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2

JOB

front

intro

u3jc

0

Introduction to Job

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Job

  1. Job is introduced (1:1–2:13)
    • Job is blameless and wealthy (1:1–5)
    • Yahweh allows Satan to test Job (1:6–2:10)
  2. Three friends speak to Job (3:1–14:22)
    • Eliphaz, Bildad, and ZopharJob replies to each
  3. They speak to him again (15:1–21:34)
    • Eliphaz, Bildad, and ZopharJob replies to each
  4. They speak a third time (22:1–31:40)
    • Eliphaz and BildadJob replies to each
  5. Elihu speaks to Job (32:1–37:24)
  6. Yahweh answers Job out of the whirlwind (38:1–41:34)
  7. Job is humbled before Yahweh (42:1–6)
  8. Yahweh rebukes Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar (42:7–9)
  9. Yahweh prospers Job again (42:10–17)

What is the Book of Job about?

The Book of Job is about a man named Job who experienced disaster even though he was faithful to Yahweh. Job speaks with three friends and asks why Yahweh lets him experience trials and losses. The book teaches that we cannot understand all of Yahweh’s ways, and when we suffer, it is more important to trust Yahweh than it is to understand the reason for the suffering.

How should the title of this book be translated?

The Book of Job is named for Job, the main character in the book. His name is not related to the English word “job.” Translators might use the traditional title of “The Book of Job” or just “Job.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “The Book About Job” or “The Book About a Man Named Job.”

Who wrote the Book of Job?

We do not know who wrote the Book of Job. Many people suggest that Moses composed or compiled the book, but it may have been written after the time of Moses.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

Does sin cause suffering?

When a person sins against Yahweh, it can cause the person to experience suffering. People in the ancient Near East generally believed that a person suffered because they or their ancestors sinned against God. This is what many religions teach. However, the Book of Job shows that a person may suffer even if he or she has not sinned. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Were Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar really Job’s friends?

Job 2:11 refers to Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar as the friends of Job. But they did not comfort Job. Instead, they tried to persuade Job to say something about God that Job believed was not true. So we might wonder if it is right to translate the word as “friends.” They did care about Job and they wanted to help him. However, what they said did not help Job because they did not understand the truth about God.

When did the events in the Book of Job take place?

We do not know when the events in the Book of Job took place. It seems to be set around the time of Abraham and Isaac in the Book of Genesis. However, some verses are similar to ones in the Books of Proverbs and Isaiah, which are set much later.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What style of writing is in the Book of Job?

The writer starts and ends the Book of Job by telling what happened to Job in narrative form. He wrote the other parts in poetry form. In the ancient Near East, writers often used poetry to discuss matters of wisdom.

Is the Book of Job difficult to translate?

The Book of Job has many uncommon words and phrases, making parts of it hard to understand translate. For this reason, translators may decide to translate this book after they have translated other books of the Bible. However, since the writer did not connect Job with a specific time or place in history, the translator may decide to translate this book before other Old Testament books.

3

JOB

1

intro

lym1

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Job 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter introduces a story about a man named Job who lives during a time long before the author.

Special concepts in this chapter

Wealth

Job is very rich. During his time, a man’s wealth is measured by the number of animals he owns. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Feasts

Job is a very godly man and celebrates Yahweh’s provision by having feasts. It must be remembered that Job lives prior to the law of Moses, so his religious practices are different than the Hebrew people after Moses. The events of this book occur about the same time as the life of Abraham. Therefore, this book corresponds more with Genesis 12-50 than the rest of the Old Testament. (See:[[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]])

Job’s faith

Satan believes that Job’s faith is based on Yahweh’s blessings. He challenges Yahweh to remove these blessings from Job’s life because he thinks that Job will no longer trust in Yahweh if this happens. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

4

JOB

1

1

k5g4

translate-names

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land of Uz

Possible locations are: (1) a place in ancient Edom east of the Jordan River in modern western Jordan or (2) a place east of the Euphrates River in modern Iran. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

5

JOB

1

1

r5aj

figs-doublet

0

blameless and upright

The words “blameless” and “upright” share similar meanings and emphasize that Job was a righteous man. Alternate translation: “one who did what was right before God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

6

JOB

1

1

qj15

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one who feared God

Alternate translation: “one who honored God”

7

JOB

1

1

y3ar

figs-metaphor

0

turned from evil

Here evil is spoken of as if it were a place that a person could avoid going to, instead of the doing of evil actions. Alternate translation: “refused to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

8

JOB

1

2

ntr7

translate-numbers

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seven sons and three daughters

“7 sons and 3 daughters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

9

JOB

1

3

t1ua

translate-numbers

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He possessed seven thousand sheep

“He had 7,000 sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

10

JOB

1

3

mmd3

translate-numbers

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three thousand camels

“3,000 camels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

11

JOB

1

3

l5f2

translate-numbers

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five hundred pairs of oxen

“500 pairs of oxen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

12

JOB

1

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x4bu

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the greatest

Alternate translation: “the richest”

13

JOB

1

3

csw9

figs-explicit

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all the people of the East

The refers to places that were east of Canaan. Alternate translation: “all the people who live in lands that were east of Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

14

JOB

1

4

i4lf

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On each son’s assigned day, he would give

The word “day” perhaps refers to the day when they celebrated the son’s birth. But it at least refers to the idea that the sons each took a turn in holding a feast. Alternate translation: “On each son’s birthday, the son would give” or “Each son in turn would give”

15

JOB

1

4

ey91

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he would give … They would send and call for

“he habitually gave … They habitually sent and called for “

16

JOB

1

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x3v2

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with them

The word “them” refers to the seven sons and the three daughters but does not include Job.

17

JOB

1

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ik8z

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Job would send … he would consecrate … He would rise early in the morning and offer … he would say

Alternate translation: “he habitually gave … They habitually sent and called for … Job habitually sent … he habitually consecrated … He habitually rose early in the morning and offered … he habitually said”

18

JOB

1

5

s2c6

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When the days of the feast were over

Alternate translation: “When the feast was over” or “After the feast”

19

JOB

1

5

w9xc

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Job would send for them

Alternate translation: “Job habitually sent someone to call them to come to him”

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JOB

1

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k14m

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he would consecrate them

Here “consecrate” means to ask God to take away any ritual impurities that Job’s children might have brought upon themselves as they happily feasted together. Job did this by making sacrifices to God for them.

21

JOB

1

5

du2j

figs-metonymy

0

cursed God in their hearts

Their “hearts” represent their thoughts. Often such thoughts could come unintentionally, without the person wanting to think them. Alternate translation: “cursed God in their thoughts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

22

JOB

1

6

i5iw

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Then it was the day when

“At the time when” or “One day when.” This is not a specific day but apparently the gathering happened often.

23

JOB

1

6

n2re

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sons of God

This refers to angels, heavenly beings.

24

JOB

1

6

uwv6

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to present themselves before Yahweh

Alternate translation: “to stand together before Yahweh as he commanded them to do.”

25

JOB

1

6

k7e8

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Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

26

JOB

1

7

plj3

figs-parallelism

0

From wandering on the earth, from going back and forth on it

The phrases “wandering” and “going back and forth” refer to the activity of traveling all over the earth in order to emphasize its completeness. Alternate translation: “From going everywhere on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

27

JOB

1

8

s9h2

figs-rquestion

0

Have you considered my servant Job?

“Have you thought about my servant Job?” Here God is beginning to talk with Satan about Job. Alternate translation: “Consider my servant Job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

28

JOB

1

8

ncu7

figs-doublet

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a blameless and upright man

The words “blameless” and “upright” share similar meanings and emphasize that Job was a righteous man. See how you translated this in Job 1:1. Alternate translation: “one who did what was right before God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

29

JOB

1

8

n9a8

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one who fears God

“one who honors God.” See how you translated this in Job 1:1.

30

JOB

1

9

i5tn

figs-rquestion

0

Does Job fear God without reason?

“Does Job respect God for no reason?” Satan responds to God by presenting and answering his own question. He says that Job obeys God only because God blesses him. Alternate translation: “Job has a reason for obeying God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

31

JOB

1

10

f5z2

figs-rquestion

0

Have you not put a barrier around him, around his house, and around all that is his from every side

Satan states the facts to support his argument. Alternate translation: “You have protected him, his family and everything he owns” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

32

JOB

1

10

r7xt

figs-metaphor

0

put a barrier around him, around his house, and around all that is his from every side

Just as a barrier such as a wall or a hedge surrounds and protects one’s land, God has surrounded Job with his protection. Alternate translation: “protected him and his house and all that is his” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

33

JOB

1

10

l9et

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the deeds of his hands

Alternate translation: “everything that he does”

34

JOB

1

10

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his cattle have burst forth in the land

Alternate translation: “he has more and more livestock in the land”

35

JOB

1

11

k6w4

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But now stretch out your hand and touch all that he has, and see if he does not curse you to your face

Satan means that if God attacks Job, he will see how Job responds. Alternate translation: “But now, if you stretch out your hand and touch all that he has, you will see that he will curse you to your face”

36

JOB

1

11

y4qi

figs-metonymy

0

But now stretch out your hand

Here “hand” refers to God’s power to act. “But now use your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

37

JOB

1

11

ax31

figs-metonymy

0

touch all that he has

Here “touch” represents the action of harming or destroying. Alternate translation: “attack all that he has” or “destroy all that he has” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

38

JOB

1

11

bn3v

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to your face

“in your hearing.” This refers to a time when God is paying attention.

39

JOB

1

12

d2uy

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Behold

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Pay attention to all that I am about to tell you”

40

JOB

1

12

bul4

figs-metonymy

0

all that he has is in your hand

Here “hand” represents someone’s power to control something. Alternate translation: “you have power over all that he has” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

41

JOB

1

12

b94v

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against him himself

Alternate translation: “against his life”

42

JOB

1

12

gn4s

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went away from the presence of Yahweh

Alternate translation: “departed from Yahweh” or “left Yahweh”

43

JOB

1

15

s7b7

translate-names

0

the Sabeans

This refers to a people in a region in modern day Yemen. Here it represents a group of raiders or bandits. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

44

JOB

1

15

eib3

figs-metaphor

0

fell on them

Here “fell” represents the idea of attacking. Alternate translation: “attacked them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

45

JOB

1

15

jw7q

figs-metonymy

0

have struck

Here striking represents killing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

46

JOB

1

15

ple3

figs-metaphor

0

the edge of the sword

Here “edge” represents the part of swords that kill people, that is, either the point or the sharp edge. Also, all the swords of the Sabeans are spoken of as if they were only one sword. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

47

JOB

1

16

a5g7

0

While he was still speaking

“he” refers to the first messenger

48

JOB

1

16

p6dx

figs-ellipsis

0

another also came

This refers to another messenger. Alternate translation: “another messenger also came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

49

JOB

1

16

bpd8

0

I alone have escaped to tell you

See how you translated this in Job 1:15.

50

JOB

1

17

mu5j

figs-metaphor

0

As for the servants, they have struck them with the edge of the sword. I alone have escaped to tell you

Here “edge” represents the part of swords that kill people, that is, either the point or the sharp edge. Also, all the swords of the Chaldeans are spoken of as if they were only one sword. See how you translated this in Job 1:15. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

51

JOB

1

18

s99m

0

Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house

See how you translated this in Job 1:13.

52

JOB

1

19

l53s

0

A strong wind

Alternate translation: “A tornado” or “A desert storm”

53

JOB

1

19

vau5

0

the four corners of the house

Alternate translation: “the structural supports of the house”

54

JOB

1

19

t6zp

0

It fell on the young people

Alternate translation: “The house fell on your sons and daughters”

55

JOB

1

19

s3kd

0

I alone have escaped to tell you

See how you translated this in Job 1:15.

56

JOB

1

20

d1w8

translate-symaction

0

tore his robe, shaved his head

These were ritual mourning actions, symbolizing deep grief. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

57

JOB

1

21

wph4

0

I was naked when I came out of my mother’s womb, and I will be naked when I will return there

Alternate translation: “At my birth, I brought nothing into the world, and at my death I will return to the earth with nothing”

58

JOB

1

22

l3ef

0

In all this matter

Alternate translation: “Regarding all this that happened”

59

JOB

1

22

xns1

0

accuse God of wrongdoing

Alternate translation: “say that God had done wrong”

60

JOB

2

intro

ke5i

0

Job 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter repeats the concepts of the previous chapter, but this time it is more severe. After losing his wealth, Job’s health is taken from him. His wife also begins to encourage Job to sin by cursing Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

61

JOB

2

1

rz1x

0

General Information:

This verse is almost exactly the same as Job 1:6 and can probably be translated in the same way.

62

JOB

2

1

r1zs

0

Then it was the day

See how you translated this in Job 1:6.

63

JOB

2

1

hst1

0

the day when

This is not a specific day. The gathering happened often. Alternate translation: “at the time when” or “one day when”

64

JOB

2

1

dg33

0

sons of God

See how you translated this in Job 1:6.

65

JOB

2

1

jay2

0

present themselves before Yahweh

See how you translated this in Job 1:6.

66

JOB

2

2

vu2m

0

General Information:

This verse is exactly the same as Job 1:7 and can probably be translated in the same way.

67

JOB

2

3

t8ds

0

General Information:

This verse is the same as Job 1:8, except for the addition of “He still holds fast to his integrity, although you misled me against him, to destroy him without cause.”

68

JOB

2

3

d12l

figs-rquestion

0

Have you considered my servant Job?

This rhetorical question actually makes a statement.See how you translated this in Job 1:8. Alternate translation: “Consider my servant Job.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

69

JOB

2

3

uz5k

figs-doublet

0

a blameless and upright man

The words “blameless” and “upright” share similar meanings and emphasize that Job was a righteous man. See how you translated a similar phrase in Job 1:1. Alternate translation: “one who did what was right before God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

70

JOB

2

3

eq69

0

one who fears God and turns away from evil

See how you translated this in Job 1:1.

71

JOB

2

3

awm6

0

still holds fast to his integrity

Alternate translation: “remains completely dedicated to doing what is good and right”

72

JOB

2

3

khj6

0

misled me against him

Alternate translation: “persuaded me without cause to attack him”

73

JOB

2

3

p2iq

0

to destroy him

Here “destroy” represents “make poor.” Alternate translation: “to make him a poor man”

74

JOB

2

4

s8ua

figs-metonymy

0

Skin for skin, indeed

“Skin” here is a metonym for Job’s life. Alternate translation: “A person will do anything to save his own life, even accept the loss of possessions and loved ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

75

JOB

2

5

d2rf

0

But stretch out your hand now and touch his bones and his flesh, and see if he does not curse you to your face

Satan means that if God attacks Job, he will see how Job responds. Alternate translation: “But now, if you stretch out your hand and touch his bones and his flesh, you will see that he will curse you to your face”

76

JOB

2

5

id2l

figs-metonymy

0

stretch out your hand

Here “hand” refers to God’s power to act. “But now use your power.” See how you translated this in Job 1:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

77

JOB

2

5

cz3l

figs-metonymy

0

touch

Here “touch” represents the action of harming. Alternate translation: “attack” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

78

JOB

2

5

qau8

figs-synecdoche

0

his bones and his flesh

This expression represents Job’s body. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

79

JOB

2

5

i3ij

0

curse you to your face

See how you translated this in Job 1:11.

80

JOB

2

5

b5lr

figs-metaphor

0

to your face

This refers to a time when God is paying attention. Alternate translation: “in your hearing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

81

JOB

2

7

fj98

0

Then Satan went away from the presence of Yahweh

See how you translated this in Job 1:12.

82

JOB

2

7

gtz9

0

He struck Job with painful boils

Alternate translation: “He caused Job to suffer greatly with painful boils”

83

JOB

2

7

ts4r

0

painful boils

large, itching and painful skin infections

84

JOB

2

8

k22q

0

a piece of broken pottery to scrape himself

The scraping scratches the skin to lessen the itch.

85

JOB

2

8

f72v

figs-euphemism

0

sat down in the middle of ashes

This probably refers to a place where trash and garbage were dumped and perhaps burned. Sitting in such a place was a sign of deep mourning. Alternate translation: “sat on the trash heap” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

86

JOB

2

9

v1yj

figs-rquestion

0

Do you still hold fast to your integrity?

This rhetorical question represents a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not still be holding fast to your integrity.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

87

JOB

2

9

wgb4

0

Curse God

Alternate translation: “Reject God”

88

JOB

2

10

p6a8

0

You talk as a foolish woman

Alternate translation: “You talk the way a stupid woman talks”

89

JOB

2

10

hrr4

figs-rquestion

0

Should we receive the good from God and not receive the bad?

This rhetorical question represents a statement. Alternate translation: “We should certainly receive the bad from God as well as the good.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

90

JOB

2

10

i8pq

0

receive the good

Alternate translation: “benefit from all the good things”

91

JOB

2

10

ltp4

figs-genericnoun

0

the good

This represents all the good things that God gives us. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

92

JOB

2

10

gz46

0

receive the bad

Alternate translation: “suffer all the bad things without complaining”

93

JOB

2

10

kiz6

figs-genericnoun

0

the bad

This represents all the bad things that God makes or allows us to experience. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

94

JOB

2

10

wj2i

figs-metonymy

0

sin with his lips

Here “lips” represents the act of speaking. Alternate translation: “sin by speaking against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

95

JOB

2

11

c4dm

translate-names

0

Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite

Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar are men’s names. Teman was a city in Edom. Shuhites are the decedents of Abraham and Keturah. Naamah was a city in Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

96

JOB

2

11

s59z

0

set a time

Alternate translation: “agreed on a time”

97

JOB

2

11

en96

figs-doublet

0

to mourn with him and to comfort him

Here the words “mourn with” and “comfort” share similar meanings. The friends try to comfort Job by mourning with him. Alternate translation: “to grieve with Job in order to help ease his suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

98

JOB

2

12

fu87

figs-idiom

0

they lifted up their eyes

This is an idiom that means “they looked intently” or “they looked carefully.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

99

JOB

2

12

kle6

0

they did not recognize him

This probably means that Job’s visitors did not recognize him at first, when they saw him at a distance. Job looked very different than usual because of his grief and because of the sores covering his body. Alternate translation: “they barely recognized him”

100

JOB

2

12

jd72

figs-idiom

0

They raised their voices and wept

Here “raised their voices” is an idiom that means they became loud. Alternate translation: “They wept out loud” or “They wept loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

101

JOB

2

12

ira1

translate-symaction

0

tore his robe

This was a sign of mourning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

102

JOB

2

12

zzf1

translate-symaction

0

threw dust into the air and upon his own head

These were signs of mourning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

103

JOB

3

intro

jci9

0

Job 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Job uses several rhetorical questions in this chapter. The purpose of these rhetorical questions is to show Job’s earnest desire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

104

JOB

3

1

hmv8

figs-idiom

0

opened his mouth

This idiom means he began to speak. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

105

JOB

3

3

z3eb

figs-personification

0

May the day on which I was born perish, the night

Job speaks of that day and night as if they were people. Alternate translation: “I wish that I had never been born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

106

JOB

3

3

zca2

figs-ellipsis

0

the night that said, ‘A boy has been conceived.’

This expression intensifies the statement of Job’s grief by going even further back in time from his birth to his conception. Alternate translation: “the night that said, ‘A boy has been conceived’ perish.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

107

JOB

3

3

q9nj

figs-personification

0

the night that said

Here the night is spoken of as if it were a person who could speak. The translator may choose, however, to translate it in a less metaphorical way. Alternate translation: “the night about which people said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

108

JOB

3

3

ka1k

0

A boy has been conceived

This may be put into active form. Alternate translation: “his mother has conceived a male child”

109

JOB

3

4

l7yy

0

General Information:

The expressions in these verses are all wishes that the day of Job’s birth would no longer exist. This may imply that the day, although in the past, still existed somehow. The UST translates them as expressions of sadness about what that day was like.

110

JOB

3

4

hr5h

figs-parallelism

0

May that day be dark … neither may the sun shine on it

These two clauses describe the darkness of the day of Job’s birth, thus repeating Job’s regret that he had been born. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

111

JOB

3

4

n4h1

figs-metaphor

0

May that day be dark

This is a wish for that day to not exist any longer. Alternate translation: “may that day disappear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

112

JOB

3

5

xpc5

figs-personification

0

May darkness and the shadow of death claim it for their own

Here darkness and the shadow of death are spoken of as if they were people who could claim something as their own possession. The word “it” refers to the day of Job’s birth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

113

JOB

3

5

lz4e

figs-metaphor

0

the shadow of death

Here a shadow represents death itself. Alternate translation: “death like a shadow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

114

JOB

3

5

ci87

figs-metaphor

0

May a cloud live over it

Here a cloud is spoken of as if it were a person who could live over the day of Job’s birth. Alternate translation: “May a cloud cover it so no one can see it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

115

JOB

3

5

tz1j

figs-metaphor

0

everything that makes the day black

This refers to things that block out the sun’s light and create darkness. Here “black” represents darkness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

116

JOB

3

5

j4if

figs-personification

0

terrify it

“terrify that day.” The day is spoken of as if it were a person who could be terrified by the darkness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

117

JOB

3

6

g44b

figs-personification

0

may thick darkness seize it

This darkness is again spoken of as if it were a person who could grasp and hold the night. Alternate translation: “may thick darkness make it disappear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

118

JOB

3

6

mfe2

0

thick darkness

Alternate translation: “deep darkness” or “complete darkness”

119

JOB

3

6

hgn9

figs-personification

0

May it not rejoice

The word “it” refers to the night of Job’s birth or conception. The night of Job’s conception is spoken of as if it were a person who should not rejoice. Alternate translation: “May that night vanish from the calendar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

120

JOB

3

6

d2mp

figs-personification

0

may it not come into the number

That night is spoken of as if it were a person who could walk. Alternate translation: “may no one count it in the number” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

121

JOB

3

7

sh3e

figs-personification

0

may that night be barren

The night of Job’s birth is spoken of as if it were a woman. Alternate translation: “may no child be born on that night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

122

JOB

3

7

cdr2

figs-metaphor

0

may no joyful voice come into it

Here that the night of Job’s birth is spoken of as if it were a time when it was still possible for someone to be happy. Alternate translation: “may no one hear the happy cry at the birth of a son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

123

JOB

3

7

i8zr

figs-synecdoche

0

joyful voice come

Here the voice stands for a person who is happy. Alternate translation: “may no one be happy in it ever again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

124

JOB

3

8

i4gt

0

those who know how to wake up Leviathan

Job is probably referring here to sorcerers and magicians, who he believes might be able to even provoke Leviathan in spreading chaos. Leviathan was an animal well known in Ancient Near Eastern mythology, which was thought to be responsible for all kinds of destruction, disorder, and chaos.

