065

figs-metaphor

ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου ἡ Ἐλεισάβετ

1

Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit

Luke speaks figuratively as if Elizabeth was a container that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit empowered Elizabeth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

173

LUK

1

42

r4ka

figs-hendiadys

ἀνεφώνησεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ καὶ εἶπεν

1

she exclaimed in a loud voice and said

The expression exclaimed … and said expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word exclaimed indicates that what was said was an exclamation. Alternate translation: “she said loudly and excitedly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

174

LUK

1

42

f69c

figs-idiom

φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

1

in a loud voice

This is an idiom that means Elizabeth raised the volume of her voice. Alternate translation: “loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

175

LUK

1

42

t5e8

figs-idiom

ἐν γυναιξίν

1

among women

The expression among women is an idiom that means “more than any other woman.” You could express that as an alternate translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

176

LUK

1

42

bnl2

figs-metaphor

ὁ καρπὸς τῆς κοιλίας σου

1

the fruit of your womb

Elizabeth speaks figuratively of Mary’s baby as if he were the fruit that a plant or tree produces. Alternate translation: “the baby you are carrying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

177

LUK

1

43

k63f

figs-rquestion

καὶ πόθεν μοι τοῦτο, ἵνα ἔλθῃ ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου πρὸς ἐμέ?

1

And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me?

Elizabeth is not asking for information. She is using a question form to show how surprised and happy she is that Mary has come to visit her. Alternate translation: “How wonderful it is that the mother of my Lord has come to visit me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

178

LUK

1

43

l066

figs-idiom

πόθεν μοι τοῦτο

1

whence is this to me

The expression whence is this to me means “where did this come from to me.” It is an idiom for describing something as wonderful and unexpected. Alternate translation (not followed by a comma): “how wonderful it is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

179

LUK

1

43

tiu4

figs-123person

ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κυρίου μου

1

the mother of my Lord

Elizabeth is referring to Mary in the third person. You could make this clear by adding the word “you” in your translation, as UST does. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person)

180

LUK

1

44

uq3j

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

1

For behold

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. This phrase alerts Mary to pay attention to Elizabeth’s surprising statement that follows. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

181

LUK

1

44

h54t

figs-metaphor

ὡς ἐγένετο ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ σου εἰς τὰ ὦτά μου

1

as soon as the sound of your greeting was in my ears

Elizabeth is using the term ears to mean hearing, and hearing figuratively means recognition. Alternate translation: “as soon as I heard your voice and realized that it was you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

LUK

1

44

u9db

figs-metaphor

ἐσκίρτησεν ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει

1

leaped for joy

As in 1:41, leaped is a figurative way of referring to sudden movement. Alternate translation: “moved suddenly because he was so happy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

183

LUK

1

45

kf73

figs-123person

ἡ πιστεύσασα…τοῖς λελαλημένοις αὐτῇ παρὰ Κυρίου

1

she who believed … the things that were spoken to her from the Lord

Elizabeth is speaking to Mary, and these phrases describe Mary, but Elizabeth nevertheless speaks of her in the third person. She does this perhaps as a sign of respect, since she has just identified Mary as “the mother of my Lord.” Alternate translation: “you who believed … the message that the Lord sent you”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

184

LUK

1

45

gc1e

figs-activepassive

ἔσται τελείωσις τοῖς λελαλημένοις αὐτῇ παρὰ Κυρίου

1

that there would be a fulfillment of the things that were spoken to her from the Lord

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “that the Lord would do everything he sent the angel to tell you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

185

LUK

1

45

g8rc

figs-explicit

ἔσται τελείωσις τοῖς λελαλημένοις αὐτῇ παρὰ Κυρίου

1

that there would be a fulfillment of the things that were spoken to her from the Lord

Here, instead of the word “by,” Elizabeth uses the word from because Mary actually heard the angel Gabriel speak (see 1:26), but the things he spoke ultimately came from the Lord. Alternate translation: “that the Lord would do everything he sent the angel to tell you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

186

LUK

1

46

vxj4

figs-synecdoche

μεγαλύνει ἡ ψυχή μου

1

My soul magnifies

The word soul refers to the inmost part of a person. Here, Mary uses it to refer to all of herself. Mary is saying that her worship comes from deep inside her. Alternate translation: “From the depths of my being, I praise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

187

LUK

1

47

jp51

figs-synecdoche

ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου

1

and my spirit has rejoiced

The word spirit also refers to the inner part of a person. Alternate translation: “yes, with everything inside of me, I rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

188

LUK

1

47

l067

figs-parallelism

ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου

1

and my spirit has rejoiced

This statement is parallel to the one in the previous verse. Mary is speaking in poetry. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it might be good to show that to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. Alternate translation: “yes, with everything inside of me, I rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

189

LUK

1

47

hgz7

figs-idiom

ἠγαλλίασεν

1

has rejoiced

Mary is speaking idiomatically as if something she is presently doing happened in the past. Alternate translation: “is celebrating” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

190

LUK

1

48

zhr5

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

For

This word introduces the reason for what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “And this is why” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

191

LUK

1

48

k3fv

figs-idiom

ἐπέβλεψεν ἐπὶ

1

looked upon

As in 1:25, looked upon is an idiom that means “shown regard for.” Alternate translation: “he has kindly chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

192

LUK

1

48

tg6y

figs-metonymy

τὴν ταπείνωσιν τῆς δούλης αὐτοῦ

1

the low condition of his female servant

Mary is speaking of her low condition figuratively to mean herself. Alternate translation: “me to serve him, even though I am not very important” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

193

LUK

1

48

gsy2

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

1

For behold

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Just think!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

194

LUK

1

48

l37l

figs-metonymy

πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαί

1

all generations

Mary uses the term generations figuratively to mean the people who will be born in all future generations. Alternate translation: “the people of all future generations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

195

LUK

1

49

xng2

figs-metonymy

ὁ δυνατός

1

the Mighty One

Here, Mary is describing God figuratively by one of his attributes. She means that “God, who is powerful,” has done great things for her. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy)

196

LUK

1

49

ze9y

figs-metonymy

ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

his name is holy

Mary is using the term name figuratively to mean God’s reputation, and the reputation figuratively represents God himself. Alternate translation: “he deserves to be treated with complete respect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

197

LUK

1

50

ijs2

figs-idiom

εἰς γενεὰς καὶ γενεὰς

1

is unto generation and generation

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “extends to every generation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

198

LUK

1

50

l068

figs-idiom

τοῖς φοβουμένοις αὐτόν

1

those who fear him

In this context, to fear does not mean to be afraid, but to show respect and reverence. Alternate translation: “those who honor him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

199

LUK

1

51

pb8u

figs-metonymy

ἐποίησεν κράτος ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ

1

He has done mighty deeds with his arm

Mary is using the term arm figuratively to represent God’s power. Alternate translation: “He has demonstrated that he is very powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

200

LUK

1

51

s51c

figs-metaphor

διεσκόρπισεν

1

he has scattered

The word scattered figuratively describes how thoroughly God has defeated all who opposed him. The word creates a picture of God’s enemies fleeing in every direction, unable to arrange an organized retreat. Alternate translation: “he has completely defeated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

201

LUK

1

51

nt8x

figs-metaphor

ὑπερηφάνους διανοίᾳ καρδίας αὐτῶν

1

those who are proud in the thoughts of their hearts

The term hearts figuratively represents the will and affections of these people. Alternate translation: “who cherish proud thoughts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

202

LUK

1

52

ty2j

figs-metonymy

καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀπὸ θρόνων

1

He has thrown down rulers from their thrones

A throne is a chair that a ruler sits on, and it is a symbol associated with authority. If a ruler is brought down from his throne, that means he no longer has the authority to reign. Alternate translation: “He has deposed rulers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

203

LUK

1

52

l069

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

and

This word indicates a contrast between what this phrase describes and what the previous phrase described. Try to make the contrast between these opposite actions clear in your translation. Alternate translation: “but”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

204

LUK

1

52

ee3q

figs-metaphor

ὕψωσεν ταπεινούς

1

he has raised up the lowly

In this word picture, people who are more important are depicted as higher up than people who are less important. Alternate translation: “he has given important roles to humble people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

205

LUK

1

52

yuu2

figs-nominaladj

ταπεινούς

1

the lowly

Mary is using this adjective as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “humble people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

206

LUK

1

53

z2he

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

but

This word once again indicates a contrast between what this phrase describes and what the previous phrase described. Try to make the contrast between these opposite actions as clear as possible in your translation here as well. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

207

LUK

1

54

d8g6

translate-versebridge

0

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine 1:54 and 1:55 into a verse bridge, as UST does, in order to keep the information about Israel together. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

208

LUK

1

54

l070

figs-personification

Ἰσραὴλ

1

Israel

Mary is referring figuratively to all of the people of Israel as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

209

LUK

1

54

g5u1

figs-metaphor

παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

1

his servant

The term servant refers figuratively to the special role that God gave to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “his chosen people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

210

LUK

1

54

hyt3

figs-idiom

μνησθῆναι ἐλέους

1

to remember his mercy

In this context, the phrase to remember his mercy figuratively refers to God thinking about a person or group and considering what action he can take on their behalf. It does not suggest that God had ever forgotten to be merciful. Alternate translation: “in order to be merciful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

211

LUK

1

55

qc9k

figs-metaphor

καθὼς ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν

1

as he spoke to our fathers

Here, the word fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “just as he promised to our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

212

LUK

1

55

l071

translate-names

Ἀβραὰμ

1

Abraham

Abraham is the name of a man. It occurs several times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

213

LUK

1

55

by4a

figs-metaphor

τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ

1

to his seed

The term seed figuratively means “offspring.” It is a word picture. Just as plants produce seeds that grow into many more plants, so people can have many offspring. Alternate translation: “to his descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

214

LUK

1

55

l072

figs-idiom

εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

1

to the age

This is an idiom. See how you translated the similar expression in 1:33. Alternate translation: “forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

215

LUK

1

56

l073

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event of Mary returning home happened after the event of Mary staying with Elizabeth for three months. Alternate translation: “then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

216

LUK

1

56

nt87

writing-pronouns

ἔμεινεν…Μαριὰμ σὺν αὐτῇ ὡς μῆνας τρεῖς, καὶ ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτῆς

1

Mary stayed with her about three months, and returned to her house

The first instance of the word her in this verse refers to Elizabeth, and the second instance refers to Mary. Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Mary returned to her own home. She did not stay for three months, leave for a time, and then return to Elizabeth’s home. Alternate translation: “Mary stayed with Elizabeth for about three months, and then Mary went back to her own house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

217

LUK

1

57

hfk3

grammar-connect-time-sequential

δὲ

1

And

Luke uses this word to indicate that this event took place after the events he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

218

LUK

1

57

l074

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος

1

the time was fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the time came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

219

LUK

1

57

dd2i

τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν

1

for her to deliver

Your language may require you to state the object of deliver. Alternate translation: “for her to deliver her baby” or “for her to have her baby”

220

LUK

1

58

j2xc

figs-metaphor

ἐμεγάλυνεν…τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτῆς

1

had magnified his mercy to her

Luke speaks figuratively as if God had made his mercy bigger towards Elizabeth. Alternate translation: “had shown great kindness to her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

221

LUK

1

58

l075

figs-explicit

ἐμεγάλυνεν…τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτῆς

1

had magnified his mercy to her

The implication is that God’s great kindness to Elizabeth was to enable her to have a baby. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “had shown great kindness to her by enabling her to have a baby” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

222

LUK

1

59

f4ul

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

223

LUK

1

59

l076

translate-unknown

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ

1

on the eighth day

This expression refers to the eighth day of the baby’s life, reckoning the day he was born as the first day. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate this expression according to the way your own culture reckons time. Alternate translation: “when the baby was one week old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

224

LUK

1

59

gm1k

translate-ordinal

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ὀγδόῃ

1

on the eighth day

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “on day 8” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

225

LUK

1

59

ya7d

figs-explicit

ἦλθον περιτεμεῖν τὸ παιδίον

1

they came to circumcise the child

In this culture, family and friends often came to celebrate with the family when a baby was circumcised. This ceremony showed that the baby was a member of the community that was in a special relationship with God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the family and friends of Zechariah and Elizabeth came for the baby’s circumcision ceremony, when he would be acknowledged as a member of the Israelite community” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

226

LUK

1

59

ip8w

figs-idiom

ἐκάλουν αὐτὸ ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ, Ζαχαρίαν

1

they were going to call him after the name of his father, Zechariah

As in 1:13 and 1:31, to call the name of a child is an idiom meaning to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “they were going to give him the same name as his father, Zechariah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

227

LUK

1

60

l077

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεῖσα ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ εἶπεν

1

answering his mother said

Together the words answering and said mean that John’s mother responded to the intention of her family and friends to name the baby Zechariah. Alternate translation: “his mother responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

228

LUK

1

60

l078

figs-activepassive

κληθήσεται

1

he will be called

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “we are going to name him John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

229

LUK

1

61

t4e7

figs-explicit

οὐδείς ἐστιν ἐκ τῆς συγγενείας σου, ὃς καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

1

There is no one among your relatives who is called by this name

The expression this name means specifically the name John. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could put the actual name in your translation. Alternate translation: “None of your relatives is named John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

230

LUK

1

61

l079

figs-activepassive

καλεῖται τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

1

is called by this name

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “has the name John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

231

LUK

1

62

ium2

figs-explicit

ἐνένευον…τῷ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ

1

they made signs to his father

Zechariah may have been unable both to speak and to hear, but Gabriel only told him that he would be unable to speak, so it is more likely that the people simply assumed he could not hear because he was not speaking. If you think your readers might wonder why the people made signs to Zechariah, you could offer an explanation. Alternate translation: “because Zechariah was not speaking, the people thought he could not hear either, so they made signs to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

232

LUK

1

62

w3kq

figs-activepassive

τὸ τί ἂν θέλοι καλεῖσθαι αὐτό

1

as to what he wanted him to be called

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “to ask him what name he wanted to give the baby” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

233

LUK

1

63

gn28

figs-explicit

αἰτήσας

1

asking for

It may be helpful to suggest how Zechariah was asking, since he could not speak. Alternate translation: “making signs with his hands to show that he wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

234

LUK

1

63

qu93

translate-unknown

πινακίδιον

1

a writing tablet

This was a wooden tablet covered with wax. A person would use a stylus (that is, something with a sharp point) to write in the wax. The wax could later be smoothed out and the tablet could be used again. If your readers might not recognize this object, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “something to write on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

235

LUK

1

64

sdg1

figs-parallelism

ἀνεῴχθη…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ

1

his mouth was opened and his tongue was freed

These two phrases mean the same thing. Luke uses them together for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “he became able to speak once again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

236

LUK

1

64

l080

figs-metonymy

ἀνεῴχθη…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ

1

his mouth was opened and his tongue was freed

Each of these phrases figuratively describes the act of speaking by referring to something associated with speech coming into action, specifically, the mouth opening and the tongue moving about freely. Alternate translation: “he became able to talk once again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

237

LUK

1

64

mi2u

figs-activepassive

ἀνεῴχθη…τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ…καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ

1

his mouth was opened and his tongue was freed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. You could also say who did the action. Alternate translation: “he became able to talk once again” or “God enabled him to speak once again” or, if you want to use the figurative language, “God opened his mouth and freed his tongue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

238

LUK

1

65

l081

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

This word introduces the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

239

LUK

1

65

qw1j

figs-personification

ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος

1

fear came on all those who lived around them

As in 1:12, Luke here describes fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively come upon people. Alternate translation: “all those who lived around them were in awe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

240

LUK

1

65

l082

figs-idiom

ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος, τοὺς περιοικοῦντας αὐτούς

1

fear came on all those who lived around them

In this context, fear does not mean to be afraid, but to have respect and reverence. Alternate translation: “all those who lived around them were in awe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

241

LUK

1

65

l083

figs-explicit

ἐγένετο ἐπὶ πάντας φόβος

1

fear came on all those who lived around them

It may be helpful to state clearly why the people responded in this way. Alternate translation: “all those who lived around them were in awe of God because of what he had done in the lives of Zechariah and Elizabeth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

242

LUK

1

65

g7uh

figs-hyperbole

πάντας…τοὺς περιοικοῦντας αὐτούς…ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ὀρεινῇ

1

all those who lived around them … throughout all the hill country

Here Luke uses the word all twice as an generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “the people who lived around them … widely throughout that area” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

243

LUK

1

65

pz97

figs-activepassive

διελαλεῖτο πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα

1

all these matters were being talked about

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “people talked about all these matters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

244

LUK

1

66

c7xf

figs-ellipsis

ἔθεντο πάντες οἱ ἀκούσαντες, ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῶν

1

all who heard stored in their hearts

Luke is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need to be complete. Alternate translation: “all who heard these things stored them in their hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

245

LUK

1

66

l6lt

figs-metaphor

ἔθεντο…ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῶν

1

stored in their hearts

Luke is speaking figuratively of hearts as places where thoughts and memories can be stored safely. His expression describes people thinking things over carefully in order to understand them and retain them. Alternate translation: “thought carefully about these matters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

246

LUK

1

66

dgq4

figs-rquestion

τί ἄρα τὸ παιδίον τοῦτο ἔσται?

1

What then will this child become?

The people who said this were likely not asking a question, expecting someone to tell them what the child would become. Rather, they were making a statement about what the events of the child’s birth had led them to believe about his destiny. So you could translate this as a statement or as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “What a great man this child will become!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

247

LUK

1

66

xm9c

figs-metaphor

χεὶρ Κυρίου ἦν μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

the hand of the Lord was with him

In this expression, the hand figuratively represents strength and power. Alternate translation: “the Lord’s power was helping him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

248

LUK

1

67

lvd6

figs-activepassive

Ζαχαρίας…ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “The Holy Spirit filled Zechariah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

249

LUK

1

67

l084

figs-metaphor

Ζαχαρίας…ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit

Luke speaks figuratively as if Zechariah were a container that the Holy Spirit filled. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit inspired Zechariah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

250

LUK

1

67

fs5y

writing-quotations

ἐπροφήτευσεν λέγων

1

prophesied, saying

Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “prophesied, and he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

251

LUK

1

68

l085

figs-personification

ὁ Θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

1

the God of Israel

Luke is referring figuratively to the Israelites as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

252

LUK

1

68

jx5n

figs-explicit

ὁ Θεὸς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

1

the God of Israel

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the relationship between God and Israel more explicitly. Alternate translation: “the God whom the people of Israel worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

253

LUK

1

68

d67v

figs-idiom

ἐπεσκέψατο…τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ

1

he has visited … his people

Here, the term visited is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he has come to help … his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

254

LUK

1

69

l086

figs-metaphor

ἤγειρεν κέρας σωτηρίας ἡμῖν

1

he has raised up a horn of salvation for us

In this context, raised up means brought into existence or enabled to act. Alternate translation: “he has brought us a horn of salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

255

LUK

1

69

g11u

figs-metonymy

ἤγειρεν κέρας σωτηρίας ἡμῖν

1

he has raised up a horn of salvation for us

An animal’s horn is associated with its strength, and so Zechariah is using the term figuratively as a symbol for a ruler by association with the power and authority a ruler has. Alternate translation: “he has brought us a ruler who will have the power to save us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

256

LUK

1

69

fb9f

figs-metonymy

ἐν οἴκῳ Δαυεὶδ, παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

1

in the house of his servant David

David’s house figuratively represents his family and all of his descendants. Alternate translation: “who is a descendant of his servant David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

257

LUK

1

69

l087

figs-explicit

ἐν οἴκῳ Δαυεὶδ, παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

1

in the house of his servant David

The implication is that as a descendant of David, this ruler will be an eligible successor to him as the Messiah. Alternate translation: “who is from the royal line of his servant David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

258

LUK

1

69

l088

figs-metaphor

Δαυεὶδ, παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

1

in the house of his servant David

David was not actually a servant, he was a king. Here the emphasis in the word servant is on how David served God faithfully in that capacity. Alternate translation: “who is from the royal line of David, who served him faithfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

259

LUK

1

70

x1q1

figs-metonymy

ἐλάλησεν διὰ στόματος τῶν ἁγίων…προφητῶν αὐτοῦ

1

he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets

God speaking by the mouth of the prophets represents God inspiring them to say what he wanted them to say. Alternate translation: “he inspired his holy prophets to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

260

LUK

1

70

l089

figs-idiom

ἀπ’ αἰῶνος

1

from an age

This is an idiom. See how you translated the similar expression in 1:33. Alternate translation: “a long time ago” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

261

LUK

1

71

d13g

figs-abstractnouns

σωτηρίαν ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν

1

salvation from our enemies

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun salvation, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “save” or “rescue.” It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He will save us from our enemies” or “He will rescue us from our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

262

LUK

1

71

aye3

figs-doublet

ἐξ ἐχθρῶν ἡμῶν, καὶ ἐκ χειρὸς πάντων τῶν μισούντων ἡμᾶς

1

from our enemies and from the hand of all those who hate us

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. Zechariah may be using repetition for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “from the domination of our enemies who hate us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

263

LUK

1

71

c6n9

figs-metonymy

χειρὸς

1

hand

The hand figuratively represents the power that a person uses the hand to exercise. Alternate translation: “domination” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

264

LUK

1

72

w97a

figs-parallelism

ποιῆσαι ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, καὶ μνησθῆναι διαθήκης ἁγίας αὐτοῦ

1

to show mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy covenant

The two phrases in this verse say basically the same thing. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be good to show this to your readers by including the content of both phrases in your translation. Alternate translation: “to show kindness to our ancestors by fulfilling the special agreement he made with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

265

LUK

1

72

l090

figs-explicit

ποιῆσαι ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν, καὶ μνησθῆναι διαθήκης ἁγίας αὐτοῦ

1

to show mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy covenant

If the connection between these phrases might be confusing, you could state explicitly how God was showing mercy to the ancestors. Alternate translation: “to show kindness to our ancestors by fulfilling for us the special agreement he made with them, because we are their descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

266

LUK

1

72

l091

figs-metaphor

ποιῆσαι ἔλεος μετὰ τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν

1

to show mercy to our fathers

Here, the term fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “to show kindness to our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

267

LUK

1

72

z5wj

figs-idiom

καὶ μνησθῆναι διαθήκης ἁγίας αὐτοῦ

1

and to remember his holy covenant

In this context, the term remember figuratively describes God thinking about the Israelites and considering what action he can take on their behalf. It does not suggest that God had forgotten about them. Alternate translation: “by fulfilling the special agreement he made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

268

LUK

1

73

l092

figs-metaphor

Ἀβραὰμ, τὸν πατέρα ἡμῶν

1

Abraham, our father

Here, the term father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “our ancestor Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

269

LUK

1

73

sk92

figs-metaphor

τοῦ δοῦναι ἡμῖν

1

to grant to us

Zechariah is using the term grant, meaning to “give,” in an idiomatic sense. Alternate translation: “to make it possible for us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

270

LUK

1

74

f4e4

figs-activepassive

ἐκ χειρὸς ἐχθρῶν ῥυσθέντας

1

having been delivered out of the hand of our enemies

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “after he has rescued us from the power of our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

271

LUK

1

74

gm55

figs-metonymy

ἐκ χειρὸς ἐχθρῶν

1

out of the hand of our enemies

The hand figuratively represents the power that a person uses the hand to exercise. Alternate translation: “from the domination of our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

272

LUK

1

74

v55j

figs-explicit

ἀφόβως

1

fearlessly

The implication is that if the Israelites were still under enemy domination, they would be afraid of what their enemies might do to them if they worshiped and obeyed the Lord. Alternate translation: “without being afraid of what our enemies might do to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

273

LUK

1

75

l5n2

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ὁσιότητι καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ

1

in holiness and righteousness

If your readers would misunderstand this, you can express the ideas behind the abstract nouns holiness and righteousness with adjectives. Alternate translation: “doing what is holy and righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

274

LUK

1

75

tn5i

figs-idiom

ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ

1

before him

This is an idiom that means “in his presence,” and that suggests being in relationship with God. Alternate translation: “in relationship with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

275

LUK

1

75

l093

figs-idiom

πάσαις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἡμῶν

1

all our days

Here Zechariah uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular period of time. Alternate translation: “for our whole lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

276

LUK

1

76

f6r1

figs-explicit

καὶ σὺ δέ, παιδίον

1

And indeed, you, child

Zechariah uses this phrase to begin his direct address to his son. In your translation, you can indicate the change from Zechariah talking about God to Zechariah talking to John in the way that is most appropriate and natural in your language. It may be clearest to indicate this change explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Zechariah said to his son John, ‘And as for you, my child’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

277

LUK

1

76

l094

figs-idiom

προφήτης…κληθήσῃ

1

you … will be called a prophet

As in 1:32, to be called is an idiom that means “to be.” Review the note there if that would be helpful. Zechariah is not saying that John will simply have the reputation of being a prophet. Alternate translation: “you … will be a prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

278

LUK

1

76

h2vh

figs-activepassive

προφήτης…κληθήσῃ

1

you … will be called a prophet

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “you … will be a prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

279

LUK

1

76

bb3g

figs-idiom

Ὑψίστου

1

of the Most High

See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “of the Most High God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

280

LUK

1

76

de7t

figs-idiom

προπορεύσῃ…ἐνώπιον Κυρίου

1

you will go before the Lord

As in 1:17, to go before is an idiom that indicates that before the Lord comes, John will announce to the people that the Lord is going to come to them. Alternate translation: “you will announce that the Lord is coming,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

281

LUK

1

76

l095

figs-metaphor

ἑτοιμάσαι ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ

1

to prepare his paths

Zechariah is using the imagery of paths figuratively to indicate that John will prepare the people to listen to the Lord’s message and believe it. Alternate translation: “to get the people ready for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

282

LUK

1

77

l096

figs-abstractnouns

τοῦ δοῦναι γνῶσιν σωτηρίας τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ, ἐν ἀφέσει ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν

1

to give the knowledge of salvation to his people through the forgiveness of their sins

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the ideas behind the abstract nouns salvation and forgiveness with the verbs “save” and “forgive.” Alternate translation: “to teach God’s people that he wants to save them by forgiving their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

283

LUK

1

77

t6d3

figs-metonymy

τοῦ δοῦναι γνῶσιν σωτηρίας τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ

1

to give the knowledge of salvation to his people

The phrase to give … knowledge is a figurative description of teaching. Alternate translation: “to teach God’s people that he wants to save them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

284

LUK

1

78

z861

figs-metaphor

ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους

1

the sunrise from heaven

Zechariah speaks of the coming of the Savior as if it will be a sunrise that will light up the earth. Alternate translation: “the Savior who comes from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

285

LUK

1

78

l097

figs-metonymy

ἐξ ὕψους

1

from heaven

Zechariah uses the term heaven to refer to God figuratively by association, since heaven is the abode of God. Alternate translation: “from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

286

LUK

1

78

l098

figs-idiom

ἐπισκέψεται ἡμᾶς

1

will visit us

As in 1:68, visit is an idiom. Alternate translation: “will come to help us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

287

LUK

1

79

sh2q

figs-metaphor

ἐπιφᾶναι τοῖς…καθημένοις

1

to shine on those who are sitting

As in 1:78, light figuratively represents truth. Just as Zechariah described the Savior as like a sunrise in that verse, here he is describing the spiritual truth that the Savior will bring as if it will light up the earth. Alternate translation: “to show the truth to people who are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

288

LUK

1

79

l099

figs-idiom

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

1

on those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death

To sit in a place is an idiom that means to be in that place. Alternate translation: “on people who are in darkness, yes, even in deep darkness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

289

LUK

1

79

k46q

figs-idiom

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

1

on those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death

The shadow of death is an idiom that describes deep darkness. Alternate translation: “on people who are in darkness, yes, even in deep darkness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

290

LUK

1

79

l100

figs-metaphor

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

1

on those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death

Since light figuratively represents truth, darkness represents the absence of spiritual truth. Alternate translation: “on people who do not know the truth, who do not know it at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

291

LUK

1

79

cnh7

figs-doublet

τοῖς ἐν σκότει καὶ σκιᾷ θανάτου καθημένοις

1

on those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death

These two phrases work together to emphasize the deep spiritual darkness that people are in before God shows them mercy. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine the phrases. Alternate translation: “on people who do not know the truth at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

292

LUK

1

79

s3eb

figs-metaphor

κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης

1

to guide our feet into the path of peace

Zechariah is using the word guide figuratively to mean “teach,” and the expression the path of peace figuratively to represent living at peace with God. Alternate translation: “to teach us how to live at peace with God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

293

LUK

1

79

l101

figs-synecdoche

κατευθῦναι τοὺς πόδας ἡμῶν εἰς ὁδὸν εἰρήνης

1

to guide our feet into the path of peace

Zechariah is using the term feet figuratively to represent the whole person. Alternate translation: “to teach us how to live at peace with God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

294

LUK

1

80

q2ax

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

And

This word introduces the next part of the story. In this verse, Luke describes a few transitional events in order to move quickly from the birth of John to the beginning of his ministry as an adult. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

295

LUK

1

80

a8bz

ἐκραταιοῦτο πνεύματι

1

became strong in spirit

This could refer to: (1) the inner part of a person, as in 1:47. Alternate translation: “he developed a strong character” (2) how God kept the promise that Gabriel made to Zechariah in 1:15, that the Holy Spirit would empower his son. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit empowered him”

296

LUK

1

80

eh9j

figs-explicit

ἦν ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις

1

he was in the wilderness

This expression means implicitly that John went to live there. Luke does not say at what age John did this. Alternate translation: “he went to live in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

297

LUK

1

80

qu12

ἕως ἡμέρας ἀναδείξεως αὐτοῦ

1

until the day of his public appearance

The term until does not indicate a stopping point. John continued to live out in the wilderness even after he started preaching publicly. In your translation, be sure that this is clear to your readers. Alternate translation: “through the time when he began to preach in public”

298

LUK

1

80

ie4l

figs-idiom

ἡμέρας ἀναδείξεως αὐτοῦ

1

the day of his public appearance

Here, Luke uses the term day figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “the time when he began to preach in public” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

299

LUK

1

80

l102

figs-personification

πρὸς τὸν Ἰσραήλ

1

to Israel

Luke is referring to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “to the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

300

LUK

2

intro

dw6t

0

Luke 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus is born in the city of Bethlehem (2:1-20)
  2. Joseph and Mary dedicate Jesus, and Simeon and Anna speak about him (2:21-40)
  3. Jesus goes to Jerusalem with his parents for Passover (2:41-52)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in the song of the angels about Jesus’ birth in 2:14 and in Simeon’s song about Jesus in 2:29-32.

Important textual issues in this chapter

“his father and mother”

In 2:33, the most accurate ancient manuscripts read “his father and mother.” ULT follows that reading. Some other ancient manuscripts read “Joseph and his mother.” That reading indicates that Joseph was not the biological father of Jesus, since Mary conceived him as a virgin. However, Joseph was the adoptive father of Jesus, and so the reading “his father and mother” is not incorrect. If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the reading that it has. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to use the reading in ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

301

LUK

2

1

c887

writing-newevent

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

1

in those days

This time reference introduces a new event. Alternate translation: “around that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

302

LUK

2

1

l103

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

1

in those days

Here, Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular period of time. Alternate translation: “around that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

303

LUK

2

1

e9m5

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο

1

it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to show that this is the beginning of an account. If your language has a way of showing the start of an account, you may use that in your translation. If not, you may choose not to represent this phrase. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

304

LUK

2

1

gda6

figs-personification

ἐξῆλθεν δόγμα παρὰ

1

a decree went out from

The decree did not go out by itself, even though Luke speaks figuratively as if it did. Messengers likely proclaimed the emperor’s command throughout the empire. Alternate translation: “sent out messengers with a decree ordering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

305

LUK

2

1

jtz3

writing-participants

Καίσαρος Αὐγούστου

1

Caesar Augustus

Caesar was the title of the emperor of the Roman Empire. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “King Augustus, who ruled the Roman Empire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

306

LUK

2

1

l104

translate-names

Αὐγούστου

1

Augustus

Augustus is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

307

LUK

2

1

tk59

figs-explicit

ἀπογράφεσθαι πᾶσαν τὴν οἰκουμένην

1

for all the world to register

Luke assumes that his readers will know that this was for tax purposes. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “that all the people living in the Roman Empire had to list their names on the tax rolls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

308

LUK

2

1

m39d

figs-metonymy

τὴν οἰκουμένην

1

the world

The term world refers specifically to the part of the world that Caesar Augustus ruled. It is actually describing the people living in that part of the world figuratively by association to where they lived. Alternate translation: “the people living in the Roman Empire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

309

LUK

2

2

q9zw

translate-names

Κυρηνίου

1

Quirinius

Quirinius is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

310

LUK

2

2

l105

translate-names

Συρίας

1

Syria

Syria is the name of one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

311

LUK

2

3

s4im

writing-background

ἐπορεύοντο πάντες

1

everyone was traveling

Luke describes the registration as already in progress in order to account for why Joseph and Mary had to travel at this time, late in her pregnancy. Alternate translation: “everyone was going” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

312

LUK

2

3

h5e2

figs-explicit

εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν

1

to his own city

The phrase his own city refers to the city where a person’s family had originally lived. A person might have since moved to a different city. Alternate translation: “to the city that their families came from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

313

LUK

2

3

d64g

figs-explicit

ἀπογράφεσθαι

1

to register himself

Alternate translation: “to provide their names for the tax rolls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

314

LUK

2

4

l106

grammar-connect-logic-result

δὲ

1

And

This word introduces the results of what the previous sentences described. Alternate translation: “And so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

315

LUK

2

4

l107

figs-idiom

ἀνέβη

1

went up

Luke says went up because Joseph had to go up into the mountains to travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem. Alternate translation: “traveled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

316

LUK

2

4

kz78

figs-explicit

εἰς πόλιν Δαυεὶδ, ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ

1

to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem

Bethlehem was known as the city of David because King David had come from there. Luke includes this detail because it indicates why Bethlehem was important, even though it was a small town. Not only had the line of David’s dynasty originated there, the prophet Micah had said that the future Messiah would be born there. Alternate translation: “to the town known as Bethlehem, where King David had come from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

317

LUK

2

4

l108

figs-activepassive

ἥτις καλεῖται Βηθλέεμ

1

which is called Bethlehem

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whose name is Bethlehem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

318

LUK

2

4

l109

figs-hendiadys

εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυείδ

1

he was of the house and family line of David

Luke is expressing a single idea by using two terms, house and family line, connected with and. The term family line indicates the significance of Joseph being a descendant of David. It means that any son of his, natural or adopted, would be an eligible successor to King David as the Messiah. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning of these two terms with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “he was descended from the royal line of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

319

LUK

2

4

s7a7

figs-metaphor

εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐξ οἴκου καὶ πατριᾶς Δαυείδ

1

he was of the house and family line of David

As in 1:27, the word house figuratively describes all the people descended from a particular person. Alternate translation: “he was descended from the royal line of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

320

LUK

2

5

ktz2

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἀπογράψασθαι σὺν Μαριὰμ, τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ

1

He registered himself with Mary, who was engaged to him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “Because Mary was engaged to Joseph, she had to travel with him so that he could list their names together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

321

LUK

2

5

ne7a

figs-explicit

Μαριὰμ, τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ

1

Mary, who was engaged to him

In this culture, an engaged couple was considered legally married, although there would not have been physical intimacy between them until after the wedding. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that. Alternate translation: “Mary, who was engaged to him and who was therefore considered his legal wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

322

LUK

2

5

l110

figs-activepassive

τῇ ἐμνηστευμένῃ αὐτῷ

1

who was engaged to him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who had promised to marry him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

323

LUK

2

6

qw6j

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

This phrase marks the beginning of the next event in the story. If your language has a similar expression that it uses to introduce an event, you can use it in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

324

LUK

2

6

w4is

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ

1

while they were there

The word they refers to Joseph and Mary being in Bethlehem. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “while Mary and Joseph were in Bethlehem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

325

LUK

2

6

zr62

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν

1

the days were fulfilled for her to deliver

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the time came for Mary to give birth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

326

LUK

2

6

l111

figs-idiom

ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι

1

the days were fulfilled

Here Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “the time came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

327

LUK

2

6

l112

τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν

1

for her to deliver

Your language may require you to state the object of deliver. Alternate translation: “for her to deliver her baby” or “for her to have her baby”

328

LUK

2

7

l113

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν, καὶ ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ, διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι

1

she wrapped him in strips of cloth and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could put the second phrase before the first one, since it gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because there was no guest room available for them, she wrapped cloths tightly around him and put him in a box that held hay for animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

329

LUK

2

7

qq48

figs-explicit

ἐσπαργάνωσεν αὐτὸν

1

wrapped him in strips of cloth

In some cultures, mothers help their babies feel secure by wrapping them tightly in cloth or in a blanket. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly Alternate translation: “wrapped cloths tightly around him to make him feel secure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

330

LUK

2

7

s97r

translate-unknown

ἀνέκλινεν αὐτὸν ἐν φάτνῃ

1

laid him in a manger

A manger was a box or frame in which people put hay or other food for animals to eat. It was most likely clean, and it may have had something soft and dry like hay in it that would have provided a cushion for the baby. In this culture, animals were often kept near a home to keep them safe and so that their owners could feed them easily. Mary and Joseph stayed in a space that was ordinarily used for animals for those reasons. Alternate translation: “put him in a box that held hay for animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

331

LUK

2

7

yj6j

figs-explicit

διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι

1

there was no room for them in the inn

There was probably no room because so many people had come to Bethlehem to register. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “there was no other place available for them to stay, because so many people had come there to register” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

332

LUK

2

7

l114

translate-unknown

διότι οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τόπος ἐν τῷ καταλύματι

1

because there was no room for them in the inn

The inn could mean a place of lodging where travelers stayed overnight. However, Luke uses the same term in 22:11 to refer to a room in a house. So it could also mean “guest room.” Alternate translation: “there was no other place available for them to stay, because so many people had come there to register” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

333

LUK

2

8

l115

writing-background

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses and to introduce background information about some new characters. You can translate it with the word or phrase that serves the same purpose in your language. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

334

LUK

2

8

l116

writing-participants

ποιμένες ἦσαν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ αὐτῇ

1

there were shepherds in that area

This phrase introduces new characters into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “there were some shepherds living in that area” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

335

LUK

2

9

x1y4

ἄγγελος Κυρίου

1

an angel of the Lord

Alternate translation: “a heavenly messenger sent from the Lord”

336

LUK

2

9

u2di

ἐπέστη αὐτοῖς

1

stood before them

Alternate translation: “came to the shepherds”

337

LUK

2

9

ca2k

figs-explicit

δόξα Κυρίου περιέλαμψεν αὐτούς

1

the glory of the Lord shone around them

The implication is that a bright light appeared at the same time as the angel, expressing the magnificent presence of God that was accompanying his messenger. The glory of God is associated with light in the Bible, for example, “Arise, shine; for your light has come, and the glory of Yahweh has risen on you,” Isaiah 60:1. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “a bright light shone all around them, showing the glorious presence of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

338

LUK

2

9

l117

figs-idiom

ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν

1

they feared a great fear

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “they were extremely afraid” or “they were terrified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

339

LUK

2

10

hnr7

figs-imperative

μὴ φοβεῖσθε

1

Do not be afraid

As in 1:13, while the angel speaks these words in the form of a command, he is really telling the shepherds something to help and encourage them. Alternate translation: “You do not need to be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

340

LUK

2

10

l118

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

1

for behold

The term behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Now listen to this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

341

LUK

2

10

pw8t

εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην, ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

1

I bring you good news of great joy, which will be to all the people

Alternate translation: “I have come to announce good news that will make all the people very happy”

342

LUK

2

10

adz8

figs-hyperbole

παντὶ τῷ λαῷ

1

all the people

This could be: (1) a reference to all people. That is the reading of UST. Alternate translation: “all people everywhere” (2) a figurative generalization that refers specifically to the Jewish people who would welcome Jesus as the Messiah. Alternate translation: “your people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

343

LUK

2

11

l119

figs-infostructure

ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον Σωτὴρ, ὅς ἐστιν Χριστὸς, Κύριος, ἐν πόλει Δαυείδ

1

today has been born for you in the city of David a Savior, who is Christ the Lord!

If it would be more natural in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “a Savior, who is Christ the Lord, has been born for you today in the city of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

344

LUK

2

11

z1us

figs-activepassive

ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον

1

today has been born for you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we are announcing the birth for you today” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

345

LUK

2

11

z9m2

figs-explicit

ἐν πόλει Δαυείδ

1

in the city of David

This means Bethlehem. See the explanation in the note to 2:4. Alternate translation: “in Bethlehem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

346

LUK

2

11

l120

figs-explicit

ὅς ἐστιν Χριστὸς, Κύριος

1

who is Christ the Lord

Christ is the Greek word for “Messiah.” Alternate translation: “who is the Messiah, the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

347

LUK

2

12

yj15

figs-explicit

τοῦτο ὑμῖν τὸ σημεῖον

1

this will be the sign to you

The implication is that God has provided this sign. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God has given you this sign” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

348

LUK

2

12

snr9

figs-explicit

ὑμῖν τὸ σημεῖον

1

the sign to you

This could be: (1) a sign that would help the shepherds recognize the baby. Alternate translation: “this sign to help you find the newborn Messiah” (2) a sign to prove that what the angel was saying was true. Alternate translation: “the sign to prove that what I am telling you is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

349

LUK

2

12

xx57

figs-explicit

ἐσπαργανωμένον

1

wrapped in strips of cloth

See how you translated this expression in 2:7. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “with cloths wrapped tightly around him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

350

LUK

2

12

bua3

translate-unknown

κείμενον ἐν φάτνῃ

1

lying in a manger

See how you translated the term manger in 2:7. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “lying in a box that holds hay for animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

351

LUK

2

13

b54a

figs-metaphor

πλῆθος στρατιᾶς οὐρανίου

1

a multitude of the heavenly army

This phrase could refer to a literal army of angels, or it could be speaking figuratively of a large organized group of angels. Alternate translation: “a large group of angels from heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

352

LUK

2

13

e2gp

figs-hendiadys

αἰνούντων τὸν Θεὸν καὶ λεγόντων

1

praising God and saying

Luke is expressing a single idea by using two verbs connected with and. The angels said these words in order to praise God. Alternate translation: “who praised God by saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

353

LUK

2

14

p1fm

δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις Θεῷ

1

Glory in the highest to God

This could mean: (1) the angels are describing where God should receive honor. In that case in the highest would mean “in the highest place,” that is, “in heaven,” and the phrase would parallel “on earth.” Alternate translation: “Give honor to God in heaven” (2) the angels are describing what kind of honor God should receive. Alternate translation: “Give the highest honor to God”

354

LUK

2

14

y2b3

ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκίας

1

among men of good pleasure

This could refer to: (1) God’s good pleasure with people. Alternate translation: “among people with whom God is pleased” (2) people who show good pleasure or “good will” to one another. Alternate translation: “among people of good will”

355

LUK

2

14

l121

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώποις

1

men

Here, the term men has a generic meaning that includes all people. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

356

LUK

2

15

au2m

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to mark a shift in the story, to what the shepherds did after the angels left. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

357

LUK

2

15

s4js

figs-exclusive

διέλθωμεν…ἴδωμεν…ἡμῖν

1

Let us … go … let us see … to us

The shepherds are speaking to one another, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive us, use the inclusive form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

358

LUK

2

16

l122

figs-hendiadys

ἦλθον σπεύσαντες

1

they went hastening

The two verbs went and hastening express a single idea. The word hastening tells how they went. Alternate translation: “they went quickly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

359

LUK

2

16

rdi2

translate-unknown

κείμενον ἐν τῇ φάτνῃ

1

lying in the manger

See how you translated the term manger in 2:7. Alternate translation: “lying in a box that holds hay for animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

360

LUK

2

17

n2qz

figs-activepassive

τοῦ ῥήματος τοῦ λαληθέντος αὐτοῖς

1

the message that had been told to them

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “what the angels had told them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

361

LUK

2

18

vh9d

figs-activepassive

τῶν λαληθέντων ὑπὸ τῶν ποιμένων πρὸς αὐτούς

1

the things that were spoken to them by the shepherds

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “what the shepherds told them” Alternate translation: (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

362

LUK

2

19

reb7

figs-metaphor

συμβάλλουσα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς

1

pondering them in her heart

In this expression, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “reflecting on what they meant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

363

LUK

2

20

nqv7

figs-explicit

ὑπέστρεψαν οἱ ποιμένες

1

the shepherds returned

This means that they returned to their flock. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the shepherds went back to take care of their sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

364

LUK

2

20

c9x5

figs-doublet

δοξάζοντες καὶ αἰνοῦντες τὸν Θεὸν

1

glorifying and praising God

The terms glorifying and praising mean similar things. Luke is using them together for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these terms. Alternate translation: “excitedly praising God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

365

LUK

2

20

l123

figs-activepassive

καθὼς ἐλαλήθη πρὸς αὐτούς

1

just as it had been spoken to them

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “just as the angel had told them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

366

LUK

2

21

b2k2

figs-explicit

ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν

1

when eight days had been fulfilled to circumcise him

The law that God gave to Jewish believers told them to circumcise a baby boy on the eighth day of his life. As in 1:59, the day on which the baby was born was considered to be the first day. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate this expression according to the way your own culture reckons time. Alternate translation: “when the baby was one week old, and according to the Jewish law it was time to circumcise him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

367

LUK

2

21

ud24

writing-newevent

ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ

1

when eight days had been fulfilled

This time reference also introduces a new event. Alternate translation: “after eight days had gone by” or “when the baby was one week old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

368

LUK

2

21

l124

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ὀκτὼ

1

when eight days had been fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “after eight days had gone by” or “when the baby was one week old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

369

LUK

2

21

u6sw

figs-activepassive

ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς

1

his name was called Jesus

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “his parents Joseph and Mary named him Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

370

LUK

2

21

l125

figs-idiom

ἐκλήθη τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦς

1

his name was called Jesus

As in 1:13, to “call a name” is an idiom that means to give a child a name. Alternate translation: “his parents Joseph and Mary named him Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

371

LUK

2

21

km8b

figs-activepassive

τὸ κληθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγγέλου

1

which he had been called by the angel

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “which was the name that the angel had told Mary to give him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

372

LUK

2

21

l126

figs-explicitinfo

πρὸ τοῦ συνλημφθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ

1

before he was conceived in the womb

In your language, it might seem that the phrase conceived in the womb expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. Alternate translation: “before he was conceived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

373

LUK

2

22

q9yb

figs-activepassive

ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν νόμον Μωϋσέως

1

when the days of their purification had been fulfilled, according to the law of Moses

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “after they had waited the number of days that the law of Moses required for their purification” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

374

LUK

2

22

b65l

figs-explicit

αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν

1

the days of their purification

The law of Moses said that a woman would become ceremonially clean again 33 days after her newborn son had been circumcised. After that, she could enter the temple. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “33 more days, the time that the law of Moses required for Mary to become ceremonially clean again after childbirth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

375

LUK

2

22

l127

translate-names

Μωϋσέως

1

Moses

Moses is the name of a man, the great law-giver of Israel. It occurs several times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

376

LUK

2

22

l128

figs-idiom

ἀνήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα

1

they brought him up to Jerusalem

Luke says that they brought him up to Jerusalem, even though Bethlehem is actually at a higher elevation, because that was the customary way of speaking about going to Jerusalem, since that city is up on a mountain. Alternate translation: “they took him to Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

377

LUK

2

22

lr25

figs-explicit

παραστῆσαι τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

to present him to the Lord

Luke will explain more in the next two verses about why Mary and Joseph did this, but if it would be helpful to your readers, you could make the purpose more explicit here. Alternate translation: “so that they could bring him into the temple and perform the required ceremony acknowledging God’s claim on firstborn children who were male” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

378

LUK

2

23

vlb3

figs-activepassive

καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν νόμῳ Κυρίου

1

just as it is written in the law of the Lord

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “just as the law of the Lord commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

379

LUK

2

23

l129

figs-activepassive

πᾶν ἄρσεν διανοῖγον μήτραν, ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ κληθήσεται

1

Every male who opens the womb will be called holy to the Lord

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “You are to set apart for the Lord every firstborn child who is a boy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

380

LUK

2

23

lnn1

figs-idiom

πᾶν ἄρσεν διανοῖγον μήτραν

1

Every male who opens the womb

To open the womb is an idiom that refers to being the first baby to come out of the womb. This commandment applied to both people and animals, but here a baby boy is specifically in view. Alternate translation: “Every firstborn offspring who is a male” or “Every firstborn child who is a boy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

381

LUK

2

23

l130

figs-idiom

ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ κληθήσεται

1

will be called holy to the Lord

As in 1:32, be called is an idiom that means “to be.” Alternate translation: “will be set apart for the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

382

LUK

2

23

l131

figs-declarative

ἅγιον τῷ Κυρίῳ κληθήσεται

1

will be called holy to the Lord

Here, the law of Moses is using a future statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “is to be set apart for the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

383

LUK

2

24

ni3s

figs-activepassive

τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Κυρίου

1

what is said in the law of the Lord

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “what the law of the Lord says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

384

LUK

2

25

l132

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses the term behold to call the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

385

LUK

2

25

ytp9

writing-participants

ἄνθρωπος ἦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ, ᾧ ὄνομα Συμεών

1

there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

386

LUK

2

25

l133

translate-names

Συμεών

1

Simeon

Simeon is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

387

LUK

2

25

n263

figs-doublet

ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος δίκαιος καὶ εὐλαβής

1

this man was righteous and devout

The terms righteous and devout mean similar things. Luke uses the two terms together to emphasize what a godly man Simeon was. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “he was a godly man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

388

LUK

2

25

l134

figs-idiom

προσδεχόμενος

1

waiting for

This is an idiomatic usage of the term waiting. It does not mean passively waiting for something to happen, but eagerly anticipating something that someone wants to happen. Alternate translation: “eagerly anticipating” or “looking forward to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

389

LUK

2

25

l135

figs-metonymy

παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

1

the consolation of Israel

This phrase refers by association to the one who would bring consolation, meaning “comfort,” to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “the one who would come and comfort the people of Israel” or “the one who would come to help the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

390

LUK

2

25

l136

figs-explicit

παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

1

the consolation of Israel

Luke assumes that readers will know that this is a reference to the Messiah. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah, who would come to help the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

391

LUK

2

25

m5au

figs-personification

τοῦ Ἰσραήλ

1

of Israel

Luke is referring to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

392

LUK

2

25

xxw9

figs-metaphor

Πνεῦμα ἦν Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

The Holy Spirit was upon him

The word upon creates a spatial metaphor that means that the Spirit of God was with Simeon in a special way. The Spirit gave him knowledge and direction for his life, as the next two verses show. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit guided him in special ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

393

LUK

2

26

l137

grammar-connect-time-background

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

394

LUK

2

26

psf8

figs-activepassive

ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ Ἁγίου

1

it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit had shown him” or “the Holy Spirit had told him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

395

LUK

2

26

l138

figs-idiom

μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν

1

he would not see death before

To see death is an idiom that means “to die.” Alternate translation: “that he would not die before” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

396

LUK

2

26

e6vu

figs-litotes

μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν

1

he would not see death before

Here, Luke is using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “he would live until” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

397

LUK

2

27

k53l

figs-idiom

ἦλθεν ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι

1

he came in the Spirit

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he came as the Holy Spirit directed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

398

LUK

2

27

uqr6

figs-go

ἦλθεν…εἰς τὸ ἱερόν

1

he came … into the temple

Your language may say “went” in contexts such as this. Alternate translation: “he went … into the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

399

LUK

2

27

y8la

figs-synecdoche

εἰς τὸ ἱερόν

1

into the temple

Since only priests could enter the temple building, this means the temple courtyard. Luke is using the word for the entire building to refer to one part of it. Alternate translation: “into the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

400

LUK

2

27

wt3r

writing-participants

τοὺς γονεῖς

1

the parents

This means the parents of Jesus. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use their names here. Alternate translation: “Mary and Joseph” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

401

LUK

2

27

h444

figs-explicit

τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτοὺς κατὰ τὸ εἰθισμένον τοῦ νόμου περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

for them to do according to the custom of the law concerning him

The phrase to do according to the custom of the law refers to the ceremony of dedication that Luke described in 2:22-25. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to perform the ceremony of dedication that the law of God required” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

402

LUK

2

28

l139

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

and

Luke uses this word to indicate that this event took place after the event he has just described. That is, Simeon took Jesus in his arms after his parents brought him into the temple for the dedication ceremony. Alternate translation: “then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

403

LUK

2

28

y5g6

writing-pronouns

αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας

1

he took him into his arms

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could specify by name the people to whom these pronouns refer. Alternate translation: “Simeon picked up the baby Jesus and held him in his arms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

404

LUK

2

29

l140

figs-declarative

νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου…ἐν εἰρήνῃ

1

You are now dismissing your servant in peace

Simeon is actually using this statement to make a request. Alternate translation: “Now please let me die in peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

405

LUK

2

29

m6eg

figs-123person

ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου

1

you are … dismissing your servant

Simeon refers to himself as God’s servant in order to show humility and respect. Alternate translation: “please let me die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

406

LUK

2

29

g3wn

figs-euphemism

ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου

1

you are … dismissing your servant

Simeon uses a mild expression to refer to death. Alternate translation: “please let me die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

407

LUK

2

29

l141

figs-youformal

σου…σου

1

your … your

Here, the word your is singular because Simeon is addressing God. If your language has a formal form of your that it uses to address a superior respectfully, you may wish to use that form here and in 2:30 and 2:32, and the corresponding formal form for “you” in 2:31. However, it might be more natural in your language for someone who knows God well, as Simeon did, to address God using the informal form. Use your best judgment about what form to use. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

408

LUK

2

29

e8fk

figs-metonymy

κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου

1

according to your word

Simeon is referring to the promise that God made that he would live to see the Messiah. Simeon describes that promise by association with the word or saying by which God made it. Alternate translation: “as you promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

409

LUK

2

30

b7i6

figs-synecdoche

εἶδον οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου

1

my eyes have seen

Simeon uses one part of himself, his eyes, to represent all of himself figuratively in the act of seeing. Alternate translation: “I have personally seen” or “I, myself, have seen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

410

LUK

2

30

ekw3

figs-metonymy

τὸ σωτήριόν σου

1

your salvation

This expression refers by association to the person who would bring salvation, that is, the infant Jesus, whom Simeon was holding. Alternate translation: “the Savior whom you have sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

411

LUK

2

31

zv1j

writing-pronouns

ὃ ἡτοίμασας

1

which you have prepared

If you said “Savior” in the previous phrase at the end of 2:30, then here you will want to say something like “whom you have prepared” or “the one you have sent.” If you said salvation in the previous phrase, then here you could state something like “which you have brought about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

412

LUK

2

31

l142

figs-metaphor

κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν

1

before the face of all the peoples

The term face figuratively represents the presence of a person. Simeon is saying that God has sent the Savior or brought about salvation right where everyone is present. Alternate translation: “in the presence of all the peoples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

413

LUK

2

31

l143

figs-explicit

κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν

1

before the face of all the peoples

The implication of God sending the Savior or bringing about salvation into the presence of everyone is that this has been done for their benefit. Alternate translation: “for the benefit of all peoples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

414

LUK

2

32

n4k3

figs-metaphor

φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου, Ἰσραήλ

1

A light for revelation to the Gentiles and glory to your people Israel

This expression means that the child will help the Gentiles to understand. Simeon compares Jesus’ role to that of a physical light that enables people to see solid objects. Alternate translation: “This child will enable the Gentiles to understand, just as light allows people to see things clearly and he will bring honor to the people of Israel, who belong to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

415

LUK

2

32

s5lu

figs-explicit

φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου, Ἰσραήλ

1

A light for revelation to the Gentiles and glory to your people Israel

It may be helpful to state explicitly what the child will help the Gentiles to understand. Alternate translation: “This child will enable the Gentiles to understand what you expect of them and he will bring honor to the people of Israel, who belong to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

416

LUK

2

33

l144

translate-textvariants

ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ

1

his father and mother

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to use this reading in your translation or a different reading, “Joseph and his mother.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

417

LUK

2

33

pp9f

figs-activepassive

τοῖς λαλουμένοις περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

what was said about him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “the things that Simeon said about him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

418

LUK

2

34

xly1

εἶπεν πρὸς Μαριὰμ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ

1

said to Mary, his mother

In your translation, make sure that this does not sound as if Mary is the mother of Simeon. Alternate translation: “said to Mary, the child’s mother”

419

LUK

2

34

p2cy

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Simeon uses this expression to tell Mary that what he is about to say is extremely important to her. Alternate translation: “Now this is important” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

420

LUK

2

34

rs67

figs-metonymy

οὗτος κεῖται εἰς πτῶσιν καὶ ἀνάστασιν πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ

1

this one is appointed for the downfall and rising up of many in Israel

The word downfall represents people turning away from God by association with the way they will be ruined as a result. The expression rising up represents people drawing closer to God, by association with they way they will prosper as a result. Alternate translation: “God will use this child to challenge many people of the people of Israel to decide definitively for or against him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

421

LUK

2

34

l145

figs-activepassive

οὗτος κεῖται εἰς

1

this one is appointed for

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “God intends to use this child to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

422

LUK

2

34

abc4

figs-personification

πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ

1

many in Israel

Simeon refers to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “many of the people of Israel” or “many in the nation of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

423

LUK

2

34

l146

figs-explicit

σημεῖον

1

a sign

The implication is that the life and ministry of Jesus will be an indication that God is at work to fulfill his purposes through the people of Israel. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “an indication of God’s activity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

424

LUK

2

34

l147

figs-activepassive

ἀντιλεγόμενον

1

that is spoken against

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “that many people will speak against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

425

LUK

2

34

l148

figs-metonymy

ἀντιλεγόμενον

1

that is spoken against

Simeon figuratively describes the opposition that Jesus will face by association with one expression of it, people speaking against him and his ministry. But this represents a wider range of hostile activities. Alternate translation: “that many people will oppose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

426

LUK

2

35

l149

figs-metaphor

καὶ σοῦ δὲ αὐτῆς τὴν ψυχὴν διελεύσεται ῥομφαία

1

and a sword will also pierce your own soul

Simeon speaks figuratively of the bitter grief pangs that Mary will experience as if they were a sword stabbing all the way into her inner being. Alternate translation: “and you will experience deep pangs of grief yourself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

427

LUK

2

35

hak5

figs-activepassive

ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί

1

so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “so that many people will reveal what they secretly think” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

428

LUK

2

35

l150

figs-metaphor

ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί

1

so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed

In this expression, hearts figuratively represent people’s inner thoughts and inclinations. Alternate translation: “so that many people will reveal what they secretly think” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

429

LUK

2

36

kd1y

writing-participants

καὶ ἦν Ἅννα προφῆτις

1

And Anna was there, a prophetess

Luke is introducing a new participant into the story. Alternate translation: “There was also a woman named Anna there in the temple. She was a prophetess” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

430

LUK

2

36

l151

translate-names

Ἅννα

1

Anna

Anna is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

431

LUK

2

36

c7wx

translate-names

Φανουήλ

1

Phanuel

Phanuel is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

432

LUK

2

36

l152

figs-idiom

αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς

1

She had advanced much in days

As in 1:7, to have moved forward or to have advanced means figuratively to have aged. Alternate translation: “She was very old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

433

LUK

2

36

l153

figs-idiom

αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς

1

She had advanced much in days

Luke uses the term days figuratively to mean time in general. Alternate translation: “She was very old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

434

LUK

2

36

b9xe

figs-idiom

ἀπὸ τῆς παρθενίας αὐτῆς

1

after her virginity

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “after she married him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

435

LUK

2

37

byk6

αὐτὴ χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων

1

she was a widow for 84 years

This could mean: (1) Anna had been a widow for 84 years. Alternate translation: “but then her husband had died and she had not remarried, and 84 years had gone by since” (2) Anna was a widow who was now 84 years old. Alternate translation: “but her husband had died and she had not remarried, and now she was 84 years old”

436

LUK

2

37

l154

figs-litotes

ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ

1

who never left the temple

Luke is expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “who was always in the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

437

LUK

2

37

f2lt

figs-hyperbole

ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ

1

who never left the temple

This is a generalization that means that Anna spent so much time in the temple that it seemed as though she never left it. Alternate translation: “who was always in the temple” or “who was continually in the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

438

LUK

2

37

a1cg

figs-idiom

νηστείαις καὶ δεήσεσιν λατρεύουσα

1

serving with fastings and prayers

The term serving is an idiom that means “worshiping.” Alternate translation: “worshiping God by going without food and praying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

439

LUK

2

37

l155

figs-merism

νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν

1

night and day

Luke is using the two parts of a day figuratively to mean the entire day, that is, all the time. Alternate translation: “all the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

440

LUK

2

38

c9e4

ἐπιστᾶσα

1

coming up

The implication is that Anna came up to Mary and Joseph. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “she approached them” or “she went over to Mary and Joseph”

441

LUK

2

38

l156

figs-idiom

αὐτῇ τῇ, ὥρᾳ

1

at that very hour

Here, Luke uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “right at that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

442

LUK

2

38

l157

figs-hyperbole

πᾶσιν τοῖς

1

to all those

The term all is a generalization that means many. Alternate translation: “to many others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

443

LUK

2

38

l158

figs-idiom

τοῖς προσδεχομένοις

1

who were waiting

See how you translated this in 2:25. Alternate translation: “who were eagerly anticipating” or “who were looking forward to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

444

LUK

2

38

q1ak

figs-metonymy

λύτρωσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

the redemption of Jerusalem

Luke is using the word redemption figuratively to mean the person who would bring redemption. Alternate translation: “the one who would redeem Jerusalem” or “the person who would bring God’s blessings and favor back to Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

445

LUK

2

38

l159

figs-metonymy

Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

Jerusalem

Luke is referring to all of the people of Israel figuratively by the name of their capital city, Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

446

LUK

2

39

pk9z

πάντα τὰ κατὰ τὸν νόμον Κυρίου

1

everything that was according to the law of the Lord

Alternate translation: “everything that the law of the Lord required them to do”

447

LUK

2

39

g5vg

figs-explicit

εἰς πόλιν ἑαυτῶν Ναζαρέτ

1

to their own town of Nazareth

This expression means that they lived in Nazareth. Alternate translation: “the town of Nazareth, where they lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

448

LUK

2

40

l160

figs-activepassive

ἐκραταιοῦτο

1

was strengthened

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “became stronger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

449

LUK

2

40

qm1q

figs-activepassive

πληρούμενον σοφίᾳ

1

being filled with wisdom

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “learning what was wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

450

LUK

2

40

xr2p

figs-metaphor

χάρις Θεοῦ ἦν ἐπ’ αὐτό

1

the grace of God was upon him

As in 2:25, upon is a spatial metaphor. Alternate translation: “God blessed him in special ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

451

LUK

2

41

h6fr

grammar-connect-time-background

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

452

LUK

2

41

q3f4

writing-pronouns

οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ

1

his parents

Alternate translation: “Jesus’ parents” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

453

LUK

2

42

l161

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

454

LUK

2

42

f7e7

figs-idiom

ἀναβαινόντων αὐτῶν

1

they went up

Jerusalem was on top of a mountain, so Israelites customarily spoke of going up to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “they traveled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

455

LUK

2

42

d52y

κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἑορτῆς

1

according to the custom of the feast

Alternate translation: “when it was time for the feast”

456

LUK

2

42

g8aa

figs-explicit

τῆς ἑορτῆς

1

the feast

Implicitly this means the Feast of Passover. It was called a feast because it involved eating a ceremonial meal. Alternate translation: “of the Feast of Passover” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

457

LUK

2

43

e5en

figs-activepassive

τελειωσάντων τὰς ἡμέρας

1

when the days were completed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “after they had celebrated the feast for the required number of days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

458

LUK

2

44

y77i

νομίσαντες δὲ

1

But thinking

Alternate translation: “But since they thought”

459

LUK

2

44

jcz4

ἦλθον ἡμέρας ὁδὸν

1

they went a day’s journey

Alternate translation: “they traveled as far as people walk in one day”

460

LUK

2

44

l162

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ ἀνεζήτουν αὐτὸν

1

and they sought him

The word translated and at the beginning of this phrase indicates that this event happened after the previous event that the story described. Alternate translation: “then they looked for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

461

LUK

2

44

l163

figs-explicit

καὶ ἀνεζήτουν αὐτὸν

1

and they sought him

The implication is that Jesus’ parents looked for him among their friends and relatives once the whole group that was traveling together had stopped for the night. That way they could easily go around among everyone. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and once the group had stopped for the night, then they looked for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

462

LUK

2

46

llz4

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

463

LUK

2

46

yy11

figs-synecdoche

ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

1

in the temple

Since only priests could enter the temple building, this implicitly means the temple courtyard. Luke is using the word for the entire building to refer to one part of it. Alternate translation: “in the temple courtyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

464

LUK

2

46

n1tl

ἐν μέσῳ τῶν διδασκάλων

1

in the midst of the teachers

Alternate translation: “among the teachers” or “surrounded by the teachers”

465

LUK

2

46

fzz6

τῶν διδασκάλων

1

the teachers

Alternate translation: “the religious teachers” or “the experts in the Jewish law” or “those who taught people about God”

466

LUK

2

47

y1i2

figs-explicit

ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες οἱ ἀκούοντες αὐτοῦ

1

all those who heard him marveled

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state explicitly why they marveled. Alternate translation: “all those who heard him, unable to understand how a twelve-year-old boy with no formal religious education could answer so well, were amazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

467

LUK

2

47

pgu4

figs-hendiadys

ἐπὶ τῇ συνέσει καὶ ταῖς ἀποκρίσεσιν αὐτοῦ

1

at his understanding and his answers

Luke may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The term understanding may tell what characterized Jesus’ answers. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “at his wise answers” or “at the understanding with which he answered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

468

LUK

2

48

llk9

writing-pronouns

καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν

1

And when they saw him

Alternate translation: “When Mary and Joseph found Jesus there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

469

LUK

2

48

f1ry

figs-rquestion

τί ἐποίησας ἡμῖν οὕτως?

1

why have you treated us thus?

Mary is using the question form to rebuke Jesus indirectly for not going back home with them, causing them to worry about him. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate her words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “you should not have done this to us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

470

LUK

2

48

w361

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Mary uses behold to get Jesus to focus his attention on what she is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

471

LUK

2

48

l164

figs-activepassive

ὁ πατήρ σου κἀγὼ, ὀδυνώμενοι ζητοῦμεν σε

1

your father and I have been tormented searching for you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the idea behind the passive verbal form have been tormented with an adverb. Alternate translation: “your father and I have been searching for you anxiously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

472

LUK

2

49

l165

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to draw a contrast between how readers might have expected Jesus to respond in this situation and how he actually responded. He did not say he was sorry for causing his parents so much worry. Instead, he told them that they should have known where to find him. Alternate translation: “But” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

473

LUK

2

49

r8eh

figs-rquestion

τί ὅτι ἐζητεῖτέ με?

1

Why is it that you were searching for me?

Jesus is making a statement, not really asking a question. He is using the question form to challenge his parents respectfully. Alternate translation: “You should not have had to search for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

474

LUK

2

49

va82

figs-rquestion

οὐκ ᾔδειτε ὅτι ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός μου δεῖ εἶναί με?

1

Did you not know that I must be in the things of my Father?

Once again Jesus is making a statement rather than actually asking a question. He is using the question form to challenge his parents respectfully. Alternate translation: “You should have known that I would be involved in my Father’s business” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

475

LUK

2

49

p6aj

ἐν τοῖς τοῦ πατρός μου

1

in the things of my Father

This could mean: (1) Jesus is saying that he needed to be involved in the things that God was concerned about. Alternate translation: “involved in my Father’s business” (2) Jesus is referring to the temple as a place that was dedicated to God. Alternate translation: “in my Father’s temple” or “here in the temple”

476

LUK

2

49

n76z

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ πατρός μου

1

my Father

At age 12, Jesus, the Son of God, understood that God was his real Father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

477

LUK

2

50

l166

figs-metonymy

τὸ ῥῆμα ὃ ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς

1

the word that he spoke to them

The term word refers figuratively to what Jesus told his parents by using words. Alternate translation: “the answer that he gave them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

478

LUK

2

51

h2i9

figs-idiom

καὶ κατέβη μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

he went down with them

Jerusalem was on top of a mountain, so Israelites customarily spoke of going down when they traveled from Jerusalem to some other place. Alternate translation: “Jesus went back home with Mary and Joseph” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

479

LUK

2

51

zl2q

figs-activepassive

ἦν ὑποτασσόμενος αὐτοῖς

1

he was subjected to them

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “he obeyed them” or “he was obedient to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

480

LUK

2

51

ceu3

figs-metaphor

διετήρει πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς

1

kept all these things in her heart

As in 2:19, the heart here figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “carefully remembered all these things” or “reflected carefully on what all these things meant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

481

LUK

2

52

gb25

figs-abstractnouns

Ἰησοῦς προέκοπτεν τῇ σοφίᾳ, καὶ ἡλικίᾳ

1

Jesus was increasing in wisdom and stature

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate the ideas behind the abstract nouns wisdom and stature with adjectives. These two terms refer to mental and physical growth. Alternate translation: “Jesus steadily became wiser and stronger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

482

LUK

2

52

y5qk

figs-abstractnouns

χάριτι παρὰ Θεῷ καὶ ἀνθρώποις

1

in favor with God and people

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun favor, you could express the idea behind it with verbs. The phrase in favor with God and people refers to spiritual and social growth. Alternate translation: “God blessed him more and more, and people admired him more and more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

483

LUK

3

intro

tkg5

0

Luke 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. John the Baptist begins preaching and baptizing (3:1-22)
  2. The list of Jesus’ ancestors (3:23-38)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in 3:4-6, which Luke is quoting from the Old Testament about John the Baptist.

Special concepts in this chapter

Justice

John’s instructions to the soldiers and tax collectors in Luke 3:12-15 are things that a person who wanted to live rightly would find reasonable and willingly do. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]] and Luke 3:12-15)

Genealogy

A genealogy is a list that records a person’s ancestors or descendants. Such lists were very important in determining who had the right be king, because the king’s authority was usually passed down or inherited from his father. It was also common for other important people to have a recorded genealogy.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

Prophecy often involves the use of metaphors to express its meaning. Spiritual discernment is needed for proper interpretation of the prophecy. The prophecy that Luke quotes in 3:4-6 from Isaiah 40:3-5 is an extended metaphor that describes the ministry of John the Baptist. See the individual notes to 3:4-6 for recommendations about how to translate this passage. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Herod locked up John in prison”

This statement could cause confusion because Luke says that John was imprisoned, and then he implies that John was still able to baptize Jesus. But Luke makes this statement in anticipation of Herod’s imprisonment of John. It describes something that was still in the future at the time of the other events in the narrative. See the first note to 3:19 for a further explanation.

484

LUK

3

1

l167

writing-newevent

ἐν ἔτει δὲ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ τῆς ἡγεμονίας Τιβερίου Καίσαρος

1

in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar

This verse and the beginning of the next one are an extended time reference that introduces a new event. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Everything that the angels and inspired people had said about John and Jesus began to come true during the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

485

LUK

3

1

l168

translate-ordinal

ἐν ἔτει δὲ πεντεκαιδεκάτῳ

1

in the fifteenth year

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “in year 15” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

486

LUK

3

1

l169

writing-participants

Τιβερίου Καίσαρος

1

Tiberius Caesar

As in 2:1, Caesar is the title of the emperor of the Roman Empire. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “King Tiberius, who ruled the Roman Empire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

487

LUK

3

1

l170

translate-names

Τιβερίου

1

Tiberius

Tiberius is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

488

LUK

3

1

v22w

translate-names

Ποντίου Πειλάτου…Ἡρῴδου…Φιλίππου…Λυσανίου

1

Pontius Pilate … Herod … Philip … Lysanias

These are the names of men. Here, the Herod mentioned is not the same one as in 1:5. Rather, it is his son. Luke makes further mention of him many times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

489

LUK

3

1

uv8h

translate-names

τῆς Ἰουδαίας…τῆς Γαλιλαίας…τῆς Ἰτουραίας καὶ Τραχωνίτιδος…τῆς Ἀβειληνῆς

1

Judea … Galilee … Ituraea and Trachonitis … Abilene

These are names of territories. Like Galilee, the name Judea occurs many times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

490

LUK

3

1

l171

translate-unknown

τετραρχοῦντος

1

tetrarch

In the Roman Empire, a tetrarch was the governor of one of four divisions of a country or province. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “ruler” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

491

LUK

3

2

d3m8

figs-explicit

ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἅννα καὶ Καϊάφα

1

during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas

Usually there would only have been one high priest, but at this point the Romans were appointing the high priests for Judea, and there had been some intrigue surrounding Annas. One Roman official had appointed him some years earlier, but ten years after that, another official deposed him and named his son-in-law Caiaphas high priest instead. However, the Jews still recognized Annas’ claim to the position. It would probably be best to state the matter as simply as possible for your readers. Alternate translation: “while Annas and Caiaphas were both serving as the high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

492

LUK

3

2

dg8p

figs-personification

ἐγένετο ῥῆμα Θεοῦ

1

the word of God came

Luke speaks of God’s message figuratively as if it were a living thing that could come to a person at God's bidding. Alternate translation: “God gave a message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

493

LUK

3

2

l172

figs-metonymy

ἐγένετο ῥῆμα Θεοῦ

1

the word of God came

The term word figuratively describes the message that God gave John to say by using words. Alternate translation: “God gave a message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

494

LUK

3

3

l173

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

495

LUK

3

3

l174

translate-names

τοῦ Ἰορδάνου

1

the Jordan

Jordan is the name of a river. Alternate translation: “the Jordan River” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

496

LUK

3

3

w2pu

figs-abstractnouns

κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν

1

preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate the ideas behind the abstract nouns baptism, repentance, and forgiveness with other phrases. Alternate translation: “preaching that people should let him immerse them in the river to show that they wanted to live a new life and that they wanted God to forgive their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

497

LUK

3

4

zf6m

figs-activepassive

ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου

1

As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “As the book says that records the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

498

LUK

3

4

l175

figs-metonymy

λόγων Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου

1

the words of Isaiah the prophet

Luke is using the term words figuratively to refer to the sayings that Isaiah used words to articulate. Alternate translation: “the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

499

LUK

3

4

b86g

figs-quotemarks

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

1

A voice of one calling out in the wilderness

From this phrase through to the end of 3:6, Luke quotes from the book of Isaiah. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

500

LUK

3

4

l176

figs-metonymy

φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

1

A voice of one calling out in the wilderness

The term voice refers figuratively to what this person is saying by association with the means they are using to say it. Alternate translation: “Someone is calling out in the wilderness and saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

501

LUK

3

4

l177

figs-quotesinquotes

ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου; εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ

1

Make ready the way of the Lord, make his paths straight

Everything from this phrase through to the end of 3:6 is a quotation within a quotation. Luke is quoting from the book of Isaiah, and Isaiah is quoting the words of the person calling out in the wilderness. It would be best to indicate that by punctuating this material as a second-level quotation, since Luke is quoting from Scripture. However, if your language does not put one direct quotation within another, you could translate this material as an indirect quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

502

LUK

3

4

rzv1

figs-parallelism

ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου; εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ

1

Make ready the way of the Lord, make his paths straight

These two phrases mean similar things. They are both telling people to make a good road for the Lord to travel on. Hebrew poetry was based on this kind of repetition, and it would be helpful to show this to your readers by including both phrases in your translation rather than combining them. However, if the repetition might be confusing, you could connect the phrases with another phrase that would show the relationship between them. Alternate translation: “Prepare a good road for the Lord to travel on, and do this by making sure that it follows a straight path” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

503

LUK

3

4

h9xl

figs-metaphor

ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου

1

Make ready the way of the Lord

This is a figurative way of telling people to get ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes. They are to do this by giving up their sins. Alternate translation: “Give up your sins so that you will be ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

504

LUK

3

5

wk8m

figs-metaphor

πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται, καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται

1

Every valley will be filled, and every mountain and hill will be made low

This is a continuation of the figurative description of making a good road that began in the previous verse. When people prepare the road for an important person who is coming, they make sure that the road is level by taking material from high places and using it to fill in low places. However, this is also a description of the effects that the coming of the Lord will have on people. It is a statement similar to the one Mary makes in 1:52, “He has thrown down rulers from their thrones and he has raised up the lowly.” Metaphors in Scripture can have more than one reference like this. So we recommend that you translate the words directly and not provide a non-figurative explanation, even if your language does not customarily use such figures of speech. If you want to explain the meanings of the metaphor, we recommend that you do that in a footnote rather than in the Bible text. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

505

LUK

3

5

e52x

figs-activepassive

πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται

1

Every valley will be filled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Since people would be doing this action in one sense of the metaphor, but God would be doing the action in another sense of the metaphor, it might be best not to be specific about who will do the action. Alternate translation: “Someone will fill in every valley” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

506

LUK

3

5

s66m

figs-activepassive

καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται

1

and every mountain and hill will be made low

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, following the same principle as for the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “and someone will make every mountain and hill low” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

507

LUK

3

5

l178

figs-metaphor

ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείαν, καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας

1

the crooked roads will become straight, and the rough roads will become smooth

This too is both a continuation of the figurative description of making a good road and a description of the effects that the coming of the Lord will have on people. Something that is crooked becoming straight and something that is rough becoming smooth can be seen as metaphors for repentance and a change in a person’s way of life. And so we recommend once again that you translate the words directly and not provide a non-figurative explanation in the text of your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

508

LUK

3

6

l179

figs-metonymy

πᾶσα σὰρξ

1

all flesh

Luke is describing people figuratively by reference to something associated with them, the flesh they are made of. Alternate translation: “all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

509

LUK

3

6

l180

figs-metaphor

ὄψεται

1

will see

The term see is a figurative way of referring to recognition and understanding. Alternate translation: “will recognize” or “will understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

510

LUK

3

6

du1b

figs-abstractnouns

ὄψεται…τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

will see the salvation of God

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun salvation, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “save.” Alternate translation: “will understand how God saves people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

511

LUK

3

6

l181

figs-quotesinquotes

τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the salvation of God

After this phrase, Isaiah ends his quotation from the person who is calling out in the wilderness. If you decided in 3:4 to mark these words as a second-level quotation, indicate the end of that quotation here with whatever convention your language uses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

512

LUK

3

6

l182

figs-quotemarks

τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the salvation of God

After this phrase, Luke also ends his quotation from the book of Isaiah. If you decided in 3:4 to mark this as a first-level quotation, indicate that ending here with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a first-level quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

513

LUK

3

7

sxn9

figs-activepassive

βαπτισθῆναι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

to be baptized by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “for him to baptize them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

514

LUK

3

7

b724

figs-idiom

γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν

1

Offspring of vipers

The expression offspring of is an idiom that means a person shares the qualities of something. John is using dangerous poisonous snakes to represent evil. Alternate translation: “You evil people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

515

LUK

3

7

l183

translate-unknown

γεννήματα ἐχιδνῶν

1

Offspring of vipers

If your readers would not recognize the name vipers, which refers to dangerous poisonous snakes, you could state something more general. Alternate translation: “You are evil, like poisonous snakes” or “You are evil, like poisonous animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

516

LUK

3

7

mcq5

figs-rquestion

τίς ὑπέδειξεν ὑμῖν φυγεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς?

1

Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath?

John is making a statement, not asking a question. He does not expect the people in the crowds to tell him who warned them. Instead, he is using the question form to challenge the people to think about what they believe baptism will do for them. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You cannot escape from God’s wrath just by being baptized!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

517

LUK

3

7

g7tw

figs-metonymy

ἀπὸ τῆς μελλούσης ὀργῆς

1

from the coming wrath

John is using the word wrath to refer figuratively to God’s punishment. This is by association with the way that punishment is an expression of God’s wrath or displeasure over sin. Alternate translation: “from the punishment that God is sending” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

518

LUK

3

8

pz16

figs-metaphor

ποιήσατε…καρποὺς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας

1

produce fruits worthy of repentance

John is figuratively comparing a person’s behavior to fruit. Just as a plant is expected to produce fruit that is appropriate for that kind of plant, a person who says that he has repented is expected to live righteously. Alternate translation: “do the good things that will show that you have stopped sinning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

519

LUK

3

8

l184

figs-abstractnouns

ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας

1

worthy of repentance

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun repentance, you could express the idea behind it with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “that will show that you have stopped sinning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

520

LUK

3

8

l185

figs-quotesinquotes

μὴ ἄρξησθε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

1

do not begin to say within yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father’

We have Abraham as our father is a quotation within a quotation. Luke is quoting John’s words to the crowd, and John is quoting something that the crowds might wrongly think. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “do not try to reassure yourselves with the thought that Abraham is your father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

521

LUK

3

8

l186

figs-metaphor

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

1

We have Abraham as our father

Here, Father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “Abraham is our ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

522

LUK

3

8

l187

figs-exclusive

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

1

We have Abraham as our father

John is suggesting something the people might say about themselves, as opposed to others, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive “we” and “us,” use the exclusive form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

523

LUK

3

8

l188

figs-metaphor

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

1

We have Abraham as our father

Here, the word father figuratively means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “Abraham is our ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

524

LUK

3

8

pft3

figs-explicit

πατέρα ἔχομεν τὸν Ἀβραάμ

1

We have Abraham as our father

If it would be unclear to your readers why they would say this, you may also add the implied information: Alternate translation: “Abraham is our ancestor, so God would not punish us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

525

LUK

3

8

gbp2

figs-metaphor

δύναται ὁ Θεὸς ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων ἐγεῖραι τέκνα τῷ Ἀβραάμ

1

God is able to raise up children for Abraham from these stones

The expression raise up is a spatial metaphor. It envisions that if God did turn the stones into people who were descendants of Abraham, then the people would be standing up in front of everyone, no longer lying in the riverbed as the stones were. Alternate translation: “God is able create descendants for Abraham out of these stones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

526

LUK

3

8

l189

figs-metaphor

τέκνα τῷ Ἀβραάμ

1

children for Abraham

Here, the word children figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “descendants for Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

527

LUK

3

8

pi82

ἐκ τῶν λίθων τούτων

1

from these stones

John was probably referring to actual stones lying along the Jordan River. Alternate translation: “from these stones here”

528

LUK

3

9

r5pa

figs-activepassive

ἤδη…ἡ ἀξίνη πρὸς τὴν ῥίζαν τῶν δένδρων κεῖται

1

the ax is already set against the root of the trees

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the person who is going to cut down the tree has already placed his ax against the roots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

529

LUK

3

9

l190

figs-metaphor

ἡ ἀξίνη πρὸς τὴν ῥίζαν τῶν δένδρων κεῖται

1

the ax is already set against the root of the trees

This is a figurative way of saying that punishment is just about to begin. Alternate translation: “God is even now getting his punishment ready” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

530

LUK

3

9

l8it

figs-activepassive

πᾶν…δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν, ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται

1

every tree that does not produce good fruit is chopped down and thrown into the fire

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with active forms. Alternate translation: “this person will chop down every tree that does not produce good fruit and throw it into the fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

531

LUK

3

9

l191

figs-metaphor

πᾶν…δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν, ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται

1

every tree that does not produce good fruit is chopped down and thrown into the fire

This is a figurative way of describing punishment. Alternate translation: “God will certainly punish every person who does not do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

532

LUK

3

10

ak6i

figs-quotemarks

ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν…λέγοντες

1

kept asking him, saying

Luke uses the word saying to introduce his quotation of what the crowds were asking John. Here and throughout the book, if you indicate the quotation in some other way, such as with quotation marks or with some other punctuation or convention that your language uses, you do not need to represent this word in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

533

LUK

3

11

g3ip

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς

1

So answering he said to them

Together the words answering and said mean that John responded to the question that the crowds asked. Alternate translation: “So he responded to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

534

LUK

3

11

vuk3

figs-explicit

ὁ ἔχων βρώματα, ὁμοίως ποιείτω

1

let him do the same

The implication is that anyone who has extra food should share it, just as a person with an extra tunic should share that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “if anyone has extra food, he should share that as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

535

LUK

3

12

pp3s

figs-activepassive

ἦλθον…βαπτισθῆναι

1

came to be baptized

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “came because they wanted John to baptize them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

536

LUK

3

12

l192

Διδάσκαλε

1

Teacher

This is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use,

537

LUK

3

13

v9ls

figs-explicit

μηδὲν πλέον…πράσσετε

1

Collect nothing more

The implication is that tax collectors had been demanding more money than they should have been collecting. John tells them to stop doing that. Alternate translation: “Do not demand extra money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

538

LUK

3

13

m136

figs-activepassive

παρὰ τὸ διατεταγμένον ὑμῖν

1

than what you have been ordered

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “beyond what the Romans have authorized you to collect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

539

LUK

3

14

w2d8

figs-exclusive

τί ποιήσωμεν καὶ ἡμεῖς?

1

And us, what should we do?

The soliders are speaking about themselves, as opposed to others, so if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive we and “us,” use the exclusive form here. You could make this two sentences. Alternate translation: “How about us soldiers? What must we do?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

540

LUK

3

14

l3mz

figs-explicit

μηδὲ συκοφαντήσητε

1

do not accuse falsely

The implication is that soldiers were making false charges against people in order to extort money from them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “do not accuse anyone falsely in order to get money from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

541

LUK

3

14

bvy5

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἀρκεῖσθε τοῖς ὀψωνίοις ὑμῶν

1

and be contented with your wages

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “instead, let the amount you are paid satisfy you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

542

LUK

3

14

l193

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

4

and

This word introduces draws a contrast between what the soldiers had been doing and what they should have been doing. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Instead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

543

LUK

3

15

pgp3

grammar-connect-time-background

προσδοκῶντος δὲ τοῦ λαοῦ

1

And the people were expecting

Luke is providing this background information to help readers understand what happens next. You can introduce his statement with a word that will indicate this. Alternate translation: “Now the people were expecting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

544

LUK

3

15

l194

figs-explicit

προσδοκῶντος δὲ τοῦ λαοῦ

1

And the people were expecting

The implication is that the people were expecting the Messiah. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Now the people were expecting the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

545

LUK

3

15

czb7

figs-metaphor

διαλογιζομένων…ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν

1

wondering in their hearts

Here, Luke uses the term hearts figuratively to represent the people’s minds. Alternate translation: “wondering in their minds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

546

LUK

3

16

fn1u

figs-explicit

ἀπεκρίνατο λέγων πᾶσιν ὁ Ἰωάννης

1

John answered, saying to them all

John’s statement clearly implies that John himself is not the Messiah. It may be helpful to state this explicitly for your readers. Alternate translation: “John clarified that he was not the Messiah by saying to them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

547

LUK

3

16

l195

figs-hendiadys

ἀπεκρίνατο λέγων…ὁ Ἰωάννης

1

John answered, saying

Together the words answered and saying mean that John responded to what the people were wondering about him. Alternate translation: “John responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

548

LUK

3

16

wj3h

ἐγὼ…ὕδατι βαπτίζω ὑμᾶς

1

I … baptize you with water

Alternate translation: “I … baptize you using water” or “I … baptize you by means of water”

549

LUK

3

16

k3hg

figs-explicit

οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ

1

I am not worthy to untie the strap of his sandals

Untying the straps of sandals was a duty of a slave. John is saying implicitly that the one who is coming will be so great that he is not even worthy to be his slave. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “I am not even worthy to be his slave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

550

LUK

3

16

jjp1

figs-metaphor

αὐτὸς ὑμᾶς βαπτίσει ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ, καὶ πυρί

1

He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire

John is using literal baptism, which puts a person under water, to speak figuratively of spiritual baptism, which puts people under the influence of the Holy Spirit, who purifies them. Alternate translation: “He will put you under the influence of the Holy Spirit, who will purify you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

551

LUK

3

16

c1an

figs-metaphor

αὐτὸς ὑμᾶς βαπτίσει…πυρί

1

He will baptize you … with fire

The word fire is intended figuratively, and it suggests a fuller metaphor. Jesus will not immerse people in actual fire. Be sure that this is clear to your readers. Alternate translation: “He will baptize you … to purify you, as precious metals are purified in fire” or “He will baptize you … to clear away your sins, as fire clears away underbrush” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

552

LUK

3

17

jzm4

figs-metaphor

οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ

1

whose winnowing fork is in his hand

John is saying figuratively that the Messiah will come prepared to judge people right away. You could express this metaphor as a simile in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here in your translation. Alternate translation: “He will already be prepared to judge people, just like a farmer who is ready to thresh grain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

553

LUK

3

17

l196

figs-idiom

οὗ τὸ πτύον ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ

1

whose winnowing fork is in his hand

The phrase in his hand is an idiom that means he has the tool all ready to use. Alternate translation: “He has his winnowing fork ready to use” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

554

LUK

3

17

b1ap

translate-unknown

πτύον

1

winnowing fork

This is a tool for tossing wheat into the air to separate the wheat grain from the chaff. The heavier grain falls back down, and the wind blows away the unwanted chaff. This tool is similar to a pitchfork. If you have a similar tool in your culture, you can use the word for it here. Otherwise, you can use a phrase that would express the meaning. Alternate translation: “tool for threshing grain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

555

LUK

3

17

gf8n

translate-unknown

διακαθᾶραι τὴν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ

1

to thoroughly clear off his threshing floor

The threshing floor was the place where wheat was stacked in preparation for threshing. To clear off the floor is to finish threshing all the grain. Alternate translation: “to completely thresh all of his grain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

556

LUK

3

17

gt3q

figs-exmetaphor

καὶ συναγαγεῖν τὸν σῖτον εἰς τὴν ἀποθήκην αὐτοῦ

1

and to gather the wheat into his storehouse

John continues to speak figuratively to describe how the coming Messiah will judge people. The wheat is the part of the crop that is useful. It represents people who are obedient to God, who will be welcomed into his presence. You could express this metaphor as a simile in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He will welcome those who are obedient to God, just as a farmer stores good grain in his barn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

557

LUK

3

17

ky8j

figs-exmetaphor

τὸ δὲ ἄχυρον κατακαύσει πυρὶ ἀσβέστῳ

1

but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire

John continues to speak figuratively to describe how the coming Messiah will judge people. The chaff is the husk that surrounds the grain. It is not useful for anything, so people burn it up. You could express this metaphor as a simile in your translation. Alternate translation: “but he will punish those who are disobedient to God, just as a farmer burns up the useless chaff” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

558

LUK

3

18

tyj9

πολλὰ…καὶ ἕτερα παρακαλῶν

1

also exhorting many other things

Alternate translation: “saying many other things to warn them”

559

LUK

3

19

l197

writing-background

δὲ

1

But

Luke uses the term but to introduce some background information to the story. In this verse and the next one, he tells what later happened to John. This had not yet happened at this time. When Luke says in 3:21 that Jesus was baptized, he means that John was still there and that John baptized Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

560

LUK

3

19

jj3q

translate-unknown

ὁ…Ἡρῴδης ὁ τετράρχης

1

Herod the tetrarch

See how you translated the term tetrarch in 3:1 Alternate translation: “Herod, who ruled the region of Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

561

LUK

3

19

l198

figs-activepassive

ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ περὶ Ἡρῳδιάδος, τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

having been rebuked by him concerning Herodias, the wife of his brother

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could make clear who did the action. Alternate translation: “because John had rebuked him for marrying Herodias, his brother’s former wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

562

LUK

3

19

cu4v

figs-explicit

ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ περὶ Ἡρῳδιάδος, τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

having been rebuked by him concerning Herodias, the wife of his brother

The implication is that Herod’s brother was still alive. That made this marriage a violation of the law of Moses. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “because John had rebuked him for marrying Herodias, his brother’s former wife, while his brother was still alive. That was something which the law of Moses forbade” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

563

LUK

3

20

p2xw

figs-synecdoche

κατέκλεισεν τὸν Ἰωάννην ἐν φυλακῇ

1

he locked John up in prison

Herod did not do this by himself, Rather, as a ruler, he probably ordered his soldiers to lock John up. Luke is speaking figuratively of Herod, one person who was involved in this action, to mean everyone who was involved. Alternate translation: “He had his soldiers lock John up in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

564

LUK

3

21

l199

figs-events

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

and it happened that

The previous verse says that Herod put John in prison. It might be helpful to make it clear that the account that starts in this verse happened before John was arrested. UST does that by starting this verse with “but before Herod did that.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

565

LUK

3

21

phe6

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

and it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

566

LUK

3

21

r2x1

figs-activepassive

βαπτισθῆναι ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν

1

when all the people were being baptized

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “while John was baptizing all the people who came to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

567

LUK

3

21

l200

figs-hyperbole

ἅπαντα τὸν λαὸν

1

all the people

The phrase all the people is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “all the people who came to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

568

LUK

3

21

nw1s

figs-activepassive

καὶ Ἰησοῦ βαπτισθέντος

1

Jesus also was baptized

you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “John also baptized Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