125

JOB

3

9

eeu1

0

May the stars of that day’s dawn be dark

This refers to the planets that are often visible just before dawn. Alternate translation: “May the stars that appear before that day’s first light be dark”

126

JOB

3

9

fcl4

figs-personification

0

May that day look for light, but find none

The day of Job’s birth is spoken of as if it were a person looking for something. Alternate translation: “May that day hope for light, but have none” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

127

JOB

3

9

max2

figs-personification

0

neither may it see the eyelids of the dawn

The dawn is spoken of as if it had eyelids as a person has. Alternate translation: “nor see the first light of the dawn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

128

JOB

3

10

ta9d

figs-metaphor

0

because it did not shut up the doors of my mother’s womb

A woman’s womb is spoken of as if it were a container with doors. Alternate translation: “because that day did not close my mother’s womb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

129

JOB

3

10

juv2

figs-personification

0

because it did not hide trouble from my eyes

The day of Job’s birth is spoken of here as if it were a person who could hide something. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

130

JOB

3

10

e47i

figs-metonymy

0

from my eyes

Here “eyes” represents the person who sees with them. Alternate translation: “from me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

131

JOB

3

11

kur9

0

General Information:

This passage contains four rhetorical questions, which Job asks in order to really make a series of statements.

132

JOB

3

11

gg8p

figs-rquestion

0

Why did I not die when I came out from the womb?

“Why did I not die at birth?” Job poses this question in order to curse the day of his birth and to express his anguish. Alternate translation: “I wish I had died the day I was born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

133

JOB

3

11

mh8p

figs-rquestion

0

Why did I not give up my spirit when my mother bore me?

Job means to say that he should not have been born alive. Alternate translation: “I wish I had died when I came out of the womb.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

134

JOB

3

11

hh1m

figs-idiom

0

give up my spirit

This refers to dying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

135

JOB

3

12

v9p9

figs-rquestion

0

Why did her knees welcome me?

This perhaps refers to the lap of Job’s mother. His mother’s knees are spoken of as if they were people who could welcome a newborn baby. Alternate translation: “I wish there had been no lap to receive me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

136

JOB

3

12

j91k

figs-rquestion

0

Why did her breasts receive me so that I should suck?

Job’s mother’s breasts are spoken of as if they also were people who could welcome a newborn baby. Alternate translation: “I wish there had been no breasts for me to nurse.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

137

JOB

3

13

aal1

figs-hypo

0

Job begins talking about what would have been true if he had never been born. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

138

JOB

3

13

v6g8

figs-parallelism

0

For now I would have been lying down quietly. I would have slept and been at rest

Job uses two sentences to think about what it would be like if he had never been born or had died at birth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

139

JOB

3

13

pv57

figs-hypo

0

I would have been lying down quietly

Job imagines something that could have happened in the past but which did not happen, as noted above. Alternate translation: “I should have been lying down quietly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

140

JOB

3

13

hw7g

0

lying down quietly

Alternate translation: “asleep, resting peacefully”

141

JOB

3

13

e4ks

figs-idiom

0

been at rest

Here the word “rest” means to sleep peacefully, but also that Job would not be experiencing the pain that he does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

142

JOB

3

14

m4i4

0

with kings and counselors of the earth

Alternate translation: “with kings and their advisers”

143

JOB

3

15

kr3y

figs-hypo

0

Or I would have been lying

This describes something that might have happened but did not happen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

144

JOB

3

15

kq2m

figs-euphemism

0

I would have been lying with princes

“I would be resting with princes.” In this phrase, the words “lying” and “resting” are a polite way of saying “no longer alive.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

145

JOB

3

15

b79w

figs-parallelism

0

who once had gold, who had filled their houses with silver

Job uses parallelism to emphasize what he is saying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

146

JOB

3

16

qn46

0

I would have been stillborn

Alternate translation: “I would have died in my mother’s womb”

147

JOB

3

16

qu2s

0

like infants that never see the light

Alternate translation: “like babies who have never been born”

148

JOB

3

16

j5tv

0

infants

Alternate translation: “babies” or “very small children”

149

JOB

3

17

ip8q

0

General Information:

Job changes his talk from dying to life after death.

150

JOB

3

17

t3ap

figs-parallelism

0

There the wicked cease from trouble; there the weary are at rest

Job uses parallelism to emphasize that the lowly will find rest from those causing them hardship. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

151

JOB

3

17

ar3h

figs-explicit

0

There the wicked cease from trouble

Job is talking about the place where people go after they stop living. Alternate translation: “In that place, evil people stop causing trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

152

JOB

3

18

zbk5

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of the slave driver

Here “voice” is a metonym for the power that the slave drivers have over the slaves. Alternate translation: “They are no longer under the control of the slave drivers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

153

JOB

3

19

yv5l

figs-merism

0

small and great people

This is a figure of speech which means “all people, both poor people and rich people.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

154

JOB

3

19

xrv1

0

the servant is free from his master

A servant is no longer obligated to serve his master.

155

JOB

3

20

a8g2

figs-parallelism

0

Why is light given to him who is in misery? Why is life given to the one who is bitter in soul

Job’s two questions mean basically the same thing. He is wondering why those who face hardship continue to live. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

156

JOB

3

20

zq45

figs-rquestion

0

Why is light given to him who is in misery?

Here Job is wondering why people must stay alive and suffer. Alternate translation: “I do not understand why God gives life to a person who is suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

157

JOB

3

20

naz6

figs-metaphor

0

light

Here light represents life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

158

JOB

3

20

q28e

figs-rquestion

0

Why is life given to the one who is bitter in soul

“why does God give life to a miserable person?” Alternate translation: “I do not understand why God gives life to a person who is very unhappy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

159

JOB

3

21

hbh3

0

to one who longs … for hidden treasure

This is the end of the question that Job begins asking with the words “Why is life given … bitter in soul” (verse 20).

160

JOB

3

21

mg33

figs-metaphor

0

to one who longs for death without it coming

Here death is spoken of as if it were an object coming toward someone. Alternate translation: “to a person who no longer wants to be alive, but is still alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

161

JOB

3

21

lgj7

figs-metaphor

0

to one who digs for death more than for hidden treasure

A person hoping to die is spoken of as if he were digging for buried treasure. Alternate translation: “to a person who wants to stop living more than he wants to look for hidden riches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

162

JOB

3

22

p5zy

figs-rquestion

0

Why is light given to one who rejoices very much and is glad when he finds the grave

Here Job uses a question to make a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not understand why God allows a person to keep living when the person would be very happy to be buried in the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

163

JOB

3

22

z97v

figs-doublet

0

one who rejoices very much and is glad

The phrase “rejoices very much” means basically the same thing as “is glad.” Together, the two phrases emphasize the intensity of gladness. Alternate translation: “one who is extremely happy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

164

JOB

3

22

p53t

figs-euphemism

0

when he finds the grave

This is a polite way of referring to dying. Alternate translation: “when he is dead and can be buried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

165

JOB

3

22

ihl7

figs-metonymy

0

the grave

Here the grave represents death. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

166

JOB

3

23

fk1v

figs-rquestion

0

Why is light given to a man whose way is hidden, a man whom God has hedged in?

Job asks this question in order to make a statement. Alternate translation: “God should not give life to a man and then take away his future and confine him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

167

JOB

3

23

n6ge

figs-metaphor

0

Why is light given to a man

Here light represents life. Alternate translation: “Why does God keep a man alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

168

JOB

3

23

xgh3

figs-metaphor

0

whose way is hidden

Here Job speaks of his future, which he does not know in advance, as if God had hidden it from him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

169

JOB

3

23

f9q5

figs-metaphor

0

a man whom God has hedged in

Here being in difficulties and dangers is spoken of as if it were being confined within narrow limits. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

170

JOB

3

24

z8a9

figs-parallelism

0

For my sighing happens instead of eating; my groaning is poured out like water

Job expresses his anguish in two ways. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

171

JOB

3

24

ya6w

0

my sighing happens instead of eating

Alternate translation: “Instead of eating, I mourn”

172

JOB

3

24

jp2u

figs-metaphor

0

my groaning is poured out like water

Moral qualities and emotions such as grief are often spoken of as if they were water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

173

JOB

3

25

pvp2

figs-parallelism

0

the thing that I feared has come on me; what I was afraid of has come to me

These two phrases mean the same thing. Alternate translation: “what I feared most has happened to me” or “my worst fear has come true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

174

JOB

3

26

f53t

figs-parallelism

0

I am not at ease, I am not quiet, and I have no rest

Job expresses his anguish in three separate phrases. Alternate translation: “I am very anxious” or “I am emotionally and physically tormented” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

175

JOB

4

intro

kk87

0

Job 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is the advice of Job’s friend, Eliphaz.

Special concepts in this chapter

Eliphaz’s advice

Eliphaz tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Eliphaz gives to Job is bad advice. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Eliphaz uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to form Eliphaz’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

176

JOB

4

1

e5n4

translate-names

0

Eliphaz

Eliphaz is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

177

JOB

4

1

c3fq

translate-names

0

Temanite

A Temanite belongs to the tribe of Teman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

178

JOB

4

2

y6k8

figs-rquestion

0

will you be impatient?

Eliphaz asks this question in order to make a statement. Alternate translation: “you will surely be impatient.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

179

JOB

4

2

knx6

0

will you be impatient?

Alternate translation: “will that annoy you?”

180

JOB

4

2

n3sr

figs-rquestion

0

But who can stop himself from speaking?

Eliphaz asks this question to say that no one who sees a friend suffering can remain silent. Alternate translation: “No one can restrain himself from speaking (to a friend in such a state as you find yourself)” or “I must speak to you, (seeing that you are in a state of grief).” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

181

JOB

4

3

piw1

figs-parallelism

0

See, you have instructed many; you have strengthened weak hands

This verse states a single idea in two different ways. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

182

JOB

4

3

fe8q

figs-metonymy

0

you have strengthened weak hands

Here “weak hands” represents people who need help. Alternate translation: “you have helped others when they needed help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

183

JOB

4

4

lvl1

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

The writer uses parallelism in each of these verses to make one idea using two different statements to emphasize: (1) the support that Job has given others in the past, (2) the effect on him of his present troubles, and (3) his piety before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

184

JOB

4

4

tqj5

figs-metaphor

0

supported

Someone who has been encouraged is spoken of as if he were kept from falling down. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

185

JOB

4

4

fnd5

figs-metaphor

0

falling

Here becoming discouraged is spoken of as if it were falling down. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

186

JOB

4

4

c21w

figs-metaphor

0

you have made feeble knees firm

Here discouragement is spoken of as if it were a person whose weak knees could not keep him upright. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

187

JOB

4

5

jv44

figs-metaphor

0

But now trouble has come to you

Here trouble is spoken of as if it were an object that could come to a person. Alternate translation: “But now you suffer from disasters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

188

JOB

4

5

w2d1

0

you are weary

Alternate translation: “you are discouraged”

189

JOB

4

6

b27y

0

your fear

Alternate translation: “the fact that you honor God”

190

JOB

4

6

jv9m

figs-rquestion

0

Is not your fear your confidence, and the integrity of your ways your hope?

Eliphaz asks these questions in order to tell Job that it is because of his sin that he is suffering. Alternate translation: “Everyone thinks that you honor God; everyone thinks that you are an honest man. But these things must not be true, because you do not trust God any longer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

191

JOB

4

6

w4dn

figs-explicit

0

your fear

Eliphaz means Job’s fear of God. Alternate translation: “your fear of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

192

JOB

4

6

nh5w

figs-metaphor

0

your ways

Here “your ways” represents “your conduct,” “how you behave.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

193

JOB

4

7

ctx8

figs-rquestion

0

Who has ever perished when innocent?

Eliphaz uses this question to prompt Job to search his life for sin (and God’s righteous judgment) as the cause of his loss. Alternate translation: “No one has ever perished when innocent.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

194

JOB

4

7

ci3b

figs-rquestion

0

when were the upright people ever cut off

This question also means to make a statement, and may be put into active form. Alternate translation: “No one has ever cut off an upright person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

195

JOB

4

7

mq2s

figs-metaphor

0

cut off

Here being cut off represents being destroyed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

196

JOB

4

8

yw7b

figs-metaphor

0

plow iniquity … sow trouble … reap

Here the actions of plowing and sowing represent causing trouble for other people. The action of reaping represents suffering the trouble that one has himself caused. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

197

JOB

4

9

a93h

figs-parallelism

0

By the breath of God they perish; by the blast of his anger they are consumed

The writer explains a single idea using two different statements. This is a form of Hebrew poetry used for emphasis, clarity, teaching, or all three. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

198

JOB

4

9

g9mp

figs-metaphor

0

the breath of God

This may represent the action of God giving a command. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

199

JOB

4

9

my29

figs-metaphor

0

the blast of his anger

This expression suggests the heavy breathing that a person sometimes does through his nose when he is very angry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

200

JOB

4

9

sm4n

figs-metaphor

0

breath … blast

The second builds on the first. They make the same point by using meanings that increase the result. “By the puff of God’s mouth they die; the rushing wind of his anger devastates them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

201

JOB

4

9

l8s1

figs-activepassive

0

perish … are consumed

The second phrase builds on the first. They make the same point. “By the puff of God’s breath they die, the rushing wind of his anger devastates them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

202

JOB

4

9

trx3

figs-metaphor

0

they are consumed

Here being consumed or eaten represents being killed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

203

JOB

4

10

vnp3

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

The writer uses parallelism in these verses, conveying a single idea using different statements to emphasize God’s destruction of wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

204

JOB

4

10

mw99

figs-metaphor

0

The roaring of the lion, the voice of the fierce lion, the teeth of the young lions—they are broken.

Here a lion’s roar, his voice, and his teeth being broken are used as pictures of the wicked being destroyed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

205

JOB

4

10

l75n

figs-activepassive

0

they are broken

This may be put into active form. Alternate translation: “something breaks them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

206

JOB

4

11

uru1

0

The old lion perishes for lack of victims; the cubs of the lioness are scattered everywhere

Eliphaz uses the picture of an old lion dying of hunger and of a lion’s family being scattered as metaphors for the wicked being destroyed.

207

JOB

4

11

n8m2

figs-activepassive

0

the cubs of the lioness are scattered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “something scatters the cubs of the lioness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

208

JOB

4

12

n1td

figs-parallelism

0

Now a certain matter was secretly brought to me … my ear received a whisper about it

These phrases express the same idea in a different way. They convey the idea that Eliphaz heard a message whispered to him. This repetition is a form of Hebrew poetry used frequently for emphasis, teaching, or clarity. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

209

JOB

4

13

h37a

0

visions in the night

Alternate translation: “dreams”

210

JOB

4

13

er9t

0

when deep sleep falls on people

Alternate translation: “when people sleep very deeply”

211

JOB

4

14

p54m

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

The writer uses parallelism in these verses, conveying a single idea using different statements to emphasize Eliphaz’s fear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

212

JOB

4

14

pp18

figs-metaphor

0

fear and trembling came upon me

Here fear and trembling are spoken of as if they were objects that could come to a person. Alternate translation: “I began to be afraid and to tremble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

213

JOB

4

15

j3h8

0

the hair of my flesh stood up

This indicates great fear.

214

JOB

4

15

s6t7

0

the hair of my flesh

Alternate translation: “the hair on my body”

215

JOB

4

16

c4qg

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

The writer uses parallelism in verse 17, conveying a single idea using two different statements to emphasize a question about the purity of man before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

216

JOB

4

16

vak8

0

A form was before my eyes

Alternate translation: “Something was before my eyes,” “I saw something”

217

JOB

4

16

dat7

0

and I heard

Alternate translation: “then I heard”

218

JOB

4

17

qqw3

figs-rquestion

0

Can a mortal man be more righteous than God?

Eliphaz poses this question so that Job will consider, “Do I regard myself as more righteous than God?” or “Am I justified before God?” Alternate translation: “A mortal man cannot be more righteous than God.” or “A mortal man cannot be righteous before God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

219

JOB

4

17

hw7d

figs-rquestion

0

Can a man be more pure than his Maker?

This question has the same purpose as the previous question. Alternate translation: “A man cannot be more pure than his Maker.” or “A man cannot be pure before his Maker.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

220

JOB

4

17

r4a7

0

his Maker

Alternate translation: “his Creator”

221

JOB

4

19

x3pk

figs-metaphor

0

those who live in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust

This is a figurative way of describing human beings, who were created out of the dust of the earth and whose bodies are like houses, which are made of clay and have dirt foundations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

222

JOB

4

19

r4dq

figs-metaphor

0

who are crushed sooner than a moth

Possible meanings for this metaphor are: (1) “who God destroys as easily as he crushes a moth” or (2) “whose lives are as short as the life of a moth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

223

JOB

4

20

ajf2

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

These verses continue the earlier use of parallelism, here emphasizing in different ways the idea that people die suddenly without having achieved wisdom and without concern from others. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

224

JOB

4

20

m44u

figs-metaphor

0

Between morning and evening they are destroyed

This refers to the idea of something happening quickly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

225

JOB

4

20

znp6

figs-activepassive

0

they are destroyed

This may also be put into active form. Alternate translation: “they die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

226

JOB

4

21

n9su

figs-rquestion

0

Are not their tent cords plucked up among them?

This may be put into active form. Alternate translation: “Have not their enemies plucked up their tent cords from among them?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

227

JOB

4

21

ugp9

figs-synecdoche

0

their tent cords

Here tent cords represent a tent. Sometimes a person’s home and family are pictured as his tent, which can also represent all his possessions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

228

JOB

5

intro

kq38

0

Job 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of the advice of Job’s friend, Eliphaz.

Special concepts in this chapter

Eliphaz’s advice

Eliphaz tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Eliphaz gives to Job is bad advice. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Sickness and sin

In the ancient Near East, it was common to believe that a person’s illness was caused by sin. It was seen as the punishment of a god. While Yahweh may punish people because of their sin, not all sicknesses are caused by sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Eliphaz uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to build Eliphaz’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

229

JOB

5

1

gaw4

figs-rquestion

0

To which of the holy ones will you turn?

Eliphaz poses this question to make the point that there is no one Job can turn to for help. Alternate translation: “Is there a holy one to whom you may turn?” or “There is no holy one to whom you can turn for help.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

230

JOB

5

1

n2rw

0

holy ones

This refers to supernatural beings of some kind, whether angels or other spirits.

231

JOB

5

2

v7ip

0

jealousy kills the silly one

Alternate translation: “jealousy kills anyone who acts ignorantly and impulsively”

232

JOB

5

2

wt27

figs-genericnoun

0

the silly one

any silly person (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

233

JOB

5

3

bn1m

figs-genericnoun

0

a foolish person

any foolish person (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

234

JOB

5

3

za27

figs-metaphor

0

a foolish person taking root

Here a person is spoken of as if he were a plant, perhaps becoming more foolish over time. Alternate translation: “a foolish person becoming grounded in foolishness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

235

JOB

5

3

lcr1

0

his home

This refers to the person’s family and all his property.

236

JOB

5

4

j2um

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

These verses continue the earlier use of parallelism, here emphasizing in different ways the idea that the children of foolish people are never safe. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

237

JOB

5

4

yz4i

0

His children are far from safety

Here, His refers to the foolish person or the foolish people in Job 5:2. Alternate translation: “Their children are never safe”

238

JOB

5

4

i7p9

figs-metaphor

0

are crushed

Here being crushed represents being oppressed, taken advantage of, at court. This idea may be put into active form. Alternate translation: “someone crushes them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

239

JOB

5

4

e8js

0

city gate

The city gate, functioning as a court, was the place where disputes were resolved and where judgments were given.

240

JOB

5

4

ep6h

0

There is no one to rescue them

Alternate translation: “There is no one to help the foolish people’s children out of their hardship”

241

JOB

5

5

k9ap

0

they even take it from among the thorns

This perhaps refers to parts of a field where the worst crops grow, because of thorn plants present.

242

JOB

5

5

ded6

figs-metaphor

0

The thirsty pant for their wealth

Here greedy people are spoken of as if they were thirsty, and the wealth of the foolish person is spoken of as if it were something that they could drink. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

243

JOB

5

6

kx25

figs-metaphor

0

For difficulties do not come out from the soil; neither does trouble sprout from the ground

Here difficulties and trouble are spoken of as if they were plants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

244

JOB

5

7

kz2s

figs-simile

0

mankind is born for trouble, just as sparks fly upward

It is as natural for people, once they are born, to have trouble as it is for sparks to fly up from a fire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

245

JOB

5

9

ep8u

0

great and unsearchable things, marvelous things without number

Alternate translation: “great things that cannot be understood, wonders that cannot be counted”

246

JOB

5

9

l8rt

figs-metaphor

0

unsearchable things

This refers to things that mankind cannot understand. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

247

JOB

5

9

ga9h

figs-hendiadys

0

great and unsearchable things

Here the writer uses two independent words connected by “and” to emphasize the greatness of God’s actions. Alternate translation: “greatly profound things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

248

JOB

5

9

sa4u

0

marvelous things

Alternate translation: “wonderful things” or “wonders”

249

JOB

5

11

die2

figs-metaphor

0

He does this in order to set up on high those who are low

Humble people in distress are spoken of as if they were in a low position. When God rescues them, they receive honor. When this happens, they are spoken of as being raised up and put into a high position. Alternate translation: “God does this in order to rescue and honor the humble who have been suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

250

JOB

5

12

z3jy

figs-metaphor

0

He breaks the plans

Here stopping the plans of crafty people is spoken of as if they were things that could be physically broken. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

251

JOB

5

13

rw2w

figs-metaphor

0

He traps wise people in their own crafty actions

Here making wise people suffer for their own evil actions is spoken of as if it were catching them in traps. Their own actions are spoken of as if they were those traps. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

252

JOB

5

13

zp4c

figs-metaphor

0

twisted people

Here being evil in a clever way is spoken of as if it were being twisted. Alternate translation: “those who are cunning” or “those who are devious” or “those who are shrewd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

253

JOB

5

14

w5uy

figs-metaphor

0

They encounter darkness in the daytime

Here the cunning, wicked people whom God confuses are spoken of as if they unexpectedly are in the dark at noon, when the sun is at its highest position in the sky. They cannot do anything they wish to do, because they cannot see. Alternate translation: “Those who are cunning are in the dark, even at noontime” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

254

JOB

5

14

ua15

0

grope

feel around like a blind person

255

JOB

5

14

vnt6

0

noonday

the middle of the day, when the sun is highest and brightest

256

JOB

5

15

i885

figs-metaphor

0

But he saves the poor person from the sword in their mouths

Here the insulting and threatening things that people say are spoken of as if they were a sword in their mouths. Alternate translation: “But he saves the poor person from the threats of the mighty” or “But he saves the poor person when the mighty threaten or insult them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

257

JOB

5

16

exr5

figs-personification

0

injustice shuts her own mouth

People who say unjust things are spoken of as if they were the injustice itself, who must stop speaking. Alternate translation: “It is as though injustice shut her own mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

258

JOB

5

17

izq1

0

God corrects … chastening of the Almighty

God is pictured as a parent correcting or instructing a child.

259

JOB

5

17

jr16

0

blessed is the man whom God corrects

Alternate translation: “God really favors the man whom he corrects”

260

JOB

5

17

g1br

0

do not despise

Alternate translation: “do not reject” or “do not consider worthless”

261

JOB

5

17

c4un

0

chastening

Alternate translation: “instruction” or “correction” or “discipline”

262

JOB

5

18

fx57

0

For he wounds and then binds up; he wounds and then his hands heal

Alternate translation: “For he wounds but binds up; he crushes but his hands heal”

263

JOB

5

18

dgs2

figs-synecdoche

0

his hands heal

Here “his hands” represents God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

264

JOB

5

19

q4qe

figs-metaphor

0

He will rescue you out of six troubles; indeed, in seven troubles, no evil will touch you

The use of increasing numbers such as “six” and “seven” represents the idea of many, many times. Alternate translation: “He will rescue you out of trouble over and over again; indeed, time after time, no evil will touch you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

265

JOB

5

20

q1gi

figs-metaphor

0

In famine he will ransom you

Here rescuing is spoken of as if it were ransoming, buying back. Alternate translation: “In famine God will rescue you from danger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

266

JOB

5

20

cy63

figs-synecdoche

0

the hands of the sword

Here “hands” probably represents the people who attack with weapons, including swords. Alternate translation: “violent people” or “people who attack you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

267

JOB

5

21

h9ag

figs-abstractnouns

0

of destruction

Here “destruction” refers to the danger of being destroyed by enemies. Alternate translation: “that any enemy will destroy you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

268

JOB

5

22

m19v

writing-symlanguage

0

You will laugh at destruction and famine

Here “laugh” represents that the person is not afraid. Alternate translation: “You will not be afraid of any danger of destruction or famine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

269

JOB

5

22

dbx6

figs-metaphor

0

beasts of the earth

This refers to wild animals. Alternate translation: “wild animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

270

JOB

5

23

kt43

figs-metaphor

0

you will have a covenant with the stones in your field

Here the stones in farmers’ fields are spoken of as if they were people that someone could have a covenant with. Alternate translation: “the stones in your fields will be like people who promise that they will not make any trouble for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

271

JOB

5

23

rr79

figs-idiom

0

the beasts of the field

This refers to dangerous wild animals. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

272

JOB

5

24

ew8g

figs-metaphor

0

You will know that your tent is in safety

Here “tent” represents a person’s family, household, and all his possessions. Alternate translation: “You will know that your family, servants, and everything you own are safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

273

JOB

5

24

i2fj

0

you will visit your sheepfold and you will not miss anything

Alternate translation: “when you visit where your flock stays at night, you will find all your sheep there”

274

JOB

5

25

fxb7

figs-metaphor

0

your seed will be great

Here “seed” represents a person’s descendants. Alternate translation: “your descendants will be many” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

275

JOB

5

25

f961

figs-simile

0

your offspring will be like the grass on the ground

Here “offspring” are spoken of as if they were as many as blades of grass, and probably as thriving, too. Alternate translation: “your descendants will be as many and as alive as the grass that grows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

276

JOB

5

26

a9gt

0

You will come to your grave at a full age

Alternate translation: “You will die at a very old age”

277

JOB

5

26

w6jt

figs-explicit

0

like a stack of grain bundles that goes up at its time

You may need to make explicit that the grain in this simile is fully ripe but not overly ripe. He would neither die young nor become weak in his old age. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

278

JOB

5

27

uwj5

figs-exclusive

0

See, we have examined this matter; it is like this; listen to it, and know it for yourself

The words “we” refers to Job’s friends but not to Job. Alternate translation: “Look, we have thought about this matter. Listen to what I am saying and know that it is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

279

JOB

6

intro

r7kh

0

Job 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Eliphaz.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

Despite being upset about his circumstances, and desiring his own death, Job does not curse God. He would rather have God end his life than to curse him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Job uses many different metaphors in this chapter to express his pain or despair. He also is upset with the advice of his friends, who are supposed to help him during difficult times. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Eliphaz that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

280

JOB

6

2

use6

figs-parallelism

0

if only my anguish were weighed; if only all my calamity were laid in the balance

Here the writer uses two different statements to convey a single idea, the burden of Job’s suffering. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if only I could weigh my anguish and all my calamities in the balance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

281

JOB

6

2

cqr6

0

in the balance

Alternate translation: “on a scale”

282

JOB

6

3

l5j1

figs-simile

0

For now it would be heavier than the sand of the seas

Job compares the burden of his suffering to the weight of wet sand; both can crush a person. Alternate translation: “For my anguish and calamities would be heavier than the sand on the seashore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

283

JOB

6

3

j9lz

0

my words were reckless

Alternate translation: “I spoke recklessly” or “I spoke rashly”

284

JOB

6

4

se7m

figs-metaphor

0

For the arrows of the Almighty are in me

This is a metaphor for Job’s suffering. He compares his many troubles to arrows that God has shot his body with. Alternate translation: “It is as though the Almighty has shot arrows into my body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

285

JOB

6

4

m898

figs-metaphor

0

my spirit drinks up the poison

“my spirit drinks up the arrows’ poison.” This continues the metaphor of the arrows, by implying that they had tips of poison and that Job feels the pain in his spirit. He speaks of feeling this pain as if his spirit drank the poison. Alternate translation: “I feel the pain of their poison in my inner being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

286

JOB

6

4

l3u6

figs-personification

0

the terrors of God have arranged themselves in array against me

Job speaks of the terrible things that have happened to him as if they were soldiers that God had lined up to attack him all at once. Alternate translation: “God has caused all the terrible things that could happen to happen to me all at once” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

287

JOB

6

4

sr2c

figs-metaphor

0

the terrors of God have arranged themselves in array against me

God causing many things to terrify Job is spoken of as if God’s terrors were soldiers lined up to attack Job. Alternate translation: “the terrors of God have arranged themselves like soldiers in an army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

288

JOB

6

5

vas3

figs-rquestion

0

Does the wild donkey bray in despair when he has grass? Or does the ox low in hunger when it has fodder?

Job poses these rhetorical questions to emphasize that he has a reason to complain. These question can be written as statements. Alternate translation: “Just as the wild donkey does not bray in despair when he has grass and as the ox does not low in hunger when he has fodder, I would not complain if I did not have a reason” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

289

JOB

6

5

h1b2

0

bray

the sound a donkey makes

290

JOB

6

5

i2r2

0

low

the sound an ox makes

291

JOB

6

5

tbl2

0

fodder

animal food

292

JOB

6

6

l3sd

figs-metaphor

0

Can that which has no taste be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg?

This could mean: (1) Job is comparing his displeasure for his circumstances to people’s dislike for bland food or (2) Job is comparing his displeasure for his friend’s advice to people’s dislike for bland food. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

293

JOB

6

6

cg4r

figs-rquestion

0

Can that which has no taste be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg?

Job uses these rhetorical questions to emphasize his own displeasure. These questions can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tasteless food cannot be eaten without salt, just as there is no taste in the white of an egg.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

294

JOB

6

6

xfj2

figs-activepassive

0

Can that which has no taste be eaten

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Can you eat that which has no taste” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

295

JOB

6

7

hy2z

0

I refuse to touch them

“Them” refers to bad tasting foods.

296

JOB

6

9

yf92

figs-euphemism

0

to crush me once

This means for God to cause him to die. Alternate translation: “to crush me and let me die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

297

JOB

6

9

f53h

figs-idiom

0

that he would let loose his hand and cut me off from this life

The phrases “let loose his hand” is an idiom that means to act quickly. Also, the phrase “cut me off from this life” is a euphemism for killing him. Alternate translation: “that he would act quickly and cut short my life” or “that he would act quickly and end my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

298

JOB

6

10

gre4

0

even if I exult in pain that does not lessen

Alternate translation: “I would leap for joy in unending pain” or “I would endure pain that does not diminish”

299

JOB

6

10

a736

0

exult

Alternate translation: “rejoice”

300

JOB

6

10

f2zu

0

does not lessen

Alternate translation: “does not diminish”

301

JOB

6

10

ji9n

0

that I have not denied the words of the Holy One

This can be written in positive form. Alternate translation: “that I have always obeyed the Holy One”

302

JOB

6

11

b1ue

figs-rquestion

0

What is my strength, that I should try to wait? What is my end, that I should prolong my life?

Job poses these questions to emphasize that he has no reason to continue living. These questions have the same meaning. They may be written as statements. Alternate translation: “I do not have enough strength to go on living; I have no reason to prolong my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

303

JOB

6

12

vp49

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

The writer uses parallel rhetorical questions in each of these verses to emphasize Job’s lack of strength to endure suffering. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

304

JOB

6

12

n69y

figs-rquestion

0

Is my strength the strength of stones? Or is my flesh made of bronze?

Job describes the weakness of his body by saying that he is not as strong as rocks and bronze to emphasize his lack of strength. These rhetorical questions may be written as statements. Alternate translation: “I am not as strong as the rocks. My flesh is not as strong as metal.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

305

JOB

6

13

lg48

figs-rquestion

0

Is it not true that I have no help in myself … me?

Job uses this rhetorical question to emphasize his lack of wisdom and his weakness. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Also, the phrase “no help in myself” is an idiom. Alternate translation: “It is true that I have no strength left … me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

306

JOB

6

13

h5wf

figs-activepassive

0

wisdom has been driven out of me

“my success has been taken from me.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “my wisdom is gone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

307

JOB

6

14

e6e6

figs-activepassive

0

To the person who is about to faint, faithfulness should be shown by his friend

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “A friend should be faithful to the person who feels he is about to faint” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

308

JOB

6

14

s4yi

figs-metaphor

0

who is about to faint

This speaks of a person who feels hopeless and is overwhelmed by his troubles as if he were about to physically faint. Alternate translation: “who feels hopeless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

309

JOB

6

14

naj8

0

even to him who forsakes the fear of the Almighty

“even if he stops fearing Almighty God.” This could mean: (1) the faint person does not fear God or (2) his friend does not fear God.

310

JOB

6

15

p13y

figs-simile

0

But my brothers have been as faithful to me as a desert streambed

Job speaks of his friends being unfaithful to him as being like a “wadi” which is a stream that can suddenly dry up. Also, Job refers to his friends ironically here as his “brothers.” Alternate translation: “But my friends are unfaithful to me. They are like a desert streambed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

311

JOB

6

15

l6xj

figs-simile

0

as channels of water that pass away to nothing

“like streams of water that dry up.” Job continues speaking of his friends being unfaithful as if they were streams that dry up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

312

JOB

6

16

pnp2

figs-parallelism

0

which are darkened because of ice over them … and because of the snow that hides itself in them

These two phrases have the same meaning. They describe how the streambed is full of ice and snow in the winter. Alternate translation: “which look dark in the winter because they are covered with ice and are full of melted snow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

313

JOB

6

16

cq2i

figs-personification

0

because of the snow that hides itself in them

This speaks of the snow melting and the water going into the streambed as if the snow were hiding in the streambed. Alternate translation: “because the snow melts and goes into them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

314

JOB

6

17

z6dh

figs-parallelism

0

When they thaw out, they vanish … when it is hot, they melt out of their place

These two phrases have the same meaning. They describe how the streambed dries up in the hot season. Alternate translation: “When it is hot, the ice melts and the streambeds dry up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

315

JOB

6

18

t8lv

figs-metaphor

0

Job is continuing his description of his friends being as unreliable as streams that dry up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

316

JOB

6

18

vke1

0

The caravans that travel by their way turn aside for water

Alternate translation: “The caravans turn aside from the routes to find water” or “The caravans change course looking for water”

317

JOB

6

18

dm5v

0

The caravans

A caravan is a large group of travelers riding camels across the desert.

318

JOB

6

18

n26d

0

barren land

Alternate translation: “wasteland” or “empty land”

319

JOB

6

19

m9l7

translate-names

0

Tema … Sheba

These are the names of places. The people of these places used caravans to trade things with people from other lands. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

320

JOB

6

19

ua63

0

while companies of Sheba

Alternate translation: “while caravans from Sheba”

321

JOB

6

19

n6an

0

hoped in them

Alternate translation: “hoped for them” or “put their hope in them”

322

JOB

6

20

mue3

figs-activepassive

0

but they were deceived

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “but they were disappointed” or “but they were not satisfied” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

323

JOB

6

21

km28

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

In these verses, Job poses four questions to rebuke his friends and to emphasize that he did not ask for help from any of them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

324

JOB

6

21

gk7t

0

For now

Job uses this phrase to introduce the main part of what he is saying.

325

JOB

6

21

wa4z

0

you friends are nothing to me

Alternate translation: “you friends have not helped me at all”

326

JOB

6

21

zr7k

figs-explicit

0

are afraid

This means that they see the trouble Job has and are afraid of being in the same situation. Alternate translation: “you are afraid that God might do similar things to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

327

JOB

6

23

vq26

figs-rquestion

0

or, ‘Save me from my adversary’s hand’ or, ‘Ransom me from the hand of my oppressors’?

These words are the last of a series of rhetorical questions that begins in verse 22. Job uses these questions to emphasize that he has not asked his friends to give him anything or to help him. “I never said to you, ‘Give … me’ or, ‘Offer … wealth’ or, ‘Save … hand’ or, ‘Ransom … oppressors’.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

328

JOB

6

23

x1gs

figs-metonymy

0

my adversary’s hand … the hand of my oppressors

The word “hand” represents power or control. Alternate translation: “having my adversary control me … having my oppressors control me” or “my adversary’s power … my oppressors’ power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

329

JOB

6

23

z65f

0

Ransom me

Alternate translation: “Rescue me”

330

JOB

6

24

t8mf

figs-you

0

Teach me … make me

These verbs “teach” and “make” are second person plural and are spoken to his friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

331

JOB

6

24

jg8f

figs-idiom

0

I will hold my peace

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “I will be silent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

332

JOB

6

25

ukw2

0

How painful are truthful words! But your arguments, how do they actually rebuke me?

The exact meaning of the original language is uncertain. Some Bibles translate “How painful” as “How pleasant.” Alternate translation: “When a person speaks the truth, it harms no one. But your arguments are not true, so how do they actually rebuke me?”

333

JOB

6

25

bt6s

figs-rquestion

0

But your arguments, how do they actually rebuke me?

Job is using this question to rebuke his friends and to emphasize that what they are saying does not apply to him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Your reasons for rebuking me do not apply to me even though you sternly correct me.” or “But your arguments against me are not true, so they do not actually rebuke me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

334

JOB

6

25

rrn5

0

your arguments

Alternate translation: “your reasons” or “your claims”

335

JOB

6

26

l7bp

figs-rquestion

0

Do you plan to ignore my words, treating the words of a desperate man like the wind?

Job uses this rhetorical question to scold his friends. He compares his words to the wind to explain that his friends act like his words are empty and useless. Alternate translation: “You ignore my words! I am a desperate man, and you treat my words as if they are as useless as the wind.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

336

JOB

6

26

zm1w

figs-you

0

Do you

“You” is in second person plural form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

337

JOB

6

27

w62r

0

you cast lots for a fatherless child

Alternate translation: “you would even gamble to win an orphan”

338

JOB

6

27

jib8

figs-you

0

you cast lots … haggle over your friend

Here “you” and “your” are in second person plural form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

339

JOB

6

27

q6lj

figs-simile

0

haggle over your friend like merchandise

This compares how the man would sell his friend to how a person sells merchandise or wares. Alternate translation: “bargain to sell your friend for money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

340

JOB

6

28

eq8v

0

Now

This word is used by Job to introduce new information.

341

JOB

6

28

m2bq

figs-you

0

please look

The verb “to look” is in second person plural form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

342

JOB

6

28

q6v3

figs-synecdoche

0

I would not lie to your face

The word “your” refers to Job’s friends. Here his friends are represented by their faces to emphasize that they are looking at him. Alternate translation: “I would not lie to you while I am looking at you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

343

JOB

6

29

c7zi

0

Relent, I beg you

Alternate translation: “Please be merciful to me” or “Stop speaking like this, I beg you”

344

JOB

6

29

fcq7

figs-doublenegatives

0

let there be no injustice with you

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “treat me fairly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

345

JOB

6

29

hka9

0

Indeed, relent

Alternate translation: “Please relent.”

346

JOB

6

30

km3f

figs-rquestion

0

Is there evil on my tongue?

“Do I say wicked things?” Job uses this question to rebuke his friends and to emphasize that he is not wicked. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not say wicked things.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

347

JOB

6

30

z316

figs-metonymy

0

on my tongue

Here Job’s speech is represented by his “tongue.” Alternate translation: “in my speech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

348

JOB

6

30

f1ga

figs-rquestion

0

Cannot my mouth detect malicious things?

Job uses this question to rebuke his friends and to emphasize that he can tell the difference between right and wrong. Here Job refers to himself by his “mouth” to emphasize his speech. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I know what is right to say and what is wrong to say.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

349

JOB

7

intro

y5ka

0

Job 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s response to Eliphaz.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

Despite being upset about his circumstances, and desiring his own death, Job does not curse God. He would rather have God end his life than to curse him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Job uses many different metaphors in this chapter to express his pain or despair. He also is upset with the advice of his friends, who are supposed to help him during difficult times. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Eliphaz that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

350

JOB

7

1

nz5u

figs-rquestion

0

Does not man have hard labor on earth?

Job poses this negative question to emphasize his awareness that all people experience hard work. It can be translated as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “There is hard labor for every person on earth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

351

JOB

7

1

a1c6

figs-hyperbole

0

on earth

This is a generalization that means for the time people are living on the earth. Alternate translation: “while he lives on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

352

JOB

7

1

m3yt

figs-rquestion

0

Are not his days like the days of a hired man?

Job poses this negative question to emphasize his awareness that all people struggle in life. Alternate translation: “And their days are like the days of a hired man.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

353

JOB

7

1

n56j

0

a hired man

“a day laborer.” This is a man who worked jobs one day at a time and was paid at the end of every day.

354

JOB

7

2

g9ji

figs-simile

0

Like a slave … like a hired man

Job compares his misery and trouble to that of the slave and hired man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

355

JOB

7

2

f1pu

figs-explicit

0

the shadows of evening

“cool shade.” The implied information is that the shadows of evening provide coolness and shade from the sun (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

356

JOB

7

2

d651

0

looks for his wages

Alternate translation: “waits for his pay”

357

JOB

7

3

fpt6

figs-activepassive

0

I have been made to endure months of misery; I have been given trouble-filled nights

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “so I endure months of misery; I get trouble-filled nights” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

358

JOB

7

3

cp2i

figs-explicit

0

months of misery

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word misery, you could express the same idea with the adjective “miserable.” Alternate translation: “months when I am miserable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

359

JOB

7

4

m7jx

figs-explicit

0

When I lie down

The implied information is that this is when Job would lie down to sleep at night. Alternate translation: “When I lie down to sleep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

360

JOB

7

4

fij2

figs-rpronouns

0

I say to myself

Job poses a question to no one else in particular. Alternate translation: “I ask” or “I wonder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

361

JOB

7

4

sf4y

figs-rquestion

0

When will I get up and when will the night be gone?

Job poses this question to emphasize his intense suffering during the hours he should be sleeping. Alternate translation: “I wish I could get up, but night continues.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

362

JOB

7

4

m4sv

0

tossing to and fro

“turning back and forth.” This indicates that Job has moved on his bed all night without any rest.

363

JOB

7

5

sh53

figs-metaphor

0

My flesh is clothed with worms and clods of dust

The worms and clods of dust are pictured as covering Job as if they were clothing. Alternate translation: “My flesh is covered with worms and clods of dust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

364

JOB

7

5

l429

figs-synecdoche

0

My flesh

This represents his whole body. Alternate translation: “My body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

365

JOB

7

5

lry5

0

clods of dust

This could mean: (1) lumps or crusts of dirt or (2) scabs on the skin.

366

JOB

7

5

we79

0

dissolve and run afresh

Alternate translation: “break out again”

367

JOB

7

6

tf2g

figs-simile

0

My days are swifter than a weaver’s shuttle

Job compares his lifetime to the quickness of a weaver’s shuttle. Alternate translation: “My life goes by very quickly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

368

JOB

7

6

pvg2

0

weaver

a person who makes cloth by crossing threads or yarn

369

JOB

7

6

fy2b

0

a weaver’s shuttle

a moving part that carries thread or yarn back and forth quickly in a loom when making cloth

370

JOB

7

7

uf8v

0

call to mind

“remember.” The phrase “call to mind” does not mean God forgot. Job is asking God to consider or think about the shortness of Job’s life.

371

JOB

7

7

ee27

figs-metaphor

0

my life is only a breath

Job compares the shortness of his life to the shortness of a breath. Alternate translation: “my life is very short, like taking one breath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

372

JOB

7

7

bw35

figs-synecdoche

0

my eye will no more see good

Here “my eye” represents Job’s whole person and his ability to see or experience things. Alternate translation: “I will never again experience good things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

373

JOB

7

8

f5vc

figs-explicit

0

The eye of God, who sees me, will see me no more

Many versions of the Bible translate this as “The eye which sees me will see me no more.” The words “of God” were added to this phrase because they are implied by the context. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

374

JOB

7

8

p6u5

figs-synecdoche

0

The eye of God, who sees me … God’s eyes will be on me

Here God is represented by his “eye” to emphasize what he looks at. Alternate translation: “God who watches me … God will look for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

375

JOB

7

9

q76u

figs-simile

0

As a cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to Sheol will come up no more

Job is describing death as being like the clouds that disappear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

376

JOB

7

9

m6z6

figs-activepassive

0

As a cloud is consumed

This can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “As a cloud fades” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

377

JOB

7

9

g4h1

0

he who goes down to Sheol will come up no more

Alternate translation: “he who dies will not return”

378

JOB

7

10

xnf4

figs-metonymy

0

his place

The words “his place” represent those who live in his place. Alternate translation: “the people who live in his place” or “his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

379

JOB

7

11

ed6a

figs-parallelism

0

I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; I will complain in the bitterness of my soul

Job conveys a single idea using two different statements to emphasize the reason he will not remain silent. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

380

JOB

7

11

q76q

figs-metonymy

0

I will not restrain my mouth

Here the mouth represents speech. Alternate translation: “I will not restrain my speech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

381

JOB

7

11

v8zz

figs-abstractnouns

0

in the anguish of my spirit

“in the distress of my spirit” or “in the torment of my suffering.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word anguish, you could express the same idea with the adverb “distress.” Alternate translation: “while my spirit is distressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

382

JOB

7

11

ti81

figs-metaphor

0

in the bitterness of my soul

Here sorrow is spoken of as if it tasted bitter, and “soul” refers to the whole man. Alternate translation: “with anger and resentment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

383

JOB

7

12

qy6r

figs-rquestion

0

Am I the sea or a sea monster that you place a guard over me?