569

LUK

3

21

i5zg

figs-activepassive

ἀνεῳχθῆναι τὸν οὐρανὸν

1

the heavens were opened

you could express this with an active form. This was more than a simple clearing of the clouds, but it is not clear exactly what the expression means, so it may be best not to try to specify what happened too exactly. Alternate translation: “the sky opened up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

570

LUK

3

22

q2yh

figs-personification

φωνὴν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ γενέσθαι

1

a voice came from heaven

Luke speaks figuratively of this voice as if it were a living thing that could come from heaven to earth. Alternate translation: “God spoke from heaven and said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

571

LUK

3

22

h7tn

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Υἱός μου

1

my … Son

This is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

572

LUK

3

23

uvm3

writing-background

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information about Jesus’ age and ancestors. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

573

LUK

3

23

d3sh

figs-idiom

αὐτὸς ἦν Ἰησοῦς ἀρχόμενος ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα

1

Jesus himself was beginning about 30 years old

This idiomatic expression could mean: (1) the word beginning is a reference to Jesus starting his own ministry. UST follows this interpretation. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself was about 30 years old when he began his ministry” (2) Luke is saying that Jesus had just turned 30 was when he was baptized. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself was just 30 years old at this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

574

LUK

3

23

z2xa

figs-activepassive

ὢν υἱός, ὡς ἐνομίζετο, Ἰωσὴφ

1

He was the son (as it was assumed) of Joseph

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “People assumed that he was the son of Joseph” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

575

LUK

3

24

f8pm

translate-names

τοῦ Μαθθὰτ, τοῦ Λευεὶ, τοῦ Μελχεὶ, τοῦ Ἰανναὶ, τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ

1

of Matthat, of Levi, of Melchi, of Jannai, of Joseph

This continues the list that begins with the words “He was the son … of Joseph, the son of Heli” in verse 24. Consider how people normally list ancestors in your language. Use the same wording throughout the whole list. Possible formats are: (1) “He was the son … of Joseph, the son of Heli, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph” (2) “He was the son … of Joseph. Joseph was the son of Heli. Heli was the son of Matthat. Matthat was the son of Levi. Levi was the son of Melchi. Melchi was the son of Jannai. Jannai was the son of Joseph” or (3) “His father … was Joseph. Joseph’s father was Heli. Heli’s father was Matthat. Matthat’s father was Levi. Levi’s father was Melchi. Melchi’s father was Jannai. Jannai’s father was Joseph” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

576

LUK

3

25

xdc5

translate-names

τοῦ Ματταθίου, τοῦ Ἀμὼς, τοῦ Ναοὺμ, τοῦ Ἑσλεὶ, τοῦ Ναγγαὶ

1

of Mattathias, of Amos, of Nahum, of Esli, of Naggai

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

577

LUK

3

26

vt9z

translate-names

τοῦ Μάαθ, τοῦ Ματταθίου, τοῦ Σεμεεῒν, τοῦ Ἰωσὴχ, τοῦ Ἰωδὰ

1

of Maath, of Mattathias, of Semein, of Josech, of Joda

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

578

LUK

3

27

z85v

translate-names

τοῦ Ἰωανὰν, τοῦ Ῥησὰ, τοῦ Ζοροβαβὲλ, τοῦ Σαλαθιὴλ, τοῦ Νηρεὶ

1

of Joanan, of Rhesa, of Zerubbabel, of Salathiel, of Neri

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that begins in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

579

LUK

3

28

yf2b

translate-names

τοῦ Μελχεὶ, τοῦ Ἀδδεὶ, τοῦ Κωσὰμ, τοῦ Ἐλμαδὰμ, τοῦ Ἢρ

1

of Melchi, of Addi, of Cosam, of Elmadam, of Er

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

580

LUK

3

29

led5

translate-names

τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, τοῦ Ἐλιέζερ, τοῦ Ἰωρεὶμ, τοῦ Μαθθὰτ, τοῦ Λευεὶ

1

of Joshua, of Eliezer, of Jorim, of Matthat, of Levi

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

581

LUK

3

30

s7aw

translate-names

τοῦ Συμεὼν, τοῦ Ἰούδα, τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ, τοῦ Ἰωνὰμ, τοῦ Ἐλιακεὶμ

1

of Simeon, of Judah, of Joseph, of Jonam, of Eliakim

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

582

LUK

3

31

w1m5

translate-names

τοῦ Μελεὰ, τοῦ Μεννὰ, τοῦ Ματταθὰ, τοῦ Ναθὰμ, τοῦ Δαυεὶδ

1

of Melea, of Menna, of Mattatha, of Nathan, of David

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

583

LUK

3

32

ed2t

translate-names

τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ, τοῦ Ἰωβὴλ, τοῦ Βόος, τοῦ Σαλὰ, τοῦ Ναασσὼν

1

of Jesse, of Obed, of Boaz, of Salmon, of Nahshon

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

584

LUK

3

33

ur9a

translate-names

τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ, τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν, τοῦ Ἀρνεὶ, τοῦ Ἑσρὼμ, τοῦ Φαρὲς, τοῦ Ἰούδα

1

of Amminadab, of Admin, of Arni, of Hezron, of Perez, of Judah

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

585

LUK

3

34

wkq5

translate-names

τοῦ Ἰακὼβ, τοῦ Ἰσαὰκ, τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ, τοῦ Θάρα, τοῦ Ναχὼρ

1

of Jacob, of Isaac, of Abraham, of Terah, of Nahor

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

586

LUK

3

35

jbl1

translate-names

τοῦ Σεροὺχ, τοῦ Ῥαγαὺ, τοῦ Φάλεκ, τοῦ Ἔβερ, τοῦ Σαλὰ

1

of Serug, of Reu, of Peleg, of Eber, of Shelah

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

587

LUK

3

36

xit8

translate-names

τοῦ Καϊνὰμ, τοῦ Ἀρφαξὰδ, τοῦ Σὴμ, τοῦ Νῶε, τοῦ Λάμεχ

1

of Cainan, of Arphaxad, of Shem, of Noah, of Lamech

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

588

LUK

3

37

qev8

translate-names

τοῦ Μαθουσαλὰ, τοῦ Ἑνὼχ, τοῦ Ἰάρετ, τοῦ Μαλελεὴλ, τοῦ Καϊνὰμ

1

of Methuselah, of Enoch, of Jared, of Mahalaleel, of Cainan

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

589

LUK

3

38

ni8x

translate-names

τοῦ Ἐνὼς, τοῦ Σὴθ, τοῦ Ἀδὰμ, τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

of Enos, of Seth, of Adam, of God

This is a continuation of the list of Jesus’ ancestors that began in Luke 3:23. Use the same format as you used in the previous verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

590

LUK

3

38

ck3f

τοῦ Ἀδὰμ, τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

of Adam, of God

Alternate translation: “the son of Adam, whom God created” or “the son of Adam, who was, in a sense, the son of God”

591

LUK

4

intro

r3vy

0

Luke 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. The devil tempts Jesus in the wilderness (4:1-13)
  2. Jesus teaches in the synagogue in Nazareth (4:14-30)
  3. Jesus teaches, heals, and drives out demons in Capernaum (4:31-44)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. ULT does this with the poetry in 4:10-11 and 4:18-19, which is quoted from the Old Testamentt.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Jesus was tempted by the devil”

While it is true that the devil actually believed that he could persuade Jesus to disobey God and obey him instead, it is important not to imply in your translation that Jesus would ever really have wanted to obey the devil.

592

LUK

4

1

n1xx

writing-newevent

Ἰησοῦς δὲ

1

Then Jesus

Luke uses this expression to return to the story after providing background information about Jesus’ ancestors. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could include a phrase that would provide continuity with the previous episode in the story. Alternate translation: “After John had baptized Jesus, then Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

593

LUK

4

1

l201

translate-names

τοῦ Ἰορδάνου

1

the Jordan

Jordan is the name of a river. Alternate translation: “the Jordan River” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

594

LUK

4

1

v18k

figs-activepassive

ἤγετο ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι

1

was led by the Spirit

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “the Spirit led him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

595

LUK

4

2

bls8

figs-verbs

ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου

1

for 40 days being tempted by the devil

The Greek verb indicates that the temptation continued throughout the 40 days. You can make this clear in your translation, as UST does: “While he was there, the devil kept tempting him for 40 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-verbs]])

596

LUK

4

2

hg5p

figs-activepassive

ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου

1

for 40 days being tempted by the devil

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “For 40 days the devil kept tempting him” or “For 40 days the devil kept trying to persuade him disobey God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

597

LUK

4

2

k47d

writing-pronouns

καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν

1

he did not eat anything

Make sure that it is clear in your translation that the word he refers to Jesus, not to the devil. Alternate translation: “Jesus did not eat anything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

598

LUK

4

3

bg52

figs-explicit

εἶπεν…ὁ διάβολος

1

the devil said

The devil either holds a stone in his hand or points to a nearby stone. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “The devil picked up a stone and said” or “The devil pointed to a stone and said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

599

LUK

4

3

l202

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, εἰπὲ τῷ λίθῳ τούτῳ, ἵνα γένηται ἄρτος

1

If you are the Son of God, speak to this stone so that it might become bread

The devil is suggesting that this is a hypothetical condition, that the stone will only become bread if Jesus is the Son of God. The devil is speaking as if it is uncertain who Jesus is in order to challenge him to do this miracle to prove that he really is the Son of God. Alternate translation: “Prove that you are the Son of God by commanding this stone to become bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

600

LUK

4

3

y7yf

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱὸς…τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the Son of God

This is an important title for Jesus. Even the devil knew its significance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

601

LUK

4

4

l203

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

And

This word introduces a contrast between the devil wanting Jesus to turn the stone into bread and Jesus refusing to do that. Alternate translation: “But” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

602

LUK

4

4

kde3

figs-explicit

ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, γέγραπται

1

Jesus to answered him, “It is written”

Jesus clearly implies in his answer that he is rejecting the devil’s challenge. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied, ‘No, I will not do that, because it is written’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

603

LUK

4

4

l204

figs-quotesinquotes

γέγραπται, ὅτι οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος

1

It is written, ‘Man will not live on bread alone’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “It is written that man will not live on bread alone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

604

LUK

4

4

hr5a

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

It is written

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

605

LUK

4

4

ek2z

figs-synecdoche

οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος

1

Man will not live on bread alone

The word bread refers to food in general. Jesus quotes this scripture to explain why he will not turn the stone into bread. It means that food by itself, without God, is not enough to sustain a person in life. Alternate translation: “It is not just having food that makes a person truly alive” or “God says there are more important things than food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

606

LUK

4

4

l205

figs-gendernotations

ὁ ἄνθρωπος

1

Man

Here, man has a generic sense that refers to all people. Alternate translation: “People” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

607

LUK

4

5

wm17

figs-explicit

ἀναγαγὼν αὐτὸν

1

he led him up

The implication is that the devil brought Jesus up to a high place with a commanding view. Alternate translation: “the devil led Jesus up a mountain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

608

LUK

4

5

jxi9

figs-explicitinfo

ἐν στιγμῇ χρόνου

1

in an instant of time

In your language, it might seem that the phrase an instant of time expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. Alternate translation: “in an instant” or “in a short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

609

LUK

4

6

l206

figs-activepassive

ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται

1

it has been handed over to me

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God has given me authority over all these kingdoms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

610

LUK

4

6

dcx6

figs-explicit

ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται

1

it has been handed over to me

The word it likely refers back to the singular antecedent all this authority, that is, the authority over these kingdoms. So the word you use to translate it should agree with authority in gender and number and in any other distinctions that your language marks. Alternate translation: “God has given me authority over all these kingdoms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

611

LUK

4

7

g7h9

figs-explicit

ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ

1

if you will bow in worship before me

The implication is that the devil wants visible, direct worship that will be an official act of submission. Alternate translation: “If you will bow down in worship directly in front of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

612

LUK

4

7

l207

ἐνώπιον

1

before

Here, the term before means “in front of.”

613

LUK

4

7

uca7

ἔσται σοῦ πᾶσα

1

it will all be yours

Alternate translation: “I will give you all of these kingdoms”

614

LUK

4

8

v8ca

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ

1

answering, Jesus said to him

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the offer that the devil made. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

615

LUK

4

8

l208

figs-quotesinquotes

γέγραπται, Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις

1

It is written, ‘You will worship the Lord your God, and you will serve only him.’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “It is written that one must worship the Lord his God and serve only him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

616

LUK

4

8

m4tc

figs-explicit

γέγραπται

1

It is written

Jesus clearly implies in his answer that he is rejecting the devil’s challenge. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied, ‘No, I will not do that, because it is written’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

617

LUK

4

8

xj35

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

It is written

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

618

LUK

4

8

bch3

figs-declarative

Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις

1

You will worship the Lord your God, and you will serve only him

Here, the Scriptures are using a statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must worship the Lord your God, and you must serve only him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

619

LUK

4

8

q8ni

figs-youcrowd

προσκυνήσεις

1

You will worship

Here, it may not be clear whether to use the singular or plural form of you because this is a short quotation from the Scriptures and the context is not given. The word is actually singular because, even though Moses said this to the Israelites as a group, each individual person was supposed to obey this command. So in your translation, use the singular form of you, if your language marks that distinction. In general these notes will not discuss whether you is singular or plural when this should be clear from the context. But they will address ambiguous cases such as this one. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

620

LUK

4

9

j8r6

translate-unknown

τὸ πτερύγιον

1

the highest point

The term pinnacle refers to the highest point or very top of something. If you have a similar term in your language, you could use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

621

LUK

4

9

g2n5

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ Υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω

1

If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here

The devil is suggesting that this is a hypothetical condition, that Jesus will be able to jump safely from this great height if he really is the Son of God. The devil is speaking as if it is uncertain who Jesus is in order to challenge him to do this miracle to prove that he really is the Son of God. Alternate translation: “Prove that you are the Son of God by jumping safely from this great height” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

622

LUK

4

9

j9nx

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱὸς…τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the Son of God

This is an important title for Jesus. Even the devil knew its significance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

623

LUK

4

9

i81s

figs-explicit

βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω

1

throw yourself down from here

The exact location of the part of the temple that Luke describes is uncertain. However, the implication is that it was one of the places on the temple roof from which people would fall several hundred feet into the Kidron Valley if they jumped or slipped off. Make sure it is clear in your translation that this would ordinarily have been a deadly fall. Alternate translation: “jump from this great height” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

624

LUK

4

10

l209

figs-quotesinquotes

γέγραπται γὰρ, ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ, τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε

1

For it is written, ‘He will give orders to his angels regarding you, to protect you’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “For it is written that he will give orders to his angels regarding you, to protect you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

625

LUK

4

10

f5dn

figs-explicit

γέγραπται γὰρ

1

For it is written

The devil implies that his quote from the Psalms means that if Jesus really is the Son of God, he will not be hurt if he jumps from this great height. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “You will not be hurt, because it is written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

626

LUK

4

10

s2g4

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

it is written

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “the Scriptures say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

627

LUK

4

10

nld8

writing-pronouns

τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ, τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε

1

He will give orders to his angels regarding you, to protect you

He refers to God. Alternate translation: “God will order his angels to protect you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

628

LUK

4

11

l210

figs-quotesinquotes

καὶ, ὅτι ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε, μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου

1

and, ‘They will lift you up in their hands, lest you strike your foot against a stone’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “and that they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

629

LUK

4

11

l211

figs-synecdoche

μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου

1

lest you strike your foot against a stone

The Scriptures are figuratively using one way of being hurt to mean all ways of being hurt. Alternate translation: “so that you will not get hurt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

630

LUK

4

12

l212

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς

1

answering, Jesus said to him

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the challenge that the devil posed. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

631

LUK

4

12

l213

figs-quotesinquotes

εἴρηται, οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου

1

It is said, ‘You will not put the Lord your God to the test.’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “It is said that one must not put the Lord his God to the test” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

632

LUK

4

12

fy8d

figs-explicit

εἴρηται

1

It is said

Jesus clearly implies in his answer that he is rejecting the devil’s challenge. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Jesus replied, ‘No, I will not do that, because it is said’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

633

LUK

4

12

cf6c

figs-activepassive

εἴρηται

1

It is said

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

634

LUK

4

12

gf8h

figs-declarative

οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου

1

You will not put the Lord your God to the test

The Scriptures are using a statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must not test the Lord your God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

635

LUK

4

13

nc2c

figs-explicit

συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν

1

when he had finished every temptation

This does not imply that the devil was successful in his temptation. Jesus resisted every attempt. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “after the devil had repeatedly failed to persuade Jesus to sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

636

LUK

4

13

qqd7

figs-explicit

ἄχρι καιροῦ

1

until an opportune time

New Testament Greek had two words for time. The first referred to chronological time, that is, the passage of time. The second word referred to the right time to do something. ULT is using the phrase an opportune time to translate that second word. If your language makes this same distinction, use the corresponding word in your own translation. Alternate translation: “until the time was right to try again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

637

LUK

4

14

yfc3

writing-newevent

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

638

LUK

4

14

ht5k

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ Πνεύματος

1

in the power of the Spirit

This phrase means that God, by the Holy Spirit, was empowering Jesus in a special way, enabling him to do things that ordinary humans could not. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and the Spirit was giving him the power to do extraordinary things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

639

LUK

4

14

dhj7

figs-personification

φήμη ἐξῆλθεν…περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

news about him went out

Luke speaks figuratively of this news as if it were something that could go out actively by itself. This expression means that those who heard about Jesus told other people about him, who then told even more people about him. Alternate translation: “people spread the news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

640

LUK

4

14

hah9

καθ’ ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου

1

throughout the entire surrounding region

Alternate translation: “everywhere around Galilee”

641

LUK

4

15

ik8g

figs-activepassive

δοξαζόμενος ὑπὸ πάντων

1

being praised by all

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “as everyone spoke about him in a good way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

642

LUK

4

16

l214

grammar-connect-time-background

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

643

LUK

4

16

ulb1

figs-activepassive

οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος

1

where he had been raised

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “where his parents had raised him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

644

LUK

4

16

g4sv

κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ

1

according to his custom

Alternate translation: “as was his usual practice”

645

LUK

4

17

l215

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate came after the event he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

646

LUK

4

17

i9hn

figs-activepassive

ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαΐου

1

the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “someone brought him the scroll of the prophet Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

647

LUK

4

17

l216

figs-explicit

ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαΐου

1

the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him

Since Jesus looked for a specific passage in the scroll, and since he said that it was being fulfilled right at that time, it is likely that Jesus requested this particular scroll. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “at his request, someone brought him the scroll of the prophet Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

648

LUK

4

17

x52a

translate-unknown

βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαΐου

1

the scroll of the prophet Isaiah

A scroll was a long, wide roll of special paper. On this scroll someone had written the words that Isaiah had spoken many years before. If your readers would not know what a scroll is, you could describe it, or you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the special paper roll that recorded the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” or “the book that recorded the sayings of the prophet Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

649

LUK

4

17

w5s9

figs-activepassive

τὸν τόπον οὗ ἦν γεγραμμένον

1

the place where it was written

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the place where the scroll recorded the words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

650

LUK

4

18

h1rm

figs-metaphor

Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπ’ ἐμέ

1

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me

As in 2:25, upon is a spatial metaphor that means that the Spirit of God is with someone in a special way. Alternate translation: “The Spirit of the Lord is with me in a special way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

651

LUK

4

18

q96y

figs-metaphor

ἔχρισέν με

1

he has anointed me

In the Old Testament, ceremonial oil was poured on a person when they were given the authority to assume an office or do a special task. Isaiah uses anointing figuratively to indicate that God has appointed him to his work. Jesus applies these words to himself as well. Alternate translation: “he has appointed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

652

LUK

4

18

l6ac

figs-nominaladj

πτωχοῖς…τυφλοῖς

1

the poor … the blind

Luke is using the adjectives poor and blind as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate these expressions with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “people who are poor … people who are blind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

653

LUK

4

18

a9wn

κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν

1

to proclaim freedom to the captives

Alternate translation: “to tell people who are being held captive that they can go free”

654

LUK

4

18

mzp4

κηρύξαι…τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν

1

to proclaim … recovery of sight to the blind

Alternate translation: “to tell people who are blind that they will be able to see again”

655

LUK

4

18

utq5

figs-activepassive

ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει

1

to set free those who are oppressed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who is doing the action. Alternate translation: “to rescue people whom others are treating harshly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

656

LUK

4

19

z262

figs-idiom

κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν

1

to proclaim the favorable year of the Lord

Luke is using the term year figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “to announce that this is the time when the Lord will show his kindness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

657

LUK

4

20

sm11

figs-explicit

πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον

1

rolling up the scroll

A scroll was closed by rolling it like a tube to protect the writing inside it. Alternate translation: “closing the scroll by rolling it up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

658

LUK

4

20

ehx3

translate-unknown

τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ

1

the attendant

The attendant refers to a synagogue worker who, with proper care and reverence, would bring out and put away the scrolls that contained the Scriptures. If there is a word in your language for a person who has a similar role in your culture, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “the sexton” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

659

LUK

4

20

l217

figs-explicit

ἐκάθισεν

1

he sat down

Since a person would stand to read the Scriptures in a synagogue but then sit down to teach, the implication is that Jesus was going to speak to the people about what he had just read. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “he sat down to teach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

660

LUK

4

20

pu89

figs-synecdoche

πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ

1

all the eyes in the synagogue

Luke is using one part of people, their eyes, figuratively to represent people themselves in the act of seeing. Alternate translation: “all the people in the synagogue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

661

LUK

4

21

l218

figs-idiom

σήμερον

1

Today

Today figuratively refers to the present moment. Alternate translation: “Right now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

662

LUK

4

21

b1ix

figs-activepassive

πεπλήρωται ἡ Γραφὴ αὕτη

1

this scripture has been fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I am fulfilling what this scripture says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

663

LUK

4

21

iij8

figs-metonymy

ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν

1

in your ears

In this expression, the ears figuratively represent people in the act of listening. Alternate translation: “even as you are listening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

664

LUK

4

22

k2xi

figs-metonymy

τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος

1

the gracious words

Luke uses the term words figuratively to describe what Jesus said by reference to something associated with it, the words he used to communicate it. Alternate translation: “the articulate things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

665

LUK

4

22

l219

figs-explicitinfo

τοῖς λόγοις…τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

1

the … words that were coming out of his mouth

In your language, this phrase might seem like an unnecessarily elaborate way of speaking. If so, you can express the same idea more compactly. Alternate translation: “the … things he was saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

666

LUK

4

22

ty6d

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος?

1

Is this not the son of Joseph?

The people were making a statement, not asking a question. They did not expect others to verify for them who Jesus’ father was. Instead, they were using the question form to say how amazed they were. Joseph was not a religious leader, so they were surprised that his son would preach as well as he did. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate these words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “This is just Joseph’s son!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

667

LUK

4

23

l220

figs-quotesinquotes

πάντως ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην, ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν; ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν Καφαρναοὺμ, ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου

1

Surely you will say this proverb to me, ‘Doctor, heal yourself. Whatever we heard that happened in Capernaum, also do here in your hometown’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “Surely you will quote the proverb to me that tells a doctor to heal himself, to ask me to do the same things here in my hometown that you heard happened in Capernaum” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

668

LUK

4

23

u4ps

writing-proverbs

ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν

1

Doctor, heal yourself

Jesus anticipates that the people will want to see him do miracles to prove his credibility. He uses a short popular saying of the culture to express this. This saying expresses a great deal of meaning in a few words. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could expand it to make clear to your readers what it means. Alternate translation: “If a doctor cannot heal himself of a certain disease, then people will not believe that he can heal them of it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]])

669

LUK

4

23

ww1w

figs-explicit

ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν Καφαρναοὺμ, ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου

1

Whatever we heard that happened in Capernaum, also do here in your hometown

Jesus then explains how the short saying applies to this situation. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explicitly state the implications of his explanation. Alternate translation: “We will not believe the things you say unless you can do the same kind of miracles here that we heard you did in Capernaum” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

670

LUK

4

24

q3a9

ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν

1

Truly I say to you

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”

671

LUK

4

24

n2cp

writing-proverbs

οὐδεὶς προφήτης δεκτός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ

1

no prophet is accepted in his hometown

Jesus makes a short, general statement in order to rebuke the people. This saying expresses a great deal of meaning in a few words. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could expand it to make clear to your readers what it means. Alternate translation: “You think you know all about me because I grew up here, and so you cannot accept that I am genuinely a prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]])

672

LUK

4

25

u896

ἐπ’ ἀληθείας δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν

1

In truth I say to you

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”

673

LUK

4

25

l221

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλείου

1

during the days of Elijah

Jesus is using the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “during the time when Elijah was prophesying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

674

LUK

4

25

g8r3

figs-explicit

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλείου

1

during the days of Elijah

The people to whom Jesus was speaking would have known that Elijah was one of God’s prophets. If your readers would not know that, you can make this implicit information explicit, as UST does. Alternate translation: “during the time when Elijah was prophesying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

675

LUK

4

25

l222

figs-activepassive

ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς

1

the sky was shut up

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “when God shut up the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

676

LUK

4

25

spq7

figs-metaphor

ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς

1

the sky was shut up

Jesus figuratively describes the sky as if God had closed it so that no rain could fall from it. Alternate translation: “when no rain fell from the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

677

LUK

4

25

ukl6

translate-unknown

λιμὸς μέγας

1

a great famine

A famine is a long period of time when the people in an area cannot produce or acquire enough food to feed themselves. Alternate translation: “a serious lack of food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

678

LUK

4

26

l223

figs-activepassive

πρὸς οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν ἐπέμφθη Ἠλείας

1

Elijah was sent to none of them except

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God did not send Elijah to any of them except” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

679

LUK

4

26

l224

grammar-connect-exceptions

πρὸς οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν ἐπέμφθη Ἠλείας, εἰ μὴ

1

Elijah was sent to none of them except

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “God only sent Elijah to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

680

LUK

4

26

zsi6

figs-explicit

εἰς Σάρεπτα…πρὸς γυναῖκα χήραν

1

to Zarephath … to a widow woman

The people listening to Jesus would have understood that the people of Zarephath were Gentiles. Alternate translation: “to a Gentile widow living in Zarephath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

681

LUK

4

26

l225

translate-names

εἰς Σάρεπτα τῆς Σιδωνίας

1

to Zarephath in Sidon

Zarephath is the name of a city, and Sidon is the name of the region where it is located. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

682

LUK

4

27

l226

figs-activepassive

οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη, εἰ μὴ

1

none of them were healed except

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “Elisha did not heal any of them except” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

683

LUK

4

27

l227

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη, εἰ μὴ

1

none of them were healed except

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “Elisha only healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

684

LUK

4

27

l229

figs-explicit

Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος

1

Naaman the Syrian

The people listening to Jesus would have understood that the people of Syria were Gentiles, not Jews. Alternate translation: “a Gentile, Naaman from Syria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

685

LUK

4

27

mbs2

translate-names

Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος

1

Naaman the Syrian

Naaman is the name of a man, and Syrian is the name of his people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

686

LUK

4

28

l230

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate, the people becoming enraged, came after the event he has just described, Jesus citing scriptures in which God helped Gentiles rather than Jews. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

687

LUK

4

28

ca1k

figs-explicit

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἀκούοντες ταῦτα

1

all in the synagogue were filled with rage when they heard these things

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state explicitly why the people of Nazareth became so angry. Alternate translation: “When the people in the synagogue heard Jesus say these things, they all became furious, because he had cited scriptures in which God helped Gentiles rather than Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

688

LUK

4

28

l231

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ

1

all … were filled with rage

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they all became furious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

689

LUK

4

28

l232

figs-personification

ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ

1

all … were filled with rage

Luke speaks figuratively of the people’s rage as if it were something that could actively fill them. Alternate translation: “they all became furious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

690

LUK

4

29

l233

figs-activepassive

τοῦ ὄρους ἐφ’ οὗ ἡ πόλις ᾠκοδόμητο αὐτῶν

1

the hill on which their town was built

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “the hill on which people had built their town” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

691

LUK

4

29

l234

figs-explicit

ὥστε κατακρημνίσαι αὐτόν

1

so as to throw him off

The implication is that the people of Nazareth wanted to do this in order to kill Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “because they wanted to throw him off to kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

692

LUK

4

30

k7dg

διελθὼν διὰ μέσου αὐτῶν

1

passing through the midst of them

Alternate translation: “slipping between the people who were trying to kill him”

693

LUK

4

30

m45c

ἐπορεύετο

1

he went on his way

Alternate translation: “he left that place”

694

LUK

4

31

ynf3

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate came after the event he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

695

LUK

4

31

ib1l

figs-idiom

κατῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ

1

he went down to Capernaum

Here, Luke uses the phrase went down because Capernaum is lower in elevation than Nazareth. Alternate translation: “went to Capernaum” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

696

LUK

4

31

ky4y

figs-explicit

Καφαρναοὺμ, πόλιν τῆς Γαλιλαίας

1

Capernaum, a city in Galilee

Since Nazareth was also in Galilee, you might state “Capernaum, another city in Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

697

LUK

4

32

qk28

figs-activepassive

ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ

1

they were astonished at his teaching

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “his teaching amazed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

698

LUK

4

32

j4ee

figs-metonymy

ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ ἦν ὁ λόγος αὐτοῦ

1

his word was with authority

Luke is using the term word figuratively to describe the things that Jesus taught by using words. Alternate translation: “he taught as one who had authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

699

LUK

4

33

l235

grammar-connect-time-background

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

700

LUK

4

33

fax1

writing-participants

ἦν ἄνθρωπος

1

there was a man

Luke uses this phrase to mark the introduction of a new character into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

701

LUK

4

33

i93n

ἔχων πνεῦμα δαιμονίου ἀκαθάρτου

1

who had a spirit of an unclean demon

Alternate translation: “who was controlled by an evil spirit”

702

LUK

4

33

e539

figs-idiom

ἀνέκραξεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ

1

he cried out with a loud voice

This is an idiom that means the man raised the volume of his voice. Alternate translation: “he shouted loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

703

LUK

4

34

y1xh

figs-rquestion

τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ?

1

What to us and to you, Jesus of Nazareth?

The unclean spirit is making a statement, not asking a question. He does not expect Jesus to explain what they have in common. Instead, he is using the question form to express his antagonism. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “We have nothing in common with you, Jesus of Nazareth!” or “You have no right to bother us, Jesus of Nazareth!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

704

LUK

4

34

fkp2

figs-idiom

τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί

1

What to us and to you

This expression is an idiom. Alternate translation: “We have nothing in common with you” or “You have no right to bother us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

705

LUK

4

35

m8es

ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγων

1

Jesus rebuked him, saying

Alternate translation: “Jesus said sternly to the demon”

706

LUK

4

35

l236

figs-activepassive

φιμώθητι

1

Be silenced

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Keep quiet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

707

LUK

4

35

me6n

ἔξελθε ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

come out of him

Jesus is commanding the demon to stop controlling the man. Alternate translation: “leave him alone” or “do not live in this man any longer”

708

LUK

4

36

l237

figs-personification

ἐγένετο θάμβος ἐπὶ πάντας

1

astonishment came upon everyone

Luke speaks figuratively of astonishment as if it were something that actively came upon the people. Alternate translation: “they were all amazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

709

LUK

4

36

l238

figs-metonymy

τίς ὁ λόγος οὗτος

1

What is this word

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe the things that Jesus taught by using words. Alternate translation: “What is this teaching” or “What is this message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

710

LUK

4

36

h7wx

figs-rquestion

τίς ὁ λόγος οὗτος

1

What is this word?

The people are making a statement, not asking a question. They do not expect anyone to explain what Jesus’ teaching is. Instead, they are using the question form to express how amazed they are that Jesus has the authority to command demons to leave a person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “This is a powerful message!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

711

LUK

4

36

dgz3

figs-doublet

ἐν ἐξουσίᾳ καὶ δυνάμει ἐπιτάσσει τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις πνεύμασιν

1

he commands the unclean spirits with authority and power

The words authority and power mean similar things. The people use the two terms together to emphasize what great control Jesus has over unclean spirits. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these terms in a single phrase that would similarly express this emphasis. Alternate translation: “he has complete authority over the unclean spirits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

712

LUK

4

37

q25f

writing-endofstory

καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο ἦχος περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

And news about him went out

This is a comment about what happened after the story as a result of the events within the story itself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])

713

LUK

4

37

l239

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

714

LUK

4

37

xca8

figs-personification

ἐξεπορεύετο ἦχος περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

news about him went out

Luke speaks figuratively of this news as if it were something that could spread around actively by itself. As in 4:14, this expression means that those who heard about Jesus told other people about him, who told even more people about him. Alternate translation: “people began to spread the news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

715

LUK

4

38

jn3a

writing-newevent

δὲ

1

Then

Luke uses this word to introduce a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

716

LUK

4

38

l240

writing-participants

Σίμωνος

1

Simon

Luke is introducing a new character into the story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state a little bit more about him here to help them recognize him later. Alternate translation: “a man named Simon, who would become one of his disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

717

LUK

4

38

l241

translate-names

Σίμωνος

1

Simon

Simon is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

718

LUK

4

38

tf3d

πενθερὰ…τοῦ Σίμωνος

1

Simon’s mother-in-law

This means the mother of Simon’s wife. In your translation, you can use the term or expression in your own language for this relationship.

719

LUK

4

38

lls1

figs-idiom

ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ

1

was suffering with a high fever

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “was very sick with a high fever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

720

LUK

4

38

cp21

ἦν συνεχομένη πυρετῷ μεγάλῳ

1

was suffering with a high fever

You can express this in the way your language and culture would. Alternate translation: “was so sick that her skin was hot”

721

LUK

4

38

z3qz

figs-explicit

ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν περὶ αὐτῆς

1

they asked him concerning her

Implicitly this means they asked Jesus to heal her from the fever. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “they asked Jesus to heal her” or “they asked Jesus to cure her fever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

722

LUK

4

39

pla1

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. He is indicating that Jesus did this because the people had pleaded with him on behalf of Simon’s mother-in-law. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

723

LUK

4

39

v8uf

ἐπιστὰς ἐπάνω αὐτῆς

1

standing over her

Alternate translation: “going and leaning over her”

724

LUK

4

39

ed8r

ἐπετίμησεν τῷ πυρετῷ, καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτήν

1

he rebuked the fever, and it left her

You can express this in the way your language and culture would. Alternate translation: “he commanded her skin to become cool, and it did” or “he commanded the sickness to leave her, and it did”

725

LUK

4

39

qtn7

figs-idiom

διηκόνει αὐτοῖς

1

began to serve them

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “and began to prepare food for Jesus and the other people in the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

726

LUK

4

40

l242

figs-explicit

δύνοντος δὲ τοῦ ἡλίου

1

when the sun was setting

The implication is that the people waited until sunset because that marked the end of the Sabbath, and they could then do the “work” of bringing the sick to Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. Alternate translation: “when the sun was setting and the Sabbath day was ending” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

727

LUK

4

40

zpk9

τὰς χεῖρας ἐπιτιθεὶς

1

laying his hands on

Alternate translation: “placing his hands”

728

LUK

4

41

bp7b

figs-explicit

ἐξήρχετο…καὶ δαιμόνια

1

demons also came out

The implication is that Jesus made the demons leave the people they were controlling. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus also forced demons to come out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

729

LUK

4

41

ag15

figs-hendiadys

κραυγάζοντα καὶ λέγοντα

1

crying out, and saying

Luke is expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The verb crying out tells how they were saying what follows. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “screaming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

730

LUK

4

41

dik3

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the Son of God

This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

731

LUK

4

42

rt5n

γενομένης…ἡμέρας

1

when it became day

Alternate translation: “at sunrise” or “at dawn”

732

LUK

4

42

d1pr

ἔρημον τόπον

1

a solitary place

Alternate translation: “a deserted place” or “a place where there were no people”

733

LUK

4

42

l243

κατεῖχον αὐτὸν τοῦ μὴ πορεύεσθαι ἀπ’ αὐτῶν

1

they restrained him not to go away from them

Alternate translation: “they tried to keep him from leaving them”

734

LUK

4

43

l244

figs-abstractnouns

εὐαγγελίσασθαί…τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

proclaim the gospel about the kingdom of God

See the discussion of this concept in Part 2 of the General Introduction to the Gospel of Luke. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “announce the good news that God is going to rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

735

LUK

4

43

sjy1

figs-metonymy

ταῖς ἑτέραις πόλεσιν

1

to other cities

Jesus actually means the people who live in these cities. He is describing them figuratively by reference to something associated with them, the cities where they live. Alternate translation: “to the people in many other cities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

736

LUK

4

43

b45z

figs-activepassive

ἐπὶ τοῦτο ἀπεστάλην

1

for this I was sent

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “this is the reason why God sent me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

737

LUK

4

44

s5mb

figs-explicit

τῆς Ἰουδαίας

1

in Judea

Since Jesus is in Galilee in this part of the Gospel of Luke, the term Judea here probably refers to the entire region where the Jews lived at that time. Alternate translation: “where the Jews lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

738

LUK

5

intro

axr7

0

Luke 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus calls Peter and his fellow fishermen to be his disciples (5:1-11)
  2. Jesus travels to various towns teaching and healing (5:12-26)
  3. Jesus calls Levi to be his disciple (5:27-32)
  4. Jesus teaches about fasting (5:33-39)

Special concepts in this chapter

“You will catch men”

Peter, James, and John were fishermen. When Jesus told them that they would catch men, he was using a metaphor to tell them he wanted them to help people believe the good news about him. See the last note to 5:10. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/disciple]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Sinners

When the people of Jesus’ time spoke of “sinners,” they were talking about people who did not obey the law of Moses. But when Jesus said that he came to call “sinners,” he meant that only people who understand that they are sinners who have disobeyed God can be his followers. This is true even if they are not what most people think of as “sinners.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Fasting and feasting

People would fast, or not eat food for a long time, when they were sad or in order to show God that they were sorry for their sins. When they were happy, such as during weddings, they would have feasts, or meals where they would eat much food. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/fast]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Healthy and sick people

To correct the Pharisees, Jesus speaks of healthy people who do not need a doctor. This does not mean that there are people who do not need Jesus. Rather, Jesus was explaining why he spent time with people whom the Pharisees considered to be “sinners.” See the notes to 5:31-32. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Implicit information

In several parts of this chapter, as in other places in the book, Luke does not explain information that his original readers would already have understood. Modern readers might not know some of those things, so they might have trouble understanding all that Luke is communicating. The alternate translations in these notes and the readings in UST often illustrate how that information can be presented so that modern readers will be able to understand these passages. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Past events

Parts of this chapter are sequences of events that have already happened. In a given passage, Luke sometimes writes as if the events have already happened while other events are still in progress (even though they are complete at the time he writes). This can cause difficulty in translation by creating an illogical order of events. It may be necessary to make these consistent by writing as if all the events have already happened.

739

LUK

5

1

zc8q

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

740

LUK

5

1

wsf8

figs-metonymy

ἀκούειν τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God

Here, Luke uses word figuratively to describe the things that Jesus said by using words. Alternate translation: “listening to the message Jesus was bringing from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

741

LUK

5

1

p6im

translate-names

τὴν λίμνην Γεννησαρέτ

1

the lake of Gennesaret

Lake of Gennesaret is another name for the body of water also known as the Sea of Galilee. Galilee was on the west side of this lake, and the land of Gennesaret was on the east side, so it was called by both names. Some English versions translate this as the proper name of the body of water. Alternate translation: “Lake Gennesaret” or “the Sea of Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

742

LUK

5

2

t96r

figs-explicit

ἔπλυνον τὰ δίκτυα

1

were washing their nets

The implication is that they were cleaning their fishing nets to maintain them so that they could keep using them to catch fish. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and were washing their nets to keep them clean and in good working order” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

743

LUK

5

3

f7z8

ὃ ἦν Σίμωνος

1

which was Simon’s

Alternate translation: “the one that belonged to Simon”

744

LUK

5

3

liq1

ἠρώτησεν αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἐπαναγαγεῖν ὀλίγον

1

asked him to put out a little from the land

Alternate translation: “and asked Simon to move the boat away from the shore”

745

LUK

5

3

rc1z

figs-explicit

καθίσας

1

he sat down

As in 4:20, sitting was the customary position for teaching in this culture. Alternate translation: “he sat down, as teachers did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

746

LUK

5

3

vbx7

ἐδίδασκεν ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου τοὺς ὄχλους

1

was teaching the crowds from the boat

Jesus was in the boat a short distance from the shore and he was speaking to the people who were on the shore. Alternate translation: “and was teaching the people while he sat in the boat”

747

LUK

5

4

rk9p

figs-explicit

ὡς δὲ ἐπαύσατο λαλῶν

1

when he stopped speaking

The implication is that Jesus had been speaking in order to teach the people. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “When Jesus had finished teaching the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

748

LUK

5

5

l245

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς Σίμων εἶπεν

1

answering Simon said

Together the words answering and said mean that Simon responded to Jesus’ instructions to take the boat out and let down the nets. Alternate translation: “Simon responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

749

LUK

5

5

wbb1

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ ῥήματί σου

1

at your word

Here Peter uses word figuratively to refer to what Jesus commanded him by using words. Alternate translation: “but because you have told me to do this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

750

LUK

5

7

n2fp

κατένευσαν τοῖς μετόχοις

1

they signaled to their partners

The Greek text does not specify how they signaled, but since they were some distance from the shore, it may have been by waving their arms rather than by calling out. You can use a general expression here. Alternate translation: “they summoned their partners”

751

LUK

5

7

pr7m

figs-explicit

βυθίζεσθαι αὐτά

1

they began to sink

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the reason for this explicitly. Alternate translation: “they began to sink because the fish were so heavy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

752

LUK

5

8

r8j9

translate-symaction

προσέπεσεν τοῖς γόνασιν Ἰησοῦ

1

he fell down at the knees of Jesus

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Peter did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect. Alternate translation: “he bowed down in front of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

753

LUK

5

8

j67m

figs-gendernotations

ἀνὴρ ἁμαρτωλός

1

a sinful man

Here, man means “adult male,” not the more general “human being.” So Peter is not saying generally, “I am a sinful person.” He really does mean, “I personally am a sinful man.” Be sure that this is clear in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

754

LUK

5

9

l246

figs-personification

θάμβος…περιέσχεν αὐτὸν καὶ πάντας τοὺς σὺν αὐτῷ

1

amazement had seized him and all those with him

Luke describes Peter’s amazement figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of him. Alternate translation: “he and the other fishermen were completely amazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

755

LUK

5

9

c2eh

figs-explicit

τῇ ἄγρᾳ τῶν ἰχθύων

1

the catch of fish

The implication is that this was a very large catch. Alternate translation: “the great number of fish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

756

LUK

5

10

l247

translate-names

Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην, υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου

1

James and John, sons of Zebedee

James and John are the names of men, and Zebedee is the name of their father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

757

LUK

5

10

k4ft

writing-participants

κοινωνοὶ τῷ Σίμωνι

1

partners with Simon

Luke provides this information to introduce these new participants in the story. Alternate translation: “who were Simon’s partners in the fishing business” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

758

LUK

5

10

u6zs

figs-metaphor

ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶν

1

you will be catching men

Jesus is using the image of catching fish figuratively to describe gathering people to follow him. Alternate translation: “you will gather people for me” or “you will persuade people to become my disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

759

LUK

5

11

abca

τὴν γῆν

1

the land

Alternate translation: “the shore”

760

LUK

5

12

j1xy

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

and it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

761

LUK

5

12

l248

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses behold to call the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

762

LUK

5

12

r35h

writing-participants

ἀνὴρ πλήρης λέπρας

1

a man full of leprosy

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a man there who was covered with leprosy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

763

LUK

5

12

i3zk

figs-idiom

πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον

1

fell on his face

This phrase is an idiom that means that he bowed down. Make sure that it is clear in your translation that the man did not fall down accidentally. Alternate translation: “he knelt down and touched the ground with his face” or “he bowed down to the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

764

LUK

5

12

m4k2

ἐὰν θέλῃς

1

if you are willing

Alternate translation: “if you want to”

765

LUK

5

12

x7ss

figs-declarative

δύνασαί με καθαρίσαι

1

you can make me clean

The man is actually using this statement to make a request. Alternate translation: “please make me clean” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

766

LUK

5

12

ys5f

figs-explicit

με καθαρίσαι

1

make me clean

The man talks about becoming clean ceremonially, but it is implicit that he has become unclean because of his leprosy, so he is really asking Jesus to heal him of this disease. Alternate translation: “heal me from leprosy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

767

LUK

5

13

ziz1

figs-imperative

καθαρίσθητι

1

Be clean

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I heal you from your leprosy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

768

LUK

5

13

l48a

figs-personification

ἡ λέπρα ἀπῆλθεν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

the leprosy went away from him

Luke speaks figuratively of the man’s leprosy as if it were something that could actively go away from him. Alternate translation: “the man no longer had leprosy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

769

LUK

5

14

q18t

figs-quotations

αὐτὸς παρήγγειλεν αὐτῷ, μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν, ἀλλὰ ἀπελθὼν

1

he instructed him to tell no one, but, “Go”

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate all of Jesus’ instructions as a direct quotation. Alternate translation: “he instructed him, ‘Do not tell anyone, but go’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

770

LUK

5

14

l249

figs-explicit

μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν

1

to tell no one

The implication is that the man is not to tell anyone that Jesus healed him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation, as a direct quotation: “Do not tell anyone that you have been healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

771

LUK

5

14

v1wn

figs-explicit

προσένεγκε περὶ τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ σου καθὼς προσέταξεν Μωϋσῆς

1

offer a sacrifice for your cleansing, as Moses commanded

Jesus assumes that the man will know that the law required a person who had been healed from a skin disease to make a specific sacrifice. This made the person ceremonially clean and they could participate once again in community religious activities. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “offer the sacrifice that Moses commanded so that you can become ceremonially clean once again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

772

LUK

5

14

jk14

figs-explicit

εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς

1

for a testimony to them

A priest would have to examine the man and certify that he had been healed before he would be allowed to offer this sacrifice. Alternate translation: “to certify for everone that you have been healed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

773

LUK

5

14

nz37

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῖς

1

them

Them could mean either “the priests,” which is the interpretation that UST follows, or “all the people.” You could express either as an alternate translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

774

LUK

5

15

ng3z

figs-personification

διήρχετο…μᾶλλον ὁ λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

the word about him spread even more

Luke speaks figuratively of this word as if it were something that could spread around actively by itself. This expression means that more and more people told others about what Jesus was doing. Alternate translation: “people spread the news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

775

LUK

5

15

q4t2

figs-metonymy

ὁ λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

the word about him

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe the news about Jesus that people spread by using words. Alternate translation: “the news about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

776

LUK

5

15

l250

figs-activepassive

θεραπεύεσθαι

1

to be healed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “for Jesus to heal them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

777

LUK

5

16

l251

αὐτὸς…ἦν ὑποχωρῶν ἐν ταῖς ἐρήμοις καὶ προσευχόμενος

1

he was withdrawing into the deserted places and praying

This expression was withdrawing indicates habitual action. Alternate translation: “he often withdrew to places where there were no other people so that he could pray”

778

LUK

5

16

sv6f

ταῖς ἐρήμοις

1

deserted places

Alternate translation: “places where there were no other people”

779

LUK

5

17

mb8m

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

780

LUK

5

17

l252

figs-hyperbole

ἐκ πάσης κώμης τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ Ἰουδαίας

1

from every village of Galilee and Judea

Luke generalizes by saying every in order to emphasize from how many different villages these religious leaders came. Alternate translation: “from villages throughout Galilee and Judea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

781

LUK

5

17

l253

figs-metaphor

δύναμις Κυρίου ἦν εἰς τὸ ἰᾶσθαι αὐτόν

1

power from the Lord was upon him to heal

As often in this book, upon is a spatial metaphor. In this case, it means that the power of the Lord was with Jesus in a special way, specifically, to enable him to heal people. Alternate translation: “the Lord was giving Jesus special power to heal people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

782

LUK

5

18

l254

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

783

LUK

5

18

cl7s

writing-participants

ἄνδρες φέροντες ἐπὶ κλίνης ἄνθρωπον ὃς ἦν παραλελυμένος

1

men carrying on a mat a man who was paralyzed

Luke uses this phrase to introduce these new characters into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there were some men who were carrying a paralyzed man on a mat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

784

LUK

5

18

l9q8

translate-unknown

κλίνης

1

a mat

A mat was a portable bed that could also be used to transport a person. Alternate translation: “a stretcher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

785

LUK

5

18

z2n2

ἦν παραλελυμένος

1

who was paralyzed

Alternate translation: “was unable to move by himself”

786

LUK

5

18

abc6

ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ

1

before him

Here, before means “in front of.” Alternate translation: “in front of Jesus” or “where Jesus could see him”

787

LUK

5

19

y491

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ μὴ εὑρόντες ποίας εἰσενέγκωσιν αὐτὸν διὰ τὸν ὄχλον

1

And not finding a way to bring him in because of the crowd

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “But because the crowd of people had filled the house, they could not find a way to bring the man inside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

788

LUK

5

19

rkm6

figs-explicit

διὰ τὸν ὄχλον

1

because of the crowd

The implication is that they could not enter because the crowd was so large that there was no room for them. Alternate translation: “because the crowd of people had filled the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

789

LUK

5

19

s7bm

figs-explicit

ἀναβάντες ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα

1

they went up onto the roof

In this culture, houses had flat roofs, and many houses had a staircase outside that provided access to the housetop. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “they went up the outside staircase onto the flat roof of the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

790

LUK

5

19

abc7

καθῆκαν αὐτὸν

1

and let him down

Alternate translation: “and lowered the man down”

791

LUK

5

19

l255

figs-ellipsis

εἰς τὸ μέσον

1

into the midst

Luke is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need to be complete. Alternate translation: “into the midst of the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

792

LUK

5

19

l85u

ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

before Jesus

Here, the term before means “in front of.” Alternate translation: “in front of Jesus” or “where Jesus could see him”

793

LUK

5

20

l83a

figs-explicit

καὶ ἰδὼν τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν

1

And seeing their faith

The implication is that Jesus recognized that the friends of this paralyzed man strongly believed that he could heal him. Their actions proved that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “When Jesus recognized that the man’s friends were convinced that he could heal him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

794

LUK

5

20

z4ek

ἄνθρωπε

1

Man

Man was a general word that people used in this culture when speaking to a man whose name they did not know. If your language has a term that it uses for this same purpose, you can use it in your translation here. Alternate translation: “Friend”

795

LUK

5

20

c7r7

figs-activepassive

ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου

1

your sins are forgiven you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “I forgive your sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

796

LUK

5

21

l256

translate-unknown

οἱ γραμματεῖς

1

the scribes

Here and elsewhere in the book, the term the scribes does not refer to people who make copies of documents. Rather, it refers to people who were teachers of the Jewish law, which they had studied extensively. Alternate translation: “the teachers of the Jewish law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

797

LUK

5

21

l257

translate-names

οἱ Φαρισαῖοι

1

the Pharisees

Pharisees is the name of an important and powerful group of Jewish religious leaders in Jesus’ time. The name occurs many times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

798

LUK

5

21

ie5h

figs-explicit

διαλογίζεσθαι

1

to debate

These men were not debating or arguing out loud, since the next verse shows that this was rather something they were thinking. So this implicitly means that they were wondering. Alternate translation: “to wonder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

799

LUK

5

21

l258

figs-quotemarks

λέγοντες

1

saying

Luke uses the word saying to introduce his quotation of what the religious leaders were thinking. If you indicate the quotation in some other way, such as with quotation marks or with some other punctuation or convention that your language uses, you do not need to represent this word in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

800

LUK

5

21

a86c

figs-rquestion

τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὃς λαλεῖ βλασφημίας?

1

Who is this who speaks blasphemies?

These religious leaders do not expect someone to tell them who Jesus is. Instead, they are using the question form to emphasize how inappropriate they think it is for Jesus to tell someone that he forgives their sins. As the next sentence explains, they think this means Jesus was claiming to be God, and so in their view, he would be speaking blasphemies. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “This man is speaking blasphemies!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

801

LUK

5

21

s21n

figs-rquestion

τίς δύναται ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας εἰ μὴ μόνος ὁ Θεός?

1

Who can forgive sins but God alone?

Once again the religious leaders are using a question form for emphasis, and you can translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “No one can forgive sins but God alone!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

802

LUK

5

22

z4k5

figs-explicit

ἐπιγνοὺς…τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς αὐτῶν

1

knowing their thoughts

This phrase indicates that they were reasoning silently, so the implication is that Jesus sensed what they were thinking. Alternate translation: “sensing what they were thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

803

LUK

5

22

l259

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

1

answering said to them

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the religious leaders were thinking. Alternate translation: “responded to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

804

LUK

5

22

et8f

figs-rquestion

τί διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν?

1

Why are you debating in your hearts?

Jesus does not expect the religious leaders to explain why they are thinking these things. Instead, he is using the question form to emphasize that they should not be thinking them. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should not be thinking these things!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

805

LUK

5

22

p2hj

figs-metaphor

διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν

1

debating in your hearts

The term hearts figuratively represents the thoughts of these people. Alternate translation: “are you thinking these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

806

LUK

5

23

zid2

figs-rquestion

τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν, ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου, ἢ εἰπεῖν, ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει?

1

Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Get up and walk?’

Jesus is using the form of a question in order to teach. He wants to make the scribes and Pharisees reflect on the situation and realize something. There are many implications. For example, these religious leaders may take the question in the sense, “Which is easier to get away with saying?” The answer would be, “Your sins are forgiven,” because people don’t expect visual proof of that, whereas if someone says, “Get up and walk,” and nothing happens, that proves the speaker doesn’t have the power to heal. Jesus likely intends the question in a different sense: “Which is the easier way to deal with a situation like this?” It appears that the man’s sickness has something to do with his sins, because Jesus forgives them. In such a situation, it would not be sufficient to say, “Get up and walk,” since that would address the effect but not the cause. To say, “Your sins are forgiven,” would deal with both the cause and the effect, so that would be the easier way to deal with the situation. There are many other implications that could also be drawn out as well—too many to include in the text of a translation. Since the question form is intrinsic to Jesus’ teaching method, you may wish simply to retain it in your translation. However, to show that he is teaching, not asking for information, you could introduce his question with a phrase that indicates its purpose. Alternate translation: “Think about this. Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Get up and walk'?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

807

LUK

5

23

l260

figs-quotesinquotes

τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν, ἀφέωνταί σοι αἱ ἁμαρτίαι σου, ἢ εἰπεῖν, ἔγειρε καὶ περιπάτει?

1

Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Get up and walk?’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “Is it easier to tell someone that his sins are forgiven, or to tell him to get up and walk?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

808

LUK

5

24

f1lu

figs-123person

ὅτι ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου ἐξουσίαν ἔχει

1

that the Son of Man has authority

Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “that I, the Son of Man, have authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

809

LUK

5

24

l261

figs-explicit

ὅτι ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

that the Son of Man

The title Son of Man is equivalent to “Messiah.” Jesus uses it to claim that role subtly and implicitly. You may want to translate this title directly into your language. On the other hand, if you think it would be helpful to your readers, you could state what it means. Alternate translation: “that the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

810

LUK

5

24

l262

figs-imperative

ἔγειρε

1

get up

As in 5:13, this was not a command that the man was able to obey. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I heal you, so you can get up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

811

LUK

5

25

agg3

figs-explicit

καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀναστὰς

1

And immediately he got up

The implication is that the man was able to get up because Jesus had healed him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “And all at once the man was healed, so he got up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

812

LUK

5

25

l263

ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν

1

before them

Here, the term before means “in front of.” Alternate translation: “in front of everyone” or “where everyone could see him”

813

LUK

5

26

l264

figs-personification

ἔκστασις ἔλαβεν ἅπαντας

1

amazement seized of them all

Luke describes the amazement of the crowd figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of the people. Alternate translation: “they were all completely amazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

814

LUK

5

26

f6tp

figs-activepassive

ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου λέγοντες

1

they were filled with fear, saying

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “fear filled them and they said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

815

LUK

5

26

l265

figs-personification

ἐπλήσθησαν φόβου

1

they were filled with fear

Luke describes the fear of the crowd figuratively as if it were something that could actively fill the people. Alternate translation: “they became very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

816

LUK

5

27

k6r2

writing-newevent

καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα

1

And after these things

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event. The expression these things refers to what the previous verses describe. Alternate translation: “After that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

817

LUK

5

27

abc8

writing-pronouns

ἐξῆλθεν

1

he went out

The pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus left that house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

818

LUK

5

27

xf15

ἐθεάσατο τελώνην

1

saw a tax collector

The Greek word that Luke uses for saw indicates that Jesus gave careful attention to this man when he saw him. Alternate translation: “observed a tax collector” or “looked carefully at a tax collector”

819

LUK

5

27

l266

figs-idiom

ἀκολούθει μοι

1

Follow me

In this context, to follow someone means to become that person’s disciple. Alternate translation: “Become my disciple” or “Come, follow me as your teacher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

820

LUK

5

27

b3tr

figs-imperative

ἀκολούθει μοι

1

Follow me

Follow me is not a command, but an invitation. Jesus is encouraging Levi to do this if he wants. Alternate translation: “I want you to become my disciple” or “I invite you to come and follow me as your teacher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

821

LUK

5

28

phw9

figs-hyperbole

καταλιπὼν πάντα

1

leaving everything behind

Here, everything is a generalization that refers to Levi’s position as a tax collector and the advantages that came with it. Alternate translation: “leaving his work as a tax collector” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

822

LUK

5

28

abc0

figs-events

καταλιπὼν πάντα, ἀναστὰς

1

leaving everything behind, he got up

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “he got up and left everything behind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

823

LUK

5

29

l267

grammar-connect-time-sequential

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to indicate that the event he will now relate came after the event he has just described. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

824

LUK

5

29

g6yt

writing-pronouns

ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ

1

in his house

The pronoun his refers to Levi, not to Jesus. Alternate translation: “in his own house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

825

LUK

5

29

ip2m

translate-unknown

κατακείμενοι

1

reclining to eat

In this culture, the manner of eating at a feast was to lie on a couch and prop oneself up with the left arm on some pillows. Alternate translation: “lying on banqueting couches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

826

LUK

5

30

n82u

writing-pronouns

πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ

1

to his disciples

In this case, the pronoun his refers to Jesus, not to Levi. Alternate translation: “to Jesus’ disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

827

LUK

5

30

tmm5

figs-rquestion

διὰ τί μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε?

1

Why do you eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners?

The Pharisees and scribes are using the question form to express their disapproval. They believed that religious people should separate themselves from people whom they considered to be sinners. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should not eat and drink with sinful tax collectors!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

828

LUK

5

30

pi2x

figs-you

ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε

1

you eat and drink

The word you is plural, since the Pharisees are speaking to the disciples as a group, not to one particular disciple. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

829

LUK

5

30

l268

figs-merism

ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε

1

eat and drink

The Pharisees are figuratively using the two components of a meal to mean an entire meal. Alternate translation: “share meals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

830

LUK

5

30

ze7y

figs-hendiadys

μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν

1

with tax collectors and sinners

The Pharisees may be expressing a single idea by using two words connected with and. The previous verse says that there were many tax collectors at this banquet. So the term sinners may tell what the Pharisees thought these tax collectors were. Alternate translation: “with sinful tax collectors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

831

LUK

5

31

l269

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν

1

answering Jesus said

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the religious leaders were complaining about. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

832

LUK

5

31

t6iv

writing-proverbs

οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν οἱ ὑγιαίνοντες ἰατροῦ, ἀλλὰ οἱ κακῶς ἔχοντες

1

People who are well do not have need of a physician, but those who have sickness

Jesus begins his response by quoting or creating a proverb, a short saying about something that is generally true in life. This proverb draws a figurative comparison. Just as sick people need to see a doctor to be healed, so sinners need to see Jesus in order to be forgiven and restored. But since Jesus explains the comparison in the next verse, you do not need to explain it here. Rather, you can translate the proverb itself in a way that will be meaningful in your language and culture. Alternate translation: “People who are well do not need to see a doctor; people who are sick do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]])

833

LUK

5

31

i9gn

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ οἱ κακῶς ἔχοντες

1

but those who have sickness

The proverb expresses the idea compactly, and so it leaves out some words. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could supply those words. Alternate translation: “rather, it is people who are sick who need a doctor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

834

LUK

5

32

g993

figs-nominaladj

δικαίους

1

the righteous

Luke is using the adjective righteous as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

835

LUK

5

32

l270

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλοὺς εἰς μετάνοιαν

1

but sinners to repentance

Once again Jesus expresses the idea compactly and leaves out some words. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could supply those words. Alternate translation: “rather, I came to call sinners to repentance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

836

LUK

5

32

l271

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς μετάνοιαν

1

to repentance

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun repentance, you could express the idea behind it with a verb. Alternate translation: “to repent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

837

LUK

5

33

f6g6

writing-pronouns

οἱ δὲ εἶπαν

1

Then they said

The pronoun they refers to the Pharisees and scribes. Alternate translation: “Then the religious leaders said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

838

LUK

5

33

l272

figs-explicit

Ἰωάννου

1

John

The Pharisees and scribes assume that Jesus will know that they are referring to John the Baptist. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

839

LUK

5

33

l273

figs-explicit

οἱ δὲ σοὶ ἐσθίουσιν καὶ πίνουσιν

1

But those of yours eat and drink

There is an implied challenge and question in this observation. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state it explicitly. Alternate translation: “But your disciples do not fast, and we want you to tell us why” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

840

LUK

5

33

l274

figs-merism

ἐσθίουσιν καὶ πίνουσιν

1

eat and drink

The Pharisees are figuratively using the two components of a meal to mean an entire meal. Alternate translation: “continue to have meals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

841

LUK

5

34

l275

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ποιῆσαι νηστεύειν?

1

You cannot make the sons of the bridal chamber fast while the bridegroom is with them, can you

The first word of this sentence in Greek is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding are you? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “Can you actually make the groom’s party at a wedding fast while the groom is still with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

842

LUK

5

34

hxe1

figs-rquestion

μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετ’ αὐτῶν ἐστιν ποιῆσαι νηστεύειν?

1

You cannot make the sons of the bridal chamber fast while the bridegroom is with them, can you?

Jesus is using the question form to teach. He wants the scribes and Pharisees to reflect on the actions of his disciples in light of a situation they are already familiar with. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “No one tells the groom’s party at a wedding to fast while the groom is still with them!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

843

LUK

5

34

q9k2

figs-idiom

τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος

1

the sons of the bridal chamber

The expression sons of is a Hebrew idiom that means a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, Jesus is describing people who share the quality of being an integral part of a wedding. These are the male friends who attend the groom during the ceremony and the festivities. Alternate translation: “the groom’s party” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

844

LUK

5

35

z8ex

figs-idiom

ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι καὶ

1

But the days will indeed come

Here Jesus is using days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “But there will certainly be a time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

845

LUK

5

35

he9p

figs-metaphor

ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος

1

the bridegroom will be taken away from them

Jesus is speaking of himself figuratively as the bridegroom, and of his disciples as the groom’s party. He does not explain the metaphor, so you do not need to explain it in your translation unless you think your readers will not understand it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

846

LUK

5

35

l276

figs-activepassive

ἀπαρθῇ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος

1

the bridegroom will be taken away from them

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “someone will take the bridegroom away from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

847

LUK

5

35

l277

figs-idiom

ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις

1

in those days

Jesus is again using the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

848

LUK

5

36

a4zs

figs-parables

ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς

1

Then he also spoke a parable to them

Jesus gives a brief illustration that teaches something true in a way that is easy to understand and remember. Alternate translation: “Then he gave them this illustration to help them understand better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

849

LUK

5

36

qz5e

ἐπιβάλλει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν

1

sews it onto an old garment

Alternate translation: “uses it to patch an old garment”

850

LUK

5

36

xj2y

figs-hypo

εἰ δὲ μή γε

1

But if not

Jesus uses this expression to introduce a hypothetical situation that explains the reason why a person would not actually mend a garment in that way. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone did do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

851

LUK

5

37

n35t

translate-unknown

ἀσκοὺς

1

wineskins

These were bags made out of animal skins. They were used for holding wine. If your readers would not be familiar with wineskins, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “leather bags” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

852

LUK

5

37

l278

figs-hypo

εἰ δὲ μή γε

1

But if not

Jesus uses this expression once again to introduce a hypothetical situation that explains the reason why a person would not put new wine in an old wineskin. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone did do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

853

LUK

5

37

ac7w

figs-explicit

ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος ὁ νέος τοὺς ἀσκούς

1

the new wine would burst the wineskins

When the new wine fermented and expanded, it would break the old skins because they could no longer stretch. Jesus’ audience would have understood this information about wine fermenting and expanding and about old leather losing its suppleness. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the new wine would burst the old wineskins because they would no longer be able to expand when the wine fermented” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

854

LUK

5

37

dw18

figs-activepassive

αὐτὸς ἐκχυθήσεται

1

it would be spilled out

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the wine would spill out of the bags” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

855

LUK

5

37

l279

figs-activepassive

οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπολοῦνται

1

the wineskins would be destroyed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the leather bags would tear and become useless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

856

LUK

5

38

ijm3

ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς

1

new wineskins

See how you translated the term wineskins in 5:37. Alternate translation: “fresh leather bags”

857

LUK

5

39

l280

figs-ellipsis

οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον

1

No one, after drinking the old, wants the new

Jesus is leaving out some of the words. You may want to supply these words in your translation if not having them would be confusing in your language. Alternate translation: “No one who is used to drinking old wine wants to try new wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

858

LUK

5

39

pvn9

figs-metaphor

οὐδεὶς πιὼν παλαιὸν θέλει νέον

1

No one, after drinking the old, wants the new

Jesus is figuratively contrasting the old teaching of the religious leaders with his own new teaching. The point is that people who are used to the old teaching are not receptive to the new things that he is bringing. Jesus does not explain the metaphor, so you do not need to explain it in your translation unless you think your readers will not understand it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

859

LUK

6

intro

vv2y

0

Luke 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches about the Sabbath (6:1-11)
  2. Jesus chooses twelve apostles (6:12-16)
  3. Jesus teaches about being his disciple (6:17-49)

The long teaching in Luke 6:20-49 begins with blessings and woes that are similar to the beginning of the long teaching in Matthew 5-7. That part of Matthew has traditionally been called the “Sermon on the Mount.” The teaching here in Luke has many other similarities with the one in Matthew’s Gospel. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/kingdomofgod]])

Special concepts in this chapter

“Eating the grain”

When the disciples plucked and ate the grain in a field they were walking through on the Sabbath (Luke 6:1), the Pharisees said that they were breaking the law of Moses. The Pharisees said this because they thought that the disciples were doing work by picking the grain, and so they were disobeying God’s command to rest and not work on the Sabbath. The Pharisees did not think the disciples were stealing. That is because the law of Moses told farmers to allow travelers to pluck and eat small amounts of grain from plants in fields that they traveled through or near. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/works]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sabbath]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

The twelve disciples

The following are the lists of the twelve disciples:

In Matthew:

Simon (Peter), Andrew, James son of Zebedee, John son of Zebedee, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot.

In Mark:

Simon (Peter), Andrew, James the son of Zebedee and John the son of Zebedee (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder), Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot.

In Luke:

Simon (Peter), Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon (who was called the Zealot), Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot.

The man whom Luke calls Judas the son of James is probably the same man whom Matthew and Mark call Thaddaeus. However, you do not need to explain that in your translation or give both names. You can translate Luke’s list as he wrote it, and allow Bible teachers to explain the reason for the difference.

860

LUK

6

1

c4sa

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

861

LUK

6

1

x5zk

translate-unknown

σπορίμων

1

the grainfields

These were large sections of land where people had scattered wheat seed in order to grow more wheat. Wheat is a kind of grain plant, and grain is a type of large grass that has edible seeds. If your readers would not be familiar with this type of plant, you could use a general expression in your translation. Alternate translation: “the areas where people were growing plants with edible seeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

862

LUK

6

1

rl46

translate-unknown

στάχυας

1

heads of grain

The heads are the topmost part of the grain plant. They hold the mature, edible seeds. Alternate translation: “parts that held the seeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

863

LUK

6

1

h9fy

figs-explicit

ψώχοντες ταῖς χερσίν

1

rubbing them in their hands

The implication is that they did this to separate out the grain seeds. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “rubbing them in their hands to separate the seeds from the other parts of the plant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

864

LUK

6

2

z32z

figs-rquestion

τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς Σάββασιν?

1

Why are you doing what is not lawful on the Sabbath?

The Pharisees are using the question form to make an accusation. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate their words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You are doing something that the law does not permit you to do on the Sabbath!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

865

LUK

6

2

m76z

figs-explicit

τί ποιεῖτε ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν τοῖς Σάββασιν?

1

Why are you doing what is not lawful on the Sabbath?

The Pharisees considered even the small action of plucking and rubbing heads of grain to be harvesting, and therefore work. You could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “You are harvesting grain, and that is work that the law does not permit you to do on the Sabbath!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

866

LUK

6

2

dum1

figs-you

τί ποιεῖτε

1

Why are you doing

Here, you is plural. It refers to the disciples. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

867

LUK

6

3

l281

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς

1

answering them, Jesus said

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the objection that the Pharisees raised. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

868

LUK

6

3

vih6

figs-rquestion

οὐδὲ τοῦτο ἀνέγνωτε, ὃ ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ ὅτε ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς, καὶ οἱ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄντες

1

Have you not read this, what David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him

Jesus does not expect the Pharisees to tell him whether they have read this passage in the Scriptures. Instead, he is using the question form to emphasize that the Pharisees should have learned a principle from that passage that indicates that they are wrong to criticize the disciples. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “The Scriptures suggest otherwise, in the passage that tells what David did when he and those who were with him were hungry.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

869

LUK

6

4

l282

ὡς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

how he entered into the house of God

If you made the first part of the quotation in 6:3 a separate sentence, begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He entered into the house of God”

870

LUK

6

4

l283

figs-metaphor

τὸν οἶκον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the house of God

Jesus is figuratively describing the tabernacle as the house of God. He is speaking as if it were the place where God lived, since God’s presence was there. Alternate translation: “the tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

871

LUK

6

4

yyh2

translate-unknown

τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς Προθέσεως

1

the bread of the presence

The phrase the bread of the presence refers to loaves of bread that were placed on a table in the temple as an offering to God. They represented how the people of Israel lived in the presence of God. Alternate translation: “the bread that was offered to God” or “the bread that showed God lived among the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

872

LUK

6

4

l284

οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν, εἰ μὴ μόνους τοὺς ἱερεῖς

1

which is not lawful to eat, except only for the priests

It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “The law says that only the priests can eat that bread”

873

LUK

6

5

h453

figs-123person

ἐστιν…ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man is

Jesus is speaking of himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

874

LUK

6

5

l285

figs-explicit

ἐστιν…ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man is

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

875

LUK

6

5

xy9h

figs-metaphor

Κύριός ἐστιν τοῦ Σαββάτου

1

is Lord of the Sabbath

The title Lord figuratively describes Jesus’ authority over the Sabbath. Alternate translation: “has authority over the Sabbath” or, if you translated in the first person, “have authority over the Sabbath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

876

LUK

6

6

p1ee

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

877

LUK

6

6

d44q

writing-participants

ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ

1

there was a man there

This expression introduces a new character into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

878

LUK

6

6

t77y

translate-unknown

ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά

1

his right hand was withered

This means that the man’s hand was damaged in such a way that he could not stretch it out. It was probably bent almost into a fist, making it look smaller. Alternate translation: “his right hand was shriveled” or “his right hand was atrophied” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

879

LUK

6

7

q3sh

writing-pronouns

παρετηροῦντο…αὐτὸν

1

were watching him

The pronoun him refers to Jesus, not to the man with the withered hand. Alternate translation: “were watching Jesus carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

880

LUK

6

7

c1qe

figs-ellipsis

ἵνα εὕρωσιν κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ

1

so that they might find to accuse him

Luke is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. Alternate translation: “because they wanted to find something that they could accuse him of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

881

LUK

6

8

d7zu

figs-explicit

στῆθι εἰς τὸ μέσον

1

stand in the midst

The implication is that Jesus wanted this man to stand where everyone could see him. Alternate translation: “stand here where everyone can see you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

882

LUK

6

9

j8y7

writing-pronouns

πρὸς αὐτούς

1

to them

The pronoun them refers to the scribes and Pharisees. Alternate translation: “to the scribes and Pharisees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

883

LUK

6

9

m5yz

figs-rquestion

ἐπερωτῶ ὑμᾶς, εἰ ἔξεστιν τῷ Σαββάτῳ ἀγαθοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι, ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀπολέσαι?

1

I ask you, is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do harm, to save a life or to destroy?

Jesus asks this question to get the Pharisees to admit that it is legitimate to heal on the Sabbath. The intent of the question is therefore rhetorical. Jesus is not trying to obtain information; he wants someone to admit that something is true. However, Jesus says, “I ask you,” so this question is not like other rhetorical questions that might appropriately be translated as statements. This one should be translated as a question. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

884

LUK

6

9

dc6f

ἀγαθοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι

1

to do good or to do harm

Alternate translation: “to help someone or to harm someone”

885

LUK

6

10

abcb

writing-pronouns

περιβλεψάμενος πάντας αὐτοὺς, εἶπεν αὐτῷ

1

he looked around at them all and said to him

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, and him refers to the man with the withered hand. Alternate translation: “Jesus looked around at them all and said to the man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

886

LUK

6

10

x77k

figs-imperative

ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου

1

Stretch out your hand

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be healed. Alternate translation: “I heal you, so you can stretch out your hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

887

LUK

6

10

hce1

figs-activepassive

ἀποκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ

1

his hand was restored

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “his hand became healthy again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

888

LUK

6

11

l286

figs-activepassive

αὐτοὶ…ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας

1

they were filled with rage

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they became furious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

889

LUK

6

11

l287

figs-personification

αὐτοὶ…ἐπλήσθησαν ἀνοίας

1

they were filled with rage

Luke speaks figuratively of the rage of the scribes and Pharisees as if it were something that could actively fill them. Alternate translation: “they became furious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

890

LUK

6

11

l288

figs-explicit

τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

what they might do to Jesus

The implication is that these religious leaders perceived Jesus as a threat and they wanted to get rid of him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

891

LUK

6

12

e4s7

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

892

LUK

6

12

gzn1

figs-idiom

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις

1

in those days

Here Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

893

LUK

6

12

l289

ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος

1

he went out to the mountain

While the term mountain is definite here, it does not seem to refer to a specific, identifiable mountain. Rather, as many languages do, here the Greek is using a definite expression in a general sense. Alternate translation: “Jesus went up a mountain” or “Jesus climbed a high hill”

894

LUK

6

12

l7by

figs-explicit

ἐξελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ ὄρος

1

he went out to the mountain

The implication is that Jesus did this so that he could be alone and pray about whom to choose as his disciples. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus went up a mountain where he could be alone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

895

LUK

6

13

vep8

ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡμέρα

1

when day came

Alternate translation: “the next morning”

896

LUK

6

13

j9w7

writing-pronouns

ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν δώδεκα

1

he chose 12 from them

The pronoun them refers to the disciples. Alternate translation: “he chose 12 of those disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

897

LUK

6

13

zgh6

οὓς καὶ ἀποστόλους ὠνόμασεν

1

whom he also named apostles

The term apostles comes from a Greek word that originally meant “messengers” or “delegates.” It took on a specialized meaning within the community of Jesus’ followers to mean the 12 men whom Jesus chose to be his authoritative representatives. Many languages have borrowed the Greek word to use in this sense. But if your language has developed its own special term for this role, use it in your translation. Alternate translation: “and he appointed them to be apostles”

898

LUK

6

14

l290

translate-names

Σίμωνα…Πέτρον…Ἀνδρέαν…Ἰάκωβον…Ἰωάννην…Φίλιππον…Βαρθολομαῖον

1

Simon … Peter … Andrew … James … John … Philip … Bartholomew

These are seven men’s names. (The second name is a nickname for the first man.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

899

LUK

6

14

zdq3

writing-pronouns

Ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ

1

his brother Andrew

The pronoun his refers to Simon. Alternate translation: “Simon’s brother, Andrew” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

900

LUK

6

15

l291

translate-names

Μαθθαῖον…Θωμᾶν…Ἰάκωβον Ἁλφαίου…Σίμωνα

1

Matthew … Thomas … James … Alphaeus … Simon

These are the names of five men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

901

LUK

6

15

l292

figs-explicit

Μαθθαῖον

1

Matthew

Matthew is often identified with the man named Levi whom Jesus calls to follow him in 5:27. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

902

LUK

6

15

et48

translate-names

Ζηλωτὴν

1

the Zealot

The term Zealot could be: (1) a title that indicates that this man was part of the group of people who wanted to free the Jewish people from Roman rule. Alternate translation: “the Patriot” (2) a description that indicates that this man was zealous for God to be honored. Alternate translation: “the Passionate One” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

903

LUK

6

16

l293

translate-names

Ἰούδαν Ἰακώβου

1

Judas son of James

Judas is the name of a man, and James is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

904

LUK

6

16

l294

translate-names

Ἰούδαν Ἰσκαριὼθ

1

Judas Iscariot

Judas is the name of a man, and Iscariot is a distinguishing term that most likely means he came from the village of Kerioth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

905

LUK

6

16

g24m

figs-explicit

ὃς ἐγένετο προδότης

1

who became a traitor

It may be helpful to explain what traitor means in the context of this story. Alternate translation: “who later betrayed Jesus to his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

906

LUK

6

17

i5gv

writing-pronouns

μετ’ αὐτῶν

1

with them

In this context, them refers to all of the disciples whom Jesus called to himself in 6:13. Alternate translation: “with his disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

907

LUK

6

17

l295

figs-hyperbole

ἀπὸ πάσης

1

from all

This is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “from throughout” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

908

LUK

6

18

dpj5

figs-activepassive

ἰαθῆναι

1

to be healed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “for Jesus to heal them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

909

LUK

6

18

wfm9

figs-activepassive

καὶ οἱ ἐνοχλούμενοι ἀπὸ πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων ἐθεραπεύοντο

1

And those who were troubled by unclean spirits were being healed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “Jesus also drove evil spirits out of the people they were controlling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

910

LUK

6

19

l296

figs-hyperbole

πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος…πάντας

1

the whole crowd … everyone

In this case these terms are not generalizations, and so you can translate them directly, rather than with explanatory words such as “most” or “many.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

911

LUK

6

19

y2cl

figs-personification

δύναμις παρ’ αὐτοῦ ἐξήρχετο καὶ ἰᾶτο πάντας

1

power was coming out from him and healing everyone

Luke speaks figuratively of this power as if it were something that could actively come out of Jesus and heal people. Alternate translation: “Jesus was using the power that God gave him to heal everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

912

LUK

6

20

l297

figs-idiom

αὐτὸς ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ

1

he lifted up his eyes

This is an idiom that means “he looked,” but it means that he looked carefully and considerately. Alternate translation: “he gazed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

913

LUK

6

20

ymg7

figs-idiom

μακάριοι

1

Blessed are

This expression indicates that God is giving favor to people and that their situation is positive or good. Alternate translation: “God will bless” or “How good it is for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

914

LUK

6

20

xj9v

figs-nominaladj

οἱ πτωχοί

1

the poor

Jesus is using the adjective poor as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are poor” or “you who are poor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

915

LUK

6

20

y18c

figs-abstractnouns

ὅτι ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

for yours is the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “because God is ruling your lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

916

LUK

6

20

k34r

ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

yours is the kingdom of God

This could mean: (1) “the kingdom of God belongs to you.” (2) “you are privileged within the kingdom of God.”

917

LUK

6

21

l344

figs-idiom

μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν

1

Blessed are those who are hungry now

As in 6:20, the expression blessed indicates that God is giving favor to people or that their situation is positive or good. Alternate translation: “You who are hungry now receive God’s favor” or “You who are hungry now are in a positive situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

918

LUK

6

21

l298

figs-activepassive

χορτασθήσεσθε

1

you will be filled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “you will get enough to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

919

LUK

6

21

l299

figs-idiom

μακάριοι οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν

1

Blessed are those who are weeping now

Alternate translation: “You who are weeping now receive God’s favor” or “You who are weeping now are in a positive situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

920

LUK

6

21

tg8m

figs-metonymy

γελάσετε

1

you will laugh

Jesus is figuratively describing people being happy by association with one thing that people do when they are happy. Alternate translation: “you will laugh with joy” or “you will become joyful again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

921

LUK

6

22

h8ii

figs-idiom

μακάριοί ἐστε

1

Blessed are you

As in 6:20, the expression blessed indicates that God is giving favor to people or that their situation is positive or good. Alternate translation: “You receive God’s favor” or “How good it is for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

922

LUK

6

22

r5cg

ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς

1

exclude you

Alternate translation: “they reject you”

923

LUK

6

22

l300

figs-metonymy

ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν ὡς πονηρὸν

1

reject your name as evil

The term name is a figurative way of referring to the reputation of a person. Alternate translation: “consider you to have a bad reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

924

LUK

6

22

jz7x

ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

because of the Son of Man

Alternate translation: “because you associate with the Son of Man” or “because they reject the Son of Man”

925

LUK

6

22

l301

figs-123person

ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

because of the Son of Man

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person, using this title to emphasize the special role that God has given him. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “because you associate with me, the Son of Man” or “because they reject me, the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

926

LUK

6

22

l302

figs-explicit

ἕνεκα τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

because of the Son of Man

See how you translated this title in 5:24. Alternate translation: “because you associate with me, the Messiah” or “because they reject me, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

927

LUK

6

23

bw14

figs-idiom

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ

1

in that day

Here Jesus uses day figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “when they do those things” or “when that happens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

928

LUK

6

23

d97t

figs-idiom

σκιρτήσατε

1

leap for joy

This is an idiom that means to be extremely joyful. Jesus is not telling the disciples literally to jump into the air. Alternate translation: “be very happy” or “celebrate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

929

LUK

6

23

l303

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ γὰρ

1

for behold

Jesus uses the term behold to get his disciples to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “because, listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

930

LUK

6

23

e3kb

ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς

1

your reward is great

Your language may require you to say who will do this action. Alternate translation: “God will reward you greatly”

931

LUK

6

23

l304

figs-metaphor

οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν

1

their fathers

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “their ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

932

LUK

6

24

c6lu

figs-idiom

οὐαὶ ὑμῖν

1

woe to you

The phrase woe to you is the opposite of “blessed are you.” It indicates that bad things are going to happen to the people being addressed, because they have displeased God. Alternate translation: “how terrible it is for you” or “trouble will come to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

933

LUK

6

24

v1bp

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς πλουσίοις

1

the rich

Jesus is using the adjective rich as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are rich” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

934

LUK

6

24

cs2e

figs-explicit

ἀπέχετε τὴν παράκλησιν ὑμῶν

1

you have received your comfort

Jesus is drawing a series of contrasts between what the poor and the rich have now and what they will have later. So the implication is that while the rich have enjoyed ease and prosperity in this life, if they become complacent in those things, they will not enjoy it afterwards. Alternate translation: “you have already received in this life anything that will make you comfortable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

935

LUK

6

25

l305

figs-idiom

οὐαὶ ὑμῖν

1

woe to you

See how you translated this in 6:24. Alternate translation: “How terrible it is for you” or “Trouble will come to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

936

LUK

6

25

de8m

figs-activepassive

οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι

1

who are filled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who have more than enough to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

937

LUK

6

25

l8nr

figs-metonymy

οἱ γελῶντες

1

who are laughing

Laughing refers figuratively to being happy by association with something that people do when they are happy. Alternate translation: “to the ones who are happy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

938

LUK

6

25

l306

figs-hendiadys

πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε

1

mourn and weep

The phrase mourn and weep expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word mourn tells why these people are weeping. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “you will weep mournfully” or “you will weep because you are so sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

939

LUK

6

26

tn96

figs-idiom

οὐαὶ

1

woe to you

See how you translated this in 6:24. Alternate translation: “How terrible it is for you” or “Trouble will come to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

940

LUK

6

26

j9yy

figs-gendernotations

ὅταν ὑμᾶς καλῶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι

1

when all men speak well of you

Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “when all people speak well of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

941

LUK

6

26

l307

figs-hyperbole

ὅταν ὑμᾶς καλῶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι

1

when all men speak well of you

The term all is a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “when most people speak well of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

942

LUK

6

26

y29d

figs-metaphor

κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ…ἐποίουν τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν

1

their fathers did according to the same things to the false prophets

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “their ancestors also spoke well of the false prophets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

943

LUK

6

27

l5rz

writing-participants

ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς ἀκούουσιν

1

But I say to you who are listening

Jesus uses this phrase to broaden his audience to the entire crowd, beyond his disciples. At the same time, the phrase also calls everyone to focus their attention on what Jesus is about to say. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “Now I want all of you to listen carefully to this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

944

LUK

6

27

pz5r

figs-parallelism

ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς

1

love your enemies and do good to those who hate you

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus is using repetition to emphasize the importance of what he is saying. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could also choose to bring that out in your translation. The second phrase specifies in what way followers of Jesus are to love their enemies. They are to do this in a practical way by helping them. Alternate translation: “do good things for people even if they are hostile to you” or “show love to your enemies who hate you by doing things to help them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

945

LUK

6

28

c83m

figs-parallelism

εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς, προσεύχεσθε περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς

1

Bless those who curse you and pray for those who mistreat you

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus is using repetition to emphasize the importance of what he is saying. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Instead, you could combine them into a single phrase. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could also choose to bring that out in your translation. The second phrase specifies one way in which followers of Jesus can bless people who mistreat them. They can pray for them. Alternate translation: “Ask God to bless people who say and do bad things to you” or “Say good things to people who say bad things to you, and even if someone treats you badly, pray that God will help them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

946

LUK

6

29

a7ri

figs-hypo

τῷ τύπτοντί σε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα, πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην

1

To the one who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other

Jesus is using a hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone hits you on one side of your face. Then turn your face so that he could also strike the other side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

947

LUK

6

29

l308

figs-youcrowd

σε…σου

1

you … your

Even though Jesus is still speaking to his disciples and the crowd, he is now addressing an individual situation, so you and your are singular in this verse. But if the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language for someone who was speaking to a group of people, you could use the plural forms in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

948

LUK

6

29

d5qi

ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα

1

on the cheek

Alternate translation: “on one side of your face”

949

LUK

6

29

eq83

figs-explicit

πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην

1

offer also the other

It may be helpful to state the implicit purpose of this action. Alternate translation: “turn your face so that he could also strike the other side, to show that you do not want to fight and you are not resisting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

950

LUK

6

29

l309

figs-hypo

ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον, καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς

1

from the one who takes away your cloak, also do not withhold your tunic

Jesus is using another hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “suppose someone takes away your cloak. Then give him your tunic as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

951

LUK

6

29

ic4n

figs-litotes

καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς

1

also do not withhold your tunic

Here Jesus uses a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “give him your tunic as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

952

LUK

6

30

d8y6

figs-hypo

παντὶ αἰτοῦντί σε, δίδου

1

Give to everyone who asks you

Jesus is using another hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “Suppose someone asks you for something. Then give it to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

953

LUK

6

30

l310

figs-youcrowd

σε…σὰ

1

you … yours

Even though Jesus is speaking to his disciples and the crowd, he is addressing another individual situation here, so you and yours are singular in this verse. If the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language, you can use the plural forms in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

954

LUK

6

30

ts8c

figs-hypo

ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντος τὰ σὰ, μὴ ἀπαίτει

1

from the one who takes away what is yours, do not ask for it back

Jesus is using another hypothetical situation to teach. Alternate translation: “suppose someone takes away something that is yours. Then do not demand that he give it back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

955

LUK

6

31

te6e

καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως

1

as you desire that men would do to you, do the same to them

In some languages it might be more natural to reverse the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “You should treat people in the way that you would want them to treat you”

956

LUK

6

31

l311

figs-gendernotations

καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι

1

as you desire that men would do to you

Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “what you wish people would do for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

957

LUK

6

31

l312

figs-you

ὑμῖν

1

you

Jesus now returns to speaking to his disciples and the crowd about general situations, so you is plural here and in the following verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

958

LUK

6

32

qh81

figs-rquestion

ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν?

1

what credit is that to you?

Here Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. He wants to make a point and get his listeners to reflect on it. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “God will not reward you for doing that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

959

LUK

6

33

l313

figs-rquestion

ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν?

1

what credit is that to you?

Once again Jesus is using the question form as a teaching tool. You could translate his words as a statement here as well. Alternate translation: “God will not reward you for doing that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

960

LUK

6

34

l314

figs-rquestion

ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν?

1

what credit is that to you?

Jesus is using the question form once again as a teaching tool. You could also translate his words as a statement here. Alternate translation: “God will not reward you for doing that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

961

LUK

6

34

kgc9

figs-nominaladj

ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα

1

so that they may receive back the same things

Here the adjective same functions as a noun. It is plural, and ULT supplies the noun things to show that. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with an equivalent phrase. The adjective is also neuter, and this is a use of the neuter plural in Greek to refer to a single thing in order to describe it in its entirety. Alternate translation: “expecting that everything they lend will be repaid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

962

LUK

6

35

s8j7

μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες

1

expecting nothing in return

Alternate translation: “without expecting the person to pay you back”

963

LUK

6

35

l315

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

3

and

This word introduces the results of what has been said so far in this verse. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

964

LUK

6

35

ly98

ἔσται ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολύς

1

your reward will be great

Your language may require you to say who will do this action. Alternate translation: “God will reward you greatly”

965

LUK

6

35

zw5k

figs-metaphor

υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

1

sons of the Most High

This is a figurative expression. Even so, it would probably be best to translate sons with the same word that your language would naturally use to refer to a human son or child. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

966

LUK

6

35

l316

figs-gendernotations

υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

1

sons of the Most High

Jesus is using the word sons in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “children of the Most High” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

967

LUK

6

35

qr5x

υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

1

sons of the Most High

Make sure that the word sons or “children” in your translation is plural and not capitalized, if your language uses that convention for titles, so that readers do not confuse this expression with the title for Jesus, “the Son of the Most High,” which occurs in 1:32 and 8:28.

968

LUK

6

35

l317

figs-idiom

Ὑψίστου

1

the Most High

See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “of the Most High God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

969

LUK

6

35

l318

figs-nominaladj

τοὺς ἀχαρίστους καὶ πονηρούς

1

the ungrateful and evil

Here Jesus is using the adjectives ungrateful and evil as nouns in order to indicate groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this pair of words with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are ungrateful and evil” or “people who do not thank God and who do wrong things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

970

LUK

6

36

n28w

figs-metaphor

ὁ Πατὴρ ὑμῶν

1

your Father

This is a figurative expression. God is not the Father of humans in the same actual way that he is the Father of Jesus. Even so, it would probably be best to translate Father with the same word that your language would naturally use to refer to a human father. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that this means God. Alternate translation: “God your Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

971

LUK

6

37

a8c7

μὴ κρίνετε

1

do not judge

Your language may require you to specify the object of judge. Alternate translation: “do not judge other people”

972

LUK

6

37

e8fb

figs-activepassive

οὐ μὴ κριθῆτε

1

you will certainly not be judged

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who would not judge. This could mean: (1) “God will not judge you.” (2) “other people will not judge you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

973

LUK

6

37

vkl8

καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε

1

do not condemn

Your language may require you to specify the object of condemn. Alternate translation: “Do not condemn other people”

974

LUK

6

37

gz37

figs-activepassive

οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε

1

you will certainly not be condemned

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who would not condemn. This could mean: (1) “God will not condemn you.” (2) “other people will not condemn you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

975

LUK

6

37

l319

ἀπολύετε

1

Forgive

Your language may require you to specify the object of release. Alternate translation: “Forgive other people”

976

LUK

6

37

ls01

figs-metaphor

ἀπολύετε

1

Release

Jesus is using the word release figuratively to mean “forgive.” Alternate translation: “Forgive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

977

LUK

6

37

a22w

figs-activepassive

ἀπολυθήσεσθε

1

you will be released

Jesus does not say exactly who would release. This could mean: (1) “God will forgive you.” (2) “other people will forgive you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

978

LUK

6

38

ryf8

figs-activepassive

δοθήσεται ὑμῖν

1

it will be given to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who will give. This could mean: (1) “God will give to you.” (2) “other people will give to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

979

LUK

6

38

q8sq

figs-metaphor

μέτρον καλὸν, πεπιεσμένον σεσαλευμένον ὑπερεκχυννόμενον, δώσουσιν εἰς τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν

1

a good measure—pressed down, shaken together, spilling over—they will pour into your lap

Jesus is comparing someone to a grain merchant who measures out very generously. He could mean either God or other people. The word they is indefinite, so it does not necessarily refer to people rather than to God. You could represent this metaphor as a simile in your translation. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Like a generous grain merchant who presses down the grain and shakes it together and pours in so much that it fills a container and spills over, God will give you a generous amount” or “Like a generous grain merchant who presses down the grain and shakes it together and pours in so much that it fills a container and spills over, people will give you a generous amount” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

980

LUK

6

38

l320

figs-activepassive

πεπιεσμένον σεσαλευμένον ὑπερεκχυννόμενον, δώσουσιν εἰς τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν

1

pressed down, shaken together, spilling over—they will pour into your lap

These are all passive verb forms in Greek. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate them with active verbal phrases. See the alternate translation in the previous note. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

981

LUK

6

38

l321

translate-unknown

τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν

1

your lap

This is a reference to the way people in this culture would form a pocket or carrying pouch from the folds of the front of their robes. If you readers would not be familiar with this practice, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the folds of your robe” or “a container” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

982

LUK

6

38

fp26

figs-activepassive

ᾧ…μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε, ἀντιμετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν

1

with the measure by which you measure, it will be measured back to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Jesus does not say exactly who will measure. This could mean: (1) “God will give to you in just as generous or stingy a way as you give to others.” (2) “people will give to you in just as generous or stingy a way as you give to others.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

983

LUK

6

39

bw7f

figs-parables

εἶπεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς

1

Then he also told them a parable

Jesus is giving a brief illustration that teaches something true in a way that is easy to understand and remember. Alternate translation: “Then he gave them this illustration to help them understand better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

984

LUK

6

39

l322

figs-gendernotations

μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν?