Job poses this question to express his anger at God. In comparing himself to the sea or a sea monster, Job suggests that God regards him as a hideous creature. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am not the sea or a sea monster that needs a guard to watch it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

384

JOB

7

13

v7e8

figs-metonymy

0

My bed will comfort me, and my couch will ease my complaint

Here “bed” and “couch” are metonyms for “sleep.” In lying down to sleep, Job would hope to be comforted. The metonyms also have human attributes; they have the ability to comfort and ease a person. Alternate translation: “My bed, my couch, will be like someone who can comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

385

JOB

7

13

d3uy

0

My bed … my couch

These phrases refer to the same thing. Alternate translation: “My bed … my bed”

386

JOB

7

14

pf6s

0

you scare me

“you” here refers to God

387

JOB

7

15

et7t

0

strangling

killing a person by squeezing the throat and stopping the breathing

388

JOB

7

15

nee4

figs-synecdoche

0

these bones of mine

Here Job uses the word “bones” to refer to his body. Alternate translation: “This body of mine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

389

JOB

7

16

jd5k

figs-parallelism

0

The writer continues to use parallelism in these verses, conveying a single idea using two different statements to emphasize the impact of Job’s misery on his sense of self worth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

390

JOB

7

16

th4d

0

I loathe my life

Alternate translation: “I despise my life”

391

JOB

7

16

eu9h

0

to always be alive

Alternate translation: “to live forever”

392

JOB

7

16

yp5g

0

my days are useless

Alternate translation: “my days are pointless” or “the days of my life are empty”

393

JOB

7

17

awx9

figs-rquestion

0

Job asks a rhetorical question to say that he does not understand why God should pay attention to people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

394

JOB

7

17

w1ri

figs-metonymy

0

set your mind on him

Here the mind represents thoughts and attention. To “set your mind on” means to give attention to. Alternate translation: “direct your attention to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

395

JOB

7

18

s64b

figs-rquestion

0

that you should observe … every moment?

This is the end of the rhetorical question that Job begins asking with the words “What is man that” in verse 17. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “Tell me what man is that … mind on him, that you should observe … every moment.” or “I do not understand what man is that … mind on him, that you should observe … every moment.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

396

JOB

7

18

cdq5

0

observe him

Alternate translation: “carefully examine him”

397

JOB

7

19

eb8v

figs-parallelism

0

How long will it be … swallow down my own saliva?

Here Job conveys a single idea using two different rhetorical questions to emphasize his wish that God would stop watching him. Alternate translation: “Look away from me! Leave me alone long enough for me to swallow my own saliva!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

398

JOB

7

19

ts1s

0

saliva

liquid produced in people’s mouths that keeps the mouth moist and helps to swallow food

399

JOB

7

20

wwv1

figs-rquestion

0

Even if I have sinned … burden for you?

Job poses these questions to argue against God treating him unfairly. Alternate translation: “Even if I have sinned, that would do nothing to you, as you watch over people. Tell me why you have made me your target, so that I am a burden for you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

400

JOB

7

21

gzz5

figs-parallelism

0

Why do you not pardon my transgression and take away my iniquity?

Here Job uses two similar clauses within a rhetorical question to emphasize his point. Possible meanings are: (1) Job is asking why God does not forgive him. Alternate translation: “Tell me why you do not pardon my transgression and take away my iniquity.” or (2) Job is asking God why he cannot just overlook his supposed wrongdoings. Alternate translation: “Tell me why you do not just bear with my transgression and iniquity.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

401

JOB

7

21

ek8a

0

take away

Alternate translation: “remove”

402

JOB

7

21

yf7g

figs-metonymy

0

now will I lie down in the dust

The phrase “lie down in the dust” is a metonym that represents dying. Alternate translation: “now I will die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

403

JOB

7

21

uz1p

0

I will not exist

Alternate translation: “I will not be here” or “I will be gone”

404

JOB

8

intro

md4v

0

Job 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is the advice of Job’s friend, Bildad.

Special concepts in this chapter

Bildad’s advice

Bildad tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Bildad gives to Job is bad advice. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Bildad uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to build Bildad’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

405

JOB

8

1

emj8

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Verses 2 and 3 each consist of two different questions that have the same meaning. Bildad uses these questions to rebuke Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

406

JOB

8

1

xwz1

0

Connecting Statement:

In this chapter, Bildad begins to speak about Job’s complaints.

407

JOB

8

1

y8y8

translate-names

0

Then Bildad the Shuhite answered

“Bildad” is the name of a man who is a member of the tribe of Shuah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

408

JOB

8

2

gg55

figs-metaphor

0

How long will the words of your mouth be a mighty wind?

Bildad speaks of Job’s words as if they are as empty and insubstantial as the wind. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “The words of your mouth are as insignificant as a mighty wind.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

409

JOB

8

3

x959

figs-rquestion

0

Does God pervert justice? Does the Almighty pervert righteousness?

Here “God” and “the Almighty” both refer to Yahweh. If your readers would misunderstand these questions, you can express them as statements. Alternate translation: “God does not pervert justice; the Almighty does not pervert righteousness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

410

JOB

8

3

p2fp

0

pervert justice?…pervert righteousness?

Alternate translation: “approve of and do what is not just?…approve of and do what is not righteous?”

411

JOB

8

4

icy5

figs-metonymy

0

for he gave them into the hand of their sins

Here “hand” represents the power or results of sin. Bildad implies that God killed Job’s children because of their sin. Alternate translation: “for God caused the consequences of your children’s sins to kill them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

412

JOB

8

5

lpy9

figs-hypo

0

But suppose you diligently sought God and presented your request to the Almighty

Bildad is saying what would have happened if Job had correctly spoken to God, but Bildad does not believe that Job really did this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

413

JOB

8

5

q7cd

figs-doublet

0

diligently sought God … presented your request to the Almighty

These two phrases both refer to Job asking God for help or pleading with God for mercy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

414

JOB

8

5

c9ii

0

diligently sought God

Alternate translation: “earnestly asked God for help”

415

JOB

8

6

u412

figs-hypo

0

General Information:

Bildad says that God would treat Job well if he was pure, but Bildad does not believe that Job is pure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

416

JOB

8

6

a4ua

0

If you are pure and upright

Alternate translation: “If only you were pure and righteous” or “If only you would obey God and do what is right”

417

JOB

8

6

f6a2

figs-metaphor

0

stir himself on your behalf

Here Yahweh is spoken of as if he woke from sleep to help Job. Alternate translation: “help you” or “do good things for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

418

JOB

8

6

k3xq

0

restore you to your rightful place

This refers to giving back to Job the things he lost, including his family, wealth, and honor.

419

JOB

8

7

cd7r

figs-metaphor

0

Even though your beginning was small, still your final condition would be much greater

Here lack of wealth is spoken of as being a “small beginning.” Alternate translation: “Even if you were poor early in your life, God would make you very wealthy later in your life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

420

JOB

8

8

iq7n

0

give your attention to what our ancestors learned

Alternate translation: “study carefully what our ancestors discovered” or “consider the things our forefathers learned”

421

JOB

8

9

m5vp

figs-metaphor

0

our days on earth are a shadow

The shortness of life is spoken of as if it were a shadow which quickly disappears. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

422

JOB

8

10

h2ae

figs-rquestion

0

Will they not teach you and tell you? Will they not speak words from their hearts?

Bildad uses these rhetorical questions to rebuke Job for not agreeing with Bildad and the ancestors. They can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “They will teach you and tell you and speak what they sincerely believe.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

423

JOB

8

10

u4ad

figs-metonymy

0

from their hearts

Here the word “hearts” represents their inner beliefs. Alternate translation: “that they sincerely believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

424

JOB

8

11

a2hm

0

General Information:

It is unclear if this verse is the teaching of Bildad, or if Bildad is quoting the sayings of the ancestors of Job 8:8-10.

425

JOB

8

11

tj37

figs-rquestion

0

Can papyrus grow without a marsh? Can reeds grow without water?

Bildad uses these two parallel questions to emphasize the single point that people cannot live without God. Here the plants represent people and the water represents God. The questions can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “Papyrus plants cannot grow away from the marshes. Reeds cannot grow without water.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

426

JOB

8

11

ig9q

0

papyrus

a tall reed-like plant that grows in shallow water

427

JOB

8

12

ht78

0

General Information:

It is unclear if this verse is the teaching of Bildad, or if Bildad is quoting the sayings of the ancestors of Job 8:8-10.

428

JOB

8

12

q4x1

figs-explicit

0

While they are still green and not cut down, they wither before any other plant

It is implied that they wither when there is no water. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “Without water, they stop growing and wither faster than any other plant, even if no one cuts them down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

429

JOB

8

12

ugh5

0

wither

Alternate translation: “dry up”

430

JOB

8

13

vn8n

0

General Information:

It is unclear if this verse is the teaching of Bildad, or if Bildad is quoting the sayings of the ancestors of Job 8:8-10.

431

JOB

8

13

y6pd

figs-metonymy

0

So also are the paths of all who forget God

Here “the paths” represents a person’s future and the events that will happen to them. Alternate translation: “The same thing will happen to everyone who forgets God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

432

JOB

8

13

fc76

0

the hope of the godless will perish

Alternate translation: “the things the godless person desires will not happen”

433

JOB

8

14

m1bj

figs-genericnoun

0

General Information:

It is unclear if this verse is the teaching of Bildad, or if Bildad is quoting the sayings of the ancestors of Job 8:8-10. In this verse the pronoun “his” refers to the godless person, who represents godless people in general. It may be helpful to readers to use the plural pronouns “they” and “their.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

434

JOB

8

14

yg2t

figs-parallelism

0

His confidence will break apart … his trust is as weak as a spider’s web

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize that the godless person is trusting in something that cannot save him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

435

JOB

8

14

e61x

figs-simile

0

his trust is as weak as a spider’s web

Here Bildad compares the trust of the godless person to a spider’s web; the slightest force will break both. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

436

JOB

8

15

h15h

figs-genericnoun

0

General Information:

In this verse the pronouns “he” and “him” refer to the godless person, who represents godless people in general. It may be helpful to readers to use the plural pronouns “they” and “their.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

437

JOB

8

15

g7al

figs-metaphor

0

He leans on his house, but it will not support him; he takes hold of it, but it does not stand

This statement probably refers to a man relying on his property and wealth for security. If so, then “house” here represents the owner’s property and wealth. Alternate translation: “He thinks he will be safe because he is wealthy, but he will not be safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

438

JOB

8

15

r6mq

figs-litotes

0

it will not support him

This negative statement emphasizes the opposite. It can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “he will fall down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

439

JOB

8

15

s164

figs-litotes

0

it does not stand

This negative statement emphasizes the opposite. It can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “it will fall down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

440

JOB

8

16

zn7y

figs-genericnoun

0

General Information:

Here pronouns “he” and “his” refer to the godless person, who represents godless people in general. It may be helpful to readers to use the plural pronouns “they” and “their.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

441

JOB

8

16

x5ph

figs-metaphor

0

Under the sun he is green, and his shoots go out over his entire garden

Here Bildad compares the godless person to a plant that is healthy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

442

JOB

8

16

d31w

0

Under the sun he is green

The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. This could mean: (1) he is healthy during the day or (2) he is watered before the sun rises.

443

JOB

8

17

i19y

figs-genericnoun

0

General Information:

In this verse the pronoun “his” refers to the godless person, who represents godless people in general. It may be helpful to readers to use the plural pronouns “they” and “their.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

444

JOB

8

17

cty7

figs-parallelism

0

His roots are wrapped about the heaps of stone … they look for good places among the rocks

These two phrases have similar meaning, but the meaning is unclear. This could mean: (1) he appears to be well-rooted in the rocks, taking advantage of every opening or (2) his roots cannot find fertile ground and must try to find nutrients among the rocks. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

445

JOB

8

18

qe8b

figs-genericnoun

0

General Information:

In this verse the pronouns “his” and “him” refer to the godless person, who represents godless people in general. It may be helpful to readers to use the plural pronouns “they” and “their.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

446

JOB

8

18

ib86

figs-activepassive

0

if this person is destroyed out of his place

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if someone pulls him out of his place” or “if a gardener tears him out of the garden” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

447

JOB

8

18

tq8v

0

his place

Alternate translation: “the rocky ground” or “the garden”

448

JOB

8

18

b7jg

figs-personification

0

that place will deny him and say, ‘I never saw you.’

The garden is spoken of as if it had human ability to speak. The garden immediately forgets that he existed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

449

JOB

8

19

llr9

figs-irony

0

this is the “joy” of such a person’s behavior

Bildad is speaking with irony to express that there is not any real joy for the godless person. Alternate translation: “this is all the joy they will receive from their godless actions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

450

JOB

8

19

z27b

figs-metaphor

0

other plants will sprout out of the same soil in his place

Bildad continues the metaphor from Job 8:16-18. Other godless people are spoken of as plants who take the place of the first godless man when he dies. Alternate translation: “when one wicked man dies, another will take his place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

451

JOB

8

19

n1qg

0

sprout

Alternate translation: “grow”

452

JOB

8

19

j8fx

0

the same soil

Alternate translation: “the rocky ground” or “the garden”

453

JOB

8

19

y97b

0

in his place

Alternate translation: “in the place of the godless man”

454

JOB

8

20

i9v4

0

God will not cast away an innocent man

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “God will accept an innocent man”

455

JOB

8

20

gz4z

figs-metonymy

0

neither will he take the hand of evildoers

Here “take the hand” refers to help or support. Alternate translation: “God will not support people who do evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

456

JOB

8

21

td9s

figs-parallelism

0

He will yet fill your mouth with laughter, your lips with shouting

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize how happy Job would be if he were innocent. The word “he” refers to God and “your” refers to Job. Alternate translation: “God will make you very happy again if you are innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

457

JOB

8

21

ezc5

figs-metaphor

0

fill your mouth with laughter

God causing Job to laugh is spoken of as if God had poured laughter into Job’s mouth. Alternate translation: “cause you to continually laugh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

458

JOB

8

21

e5gp

figs-ellipsis

0

your lips with shouting

The verb “fill” is understood from the previous clause. God causing him to shout for joy is spoken of as if God had poured joy into Job’s mouth. Alternate translation: “God will cause you to shout for joy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

459

JOB

8

22

tc4g

figs-metaphor

0

Those who hate you will be clothed with shame

Here “shame” is spoken of as if it were clothing that God will cause Job’s enemies to wear. This means they will be very ashamed. Alternate translation: “God will cause those who hate you to be very ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

460

JOB

8

22

k5y9

0

the tent of the wicked will be no more

Here “tent” refers to the homes of the wicked. Alternate translation: “the houses of the wicked will be destroyed”

461

JOB

8

22

uz63

0

will be no more

Alternate translation: “will not last” or “will be destroyed”

462

JOB

9

intro

n51u

0

Job 9 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Bildad.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness and Yahweh’s power

Despite being upset about his circumstances, Job does not curse God. Job does not think that he can make a claim against Yahweh because only God is perfectly wise and just. Yahweh is truly powerful and Job understands this. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Job uses many different metaphors in this chapter to express himself or to describe Yahweh’s power. He is also upset with the advice of his friends, who are supposed to help him during difficult times. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Bildad that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

463

JOB

9

2

e369

0

I truly know that this is so

Alternate translation: “I know that what you say is true”

464

JOB

9

2

a9ku

0

this is so

Here the word “this” refers to what Bildad said.

465

JOB

9

2

r4pi

0

how can a person be in the right with God?

Alternate translation: “how can anyone be innocent before God?”

466

JOB

9

3

a6um

0

argue

dispute

467

JOB

9

3

el71

figs-idiom

0

he cannot answer him once in a thousand times

“Once in a thousand times” here is an idiom that means “at all.” This could mean: (1) “he cannot give any answer to God” or (2) “God will not answer him at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

468

JOB

9

3

t9fi

0

a thousand times

Alternate translation: “1,000 times”

469

JOB

9

4

mh8a

figs-metonymy

0

wise in heart

Here the heart represents the inner being or thoughts. Alternate translation: “wise in what he decides” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

470

JOB

9

4

f7rj

figs-abstractnouns

0

mighty in strength

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word strength, you could express the same idea with the adjective “strong.” Alternate translation: “mighty in how strong he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

471

JOB

9

4

b286

figs-rpronouns

0

hardened himself against him

To harden oneself means to be stubborn. Alternate translation: “resisted him” or “defied him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

472

JOB

9

5

at5b

0

he who removes the mountains

Alternate translation: “God removes the mountains”

473

JOB

9

6

m19t

0

he who shakes the earth

Alternate translation: “God shakes the earth”

474

JOB

9

6

xth3

0

sets its supports trembling

Alternate translation: “makes its foundations tremble”

475

JOB

9

7

mt2x

0

who covers up the stars

Alternate translation: “who blocks the stars from view”

476

JOB

9

8

lya7

figs-rpronouns

0

who by himself stretches out the heavens

God is spoken of as creating the heavens without any help, as if the heavens were fabric that he stretches out. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

477

JOB

9

8

xis1

figs-metaphor

0

tramples down the waves of the sea

God is spoken of as calming the sea as if with his feet. Alternate translation: “puts his feet down on the waves of the sea” or “calms the waves of the sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

478

JOB

9

9

n4y8

translate-unknown

0

the Bear, Orion, the Pleiades

These are the names of constellations, which are groups of stars that seem like they form a particular shape in the sky. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

479

JOB

9

9

taz3

0

Orion

a famous hunter in Greek mythology

480

JOB

9

9

x429

0

Pleiades

several bright stars that look like they are close together in the sky

481

JOB

9

9

uzy5

0

constellations

groups of stars that seem like they form a particular shape in the sky

482

JOB

9

10

h9d9

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

The writer uses parallelism in each of these verses, conveying a single idea using double statements to emphasize that God is great, unseen, and sovereign. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

483

JOB

9

10

g1vu

0

unsearchable things

Alternate translation: “things that cannot be understood”

484

JOB

9

11

j3wr

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you.”

485

JOB

9

11

l3a7

0

he passes on

Alternate translation: “he passes by” or “he moves on”

486

JOB

9

12

tc75

figs-rquestion

0

If he takes something away, who can stop him? Who can say to him, ‘What are you doing?

These are rhetorical questions that expect an answer of “No one.” They can be reworded as statements. Alternate translation: “If he takes something away, no one can stop him. No one can ask him, ‘What are you doing?’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

487

JOB

9

12

gm8n

0

If he takes something away

Alternate translation: “If he takes someone away” or “If he wants to snatch something away”

488

JOB

9

13

e9gu

translate-symaction

0

the helpers of Rahab bow beneath him

Here “bow beneath him” symbolizes submission or defeat. Alternate translation: “he crushes the helpers of Rahab” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

489

JOB

9

13

nzr2

translate-names

0

Rahab

The word “Rahab” here refers to a monster of the sea. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

490

JOB

9

14

z61q

figs-parallelism

0

How much less could I answer him, could I choose words to reason with him?

Job poses two similar questions to emphasize his reluctance to confront God. They can be reworded as a statement. Alternate translation: “So I certainly could not answer him or choose words to reason with him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

491

JOB

9

17

w3dc

figs-metaphor

0

For he breaks me with a tempest

Job compares his troubles from God to the effects of a tempest. Alternate translation: “He injures me as if with a tempest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

492

JOB

9

17

qb29

0

tempest

a powerful or violent storm

493

JOB

9

17

rl4w

0

multiplies my wounds

Alternate translation: “gives me many wounds” or “wounds me again and again”

494

JOB

9

17

qw6a

0

without cause

Alternate translation: “even though I have not given him cause to do so” or “even though I am innocent”

495

JOB

9

18

bw17

figs-idiom

0

to regain my breath

This is an idiom that means “to be able to breathe again” or (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

496

JOB

9

18

uqz6

figs-metaphor

0

he fills me with bitterness

This verse pictures God as filling up Job’s life with things that make him bitter. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word bitterness, you could express the same idea with the adjective “bitter.” Alternate translation: “he fills me up with bitter things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

497

JOB

9

19

qi46

0

If it is a matter of strength

Alternate translation: “If there is a contest of strength”

498

JOB

9

19

ad8i

0

behold, he is mighty

Alternate translation: “look and you will see that he is mighty” or “pay attention to what I am about to tell you: he is mighty”

499

JOB

9

19

a2rc

0

he is mighty

Alternate translation: “he is the strong one”

500

JOB

9

19

fjk3

figs-rquestion

0

who can summon him?

This question expects an answer of “No one” to make the point that no one is able to bring God to court. This can be reworded as a statement. Alternate translation: “no one can summon him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

501

JOB

9

20

q6qk

figs-parallelism

0

Though I am in the right, my own mouth would condemn me; and though I am blameless, my words would prove me to be guilty

This verse expresses the same idea twice for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

502

JOB

9

20

xtf8

figs-idiom

0

Though I am in the right

Here “I am in the right” means I am the one who has done right things. Alternate translation: “Although I have done right things” or “Even though I am innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

503

JOB

9

20

grl2

figs-metonymy

0

my own mouth would condemn me

Here “mouth” represents Job’s words. Alternate translation: “my own words would accuse me” or “what I say would condemn me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

504

JOB

9

20

ci26

0

blameless

Alternate translation: “faultless”

505

JOB

9

20

dd24

figs-metaphor

0

my words would prove me to be guilty

Here “my words” are spoken of as if they could take action. Alternate translation: “God would use what I say to prove me guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

506

JOB

9

20

j9y3

0

guilty

The word here has the meaning of “twisted” or “crooked.”

507

JOB

9

21

n1sz

0

I am blameless

Alternate translation: “I am faultless”

508

JOB

9

21

ruv5

0

about myself

Alternate translation: “what happens to me”

509

JOB

9

22

ahw1

0

It makes no difference

Alternate translation: “It is all the same” or “It does not matter”

510

JOB

9

22

e1i7

figs-merism

0

he destroys blameless people and wicked people together

Here “blameless” and “wicked” are two extremes for a merism that include everything in between. Alternate translation: “he brings everyone to an end, whether they are blameless or wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

511

JOB

9

23

hsd9

figs-metaphor

0

When a whip suddenly kills

The word “whip” here is a metaphor for any kind of disaster. Alternate translation: “When a disaster suddenly happens and people die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

512

JOB

9

23

m78u

figs-metonymy

0

the despair of the innocent

The word “despair” is an abstract noun that can be translated by the verb “despair.” Here it is a metonym for the innocent who are despairing. Alternate translation: “the innocent who are despairing” or “the innocent who have lost all hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

513

JOB

9

23

sgu2

figs-nominaladj

0

innocent

This is a nominalized adjective. Alternate translation: “innocent people”. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

514

JOB

9

24

v13g

figs-activepassive

0

The earth is given

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God gives the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

515

JOB

9

24

rz2j

figs-metonymy

0

The earth is

Here “the earth” is used to represent the people on the earth. Alternate translation: “The people of the world are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

516

JOB

9

24

g65c

figs-metonymy

0

into the hand of

Here “hand” is a metonym for “control.” Alternate translation: “into the control of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

517

JOB

9

24

l9pz

figs-idiom

0

God covers the faces of its judges

This idiom means God keeps the judges of the earth from being able to judge the difference between right and wrong. Alternate translation: “God makes its judges blind” or “God keeps its judges from judging rightly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

518

JOB

9

24

y1iv

0

If it is not he who does it, then who is it?