1

A blind man is not able to guide a blind man, is he?

Here the word translated blind man is masculine, but Jesus is using it in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “Can one person who is blind guide another person who is blind?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

985

LUK

6

39

l323

figs-doublenegatives

μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν?

1

A blind man is not able to guide a blind man, is he?

The first word of this sentence in Greek is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding is he? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “Can one person who is blind really guide another person who is blind?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

986

LUK

6

39

kyt1

figs-rquestion

μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν?

1

A blind man is not able to guide a blind man, is he?

Jesus is not expecting the people in the crowd to tell him whether one blind person can guide another. He is using the question form as a teaching tool to make a point and get his listeners to reflect on it. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “We all know that one blind person cannot guide another blind person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

987

LUK

6

39

nm4v

figs-metaphor

τυφλὸς

1

blind man

The blind person figuratively represents someone who has not yet been fully trained and taught as a disciple. But since Jesus explains this figure in the next three verses, you do not need to explain it explicitly here in your own translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

988

LUK

6

39

f4xj

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ ἀμφότεροι εἰς βόθυνον ἐμπεσοῦνται?

1

Would not both fall into a pit?

Jesus is using this question as well as a teaching tool. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Both of them would certainly fall into a ditch” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

989

LUK

6

40

ipr9

figs-metaphor

οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον

1

A disciple is not above his teacher

The word above creates a spatial metaphor. Alternate translation: “A disciple is not better than his teacher” or “A disciple is not greater than his teacher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

990

LUK

6

40

l324

figs-explicit

οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον

1

A disciple is not above his teacher

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state what this implicitly means. Alternate translation: “A disciple does not know more than his teacher” or “A disciple is not wiser than his teacher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

991

LUK

6

40

a6ym

figs-activepassive

κατηρτισμένος…πᾶς

1

everyone having been fully trained

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “every disciple whose teacher has fully taught him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

992

LUK

6

41

l7vj

figs-rquestion

τί…βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου, τὴν δὲ δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς?

1

why do you look at the speck of wood that is in the eye of your brother, but you do not notice the log that is in your own eye?

Jesus is using this question as a teaching tool. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “do not look at the speck in your brother’s eye while ignoring the log in your own eye” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

993

LUK

6

41

jpt3

figs-metaphor

τί…βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου

1

why do you look at the speck of wood that is in the eye of your brother

This is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “you should not criticize the less important faults of a fellow believer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

994

LUK

6

41

l325

figs-youcrowd

βλέπεις…σου…τῷ ἰδίῳ…οὐ κατανοεῖς

1

you look … your … you do not notice … your own

Even though Jesus is still speaking to his disciples and the crowd, he is addressing an individual situation here, so you and your are singular in this verse. But if the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language, you can use the plural forms in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

995

LUK

6

41

j1r5

translate-unknown

τὸ κάρφος

1

the speck of wood

If your readers would not be familiar with wood, in your translation you can use a phrase that describes the smallest thing that commonly falls into a person’s eyes in your culture, or you can use a general expression. Alternate translation: “the grain of sand” or “the tiny object” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

996

LUK

6

41

ud6q

figs-metaphor

τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου

1

of your brother

The term brother figuratively refers to a fellow believer in Jesus. Alternate translation: “of a fellow believer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

997

LUK

6

41

l326

figs-gendernotations

τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ

1

your brother

This fellow believer could be either a man or a woman, so be sure that this is clear in your translation, for example, by using both the masculine and feminine forms of the word for “believer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

998

LUK

6

41

ssu3

figs-metaphor

τὴν δὲ δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς

1

but you do not notice the log that is in your own eye

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “while ignoring your own serious faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

999

LUK

6

41

l327

figs-hyperbole

τὴν…δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ

1

the log that is in your own eye

A log could not literally go into a person’s eye. Jesus is exaggerating to emphasize his point and make it memorable. Alternate translation: “your own serious faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1000

LUK

6

41

h9a4

translate-unknown

δοκὸν

1

the log

You could translate this with the term for the kind of long, large piece of wood that people in your culture would encounter. Or if your readers would not be familiar with wood, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “beam” or “plank” or “large object” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1001

LUK

6

42

l345

figs-youcrowd

πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου

1

How can you say to your brother

Jesus is speaking to his disciples and the crowd, but he is addressing an individual situation, so you and your are singular here. (The terms you, your, and yourself are also singular throughout the rest of this verse, because either Jesus is addressing an individual situation, or one person is addressing another in fictional dialogue.) If the singular forms of these pronouns would not be natural in your language, you can use the plural forms in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

1002

LUK

6

42

rkk6

figs-rquestion

πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν

1

How can you say

Jesus is using this question as a teaching tool, not to ask for information. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1003

LUK

6

42

l346

figs-metaphor

τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, ἀδελφέ, ἄφες

1

to your brother, ‘Brother, let me’

The term brother figuratively means a fellow believer in Jesus. So in its first instance here, you could translate the term the way you did in 6:41. But since it is realistic that in dialogue one believer might address another believer as Brother or “Sister,” you could retain the figurative term in its second instance. Alternate translation: “to a fellow believer, ‘Brother,’ or ‘Sister, let’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1004

LUK

6

42

l328

figs-metaphor

ἄφες ἐκβάλω τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σου

1

let me take out the speck of wood that is in your eye

This is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “let me help you correct some of your faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1005

LUK

6

42

l329

figs-metaphor

αὐτὸς τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν οὐ βλέπων

1

you yourself do not see the log that is in your own eye

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “you yourself are not correcting your own serious faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1006

LUK

6

42

l330

figs-hyperbole

τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν

1

the log that is in your own eye

A log could not literally go into a person’s eye. Jesus is continuing to exaggerate to emphasize his point and make it memorable. Alternate translation: “your own serious faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1007

LUK

6

42

l331

figs-metaphor

ἔκβαλε πρῶτον τὴν δοκὸν ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σοῦ

1

first take out the log from your own eye

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “First recognize and correct your own serious faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1008

LUK

6

42

l332

figs-metaphor

τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου ἐκβαλεῖν

1

take out the speck of wood that is in the eye of your brother

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “to help a fellow believer correct his or her faults” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1009

LUK

6

43

ezb4

grammar-connect-logic-result

γάρ

1

For

Jesus uses the word for to introduce the reason for what he said in the previous sentence. Alternate translation: “This is because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1010

LUK

6

43

u159

figs-litotes

οὐ γάρ ἐστιν δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν; οὐδὲ πάλιν δένδρον σαπρὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλόν

1

For there is no good tree that produces rotten fruit, nor, on the other hand, any rotten tree that produces good fruit

Jesus is twice using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “For a healthy tree naturally produces good fruit and, on the other hand, an unhealthy tree naturally produces bad fruit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1011

LUK

6

43

pi3u

figs-metaphor

οὐ γάρ ἐστιν δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν; οὐδὲ πάλιν δένδρον σαπρὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλόν

1

For there is no good tree that produces rotten fruit, nor, on the other hand, any rotten tree that produces good fruit

This is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “For a person of good character naturally says and does helpful things but, on the other hand, a person of bad character naturally says and does harmful things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1012

LUK

6

44

z1vz

figs-activepassive

ἕκαστον…δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται

1

each tree is known by its own fruit

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who does the action. Alternate translation: “people recognize a tree by the fruit that it bears” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1013

LUK

6

44

l335

figs-metaphor

ἕκαστον…δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται

1

each tree is known by its own fruit

This phrase is a metaphor. Alternate translation: “each person’s words and actions reveal his or her character” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1014

LUK

6

44

l336

figs-parallelism

οὐ γὰρ ἐξ ἀκανθῶν συλλέγουσιν σῦκα, οὐδὲ ἐκ βάτου σταφυλὴν τρυγῶσιν

1

they do not gather figs from a thornbush, nor do they gather grapes from a briar bush

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is using repetition for emphasis and to capture the interest of his listeners. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Instead, you could combine them into a single general expression. Alternate translation: “people do not collect the kind of fruit that grows on a tree or a vine from a small, thorny bush” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1015

LUK

6

44

ns81

translate-unknown

ἀκανθῶν

1

a thornbush

The word thornbush refers to a kind of plant that has sharp protective spines on its stem. If your readers would not know what a thornbush is, in your translation you could use the name of another plant that does not produce edible fruit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1016

LUK

6

44

ux87

translate-unknown

βάτου

1

a briar bush

The term briar bush refers to a kind of plant that has thorny stems growing in dense clusters. If your readers would not know what a briar bush is, in your translation you could use the name of another plant that does not produce edible fruit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1017

LUK

6

45

fd19

figs-gendernotations

ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος

1

The good man

Here, the word man refers to any person, male or female. Alternate translation: “A righteous person” or “A moral person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1018

LUK

6

45

kz5k

figs-metaphor

ἐκ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ θησαυροῦ τῆς καρδίας

1

from the good treasure of his heart

Jesus is speaking figuratively of the good thoughts of a righteous person as if they were treasures stored deep inside that person. Alternate translation: “from the good things that he keeps deep inside himself” or “from the good things that he values deeply” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1019

LUK

6

45

i93l

figs-metaphor

τῆς καρδίας

1

of his heart

In this expression, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “that he keeps deep inside himself” or “that he values deeply” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1020

LUK

6

45

gpn9

figs-metaphor

προφέρει τὸ ἀγαθόν

1

produces what is good

Producing what is good, the way a tree would produce fruit, is a metaphor for doing what is good. Alternate translation: “does what is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1021

LUK

6

45

l337

figs-ellipsis

ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ

1

from evil

For rhetorical purposes, Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. The meaning can be inferred from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “from the evil treasure of his heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1022

LUK

6

45

y2cj

figs-metaphor

ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ

1

from evil

Once the meaning is inferred, it is clear that Jesus is speaking figuratively of the evil thoughts of a wicked person as if they were treasures stored deep inside that person, and of the heart figuratively to represent the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “from the evil things that he keeps deep inside himself” or “from the evil things that he values deeply” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1023

LUK

6

45

l338

figs-metaphor

ἐκ…περισσεύματος καρδίας λαλεῖ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ

3

out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks

In this expression as well, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “what a person is thinking and feeling is expressed in what he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1024

LUK

6

45

jc6z

figs-synecdoche

ἐκ…περισσεύματος καρδίας λαλεῖ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ

3

out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks

The phrase his mouth represents the person as a whole, in the action of speaking. Alternate translation: “what a person is thinking and feeling comes out in what he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1025

LUK

6

46

a4av

τί δέ με καλεῖτε Κύριε, Κύριε, καὶ οὐ ποιεῖτε ἃ λέγω?

1

And why do you call me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ but not do what I say?

The repetition of these words indicates that these people regularly called Jesus Lord. Alternate translation: “And why are you always calling me ‘Lord’ when you do not do what I tell you?’”

1026

LUK

6

47

wwu5

πᾶς ὁ ἐρχόμενος πρός με, καὶ ἀκούων μου τῶν λόγων καὶ ποιῶν αὐτούς, ὑποδείξω ὑμῖν τίνι ἐστὶν ὅμοιος

1

Everyone who is coming to me and hearing my words, and doing them, I will show you what he is like

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could move the last phrase to the beginning of the verse. Alternate translation: “I will tell you what every person is like who comes to me and hears my words and puts them into practice”

1027

LUK

6

47

l339

figs-metonymy

μου τῶν λόγων

1

my words

Jesus uses the term words figuratively to refer to the teachings he is giving by using words. Alternate translation: “my teachings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1028

LUK

6

47

i3tg

figs-simile

ὑποδείξω ὑμῖν τίνι ἐστὶν ὅμοιος

1

I will show you what he is like

Jesus says this to introduce the simile in the next verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1029

LUK

6

48

l340

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομοῦντι οἰκίαν

1

a man building a house

Here Jesus is using man in the generic sense. Alternate translation: “a person building a house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1030

LUK

6

48

cw41

translate-unknown

ἔσκαψεν καὶ ἐβάθυνεν καὶ ἔθηκεν θεμέλιον ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν

1

dug down and dug deep and laid a foundation on the rock

The foundation is the part of a house that connects it to the ground. People in Jesus’ time dug down into the ground until they reached a layer of solid rock, and then they began to build on the rock. You could describe this more fully in your translation. Alternatively, if the people of your culture would not be familiar with laying the foundation of a house on bedrock, you could instead describe how they would ensure that a dwelling was safe and stable. Alternate translation: “dug down deep enough to reach a layer of solid rock and set the foundation of the house on it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1031

LUK

6

48

l341

figs-hendiadys

ἔσκαψεν καὶ ἐβάθυνεν

1

dug down and dug deep

This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The expression dug deep tells what goal the person had when he or she dug down. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “dug down deep enough” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1032

LUK

6

48

dp2a

translate-unknown

τὴν πέτραν

1

the rock

This means the layer of hard rock that lies deep under the soil. Alternate translation: “bedrock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1033

LUK

6

48

qc2z

ποταμὸς

1

torrent of water

Alternate translation: “floodwaters”

1034

LUK

6

48

d3gs

προσέρηξεν

1

flowed against

Alternate translation: “crashed against”

1035

LUK

6

48

h75u

figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἴσχυσεν σαλεῦσαι αὐτὴν

1

could not shake it

Jesus is figuratively describing what the waters would do at first to represent what they would ultimately do if they could. This meaning is clear from what he says in the next verse. Alternate translation: “it could not destroy it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1036

LUK

6

48

tu5j

figs-activepassive

διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν

1

because it had been built well

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “because the person had built it well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1037

LUK

6

49

sjf5

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

But

Jesus uses this word to draw a strong contrast to the previous person who built with a foundation. Alternate translation: “However” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1038

LUK

6

49

l347

figs-ellipsis

ὁ…ἀκούσας καὶ μὴ ποιήσας

1

the one who hears and does not do

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from 6:47. Alternate translation: “anyone who hears my teachings but does not put them into practice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1039

LUK

6

49

wg4w

figs-simile

ὅμοιός ἐστιν

1

he is like

Jesus says this to introduce the simile that follows in the rest of the verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1040

LUK

6

49

l342

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομήσαντι οἰκίαν

1

a man who built a house

Here Jesus is using man in the generic sense. Alternate translation: “a person who built a house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1041

LUK

6

49

yu5r

translate-unknown

ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν χωρὶς θεμελίου

1

on the ground without a foundation

The phrase on the ground without a foundation refers to the same method of building as in 6:48. You could describe this more fully in your translation. Alternatively, if the people of your culture would not be familiar with that building method, you can use the same image for creating a stable building that you used there in your translation. Alternate translation: “without digging down first to create a foundation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1042

LUK

6

49

bs8c

ᾗ προσέρρηξεν ὁ ποταμός

1

against which the torrent of water flowed

In this context, the word flowed indicates violent impact. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “The floodwaters crashed against it”

1043

LUK

6

49

q98t

συνέπεσεν

1

collapsed

Alternate translation: “it fell down” or “it came apart”

1044

LUK

6

49

jm86

ἐγένετο τὸ ῥῆγμα τῆς οἰκίας ἐκείνης μέγα

1

the ruin of that house was great

Your language may require you to say what was responsible for the ruin of the house. Alternate translation: “the floodwaters completely demolished that house”

1045

LUK

7

intro

u8gj

0

Luke 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus does miracles in Capernaum and Nain (7:1-17)
  2. Jesus responds to messengers from John the Baptist and then teaches about John (7:18-35)
  3. A woman anoints Jesus with perfume (7:36-50)

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. ULT does this with the quoted material in 7:27.

Special concepts in this chapter

Centurion

A centurion was a Roman military commander. The centurion who asked Jesus to heal his slave (Luke 7:2) was doing some unusual things. A Roman soldier, especially an officer, would almost never go to a Jew for help, and most wealthy people did not love or care for their slaves. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/centurion]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

John’s Baptism

This chapter refers again to the baptism of John (7:29). John baptized people who wanted to show that they knew they were sinners and that they were sorry for their sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

“Sinners”

In 7:34, Jesus describes how the Pharisees said he was a friend of “sinners.” That was the name that the Pharisees used for people whom they thought were disobeying the law of Moses. In reality, it was the Pharisees who were sinful, since they rejected Jesus, the Savior whom God had sent. This situation can be understood as irony. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

Washing feet

The feet of the people in the ancient Near East were very dirty because they wore sandals and the roads and trails were dusty in the dry season and muddy in the wet season. Only slaves washed other people’s feet. The woman who washed Jesus’ feet was showing him great honor.

1046

LUK

7

1

l343

figs-metonymy

τὰ ῥήματα αὐτοῦ

1

his words

Luke is using the term words figuratively to describe the things that Jesus taught by using words. Alternate translation: “his teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1047

LUK

7

1

zi6w

figs-idiom

εἰς τὰς ἀκοὰς τοῦ λαοῦ

1

in the hearing of the people

This phrase is an idiom. Alternate translation: “as the people were listening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1048

LUK

7

1

l2zp

writing-newevent

εἰσῆλθεν εἰς Καφαρναούμ

1

he entered into Capernaum

This reference to a location, Capernaum, introduces a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “he went into the city of Capernaum” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1049

LUK

7

2

l348

grammar-connect-time-background

δέ

1

And

Luke uses the word and to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

1050

LUK

7

2

zm98

figs-activepassive

ὃς ἦν αὐτῷ ἔντιμος

1

who was highly regarded by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom the centurion greatly valued” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1051

LUK

7

3

l349

ἐρωτῶν αὐτὸν ὅπως ἐλθὼν διασώσῃ

1

asking him to come so that he might save

In this context, the word save has a specific meaning. Alternate translation: “asking him to come and heal”

1052

LUK

7

4

hm7l

παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν σπουδαίως

1

they asked him earnestly

Alternate translation: “they pleaded with him” or “they begged him”

1053

LUK

7

4

y6vt

writing-pronouns

ἄξιός ἐστιν

1

He is worthy

Here the pronoun he refers to the centurion, not the servant. Alternate translation: “This centurion is worthy” or “This centurion deserves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1054

LUK

7

5

cny7

figs-exclusive

τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν

1

our nation

Here, our nation refers to the Jewish people. Since the elders are speaking to Jesus as a fellow Jew, the word our would be inclusive, if your language marks that distinction. Alternate translation: “our people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1055

LUK

7

6

l350

grammar-connect-logic-result

δὲ

1

And

Here, and could mean: (1) Jesus went with the elders because they pleaded with him. Alternate translation, as in UST: “So” (2) Jesus went with the elders after they pleaded with him. Alternate translation: “Then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1056

LUK

7

6

s5xg

ἐπορεύετο

1

went on his way

Alternate translation: “went along”

1057

LUK

7

6

el4w

figs-litotes

αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας

1

when he was … not far away from the house

Luke is expressing a positive meaning figuratively by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “when he was … near the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1058

LUK

7

6

i6kv

μὴ σκύλλου

1

do not trouble yourself

The centurion is speaking politely to Jesus through these friends. Alternate translation: “I do not want to make you go out of your way”

1059

LUK

7

6

ez29

figs-idiom

ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς

1

that you would come under my roof

Come under my roof is an idiom that means “come into my house.” If your language has an idiom that means “come into my dwelling,” consider using it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1060

LUK

7

7

m9ue

figs-metonymy

εἰπὲ λόγῳ

1

speak with a word

The centurion recognized that Jesus could heal the servant just by speaking. He understood Jesus did not need to travel all the way to his home. The term word expresses the means by which Jesus would speak. Alternate translation: “just give a command” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1061

LUK

7

7

m6v8

ὁ παῖς μου

1

my servant

This is not the same word for servant that Luke and the centurion use in the rest of this passage. This word ordinarily means “boy.” This may indicate that the servant was young, or it may show the centurion’s affection for him. Alternate translation: “my young servant” or “my dear servant”

1062

LUK

7

8

tkd5

figs-activepassive

καὶ…ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν τασσόμενος, ἔχων ὑπ’ ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας

1

I also am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I also have someone in authority over me, and I have soldiers under me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1063

LUK

7

8

q2ep

figs-metaphor

ὑπ’ ἐμαυτὸν

1

under me

This is a spatial metaphor that describes the authority relationship. Alternate translation: “under my authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1064

LUK

7

8

mdd5

τῷ δούλῳ μου

1

my servant

Here the word that ULT translates as servant is the typical word for a servant, as in 7:2 and 7:3. It is not the word that usually means “boy,” as in 7:7.

1065

LUK

7

9

tpz9

writing-pronouns

ἐθαύμασεν αὐτόν

1

he marveled at him

The pronoun him refers to the centurion. Alternate translation: “he was amazed at the centurion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1066

LUK

7

9

w8pi

λέγω ὑμῖν

1

I say to you

Jesus says this to emphasize what he is about to tell the people in the crowd. Alternate translation: “Now listen to this carefully”

1067

LUK

7

9

j76u

figs-explicit

οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον

1

not even in Israel have I found such faith

The implication is that Jesus expected Jewish people to have this kind of faith, but they did not. He did not expect Gentiles to have this kind of faith, yet this man did. It may be helpful to say this explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “I have not found anyone among the Israelites who trusts me as much as this Gentile does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1068

LUK

7

9

l351

figs-metonymy

οὐδὲ ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ

1

not even in Israel

Jesus used the name of the nation, Israel, to represent the people who belong to that nation. Alternate translation: “not even in any Israelite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1069

LUK

7

9

l352

figs-idiom

τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον

1

have I found such faith

Here, found is an idiom. The word does not suggest that Jesus was searching for something he had lost. Alternate translation: “have I encountered such faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1070

LUK

7

10

g4ny

figs-activepassive

οἱ πεμφθέντες

1

those who had been sent

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “the friends whom the Roman officer had sent to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1071

LUK

7

11

l353

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1072

LUK

7

11

l354

figs-idiom

ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς

1

on the next day

Luke may be using the term day figuratively to refer a particular time, as UST suggests by saying “soon after that.” However, this could also mean literally the next day. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1073

LUK

7

11

dmz7

translate-names

Ναΐν

1

Nain

Nain is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1074

LUK

7

12

l355

writing-background

δὲ

1

And

Luke uses and to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1075

LUK

7

12

l356

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses the term behold to call the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1076

LUK

7

12

l357

writing-participants

ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς

1

one who had died was being carried out

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a man who had died, and he was being carried out of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1077

LUK

7

12

zr69

figs-activepassive

ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ

1

one who had died was being carried out, the only son of his mother

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who was doing the action. It may be helpful to break the sentence here. Alternate translation: “people were carrying a man who had died out of the city. He was his mother's only son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1078

LUK

7

12

l358

figs-explicit

ἐξεκομίζετο τεθνηκὼς μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ

1

one who had died was being carried out, the only son of his mother

Luke assumes that his readers will know that the people were carrying the man out of the city in order to bury him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. It may be helpful to break the sentence here. Alternate translation: “people were carrying a man who had died out of the city so that they could bury his body. He was his mother's only son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1079

LUK

7

12

n96r

writing-background

μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ; καὶ αὐτὴ ἦν χήρα

1

the only begotten son of his mother (and she was a widow)

This is background information about the dead man and his mother. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here and to introduce it in a way that shows it is background information. Alternate translation: “Now he was his mother’s only son, and she was a widow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1080

LUK

7

12

i5iv

figs-explicit

μονογενὴς υἱὸς τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ; καὶ αὐτὴ ἦν χήρα

1

the only begotten son of his mother (and she was a widow)

The implication is that in this culture, when her son died, the woman lost her only means of support, since her husband had also died. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Now he was his mother’s only son, and she was a widow, so he had been her only means of support” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1081

LUK

7

13

l359

ὁ Κύριος

1

the Lord

Here Luke refers to Jesus by a respectful title. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

1082

LUK

7

13

fa42

figs-explicit

ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπ’ αὐτῇ

1

was moved with compassion for her

The implication is that feeling compassion led Jesus to want to do something for this woman. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “felt very sorry for her and wanted to help her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1083

LUK

7

14

quy9

translate-unknown

τῆς σοροῦ

1

the bier

This was a stretcher or bed used to move the body to the burial place. It was not necessarily something in which the body was buried. Alternate translation: “the wooden frame that was holding the body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1084

LUK

7

14

lex4

figs-imperative

ἐγέρθητι

1

arise

This was not a command that the man was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused the man to be raised from the dead. Alternate translation: “your life is restored, so get up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1085

LUK

7

15

er34

ὁ νεκρὸς

1

the dead man

The man was not still dead. He was now alive. It may be helpful to state this clearly. Alternate translation: “he man had come back to life, so he was no longer dead”

1086

LUK

7

15

l360

writing-pronouns

ἔδωκεν αὐτὸν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτοῦ

1

he gave him to his mother

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, and him and his refer to the young man. Alternate translation: “Jesus returned the young man to his mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1087

LUK

7

16

rf1k

figs-personification

ἔλαβεν…φόβος πάντας

1

fear seized all of them

Luke speaks of this fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of everyone in the crowd. Alternate translation: “they all became very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1088

LUK

7

16

l361

figs-idiom

προφήτης μέγας ἠγέρθη ἐν ἡμῖν

1

A great prophet has been raised among us

Here, raised is an idiom. Alternate translation: “God has caused one of us to become a great prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1089

LUK

7

16

jf1j

figs-activepassive

προφήτης μέγας ἠγέρθη ἐν ἡμῖν

1

A great prophet has been raised among us

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has caused one of us to become a great prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1090

LUK

7

16

wn5b

figs-idiom

ἐπεσκέψατο

1

God has visited his people

Here, visited is an idiom, as in 1:68 and 1:78. Alternate translation: “has come to help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1091

LUK

7

17

g4zt

figs-personification

ἐξῆλθεν ὁ λόγος οὗτος…περὶ αὐτοῦ

1

this word about him went out

Luke speaks figuratively of this word (that is, those sayings) as if it were something that could spread around actively by itself. His expression means that people said these things about Jesus to other people, and those people then repeated them to still more people. Alternate translation: “people spread these sayings about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1092

LUK

7

18

r11g

writing-newevent

ἀπήγγειλαν Ἰωάννῃ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ περὶ πάντων τούτων

1

his disciples reported to John concerning all these things

This sentence introduces a new event in the story. Alternate translation: “the disciples of John told him about all these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1093

LUK

7

18

r11x

writing-newevent

οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ

1

his disciples

The term his refers to John the Baptist, not to Jesus. Alternate translation: “the disciples of John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1094

LUK

7

18

l362

figs-explicit

Ἰωάννῃ

1

John

Luke assumes that his readers will know he is referring to John the Baptist. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1095

LUK

7

18

jf5m

figs-explicit

πάντων τούτων

1

all these things

The implication is that all these things refers to Jesus healing the centurion’s servant and restoring the life of the widow’s son. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “all the things that Jesus had just done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1096

LUK

7

19

l363

τὸν Κύριον

1

the Lord

Here Luke is referring to Jesus by a respectful title. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

1097

LUK

7

19

l364

λέγων

1

to say

Alternate translation: “to ask”

1098

LUK

7

19

l365

figs-you

σὺ

1

you

Since this question would be for Jesus alone, you is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1099

LUK

7

19

l400

figs-explicit

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

1

the one who is coming

This expression implicitly means “the Messiah.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1100

LUK

7

20

ftb7

figs-quotesinquotes

οἱ ἄνδρες εἶπαν, Ἰωάννης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς ἀπέστειλεν ἡμᾶς πρὸς σὲ λέγων, σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἢ ἄλλον προσδοκῶμεν?

1

the men said, “John the Baptist has sent us to you to say, ‘Are you the one who is coming, or should we expect another?’”

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “the men told Jesus that John the Baptist had sent them to him to ask, ‘Are you the one who is coming, or should we expect someone else?’” or “the men said, ‘John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask if you are the one who is coming, or whether we should expect someone else.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1101

LUK

7

20

l366

translate-names

Ἰωάννης ὁ Βαπτιστὴς

1

John the Baptist

Here John’s disciples use the term Baptist as a title to identify the man named John who had sent them. The term means “one who baptizes.” Because the word “Baptist” is associated with a group of churches in many parts of the world, if your readers would misunderstand this, you could use a different form of the word as a title, as UST does. Alternatively, you could use a phrase. Alternate translation: “John the Baptizer” or “John, the one who baptizes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1102

LUK

7

20

l367

λέγων

1

to say

Alternate translation: “to ask”

1103

LUK

7

20

l368

figs-you

σὺ

1

you

Since this question is for Jesus alone, you is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1104

LUK

7

20

l369

figs-explicit

ὁ ἐρχόμενος

1

the one who is coming

This expression means “the Messiah.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1105

LUK

7

21

ys1b

figs-idiom

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ

1

In that hour

Here Luke uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a specific time. Alternate translation: “At that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1106

LUK

7

21

a7sm

figs-ellipsis

ἐθεράπευσεν πολλοὺς ἀπὸ νόσων, καὶ μαστίγων, καὶ πνευμάτων πονηρῶν

1

healed many from sicknesses and afflictions and evil spirits

Here Luke is telling the story in a compressed way, and he does not distinguish clearly between healing of sickness and deliverance from evil spirits. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could make that distinction more explicitly. Alternate translation: “he healed many people of sicknesses that they were suffering from, and he drove evil spirits out of many people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1107

LUK

7

21

l370

figs-hendiadys

νόσων, καὶ μαστίγων

1

sicknesses and afflictions

The phrase sicknesses and afflictions expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word afflictions describes the effect of the sicknesses on the people who had them. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “sicknesses that they were suffering from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1108

LUK

7

21

l371

τυφλοῖς πολλοῖς ἐχαρίσατο βλέπειν

1

to many blind people he granted to see

Alternate translation: “he enabled many blind people to see again”

1109

LUK

7

22

lcm2

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς

1

answering he said to them

Together the words answering and said mean that after healing and delivering many people, Jesus responded to the question that John’s messengers had asked him. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to the messengers whom John had sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1110

LUK

7

22

l372

figs-youdual

πορευθέντες…εἴδετε

1

you have gone … you have seen

Since Jesus is speaking to two men, you would be dual, if your language uses that form. Otherwise, the word would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1111

LUK

7

22

fvz7

figs-activepassive

λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται…νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται

1

lepers are being cleansed … the dead are being raised back to life, the poor are being told the gospel

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express all of these things with active forms. Alternate translation: “people who had leprosy no longer have that disease … people who were dead are coming back to life, poor people are hearing the good news” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1112

LUK

7

22

l373

figs-explicit

λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται

1

lepers are being cleansed

As in 5:12, since the lepers were unclean because of their leprosy, the implication is that Jesus healed them from the disease. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “people who had leprosy no longer have that disease” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1113

LUK

7

22

qbe3

figs-nominaladj

κωφοὶ…νεκροὶ…πτωχοὶ

1

the deaf … the dead … the poor

Luke is using these adjectives as nouns. If your language does not use adjectives that way, you can translate them with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “people who were deaf … people who were dead … poor people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1114

LUK

7

23

y4px

figs-activepassive

μακάριός ἐστιν ὃς ἐὰν μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί

1

blessed is anyone who is not offended by me

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bless the person who always continues to trust me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1115

LUK

7

23

i7zh

figs-litotes

μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί

1

who is not offended by me

Here Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “who continues to trust me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1116

LUK

7

24

abcd

writing-pronouns

ἤρξατο λέγειν

1

he began to say

Here the pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus began to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1117

LUK

7

24

h9dw

figs-rquestion

τί ἐξήλθατε εἰς τὴν ἔρημον θεάσασθαι? κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον?

1

What did you go out into the desert to see? A reed shaken by the wind?

Jesus is using these questions as a teaching tool. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show that consequently he expects a negative answer. You could also translate these words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Did you go out into the desert just to see a reed that the wind was shaking? Of course not!” or “Surely you did not go out into the desert just to see a reed that the wind was shaking.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1118

LUK

7

24

l374

figs-activepassive

κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον

1

A reed shaken by the wind

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “A reed that the wind was shaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1119

LUK

7

24

gbv9

figs-explicit

κάλαμον ὑπὸ ἀνέμου σαλευόμενον

1

A reed shaken by the wind

The implication seems to be that a reed swaying in the breeze by the banks of the Jordan River is a commonplace sight that no one would make a trip out into the desert just to see. Alternate translation: “An ordinary thing such as a reed that the wind was shaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1120

LUK

7

25

tcp3

figs-rquestion

ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν? ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον?

1

But what did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothes?

Jesus is using these questions as a teaching tool. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show that consequently he expects a negative answer. You could also translate these words as a statement. Alternate translation: “Did you go out to see a man wearing splendid clothing? Of course not!” or “You certainly did not go out to see a man wearing splendid clothing.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1121

LUK

7

25

a1wu

figs-explicit

ἄνθρωπον ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον?

1

A man dressed in soft clothes?

Luke assumes that readers will know that John wore crude, rugged clothing. Like his residence in the desert, his clothing was a symbolic protest against the established order. As such, it would have been offensive rather than attractive. So no one would have gone out to see a person dressed that way. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “A man wearing splendid clothing? You would not have gone to hear John if that was what you wanted to see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1122

LUK

7

25

l375

figs-explicit

ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον

1

dressed in soft clothes

The term soft clothes refers to luxurious clothes, since normal clothing was rough. Alternate translation: “wearing splendid clothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1123

LUK

7

25

l376

figs-activepassive

ἐν μαλακοῖς ἱματίοις ἠμφιεσμένον

1

dressed in soft clothes

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “wearing splendid clothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1124

LUK

7

25

l377

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Jesus uses the term behold to get the crowd to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1125

LUK

7

25

nn75

figs-explicit

τοῖς βασιλείοις

1

king’s palaces

Palaces are large, elaborate houses where kings or queens would live. The implication is that a celebrity watcher might go to a palace to try to catch a glimpse of royalty. But certainly no one would go out into the desert to try to see someone famous. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1126

LUK

7

26

ym8l

figs-rquestion

ἀλλὰ τί ἐξήλθατε ἰδεῖν? προφήτην?

1

But what did you go out to see? A prophet?

Jesus is giving the answer to the repeated question that he has been using as a teaching tool. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show that this time the question leads to a positive answer. You could also translate this as a statement. Alternate translation: “Did you go out to see a prophet? Yes, that was why!” or “You actually went out to see a prophet.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1127

LUK

7

26

ix16

ναί, λέγω ὑμῖν

1

Yes, I say to you

Jesus says this to emphasize the importance of what he will say next. Alternate translation: “Now listen carefully”

1128

LUK

7

26

r7ud

figs-idiom

περισσότερον προφήτου

1

more than a prophet

This phrase is an idiom that means that John was indeed a prophet, but that he was even greater than a typical prophet. Alternate translation: “not just an ordinary prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1129

LUK

7

27

cg3r

figs-activepassive

οὗτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται

1

This is he concerning whom it is written

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “This is the one about whom one of the prophets wrote” or “John is the one about whom the prophet Malachi wrote” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1130

LUK

7

27

wt2m

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

God, speaking through the prophet Malachi, uses the term behold to emphasize the importance of what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Now pay attention” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1131

LUK

7

27

s8hg

figs-metaphor

πρὸ προσώπου σου

1

before your face

Here, face figuratively means the front of a person. Alternate translation, as in UST: “ahead of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1132

LUK

7

27

cc5u

figs-you

σου…σου

1

your … you

The words your and you are singular in both cases because God is speaking to the Messiah individually in the quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1133

LUK

7

27

l378

figs-metaphor

ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου ἔμπροσθέν σου

1

who will prepare your way before you

As in 3:4, to make a way or a road is a figurative expression that means to help people get ready for the coming of the Messiah. Alternate translation: “who will help people get ready for you to come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1134

LUK

7

28

yz6b

λέγω ὑμῖν

1

I say to you

Jesus uses this phrase to focus the crowd’s attention on what he will say next. Alternate translation: “Now listen carefully”

1135

LUK

7

28

rr11

figs-idiom

ἐν γεννητοῖς γυναικῶν

1

among those born of women

The phrase those born of women is an idiom that refers to all people. Alternate translation: “of all the people who have ever lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1136

LUK

7

28

hfqf

figs-activepassive

ἐν γεννητοῖς γυναικῶν

1

among those born of women

If you would like to retain the idiom but your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “among those whom women have borne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1137

LUK

7

28

gfz7

figs-litotes

μείζων…Ἰωάννου οὐδείς ἐστιν

1

no one is greater than John

Here Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative term together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “John is the greatest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1138

LUK

7

28

c33u

figs-nominaladj

ὁ…μικρότερος

1

the least

Jesus is using the adjective least as a noun in order to indicate a kind of person. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the least important person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1139

LUK

7

28

l379

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

in the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “whose life God is ruling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1140

LUK

7

28

r81b

figs-explicit

μείζων αὐτοῦ ἐστιν

1

is greater than he

The implication is that being part of the kingdom of God is greater than any human distinctive. So anyone who is part of God’s kingdom is greater than even John, whom Jesus said was the greatest person who had ever lived before the coming of the kingdom. Alternate translation: “is greater than John is because they are part of something greater than anything that is human” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1141

LUK

7

29

idv8

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν Θεόν, βαπτισθέντες τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου

1

declared God to be righteous, having been baptized with the baptism of John

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because they had come to John for baptism, declared God to be righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1142

LUK

7

29

m5cn

figs-explicit

ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν Θεόν

1

declared God to be righteous

The implication is that the people agreed that God had been right to send John to tell them to repent of their sins. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “agreed that God had been right to send John to tell them to repent of their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1143

LUK

7

29

s9v6

figs-activepassive

βαπτισθέντες τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου

1

having been baptized with the baptism of John

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “because they had come to John for baptism” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1144

LUK

7

30

l380

translate-unknown

νομικοὶ

1

lawyers

Here and elsewhere in the book, the term lawyers does not mean people who would represent clients and argue cases in court or draw up legal documents. Rather, it refers to experts in the law of Moses and its application to various situations. Alternate translation: “experts in the Jewish law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1145

LUK

7

30

v8f5

grammar-connect-logic-result

τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἠθέτησαν εἰς ἑαυτούς, μὴ βαπτισθέντες ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

rejected the purpose of God for themselves, not having been baptized by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “because they had not come to John for baptism, rejected what God wanted them to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1146

LUK

7

30

wqc3

figs-activepassive

μὴ βαπτισθέντες ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

not having been baptized by him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “because John had not baptized them” or “because they had not come to John for baptism” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1147

LUK

7

31

cs1j

figs-rquestion

τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι?

1

To what, then, will I compare the men of this generation? And what are they like?

Jesus is using these questions as a teaching tool, to introduce a comparison. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate them as statements. Alternate translation: “This is what I compare the people of this time to. This is what they are like” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1148

LUK

7

31

ix8z

figs-parallelism

τίνι οὖν ὁμοιώσω τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, καὶ τίνι εἰσὶν ὅμοιοι?

1

To what, then, will I compare the men of this generation? And what are they like?

These two phrases mean the same thing. Jesus is using repetition for emphasis and to capture the interest of his listeners. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “What should I compare the people of this time to?” or “This is what I compare the people of this time to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1149

LUK

7

31

ec4k

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης

1

the men of this generation

Jesus is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “the people of this generation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1150

LUK

7

32

n8yp

figs-simile

ὅμοιοί εἰσιν

1

They are like

These words are the beginning of Jesus’ comparison. His opponents complain about John being too austere, and they complain about him not being austere enough, just like children who complain when other children don’t dance with them, and then complain again when they don’t cry with them. Since Jesus explains this comparison in the next two verses, you do not need to explain it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1151

LUK

7

32

f7hg

translate-unknown

ἀγορᾷ

1

marketplace

This means a large, open-air area where people come to sell their goods. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1152

LUK

7

32

l381

figs-metonymy

ηὐλήσαμεν ὑμῖν

1

We played a flute for you

The children are referring to the flute to indicate that they played a happy, upbeat tune, for which the flute was well suited. Alternate translation: “We played a happy tune for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1153

LUK

7

32

xgg9

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

and

The children are expressing a contrast between what they expected their playmates to do and what those playmates actually did. Alternate translation: “but” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1154

LUK

7

32

m2k3

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ

1

and

Once again the children are expressing a contrast between what they expected their playmates to do and what those playmates actually did. Alternate translation: “but” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1155

LUK

7

33

kbc7

figs-synecdoche

μὴ ἐσθίων ἄρτον

1

neither eating bread

This could mean one of two things. Either way, Jesus is using one kind of food, bread, figuratively to represent all kinds of food. (1) It could refer to the way that John lived on whatever he could find to eat in the desert. Alternate translation: “not eating regular food” (2) It could mean that John often went without eating as a devotional practice. Alternate translation: “frequently fasting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1156

LUK

7

33

wka1

figs-quotesinquotes

λέγετε, δαιμόνιον ἔχει

1

you say, ‘He has a demon’

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what the Pharisees were saying about John. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “you say that he has a demon” or “you accuse him of having a demon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1157

LUK

7

34

k33e

figs-123person

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1158

LUK

7

34

l382

figs-explicit

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man

See how you translated this title in 5:24. In this case the title highlights Jesus’ identification with humanity in the special role that God has given him. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1159

LUK

7

34

s1um

figs-quotesinquotes

λέγετε, ἰδοὺ, ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν

1

you say, ‘Behold, a man, a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and of sinners!’

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what the Pharisees were saying about him. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “you say that he eats and drinks too much and that he is a friend of tax collectors and sinners” or (if you used the first person for the title “Son of Man”) “you say that I eat and drink too much and that I am a friend of tax collectors and sinners” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1160

LUK

7

34

l383

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Behold focuses the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. Alternate translation: “Now this is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1161

LUK

7

34

am9s

ἄνθρωπος φάγος

1

a man, a glutton

Alternate translation: “a man who is a glutton” or “a man who eats too much”

1162

LUK

7

34

chu4

ἄνθρωπος…οἰνοπότης

1

a man, … a drunkard

Alternate translation: “a man who is a drunkard” or “a man who drinks too much alcohol”

1163

LUK

7

35

ba4g

writing-proverbs

ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς

1

wisdom is justified by all her children

This appears to be a proverb, a short popular saying of the culture, that Jesus applied to this situation. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the saying is true that wisdom is justified by all her children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]])

1164

LUK

7

35

l384

figs-idiom

ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς

1

wisdom is justified by all her children

This proverb likely uses a Hebrew idiom in which the “sons” or children of a thing share its qualities. Alternate translation: “wisdom is justified by people who are wise themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1165

LUK

7

35

l385

figs-activepassive

ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς

1

wisdom is justified by all her children

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “wise people recognize when someone else is following a wise course” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1166

LUK

7

36

fd2c

writing-newevent

ἠρώτα δέ τις αὐτὸν τῶν Φαρισαίων, ἵνα φάγῃ μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

Then one of the Pharisees requested him to eat with him

This phrase introduces a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1167

LUK

7

36

lhd4

writing-participants

τις…τῶν Φαρισαίων

1

one of the Pharisees

This phrase also introduces the Pharisee into the story. In 7:40, Jesus addresses him as Simon. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could give his name here, as UST does. Alternate translation: “a Pharisee named Simon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1168

LUK

7

36

dy31

translate-unknown

κατεκλίθη

1

he reclined to eat

See how you translated this in 5:29. It was the custom in this culture for dinner guests to eat while lying comfortably around the table on banqueting couches. Alternate translation: “he took his place at the table” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1169

LUK

7

37

l386

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1170

LUK

7

37

a9iu

writing-participants

γυνὴ ἥτις ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει

1

there was a woman in the city

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was woman who lived in that city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1171

LUK

7

37

x4sk

figs-explicit

ἁμαρτωλός

1

who was a sinner

Luke is speaking from the perspective of the Pharisee when he says that the woman was a sinner. Since the Pharisee would likely not have known her personally, this is an implicit reference to her reputation. She may have been a prostitute, as UST suggests. Alternate translation: “who had a reputation for living a sinful life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1172

LUK

7

37

l387

figs-explicit

κομίσασα

1

she brought

In this culture, if people wanted to hear what someone’s special dinner guest had to say, they were allowed to come and stand around the walls of the banqueting hall and listen, even if they had not been invited to share in the meal. And so this woman was allowed to enter and listen to Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that specifically. Alternate translation: “she came into the banquet hall as a visitor, bringing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1173

LUK

7

37

apx8

translate-unknown

ἀλάβαστρον

1

an alabaster jar

The word alabaster is the name of a soft, white stone. People stored precious and valuable items in jars made from alabaster. Alternate translation: “a jar made of soft, white stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1174

LUK

7

37

a954

translate-unknown

μύρου

1

of perfumed oil

This oil had fragrant additives. To make a nice smell, people would rub the oil on themselves or sprinkle their clothing with it. Alternate translation: “that contained oil with perfume in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1175

LUK

7

38

v5xh

figs-explicitinfo

ταῖς θριξὶν τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς

1

with the hair of her head

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. Alternate translation: “with her hair” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

1176

LUK

7

38

i93v

ἤλειφεν τῷ μύρῳ

1

anointing them with the perfumed oil

Alternate translation: “pouring perfume on them”

1177

LUK

7

39

u455

figs-quotemarks

εἶπεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ λέγων

1

he said to himself, saying

As noted in 3:10, Luke often uses the word saying to introduce a quotation. Particularly in cases like this one, if you indicate the quotation in some other way, such as with quotation marks, you do not need to represent this word in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

1178

LUK

7

39

xc9v

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

οὗτος εἰ ἦν προφήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἂν τίς καὶ ποταπὴ ἡ γυνὴ, ἥτις ἅπτεται αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν

1

If this man were a prophet, he would know who and of what type the woman is who is touching him, that she is a sinner

This Pharisee is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He has concluded that Jesus must not be a prophet, because he allowed this sinful woman to touch him, and a prophet would have known she was sinful and not allowed that. Alternate translation: “Jesus must not be a prophet, because if he were, he would know that the woman who is touching him is a sinner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

1179

LUK

7

39

tbq3

figs-explicit

τίς καὶ ποταπὴ ἡ γυνὴ, ἥτις ἅπτεται αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν

1

who and of what type the woman is who is touching him, that she is a sinner

Simon assumed that a prophet would never allow a sinner to touch him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state his assumption explicitly. Alternate translation: “that this woman is a sinner, and he would not allow her to touch him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1180

LUK

7

40

l388

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν

1

answering Jesus said to him

Together the words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to what the Pharisee was thinking. Alternate translation: “Jesus responded to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1181

LUK

7

40

u3cg

translate-names

Σίμων

1

Simon

This was the name of the Pharisee who invited Jesus into his home. This was not Simon Peter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1182

LUK

7

40

l389

ὁ δέ, Διδάσκαλε, εἰπέ, φησίν

1

And he says, “Say it, Teacher!”