Alternate translation: “If it is not God who does these things, then who does them?”

519

JOB

9

25

aw7i

figs-simile

0

My days are swifter than a running messenger

Job compares how quickly his days are passing by to a fast runner. Alternate translation: “My days pass swiftly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

520

JOB

9

25

um75

0

running messenger

Alternate translation: “runner” or “running man”

521

JOB

9

25

s36p

figs-personification

0

my days flee away

This pictures the days of Job’s life as being able to run away like a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

522

JOB

9

25

a6zy

figs-personification

0

they see no good anywhere

This pictures the days of Job’s life as being able to see like a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

523

JOB

9

25

ej64

0

no good

Alternate translation: “no good thing”

524

JOB

9

26

icr6

figs-simile

0

They are as fast as papyrus reed boats

Job compares how quickly his days are passing by to the speed of fast boats. Alternate translation: “They pass quickly by like papyrus reed boats” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

525

JOB

9

26

hle5

0

papyrus reed boats

“boats made out of reeds.” Papyrus reed is a hollow grass that grows along the banks of rivers.

526

JOB

9

26

vrq5

figs-simile

0

as fast as the eagle that swoops down on its victim

Job compares how quickly his days are passing by to a large bird diving toward its prey. Alternate translation: “as fast as the eagle that flies down quickly to catch its food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

527

JOB

9

26

iuy1

0

swoops down

Alternate translation: “rushes down”

528

JOB

9

27

wk23

figs-abstractnouns

0

I would forget about my complaints

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word complaint, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “complain.” Alternate translation: “I would stop complaining” or “I would stop complaining against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

529

JOB

9

27

gn93

figs-explicit

0

my complaints

It can be stated clearly whom Job was complaining against. Alternate translation: “my complaints against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

530

JOB

9

27

vk9t

figs-metaphor

0

I would take off my sad face and be happy

Job’s sad face is spoken of here as if it was something that could be removed. Alternate translation: “I would stop looking unhappy and smile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

531

JOB

9

28

rek4

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

I would be afraid of all my sorrows

Verses 28 and 29 express the consequences if Job does what he says in verse 27. This can be expressed by adding the word “then.” Alternate translation: “Then I would be afraid of all my sorrows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

532

JOB

9

28

hqx2

figs-abstractnouns

0

of all my sorrows

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word sorrows, you could express the same idea with a verb. Alternate translation: “of everything that hurts me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

533

JOB

9

29

js2a

figs-activepassive

0

I will be condemned

“I will be accused and punished.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will condemn me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

534

JOB

9

29

w57l

figs-rquestion

0

why, then, should I try in vain?

Job uses this question to emphasize that he does not think it is of any use trying to get God’s attention. The implied information about what Job is trying can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “It is of no use to try to get God’s attention.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

535

JOB

9

30

l6jt

0

If I washed myself with snow water

Alternate translation: “If I bathed my body in pure, clean water”

536

JOB

9

30

y111

0

snow water

the water that comes from melted snow

537

JOB

9

30

b7il

0

snow

white flakes of frozen water that fall from clouds in places where the air temperature is cold

538

JOB

9

30

a4jk

0

made my hands ever so clean

Some other versions of the Bible translate this with the meaning of “cleaned my hands with very strong soap.” Alternate translation: “made my hands exceedingly clean”

539

JOB

9

31

sz3q

0

plunge me in a ditch

Alternate translation: “throw me into a pit”

540

JOB

9

31

vh45

figs-personification

0

my own clothes would be disgusted with me

Job’s clothing is spoken of as if it would have a negative response to Job after God plunged him into a ditch. Alternate translation: “I would be too filthy for my own clothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

541

JOB

9

32

va67

figs-explicit

0

answer him

Job implies that God has charged him of doing wrong, and he wants to respond to those charges. Alternate translation: “answer his charges against me” or “defend myself” or “argue my innocence with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

542

JOB

9

32

yb3i

figs-metonymy

0

come together in court

“come together to trial.” Here “court” is a place where people can come and a judge will settle disputes. “Coming together in court” is a metonym for going against each other in a court of law. Alternate translation: “confront each other before a judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

543

JOB

9

33

z743

0

There is no judge between us

This means there is no judge who is greater than God who could decide what is right between him and Job.

544

JOB

9

33

es66

figs-idiom

0

lay his hand upon us both

Here “lay his hand upon” means having power or authority over. Alternate translation: “take hold of both of us” or “have authority over both of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

545

JOB

9

34

hm1t

0

Connecting Statement:

These verses continue the previous argument that no one is greater than God who could act as a judge between God and Job.

546

JOB

9

34

cc5r

figs-metonymy

0

take God’s rod off me

Here “God’s rod” is a metonym for God punishing or correcting Job. Alternate translation: “stop God from punishing me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

547

JOB

9

34

vs1b

figs-abstractnouns

0

keep his terror from frightening me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word terror, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “terrify.” Alternate translation: “keep him from terrifying and frightening me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

548

JOB

9

35

fa78

0

Then would I speak up

Alternate translation: “Then I would speak”

549

JOB

9

35

ug86

0

as things are now

Alternate translation: “because this is how things are now”

550

JOB

10

intro

ul99

0

Job 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s response to Bildad.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

Despite being upset about his circumstances, Job does not curse Yahweh. Instead, he defends himself to Yahweh, while trusting in his decision. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to defend himself. He does not believe that he committed a sin deserving severe punishment. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

551

JOB

10

1

ch7h

0

I am weary of my life

Alternate translation: “I am tired of living”

552

JOB

10

1

p5cl

figs-abstractnouns

0

I will give free expression to my complaint

The abstract nouns “expression” and “complaint” can be translated as the verbs “express” and “complain.” Alternate translation: “I will freely express what I have to complain about” or “I will argue freely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

553

JOB

10

1

zk1f

figs-metaphor

0

I will speak in the bitterness of my soul

How Job feels is compared to a bitter taste. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word bitterness, you could express the same idea with the adverb “bitterly.” Alternate translation: “My inner being will speak bitterly” or “I will bitterly speak out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

554

JOB

10

3

aaw5

figs-rquestion

0

Is it good to you that you should oppress me, to despise the work of your hands while you smile on the plans of the wicked?

This question expects a “no” answer and can be changed into a statement. Alternate translation: “It is not good that you should oppress me, that you should despise the work of your hands, while you smile on the plans of the wicked.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

555

JOB

10

3

vw7h

figs-synecdoche

0

the work of your hands

Here God is represented by his “hands.” Alternate translation: “what you have created” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

556

JOB

10

3

q8wf

figs-idiom

0

smile on the plans of the wicked

Here the idiom “smiling on” represents God’s approval. Alternate translation: “approve the plans of the wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

557

JOB

10

4

d65r

figs-parallelism

0

Do you have eyes of flesh? Do you see like a man sees?

These two questions have nearly the same meaning. These questions expect a negative answer to emphasize that God does not see or understand things the same way a man does. They can be expressed as statements. Alternate translation: “You do not have eyes of flesh, and you do not see like a man sees.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

558

JOB

10

5

e9t6

figs-rquestion

0

Job begins to ask a rhetorical question. He is saying that God lives forever but people live only for a short time, so God should not worry about Job’s sins. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

559

JOB

10

5

awt6

figs-parallelism

0

your days like the days of mankind … your years like the years of people

These two phrases have nearly the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

560

JOB

10

5

st4n

0

your days

Alternate translation: “the number of your days”

561

JOB

10

5

tjp4

0

your years

Alternate translation: “the number of your years”

562

JOB

10

6

qf3d

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues the rhetorical question he began in verse 5. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion)

563

JOB

10

6

zdk3

0

inquire after my iniquity

Alternate translation: “look to see if I have committed iniquity”

564

JOB

10

7

eu61

0

Connecting Statement:

This is the end of the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Are your days” in verse 5.

565

JOB

10

7

s3k7

figs-rquestion

0

although you know … from your hand?

This is the end of the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Are your days” in verse 5. The whole question can be translated as a statement. “Your days are not like the days of mankind, and your years are not like the years of people, so you should not inquire after my iniquity and search after my sin, because you know I am not guilty and there is no one who can rescue me from your hand.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

566

JOB

10

7

vzd3

figs-synecdoche

0

from your hand

Here “your hand” represents God’s power. Alternate translation: “from your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

567

JOB

10

8

tx92

figs-synecdoche

0

Your hands

Here “hands” represent God and his creative action. Alternate translation: “You” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

568

JOB

10

8

x1dy

figs-metaphor

0

Your hands have framed and fashioned me together round about

Job is using a metaphor of a potter forming clay to describe how God carefully created him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

569

JOB

10

8

p1ml

figs-doublet

0

framed and fashioned me

“shaped and formed me.” The words “framed” and “fashioned” are similar in meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

570

JOB

10

9

l83b

0

Call to mind

Alternate translation: “Remember”

571

JOB

10

9

zg5j

0

bring me into dust again

Alternate translation: “turn me back into dust again”

572

JOB

10

10

vpu6

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

In these verses, Job uses the language of poetry to describe how God formed him in the womb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])

573

JOB

10

10

h664

figs-rquestion

0

Have you not poured me out like milk and curdled me like cheese?

This is a question that expects a positive answer. Alternate translation: “You poured me out like milk and curdled me like cheese.” or “You formed me in the womb like poured milk becomes cheese.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

574

JOB

10

10

c2ul

0

you

Here “you” refers to God.

575

JOB

10

10

wk3h

0

me

Here “me” refers to Job.

576

JOB

10

11

p9pw

figs-metaphor

0

You have clothed me with skin and flesh

God putting skin and flesh on Job’s body is spoken of as if God was putting clothing on him. Alternate translation: “You have put skin and flesh on my body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

577

JOB

10

11

mxm1

figs-metaphor

0

knit me together

“wove me together.” God putting Job’s body together in the womb is spoken of as if God was knitting or weaving a piece of cloth. Alternate translation: “put me together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

578

JOB

10

11

hut9

0

sinews

the parts of the body that connect muscles to bones or other body parts and are like tough, white bands or cords

579

JOB

10

12

tc2u

figs-abstractnouns

0

You have granted me life and covenant faithfulness

The abstract nouns “life” and “faithfulness” can be stated as “live” and “faithful.” Alternate translation: “You have been faithful to your covenant and allowed me to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

580

JOB

10

12

dt8a

0

your help

Alternate translation: “your care”

581

JOB

10

12

h7in

figs-synecdoche

0

guarded my spirit

Here Job is represented by his “spirit.” Alternate translation: “guarded me” or “watched carefully over me” or “kept me safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

582

JOB

10

14

zj6t

0

you would notice it

Alternate translation: “you would watch me”

583

JOB

10

15

l6ww

0

If I have acted wickedly

Alternate translation: “If I do evil things”

584

JOB

10

15

vwh2

0

woe to me

Alternate translation: “how terrible will it be for me”

585

JOB

10

15

h2sc

figs-idiom

0

lift up my head

This idiom means to be sure or confident. Alternate translation: “hold my head up” or “be confident” or “be sure about myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

586

JOB

10

15

yg3e

0

I am filled with disgrace—see my affliction

Another possible meaning, followed by some versions, is, “I am full of disgrace and am completely full of my own suffering,” where the disgrace is bad but the suffering is even worse.

587

JOB

10

15

amu8

0

I am filled with disgrace

Alternate translation: “I am totally ashamed” or “No one respects me anymore”

588

JOB

10

15

fs2u

0

disgrace

shame

589

JOB

10

15

bu5t

figs-abstractnouns

0

see my affliction

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word affliction, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “afflict.” Alternate translation: “see how God is afflicting me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

590

JOB

10

16

z3nm

figs-hypo

0

If my head were lifted up, you would stalk me like a lion

This could mean: (1) this is a hypothetical situation that has not happened or (2) this is a description of a situation that happens repeatedly. Alternate translation: “When my head is lifted up, you stalk me like a lion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

591

JOB

10

16

ya75

figs-idiom

0

If my head were lifted up

This idiom means to become self-confident or proud. Alternate translation: “If I become proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

592

JOB

10

16

bss8

figs-simile

0

you would stalk me like a lion

Possible meanings of this simile are: (1) God hunts Job like a lion hunts its prey or (2) Job is like a lion being hunted by God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

593

JOB

10

16

yj7r

figs-irony

0

again you would show yourself with marvellous acts of power against me

This phrase expresses irony in how God displays his marvelous power by acting to harm Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

594

JOB

10

17

u754

figs-metaphor

0

You bring new witnesses against me

Job’s troubles from God are spoken of as if they were people who were witnesses against him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

595

JOB

10

17

di4r

figs-abstractnouns

0

increase your anger against me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word anger, you could express the same idea with the adjective “angry.” Alternate translation: “are more and more angry with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

596

JOB

10

17

zs8c

figs-metaphor

0

you attack me with fresh armies

God sending troubles against Job is spoken of as if God was constantly sending new armies against him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

597

JOB

10

18

zk6f

figs-metaphor

0

brought me out of the womb

Here being brought out of the womb represents being born into this world. Alternate translation: “brought me out of my mother’s womb” or “brought me into this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

598

JOB

10

18

n2ql

figs-metaphor

0

given up my spirit

Giving up one’s spirit represents dying. Alternate translation: “died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

599

JOB

10

18

s56b

figs-synecdoche

0

and that no eye had ever seen me

Job uses “eye” here to refer to the whole person. He wishes he could have died at birth, before anyone saw him. Alternate translation: “before any person had ever seen me” or “before I was born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

600

JOB

10

19

bzd2

0

I had never existed

Alternate translation: “I had never lived”

601

JOB

10

19

uc37

0

I would have been carried

Alternate translation: “My body would have been carried”

602

JOB

10

20

yd2g

figs-rquestion

0

Are not my days only a few?

Here “my days” represent the length of Job’s life. This question expects a positive answer, to emphasize that Job only expects to live a few more days. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I only have a few days left to live.” or “My life will soon end.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

603

JOB

10

21

f7d8

figs-metaphor

0

the land

Here the place where the spirits of dead people go is spoken of as if it was a land. Alternate translation: “the place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

604

JOB

10

21

i9h6

figs-doublet

0

of darkness and of the shadow of death

The phrase “shadow of death” intensifies the idea of “darkness.” Both phrases describe where the spirits of dead people go. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

605

JOB

10

21

zq3v

0

the shadow of death

See how you translated this in Job 3:5.

606

JOB

10

22

xkq9

figs-simile

0

as dark as midnight

The darkness of the place where the spirits of dead people go is compared to the darkness of midnight. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

607

JOB

10

22

r9u5

figs-litotes

0

without any order

This negative phrase can be expressed in positive form. Alternate translation: “full of confusion” or “where all is confused” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

608

JOB

10

22

a8nx

figs-simile

0

where the light is like midnight

The light of the place where the spirits of dead people go is compared to midnight. Alternate translation: “where there is no light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

609

JOB

11

intro

m1vt

0

Job 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is the advice of Job’s friend, Zophar.

Special concepts in this chapter

Zophar’s advice

Zophar tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Zophar gives to Job is bad advice. He even questions the character of God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Zophar uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to build Zophar’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

610

JOB

11

1

mbq7

translate-names

0

Zophar the Naamathite

See how you translated this man’s name in Job 2:11. Alternate translation: “Zophar from the region of Naamah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

611

JOB

11

2

cq18

figs-rquestion

0

Should not such a multitude of words be answered?

Zophar is asking a question in the negative to emphasize that Job’s words must be challenged. Alternate translation: “We must answer all of these words!” or “Someone should respond to all these words!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

612

JOB

11

2

ua2s

figs-rquestion

0

Should this man, so full of talk, be believed?

Zophar uses this question to emphasize that they should not believe what Job was saying. Alternate translation: “This man is so full of talk, but the people should not believe him!” or “Your many words alone do not mean you are innocent!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

613

JOB

11

3

kgu1

figs-rquestion

0

Should your boasting make others remain silent?

Zophar uses this question to rebuke Job. Alternate translation: “Just because you have spoken many words, this does not mean that others must keep silent.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

614

JOB

11

3

s3am

figs-rquestion

0

When you mock, will no one make you feel ashamed?

Zophar uses this question to rebuke Job. You may need to make explicit what it is that Job is mocking. Alternate translation: “You have mocked us for what we have said. Now we will make you feel ashamed!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

615

JOB

11

4

k2le

0

My beliefs are pure

Alternate translation: “My understanding is correct”

616

JOB

11

4

e56u

figs-metaphor

0

I am blameless in your eyes

The eyes represent sight, which is a metaphor for God’s evaluation of Job. This could mean: (1) that Job is saying that God judges him as blameless. Alternate translation: “You say that I am blameless” or (2) that Job believes he has been blameless and that God should judge him as blameless. Alternate translation: “You should recognize that I am blameless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

617

JOB

11

5

ii56

figs-metonymy

0

that God would speak … open his lips against you

The words “open his lips” are a metonym that means speak. These two phrases mean the same thing and are used together to emphasize Zophar’s desire that God would speak harshly against Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

618

JOB

11

6

ca7p

figs-explicit

0

that he would show … secrets of wisdom

What the “secrets of wisdom” are can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “that he would show you that you are suffering because of your sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

619

JOB

11

6

qjk2

figs-metaphor

0

God demands from you less than your iniquity deserves

Demanding from Job represents punishing Job. Alternate translation: “God is punishing you less than you deserve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

620

JOB

11

7

tvp2

figs-parallelism

0

Can you understand God by searching for him? Can you comprehend the Almighty perfectly?

These two parallel questions are asking the same thing. The writer uses the form of a question to add emphasis. Alternate translation: “You cannot understand God by searching for him, and you will never completely understand the Almighty!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

621

JOB

11

8

n8yi

figs-explicit

0

The matter

This refers to understanding God. Alternate translation: “To understand God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

622

JOB

11

8

jhq3

figs-parallelism

0

is as high as heaven … deeper than Sheol

The impossibility of understanding God is spoken of as if it were impossible to go to these extremely far away places. Alternate translation: “is as inaccessible as the highest places in heaven … is more inaccessible than the deepest places in Sheol” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

623

JOB

11

8

y9sp

figs-rquestion

0

what can you do?

Zophar uses this question to show that a person cannot do anything to understand God fully. Alternate translation: “you cannot do anything.” or “you cannot understand him fully.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

624

JOB

11

8

hb95

figs-rquestion

0

what can you know?

Zophar uses this question to show that a person cannot do anything to know God fully. Alternate translation: “you cannot know God fully.” or “you cannot know all there is to know.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

625

JOB

11

9

i9xz

0

Its measure

This could mean: (1) God’s greatness or (2) the greatness of God’s wisdom.

626

JOB

11

9

z6cv

figs-metaphor

0

is longer than the earth … wider than the sea

God’s greatness or wisdom is spoken of as if it could be measured in distance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

627

JOB

11

10

y4fx

0

If he … shuts anyone up

Alternate translation: “If God … shuts anyone up in prison”

628

JOB

11

10

d1jn

figs-abstractnouns

0

if he calls anyone to judgment

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word judgment, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “judge.” Alternate translation: “if God calls anyone to go to him so that God might judge him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

629

JOB

11

10

f915

figs-rquestion

0

who can stop him?

This question emphasizes that no one can stop God. Alternate translation: “no one can stop him!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

630

JOB

11

11

gdx6

figs-rquestion

0

does he not notice it?

This emphasizes that God does notice sin. Alternate translation: “he surely notices it!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

631

JOB

11

12

e8e9

figs-abstractnouns

0

But foolish people have no understanding

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word understanding, you could express the same idea with the verb “understand.” Alternate translation: “But foolish people do not understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

632

JOB

11

12

jlz1

figs-irony

0

they will get it when a wild donkey gives birth to a man

Since a wild donkey can never give birth to a man, this means that foolish people will never get understanding. Alternate translation: “only if a wild donkey could give birth to a man could foolish people get understanding” or “it is as impossible for a foolish person to get understanding as it is for a donkey to give birth to a man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

633

JOB

11

13

k56l

figs-metaphor

0

suppose that you had set your heart right

The heart represents thoughts and attitudes. Setting it right represents correcting it. Alternate translation: “even if you had corrected your attitude” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

634

JOB

11

13

mm3c

translate-symaction

0

had reached out with your hands toward God

This is a symbolic action representing asking God for help. Alternate translation: “had made an appeal and prayed to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

635

JOB

11

14

t8z8

figs-metonymy

0

suppose that iniquity were in your hand

The hand represents what a person does. Alternate translation: “even if you had done some evil things in the past” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

636

JOB

11

14

nt8d

figs-metaphor

0

but that then you put it far away from you

Putting sin behind represents stopping sinning. Alternate translation: “but that then you stopped doing evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

637

JOB

11

14

u5ya

figs-personification

0

did not let unrighteousness live in your tents

Unrighteousness living represents people doing unrighteous things. Alternate translation: “and you did not allow the members of your household to do unrighteous things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

638

JOB

11

15

db84

figs-metonymy

0

lift up your face without a sign of shame

“Lifting up your face” represents the attitude of a person who is confident and brave. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

639

JOB

11

16

x6vt

figs-simile

0

you would remember it only like waters that have flowed away

Zophar is comparing misery with water that flows downstream and it is gone. Alternate translation: “You would remember it, but the misery will be gone, like waters that have flowed away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

640

JOB

11

17

fqt4

figs-parallelism

0

Your life would … like the morning.

Zophar repeats the same idea for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

641

JOB

11

17

dkt7

figs-metaphor

0

Your life would be brighter than the noonday

Brightness represents being prosperous and happy. Alternate translation: “Your life would be prosperous and happy like the noonday” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

642

JOB

11

17

dua9

figs-hypo

0

though there were darkness

Darkness represents troubles and sadness. Alternate translation: “Though there were dark troubles and sadness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

643

JOB

11

17

s8z7

figs-metaphor

0

it would become like the morning

The morning represents light, which represents prosperity and happiness. Alternate translation: “it would be prosperous and happy like the morning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

644

JOB

11

18

iqu3

figs-parallelism

0

You would be secure … take your rest in safety

Zophar repeats the same idea for emphasis and describes the possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

645

JOB

11

18

f1be

figs-idiom

0

would take your rest in safety

“Take your rest” here is an idiom for “rest.” The phrase “in safety” can be expressed with the word “safely.” Alternate translation: “would rest safely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

646

JOB

11

19

fm2w

figs-parallelism

0

Also you would lie down in rest … your favor.

Zophar repeats the same idea for emphasis and describes the possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

647

JOB

11

19

hc18

figs-abstractnouns

0

you would lie down in rest

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word rest, you could express the same idea with the verb “rest.” Alternate translation: “you would lie down and rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

648

JOB

11

20

s359

figs-metaphor

0

the eyes of wicked people will fail

Their eyes represent their understanding. Alternate translation: “the understanding of the wicked people will fail” or “the wicked people will not be able to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

649

JOB

12

intro

u4jn

0

Job 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Zophar.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

Despite being upset about his circumstances, Job does not curse God. His friends, on the other hand, judge Job’s case, which Job recognizes to be Yahweh’s authority. These three friends therefore try to take God’s place. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Job uses many different metaphors in this chapter to express his pain or despair. He is also upset with the advice of his friends, who are supposed to help him during difficult times. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Zophar that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

650

JOB

12

2

dpz4

figs-irony

0

No doubt you are the people; wisdom will die with you

Job mocks how they are acting and shows how ridiculous they sound. Alternate translation: “Surely you are such important people that wisdom cannot exist without you” or “You all act like you are the only wise people and that when you die, wisdom will disappear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

651

JOB

12

2

ba96

0

No doubt

Alternate translation: “Surely”

652

JOB

12

2

dk3z

figs-you

0

you

This is plural in verses 2 and 3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

653

JOB

12

2

xl1k

0

you are the people

Alternate translation: “you are the important people who know everything”

654

JOB

12

3

kd9k

figs-rquestion

0

Indeed, who does not know such things as these?

Job used this question to express a truth that should be obvious to his listeners. It can be expressed as a statement. Alternate translation: “Certainly there is no one who does not know such things as these.” or “Certainly everyone knows these things.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

655

JOB

12

4

qdq1

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

I am something for my neighbor to laugh at—I, one who called on God and who was answered by him!

The relationship between these phrases can be made clear with the words “even though.” Alternate translation: “I am something for my neighbor to laugh at—even though I am one who called on God and he answered me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

656

JOB

12

4

f67d

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

I, a just and blameless man—I am now something to laugh at

The relationship between these phrases can be made clear with the words “even though.” Alternate translation: “Even though I am a just and blameless man, people now laugh at me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

657

JOB

12

5

cg28

figs-abstractnouns

0

In the thought of someone who is at ease, there is contempt for misfortune

The abstract nouns “thought,” “ease,” “contempt,” and “misfortune” can be expressed with other phrases. Alternate translation: “A person who lives an easy life despises a person who suffers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

658

JOB

12

5

j6ph

figs-metaphor

0

brings more misfortune

Bringing misfortune represents causing it to happen. Alternate translation: “causes more bad things to happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

659

JOB

12

5

z8za

figs-metaphor

0

to those whose foot is slipping

The foot slipping represents being in danger or trouble. Alternate translation: “to those who are already in trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

660

JOB

12

6

rn8l

figs-metonymy

0

The tents of robbers prosper

Their tents prospering represents the robbers prospering in their tents. Alternate translation: “Robbers live in prosperity in their own tents” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

661

JOB

12

6

j8fd

figs-metonymy

0

their own hands are their gods

Here “their own hands” is a metonym for strength, and “their gods” is a metaphor for their pride. Alternate translation: “they are extremely proud of their own abilities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

662

JOB

12

7

c1y7

figs-irony

0

But now ask the beasts … the birds … they will tell you

Job is saying that the beasts and the birds understand God better than Job’s friends do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

663

JOB

12

7

t82w

figs-you

0

you

All occurrences of “you” are plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

664

JOB

12

7

de2x

figs-imperative

0

But now ask the beasts, and they will teach you

The command in the first part of the sentence functions as a hypothetical condition. Alternate translation: “But if you were to ask the beasts, they would teach you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

665

JOB

12

7

ee93

figs-imperative

0

ask the birds of the heavens, and they will tell you

The command in the first part of the sentence functions as a hypothetical condition. Alternate translation: if you were to ask the birds of the heavens, they would tell you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

666

JOB

12

8

g5xs

figs-irony

0

speak to the earth … will declare to you

Job is saying that the beasts, the birds, the earth, and the fish understand God better than Job’s friends do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

667

JOB

12

8

k4ca

figs-imperative

0

Or speak to the earth, and it will teach you

The command in the first part of the sentence functions as a hypothetical condition. Alternate translation: “Or if you were to speak to the earth, it would teach you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

668

JOB

12

8

bjf6

figs-ellipsis

0

the fish of the sea will declare to you

The command “Ask the fish of the sea” is understood from the previous sentences. It functions as a hypothetical condition. Alternate translation: “and if you were to ask the fish of the sea, they would declare to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

669

JOB

12

9

hu2y

figs-rquestion

0

Which animal among all these does not know … this?

This question emphasizes the point that all the animals know that Yahweh has done this. This question can be worded as a statement. Alternate translation: “Every animal among all these knows … this.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

670

JOB

12

9

tht3

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of Yahweh has done this

Yahweh’s hand represents his power. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has done this by his power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

671

JOB

12

10

tx1w

figs-metonymy

0

In his hand is the life … and the breath of all mankind

Yahweh’s hand represents his control or power. Alternate translation: “God controls the life of every living thing and gives breath to all mankind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

672

JOB

12

10

s1sr

figs-metonymy

0

the breath of all mankind

Here “breath” represents life or the ability to live. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

673

JOB

12

11

d5vn

figs-rquestion

0

Does not the ear test words just as the palate tastes its food?

Job uses this question to emphasize that people listen to what others say and judge whether it is good or not. The ear and palate are metonyms for hearing and tasting. Alternate translation: “We hear what people say and test it just as we taste food and test it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

674

JOB

12

12

v4ft

figs-abstractnouns

0

With aged men is wisdom

“Aged men have wisdom.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wisdom, you could express the same idea with “wise.” The word “men” refers to people in general. Alternate translation: “Old people are wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

675

JOB

12

12

lhn1

figs-abstractnouns

0

in length of days is understanding

This represents people gaining understanding when they live a long time. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word understanding, you could express the same idea with the phrase “understand much.” Alternate translation: “people gain understanding when they live a long time” or “people who live a long time understand much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

676

JOB

12

13

mmb7

0

General Information:

Verse 13 says that God is wise and mighty. The rest of this chapter shows that this is true by telling about the wise and mighty things that God does.

677

JOB

12

13

tw4v

figs-abstractnouns

0

With God are wisdom and might

The abstract nouns “wisdom” and “might” can be expressed with the adjectives “wise” and “mighty.” Alternate translation: “God is wise and mighty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

678

JOB

12

14

aq2d

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

679

JOB

12

14

v1pt

figs-activepassive

0

it cannot be built again

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one can rebuild it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

680

JOB

12

14

c4eb

figs-abstractnouns

0

if he imprisons someone, there can be no release

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word release, you could express the same idea with the verb “free.” Alternate translation: “if God shuts someone in, no one can free him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

681

JOB

12

15

pl3c

figs-metaphor

0

if he withholds the waters, they dry up

Possible meanings are that withholding waters represents: (1) preventing the rain from falling. Alternate translation: “if he stops the rain from falling the land dries up” or (2) preventing running water from flowing. Alternate translation: “if he stops the water from flowing, the land dries up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

682

JOB

12

15

rel2

figs-metaphor

0

if he sends them out, they overwhelm the land

Possible meanings are that sending them out is a metaphor meaning: (1) causing the rain to fall. Alternate translation: “if he causes a lot of rain to fall, it floods the land” or (2) causing the waters to flow. Alternate translation: “if he makes a lot of water flow, it floods the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

683

JOB

12

16

gqf6

figs-abstractnouns

0

With him are strength and wisdom

The abstract nouns “strength” and “wisdom” can be expressed with the words “strong” and “wise.” Alternate translation: “God is strong and wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

684

JOB

12

16

uuh8

0

people who are deceived and the deceiver are both in his power

Being in God’s power represents God ruling over them. Alternate translation: “people who believe a lie and people who lie to others are both in his power” or “God rules over both people who believe lies and people who lie to others”

685

JOB

12

17

lk8b

figs-metaphor

0

He leads counselors away barefoot

Leading counselors away barefoot represents taking away their wisdom and authority. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

686

JOB

12

17

ux12

figs-abstractnouns

0

in sorrow

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word sorrow, you could express the same idea with the words “sad” or “grieve” Alternate translation: “and they feel very sad” or “and they grieve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

687

JOB

12

17

uu39

0

he turns judges into fools

Alternate translation: “he makes judges become foolish”

688

JOB

12

18

w5lc

figs-metonymy

0

He takes off the chain of authority from kings

Possible meanings are that: (1) this is a metonym for causing kings to no longer have authority. Alternate translation: “He takes away the authority of kings” or (2) this is a metonym for setting people free from the chains that kings have put on them. Alternate translation: “He takes off the bonds that kings have put on people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

689

JOB

12

18

p4c4

figs-metonymy

0

he wraps a cloth about their waists

This cloth is probably what a slave wears. To put these cloths on kings represents making the kings slaves. Alternate translation: “he makes kings wear the clothing of slaves” or “he makes them slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

690

JOB

12

19

mkn4

figs-metaphor

0

He leads priests away barefoot

Leading priests away barefoot represents taking away their authority. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

691

JOB

12

19

wut2

figs-abstractnouns

0

in sorrow

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word sorrow, you could express the same idea with the words “sad” or “grieve” Alternate translation: “and they feel sad” or “and they grieve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

692

JOB

12

19

ch3f

0

overthrows mighty people

Alternate translation: “defeats powerful people”

693

JOB

12

20

g3na

figs-metonymy

0

He removes the speech of those who had been trusted

Removing their speech represents making them unable to speak. Alternate translation: “He makes those who were trusted unable to speak” or “He silences people whom others trusted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

694

JOB

12

20

dk1e

figs-metonymy

0

takes away the understanding of the elders

Taking away their understanding represents making them unable to understand or make good decisions. Alternate translation: “makes the elders unable to understand” or “makes the elders unable to make good decisions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

695

JOB

12

20

gm4d

0

the elders

This could mean: (1) the older people or (2) the leaders.

696

JOB

12

21

l74e

figs-metaphor

0

He pours contempt upon princes

Pouring contempt on princes is a metaphor for causing people to feel contempt for them. Alternate translation: “He causes people to greatly disrespect those who rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

697

JOB

12

21

k6sg

figs-metaphor

0

unfastens the belt of strong people

The belt is a symbol of strength. Unfastening a strong person’s belt represents taking away his strength and making him weak. Alternate translation: “makes the strong people weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

698

JOB

12

22

c31p

figs-metaphor

0

He reveals the deep things of darkness

Revealing things represents making them known. “Deep things from darkness” represent secrets that people do not know. Alternate translation: “He makes known secrets that people do not know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

699

JOB

12

22

bqc1

figs-metaphor

0

brings deep shadows into the light

Bringing things out into the light represents making them known, and here “shadows” is a metonym for the things that are hidden in the shadows, which in turn are a metaphor for truths that God has hidden from people. Alternate translation: “makes known things that no one can see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

700

JOB

12

23

zzy8

0

He enlarges nations

Alternate translation: “He makes nations larger” or “He makes nations have more land”

701

JOB

12

23

dkw2

figs-metonymy

0

he also leads them along as prisoners

God leading nations represents God causing enemy nations to lead them. The word “them” represents nations, which here represents the people of those nations. Alternate translation: “he also causes their enemies to lead them along as prisoners” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

702

JOB

12

24

n4ta

figs-metaphor

0

He takes away understanding from the leaders of the people of the earth

Taking away their understanding represents causing them to be unable to understand. Alternate translation: “He causes the leaders of the people of the earth to be unable to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

703

JOB

12

24

w1re

figs-metaphor

0

to wander in a wilderness where there is no path

Wandering in a wilderness where there is no path represents being in a difficult situation and not knowing what to do. Alternate translation: “to be unsure of what to do like a person wandering in a wasteland with no path” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

704

JOB

12

25

x7t2

figs-metaphor

0

They grope in the dark without light

Being in the dark without light represents lacking knowledge. Alternate translation: “They struggle to make decisions without knowledge as people struggle to walk in the dark without light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

705

JOB

12

25

a21u

figs-simile

0

he makes them stagger like a drunk man

Staggering or wandering like a drunk man represents living without purpose. Alternate translation: “he makes them live without purpose like a drunk person who staggers as he walks” or “they wander aimlessly like a drunk person who staggers back and forth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

706

JOB

13

intro

x1ub

0

Job 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s response to Zophar. It also contains Job’s claim of righteousness to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

Despite being upset about his circumstances, Job does not curse God. His friends, on the other hand, judge Job’s case, which Job recognizes to be Yahweh’s authority. These three friends therefore try to take God’s place. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Zophar that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

707

JOB

13

1

i5ce

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak to his friends.

708

JOB

13

1

i4pc

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

709

JOB

13

1

d8w1

figs-synecdoche

0

my eye has seen all this

Job referred to himself as his eye since it is with his eyes that he saw these things. Alternate translation: “I have seen all this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

710

JOB

13

1

q1yi

figs-synecdoche

0

my ear has heard and understood it

Job referred to himself as his ear since it is with his ears that he heard these things. Alternate translation: “I have heard and understood it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

711

JOB

13

2

cq6c

0

What you know, the same I also know

Alternate translation: “What you know, I also know” or “I know as much as you”

712

JOB

13

3

lcm5

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak to his friends.

713

JOB

13

3

mx6r

0

I wish to reason with God

Job’s friends are judging him, but they not speaking the truth. Job would rather argue with God alone about his complaint.

714

JOB

13

4

f979

figs-metaphor

0

you whitewash the truth with lies

Putting whitewash or plaster on the truth represents ignoring the truth. Alternate translation: “you hide the truth with lies” or “you lie and ignore the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

715

JOB

13

4

p89c

figs-metaphor

0

you are all physicians of no value

Being a physician represents being a person who comforts others. Being of no value means that they do not know how to do what they should. Alternate translation: “you are all like physicians who do not know how to heal people” or “you all come to comfort me, but you do not know how, like unskilled physicians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

716

JOB

13

5

gp7i

figs-idiom

0

hold your peace

This expression means “be quiet” or “stop talking.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

717

JOB

13

5

t33j

figs-abstractnouns

0

That would be your wisdom

They thought that they were saying wise things, but Job was saying that they would be wiser if they would stop talking. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wisdom, you could express the same idea with another word such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “If you were to do that, you would be wise” or “If you were to stop talking, you would appear wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

718

JOB

13

6

ezt5

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak to his friends.

719

JOB

13

6

v78i

figs-synecdoche

0

listen to the pleading of my own lips

Here “lips” represent the person who is speaking. Alternate translation: “listen to what I myself plead for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

720

JOB

13

7

scy3

figs-rquestion

0

Will you speak unrighteously … deceitfully for him?

Job uses these two questions to rebuke his friends for speaking unrighteously. Alternate translation: “You think that you are speaking for God, but you are speaking unrighteously. You are speaking deceitfully.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

721

JOB

13

7

gc76

0

talk deceitfully

Alternate translation: “lie” or “tell lies”

722

JOB

13

8

x6cv

figs-rquestion

0

Will you show him partiality? Will you argue the case for God?

Showing kindness to God represents helping God or defending God against Job’s complaints. Job uses these questions to rebuke his friends for thinking that they can defend God. Alternate translation: “You think that God need you to defend him? You think that you can argue for God like attorneys in court.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

723

JOB

13

9

i61h

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak to his friends.

724

JOB

13

9

l9wk

figs-rquestion

0

Will it be good for you when he searches you out?

Here “searches you out” is a metaphor meaning “examines you.” Job uses this question to warn his friends that if God were to examine them, he would say that what they are doing is wrong. Alternate translation: “When God examines you, it will not be good for you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

725

JOB

13

9

gk9j

figs-rquestion

0

Could you deceive him as you might deceive men?

Job uses this question to warn his friends that God knows the truth about them. Alternate translation: “You might be able to deceive men, but you cannot deceive God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

726

JOB

13

10

ecs9

0

reprove you

Alternate translation: “rebuke you”

727

JOB

13

10

g5lz

0

if in secret you showed partiality

“if you secretly show favor to another.” Showing partiality refers to saying only good things about someone so that the judge will say that the person is good. Doing this in secret means pretending to speak fairly, but really favoring one person over another.

728

JOB

13

11

bx5e

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak to his friends.

729

JOB

13

11

j11v

figs-rquestion

0

Will not his majesty terrify you, and the dread of him fall upon you?

Job uses these questions to rebuke his friends. This could mean: (1) Job is saying that they should fear God. Alternate translation: “His majesty should make you afraid, and his dread should fall on you.” or (2) Job is saying that they will fear God. Alternate translation: “His majesty will make you afraid, and his dread will fall on you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

730

JOB

13

11

e6x9

figs-metaphor

0

and the dread of him fall upon you

Dread falling on people represents them becoming terribly afraid. Alternate translation: “and you not be terribly afraid” or “and you not be terrified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

731

JOB

13

12

s8ny

figs-metaphor

0

Your memorable sayings are proverbs made of ashes

Ashes represent things that are worthless and do not last. Alternate translation: “Your memorable sayings are worthless like ashes” or “Your memorable sayings will be forgotten like ashes that are blown away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

732

JOB

13

12

brf8

figs-metaphor

0

your defenses are defenses made of clay

Job speaks of what they say as if it were a wall made of clay around a city; it cannot defend the people because clay breaks easily. Alternate translation: “What you say in defense is as useless as a wall of clay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

733

JOB

13

12

pt19

0

your defenses

Possible meanings are that this refers to: (1) what they say to defend themselves or (2) what they say to defend God.

734

JOB

13

13

ygn9

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak to his friends.

735

JOB

13

13

i6h6

figs-idiom

0

Hold your peace

This is an idiom meaning “Be quiet” or “Stop talking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

736

JOB

13

13

wau3

figs-idiom

0

let me alone

This is an idiom that means “stop bothering me” or “stop hindering me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

737

JOB

13

13

vp1h

figs-metaphor

0

let come what may on me

Things coming on a person represents things happening to a person. This expression starting with “let” means that he does not care what might happen to him. Alternate translation: “let whatever may happen to me happen” or “I do not care what may happen to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

738

JOB

13

14

wk5u

figs-metonymy

0

I will take my own flesh … in my hands

“Flesh” here is a metonym for life. “Teeth” and “hands” are metonyms for his own control. These two phrases together emphasize that Job is willing to risk his life by arguing his case with God. Alternate translation: “I am ready to risk my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

739

JOB

13

16

t8zh

0

Connecting Statement:

Job finishes speaking to his friends and begins to address God directly.

740

JOB

13

16

e8gk

figs-abstractnouns

0

This will be the reason for my deliverance

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word deliverance, you could express the same idea with the verb “deliver.” Alternate translation: “This is the reason that God will deliver me” or “This is why God will save me from my troubles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

741

JOB

13

17

ppd9

0

God, listen carefully

Job begins directing his speech directly to God.

742

JOB

13

17

z88n

figs-parallelism

0

listen carefully to my speech; let my declaration come to your ears

These two lines mean basically the same thing and intensify Job’s request for God to listen to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

743

JOB

13

17

g1xr

figs-abstractnouns

0

let my declaration come to your ears

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word declaration, you could express the same idea with the verb “declare.” The ears represent listening. Alternate translation: “listen to my declaration” or “listen to what I declare” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

744

JOB

13

18

dj3q

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to God.

745

JOB

13

18

y2bk

0

See now

This emphasizes what follows. “Listen now” or “Please pay special attention”

746

JOB

13

18

mb7w

figs-metaphor

0

I have set my defense in order

Setting his defense in order represents deciding what he will say to defend himself. Alternate translation: “I have thought through how I will defend myself” or “I have decided how I will explain myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

747

JOB

13

19

u63c

figs-rquestion

0

Who is the one who would argue against me in court?

Job uses this question to express his belief that since he is right, no one would argue against him. Alternate translation: “I do not believe that anyone would argue against me in court.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

748

JOB

13

19

t9jj

0

If you came to do so

Alternate translation: “If you came to argue against me”

749

JOB

13

19

v85m

0

If you

“You” here means God himself.

750

JOB

13

19

r79s

figs-activepassive

0

if I were proved wrong

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if you were to prove me wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

751

JOB

13

19

b4n5

figs-metaphor

0

give up my life

Giving up one’s life is a metaphor for dying. Alternate translation: “die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

752

JOB

13

20

y87x

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to God.

753

JOB

13

20

yzd3

figs-synecdoche

0

from your face

“Face” represents the person. Alternate translation: “from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

754

JOB

13

21

l5nn

figs-metonymy

0

withdraw your oppressive hand

An oppressive hand is a metonym for doing things that oppress someone. Withdrawing the hand is a metaphor for stopping doing those things. Alternate translation: “stop oppressing me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

755

JOB

13

21

w19t

figs-metonymy

0

do not let your terrors make me afraid

The phrase “your terrors” refers to what causes people to be terrified of God. Alternate translation: “do not terrify me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

756

JOB

13

23

adu2

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to God.

757

JOB

13

24

vm5j

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you hide … like your enemy?

Job asks this question to complain about how God is treating him. He probably hopes for an answer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

758

JOB

13

24

i7qi

figs-metaphor

0

you hide your face from me

Hiding one’s face from someone represents refusing to look at him or ignoring him. Alternate translation: “you refuse to look at me” or “you ignore me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

759

JOB

13

25

xm7f

figs-rquestion

0

Will you persecute … pursue dry stubble?

Job uses these questions to tell God that since Job is so insignificant and weak, it is useless to persecute him. “Leaf” and “stubble” are metaphors describing Job’s weakness, insignificance and frailty. Alternate translation: “You persecute me, but I am weak like a leaf blown by the wind and insignificant like dry stubble.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

760

JOB

13

26

ta4y

0

Connecting Statement:

Job finishes presenting his case to God.

761

JOB

13

26

h6dc

figs-metaphor

0

For you write down bitter things against me

“Bitter things” represents accusations. Alternate translation: “For you write down accusations against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

762

JOB

13

26

bc79

figs-metaphor

0

you make me inherit the iniquities of my youth

Inheriting the iniquities of his youth is a metaphor. This could mean: (1) being guilty for the sins of his youth. Alternate translation: “you say that I am still guilty for the sins of my youth” or (2) being punished for the sins of his youth. Alternate translation: “you punish me for the sins of my youth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

763

JOB

13

26

l6wj

figs-abstractnouns

0

the iniquities of my youth

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word youth, you could express the same idea with the word “young.” Alternate translation: “the sins I committed when I was young” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

764

JOB

13

27

l4hh

figs-metaphor

0

You also put my feet in the stocks

Doing this represents punishing Job and keeping him from living freely as if Job had committed a crime and was a prisoner. Alternate translation: “It is as though you put my feet in the stocks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

765

JOB

13

27

lk93

0

the stocks

This could mean: (1) a frame that holds a prisoner’s feet in place so that he cannot move at all or (2) chains around a prisoner’s feet that make it hard for him to walk. These are used as a form of punishment.