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “And he said, ‘Say it, Teacher!’”

1183

LUK

7

40

l390

figs-imperative

Διδάσκαλε, εἰπέ

1

Say it, Teacher!

Simon is inviting Jesus to speak, not ordering him to speak. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate his words as more of an invitation. You could also translate them as a question, as UST does. Alternate translation: “Go ahead and say it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1184

LUK

7

40

l391

Διδάσκαλε

1

Teacher

This was a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

1185

LUK

7

41

sv92

figs-parables

δύο χρεοφιλέται ἦσαν: δανιστῇ τινι

1

There were two debtors

To help Simon the Pharisee understand what he wants to teach him, Jesus tells him a story. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus told him this story to help him understand. ‘There were two debtors’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

1186

LUK

7

41

fcq6

δύο χρεοφιλέται ἦσαν: δανιστῇ τινι

1

There were two debtors to a certain moneylender

Alternate translation: “Two different people owed money to the same moneylender”

1187

LUK

7

41

snz6

translate-bmoney

δηνάρια πεντακόσια

1

500 denarii

The word denarii is the plural of “denarius.” A denarius was a silver coin equivalent to a day’s wage. You could try to express this amount in terms of current monetary values, but that might cause your Bible translation to become outdated and inaccurate, since those values can change over time. So instead you might state something more general or give the equivalent in wages. Alternate translation: “500 silver coins” or “an amount equivalent to a year and a half’s wages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

1188

LUK

7

41

i92j

translate-bmoney

ὁ δὲ ἕτερος πεντήκοντα

1

and the other 50

Alternate translation: “the other person owed 50 silver coins” or “the other person owed an amount equal to 50 days’ wages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

1189

LUK

7

42

l392

figs-ellipsis

μὴ ἐχόντων αὐτῶν ἀποδοῦναι

1

When they did not have to repay

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. He is not saying that the men no longer needed to repay these debts. Rather, he is saying that they did not have enough money to repay the lender what they owed him. Alternate translation: “When they were not able to repay their debts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1190

LUK

7

42

lbq6

figs-idiom

ἀμφοτέροις ἐχαρίσατο

1

he forgave them both

This does not mean literally that the lender decided he would not hold their failure to repay against them. Rather, it is an idiom that means that he told them they did not have to repay the money. Alternate translation: “he canceled both of their debts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1191

LUK

7

43

l393

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς Σίμων εἶπεν

1

Simon answering said

Together the words answering and said mean that Simon responded to the question that Jesus asked him. Alternate translation: “Simon responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1192

LUK

7

43

l394

figs-ellipsis

ὑπολαμβάνω ὅτι ᾧ τὸ πλεῖον ἐχαρίσατο

1

I suppose that the one to whom he forgave the most

Simon leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “I suppose that the one to whom he forgave the most will love him the most” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1193

LUK

7

43

uyj6

ὑπολαμβάνω

1

I suppose

Simon was cautious about his answer. Alternate translation: “Probably”

1194

LUK

7

43

zqz4

ὀρθῶς ἔκρινας

1

You have judged correctly

Alternate translation: “You are right”

1195

LUK

7

44

s7g6

translate-symaction

στραφεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα

1

he turned to the woman

Jesus turned to the woman in order to direct Simon’s attention to her. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus turned to the woman so that Simon would look at her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1196

LUK

7

44

l395

figs-rquestion

βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα?

1

Do you see this woman?

Jesus does not expect Simon to tell him whether he can see the woman. Rather, he is using the question as a teaching tool, to focus Simon’s attention on her as an example of showing love and gratitude. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate Jesus’ words as a statement. Alternate translation: “I want you to consider this woman.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1197

LUK

7

44

mw7d

figs-explicit

ὕδωρ μοι ἐπὶ πόδας οὐκ ἔδωκας

1

You did not give me water for my feet

It was a basic responsibility of a host to provide water and a towel for guests to wash and dry their feet after walking on dusty roads. Alternate translation: “You did not provide me with anything to wash my feet, as a considerate host would have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1198

LUK

7

44

mw58

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

οὐκ ἔδωκας; αὕτη δὲ

1

You did not give … but she

In this verse and the next two verses, Jesus uses such phrases to contrast Simon’s lack of courtesy with the woman’s extreme actions of gratitude. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1199

LUK

7

44

am5z

figs-explicit

αὕτη…τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν μου τοὺς πόδας

1

she has wet my feet with her tears

The woman used her tears in place of the missing water. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “she has wet my feet with her tears in place of the water you did not provide” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1200

LUK

7

44

ld62

figs-explicit

καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς ἐξέμαξεν

1

and wiped them with her hair

The woman used her hair in place of the missing towel. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and she has dried my feet with her hair in place of the towel you did not provide” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1201

LUK

7

45

xj92

figs-explicit

φίλημά μοι οὐκ ἔδωκας

1

You did not give me a kiss

It was customary in this culture for a host to greet a guest with a kiss on the cheek. Simon did not do this for Jesus. Alternate translation: “You did not greet me with a kiss on the cheek, as a welcoming host would have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1202

LUK

7

45

r2jj

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ διέλιπεν καταφιλοῦσά μου τοὺς πόδας

1

has not stopped kissing my feet

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use a positive expression to translate this double negative that consists of the negative particle not and the negative verb stopped. Alternate translation: “has continued to kiss my feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1203

LUK

7

45

u3er

translate-symaction

οὐ διέλιπεν καταφιλοῦσά μου τοὺς πόδας

1

has not stopped kissing my feet

The woman kissed the feet of Jesus, rather than his cheek, as a sign of extreme repentance and humility. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “has continued to kiss my feet to show her repentance and humility” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1204

LUK

7

46

j8wj

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

οὐκ ἤλειψας; αὕτη δὲ

1

You did not anoint … but she

Jesus continues to contrast Simon’s poor hospitality with the actions of the woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1205

LUK

7

46

le9a

figs-explicit

ἐλαίῳ τὴν κεφαλήν μου οὐκ ἤλειψας

1

You did not anoint my head with oil

It was the custom in this culture to welcome an honored guest by pouring refreshing olive oil on his head. Alternate translation: “You did not welcome me by pouring oil on my head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1206

LUK

7

46

g6va

translate-symaction

ἤλειψεν τοὺς πόδας μου

1

has anointed my feet

The woman greatly honored Jesus by doing this. She demonstrated humility and expressed her own sense of unworthiness by anointing his feet instead of his head. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “has anointed my feet to show her humility” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1207

LUK

7

47

kwc5

λέγω σοι

1

I say to you

This phrase emphasizes the importance of the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “pay attention to this”

1208

LUK

7

47

clu2

figs-activepassive

ἀφέωνται αἱ ἁμαρτίαι αὐτῆς αἱ πολλαί

1

her sins, which were many, have been forgiven

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has forgiven her many sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1209

LUK

7

47

l396

figs-explicit

ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ

1

for she loved much

The implication is that her display of love was the evidence that her sins were forgiven. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “We can tell this because she has shown that she greatly loves the one who forgave her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1210

LUK

7

47

jql4

ὅτι ἠγάπησεν πολύ

1

for she loved much

Your language may require you to state the object of loved. Alternate translation: “because she greatly loves the one who forgave her”

1211

LUK

7

47

qd9q

figs-explicit

ᾧ δὲ ὀλίγον ἀφίεται, ὀλίγον ἀγαπᾷ

1

the one to whom little is forgiven loves little

In this sentence Jesus states a general principle. However, he is saying implicitly that Simon specifically has shown very little love for him. A further implication is that one to whom little is forgiven is actually someone who thinks he is better than others and mistakenly thinks he does not need to be forgiven for very much. Alternate translation: “a person like you who thinks that God has only had to forgive him for a few things does not show much love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1212

LUK

7

47

l397

figs-activepassive

ᾧ…ὀλίγον ἀφίεται

1

the one to whom little is forgiven

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “the person who thinks that God has only had to forgive him for a few things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1213

LUK

7

48

c7hj

writing-pronouns

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῇ

1

Then he said to her

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, not to Simon. The word her refers to the woman. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus said to the woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1214

LUK

7

48

lq5v

figs-activepassive

ἀφέωνταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι

1

Your sins are forgiven

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “I have forgiven your sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1215

LUK

7

49

enw4

συνανακείμενοι

1

reclining with him to eat

Alternate translation: “who were eating together with him”

1216

LUK

7

49

ie4z

figs-rquestion

τίς οὗτός ἐστιν ὃς καὶ ἁμαρτίας ἀφίησιν?

1

Who is this who even forgives sins?

The religious leaders knew that only God could forgive sins. They did not believe that Jesus was God. So they are using the question form to make an accusation. Alternate translation: “This man is not God, so he cannot forgive sins!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1217

LUK

7

50

lje8

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

1

Your faith has saved you

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun faith, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “trust.” Alternate translation: “you have trusted in God, and God has saved you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1218

LUK

7

50

l398

figs-personification

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

1

Your faith has saved you

Jesus speaks figuratively of the woman’s faith as if it had actively saved her. He means that it provided the conditions for her to receive salvation from God. Alternate translation: “you have trusted in God, and God has saved you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1219

LUK

7

50

sp2u

figs-explicit

πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην

1

Go in peace

This was a way of saying goodbye while giving a blessing at the same time. It also reassured the woman, despite the disapproval of the religious leaders. Alternate translation: “May God give you peace as you go” or “You may go now, and do not worry about your sins anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1220

LUK

8

intro

ba3i

0

Luke 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus teaches the crowds with parables (8:1-21)
  2. Jesus calms a storm on the Sea of Galilee (8:22-25)
  3. Jesus drives out many demons from a man (8:26-39)
  4. Jesus heals a woman and restores a dead girl to life (8:40-55)

Special concepts in this chapter

Miracles

In this chapter, Jesus makes a storm stop by speaking to it, he makes a dead girl alive by speaking to her, and he makes evil spirits leave a man by speaking to them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/miracle]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Parables

Parables were short stories that Jesus told so that people who wanted to believe in him could easily understand the lesson he was trying to teach them. But people who did not want to believe in him would not be able to understand the message (Luke 8:4-15).

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Brothers and sisters

Most people use the terms “brother” and “sister” for those who have the same parents as they do. They think of them as some of the most important people in their lives. Some people also call those with the same grandparents “brother” and “sister.” In this chapter, Jesus says that the most important people to him are those who obey his Father in heaven. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/brother]])

Important textual issues in this chapter

“having spent all her living on doctors”

In 8:43, some ancient manuscripts of the Bible have the phrase “having spent all her living on doctors,” but other manuscripts do not. ULT includes the phrase in its text, but it mentions in a footnote that scholars are divided as to whether it was an original part of the book of Luke. If a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to include the phrase if it does, but leave it out if it does not include it. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to follow the example of ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1221

LUK

8

1

i6mi

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1222

LUK

8

1

l399

figs-idiom

κατὰ πόλιν καὶ κώμην

1

through city and village

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “around to different cities and villages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1223

LUK

8

1

l401

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God would rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1224

LUK

8

1

l402

figs-nominaladj

οἱ δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

Luke is using the adjective Twelve as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “his 12 apostles” or “the 12 men whom he had appointed to be apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1225

LUK

8

1

l403

translate-names

οἱ δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

Alternatively, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns, you may be able to do that in this case, since this is a title by which the apostles were known. Even though it is a number, if you translate it as a title, as ULT does, follow the conventions for titles in your language. For example, capitalize main words and write out numbers rather than use digits. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1226

LUK

8

2

g99l

figs-activepassive

αἳ ἦσαν τεθεραπευμέναι ἀπὸ πνευμάτων πονηρῶν καὶ ἀσθενειῶν

1

who had been healed from evil spirits and diseases

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “whom Jesus had set free from evil spirits and healed of diseases” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1227

LUK

8

2

jq4g

translate-names

Μαρία ἡ καλουμένη Μαγδαληνή

1

Mary who was called Magdalene

Mary is the name of a woman, and Magdalene is a distinguishing term that most likely means that she came from the town of Magdala. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1228

LUK

8

2

n4x6

figs-activepassive

Μαρία ἡ καλουμένη Μαγδαληνή

1

Mary who was called Magdalene

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Mary, who people called Magdalene” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1229

LUK

8

2

l404

figs-explicit

ἀφ’ ἧς δαιμόνια ἑπτὰ ἐξεληλύθει

1

from whom seven demons had gone out

The demons did not go out on their own. It may be helpful to say explicitly that Jesus drove them out. Alternate translation: “from whom Jesus had driven out seven demons” or “whom Jesus had set free from seven demons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1230

LUK

8

3

tfz5

translate-names

Ἰωάννα…Σουσάννα

1

Joanna … Susanna

These are the names of two women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1231

LUK

8

3

w9kl

translate-names

Χουζᾶ…Ἡρῴδου

1

Chuza … Herod

These are the names of two men. See how you translated the name Herod in 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1232

LUK

8

3

l405

ἐπιτρόπου Ἡρῴδου

1

Herod’s manager

Alternate translation: “the man who managed King Herod’s household affairs”

1233

LUK

8

3

k9m5

figs-idiom

διηκόνουν αὐτοῖς

1

serving them out of their possessions

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “were personally providing what Jesus and his 12 apostles needed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1234

LUK

8

4

r1qk

writing-pronouns

ἐπιπορευομένων πρὸς αὐτὸν

1

coming to him

Here the pronoun him refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “coming to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1235

LUK

8

4

l406

figs-idiom

κατὰ πόλιν

1

by city

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “from different towns” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1236

LUK

8

4

l407

figs-parables

εἶπεν διὰ παραβολῆς

1

he spoke in a parable

This means that Jesus told a brief story to teach something true in an understandable and memorable way. Alternate translation: “he told them this story to help them understand God’s ways better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

1237

LUK

8

5

ndc3

ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων τοῦ σπεῖραι τὸν σπόρον αὐτοῦ

1

The sower went out to sow his seed

Use either the singular or the plural to translate seed in this story, whichever would be more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “A farmer went out to scatter some seed in a field” or “A farmer went out to scatter some seeds in a field”

1238

LUK

8

5

cv1h

ὃ μὲν ἔπεσεν

1

some fell

Alternate translation: “some of the seed fell” or “some of the seeds fell”

1239

LUK

8

5

a5mz

figs-activepassive

κατεπατήθη

1

it was trampled underfoot

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “people walked on it” or “people walked on them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1240

LUK

8

5

n8bw

figs-explicitinfo

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ

1

the birds of the sky

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you could abbreviate it. However, you could also use an action clause to keep the sense of sky. Alternate translation: “birds” or “birds flew down and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

1241

LUK

8

5

lt8n

κατέφαγεν αὐτό

1

devoured it

Alternate translation: “ate it all” or “ate them all”

1242

LUK

8

6

k6a4

ἐξηράνθη

1

it withered away

Continue to use either the singular or the plural, whichever would be more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “each plant dried out and shriveled up” or “the plants dried out and shriveled up”

1243

LUK

8

6

ktz7

διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἰκμάδα

1

because it had no moisture

Alternate translation: “because there was no water for it in the rock” or “because there was no water for them in the rock”

1244

LUK

8

7

xzq2

ἀπέπνιξαν αὐτό

1

choked it

The thorn plants took all the nutrients, water, and sunlight, so the farmer’s plants could not grow well. Continue to use either the singular or the plural, whichever would be more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “crowded it out” or “crowded them out” or “kept it from growing well” or “kept them from growing well”

1245

LUK

8

8

q12t

ἐποίησεν καρπὸν ἑκατονταπλασίονα

1

it produced fruit a hundred times greater

Here the word translated fruit has the specific sense of “a crop.” Since the farmer is sowing wheat seeds, this crop would be more seeds. Alternate translation: “it produced a hundred times as much seed as had landed in this soil” or “they produced a hundred times as many seeds as had landed in this soil”

1246

LUK

8

8

b92z

figs-metonymy

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω

1

The one who has ears to hear, let him hear

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize that what he has just said is important and that it may take some effort to understand and put into practice. The phrase ears to hear figuratively represents the willingness to understand and obey by association with the part of the body by which his listeners would have been taking in his teaching. Alternate translation: “If anyone is willing to understand, let him understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1247

LUK

8

8

l408

figs-123person

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω

1

The one who has ears to hear, let him hear

Since Jesus is speaking directly to his audience, you may prefer to use the second person here. Alternate translation: “If you are willing to listen, then listen” or “If you are willing to understand, then understand and obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1248

LUK

8

8

l409

figs-you

ὁ ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν, ἀκουέτω

1

The one who has ears to hear, let him hear

If you choose to translate this in the second person, you would be plural, since Jesus is speaking to the crowd. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1249

LUK

8

9

l410

τίς αὕτη εἴη ἡ παραβολή

1

What is this parable?

Alternate translation: “What does this story mean?”

1250

LUK

8

10

je1f

figs-activepassive

ὑμῖν δέδοται γνῶναι

1

To you has been granted to know

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God has allowed you to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1251

LUK

8

10

s7xp

τὰ μυστήρια τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the mysteries of the kingdom of God

These are spiritual truths that people had not previously understood. Jesus is now revealing them. Alternate translation: “the secrets of the kingdom of God”

1252

LUK

8

10

l411

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “of how God will rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1253

LUK

8

10

l6sk

figs-ellipsis

τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς

1

but to the rest in parables

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “but I speak in parables to the people who are not my disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1254

LUK

8

10

l412

figs-quotesinquotes

ἵνα βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν, καὶ ἀκούοντες μὴ συνιῶσιν

1

so that, ‘Seeing, they may not see; and hearing, they may not understand’

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting the prophet Isaiah. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. For clarity, you could also indicate the source of the words that Jesus is quoting. Alternate translation: “so that as the prophet Isaiah said, though they see, they will not perceive, and though they hear, they will not understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1255

LUK

8

10

xtu6

βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσιν

1

Seeing, they may not see

Some languages may need to state the object of the verb. Alternate translation: “though they see things, they will not understand them” or “though they see things happen, they will not understand what they mean”

1256

LUK

8

10

k4es

ἀκούοντες μὴ συνιῶσιν

1

hearing, they may not understand

Some languages may need to state the object of the verb. Alternate translation: “though they hear instruction, they will not understand the truth”

1257

LUK

8

11

vp8a

ἔστιν δὲ αὕτη ἡ παραβολή

1

the parable is this

Alternate translation: “this is what the story means”

1258

LUK

8

11

hb1t

figs-metonymy

ὁ σπόρος ἐστὶν ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The seed is the word of God

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message from God that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “The seed represents the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1259

LUK

8

12

xsa7

figs-metaphor

οἱ…παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν εἰσιν οἱ ἀκούσαντες

1

the ones along the path are those who have heard

Jesus begins to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “The seeds that fell along the path represent people who hear the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1260

LUK

8

12

h969

figs-metaphor

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

1

but then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts

The parable represented this figuratively as a bird snatching away seeds. Try to use words in your language that retain that image. Alternate translation: “but then the devil comes and snatches the message away from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1261

LUK

8

12

jb9t

figs-metaphor

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

1

but then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts

The word hearts figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “the devil comes and keeps them from understanding and appreciating the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1262

LUK

8

12

l413

figs-explicit

εἶτα ἔρχεται ὁ διάβολος καὶ αἴρει τὸν λόγον ἀπὸ τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

1

but then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts

Based on the figurative meaning of the parable, the implication is that these people did not appreciate the message deeply, just as seeds could not go down deep into the hard-packed soil of the path. And so the devil would be able to break up their superficial awareness and concentration by distracting them with everyday concerns. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the devil distracts them and they forget about the message they heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1263

LUK

8

12

l414

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον

1

the word

Jesus is using the term word figuratively to refer to the message that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1264

LUK

8

12

g7r7

figs-activepassive

ἵνα μὴ πιστεύσαντες σωθῶσιν

1

so they may not believe and be saved

This phrase explains the devil’s purpose. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “because the devil does not want them to trust in God so that God will save them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1265

LUK

8

13

juq1

figs-metaphor

οἱ δὲ ἐπὶ τῆς πέτρας, οἳ

1

And the ones on the rock are those

Jesus continues to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “In the parable, the seeds that fell on the rocky soil represent people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1266

LUK

8

13

ar4x

τῆς πέτρας

1

the rock

Alternate translation: “the rocky soil” or “the shallow soil above the rocky layer”

1267

LUK

8

13

l415

figs-metonymy

μετὰ χαρᾶς δέχονται τὸν λόγον

1

who … receive the word with joy

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “who … gladly believe the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1268

LUK

8

13

bm51

ἐν καιρῷ πειρασμοῦ

1

in a time of testing

Alternate translation: “when they experience hardship”

1269

LUK

8

13

e5rw

figs-metonymy

ἀφίστανται

1

they go away

Jesus is using the way such people go away from the community of believers to mean figuratively that they stop believing. Alternate translation: “they stop believing” or “they stop being disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1270

LUK

8

14

k4u4

figs-metaphor

τὸ δὲ εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας πεσόν, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ

1

And the ones that fell among the thorns, these are the ones

Jesus continues to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “In the parable, the seeds that fell among the thorns represent people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1271

LUK

8

14

y3ue

figs-activepassive

ὑπὸ μεριμνῶν, καὶ πλούτου, καὶ ἡδονῶν τοῦ βίου…συνπνίγονται

1

they are choked by cares and riches and pleasures of this life

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the cares and riches and pleasures of this life choke them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1272

LUK

8

14

uut6

μεριμνῶν

1

cares

Alternate translation: “things that people worry about”

1273

LUK

8

14

b384

ἡδονῶν τοῦ βίου

1

pleasures of this life

Alternate translation: “the things in this life that people enjoy”

1274

LUK

8

14

xhv7

figs-metaphor

οὐ τελεσφοροῦσιν

1

they do not produce mature fruit

The phrase mature fruit figuratively means spiritual maturity that is evidenced by godly character and loving actions. Alternate translation: “they do not mature into people of godly character who act out of love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1275

LUK

8

15

m2hb

figs-metaphor

τὸ δὲ ἐν τῇ καλῇ γῇ, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἵτινες

1

But the ones on the good soil, these are the ones

Jesus continues to explain the figurative meanings of the seeds that fell in different places. Alternate translation: “In the parable, the seeds that fell on the good soil represent people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1276

LUK

8

15

l62d

figs-metonymy

ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον

1

having heard the word

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “when they hear the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1277

LUK

8

15

l416

figs-doublet

ἐν καρδίᾳ καλῇ καὶ ἀγαθῇ

1

with an honest and good heart

The terms honest and good mean similar things. Jesus uses the two terms together for emphasis and clarity. You do not need to repeat both words in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “with genuine intentions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1278

LUK

8

15

pbi7

figs-metaphor

ἐν καρδίᾳ καλῇ καὶ ἀγαθῇ

1

with an honest and good heart

In this expression, the heart figuratively represents the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “with genuine intentions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1279

LUK

8

15

i51s

figs-metaphor

καρποφοροῦσιν ἐν ὑπομονῇ

1

bear fruit with endurance

Here, fruit figuratively means spiritual maturity that is evidenced by godly character and loving actions. Alternate translation: “because they persevere, they mature into people of godly character who act out of love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1280

LUK

8

16

n86n

figs-parables

οὐδεὶς δὲ λύχνον ἅψας

1

And no one lights a lamp

After Jesus finished explaining the story about the seeds, he gave his disciples another example to illustrate that God wants them to understand spiritual truths. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly in your translation. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus gave them another example. ‘No one lights a lamp’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

1281

LUK

8

16

l417

figs-ellipsis

οἱ εἰσπορευόμενοι

1

those who enter

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “those who enter the room” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1282

LUK

8

17

n5ca

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ…ἐστιν κρυπτὸν ὃ οὐ φανερὸν γενήσεται

1

nothing is hidden that will not become visible

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “everything that is hidden will become visible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1283

LUK

8

17

iv9q

figs-doublenegatives

οὐδὲ ἀπόκρυφον ὃ οὐ μὴ γνωσθῇ καὶ εἰς φανερὸν ἔλθῃ

1

nor secret that will not be known and come into visibility

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could also translate this double negative as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “and everything that is secret will be known and become visible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1284

LUK

8

17

l418

figs-activepassive

οὐδὲ ἀπόκρυφον ὃ οὐ μὴ γνωσθῇ καὶ εἰς φανερὸν ἔλθῃ

1

nor secret that will not be known and come into visibility

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “and God will reveal every secret and make it visible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1285

LUK

8

17

l419

figs-doublet

οὐδὲ ἀπόκρυφον ὃ οὐ μὴ γνωσθῇ καὶ εἰς φανερὸν ἔλθῃ

1

nor secret that will not be known and come into visibility

The phrases be known and come into visibility mean similar things. Jesus is likely using repetition for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “and God will clearly reveal every secret” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1286

LUK

8

18

l420

βλέπετε οὖν πῶς ἀκούετε

1

so be careful how you listen

The phrase be careful does not mean that listening is dangerous. Rather, it means that people should listen carefully, because, as Jesus has just said, God wants to reveal spiritual secrets. Alternate translation: “so make sure that you listen well” or “so listen carefully and reflect on what you hear”

1287

LUK

8

18

l421

figs-explicit

ὃς ἂν…ἔχῃ, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ

1

whoever has, it will be given to him

The implication in context is that the phrase whoever has, it will be given to him refers to understanding and believing. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “whoever seeks sincerely to understand will be given more understanding” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1288

LUK

8

18

bq9f

figs-activepassive

ὃς ἂν…ἔχῃ, δοθήσεται αὐτῷ

1

whoever has, it will be given to him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whoever seeks sincerely to understand will understand better” or “God will give greater understanding to anyone who seeks sincerely to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1289

LUK

8

18

l422

figs-explicit

καὶ ὃς ἂν μὴ ἔχῃ, καὶ ὃ δοκεῖ ἔχειν ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

whoever does not have, even what he thinks he has will be taken away from him

The implication once again is that the phrase whoever does not have, even what he thinks he has will be taken away from him refers to understanding and believing. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “But whoever does not have understanding, even what understanding he thinks he has will be taken away from him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1290

LUK

8

18

ihh9

figs-activepassive

καὶ ὃς ἂν μὴ ἔχῃ, καὶ ὃ δοκεῖ ἔχειν ἀρθήσεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

whoever does not have, even what he thinks he has will be taken away from him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whoever presumes that he already understands will understand less and less” or “God will not give greater understanding to anyone who presumes that he already understands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1291

LUK

8

19

l423

grammar-connect-time-sequential

δὲ

1

Then

Luke uses then to introduce a new event and to indicate that it came after the event he has just described. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

1292

LUK

8

19

dw3m

translate-kinship

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ

1

his brothers

These were Jesus' younger brothers. They were sons of Mary and Joseph. Since the Father of Jesus was God, and their father was Joseph, they were actually his half-brothers. That detail is not normally translated, but if your language has a specific word for “younger brother,” you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

1293

LUK

8

20

wr4t

figs-activepassive

ἀπηγγέλη…αὐτῷ

1

it was reported to him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. The subject should be plural, since in the next verse Jesus responds to “them.” Alternate translation: “people told him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1294

LUK

8

20

l424

figs-you

σου…σου…σε

1

your … your … you

Since the person who said this was speaking to Jesus alone, your and you are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1295

LUK

8

20

un5d

ἰδεῖν θέλοντές σε

1

wanting to see you

Alternate translation: “and they would like to see you”

1296

LUK

8

21

l425

figs-hendiadys

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

1

But answering he said to them

Together the two words answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the information that people gave him. Alternate translation: “But Jesus responded to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1297

LUK

8

21

b97u

figs-metaphor

μήτηρ μου καὶ ἀδελφοί μου, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀκούοντες καὶ ποιοῦντες

1

My mother and my brothers are those who hear and do the word of God

Jesus means figuratively that people who believe and obey the message from God become like a family to one another. Alternate translation: “Those who hear the word of God and obey it are like a mother and brothers to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1298

LUK

8

21

edk3

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God

Jesus uses the term word figuratively to refer to the message from God that people share by using words. Alternate translation: “the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1299

LUK

8

22

l426

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1300

LUK

8

22

l427

figs-idiom

ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν

1

on one of those days

Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “around that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1301

LUK

8

22

l428

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς, διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς λίμνης

1

both he and his disciples got into a boat, and he said to them, “Let us go over to the other side of the lake”

It seems unlikely that Jesus and his disciples would have gotten into a boat before they were planning to sail somewhere. So here Luke is probably describing the result before the reason. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the action that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to his disciples, ‘Let us go over to the other side of the lake.’ So they all got into a boat together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1302

LUK

8

22

w1pk

translate-names

τῆς λίμνης

1

the lake

This means the Lake of Genneseret, which is also called the Sea of Galilee. But since Jesus would have referred to it simply as “the lake” while he and his disciples were on it, you do not need to use the proper name in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1303

LUK

8

22

btk8

figs-idiom

ἀνήχθησαν

1

they put out

This expression means that they began to travel across the lake in their boat. Alternate translation: “they headed out across the lake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1304

LUK

8

23

vh2v

πλεόντων…αὐτῶν

1

as they voyaged

The term voyaged means that Jesus and the disciples traveled by water. Alternate translation: “as they traveled across the lake”

1305

LUK

8

23

sf8z

writing-pronouns

ἀφύπνωσεν

1

he fell asleep

The pronoun he refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus began to sleep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1306

LUK

8

23

mdb5

figs-idiom

κατέβη λαῖλαψ ἀνέμου εἰς τὴν λίμνην

1

a windstorm came down on the lake

Luke says came down because these winds blew down from the hills surrounding the lake. Alternate translation: “very strong winds suddenly began to blow on the lake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1307

LUK

8

23

l429

figs-metonymy

συνεπληροῦντο

1

they were being filled

Luke says they, meaning the disciples, to refer figuratively by association to the boat they were in. Alternate translation: “the boat was being filled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1308

LUK

8

23

l430

figs-activepassive

συνεπληροῦντο

1

they were being filled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state what was doing the action. Alternate translation: “water started to fill up their boat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1309

LUK

8

23

uki7

figs-explicit

συνεπληροῦντο

1

they were being filled

The implication is that the strong winds were causing high waves that pushed water over the sides of the boat, and that this water was filling the boat. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “the strong winds were causing high waves that pushed water over the sides of their boat, so that the water began to fill it up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1310

LUK

8

24

l432

Ἐπιστάτα

1

Master

Master is the title by which disciples addressed their teacher in this culture. If your language and culture have a similar term, you can use it here in your translation.

1311

LUK

8

24

l431

λέγοντες, Ἐπιστάτα, Ἐπιστάτα, ἀπολλύμεθα!

1

saying, “Master! Master! We are perishing!”

The repetition indicates that the disciples called to Jesus urgently and continually. Alternate translation: “crying out continually, ‘Master! We’re going to die!’”

1312

LUK

8

24

l433

figs-exclusive

ἀπολλύμεθα

1

We are perishing

Since the disciples want Jesus to understand that he is in danger too, the word we would include him. Alternate translation: “We’re all going to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1313

LUK

8

24

uhe4

ἐπετίμησεν

1

rebuked

Alternate translation: “spoke sharply to”

1314

LUK

8

24

t1yy

figs-explicitinfo

τῷ κλύδωνι, τοῦ ὕδατος

1

the waves of the water

In your language, it might seem that the wording here expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you can abbreviate it. However, you could also translate this as expressing emphasis. Alternate translation: “the waves” or “the violent waves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

1315

LUK

8

24

v1c3

figs-parallelism

ἐπαύσαντο καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη

1

they ceased, and there was a calm

These two phrases mean similar things. Luke uses the repetition to emphasize what great power Jesus demonstrated. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. However, you could also translate both phrases and show how the second expresses the results of the first. Alternate translation: “the storm ended” or “the storm ended, so that the lake became calm again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1316

LUK

8

25

d8c3

figs-rquestion

ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν?

1

Where is your faith?

Jesus does not expect his disciples to tell him where their faith is. Rather, he is using the question form to correct them. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You should have trusted God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1317

LUK

8

25

wjv3

τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν, ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις ἐπιτάσσει καὶ τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ?

1

Who then is this, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him?

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could turn this into two sentences, one asking the question, and the other giving the reason for the question. Alternate translation: “Who then is this? He commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him!”

1318

LUK

8

25

f2wp

τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν

1

Who then is this

This is a genuine question, not a statement in question form. The disciples are looking for information about what kind of person Jesus could be if he can do this. Alternate translation: “What kind of man is this”

1319

LUK

8

25

l434

figs-metonymy

τῷ ὕδατι

1

the water

The disciples are figuratively describing the violent waves that had threatened the boat by reference to the water that these waves arose from. Alternate translation: “the waves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1320

LUK

8

26

f17p

translate-names

τὴν χώραν τῶν Γερασηνῶν

1

the region of the Gerasenes

The name Gerasenes refers to people from the city of Gerasa. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1321

LUK

8

26

p9zp

ἀντιπέρα τῆς Γαλιλαίας

1

opposite Galilee

Alternate translation: “on the other side of the lake from Galilee”

1322

LUK

8

27

l435

figs-ellipsis

ἐξελθόντι…αὐτῷ

1

when he came out

Here Luke is writing in a compact way. He means that Jesus came out of the boat. Alternate translation: “when Jesus got out of the boat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1323

LUK

8

27

hjh5

writing-participants

ἀνήρ τις ἐκ τῆς πόλεως

1

a certain man from the city

This phrase introduces a new character in a story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. Alternate translation: “a man who was from the city of Gerasa” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1324

LUK

8

27

ji6p

ἔχων δαιμόνια

1

who had demons

Alternate translation: “who was controlled by demons” or “whom demons controlled”

1325

LUK

8

27

xhw7

writing-background

καὶ χρόνῳ ἱκανῷ

1

And for a long time

Luke uses this phrase to introduce background information about the man who had demons. Alternate translation: “Now for a long time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1326

LUK

8

27

we6n

translate-unknown

τοῖς μνήμασιν

1

the tombs

The term the tombs refers to places in which people laid to rest the bodies of loved ones who have died. In this context it may possibly mean caves cut into the rock or small buildings that the man could use for shelter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1327

LUK

8

28

ip59

writing-pronouns

ἰδὼν…τὸν Ἰησοῦν

1

when he saw Jesus

The pronoun he refers to the man who had demons. Alternate translation: “when the man whom the demons controlled saw Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1328

LUK

8

28

n4ex

ἀνακράξας

1

he cried out

Alternate translation: “he screamed” or “he shrieked”

1329

LUK

8

28

fak9

translate-symaction

προσέπεσεν αὐτῷ

1

fell down before him

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that the man did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect for him. Alternate translation: “respectfully bowed down at Jesus’ feet” or “respectfully lay down on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1330

LUK

8

28

m21e

figs-idiom

φωνῇ μεγάλῃ εἶπεν

1

said in a loud voice

This is an idiom that means the man raised the volume of his voice. Alternate translation: “shouted out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1331

LUK

8

28

lv2b

figs-idiom

τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί

1

What to me and to you

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “What do you and I have in common” or “What reason do you have to get involved with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1332

LUK

8

28

l436

figs-rquestion

τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί

1

What to me and to you?

The man is using the question form to insist on something urgently. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You and I have nothing in common!” or “You have no reason to get involved with me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1333

LUK

8

28

ptt1

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ Ὑψίστου

1

Son of the Most High God

Son of the Most High God is an important title for Jesus. See how you translated the expression the Most High in 1:32. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1334

LUK

8

29

l437

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Luke is giving the reason for the result he described in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “The man said this because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1335

LUK

8

29

l438

translate-versebridge

παρήγγειλεν γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἀκαθάρτῳ ἐξελθεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου

1

he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out from the man

If your language would put the reason before the result, you could create a verse bridge and put this sentence in 8:28, after the man bows down to Jesus but before he speaks, changing the tense of the verb to fit the context. You could also put the next sentence in this verse at the end of 8:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

1336

LUK

8

29

l439

writing-background

πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις

1

For many times

Luke uses this phrase to introduce further background information about what the demon had done to the man before Jesus met him. Alternate translation: “Many times in the past” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1337

LUK

8

29

j3yj

figs-events

πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις συνηρπάκει αὐτόν, καὶ ἐδεσμεύετο ἁλύσεσιν καὶ πέδαις, φυλασσόμενος

1

For many times it had seized him, and he was bound with chains and shackles and kept under guard

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases. Luke appears to be describing how the demon would seize the man after he was bound and while he was being guarded. Alternate translation: “For though he was bound with chains and shackles and kept under guard, many times it had seized him” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events)

1338

LUK

8

29

bxz4

figs-activepassive

ἐδεσμεύετο ἁλύσεσιν καὶ πέδαις, φυλασσόμενος, καὶ διαρήσσων τὰ δεσμὰ

1

he was bound with chains and shackles and kept under guard, and breaking his bonds

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation (no comma following): “though the people in the area had bound him with chains and shackles and kept him under guard, he would break his bonds and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1339

LUK

8

29

bey5

figs-activepassive

ἠλαύνετο ὑπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου

1

he would be driven by the demon

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the demon would make him go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1340

LUK

8

30

l440

figs-you

σοι

1

your

Since Luke indicates in the previous verse that Jesus is speaking to the unclean spirit here, your is singular, even though the demon responds that he is speaking for “many,” and even though in the following verses Luke says they and them for the multiple demons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1341

LUK

8

30

p31w

translate-names

λεγεών

1

Legion

Translate the word Legion with a word in your language that refers to a large number of soldiers. Show that this was the name of the demon by using the convention in your language for proper names. Alternate translation: “Army” or “Battalion” or “Brigade” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1342

LUK

8

31

qcn1

παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν

1

they were begging him

Alternate translation: “the demons kept begging Jesus”

1343

LUK

8

31

l441

translate-unknown

τὴν Ἄβυσσον

1

the abyss

The term abyss literally means a bottomless pit, and here it describes a place of punishment. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could translate the term with an explanatory phrase, as UST does, saying “the deep pit where God punishes demons.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1344

LUK

8

32

b3vt

writing-background

ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ ἀγέλη χοίρων ἱκανῶν βοσκομένη ἐν τῷ ὄρει

1

Now a large herd of pigs was there feeding on the hillside

Luke supplies this background information to help readers understand what happens next. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1345

LUK

8

32

q8w5

ἦν…ἐκεῖ…βοσκομένη ἐν τῷ ὄρει

1

was there feeding on the hillside

Alternate translation: “was nearby eating grass on the side of a hill”

1346

LUK

8

32

l442

writing-pronouns

παρεκάλεσαν αὐτὸν ἵνα ἐπιτρέψῃ αὐτοῖς εἰς ἐκείνους εἰσελθεῖν

1

they begged him to permit them go into them

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could clarify who and what these pronouns refer to. Alternate translation: “the demons begged Jesus to let them go into the pigs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1347

LUK

8

32

l443

καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν αὐτοῖς

1

And he gave them permission

Luke does not say specifically why Jesus allowed the demons to go into the pigs. But Jesus did not necessarily do so because the demons begged him. He may have had other reasons of his own. So it would probably be best to translate this in a neutral way, as ULT and UST both do, rather than beginning with a word such as “So,” which would imply that Jesus agreed to this because the demons begged him.

1348

LUK

8

33

na38

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια

1

Then the demons came out

The term translated as then could mean that the demons came of out the man because Jesus told them they could go into the pigs. You could begin this sentence with the word so, as UST does, to show that. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1349

LUK

8

33

gz5x

ὥρμησεν

1

rushed

Alternate translation: “ran very fast”

1350

LUK

8

33

ja6x

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἀπεπνίγη

1

and was drowned

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. You do not need to specify someone who did this action to the pigs, because no one caused them to drown once they were in the water. Alternate translation: “and drowned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1351

LUK

8

34

l444

figs-merism

εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς

1

in the city and in the countryside

Here Luke uses a figure of speech to refer to that whole region by naming the two constituent parts of it. Alternate translation: “throughout the whole area” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1352

LUK

8

34

l445

figs-explicit

εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς

1

in the city and in the countryside

You could also translate this more literally. The implication is that this means the city of Gerasa, since Luke says in 8:29 that Jesus and his disciples came to the region where this city was located. Alternate translation: “in the city of Gerasa and in the surrounding countryside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1353

LUK

8

35

l446

figs-explicit

ἐξῆλθον

1

they went out

Here, as well as in the other two instances in this verse, they refers to the people of that region, as in 8:37. The term went out indicates the remote area where the man had been living. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express those things explicitly. Alternate translation: “people from all over that region went out to that remote area” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1354

LUK

8

35

ju71

εὗραν…τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἀφ’ οὗ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐξῆλθεν

1

found the man from whom the demons had gone out

Alternate translation: “saw the man whom the demons had left”

1355

LUK

8

35

l447

figs-activepassive

ἱματισμένον

1

clothed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “wearing clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1356

LUK

8

35

w3tq

σωφρονοῦντα

1

being sound-minded

Alternate translation: “behaving normally”

1357

LUK

8

35

x9lp

figs-idiom

καθήμενον…παρὰ τοὺς πόδας τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

sitting at the feet of Jesus

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “sitting on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1358

LUK

8

35

j89t

figs-explicit

ἐφοβήθησαν

1

they were afraid

The implication is that they were afraid of what else such a powerful person as Jesus might do. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “they were afraid of what else Jesus might do, since they recognized what great power he had” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1359

LUK

8

36

xtf3

figs-ellipsis

οἱ ἰδόντες

1

those who had seen

Alternate translation: “those who had seen what had happened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1360

LUK

8

36

kv18

figs-activepassive

ἐσώθη ὁ δαιμονισθείς

1

the one who had been possessed by demons had been saved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express both of these things with active forms. Alternate translation: “Jesus had delivered the man from the demons who had controlled him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1361

LUK

8

37

l448

figs-hyperbole

ἅπαν τὸ πλῆθος τῆς περιχώρου

1

all the multitude of the region

This phrase means “everyone who lived in that area.” It is a generalization for emphasis, since every single resident of that region did not make this request. Rather, this was the general request of the crowd that came out to see what had happened. Alternate translation: “the crowd that had gathered from the region” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1362

LUK

8

37

ai7m

τῆς περιχώρου τῶν Γερασηνῶν

1

the region of the Gerasenes

Alternate translation: “the area where the Gerasene people lived”

1363

LUK

8

37

l449

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο

1

for they were seized by great fear

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could put this phrase first in the sentence, since it gives the reason for the result that the rest of the sentence describes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1364

LUK

8

37

jbh5

figs-activepassive

φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο

1

they were seized by great fear

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they became very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1365

LUK

8

37

l450

figs-personification

φόβῳ μεγάλῳ συνείχοντο

1

they were seized by great fear

Luke speaks of this fear figuratively as if it were something that could actively take hold of these people. Alternate translation: “they became very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1366

LUK

8

37

l451

figs-synecdoche

αὐτὸς δὲ ἐμβὰς, εἰς πλοῖον

1

he got into the boat

Luke figuratively says he, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group of Jesus and his disciples. Alternate translation: “Jesus and his disciples got into the boat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1367

LUK

8

37

ue8c

figs-explicit

ὑπέστρεψεν

1

to return

The implication is that Jesus and his disciples were going to return to Galilee. Alternate translation: “to go back across the lake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1368

LUK

8

38

s25w

figs-events

δὲ

1

And

The events in this verse and the next verse happened before Jesus left in the boat. It may be helpful to state that clearly at the beginning here. Alternate translation (followed by comma): “Before Jesus and his disciples left,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

1369

LUK

8

38

l452

figs-quotations

ἐδεῖτο…αὐτοῦ…εἶναι σὺν αὐτῷ

1

begged him to be with him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a direct quotation, as UST does, breaking the sentence here. Alternate translation: “pleaded with Jesus, ‘Let me go with you!’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1370

LUK

8

38

abce

writing-pronouns

ἀπέλυσεν δὲ αὐτὸν

1

he sent him away

The pronounhe refers to Jesus, and the word him refers to the man. Alternate translation: “Jesus sent the man away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1371

LUK

8

39

zl3v

figs-metonymy

τὸν οἶκόν σου

1

your house

Jesus is using the word house figuratively to mean the people who live in the man’s house. Alternate translation: “your household” or “your family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1372

LUK

8

39

c9nh

διηγοῦ ὅσα σοι ἐποίησεν ὁ Θεός

1

describe all that God has done for you

Alternate translation: “tell them everything about what God has done for you”

1373

LUK

8

39

l453

figs-explicit

καθ’ ὅλην τὴν πόλιν

1

throughout the whole city

The implication is that this means the city of Gerasa, since Luke says in 8:29 that Jesus and his disciples came to the region where this city was located. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “throughout the whole city of Gerasa” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1374

LUK

8

40

l454

figs-synecdoche

ἐν δὲ τῷ ὑποστρέφειν τὸν Ἰησοῦν

1

Now when Jesus returned

Luke figuratively says he, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group of Jesus and his disciples. Alternate translation: “Now when Jesus returned with his disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1375

LUK

8

40

yd57

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἀπεδέξατο αὐτὸν ὁ ὄχλος; ἦσαν γὰρ πάντες προσδοκῶντες αὐτόν

1

the crowd welcomed him, for they were all expecting him

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the results that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “the crowd had been expecting him, and so they greeted him joyfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1376

LUK

8

41

l455

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1377

LUK

8

41

l456

writing-participants

ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος

1

a man came whose name was Jairus

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was man whose name was Jairus, and he came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1378

LUK

8

41

l457

translate-names

Ἰάειρος

1

Jairus

Jairus is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1379

LUK

8

41

avi8

ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς

1

a ruler of the synagogue

Alternate translation: “one of the leaders at the local synagogue” or “a leader of the people who met at the synagogue in that city”

1380

LUK

8

41

epa2

translate-symaction

πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Ἰησοῦ

1

falling at the feet of Jesus

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that Jairus did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect for him. Alternate translation: “respectfully bowed down at Jesus’ feet” or “respectfully lay down on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1381

LUK

8

42

kq2v

figs-explicit

ἀπέθνῃσκεν

1

was dying

The implication is that Jairus wanted Jesus to heal her. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “was about to die, and he wanted Jesus to heal her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1382

LUK

8

42

ymb1

figs-explicit

ἐν δὲ τῷ ὑπάγειν αὐτὸν

1

And as he was going

You may need to say first in your language that Jesus had agreed to go with Jairus. You could put that information in a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “So Jesus agreed to go with him. Now as he was on his way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1383

LUK

8

42

l458

writing-background

δὲ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information that will help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1384

LUK

8

42

kw2y

οἱ ὄχλοι συνέπνιγον αὐτόν

1

the crowds were crowding around him

Alternate translation: “the people were crowding tightly around Jesus”

1385

LUK

8

43

l7pu

writing-participants

γυνὴ οὖσα

1

there was a woman

This introduces a new character into the story. If your language has an expression of its own that serves this purpose, you can use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1386

LUK

8

43

h9uq

figs-euphemism

ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος

1

with a flow of blood

Luke uses the phrase a flow of blood refers to her condition discreetly by using a mild expression. She was probably bleeding from her womb even when it was not the normal time for that. If your language has a polite way of referring to this condition, you can use that expression here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1387

LUK

8

43

l459

translate-textvariants

ἰατροῖς προσαναλώσασα ὅλον τὸν βίον

1

having spent all her living on doctors

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to include this phrase in your translation. The note below discusses a translation issue in this phrase for those who decide to include it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1388

LUK

8

43

l460

figs-metonymy

ὅλον τὸν βίον

1

all her living

This phrase uses the term living figuratively to mean the money that was needed for living. Alternate translation: “all of her money” or “all the money she had to live on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1389

LUK

8

43

zb4a

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἴσχυσεν ἀπ’ οὐδενὸς θεραπευθῆναι

1

was not able to be healed by anyone

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “whom no one had been able to heal” or, if you include the phrase from the textual variant, “who had spent all of her money on doctors, but none of them had been able to heal her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1390

LUK

8

44

vwe6

translate-unknown

ἥψατο τοῦ κρασπέδου τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ

1

touched the edge of his cloak

Jewish men wore tassels on the edges of their robes, as commanded in God’s Law. The woman likely touched one of those tassles. Alternate translation: “touched a tassel on his robe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1391

LUK

8

45

c3wm

figs-explicit

οἱ ὄχλοι συνέχουσίν σε καὶ ἀποθλίβουσιν

1

the crowds are crowding around and pressing against you

By saying this, Peter was implying that anyone could have touched Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “there are many people crowding around you and pressing in against you, so any one of them might have touched you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1392

LUK

8

45

l461

figs-doublet

συνέχουσίν σε καὶ ἀποθλίβουσιν

1

crowding around and pressing against you

These two expressions mean similar things. Peter is using repetition for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “pressing against you from every side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1393

LUK

8

46

u6am

figs-explicit

ἥψατό μού τις

1

Someone touched me

The implication is that Jesus means someone reached out and touched him intentionally. He is not referring to the accidental jostling of the crowd. Alternate translation: “Someone deliberately touched me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1394

LUK

8

46

zmu9

figs-explicit

ἐγὼ…ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξεληλυθυῖαν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ

1

I know power has gone out from me

Jesus did not lose power or become weak. Rather, he recognized that power had gone out from him and healed someone. Alternate translation: “I felt power go out from me and heal someone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1395

LUK

8

47

cwn4

figs-explicit

ὅτι οὐκ ἔλαθεν

1

that she could not hide

The implication is that she could not hide the fact that she had touched Jesus deliberately. Alternate translation: “that she could not keep it a secret that she was the one who had touched Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1396

LUK

8

47

vua6

figs-explicit

τρέμουσα ἦλθεν

1

she came trembling

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the implicit reason why she was trembling. Alternate translation: “she came trembling with fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1397

LUK

8

47

vxl7

translate-symaction

προσπεσοῦσα αὐτῷ

1

fell down before him

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that the woman did not fall down accidentally. Rather, bowing or lying down in front of Jesus was a sign of humility and respect for him. Alternate translation: “respectfully bowed down in front of Jesus” or “respectfully lay down on the ground in front of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1398

LUK

8

47

l462

figs-activepassive

ἰάθη

1

she had been healed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “she had become healthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1399

LUK

8

48

v4m9

figs-idiom

θύγατερ

1

Daughter

This was a kind way of speaking to a woman. Your language may have another way of expressing the same kindness. Alternate translation: “My dear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1400

LUK

8

48

uja4

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

1

your faith has saved you

If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun faith, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “believe.” Alternate translation: “because you believed, you have become well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1401

LUK

8

48

l463

figs-personification

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

1

your faith has saved you

Jesus speaks figuratively of the woman’s faith as if it had actively healed her. He means that it provided the conditions for the healing that she received from God. Alternate translation: “because you believed, you have become well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1402

LUK

8

48

l464

ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε

1

your faith has saved you

In this context, the word saved has a specific meaning. Alternate translation: “because you believed, you have become well”

1403

LUK

8

48

ch7m

figs-idiom

πορεύου εἰς εἰρήνην

1

Go in peace

This is a way of saying goodbye and giving a blessing at the same time. Alternate translation: “May God give you peace as you go” or “As you go, do not worry anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1404

LUK

8

49

m58z

figs-explicit

ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος

1

While he was still speaking

This refers implicitly to what Jesus was saying in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “While Jesus was still saying these things to the woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1405

LUK

8

49

l465

ἔρχεταί τις

1

someone comes

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “someone came”

1406

LUK

8

49

deu3

figs-metonymy

τις παρὰ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου

1

someone from the synagogue leader

This does not mean someone whom Jairus sent, since Jairus was with Jesus. Rather, this means someone who had been at his house watching over his daughter with the others. Alternate translation: “someone who had been at the home of Jairus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1407

LUK

8

49

id9v

figs-explicit

μηκέτι σκύλλε τὸν διδάσκαλον

1

Do not trouble the Teacher any longer

This statement implies that Jesus will not be able to do anything to help, since the girl is dead. Alternate translation: “There is nothing more that Jesus can do for you, so do not make him come to your house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1408

LUK

8

49

n6ez

τὸν διδάσκαλον

1

the Teacher

Teacher is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

1409

LUK

8

50

l466

writing-pronouns

ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ

1

he answered him

The pronoun he refers to Jesus, and the pronoun him refers to Jairus, not the messenger. Jesus did not respond directly to the messenger. Rather, he reassured Jairus, despite the news. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to Jairus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1410

LUK

8

50

ej1b

σωθήσεται

1

she will be saved

In this context, the word saved has a specific meaning, comparable in this context to the meaning “healed.” Alternate translation: “she will come back to life”

1411

LUK

8

50

l467

figs-activepassive

σωθήσεται

1

she will be saved

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “she will come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1412

LUK

8

51

gl9g

figs-synecdoche

ἐλθὼν δὲ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν

1

when he came to the house

Luke figuratively says he, meaning Jesus, to describe the entire group that was coming with Jesus, which included his disciples and Jairus and likely others. Alternate translation: “when they arrived at the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1413

LUK

8

51

qal2

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐκ ἀφῆκεν…τινα…εἰ μὴ

1

he did not allow anyone … except

If, in your language, it would appear that Luke was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “Jesus only allowed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

1414

LUK

8

51

i4v1

τὸν πατέρα τῆς παιδὸς

1

the father of the child

The phrase the father of the child refers to Jairus. Alternate translation: “Jairus, the girl’s father”

1415

LUK

8

52

tt9v

translate-symaction

ἔκλαιον…πάντες καὶ ἐκόπτοντο αὐτήν

1

they were all wailing and mourning for her

This was the customary way of showing grief in that culture. The term that ULT translates as mourning could mean that the people were pounding on their chests as a sign of grief, although Luke uses a much more specific expression to say that directly in 18:13. If you think your readers might not understand the significance of these actions, you could explain generally what the people were doing. Or you could describe the actions and say why the people were doing them. Alternate translation: “they were all loudly expressing their grief” or “all the people there were wailing and pounding on their chests to show how sad they were that the girl had died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1416

LUK

8

52

l468

οὐ…ἀπέθανεν, ἀλλὰ καθεύδει

1

she has not died, but sleeps

Alternate translation: “she is not dead, she is only sleeping”

1417

LUK

8

53

nu8w

writing-pronouns

κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ, εἰδότες ὅτι ἀπέθανεν

1

laughed at him, knowing that she had died

Alternate translation: “they laughed at Jesus because they knew that Jairus’s daughter had died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1418

LUK

8

54

e7zt

writing-pronouns

αὐτὸς…κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῆς

1

he, taking hold of her hand

Alternate translation: “Jesus took hold of the girl’s hand and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1419

LUK

8

54

l469

figs-imperative

ἔγειρε

1

arise

This was not a command that the girl was capable of obeying. Instead, this was a command that directly caused her to be raised from the dead. Alternate translation: “your life is restored, so get up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1420

LUK

8

55

k6w2

figs-explicit

ἐπέστρεψεν τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτῆς

1

her spirit returned

The people of this time considered life to be the result of the spirit coming into a person. You could express this in the way that would be most meaningful in your culture. Alternate translation: “she started breathing again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1421

LUK

8

56

c6mp

μηδενὶ εἰπεῖν

1

to tell no one

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could make the verb negative and the subject positive. Alternate translation: “not to tell anyone”

1422

LUK

9

intro

uc1r

0

Luke 9 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus sends his 12 apostles to teach and heal (9:1-9)
  2. Jesus miraculously feeds 5,000 people (9:10-17)
  3. Jesus speaks with his disciples about who he is (9:18-27)
  4. The glory of Jesus is revealed on a mountaintop (9:28-36)
  5. Jesus drives a demon out of a boy (9:37-43)
  6. Jesus speaks about being his disciple (9:44-50)
  7. Jesus begins to travel to Jerusalem (9:51-62)

Special concepts in this chapter

Elijah

God had promised the Jews that the prophet Elijah would return before the Messiah came. So some people who saw Jesus do miracles thought Jesus was Elijah (9:9, 9:19). He was not. However, Elijah did come to earth to speak with Jesus (9:30). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/christ]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/elijah]])

Glory

Scripture often speaks of God’s glory as a great, brilliant light. When people see this light, they are afraid. Luke says in this chapter that Jesus’ clothing shone with this glorious light so that his followers could see that Jesus truly was God’s Son. At the same time, God told them that Jesus was his Son. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/glory]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fear]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Paradox

A paradox is a statement that describes two things that seem as if they cannot both be true at the same time, but which actually are both true. Jesus speaks a paradox in this chapter: “Whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it” (9:24).

“Receiving”

This word appears several times in this chapter and means different things. When Jesus says, “If someone receives a little child like this in my name, he also is receiving me, and if someone receives me, he is also receiving the one who sent me” (9:48), he is speaking of people serving the child. When Luke says, “the people there did not receive him” (9:53), he means that the people did not believe in or accept Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])

1423

LUK

9

1

l470

figs-nominaladj

συνκαλεσάμενος…τοὺς δώδεκα

1

when he had called the Twelve together

See how you translated this in 8:1. You may have decided to translate the nominal adjective the Twelve with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “when he had called together his 12 apostles” or “when he had called together the 12 men whom he had appointed to be apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1424

LUK

9

1

l471

translate-names

τοὺς δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

You may have decided instead in 8:1 to translate this as a title, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns. If so, you can do the same thing here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1425

LUK

9

1

zqq6

figs-doublet

δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν

1

power and authority

Power and authority mean similar things. Luke uses them together to show that Jesus gave his 12 disciples both the ability and the right to heal people. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this phrase with a combination of words that includes both of these ideas. Alternate translation: “the right to use power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1426

LUK

9

1

fuj7

πάντα τὰ δαιμόνια

1

all the demons

This could mean one of two things. Alternate translation: “every demon” or “every kind of demon”

1427

LUK

9

1

h8ql

νόσους θεραπεύειν

1

to cure diseases

Alternate translation: “to heal people of their sicknesses”

1428

LUK

9

2

j5n3

ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς

1

sent them out

Your language may require you to say where Jesus sent the disciples. Alternate translation: “sent them to various places” or “told them to go to various places”

1429

LUK

9

2

l472

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God would rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1430

LUK

9

3

m7c5

καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς

1

And he said to them

It may be helpful to state that Jesus said these things to the disciples before they went out. Alternate translation: “Before the 12 disciples left, Jesus said to them”

1431

LUK

9

3

aui6

μηδὲν αἴρετε

1

Take nothing

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could make the verb negative and the subject positive. Alternate translation: “Do not bring anything”

1432

LUK

9

3

l473

figs-metonymy

εἰς τὴν ὁδόν

1

for the road

Jesus uses the term road figuratively to refer to the journey that his disciples will make by traveling along roads. Alternate translation: “for your journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1433

LUK

9

3

qm2p

translate-unknown

ῥάβδον

1

staff

The term staff means a large stick that people used for balance when climbing or when walking on uneven ground, and also for defense against animals and people. Alternate translation: “walking stick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1434

LUK

9

3

pp64

translate-unknown

πήραν

1

bag

The team bag means something a traveler would use to carry things that were needed on a journey. Alternate translation: “knapsack” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1435

LUK

9

3

n237

figs-synecdoche

ἄρτον

1

bread

Jesus figuratively uses one kind of food, bread, to represent food in general. Alternate translation: “food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1436

LUK

9

3

l474

figs-metonymy

ἀργύριον

1

silver

Jesus figuratively uses a means by which value is stored and exchanged, silver, to represent money by association. Alternate translation: “money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1437

LUK

9

3

l475

figs-litotes

μήτε δύο χιτῶνας ἔχειν

1

nor have two tunics

Here Jesus is using a figure of speech that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. When he says that these men should not each have two tunics, he means that they each should only have one tunic. Alternate translation: “and do not bring an extra tunic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1438

LUK

9

4

kyw3

figs-explicit

εἰς ἣν ἂν οἰκίαν εἰσέλθητε

1

whatever house you enter into

The implication is that the disciples can enter a house because the people living there have welcomed them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “any house where you are welcomed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1439

LUK

9

4

sa5w

ἐκεῖ μένετε

1

stay there

Alternate translation: “stay in that same house”

1440

LUK

9

4

ksb3

καὶ ἐκεῖθεν ἐξέρχεσθε

1

and go out from there

Alternate translation: “until you leave that place”

1441

LUK

9

5

ux5m

καὶ ὅσοι ἂν μὴ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς, ἐξερχόμενοι

1

And wherever they do not receive you, when you go out

It may be helpful to make this two sentences. Alternate translation: “Here is what you should do in any town where people do not receive you. When you leave”

1442

LUK

9

5

ze2w

translate-symaction

τὸν κονιορτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ποδῶν ὑμῶν ἀποτινάσσετε

1

shake off the dust from your feet

This action was an expression of strong rejection in this culture. It showed that someone did not want even the dust of a town to remain on them. If there is a similar gesture in your culture, you could consider using it here in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1443

LUK

9

5

l476

εἰς μαρτύριον ἐπ’ αὐτούς

1

as a testimony against them

Alternate translation: “as a warning to them”

1444

LUK

9

6

afj9

ἐξερχόμενοι

1

they went out

Alternate translation: “they left the place were Jesus was”

1445

LUK

9

6

ycy4

figs-hyperbole

θεραπεύοντες πανταχοῦ

1

healing everywhere

Luke says everywhere as a figurative generalization. Alternate translation: “healing wherever they went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1446

LUK

9

7

z45t

writing-background

δὲ Ἡρῴδης

1

And Herod

This phrase marks a break in the main story line. Luke is giving background information about Herod. Alternate translation: “Meanwhile, Herod” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1447

LUK

9

7

s2k4

translate-unknown

Ἡρῴδης ὁ τετράρχης

1

Herod the tetrarch

See how you translated the term tetrarch in 3:1 Alternate translation: “Herod, who ruled the region of Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1448

LUK

9

7

c4vy

διηπόρει

1

he was perplexed

Alternate translation: “he was confused” or “he could not understand”

1449

LUK

9

7

tcp1

figs-activepassive

διὰ τὸ λέγεσθαι ὑπό τινων

1

because it was said by some

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “because some people were saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1450

LUK

9

7

l477

figs-explicit

ὅτι Ἰωάννης ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

that John had risen from the dead

Luke reports in 3:20 that Herod put John in prison. When John sends messengers to Jesus in 7:18-19, he does this from prison. But by this point in the story, John is dead, because Herod has executed him. Luke assumes that his readers will know that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could tell them explicitly. Alternate translation: “that John the Baptist, whom Herod had executed, had risen from the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1451

LUK

9

7

l478

figs-explicit

Ἰωάννης

1

John

Luke assumes that his readers will know he is referring to John the Baptist. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1452

LUK

9

8

l479

figs-ellipsis

ὑπό τινων δὲ, ὅτι Ἠλείας ἐφάνη

1

and by some that Elijah had appeared

The expression it was said carries forward from the previous verse and applies to this phrase. Alternate translation: “and it was said by some that Elijah had appeared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1453

LUK

9

8

l480

figs-activepassive

ἄλλων δὲ, ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

1

and by some that Elijah had appeared

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “and some people were saying that Elijah had appeared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1454

LUK

9

8

ekf7

figs-ellipsis

ἄλλων δὲ, ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

1

but by others that one of the ancient prophets had risen from the dead

The expression it was said also applies to this phrase. Alternate translation: “but it was said by others that one of the prophets from long ago had come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1455

LUK

9

8

l481

figs-activepassive

ἄλλων δὲ, ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

1

but by others that one of the ancient prophets had risen from the dead

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form as well. Alternate translation: “but others were saying that one of the prophets from long ago had come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1456

LUK

9

9

flw3

figs-explicit

Ἰωάννην ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα, τίς δέ ἐστιν οὗτος

1

I beheaded John, but who is this

Herod is assuming that it is impossible for John to have risen from the dead. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “It cannot be John, because I had his head cut off, so who is this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1457

LUK

9

9

r98f

figs-synecdoche

Ἰωάννην ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα

1

I beheaded John

Herod speaks of himself figuratively as the person who did this action, representing the entire group of people who were responsible for it. Herod’s soldiers would actually have carried out the execution, on his orders. Alternate translation: “I commanded my soldiers to cut off John’s head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1458

LUK

9

10

p7gf

figs-explicit

ὑποστρέψαντες, οἱ ἀπόστολοι

1

when the apostles returned

The implication is that the apostles returned to where Jesus was. Alternate translation: “when the apostles came back to where Jesus was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1459

LUK

9

10

aal8

figs-explicit

ὅσα ἐποίησαν

1

as much as they had done

The phrase as much as they had done refers to what they did when they went to the cities where Jesus sent them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “what had happened as they proclaimed the good news and healed the sick in the cities where Jesus had sent them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1460

LUK

9

10

l482

figs-activepassive

πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά

1

a city called Bethsaida

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “a city whose name was Bethsaida” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1461

LUK

9

10

r2bq

translate-names

Βηθσαϊδά

1

Bethsaida

Bethsaida is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1462

LUK

9

11

l483

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God would rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1463

LUK

9

12

btc8

writing-background

ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίνειν

1

And the day began to end

Luke provides this background information to help readers understand what happens next. Alternate translation: “Now it was getting towards the end of the day” or “Now the end of the day was approaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1464

LUK

9

12

l484

figs-nominaladj

οἱ δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

See how you translated this in 8:1. You may have decided to translate the nominal adjective Twelve with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “his 12 apostles” or “the 12 men whom he had appointed to be apostles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1465

LUK

9

12

l485

translate-names

οἱ δώδεκα

1

the Twelve

You may have decided instead in 8:1 to translate this as a title, the Twelve, even if your language does not ordinarily use adjectives as nouns. If so, you can do the same thing here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1466

LUK

9

13

l486

figs-litotes

οὐκ εἰσὶν…πλεῖον ἢ

1

There are not more than

The disciples are figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “There are only” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1467

LUK

9

13

tay4

translate-unknown

ἄρτοι πέντε

1

five loaves

This means loaves of bread, which are lumps of flour dough that a person has shaped and baked. Alternate translation: “five loaves of bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1468

LUK

9

13

vuc1

figs-irony

εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες, ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον βρώματα

1

unless we go and buy food for all these people

The disciples are not making a serious suggestion here. They actually mean to communicate the opposite of the literal meaning of their words. Alternate translation: “and we certainly cannot go and buy food for all these people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1469

LUK

9

14

c9z5

figs-explicit

ὡσεὶ ἄνδρες πεντακισχίλιοι

1

about 5,000 men

Luke assumes that readers will know that this number does not include the women and children who were likely also present. (This is not a case where a masculine term includes women.) If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “about 5,000 men, not counting the women and children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1470

LUK

9

14

v44h

κατακλίνατε αὐτοὺς

1

Have them recline to eat

Alternate translation: “Tell them to sit down to eat”

1471

LUK

9

15

l552

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1472

LUK

9

15

xq6k

figs-parallelism

ἐποίησαν οὕτως

1

thus they did, and made them all recline to eat

These two phrases the same thing. Luke is using repetition for clarity and perhaps, by drawing things out, to create some suspense about what will happen next. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “the disciples had all the people sit down as Jesus had instructed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1473

LUK

9

16

j39h

λαβὼν δὲ τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους

1

Then taking the five loaves

Alternate translation: “Then Jesus took the five loaves of bread”

1474

LUK

9

16

j8y3

figs-explicit

ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν

1

looking up to heaven

This describes Jesus looking toward the sky. The Jews believed that heaven, the abode of God, was located above the sky. Alternate translation: “looking up beyond the sky towards God in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1475

LUK

9

16

gm2v

εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς

1

he blessed them

The word them refers to the loaves of bread and the fish, not to the people who had sat down to eat. Alternate translation: “he gave thanks for the food”

1476

LUK

9

17

l5ml

figs-activepassive

ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν πάντες

1

they all ate and were satisfied

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they all ate until they had had enough” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1477

LUK

9

17

l487

translate-unknown

κόφινοι

1

baskets

Here, baskets refers to containers made of woven material. In biblical times, baskets were often made from strong plant materials, such as peels of wood or reeds that grew near the water. If your readers would not be familiar with baskets, you could use a general term. Alternate translation: “containers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1478

LUK

9

18

y5a5

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1479

LUK

9

18

l91t

προσευχόμενον κατὰ μόνας

1

praying alone

The disciples were with Jesus, but he was praying personally and privately by himself. Alternate translation: “praying by himself”

1480

LUK

9

19

l488

figs-hendiadys

οἱ…ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν

1

answering they said

Together the two words answering and said mean that the disciples responded to the question that Jesus asked them. Alternate translation: “they responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1481

LUK

9

19

f2kh

figs-ellipsis

Ἰωάννην τὸν Βαπτιστήν, ἄλλοι δὲ, Ἠλείαν, ἄλλοι δὲ

1

John the Baptist, but others Elijah, and others

The disciples are answering Jesus in a compressed way, leaving out words that a sentence would ordinarily need to be complete. Alternate translation: “Some say that you are John the Baptist, but others say that you are Elijah, and others say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1482

LUK

9

19

ewu4

figs-explicit

ὅτι προφήτης τις τῶν ἀρχαίων ἀνέστη

1

that one of the ancient prophets has risen

It may be helpful to clarify how this answer relates to Jesus’ question. Alternate translation: “that you are one of the prophets from long ago who has come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1483

LUK

9

19

x3px

figs-explicit

ἀνέστη

1

has risen

This means risen from the dead. Alternate translation: “has come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1484

LUK

9

20

vy4u

εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς

1

he said to them

Alternate translation: “Jesus said to his disciples”

1485

LUK

9

20

l489

figs-hendiadys

Πέτρος δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν

1

Then Peter answering said

Together the two words answering and said mean that Peter responded to the follow-up question that Jesus asked his disciples. Alternate translation: “Then Peter responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1486

LUK

9

20

l490

figs-explicit

τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The Christ of God

Christ is the Greek word for “Messiah.” Alternate translation: “You are the Messiah whom God promised to send” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1487

LUK

9

21

z55q

figs-quotations

αὐτοῖς, παρήγγειλεν μηδενὶ λέγειν τοῦτο

1

commanding them to tell this to no one

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could make the verb rather than the object negative. You could also express this as a direct quotation. Alternate translation: “commanding them not to tell this to anyone” or “commanding them, ‘Do not tell this to anyone’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1488

LUK

9

22

m2v8

figs-123person

δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν

1

It is necessary for the Son of Man to suffer many things

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man, am going to have to suffer many things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1489

LUK

9

22

l491

figs-explicit

δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν

1

It is necessary for the Son of Man to suffer many things

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah, am going to have to suffer many things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1490

LUK

9

22

j5k8

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, καὶ ἀρχιερέων, καὶ γραμματέων

1

and to be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “The elders, chief priests, and scribes will reject him” or (if you translated in the first person) “The elders, chief priests, and scribes will reject me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1491

LUK

9

22

d5je

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι

1

and to be killed

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “and they will kill him” or (if you translated in the first person) “and they will kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1492

LUK

9

22

l492

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

1

and to be raised on the third day

This word at the beginning of this phrase indicates a contrast between what this phrase describes and what the previous phrases described. Alternate translation: “but he will be raised on the third day” or (if you translated in the first person) “but I will be raised on the third day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1493

LUK

9

22

lw6f

figs-activepassive

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

1

and to be raised on the third day

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “but he will come back to life on the third day” or (if you translated in the first person) “but I will come back to life on the third day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1494

LUK

9

22

mfe8

translate-ordinal

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

1

and to be raised on the third day

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “but he will come back to life on day three” or (if you translated in the first person) “but I will come back to life on day three” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1495

LUK

9

22

l493

figs-idiom

καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι

1

and to be raised on the third day

In the idiom of this culture, today was the “first day,” tomorrow was the “second day,” and the day after tomorrow was thethird day. To make sure that this is clear to your readers, you may wish to use a different expression than “the third day” or “day three,” especially if, in your culture, this would mean one day longer than Jesus intends. Otherwise, your readers may be confused when they read later in the book that Jesus died on a Friday and came back to life on a Sunday, if that would be “the second day” or “day two” according to the way your culture reckons time. Alternate translation: “and he will spend the next full day in the grave, but on the day after that, he will come back to life” or (if you translated in the first person) “and I will spend the next full day in the grave, but on the day after that, I will come back to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1496

LUK

9

23

h1u1

πρὸς πάντας

1

to them all

Alternate translation: “to all of his disciples who were with him”

1497

LUK

9

23

h46s

figs-metaphor

ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεσθαι

1

come after me

To follow or to come after Jesus represents being one of his disciples. Alternate translation: “be my disciple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1498

LUK

9

23

fnk7

ἀρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν

1

let him deny himself

Alternate translation: “he must forsake his own desires”

1499

LUK

9

23

l494

figs-explicit

ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθ’ ἡμέραν

1

let him … take up his cross daily

The image is of a condemned prisoner being forced to carry the cross on which he would be crucified to the place where he would be executed. Luke assumes that his readers will recognize this image from their own culture. But if it would not be familiar to your readers, you could use a more general expression. Alternate translation: “he must be willing every day to suffer and die for my sake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1500

LUK

9

23

h7j1

figs-metaphor

ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθ’ ἡμέραν

1

let him … take up his cross daily

To take up a cross figuratively represents being willing to suffer and die. Alternate translation: “he must be willing every day to suffer and die for my sake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1501

LUK

9

23

pk72

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι

1

and follow me

Here, to follow Jesus means to obey him. Alternate translation: “and obey me in that way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1502

LUK

9

24

l495

figs-idiom

ὃς δ’ ἂν ἀπολέσῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ

1

but whoever would lose his life for my sake

This phrase is an idiom. Jesus is not encouraging his disciples to do self-destructive things. Alternate translation: “but whoever is willing to give up everything for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1503

LUK

9

25

lx8i

figs-rquestion

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς?

1

For what is a man profited, having gained the whole world, but losing or destroying himself?

Jesus does not expect his disciples to tell him what benefit this would be. Rather, he is using the question form as a teaching tool. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “It would not benefit a person to get everything he wanted in this world and yet be lost eternally.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1504

LUK

9

25

l496

figs-activepassive

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς

1

For what is a man profited, having gained the whole world, but destroying or losing himself

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “For what benefit would it be to a person to gain the whole world but to lose or destroy himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1505

LUK

9

25

xsk5

figs-doublet

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς

1

For what is a man profited, having gained the whole world, but destroying or losing himself

The terms losing and destroying mean the same thing. Jesus uses them together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “For what benefit would it be to a person to get everything he wanted in this world but to completely destroy himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1506

LUK

9

25

l497

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπος

1

a man

Jesus is using the term man in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1507

LUK

9

25

hpp5

figs-hyperbole

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος, κερδήσας τὸν κόσμον ὅλον, ἑαυτὸν δὲ ἀπολέσας ἢ ζημιωθείς

1

For what is a man profited, having gained the whole world, but destroying or losing himself

Jesus says the whole world as an overstatement for emphasis. Alternate translation: “For what benefit would it be to a person to get everything he wanted in this world but to lose or destroy himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1508

LUK

9

26

yrr4

figs-metonymy

τοὺς ἐμοὺς λόγους

1

my words

Jesus is using the term words figuratively to describe the things he teaches by using words. Alternate translation: “my teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1509

LUK

9

26

tx1k

figs-123person

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man

Here Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1510

LUK

9

26

l498

figs-explicit

ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1511

LUK

9

26

dl2i

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Πατρὸς

1

the Father

The Father is an important title for God. Alternate translation: “God the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1512

LUK

9

27

ef6j

figs-idiom

λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ἀληθῶς

1

But I say to you truly

Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the importance of what he will say next. Alternate translation: “Now listen very carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1513

LUK

9

27

m113

figs-123person

εἰσίν τινες τῶν αὐτοῦ ἑστηκότων, οἳ οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

there are some of those who are standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God

Jesus is using the third person to talk about the people he is talking to. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the second person. Alternate translation: “some of you who are standing here will not die before you see the kingdom of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1514

LUK

9

27

j7fc

figs-litotes

οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God

Jesus is figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “will see the kingdom of God before they die” or (if you are translating in the second person) “will see the kingdom of God before you die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1515

LUK

9

27

gj8t

figs-idiom

γεύσωνται θανάτου

1

taste death

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1516

LUK

9

27

l499

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “God ruling as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1517

LUK

9

28

l500

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1518

LUK

9

28

si9j

figs-metonymy

μετὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους

1

after these words

The phrase these words refers to what Jesus said to his disciples in the preceding verses. Luke uses the term words figuratively to describe the things that Jesus said by using words. Alternate translation: “after Jesus said these things to his disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1519

LUK

9

29

l501

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new development within this episode. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1520

LUK

9

30

p3cd

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Here, Luke uses the word behold to alert readers to pay attention to the surprising information that follows. Alternate translation: “suddenly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1521

LUK

9

31

g28p

figs-activepassive

οἳ ὀφθέντες ἐν δόξῃ

1

who were seen in glory

This phrase gives information about how Moses and Elijah looked. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “who appeared in glorious splendor” or “who were shining brightly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1522

LUK

9

31

cur1

figs-euphemism

τὴν ἔξοδον αὐτοῦ

1

his departure

Luke is using a polite way of referring to Jesus’ death. Alternate translation: “how Jesus would leave this world” or “how Jesus would die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1523

LUK

9

31

l502

ἣν ἤμελλεν πληροῦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

which he was about to fulfill in Jerusalem

Alternate translation: “which was soon going to happen in Jerusalem”

1524

LUK

9

32

i29n

writing-background

δὲ

1

And

Luke uses this word to introduce background information about what Peter, James, and John were doing while Jesus was speaking with Moses and Elijah. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1525

LUK

9

32

f8ip

figs-activepassive

ὁ…Πέτρος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ

1

Peter and those with him were weighted with sleep

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “sleep was weighing heavily upon Peter and James and John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1526

LUK

9

32

l503

figs-personification

ὁ…Πέτρος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ ἦσαν βεβαρημένοι ὕπνῳ

1

Peter and those with him were weighted with sleep

Luke speaks of sleep figuratively as if it were something that could be like a weight pressing down on a person. Alternate translation: “Peter and James and John all felt very sleepy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1527

LUK

9

32

tw7e

figs-explicit

εἶδον τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ

1

they saw his glory

As in 2:9, the implication is that this glory manifested visibly as a bright light. Alternate translation: “they saw brilliant light shining around Jesus” or “they saw a very bright light coming from Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1528

LUK

9

32

tsj6

καὶ τοὺς δύο ἄνδρας τοὺς συνεστῶτας αὐτῷ

1

and the two men who were standing with him

The phrase the two men refers to Moses and Elijah. Alternate translation: “and they also saw Moses and Elijah”

1529

LUK

9

33

l504

writing-newevent

καὶ ἐγένετο

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new development within this episode. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for this purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1530

LUK

9

33

npk9

writing-pronouns

ἐν τῷ διαχωρίζεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

as they were going away from him

The pronoun they refers to Moses and Elijah, not to the disciples. Alternate translation: “as Moses and Elijah were about to leave Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1531

LUK

9

33

l505

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς…ποιήσωμεν

1

for us … let us make

Since Peter wants to make it possible for Moses and Elijah to stay, when he says for us, he likely means “all six of us.” So if your language distinguishes between exclusive and inclusive “us,” use the inclusive form in that case. However, when Peter says let us, he is likely referring to himself and to James and John, so use the exclusive form of “us” in that case. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1532

LUK

9

33

mby6

translate-unknown

σκηνὰς

1

tents

The term tents means simple, temporary places in which to sit or sleep. Peter probably had in mind that he and the other two disciples would build them from the materials available on the mountain such as tree branches. Alternate translation: “shelters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1533

LUK

9

33

l506

μὴ εἰδὼς ὃ λέγει

1

not knowing what he says

To call attention to a development in the story, Luke uses the present tense in past narration. See how you decided to approach this usage in 7:40. If it would not be natural to use the present tense in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “He did not know what he was saying”

1534

LUK

9

34

ct1w

writing-pronouns

ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος

1

as he was saying this

Alternate translation: “While Peter was saying these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1535

LUK

9

34

e75d

figs-explicit

ἐφοβήθησαν

1

they were afraid

These adult disciples were not afraid of clouds. Rather, given all the unusual things that had already taken place on this mountain, they were afraid of what might happen to them once the cloud came completely over them. Alternate translation: “they were very apprehensive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1536

LUK

9

34

asa6

εἰσελθεῖν αὐτοὺς εἰς τὴν νεφέλην

1

they entered into the cloud

This can be expressed in terms of what the cloud did. Alternate translation: “the cloud surrounded them”

1537

LUK

9

35

q8xy

figs-explicit

φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης

1

there was a voice from the cloud

Luke expects readers to understand that this voice could only have belonged to God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God spoke to them from the cloud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1538

LUK

9

35

c3gt

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Υἱός μου

1

my Son

This is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1539

LUK

9

35

l733

figs-activepassive

ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος

1

the one who is chosen

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could indicate who has done the action. Alternate translation: “the one I have chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1540

LUK

9

36

l507

ἐν τῷ γενέσθαι τὴν φωνὴν

1

when the voice had happened

Alternate translation: “after the voice had spoken”

1541

LUK

9

36

l508

figs-idiom

εὑρέθη Ἰησοῦς μόνος

1

Jesus was found alone

The term found is an idiom that means “could be found” or “was there.” Alternate translation: “only Jesus was there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1542

LUK

9

36

l509

figs-activepassive

εὑρέθη Ἰησοῦς μόνος

1

Jesus was found alone

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could state Jesus was found alone with an active form. Alternate translation: “only Jesus was there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1543

LUK

9

36

v9uy

figs-doublet

αὐτοὶ ἐσίγησαν, καὶ οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν

1

they were silent and told no one

These two phrases mean the same thing. (The Greek verb in the first phrase does not always mean to make no sound. It can also mean to keep a secret.) Luke uses the two phrases together for emphasis. In your translation, you could also use repetition for emphasis, or, if your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine the phrases. Alternate translation: “they kept it a secret and did not tell anyone” or “they said nothing about it to anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1544

LUK

9

36

l510

figs-doublenegatives

οὐδενὶ ἀπήγγειλαν…οὐδὲν

1

told no one … anything

Luke uses a double negative in Greek for emphasis here, “told no one … nothing.” The second negative does not cancel the first to create a positive meaning, “told someone … something.” If for emphasis your language uses double negatives that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1545

LUK

9

36

l511

figs-idiom

ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις

1

in those days

Here Luke uses the term days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “at that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1546

LUK

9

37

q5f5

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1547

LUK

9

38

l512

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1548

LUK

9

38

k35b

writing-participants

ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου

1

a man from the crowd

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a man in the crowd who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1549

LUK

9

38

l513

Διδάσκαλε

1

Teacher

Teacher is a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

1550

LUK

9

38

l514

figs-idiom

ἐπιβλέψαι ἐπὶ

1

look upon

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1551

LUK

9

39

l515

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

The man uses the term behold to calls Jesus’ attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1552

LUK

9

39

ka7j

writing-participants

πνεῦμα

1

a spirit

The man uses this phrase to introduce the spirit into his story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there is an evil spirit that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1553

LUK

9

39

abm3

translate-unknown

μετὰ ἀφροῦ

1

with foam

When a person is having convulsions, they can have trouble breathing or swallowing. This causes white foam to form around their mouths. Alternate translation: “and foam comes out of his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1554

LUK

9

39

l516

figs-litotes

μόγις ἀποχωρεῖ ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

it departs from him with difficulty

The man is figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “it attacks him very often” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1555

LUK

9

39

l517

figs-metaphor

συντρῖβον αὐτόν

1

crushing him

The man speaks figuratively of the spirit as if it were a heavy weight whose attacks crush the boy. This is a reference to the injuries that the spirit causes. Alternate translation: “injuring him badly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1556

LUK

9

41

sdu1

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν

1

Then answering Jesus said

Together answering and said mean that Jesus responded to the man’s request. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1557

LUK

9

41

bi9m

figs-apostrophe

ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστος καὶ διεστραμμένη, ἕως πότε ἔσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν?

1

O unbelieving and perverted generation, until when will I be with you and bear with you?

Jesus is speaking figuratively to something that he knows cannot hear him. He is addressing the entire generation of people who were living at that time, and they are not all present to hear him. He is doing this to show in a very strong way how he feels about this generation. He is actually speaking to the people who can hear him, the crowd that has gathered there. If your readers might not understand this kind of figurative speech, you could translate Jesus’ words as if he were speaking directly to the crowd, since they are included in the generation that Jesus is figuratively addressing. Alternate translation: “You have all gone wrong because you do not believe, so I hope I do not have to stay here and put up with you for very long!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

1558

LUK

9

41

l518

figs-rquestion

ὦ γενεὰ ἄπιστος καὶ διεστραμμένη, ἕως πότε ἔσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν?

1

O unbelieving and perverted generation, until when will I be with you and bear with you?

Jesus is using the question form for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement or exclamation. Alternate translation: “You have all gone wrong because you do not believe, so I hope I do not have to stay here and put up with you for very long!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1559

LUK

9

41

apa3

figs-doublet

ἄπιστος καὶ διεστραμμένη

1

O unbelieving and perverted generation

The terms unbelieving and perverted mean similar things. Jesus uses them together for emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could combine them into a single phrase. Alternate translation: “You have all gone wrong because you do not believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1560

LUK

9

41

qk1w

figs-you

ἕως πότε ἔσομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ἀνέξομαι ὑμῶν?

1

until when will I be with you and bear with you?

In both cases here, you is plural in Greek because Jesus is addressing a generation that is made up of many people. However, generation is a collective noun, and if your language would treat a collective noun as singular in a context like this, you could use the singular form of you. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1561

LUK

9

41

ls7b

figs-you

προσάγαγε ὧδε τὸν υἱόν σου

1

Bring your son here

Jesus is now speaking to the father of the boy, and so your is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1562

LUK

9

42

l519

writing-pronouns

ἔτι…προσερχομένου αὐτοῦ

1

while he was coming

The pronoun he refers to the boy, not to the father. Alternate translation: “while the boy was coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1563

LUK

9

43

hz1l

figs-explicit

ἐξεπλήσσοντο δὲ πάντες ἐπὶ τῇ μεγαλειότητι τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

they all marveled at the majesty of God

Jesus performed the miracle, but the crowd recognized that God was the power behind the healing. Alternate translation: “Then they were all amazed that God would work so powerfully through Jesus in this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1564

LUK

9

43

d61c

writing-pronouns

πᾶσιν οἷς ἐποίει

1

everything that he was doing

The word he refers to Jesus, not to God the Father. Alternate translation: “everything Jesus was doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1565

LUK

9

44

gah9

figs-idiom

θέσθε ὑμεῖς εἰς τὰ ὦτα ὑμῶν τοὺς λόγους τούτους

1

You put these words in your ears

Jesus is using an idiom to tell his disciples to pay careful attention to what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Now listen carefully to this and remember it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1566

LUK

9

44

im3l

figs-activepassive

ὁ γὰρ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου μέλλει παραδίδοσθαι

1

the Son of Man is going to be handed over

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Someone is going to betray the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1567

LUK

9

44

ygr3

figs-123person

ὁ γὰρ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου μέλλει παραδίδοσθαι

1

the Son of Man is going to be handed over

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “Someone is going to betray me, the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1568

LUK

9

44

l520

figs-explicit

ὁ γὰρ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου μέλλει παραδίδοσθαι

1

the Son of Man is going to be handed over

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “someone is going to betray me, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1569

LUK

9

44

l521

figs-metaphor

εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων

1

into the hands of men

The term hands figuratively represent power and control. Alternate translation: “to his enemies, who will have power over him” or (if you translated in the first person) “to my enemies, who will have power over me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1570

LUK

9

44

l522

figs-explicit

εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων

1

into the hands of men

It may be helpful to make explicit who these men are. Alternate translation: “to his enemies, who will have power over him” or (if you translated in the first person) “to my enemies, who will have power over me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1571

LUK

9

45

l523

figs-metonymy

τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο…περὶ τοῦ ῥήματος τούτου

1

this word … about this word

Luke uses the term word figuratively to describe what Jesus said by using words. Alternate translation: “this saying … about this saying” or “this statement … about this statement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1572

LUK

9

45

ub1r

figs-activepassive

ἦν παρακεκαλυμμένον ἀπ’ αὐτῶν

1

it was hidden from them

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you can state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God hid its meaning from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1573

LUK

9

46

dh3w

writing-pronouns

ἐν αὐτοῖς

1

among them

Be sure that it is clear in your translation that the pronoun them does not include Jesus. He was not arguing, along with the disciples, about who was the greatest. Alternate translation: “among the disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1574

LUK

9

46

l524

τίς ἂν εἴη μείζων αὐτῶν

1

which of them might be the greatest

Alternate translation: “which one of them was the greatest”

1575

LUK

9

47

cx62

figs-metaphor

εἰδὼς τὸν διαλογισμὸν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν

1

knowing the reasoning in their hearts

Here Luke uses hearts figuratively to represent the disciples’ thoughts and evaluations. Alternate translation: “knowing what they were thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1576

LUK

9

48

l525

figs-hyperbole

τοῦτο τὸ παιδίον

1

this child

Jesus is using the child as an extreme example. He is illustrating that since he will be present in even the most humble of his followers, the disciples do not need to argue among themselves about which of them is the greatest. Everyone who is working on behalf of Jesus possesses his full honor and dignity. Alternate translation: “even someone as seemingly insignificant as this child” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1577

LUK

9

48

afx5

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου

1

in my name

Here, name is a figurative way of referring to a person by reference to something associated with him. Alternate translation: “as someone who is working on my behalf” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1578

LUK

9

48

mav1

figs-metaphor

ἐμὲ δέχεται

1

welcomes me

This is a metaphor, but if your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate it as a simile. Alternate translation: “it is as if he is welcoming me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1579

LUK

9

48

awc6

figs-explicit

τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με

1

the one who sent me

Jesus assumes that his disciples will know that this means God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “God, who sent me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1580

LUK

9

48

zw5t

figs-gendernotations

οὗτός ἐστιν μέγας

1

he is great

Here Jesus uses the pronoun he in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “that is the person whom God considers to be great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1581

LUK

9

49

uwr3

figs-hendiadys

ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ Ἰωάννης εἶπεν

1

Then answering John said

Together answering and said mean that John responded to what Jesus had just said. Alternate translation: “Then John responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1582

LUK

9

49

bj41

figs-exclusive

εἴδομέν…μεθ’ ἡμῶν

1

we saw … with us

When John says we, he is speaking of himself and some other disciples who spoke to this man, so we would be exclusive, if your language uses that form. However, when John says us, he seems to be referring to the disciples and Jesus traveling together, and since he is speaking to Jesus, us would be inclusive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1583

LUK

9

49

py8i

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου

1

in your name

The term name is a figurative way of referring to a person by reference to something associated with them. This expression means the person was acting with the power and authority of Jesus. Alternate translation: “on your behalf” or “as your representative” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1584

LUK

9

49

l526

figs-metaphor

οὐκ ἀκολουθεῖ μεθ’ ἡμῶν

1

he does not follow with us

In this case, to follow Jesus does not seem to mean to be one of his disciples, as in 5:27, since this man was acting in Jesus’ name. Rather, in this context it seems to refer to traveling together in this group with Jesus. Alternate translation: “he does not travel with you in our group” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1585

LUK

9

50

hw85

figs-litotes

μὴ κωλύετε

1

Do not prevent him

Jesus is figuratively expressing a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. You can state this positively. Alternate translation: “Allow him to continue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1586

LUK

9

51

l527

writing-newevent

ἐγένετο δὲ

1

And it happened that

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new event in the story. Use a word, phrase, or other method in your language that is natural for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1587

LUK

9

51

c8gx

figs-activepassive

ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ

1

when the days of his being taken up were being fulfilled

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use active verbal forms in place of these two passive forms, and in the second case you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “when it was almost time for God to take him up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1588

LUK

9

51

l528

figs-idiom

ἐν τῷ συνπληροῦσθαι τὰς ἡμέρας

1

when the days … were being fulfilled

Here Luke uses days figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “when it was almost time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1589

LUK

9

51

l529

figs-explicit

τῆς ἀναλήμψεως αὐτοῦ

1

of his being taken up

The implication is that God would take Jesus back up to heaven, and the further implication is that this would be after Jesus died. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express one or both of those things explicitly. Alternate translation: “for God to take him up to heaven” or “for him to die and for God to take him back up to heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1590

LUK

9

51

mq2d

figs-idiom

τὸ πρόσωπον ἐστήρισεν

1

he set his face

Set his face is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he firmly decided” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1591

LUK

9

52

l530

figs-metaphor

πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ

1

before his face

The term face figuratively means the front of a person. Alternate translation: “ahead of him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1592

LUK

9

52

l531

translate-names

κώμην Σαμαρειτῶν

1

a Samaritan village

Samaritan is a name that refers to a place that is in the region of Samaria or to a person who is from that region. Samaria was between Galilee and Judea, and the people who lived there were not Jewish and they were hostile to the Jews. The terms Samaritan and Samaria occur several times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1593

LUK

9

52

b6ct

figs-idiom

ὡς ἑτοιμάσαι αὐτῷ

1

so as to prepare for him

This phrase means to make arrangements in anticipation of his arrival there, such as for food to eat, a place to stay, and possibly also a place to speak. Alternate translation: “to arrange his accommodations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1594

LUK

9

53

v61k

οὐκ ἐδέξαντο αὐτόν

1

they did not welcome him

Alternate translation: “the Samaritans did not want him to stay with them”

1595

LUK

9

53

l532

figs-synecdoche

τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

his face was going to Jerusalem

Luke is using one part of Jesus to represent all of him. Luke may use the face because Jesus was facing in the direction he was traveling. Or this may echo the expression “he set his face” in 9:52. Alternate translation: “he was traveling toward Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1596

LUK

9

53

n62j

figs-explicit

ὅτι τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἦν πορευόμενον εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ

1

because his face was going to Jerusalem

The Samaritans and the Jews hated each other. Therefore the Samaritans did not want to help Jesus travel to Jerusalem, which was the Jewish capital and the place where the Jews held their major religious observances. Alternate translation: “because they did not want to help any Jew make a journey to Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1597

LUK

9

54

a8sf

figs-metaphor

ἰδόντες

1

saw

The word saw figuratively represents notice and attention. Alternate translation: “recognized that the Samaritans were not going to accommodate Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1598

LUK

9

54

y4rq

figs-explicit

θέλεις εἴπωμεν πῦρ καταβῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἀναλῶσαι αὐτούς?