766

JOB

13

27

v659

figs-metaphor

0

all my paths

“Paths” represent the things Job does. Alternate translation: “everything I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

767

JOB

13

27

x3kd

figs-synecdoche

0

you examine the ground where the soles of my feet have walked

The soles of his feet represent the person who walks. Alternate translation: “you examine the ground where I have walked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

768

JOB

13

27

l15n

figs-metaphor

0

you examine the ground where the soles of my feet have walked

Examining this ground represents examining all that Job has done. Alternate translation: “it is as though you examine the ground where I have walked” or “you examine everything I do like a person examining someone’s footprints on the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

769

JOB

13

28

mlj8

figs-simile

0

like a rotten thing that wastes away

Job compares his life to something that is decaying. He is slowly dying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

770

JOB

13

28

fq5k

figs-simile

0

like a garment that moths have eaten

Job compares himself to clothes that are full of holes because the moths have eaten parts of it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

771

JOB

14

intro

t321

0

Job 14 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s claim of righteousness being presented to Yahweh. It also has an abrupt shift in tone. Rather than being hopeful, Job laments. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lament]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Resurrection

The events of Job occurred long before the Old Testament was written. Therefore, he likely had very little direct revelation about Yahweh. The resurrection of the dead was apparently not well-known during Job’s day. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reveal]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in his appeal to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

772

JOB

14

1

d6in

figs-gendernotations

0

Man, who is born of woman

This refers to all people, both men and women; all are born into this world. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

773

JOB

14

1

u162

figs-hyperbole

0

lives only a few days

This is an exaggeration to emphasize that people live only a short time. Alternate translation: “lives only a very short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

774

JOB

14

1

pfe3

figs-explicit

0

is full of trouble

Being “full of trouble” represents experiencing much trouble. Alternate translation: “has many troubles” or “suffers much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

775

JOB

14

2

bgr2

figs-simile

0

He sprouts from the ground like a flower and is cut down

Like the life of a flower, a person’s life is short and is easily killed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

776

JOB

14

2

w4bb

figs-simile

0

he flees like a shadow and does not last

A person’s short life is compared to a shadow that disappears quickly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

777

JOB

14

3

tkx9

figs-rquestion

0

Do you look at any of these?

Job implies that he does not want God to pay so much attention to him. Alternate translation: “You do not look at any of these.” or “You do not pay so much attention to these. Please do not pay so much attention to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

778

JOB

14

3

inl9

0

look at

Here looking at some one represents paying attention to him in order to judge him. Alternate translation: “pay attention to” or “look for faults in”

779

JOB

14

3

fg87

figs-rquestion

0

Do you bring me into judgment with you?

Job uses this question to show his surprise that God judges him even though Job is so insignificant like the flowers. Alternate translation: “But you judge me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

780

JOB

14

4

pls1

figs-rquestion

0

Who can bring something clean out of something unclean? No one

Job uses this question to persuade God to apply what he knows about unclean things to Job. Alternate translation: “No one can bring something clean out of something unclean” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

781

JOB

14

5

fm5b

figs-activepassive

0

Man’s days are determined

This can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “You determine a man’s days” or “You decide how long a man lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

782

JOB

14

5

iz79

figs-metonymy

0

The number of his months is with you

The number of man’s months being with God represents God deciding the number of months that the man will live. “You decide how many months he will live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

783

JOB

14

5

jij3

figs-metaphor

0

you have appointed his limits that he cannot pass

Passing a limit represents living past a time that God has set for a person to die. Alternate translation: “you have appointed the time that he will die, and he cannot live longer than that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

784

JOB

14

6

w4rx

0

hired man

a man who is hired to do a job and goes home afterwards

785

JOB

14

7

l8i1

figs-abstractnouns

0

There can be hope for a tree

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word hope, you could express the same idea with the verb “hope.” The hope is explained in verses 7-9. Alternate translation: “We can hope that a tree will live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

786

JOB

14

7

ezr1

0

it might sprout again

Alternate translation: “it might start growing again”

787

JOB

14

7

jj4i

figs-metaphor

0

so that its tender stalk does not disappear

Disappearing represents dying. Alternate translation: “so that its young shoot will not die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

788

JOB

14

8

u25b

0

Though

Alternate translation: “Even if”

789

JOB

14

8

cqw2

0

stump

the part of the tree that remains sticking out of the ground after someone has cut down most of the tree

790

JOB

14

9

f92c

figs-personification

0

even if it only smells water

This describes the dead stump as if it could smell water to represent water being near it. Alternate translation: “even if only a little water is near it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

791

JOB

14

9

dav4

0

it will bud

Alternate translation: “it will start growing”

792

JOB

14

9

bx2i

figs-personification

0

send out branches like a plant

The tree sending out branches represents branches growing on the tree. Alternate translation: “branches will start growing on it like a plant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

793

JOB

14

10

wz2a

figs-rquestion

0

then where is he?

Job uses this question to emphasize that when a person dies, he is not present. Alternate translation: “no one knows where he is.” or “he is gone.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

794

JOB

14

11

jp78

0

Connecting Statement:

Job begins to use word pictures to describe how it is that “man dies; he becomes weak” (verse 10).

795

JOB

14

11

dug9

figs-simile

0

As water disappears from a lake … dries up

Water that has dried up from a lake or a river cannot return, and once a person dies or grows old, he cannot become young again. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

796

JOB

14

12

f32z

0

Connecting Statement:

Job finishes comparing growing old and dying with water drying up (verse 11).

797

JOB

14

12

a5nl

figs-metaphor

0

so people lie down

Lying down represents dying. Alternate translation: “so people die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

798

JOB

14

12

h4i1

figs-metaphor

0

do not rise again

Rising again represents living again. Alternate translation: “do not live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

799

JOB

14

13

w12i

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that you would hide me

This is an exclamation showing what Job wants very much but does not really expect to happen. Alternate translation: “I wish that you would hide me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

800

JOB

14

13

is2h

0

keep me in private

Alternate translation: “keep me locked up” or “keep me hidden”

801

JOB

14

13

km9h

figs-idiom

0

call me to mind

Call someone to mind is an idiom meaning to think about him. Alternate translation: “think about me” or “remember me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

802

JOB

14

14

u755

figs-rquestion

0

If a man dies, will he live again?

The implicit answer is “no.” Alternate translation: “If a man dies, he will not live again.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

803

JOB

14

14

a2dm

figs-explicit

0

If so

What “so” refers to is understood from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “If he would live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

804

JOB

14

14

he34

0

to wait all my weary time there

Alternate translation: “to wait all my time there even though I would be weary”

805

JOB

14

14

ws2y

figs-abstractnouns

0

until my release should come

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word release, you could express the same idea with the verb “release.” Alternate translation: “until I should be released” or “until you release me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

806

JOB

14

15

tbe8

0

I would answer

Alternate translation: “I would do what you wanted me to do”

807

JOB

14

15

d3u1

figs-abstractnouns

0

You would have a desire for

The noun “desire” can be expressed with the verbs “desire” or “want.” Alternate translation: “You would desire” or “You would want” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

808

JOB

14

15

j3fp

figs-metonymy

0

for the work of your hands

Here God’s hands represent him making things. Job refers to himself as the work of God’s hands. Alternate translation: “for me, whom you have made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

809

JOB

14

16

k7q4

figs-hendiadys

0

number and care for

These two verbs together express a single action. Alternate translation: “attentively care for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

810

JOB

14

16

q9vm

figs-metonymy

0

my footsteps

Footsteps represent his life or what he does. Alternate translation: “my life” or “the things I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

811

JOB

14

16

bay1

figs-metaphor

0

you would not keep track of my sin

Keeping track of Job’s sin represents thinking about his sin. Alternate translation: “you would not look at my sin” or “you would not think about my sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

812

JOB

14

17

zvn3

figs-parallelism

0

My transgression would be … you would cover up

These three lines express the same thought and are used together to emphasize his confidence that God would forgive him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

813

JOB

14

17

cby4

figs-metaphor

0

My transgression would be sealed up in a bag

Sealing transgression in a bag represents hiding it and refusing to think about it. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “You would refuse to think about my transgression like someone who hides something in a bag” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

814

JOB

14

17

qe5i

figs-metaphor

0

you would cover up my iniquity

Covering up someone’s iniquity so that it cannot be seen represents refusing to think about it. Alternate translation: “you would hide my iniquity” or “you would ignore my iniquity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

815

JOB

14

18

hga3

figs-doublet

0

mountains fall and come to nothing

“Come to nothing” here is an idiom meaning be completely destroyed. This phrase expands on the word “fall” and emphasizes complete destruction. Alternate translation: “mountains completely fall apart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

816

JOB

14

18

h2q3

figs-activepassive

0

rocks are moved out of their place

This can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “rocks tumble down from their place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

817

JOB

14

19

nc2a

figs-simile

0

Like this, you destroy the hope of man

If it is easier in your language, you can put this phrase at the beginning of verse 18 and adjust the text accordingly. Alternate translation: “You destroy the hope of man, just like … dust of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

818

JOB

14

19

dj8q

figs-metaphor

0

you destroy the hope of man

Destroying hope represents causing the things people hope for not to happen. Alternate translation: “You prevent the hope of man from happening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

819

JOB

14

19

usl5

figs-abstractnouns

0

the hope of man

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word hopes, you could express the same idea with the verb “hope.” Alternate translation: “the things that man hopes for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

820

JOB

14

20

q4my

0

You always defeat him

The word “him” refers to any person. Alternate translation: “You always defeat man” or “You always defeat people”

821

JOB

14

20

uah1

figs-euphemism

0

he passes away

Passing away represents dying. Alternate translation: “he dies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

822

JOB

14

20

p3dh

0

you change his face

This could mean: (1) the pain just before dying makes his face contract or (2) when a person dies, God makes the person’s face look different.

823

JOB

14

20

lq7f

figs-metaphor

0

send him away to die

This represents causing him to die. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

824

JOB

14

21

m7cw

figs-metaphor

0

if they are brought low

Being brought low represents being shamed. Alternate translation: “if they are disgraced” or “if people shame them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

825

JOB

15

intro

p4sy

0

Job 15 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of the advice of Job’s friend, Eliphaz. His words in this chapter are much stronger than when he previously spoke.

Special concepts in this chapter

Eliphaz’s advice

Eliphaz tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Eliphaz gives to Job is bad advice. He tries to convince Job that he is sinning and has been punished by Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Eliphaz uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to build Eliphaz’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

826

JOB

15

1

v5mb

translate-names

0

Eliphaz the Temanite

This is the name of a man. People from Teman are known as Temanites. See how you translated this in Job 2:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

827

JOB

15

2

mw8h

figs-rquestion

0

Should a wise man answer with useless knowledge and fill himself with the east wind?

Eliphaz uses this rhetorical question to rebuke Job. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “A wise man should not answer with useless knowledge nor fill himself with the east wind.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

828

JOB

15

2

hd46

figs-metaphor

0

fill himself with the east wind

The wind represents emptiness. This phrase speaks of a person speaking empty and meaningless words as if that person were full of the wind. Alternate translation: “fill himself with empty words” or “only have meaningless words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

829

JOB

15

2

h768

0

the east wind

Alternate translation: “hot air” or “the desert wind”

830

JOB

15

3

mka2

figs-rquestion

0

Should he reason with unprofitable talk or with speeches with which he can do no good?

Eliphaz uses this rhetorical question to rebuke Job. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He should not reason with unprofitable talk nor with speeches with which he can do no good.” or “He should not argue using unprofitable talk or make speeches that accomplish nothing good.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

831

JOB

15

4

kfj8

0

you diminish respect for God

This could mean: (1) “because of what you say and do, other people no longer respect God” or (2) “you are no longer respecting God.”

832

JOB

15

4

k1xg

0

diminish

make smaller

833

JOB

15

4

fz3c

0

you obstruct devotion to him

This could mean: (1) “you make it difficult for others to devote themselves to God” or (2) “you are no longer devoting yourself to God.”

834

JOB

15

4

f5pv

0

obstruct

block someone’s path

835

JOB

15

4

p5a3

0

devotion to

Alternate translation: “meditation on” or “concern for”

836

JOB

15

5

t4nv

figs-personification

0

your iniquity teaches your mouth

This describes “iniquity” as if it were a teacher and Job’s mouth is described as if it is learning. This means that his speech is greatly influenced by his iniquity. Alternate translation: “your iniquity is like a teacher and your mouth is like its student” or “it is because of your sin that you speak the way you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

837

JOB

15

5

el6q

figs-synecdoche

0

your mouth

This speaks of Job, but refers to his “mouth” to place emphasis on what he says. Alternate translation: “you to speak” or “you to say what you say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

838

JOB

15

5

tt4g

figs-metonymy

0

to have the tongue of a crafty man

This refers to the way a crafty man speaks as his “tongue.” Alternate translation: “to speak in the way of a crafty man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

839

JOB

15

5

gfb6

0

crafty man

man who harms others by lying to them

840

JOB

15

6

j5yb

figs-synecdoche

0

Your own mouth condemns you, not mine

This refers to Job and Eliphaz by their “mouths” to place emphasis on what they say. Alternate translation: “You are condemned by what you say, not by what I say” or “You condemn yourself by what you say, it is not I who condemns you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

841

JOB

15

6

l5gv

figs-synecdoche

0

your own lips testify

This speaks of Job, but refers to his “lips” to place emphasis on what he says. Alternate translation: “your own words” or “you testify” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

842

JOB

15

7

rl1y

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

Each verse is a parallelism that contains two rhetorical questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

843

JOB

15

7

dpx3

figs-rquestion

0

Are you the first man that was born?

The implicit answer here is “no.” This rhetorical question can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are not the first man that was born.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

844

JOB

15

7

a7jq

figs-rquestion

0

Were you brought into existence before the hills?

The implicit answer here is “no.” This rhetorical question can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “You were not brought into existence before the hills.” or “God did not bring you into existence before he brought the hills into existence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

845

JOB

15

7

v4jt

figs-activepassive

0

Were you brought

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Did God bring you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

846

JOB

15

8

s4d8

figs-rquestion

0

Have you heard the secret knowledge of God?

The implicit answer here is “no.” This rhetorical question can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have not heard the secret knowledge of God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

847

JOB

15

8

z3rg

figs-rquestion

0

Do you limit wisdom to yourself?

This rhetorical question emphasizes that he cannot limit wisdom to himself. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You cannot limit wisdom to yourself.” or “You are not the only wise person.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

848

JOB

15

9

afn9

figs-rquestion

0

What do you know that we do not know?

The implicit answer here is “nothing.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “There is nothing that you know that we do not know.” or “Everything you know, we also know.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

849

JOB

15

9

dt5n

figs-rquestion

0

What do you understand that is not also in us?

This speaks of the men having understanding as if it were something “inside” them. Alternate translation: “Everything you understand, we also understand.” or “We understand everything that you understand.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

850

JOB

15

10

e1wm

figs-metaphor

0

With us are both the gray-headed and the very aged men

Eliphaz speaks of him and the other men having learned wisdom from older men and wisdom that had been passed down from men of previous generations as if these older men were physically present with them. Alternate translation: “We acquired wisdom from old gray-haired people, from people who were born before your father was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

851

JOB

15

11

w8rr

0

Are the consolations of God … gentle toward you?

This rhetorical question is an accusation, with the implicit answer to the question being “yes.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You must think that the consolations of God are too small for you, the words that are gentle toward you”

852

JOB

15

11

lg22

0

consolations

Alternate translation: “comforts” or “sympathies”

853

JOB

15

12

bbd3

figs-metonymy

0

Why does your heart carry you away?

Here the “heart” represents a person’s emotions. Alternate translation: “Why do your emotions take you away?” or “Why do you allow your emotions to guide your decisions?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

854

JOB

15

12

c87r

figs-explicit

0

Why do your eyes flash

This probably refers to Job appearing angry, specifically the appearance of his eyes. Alternate translation: “Why do your eyes look angry” or “Why are you angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

855

JOB

15

13

q3sz

figs-synecdoche

0

turn your spirit

Here the “spirit” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “turn yourself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

856

JOB

15

13

v2f5

figs-explicit

0

bring out such words from your mouth

This describes him speaking. Alternate translation: “so you say harsh things against him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

857

JOB

15

14

ha68

figs-parallelism

0

What is man … What is he who is born

These two questions are basically the same and are used together to emphasize that a man cannot be perfect. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

858

JOB

15

14

n6c7

figs-rquestion

0

What is man that he should be clean?

This rhetorical question is asked to emphasize that a man cannot be completely “clean.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “A man, he cannot be completely clean.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

859

JOB

15

14

u6tx

figs-metaphor

0

clean

A person who God considers spiritually acceptable is spoken of as if the person were physically clean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

860

JOB

15

14

z1zl

figs-rquestion

0

What is he who is born of a woman that he should be righteous?

This rhetorical question is asked to emphasize that a man cannot be completely “righteous.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “A man who is born from a woman cannot be completely righteous.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

861

JOB

15

15

iv3b

0

See

This word is used here to draw Job’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

862

JOB

15

15

h358

0

his holy ones

Alternate translation: “his angels”

863

JOB

15

15

pd53

figs-metaphor

0

clean

Something that God considers spiritually acceptable is spoken of as if it were physically clean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

864

JOB

15

15

q77f

figs-metaphor

0

in his sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “in his judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

865

JOB

15

16

gt36

figs-doublet

0

abominable and corrupt

These two words basically mean the same thing and emphasize how wicked humans are. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

866

JOB

15

16

we5g

figs-metaphor

0

who drinks iniquity like water

This describes iniquity as if it were water you can drink. It compares how the evil man desires to commit sin to how readily he desires to drink cool water. Alternate translation: “who love iniquity as much as they love a cup of fresh water” or “who commit evil deeds as often as they drink water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

867

JOB

15

17

fks4

figs-idiom

0

I will show you

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “I will explain to you” or “I will make it clear to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

868

JOB

15

17

qvd8

0

I will announce

Alternate translation: “I will declare”

869

JOB

15

18

q3uc

figs-litotes

0

their ancestors did not hide

Eliphaz emphasizes that their ancestors purposefully taught them these things. Alternate translation: “their ancestors taught openly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

870

JOB

15

19

yjj4

figs-activepassive

0

to whom alone the land was given

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “to whom alone God gave the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

871

JOB

15

19

psj1

figs-explicit

0

among whom no stranger ever passed

This means that no foreigner lived among them, specifically so that they would not be influenced by pagan religions. Alternate translation: “no one from another country came and caused them to think wrongly about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

872

JOB

15

20

q88x

0

twists in pain

“suffers a lot of pain.” This is either physical or emotional pain.

873

JOB

15

20

caz3

figs-activepassive

0

the number of years that are laid up

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “all the years that God has laid up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

874

JOB

15

20

s474

figs-idiom

0

that are laid up

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “that are prepared” or “that are set aside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

875

JOB

15

21

fj8p

0

A sound of terrors is in his ears

Alternate translation: “He constantly hears sounds that terrify him”

876

JOB

15

22

ep91

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues describing the wicked man he began to describe in Job 15:20.

877

JOB

15

22

i3pk

figs-idiom

0

return out of darkness

Here “darkness” is a metaphor for trouble or misfortune. Alternate translation: “escape misfortune” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

878

JOB

15

22

lh1i

figs-metonymy

0

the sword waits for him

Here “the sword” is a metonym that represents an enemy who is waiting to kill the evil man. This could mean: (1) he is worried that someone will murder him. Alternate translation: “he worries that someone is about to murder him” or (2) it is certain that he is going to be murdered. Alternate translation: “someone is waiting to murder him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

879

JOB

15

23

k4qm

figs-synecdoche

0

for bread

Here “bread” refers to food in general. Alternate translation: “for food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

880

JOB

15

23

ul3l

figs-idiom

0

the day of darkness

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the day of disaster” or “the moment of his death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

881

JOB

15

23

gu8g

figs-idiom

0

is at hand

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “is coming soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

882

JOB

15

24

vur7

figs-doublet

0

Distress and anguish make him afraid; they prevail against him

The words “distress” and “anguish” mean basically the same thing and emphasize the intensity of the emotion. Here these feelings are spoken of as if they were an enemy who is attacking the wicked man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

883

JOB

15

24

e7mb

0

prevail against

Alternate translation: “overpower” or “defeat”

884

JOB

15

24

tg34

figs-simile

0

as a king ready for battle

This compares how his distress and anguish overpower him to how a king, who is ready for battle, would prevail against him. Alternate translation: “just like a king, who is ready for a battle, would prevail against him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

885

JOB

15

25

uuk8

translate-symaction

0

he has reached out with his hand against God

“he has shook his fist against God.” This is a sign of aggression. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

886

JOB

15

26

sx7v

figs-metaphor

0

runs at God

This speaks of the wicked man acting aggressively against God as if he were running towards him to attack him. Alternate translation: “attacks God” or “acts violently against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

887

JOB

15

26

b87u

0

with a thick shield

Alternate translation: “with his strong shield”

888

JOB

15

27

uc39

0

This is true

“This” refers to the wicked man running at God from the previous verse.