1

do you want us to tell fire to come down from heaven and consume them?

James and John suggested this method of judgment because they knew that this was how the prophets such as Elijah had called down judgment upon people who rejected God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “do you want us to tell fire to come down from heaven to consume them, as Elijah did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1599

LUK

9

54

l533

figs-exclusive

θέλεις εἴπωμεν

1

do you want us to tell

By us, James and John mean themselves, but not Jesus, so us is exclusive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1600

LUK

9

55

pj6b

writing-pronouns

στραφεὶς…ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς

1

he turned and rebuked them

The pronoun them refers to James and John. Jesus did not condemn the Samaritans, as the disciples expected. Alternate translation: “Jesus turned around and rebuked James and John” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1601

LUK

9

57

l534

τις

1

someone

This was not one of the disciples. Alternate translation: “a certain person”

1602

LUK

9

58

yq5n

figs-merism

αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν, καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις

1

The foxes have dens, and the birds of the sky have nests

Jesus is using a figure of speech. By naming a creature that lives on land and a creature that flies in the air, Jesus is referring to all creatures. Alternate translation: “Every creature has a place to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1603

LUK

9

58

anv9

translate-unknown

αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν

1

The foxes have dens

The word foxes describes land animals that are similar to small dogs. The word dens refers to holes that these animals dig in the ground as shelters. If your readers would not be familiar with this animal and its habits, you could describe them in general terms. Alternate translation: “Little animals live in holes in the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1604

LUK

9

58

c88m

figs-explicitinfo

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις

1

the birds of the sky, nests

In your language, it might seem that this phrase expresses unnecessary extra information. If so, you could abbreviate it. However, you could also use an action clause to keep the sense of sky, to complement the idea of “ground” in the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “birds live in nests” or “birds that fly in the air live in nests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

1605

LUK

9

58

ls02

figs-ellipsis

τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις

1

the birds of the sky, nests

Jesus is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. These words can be supplied from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “birds live in nests” or “birds that fly in the air live in nests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1606

LUK

9

58

r7vq

figs-123person

ὁ…Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man

Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “I, the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1607

LUK

9

58

l535

figs-explicit

ὁ…Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου

1

the Son of Man

See how you translated the title Son of Man in 5:24. Alternate translation: “I, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1608

LUK

9

58

l536

figs-explicit

οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ

1

does not have anywhere to lay his head

Jesus implies that if this person were to follow him, he too might not have a home. Alternate translation: “does not have a home anywhere, so if you become his disciple, expect that you will not have a home either” or (if you translated in the first person) “do not have a home anywhere, so if you become my disciple, expect that you will not have a home either” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1609

LUK

9

58

l537

figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ

1

does not have anywhere to lay his head

This expression figuratively means “does not have anywhere to sleep,” by association with something that a person does in order to sleep, lay down his head. And a place to sleep, by association, means a home, since that is where people sleep. Alternate translation: “does not have a home anywhere” or (if you translated in the first person) “do not have a home anywhere” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1610

LUK

9

58

ff62

figs-hyperbole

οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ

1

does not have anywhere to lay his head

Jesus actually did find places to sleep wherever he went to teach and heal, but he says figuratively that he has no such place at all to emphasize that he has no permanent home. Alternate translation: “does not have a permanent home” or (if you translated in the first person) “do not have a permanent home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1611

LUK

9

59

l538

figs-metaphor

ἀκολούθει μοι

1

Follow me

As in 5:27, to follow Jesus means to become one of his disciples. Alternate translation: “I want you to be one of my disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1612

LUK

9

59

l539

ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀπελθόντι, πρῶτον θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου

1

permit me to go first to bury my father

It is unclear whether the man’s father had died and that he would bury him immediately, or whether the man wanted to wait for a longer amount of time until his father died so that he could bury him then. The main point is that the man wanted to do something else first before going with Jesus. Alternate translation: “before I do that, let me go and bury my father”

1613

LUK

9

59

l540

figs-metonymy

ἐπίτρεψόν μοι ἀπελθόντι, πρῶτον θάψαι τὸν πατέρα μου

1

permit me to go first to bury my father

One possible meaning of this expression is that the man wanted to wait until he had received his inheritance from his father so that he could live on that money while traveling with Jesus. If so, then he would be referring to the inheritance by association with his father’s death, and he would be referring to his father’s death by association with his burial. Alternate translation: “let me wait until I receive my inheritance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1614

LUK

9

60

l541

figs-metaphor

ἄφες τοὺς νεκροὺς θάψαι τοὺς ἑαυτῶν νεκρούς

1

Let the dead bury their own dead

Jesus does not mean literally that dead people will bury other dead people. Instead, the expression the dead likely refers figuratively to those who do not follow Jesus and so are spiritually dead. Alternate translation: “Let people who are not concerned about spiritual things take care of everyday matters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1615

LUK

9

60

l542

figs-nominaladj

τοὺς νεκροὺς

1

the dead

Jesus is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are dead” or “people who are not concerned about spiritual things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1616

LUK

9

60

l543

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate this phrase in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “how God will rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1617

LUK

9

61

l544

figs-metaphor

ἀκολουθήσω σοι

1

I will follow you

As in 5:27, to follow Jesus means to become one of his disciples. Alternate translation: “I want to be one of your disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1618

LUK

9

61

l545

πρῶτον δὲ ἐπίτρεψόν μοι

1

but first permit me

Alternate translation: “but before I do that, please let me”

1619

LUK

9

61

l546

figs-metonymy

τοῖς εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου

1

those in my home

This person is referring figuratively to his family by association with where they live. Alternate translation: “to my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1620

LUK

9

62

l547

figs-metaphor

οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἄροτρον καὶ βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω, εὔθετός ἐστιν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

No one, having put his hand on a plow, yet looking to the things behind, is fit for the kingdom of God

Jesus responds with an illustration that is designed to teach this person about what is required to be his disciple. He means that a person is not suitable for the kingdom to God if his past loyalties are more important to him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain this illustration. Alternate translation, add: “No one can plow straight if he is looking backwards, and in the same way, no one will be useful in the kingdom of God if his past loyalties are more important to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1621

LUK

9

62

l548

figs-synecdoche

οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἄροτρον

1

No one, having put his hand on a plow

Jesus refers figuratively to a person using a plow by describing one part of that activity, guiding the plow with the hand. Alternate translation: “No one who is using a plow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1622

LUK

9

62

l553

translate-unknown

οὐδεὶς ἐπιβαλὼν τὴν χεῖρα αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἄροτρον

1

No one, having put his hand on a plow

A plow is a tool that farmers use to break up soil to prepare a field for planting. Plows have sharp, pointed prongs that dig into the soil. They usually have handles that the farmer uses to guide the plow. If your readers would not be familiar with this kind of tool, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “No one who needs to go straight forward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1623

LUK

9

62

l549

figs-explicit

βλέπων εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω

1

looking to the things behind

The implication is that anyone who is looking backwards while plowing cannot guide the plow where it needs to go. That person must focus on looking forward in order to plow well. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “looking backwards, and so not going in the right direction” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1624

LUK

9

62

l550

figs-abstractnouns

εὔθετός ἐστιν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

is fit for the kingdom of God

See how you decided to translate the phrase the kingdom of God in 4:43. If your readers would misunderstand the abstract noun kingdom, you could express the idea behind it with a verb such as “rule.” Alternate translation: “can really let God rule his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1625

LUK

10

intro

z899

0

Luke 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Jesus sends seventy-two disciples to teach and heal (10:1-24)
  2. Jesus tells the Parable of the Good Samaritan (10:25-37)
  3. Jesus visits Mary and Martha (10:38-43)

Special concepts in this chapter

Harvest

Harvest refers to the time when people gather in the food they have planted so they can eat some of it right away and store the rest for future use. Jesus uses this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about him so that those people can become part of God’s kingdom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

Neighbor

The Jews helped their Jewish neighbors who needed help, and they expected their Jewish neighbors to help them. Jesus wanted them to understand that people who were not Jews were also their neighbors, so he told them a story about this (10:29-37). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

Important textual issues in this chapter

“72”

In 10:1 and 10:17, some ancient manuscripts of the Bible read “72,” but others read “70.” ULT reads “72,” but it mentions in a footnote that scholars are divided as to which number was originally in the book of Luke.

“Jesus”

In 10:39, many of the best ancient manuscripts read “Jesus,” but some read “the Lord.” ULT reads “Jesus.”

In both of these cases, if a translation of the Bible exists in your region, you may wish to use the reading that it has. If a translation of the Bible does not exist in your region, you may wish to follow the example of ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1626

LUK

10

1

u8l6

writing-newevent

μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα

1

And after these things

Luke uses this phrase to mark a new event in the story. If your language has a similar expression that it uses for this same purpose, you can use that here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1627

LUK

10

1

l551

ὁ Κύριος

1

the Lord

Here Luke refers to Jesus by the title the Lord to show his authority. Alternate translation: “the Lord Jesus”

1628

LUK

10

1

m75c

translate-textvariants

ἑβδομήκοντα δύο

1

72

See the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to say 72 or “70” in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1629

LUK

10

1

g8ka

figs-idiom

ἀπέστειλεν αὐτοὺς ἀνὰ δύο

1

sent them out by twos

This phrase is an idiom. Alternate translation: “sent them out two by two” or “sent them out in groups of two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1630

LUK

10

1

l554

figs-metaphor

πρὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ

1

before his face

Here, face figuratively means the front of a person. Alternate translation: “ahead of him” or “to prepare the way for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1631

LUK

10

2

fx9w

figs-events

ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς

1

And he said to them

Jesus said these things to the 72 disciples before they actually went out. Alternate translation: “He had said to them” or “Before they went out, he told them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

1632

LUK

10

2

ju6z

figs-metaphor

ὁ μὲν θερισμὸς πολύς, οἱ δὲ ἐργάται ὀλίγοι

1

The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few

This statement means, “There is a big crop, but there are not enough workers to bring it in.” Jesus is speaking figuratively. Alternate translation: “There are many people who are ready to enter God’s kingdom, but there are not enough disciples to help them understand how to do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1633

LUK

10

2

l555

figs-exmetaphor

τοῦ Κυρίου τοῦ θερισμοῦ

1

the Lord of the harvest

Jesus continues to speak figuratively and extends his metaphor by describing God as the Lord of the harvest. Alternate translation: “God, who leads people to believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

1634

LUK

10

2

l556

figs-exmetaphor

ὅπως ἐργάτας ἐκβάλῃ εἰς τὸν θερισμὸν αὐτοῦ

1

that he would send out laborers into his harvest

Jesus extends his metaphor even further by describing disciples who help others to trust in him as laborers in the harvest. Alternate translation: “to send more disciples to go and help people trust in me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

1635

LUK

10

3

x732

figs-explicit

ὑπάγετε

1

Go

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state explicitly where Jesus wants these disciples to go. Alternate translation: “Go to the cities and places where I am sending you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1636

LUK

10

3

l557

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Jesus uses the term behold to get his disciples to focus their attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1637

LUK

10

3

u8h7

figs-simile

ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων

1

I send you out as lambs in the midst of wolves

Wolves attack and kill sheep. This simile is a warning to the disciples whom Jesus is sending out that there will be people who will want to harm them. You could explain the meaning of this figurative expression in your translation. (However, you could also reproduce the simile, as suggested in the next note.) Alternate translation: “when I send you out, there are going to be some people who will want to harm you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1638

LUK

10

3

l558

translate-unknown

ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς ἄρνας ἐν μέσῳ λύκων

1

I send you out as lambs in the midst of wolves

Jesus’ disciples would have known that lambs are gentle animals that have been domesticated for their wool, milk, meat, and leather, and that wolves are predatory land animals, similar to large dogs, that hunt and kill in packs. If you would like to reproduce the simile, but your readers would not be familiar with these animals, you could use general terms. Alternate translation: “I am sending you out like harmless animals that will encounter a group of predators” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1639

LUK

10

3

l559

figs-you

ὑμᾶς

1

you

Since Jesus is speaking to these 72 disciples as a group, you is plural here and through 10:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1640

LUK

10

4

l560

figs-idiom

μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα

1

Do not carry a money bag, nor a sack, nor sandals

Here Jesus is using the word carry in an idiomatic sense to mean “bring along.” He is not envisioning that these disciples might carry their sandals in their hands. Alternate translation: “Do not bring any money or provisions or extra clothes with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1641

LUK

10

4

fz6p

figs-metonymy

μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα

1

Do not carry a money bag, nor a sack, nor sandals

While Jesus probably means what he says literally about not bringing these specific items, he is also using them figuratively with larger meanings. The money bag represents the money it would contain. The sack represents the provisions someone would carry in it for a journey. The sandals represent, in this culture, more clothing and equipment than is strictly needed. Alternate translation: “Do not bring any money or provisions or extra clothes with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1642

LUK

10

4

l561

figs-explicit

μὴ βαστάζετε βαλλάντιον, μὴ πήραν, μὴ ὑποδήματα

1

Do not carry a money bag, nor a sack, nor sandals

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state explicitly why Jesus does not want his disciples to bring these things with them. As he will explain in 10:7, he wants the people who receive his message to provide for those who bring the message. Alternate translation: “Do not bring any money or provisions or extra clothes with you, because the people who receive my message will provide for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1643

LUK

10

4

tj52

figs-hyperbole

μηδένα κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν ἀσπάσησθε

1

greet no one on the road

Jesus is generalizing to indicate that these disciples should go quickly to the places where he is sending them to prepare the way for him. He is not telling them to be rude. Alternate translation: “make your journey as quickly as possible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1644

LUK

10

5

l562

figs-quotesinquotes

λέγετε, εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ

1

say, ‘Peace be to this house’

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what he wants his disciples to say. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “say that you want there to be peace in that house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1645

LUK

10

5

zk69

figs-metonymy

εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ

1

Peace be to this house

The term house refers figuratively to the people who live in the house. Alternate translation: “May the people in this household have peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1646

LUK

10

5

l563

figs-idiom

εἰρήνη τῷ οἴκῳ τούτῳ

1

Peace be to this house

This was an idiomatic expression, based on the Hebrew concept of “shalom,” that was both a greeting and a blessing. Alternate translation: “I greet all of you in this household and I wish for God to bless you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1647

LUK

10

6

x5e4

figs-idiom

υἱὸς εἰρήνης

1

a son of peace

The expression son of refers figuratively to a person who shares the qualities of something. Alternate translation: “a person who wants peace with God and with people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1648

LUK

10

6

pq5j

figs-metaphor

ἐπαναπαήσεται ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἡ εἰρήνη ὑμῶν

1

your peace will rest upon him

Here, upon creates a spatial metaphor. It means that this person will experience the peace that God gives in a special and lasting way. Alternate translation: “he will deeply experience the peace that you wish him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1649

LUK

10

6

it4v

figs-ellipsis

εἰ…μή γε

1

if not

It may be helpful to restate the entire phrase. Alternate translation: “if there is no one there who wants peace with God and with people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1650

LUK

10

6

zpx9

figs-personification

ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἀνακάμψει

1

it will return to you

Jesus describes peace as a living thing that could choose to leave one person and go to another person. Alternate translation: “you will experience that peace yourselves instead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1651

LUK

10

7

ki3k

ἐν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ οἰκίᾳ μένετε

1

remain in that house

Jesus was not saying that they should stay in the house all the time and never leave it, but that they should make it their base of operations for as long as they were in that place. Alternate translation: “stay at that house”

1652

LUK

10

7

l564

figs-idiom

τὰ παρ’ αὐτῶν

1

what is from them

This phrase is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the food and drink that they provide” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1653

LUK

10

7

u3vs

writing-proverbs

ἄξιος γὰρ ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

for the laborer is worthy of his wages

Jesus is quoting or creating a proverb, a short saying about something that is generally true in life, to explain the reason for these arrangements. You could translate the proverb directly into your language, or you could explain its meaning. Alternate translation: “for since you will be teaching and healing the people, they should provide you with a place to stay and food to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]])

1654

LUK

10

7

kd8i

μὴ μεταβαίνετε ἐξ οἰκίας εἰς οἰκίαν

1

Do not move around from house to house

This expression describes staying in different houses rather than making one house the base of operations the whole time. Jesus is repeating his earlier instruction, remain in that house, for emphasis. Jesus is not saying that these disciples cannot go to meet with people in other homes. Alternate translation: “As I said, stay at that house”

1655

LUK

10

8

k8yb

writing-pronouns

καὶ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς

1

and they receive you

The pronoun they refers to the people living in this city. Alternate translation: “if the people there welcome you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1656

LUK

10

8

wd2x

figs-activepassive

ἐσθίετε τὰ παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν

1

eat what is served to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “eat whatever food the people of that city serve you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1657

LUK

10

9

ws6g

figs-nominaladj

τοὺς…ἀσθενεῖς

1

the sick

Jesus is using the adjective sick as a noun in order to indicate a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this word with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the people who are sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1658

LUK

10

9

l565

writing-pronouns

ἐν αὐτῇ

1

in it

Alternate translation: “who live in that city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1659

LUK

10

9

l566

figs-quotesinquotes

λέγετε αὐτοῖς, ἤγγικεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come close to you’

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “tell them that the kingdom of God has come close to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1660

LUK

10

9

e1he

figs-abstractnouns

ἤγγικεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The kingdom of God has come close to you

The idea behind the abstract noun kingdom can be expressed with a verb such as “rule.” This could mean: (1) the kingdom of God is close in location, that is, its activities are happening nearby. Alternate translation: “God is ruling in this area” (2) the kingdom of God is close in time, that is, it will begin soon. Alternate translation: “God will soon begin to rule as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1661

LUK

10

10

nt9n

writing-pronouns

καὶ μὴ δέχωνται ὑμᾶς

1

and they do not receive you

This is a direct contrast to the similar expression in 10:8. Once again the pronoun they refers to the people living in this city. Alternate translation: “if the people there do not welcome you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1662

LUK

10

11

l567

figs-quotesinquotes

καὶ τὸν κονιορτὸν τὸν κολληθέντα ἡμῖν, ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν εἰς τοὺς πόδας ἀπομασσόμεθα ὑμῖν; πλὴν τοῦτο γινώσκετε, ὅτι ἤγγικεν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Even the dust that clings to us from your city on our feet we wipe off against you! But know this, that the kingdom of God has come near

Luke is quoting Jesus, and Jesus is quoting what he wants his disciples to say. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation (continuing from the end of the previous verse): “that you are going to wipe even the dust from their city off your feet as a warning to them, but that you still want them to know that the kingdom of God came close to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

1663

LUK

10

11

bc9h

translate-symaction

καὶ τὸν κονιορτὸν τὸν κολληθέντα ἡμῖν, ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν εἰς τοὺς πόδας ἀπομασσόμεθα ὑμῖν

1

Even the dust that clings to us from your city on our feet we wipe off against you

This is a symbolic action by which these disciples are to show that they do not want to have the slightest connection with the people of any city who reject Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain its significance. Alternate translation: “Because you have rejected Jesus, we want to have nothing to do with you. We do not even want to have the dust from your town on our feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1664

LUK

10

11

l634

figs-youdual

ἀπομασσόμεθα

1

we wipe off

Since Jesus was sending these people out in groups of two, two people would be saying this. So languages that have a dual form of “we” should use that form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1665

LUK

10

11

s7ks

figs-idiom

πλὴν τοῦτο γινώσκετε

1

But know this

The phrase introduces a warning. Alternate translation: “But we must warn you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1666

LUK

10

11

fdk3

figs-abstractnouns

ἤγγικεν ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the kingdom of God has come near

See how you translated the similar sentence in 10:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1667

LUK

10

12

hhl1

λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅτι

1

I say to you that

Jesus says this to emphasize that what he is about to tell these disciples is very important. Alternate translation: “Take special note that”

1668

LUK

10

12

l568

figs-idiom

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ

1

on that day

Jesus is using the term day to refer figuratively to a specific time. Alternate translation: “when God judges everyone for what they have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1669

LUK

10

12

m7ch

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ

1

on that day

Jesus expected his disciples to understand that he was referring to the time when God will bring final judgment. Alternate translation: “when God judges everyone for what they have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1670

LUK

10

12

qg62

figs-metonymy

Σοδόμοις…ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται, ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ

1

it will be more tolerable for Sodom than for that city

Jesus uses the name of the city, Sodom, to refer figuratively to the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “God will judge the people of that town more severely than he will judge the people of Sodom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1671

LUK

10

12

l569

figs-explicit

Σοδόμοις…ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται, ἢ τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ

1

it will be more tolerable for Sodom than for that city

Jesus assumes that these disciples will know that God destroyed the city of Sodom because the people in it were so wicked. The implication is that it must therefore be an extremely serious offense to reject the messengers of the kingdom of God. Alternate translation: “God will judge the people of that town more severely than he will judge the people of Sodom, even though he destroyed their city because they were so wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1672

LUK

10

13

sf42

figs-apostrophe

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

1

Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida!

Jesus is speaking figuratively to two cities that he knows cannot hear him. He is doing this to show in a very strong way how he feels about those cities. He is actually speaking to the people who can hear him, the disciples whom he is sending out. If your readers might not understand this kind of figurative speech, you could translate Jesus’ words as if he were speaking directly to his disciples. Alternate translation: “Chorazin and Bethsaida are two of the cities whose people God will judge severely for rejecting my message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

1673

LUK

10

13

l570

figs-idiom

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

1

Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida!

See how you translated this phrase in 6:24. Alternate translation: “how terrible it will be for you, Chorazin and Bethsaida!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1674

LUK

10

13

l571

figs-metonymy

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

1

Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida!

Jesus is using the names of these cities to refer figuratively to the people who live there. Alternate translation: “How terrible it will be for you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1675

LUK

10

13

l572

figs-you

οὐαί σοι, Χοραζείν! οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά!

1

Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida!

Jesus is addressing an individual city in each of these phrases, so you is singular in both cases. However, if you decide to translate this as “you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida,” then you would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1676

LUK

10

13

l573

translate-names

Χοραζείν…Βηθσαϊδά!

1

Chorazin … Bethsaida

These are the names of two cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1677

LUK

10

13

mvq5

figs-hypo

ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις, αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν…μετενόησαν

1

For if the mighty works that happened in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago

Jesus is describing a situation that might have happened in the past but actually did not. He is doing this to express disappointment and regret about what is happening in the present. Be sure to translate this in such a way that your readers will know that this event actually did not happen but they will understand why Jesus is imagining it. Alternate translation: “I can well imagine that if the people of Tyre and Sidon had witnessed the miracles that I performed for you, they would have repented a long time ago” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1678

LUK

10

13

l574

figs-explicit

ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγενήθησαν αἱ δυνάμεις, αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν…μετενόησαν

1

For if the mighty works that happened in you had happened in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago

Jesus assumes that these disciples will know that God destroyed the cities of Tyre and Sidon because the people in them were so wicked. So the implication is similar to the one about the people of Sodom. Alternate translation: “God destroyed the cities of Tyre and Sidon because they were so wicked. But even the people who lived in those cities would have repented if they had seen the miracles I did in Chorazin and Bethsaida. So the people of Chorazin and Bethsaida certainly should have repented as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1679

LUK

10

13

l575

figs-metonymy

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι

1

Tyre and Sidon

Jesus uses the names of these cities to refer figuratively to the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “the people of Tyre and Sidon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1680

LUK

10

13

l576

translate-names

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι

1

Tyre and Sidon

Tyre and Sidon are the names of two cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1681

LUK

10

13

l577

figs-youdual

αἱ δυνάμεις, αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν

1

the mighty works that happened in you

Since Jesus is addressing two cities, you would be dual here if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1682

LUK

10

13

it4x

translate-symaction

ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ καθήμενοι μετενόησαν

1

they would have repented … sitting in sackcloth and ashes

Jesus is saying that the people of Tyre and Sidon would have performed these actions, which are signs of humility and sorrow, to show that they were very sorry for committing their sins. Alternate translation: “they would have shown how sorry they were for their sins … by sitting on the ground wearing rough clothes and putting ashes on their heads” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1683

LUK

10

14

l578

figs-metonymy

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται…ἢ ὑμῖν

1

it will be more tolerable for Tyre and for Sidon … than for you

Jesus uses the names of these cities, Tyre and Sidon, to refer figuratively to the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “God will judge you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida more severely than he will judge the people who lived in Tyre and Sidon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1684

LUK

10

14

ikt3

figs-explicit

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται…ἢ ὑμῖν

1

it will be more tolerable for Tyre and for Sidon … than for you

Jesus assumes that these disciples will know that God destroyed the cities of Tyre and Sidon because the people in them were so wicked. The implication, as in the case of Sodom, is that it must therefore be an extremely grave offense to reject the messengers of the kingdom of God. Alternate translation: “God will judge you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida more severely than he will judge the people who lived in Tyre and Sidon, even though he destroyed their cities because they were so wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1685

LUK

10

14

l579

figs-explicit

Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι, ἀνεκτότερον ἔσται…ἢ ὑμῖν

1

it will be more tolerable for Tyre and for Sidon … than for you

It may be helpful to state clearly the reason why God will judge Chorazin and Bethsaida. Alternate translation: “because you did not repent and believe in me even though you saw me do miracles, God will judge you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida more severely than he will judge the people who lived in Tyre and Sidon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1686

LUK

10

14

txw5

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ κρίσει

1

at the judgment

The disciples would have understood that Jesus was referring to the time when God will bring final judgment. Alternate translation: “at the time when God judges everyone for what they have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1687

LUK

10

14

l580

figs-youdual

ὑμῖν

1

you

Since Jesus is addressing two cities, you would be dual here if your language uses that form. Otherwise, it would be plural. Alternate translation: “you people of Chorazin and Bethsaida” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

1688

LUK

10

15

h28u

figs-apostrophe

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

1

you, Capernaum, you will not be exalted to heaven, will you?

Jesus is speaking figuratively to another city that he knows cannot hear him. He is doing this once again to show in a very strong way how he feels about this city. He is actually speaking to the people who can hear him, the disciples whom he is sending out. If your readers might not understand this kind of figurative speech, you could translate Jesus’ words as if he were speaking directly to his disciples. Alternate translation: “The people of Capernaum are wrong to think that God is going to honor them greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

1689

LUK

10

15

l581

figs-doublenegatives

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

1

you, Capernaum, you will not be exalted to heaven, will you?

In Greek, the first word of the question that Jesus asks Capernaum is a negative word that can be used to turn a negative statement into a question that expects a negative answer. ULT shows this by adding, will you? Your language may have other ways of asking a question that expects a negative answer, for example, by changing the word order of a positive statement. Translate this in the way that would be clearest in your language. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum, do you really think that God is going to honor you greatly?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1690

LUK

10

15

enp6

figs-rquestion

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

1

you, Capernaum, you will not be exalted to heaven, will you?

Jesus is using the question form to teach. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate his words as a statement. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum are wrong to think that God is going to honor you greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1691

LUK

10

15

gk9v

figs-metaphor

σύ, Καφαρναούμ, μὴ ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ?

1

you, Capernaum, you will not be exalted to heaven, will you?

To be exalted or “lifted up” is a spatial metaphor that figuratively indicates receiving honor. To be lifted all the way up to heaven (or “to the sky,” another possible meaning) figuratively means to receive very great honor. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum are wrong to think that God is going to honor you greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1692

LUK

10

15

l582

figs-metonymy

σύ, Καφαρναούμ

1

you, Capernaum

Jesus uses the name of this city to refer figuratively to the people who live there. Alternate translation: “you people of Capernaum” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1693

LUK

10

15

l583

figs-you

σύ, Καφαρναούμ

1

you, Capernaum

Jesus is addressing an individual city, so you is singular here and in the rest of this verse. However, if you decide to translate this as “you people of Capernaum,” then you would be plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1694

LUK

10

15

l584

translate-names

Καφαρναούμ

1

Capernaum

Capernaum is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1695

LUK

10

15

l585

figs-activepassive

ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ

1

you will … be exalted to heaven

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “God is going to honor you greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1696

LUK

10

15

l586

figs-explicit

ἕως οὐρανοῦ ὑψωθήσῃ

1

you will … be exalted to heaven

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state the reason why the people of Capernaum think that God would want to honor them. Alternate translation: “God is going to honor you greatly because you are such good people and your city is so prosperous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1697

LUK

10

15

l587

figs-metaphor

τοῦ ᾍδου καταβήσῃ

1

You will be brought down as far as Hades

To be brought down is another spatial metaphor. It figuratively indicates experiencing punishment and dishonor. To be brought down all the way to Hades, the underworld (that is, the abode of the dead), figuratively means to receive very great punishment or dishonor. Alternate translation: “God is going to punish you severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1698

LUK

10

15

bjh5

figs-activepassive

τοῦ ᾍδου καταβήσῃ

1

You will be brought down as far as Hades

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “God is going to punish you severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1699

LUK

10

15

l588

figs-explicit

τοῦ ᾍδου καταβήσῃ

1

You will be brought down as far as Hades

It may be helpful to state clearly the reason why God will judge Capernaum. Alternate translation: “God is going to punish you severely because you did not repent and believe in me, even though you saw me do miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1700

LUK

10

16

i786

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἀκούων ὑμῶν, ἐμοῦ ἀκούει

1

The one who listens to you listens to me

You could translate this metaphor as a simile. Alternate translation: “When someone listens to you, it is as if they were listening to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1701

LUK

10

16

q56b

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἀθετῶν ὑμᾶς, ἐμὲ ἀθετεῖ

1

the one who rejects you rejects me

You could also translate this metaphor as a simile. Alternate translation: “when someone rejects you, it is as if they were rejecting me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1702

LUK

10

16

g3fx

figs-metaphor

ὁ…ἐμὲ ἀθετῶν, ἀθετεῖ τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με

1

the one who rejects me rejects the one who sent me

You could also translate this metaphor as a simile. Alternate translation: “when someone rejects me, it is as if they were rejecting the one who sent me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1703

LUK

10

16

eus8

figs-explicit

τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με

1

the one who sent me

This refers implictly to God, who appointed Jesus for this special task. Alternate translation: “God who sent me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1704

LUK

10

17

m7nh

figs-explicit

ὑπέστρεψαν δὲ οἱ ἑβδομήκοντα δύο

1

then the 72 returned

Some languages will need to say that the 72 actually went out first, as UST does. Alternate translation: “So the 72 disciples went out and did as Jesus had told them to do, and then they returned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1705

LUK

10

17

prj8

translate-textvariants

ἑβδομήκοντα δύο

1

72

As in 10:1, see the discussion of textual issues at the end of the General Notes to this chapter to decide whether to say 72 or “70” in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1706

LUK

10

17

l589

figs-activepassive

τὰ δαιμόνια ὑποτάσσεται ἡμῖν

1

the demons are subjected to us

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the demons obey us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1707

LUK

10

17

cx7b

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου

1

in your name

The term name refers figuratively to Jesus’ power and authority. Alternate translation: “when we command them using the authority that you gave us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1708

LUK

10

18

a37w

figs-simile

ἐθεώρουν τὸν Σατανᾶν ὡς ἀστραπὴν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα

1

I was watching Satan fall from heaven like lightning

Jesus uses a simile to express that while his 72 disciples were out proclaiming the kingdom of God, he discerned that this was a quick and decisive defeat for Satan. If your readers would be familiar with lightning, you could use the same simile in your translation. Otherwise, you could use another comparison to something that happens rapidly and evidently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1709

LUK

10

18

v8fl

figs-metaphor

ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα

1

fall from heaven

While Jesus actually did see this in his vision, if it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain the meaning of this image, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1710

LUK

10

18

l590

translate-names

Σατανᾶν

1

Satan

Satan is the name of the devil. It occurs a few more times in this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1711

LUK

10

19

l591

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Jesus uses behold to focus his disciples’ attention on what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1712

LUK

10

19

xl7q

figs-metaphor

τὴν ἐξουσίαν τοῦ πατεῖν ἐπάνω ὄφεων καὶ σκορπίων

1

authority to tread on snakes and scorpions

This could mean: (1) Jesus is referring to actual snakes and scorpions and saying that God will protect his disciples from these dangers everywhere they travel to proclaim the kingdom. Alternate translation: “protection from snakes and scorpions, even if you step on them” (2) the phrase snakes and scorpions is a figurative way of describing evil spirits. Alternate translation: “the power to defeat evil spirits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1713

LUK

10

19

l592

translate-unknown

ὄφεων

1

snakes

In context, this clearly means poisonous snakes. If your readers would not be familiar with snakes, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “poisonous biting animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1714

LUK

10

19

mla6

translate-unknown

σκορπίων

1

scorpions

The term scorpions describes small animals that are related to spiders. They have two claws and a poisonous stinger in their tail. If your readers would not be familiar with scorpions, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “poisonous stinging animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1715

LUK

10

19

uvt4

figs-explicit

καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ ἐχθροῦ

1

and over all the power of the enemy

This phrase continues the meaning from earlier in the sentence. The enemy is Satan, as described in the previous verse. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “I have also given you authority to overcome the resistance of Satan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1716

LUK

10

19

l593

figs-doublenegatives

οὐδὲν ὑμᾶς οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσῃ

1

nothing will harm you at all

Here Jesus uses a double negative for emphasis, “nothing in no way will hurt you.” The second negative does not cancel the first to create a positive meaning, “something in some way might hurt you.” If your language uses double negatives for emphasis that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1717

LUK

10

20

cs52

figs-hyperbole

ἐν τούτῳ μὴ χαίρετε, ὅτι τὰ πνεύματα ὑμῖν ὑποτάσσεται, χαίρετε δὲ ὅτι τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐνγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

do not rejoice in this, that the spirits are subjected to you, but rejoice that your names are written in the heavens

Jesus is not actually telling the disciples not to rejoice over the way God has allowed them to deliver people who were oppressed by demons. Rather, he is exaggerating to emphasize that the disciples should rejoice even more that their names are written in heaven. Alternate translation: “rejoice that your names are written in heaven even more than you rejoice that the spirits submit to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1718

LUK

10

20

l594

figs-activepassive

τὰ πνεύματα ὑμῖν ὑποτάσσεται

1

the spirits are subjected to you

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the demons must obey you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1719

LUK

10

20

s4cj

figs-activepassive

τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐνγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

your names are written in the heavens

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who has done the action. Alternate translation: “God has written down your names in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1720

LUK

10

20

l595

figs-explicit

τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐνγέγραπται ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

your names are written in the heavens

While it may be literally true that there is a written record of names in heaven, you may wish to express the meaning and significance of this in your translation. Alternate translation: “God in heaven knows that you belong to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1721

LUK

10

21

l596

figs-idiom

ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ

1

At that hour

Here Luke uses the term hour figuratively to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “At that same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1722

LUK

10

21

l597

figs-youformal

ἐξομολογοῦμαί σοι, Πάτερ

1

I thank you, Father

Use your best judgment about whether the formal or informal form of you would be more natural in your language here. Jesus is speaking as an adult son would to a father with whom he had a close relationship. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youformal]])

1723

LUK

10

21

mf9d

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Πάτερ

1

Father

Father is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1724

LUK

10

21

rs3w

figs-merism

Κύριε τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῆς γῆς

1

Lord of heaven and earth

Jesus is using a figure of speech to describe something by naming its two components. Together heaven and earth represent everything that exists. Alternate translation: “you who rule over everything that exists” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1725

LUK

10

21

n6xb

figs-extrainfo

ταῦτα

1

these things

Jesus is likely using this expression to refer to his identity as God’s Son and God’s identity as his Father. He describes these things in the next verse and says that only people to whom he reveals these identities can understand them, just as he says here that they are revealed only to certain people. Since the expression is explained in the next verse, you do not need to explain its meaning further here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

1726

LUK

10

21

l598

figs-nominaladj

σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν

1

the wise and intelligent

Jesus is using the adjectives wise and intelligent as nouns in order to indicate people who have those qualities. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you can translate this with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “people who are wise and intelligent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1727

LUK

10

21

i2zf

figs-irony

σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν

1

the wise and intelligent

Because God had concealed the truth from these people, they actually were not wise and intelligent, even though they thought they were. Alternate translation: “people who think they are wise and intelligent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1728

LUK

10

21

l599

figs-doublet

σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν

1

the wise and intelligent

The terms wise and intelligent mean similar things. Jesus uses the two terms together for emphasis. Alternate translation: “people who think they understand everything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1729

LUK

10

21

a175

figs-metaphor

νηπίοις

1

infants

Infants refers figuratively to people who may not have much education, but who are willing to accept Jesus’ teachings in the same way that little children willingly listen to those they trust. You could explain the meaning of this metaphor in your translation, or you could translate it as a simile, as UST does. Alternate translation: “people who trust my teachings implicitly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1730

LUK

10

21

nm6t

figs-metaphor

ἔμπροσθέν σου

1

before you

Jesus says before you to mean “where you could see” or “in your sight.” Sight, in turn, figuratively means attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “in your judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1731

LUK

10

22

e47e

figs-activepassive

πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός μου

1

All things have been handed over to me from my Father

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “My Father has handed everything over to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1732

LUK

10

22

l600

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐδεὶς γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς, εἰ μὴ ὁ Πατήρ

1

no one knows who the Son is except the Father

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus is making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “only the Father knows who the Son is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

1733

LUK

10

22

six4

γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς

1

knows who the Son is

Here, the Greek word translated knows means to know from personal experience. God the Father knows Jesus in this way. Alternate translation: “is acquainted with the Son” or “is acquainted with me”

1734

LUK

10

22

xm3s

figs-123person

γινώσκει τίς ἐστιν ὁ Υἱὸς

1

knows who the Son is

Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “knows who I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1735

LUK

10

22

fp68

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Υἱὸς…ὁ Πατήρ

1

the Son … the Father

These are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1736

LUK

10

22

rkt2

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐδεὶς γινώσκει…τίς ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ, εἰ μὴ ὁ Υἱὸς

1

no one knows … who the Father is except the Son

If, in your language, it would appear that Jesus is making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “only the Son knows who the Father is” or “only I know who the Father is” or “only I am acquainted with the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

1737

LUK

10

22

zg14

γινώσκει…τίς ἐστιν ὁ Πατὴρ

1

knows … who the Father is

Here the Greek word translated knows means to know from personal experience. Jesus knows God his Father in this way. Alternate translation: “is acquainted with the Father” or “am acquainted with the Father”

1738

LUK

10

22

evw3

ᾧ ἐὰν βούληται ὁ Υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι

1

to whomever the Son desires to reveal him

Alternate translation: “whoever the Son wants to introduce the Father to” or (if you translated in the first person) “whoever I want to introduce the Father to”

1739

LUK

10

23

yd5s

figs-explicit

καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς κατ’ ἰδίαν, εἶπεν

1

And having turned around to the disciples, he said privately

The implication is that a crowd was present when the 72 disciples returned to report to Jesus what they had done, and that this crowd heard what Jesus told them and what he prayed to God. But now Jesus is speaking only to the disciples in a way that the crowd will not be able to hear him. Alternate translation: “Then Jesus said, in the direction of his disciples so that only they could hear him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1740

LUK

10

23

l601

figs-synecdoche

μακάριοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ βλέποντες ἃ βλέπετε

1

Blessed are the eyes that see what you see

Jesus is using the term eyes to describe these disciples by reference to one part of them, the part they are using to witness the great works that reveal who he is. Alternate translation: “How good it is for you to see what you see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1741

LUK

10

23

mq23

figs-explicit

μακάριοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ οἱ βλέποντες ἃ βλέπετε

1

Blessed are the eyes that see what you see

The phrase what you see probably refers to the great works of healing and miracles that Jesus is doing, which reveal who he is. Alternate translation: “How good it is for you to see the things that I am doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1742

LUK

10

24

f32w

figs-explicit

καὶ οὐκ εἶδαν

1

and did not see

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could give the reason why the prophets and kings did not see these things. Alternate translation: “but could not see them because they lived before this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1743

LUK

10

24

q61s

figs-explicit

ἃ ἀκούετε

1

what you hear

The phrase what you hear probably refers to the teachings of Jesus. Alternate translation: “the things that you have heard me say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1744

LUK

10

24

mb4b

figs-explicit

καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν

1

and did not hear

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could give the reason why the prophets and kings did not hear these things. Alternate translation: “but could not hear them because they lived before this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1745

LUK

10

25

l602

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

behold

Luke uses the term behold to calls the reader’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1746

LUK

10

25

klh4

writing-participants

νομικός τις

1

a certain lawyer

Luke uses this phrase to introduce a new character into the story. If your language has its own way of doing that, you can use it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “there was a lawyer who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1747

LUK

10

25

l603

translate-unknown

νομικός

1

lawyer

See how you translated this in 7:30. Alternate translation: “an expert in the Jewish law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1748

LUK

10

25

l604

translate-symaction

ἀνέστη

1

stood up

By standing up, this lawyer was indicating that he had a question to ask Jesus. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain that this was the reason for his action. Alternate translation: “stood up to show that he wanted to ask a question” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1749

LUK

10

25

c6ac

ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν

1

to test him

Alternate translation: “to see how well he would answer”

1750

LUK

10

25

l605

Διδάσκαλε

1

Teacher

Teacher was a respectful title. You can translate it with an equivalent term that your language and culture would use.

1751

LUK

10

25

dh16

figs-metaphor

τί ποιήσας, ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω?

1

doing what, will I inherit everlasting life?

The lawyer is using the term inherit in a figurative sense to mean “come to possess” or “have.” Alternate translation: “what must I do in order to have everlasting life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1752

LUK

10

25

l606

figs-verbs

τί ποιήσας, ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω?

1

Doing what, will I inherit eternal life?

This lawyer may be asking about a single deed that would be worthy of eternal life, because he uses a verb form that does not indicate continuing action. Alternate translation: “What one thing do I need to do so that God will give me eternal life?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-verbs]])

1753

LUK

10

25

ls03

figs-metaphor

τί ποιήσας, ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω

1

doing what, will I inherit everlasting life

The lawyer means implicitly that he would inherit or “come to possess” this everlasting life from God. Alternate translation: “what must I do so that God will give me everlasting life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1754

LUK

10

26

nj77

figs-rquestion

ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται? πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις?

1

What is written in the law? How do you read it?

Jesus is using these questions to get this man to reflect on the Jewish law and apply it to his own question. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could translate this as a statement that incorporates both of Jesus’ questions. Alternate translation: “Tell me what Moses wrote about that in the law and how you understand it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1755

LUK

10

26

l607

figs-parallelism

ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται? πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις?

1

What is written in the law? How do you read it?

These two phrases mean similar things. Jesus may be using repetition for emphasis and clarity. Both phrases have to do with what the law says. The first phrase views this objectively in terms of what is written there, and the second phrase views this subjectively from the perspective of a person reading it. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if your readers might wonder why Jesus was saying basically the same thing twice. Alternate translation: “Tell me what answer a person would find to your question in the law of Moses.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1756

LUK

10

26

m2nl

figs-activepassive

ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται?

1

What is written in the law?

If your readers would misunderstand this, you could express this with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “What did Moses write in the law?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1757

LUK

10

26

a8nt

figs-idiom

πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις?

1

How do you read it?

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “What do you understand it to be saying?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1758

LUK

10

27

l608

figs-hendiadys

ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν

1

And answering he said

Together answering and said mean that the lawyer responded to the question that Jesus asked him. Alternate translation: “The lawyer responded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1759

LUK

10

27

l609

figs-youcrowd

ἀγαπήσεις

1

you will love

Here it may not be clear whether to use the singular or plural form of you because this is a short quotation from the Scriptures and the context is not given. The word is actually singular because, even though Moses said this to the Israelites as a group, each individual person was supposed to obey this command. So in your translation, use the singular forms of you your, and yourself in this verse, if your language marks that distinction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youcrowd]])

1760

LUK

10

27

hxk1

figs-declarative

ἀγαπήσεις

1

you will love

The Scriptures are using a statement to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

1761

LUK

10

27

fzb6

figs-merism

ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ἰσχύϊ σου, καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου

1

with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind

Moses is using a figure of speech that describes something by listing its parts. Alternate translation: “with your entire bein