889

JOB

15

27

db71

figs-irony

0

he has covered his face with his fat and gathered fat on his loins

This wicked man is described as fat and weak, while believing himself to be strong enough to defeat God. Alternate translation: “he is weak with a fat face and fat loins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

890

JOB

15

28

ki37

0

which no man inhabits

Alternate translation: “which are abandoned”

891

JOB

15

28

r6h8

0

heaps

piles of useless things

892

JOB

15

29

r891

figs-litotes

0

He will not be rich; his wealth will not last

These two litotes express that he will be the opposite of rich, that he will be poor. Alternate translation: “he will be poor; all his money will disappear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

893

JOB

15

30

jpq7

figs-metonymy

0

out of darkness

Darkness here represents death. Alternate translation: “out of the darkness of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

894

JOB

15

30

pm4a

figs-metaphor

0

a flame will dry up his stalks

Here the flame represents God’s judgment and the drying up of his stalks represents either the fact that his possessions disappear, or that he will die. Alternate translation: “God will take everything he owns away, like a fire dries out the moist branches of a tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

895

JOB

15

30

a9ha

figs-metonymy

0

the breath of God’s mouth

Here God’s “breath” represents his judgement. Alternate translation: “God’s breath” or “God’s judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

896

JOB

15

30

rxv1

figs-euphemism

0

he will go away

This refers to him dying. Alternate translation: “he will die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

897

JOB

15

31

lr37

figs-ellipsis

0

for uselessness will be his reward

This is implied that this is what will happen if he trusts in useless things. Alternate translation: “for if he trusts in them, uselessness will be his reward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

898

JOB

15

32

s26k

figs-metaphor

0

his branch will not be green

This speaks of the man looking pale and dead as if he were a dried out stalk or tree branch. Alternate translation: “he will look dead, just like the branch of a dead tree does not look green” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

899

JOB

15

33

nci7

figs-parallelism

0

He will drop his … he will cast off his

These two lines give a similar image, which is repeated to emphasize that this will surely happen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

900

JOB

15

33

beb8

figs-metaphor

0

He will drop his unripe grapes like a grapevine

This speaks of the wicked man growing weak and dying as if he were a grapevine dropping unripe grapes. Alternate translation: “Just like a grapevine drops its unripe grapes, so the wicked man will drop his strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

901

JOB

15

33

g676

figs-metaphor

0

he will cast off his flowers like the olive tree

This speaks of the wicked man growing weak and dying as if he were an olive tree dropping its flowers. Alternate translation: “just like an olive tree loses its flowers, so the wicked man will lose his strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

902

JOB

15

34

rr5n

0

the company of godless people

Alternate translation: “the group of godless people”

903

JOB

15

34

v3q1

figs-possession

0

fire will consume their tents of bribery

The phrase “tents of bribery” means that the wicked people bought these tents with the money they made by bribery. Alternate translation: “the tents they bought with their bribes will be burned by fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

904

JOB

15

35

x22k

figs-parallelism

0

They conceive mischief and give birth to iniquity; their womb conceives deceit

The same thought is repeated three times to emphasize how much evil these people produce. This speaks of a person planning to do evil things and doing them as if the person were conceiving and giving birth to these things as a woman conceives and gives birth to a child. Alternate translation: “They plan to cause mischief and do evil things; they are always planning to deceive others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

905

JOB

15

35

u7sb

figs-synecdoche

0

their womb conceives

Here the “womb” is used to refer to the person to emphasize conception, as it is in the womb that conception takes place. Alternate translation: “they conceive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

906

JOB

16

intro

j3zc

0

Job 16 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Eliphaz.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s response

Job expresses shock and disgust at the advice Eliphaz gives to him. He even mocks Eliphaz. He describes the difficulties of his circumstances but never curses Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Advocate

Job describes the need for someone to intercede for him in heaven. This person would be his advocate and provide a witness for him. Although this is probably not intended as a prophecy, it closely parallels the way Jesus intercedes for people in heaven. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/intercede]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

907

JOB

16

2

t7wj

0

you are all miserable comforters

Alternate translation: “instead of comforting me, you all make me more miserable”

908

JOB

16

3

p7ga

figs-rquestion

0

Will useless words ever have an end?

Job uses this rhetorical question to express that he wishes that they would stop speaking useless words. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “How I wish your useless words would end!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

909

JOB

16

3

g4tp

figs-rquestion

0

What is wrong with you that you answer like this?

Job uses this rhetorical question to rebuke Eliphaz. Here the word “you” is singular and refers to Eliphaz, who just finished speaking to Job. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Eliphaz, you should stop answering me like this!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

910

JOB

16

4

mg21

figs-metaphor

0

I could collect and join words together

Job speaks of thinking of useless things to say as if his words were random items that he collected and joined together. Alternate translation: “I could think of things to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

911

JOB

16

4

bv7s

translate-symaction

0

shake my head

This is an action that shows disapproval. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

912

JOB

16

4

x2nq

figs-abstractnouns

0

in mockery

The word “mockery” can be expressed as a verb. Alternate translation: “to mock you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

913

JOB

16

5

dvh6

figs-metonymy

0

I would strengthen you with my mouth, and the quivering of my lips will bring you relief!

The words “mouth” and “lips” are metonyms for the words or messages that a person speaks using his mouth and lips. Here Job is speaking sarcastically and means the opposite of what he says. Alternate translation: “My words would surely not be encouraging to you! They would surely not lighten your grief” or “By speaking to you as you spoke to me earlier, I would not encourage you or lighten your grief!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

914

JOB

16

5

qj4h

figs-metonymy

0

with my mouth

Here Job’s “mouth” represents what he says. Alternate translation: “with what I say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

915

JOB

16

5

yyv5

figs-metonymy

0

the quivering of my lips

This is a metonym for the words or message that he speaks. Alternate translation: “my comforting words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

916

JOB

16

5

i21i

figs-metaphor

0

will bring you relief

This speaks of grief as if it were a heavy physical burden. Alternate translation: “will lessen your grief” or “will help you feel less grief” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

917

JOB

16

6

vjz7

0

grief

Job has experienced great loss of family and health that is unexplained and therefore causes him “great sorrow and emotional pain.”

918

JOB

16

6

s8sf

figs-rquestion

0

how am I helped?

Job uses this rhetorical question to express that keeping quiet does not lessen his grief. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “it does not help me at all.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

919

JOB

16

7

t7qh

0

But now, God, you

Job now turns his complaining to God.

920

JOB

16

7

mrz6

0

made all my family desolate

Alternate translation: “destroyed all my family”

921

JOB

16

8

z1f4

figs-explicit

0

You have made me dry up

This means that Job’s body has shriveled and become wrinkled. Alternate translation: “You have made my body shrivel up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

922

JOB

16

8

pz4y

figs-personification

0

which itself is a witness against me

Job describes the shriveling of his body as if it were an accuser against him. Alternate translation: “and people think that shows me to be a sinner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

923

JOB

16

8

t163

figs-personification

0

the leanness of my body rises up against me, and it testifies against

Job describes the thinness of his body as if it were accuser against him. Alternate translation: “They see how thin my body is, and they think that proves that I am guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

924

JOB

16

8

wiw6

figs-synecdoche

0

against my face

Here Job is referred to by his “face.” Alternate translation: “against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

925

JOB

16

9

a6fe

figs-metaphor

0

God has torn me in his wrath and persecuted me … as he tears me apart

This speaks of God causing Job pain as if God were a wild animal and Job were his prey that he was killing. Alternate translation: “Because God is very angry with me, it is as though he were a wild animal that tore my body apart with his teeth because he was my enemy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

926

JOB

16

9

crc6

0

my enemy

Job refers to God as his “enemy” as he describes how he has caused him great pain.

927

JOB

16

9

c555

figs-idiom

0

fastens his eyes on me

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “glares at me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

928

JOB

16

10

i21w

0

People have gaped with open mouth

To “gape” means to stare in amazement with open mouth.

929

JOB

16

11

j7re

figs-parallelism

0

hands me over to ungodly people, and throws me into the hands of wicked people

These two lines mean basically the same thing. Together they emphasize Job’s feeling of having been betrayed by God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

930

JOB

16

11

mm84

figs-idiom

0

hands me over to

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “puts me under the control of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

931

JOB

16

11

zm7g

figs-metonymy

0

throws me into the hands

Here a person’s “hands” refer to his “control.” Alternate translation: “delivers me to the control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

932

JOB

16

12

t8kc

figs-metaphor

0

and he broke me apart

Job speaks of his pain and despair as if he himself were something that was broken into pieces. Alternate translation: “but then it felt as though he broke me apart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

933

JOB

16

12

k9u5

figs-metaphor

0

dashed me to pieces

Job speaks of God causing him pain and despair as if he were something that God had taken and smashed into pieces. Alternate translation: “it is as though he has taken me by the neck and smashed me to pieces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

934

JOB

16

12

nt7z

figs-metaphor

0

he has also set me up as his target

Job speaks of himself being the focus of God’s attacks as if God has set him up as a target to shoot arrows at. Alternate translation: “it is as though he set me up like a target” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

935

JOB

16

13

kx4d

figs-metaphor

0

His archers surround me all around

Job speaks of himself being the focus of God’s attacks as if God has set him up as a target and God had archers surrounding him to attack him. Alternate translation: “It is as though his archers have me surrounded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

936

JOB

16

13

e7bp

figs-metaphor

0

God pierces my kidneys and does not spare me; he pours out my bile on the ground

Job speaks of the pain he is feeling by comparing it to God piercing his body with arrows. Here “God” represents the arrows that he shoots. Alternate translation: “It feels like God’s arrows have pierced my kidneys and my liver, spilling my bile on the ground. He does not spare me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

937

JOB

16

14

lx7f

figs-metaphor

0

He smashes through my wall

Job speaks of the pain that he feels by comparing himself to a wall that God smashes through. Alternate translation: “I feel like a wall that God smashes through” or “I feel like a wall that God breaks through” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

938

JOB

16

14

r9md

figs-metaphor

0

he runs upon me like a warrior

Job describes God as a soldier that attacks him. Alternate translation: “it is like he is a warrior who runs at me to attack me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

939

JOB

16

15

cnt2

figs-metaphor

0

I have sewn sackcloth on my skin

Job speaks of wearing clothing made of sackcloth as if the cloth were attached to his body. People often wore sackcloth to express mourning or great grief. Alternate translation: “Because I am mourning, I have sewn together sackcloth to wear as my clothing” or “I wear clothing that I made from sackcloth, because I am mourning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

940

JOB

16

15

hil8

figs-metaphor

0

I have thrust my horn into the ground

Job’s “horn” represents the power and authority he had before but now is no more. Alternate translation: “I sit here in the dirt, very depressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

941

JOB

16

16

l1id

figs-synecdoche

0

on my eyelids is the shadow of death

Here Job’s eyes are represented by his “eyelids.” Job speaks of his eyes’ dark appearance as if his eyes looked like the eyes of a dead person. Alternate translation: “there are dark circles around my eyes” or “my eyes are dark, like the eyes of a dead person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

942

JOB

16

17

cs74

figs-metonymy

0

there is no violence in my hands

“Hands” refers to a person’s ability and activity. Alternate translation: “I have not acted violently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

943

JOB

16

18

xf2z

figs-apostrophe

0

Earth, do not cover up my blood

Jobs speaks to the “earth” directly even though it cannot hear him, to add strength to his statement. The earth is personified as purposefully covering up his blood after he dies. Alternate translation: “I wish my blood would not soak into the ground but that it would remain on top of the ground as proof of how I died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

944

JOB

16

18

aj18

figs-metonymy

0

Earth, do not cover up my blood

Job speaks of himself dying as if he would be murdered. Here his “blood” is a metonym referring to his death. Alternate translation: “Earth, when I die, do not hide how I died unfairly” or “Let it not be hidden how I died unfairly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

945

JOB

16

18

bg2u

figs-personification

0

let my cry have no resting place

Job speaks of wanting everyone to know what happened to him as if his “cry” were a person that never stopped testifying to what happened to him and never rested. Alternate translation: “let everyone hear about what has happened to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

946

JOB

16

19

kg4r

0

see

Job uses this word to draw attention to what he says next. Alternate translation: “listen”

947

JOB

16

19

z7js

0

vouches for me

Alternate translation: “testifies that I am righteous”

948

JOB

16

19

dhm2

figs-idiom

0

on high

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “in heaven” or “in heaven on high” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

949

JOB

16

20

b5wz

0

scoff at

Alternate translation: “scorn” or “ridicule”

950

JOB

16

20

v43g

figs-hyperbole

0

my eye pours out tears

Job describes how strongly he feels his sorrow. Here he exaggerates how he often cries by saying that tears pour from his eyes. Alternate translation: “my eyes are full of tears while I cry out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

951

JOB

16

21

izh8

figs-123person

0

for this man

“for me.” Here Job refers to himself in the third person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

952

JOB

16

21

kk12

figs-simile

0

as a man does with his neighbor!

“as a man does for his neighbor.” Job describes how he wants that one in heaven to plead for him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

953

JOB

16

22

z81v

figs-explicit

0

I will go to a place

Here Job is referring to himself dying. Alternate translation: “I will die and go to a place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

954

JOB

17

intro

rs6g

0

Job 17 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s response to Eliphaz, but it is more directly addressed to Yahweh.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s grief

Job expresses grief or great sadness in this chapter. He awaits the justice and intercession of Yahweh as he awaits his own death. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/intercede]])

Advocate

Job describes the need for someone to intercede for him in heaven. This person would be his advocate and provide a witness for him. Although this is probably not intended as a prophecy, it closely parallels the way Jesus intercedes for people in heaven. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

955

JOB

17

1

c8r6

figs-synecdoche

0

My spirit is consumed

Job refers to himself by his “spirit” to emphasize his inner emotions. He speaks of not having any strength left as if he were something that has been used up. Alternate translation: “I am consumed” or “I have lost all of my strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

956

JOB

17

1

yjx4

0

my days are over

Alternate translation: “my time is over” or “I am going to die soon”

957

JOB

17

1

awv1

figs-personification

0

the grave is ready for me

This phrase describes “the grave” as if it is a person who will receive Job as a guest. Alternate translation: “soon I will be dead and buried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

958

JOB

17

2

z26q

0

Surely there are mockers with me

Alternate translation: “Those who are around me are mocking me”

959

JOB

17

2

jf81

0

Surely

Alternate translation: “Certainly” or “There is no doubt that”

960

JOB

17

2

wp1h

figs-synecdoche

0

my eye must always see

Job refers to himself by his “eyes” to emphasize what he sees. Alternate translation: “I must always see” or “I must always hear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

961

JOB

17

2

wr6q

figs-abstractnouns

0

their provocation

“their insults.” The word “provocation” can be expressed as a verb. Alternate translation: “them provoking me” or “them, trying to make me angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

962

JOB

17

3

fwk5

figs-metaphor

0

Give now a pledge, be a guarantee for me with yourself

Job begins to speak to God. Here he speaks of his situation as if he were in prison. He is asking God to provide a pledge so that he may be released. Alternate translation: “God, give now a pledge so that I may be released from this prison” or “pay for my release from prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

963

JOB

17

3

l8dv

figs-rquestion

0

who else is there who will help me?

Job uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that there is no one else to help him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “there is no one else who will help me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

964

JOB

17

4

fbr7

figs-synecdoche

0

have kept their hearts

The word “their” refers to his friends. They are referred to by their “hearts” to emphasize their emotions. Alternate translation: “have kept them” or “have kept my friends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

965

JOB

17

4

y4ne

0

you will not exalt them over me

Alternate translation: “you will not allow them to triumph over me”

966

JOB

17

5

yxa4

0

He who

Alternate translation: “Anyone who”

967

JOB

17

5

kb8z

0

denounces his friends for a reward

Alternate translation: “falsely accuses his friends in order to get a profit” or “betrays his friends to receive a reward”

968

JOB

17

5

i5ps

figs-synecdoche

0

the eyes of his children will fail

The person’s children are referred to here by their “eyes.” This phrase describes the children suffering because of what their father or mother did. Alternate translation: “his children will suffer for it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

969

JOB

17

6

kzr9

figs-explicit

0

he has made me a byword of the people

This means that people speak of him in a mocking way and use his name as an insult. Alternate translation: “because of him, people use my name as an insult” or “because of them, people use my name as a byword” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

970

JOB

17

6

me7l

translate-symaction

0

they spit in my face

“people spit in my face.” In this culture spitting on someone was a great insult. If spitting has a different meaning in your culture you can write this differently. Alternate translation: “people insult me greatly, by spitting in my face” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

971

JOB

17

7

a9ip

figs-metonymy

0

My eye is also dim because of sorrow

Job speaks of his vision as his “eyes.” Alternate translation: “My vision has become weak because I am so sad” or “I am almost blind because of my sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

972

JOB

17

7

my86

figs-simile

0

all my body parts are as thin as shadows

Shadows have no thickness and are infinitely thin. That is an exaggeration of how thin Job’s body parts are. Alternate translation: “all my body parts are very thin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

973

JOB

17

7

pis4

figs-hyperbole

0

all my body parts

This is a generalization used to emphasize that his whole body is thin, but refers specifically to his arms and legs. Alternate translation: “my arms and legs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

974

JOB

17

8

cqh3

0

will be stunned

Alternate translation: “will be shocked” or “will be horrified”

975

JOB

17

8

u28k

0

by this

Alternate translation: “by what has happened to me”

976

JOB

17

8

g1f9

figs-idiom

0

will stir himself up against

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “will be distressed because of” or “will be very angry with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

977

JOB

17

9

r9ay

figs-idiom

0

will keep to his way

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “will continue to live in a righteous way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

978

JOB

17

9

lqi9

figs-metaphor

0

he who has clean hands

This speaks of a person being innocent as having clean hands. Alternate translation: “he who does what is right” or “he who is innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

979

JOB

17

9

lx6m

0

will grow stronger and stronger

This does not refer only to physical strength but also to the strength of a person’s will and emotions.

980

JOB

17

10

e43i

0

you all

Job is speaking to Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar.

981

JOB

17

10

e7nv

figs-explicit

0

come on now

Job invites his friends to debate what he has said. Alternate translation: “come on now, argue with me again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

982

JOB

17

11

nba8

figs-idiom

0

My days are past

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “My time is past” or “My life is over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

983

JOB

17

11

f9nn

figs-metonymy

0

my plans are shattered, and so are the desires of my heart

Here Job’s “heart” represents his inner being. Alternate translation: “my plans will never happen, nor will the things that I have desired most” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

984

JOB

17

12

m4j6

figs-doublet

0

These people, these mockers

These two phrases refer to the same people, namely Job’s friends, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar. The second phrase emphasizes their unfriendly attitude. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

985

JOB

17

12

m8i8

figs-metaphor

0

change the night into day

This speaks of the people claiming that night is day as if they actually changed night into day. Alternate translation: “claim it is daytime when it is night” or “say the opposite of what is true, just as night is the opposite of day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

986

JOB

17

12

fif1

figs-explicit

0

light is near to darkness

It is implied that the mockers claim that it is light when it is close to dark. Alternate translation: “they claim that light is near to darkness” or “they claim that when it is becoming dark, that it is getting light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

987

JOB

17

13

pj8i

figs-hypo

0

If the only home … and if I have spread

The instances of “if” here have the meaning of “since”; Job is speaking as if all these things were true. “Since the only home … and since I have spread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

988

JOB

17

13

h88c

figs-metaphor

0

have spread my couch in the darkness

Here Job speaks of being prepared to die as having laid his bed in the darkness. Alternate translation: “have prepared myself to go and sleep among the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

989

JOB

17

13

kx3d

0

have spread my couch

Alternate translation: “have made my bed”

990

JOB

17

14

m7hf

figs-hypo

0

if I have said

The word “if” here has the meaning of “since”; Job is speaking as if this were true. “since I have said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

991

JOB

17

14

ud6f

figs-parallelism

0

I have said to the pit … and to the worm

These two lines are a variation to each other and are used together to emphasize how desperate Job is. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

992

JOB

17

14

z4yk

0

the pit

Alternate translation: “the grave”

993

JOB

17

14

uwb3

figs-metaphor

0

You are my father

Job speaks of the closeness he will soon have with his grave by comparing it to the closeness a man has with his father. Alternate translation: “You are as close to me as my father” or “When I am buried, you will be as close to me as a father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

994

JOB

17

14

nrr3

0

the worm

“the maggot.” Worms are the small creatures that eat dead bodies.

995

JOB

17

14

e6lb

figs-metaphor

0

You are my mother or my sister

Job speaks of the closeness he will soon have with the worms in his grave by comparing it to the closeness a man has with his mother and sisters. Alternate translation: “You are as close to me as my mother or my sister” or “You will be as close to me as a mother or sister” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

996

JOB

17

15

zb7d

figs-rquestion

0

where then is my hope?

The implicit answer is “nowhere,” because he has no hope. This rhetorical question can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “I have no hope.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

997

JOB

17

15

g6bv

figs-rquestion

0

As for my hope, who can see any?

This rhetorical question is used to emphasize that no one expects him to have any hope. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one can see any hope for me.” or “No one expects me to have any more hope.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

998

JOB

17

16

h77p

figs-rquestion

0

Will hope go down with me … dust?

The implicit answer is “no.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Hope will not go down with me … dust.” or “I will no longer hope when I go down … dust.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

999

JOB

17

16

yx83

figs-metaphor

0

gates of Sheol

Sheol does not really have gates, but it is a metaphor for Job entering Sheol. Alternate translation: “when I go into Sheol” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1000

JOB

17

16

ajw5

0

when we

“when I and the things that I hope for” or “when I and my hopes.” The word “we” refers to Job and his hope.

1001

JOB

17

16

z16e

figs-idiom

0

descend to the dust

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “die and are buried” or “go to the grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1002

JOB

18

intro

qk5f

0

Job 18 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is the advice of Job’s friend, Bildad. His words in this chapter are much stronger than when he previously spoke, and he is even angry at Job.

Special concepts in this chapter

Bildad’s advice

Bildad tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Bildad gives to Job is bad advice. He tries to convince Job that he is sinning and has been punished by Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

1003

JOB

18

1

g41k

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Bildad the Shuhite is speaking to Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1004

JOB

18

1

b2sb

0

Then Bildad the Shuhite answered and said

“Bildad” is the name of a man who is a member of the tribe of Shuah. See how you translated this in Job 8:1.

1005

JOB

18

2

b4en

figs-rquestion

0

When will you stop your talk?

This rhetorical question means that Job has been talking for too long. Alternate translation: “Stop talking!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1006

JOB

18

2

jpp1

0

Consider, and

Alternate translation: “Be reasonable, and” or “Think about these things, and”

1007

JOB

18

3

b16n

figs-rquestion

0

Why are we regarded as beasts, stupid in your sight?

Bildad uses this rhetorical questions to emphasize to Job that he should not consider his friends as animals who cannot think or speak. It can be written as a statement in active form. Alternate translation: “We should not be regarded as beasts, as stupid in your sight.” or “You should not regard us as beasts or think of us as stupid.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1008

JOB

18

3

myx4

figs-exclusive

0

Why are we

The word “we” probably refers to Bildad and Job’s other friends and so is exclusive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1009

JOB

18

3

v7r1

figs-metonymy

0

regarded

Regarding, looking, is a metonym here for thinking well or badly of someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1010

JOB

18

3

yk9u

figs-metaphor

0

in your sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “in your judgment” or “in your thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1011

JOB

18

3

pdy5

figs-123person

0

your sight

The word “your” here is plural. Bildad is using sarcasm to tell Job that Job should not think of himself as a great man. Alternate translation: “your sight, you who wrongly think you are great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1012

JOB

18

4

zm4p

figs-explicit

0

You who tear at yourself in your anger

Here Bildad is stating that it is because of Job’s anger and disobedience that he has been injured, not because of God’s anger as Job has previously claimed. The word “tear” here means to “injure.” Alternate translation: “You who have caused your own injuries because of your anger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1013

JOB

18

4

ug9i

figs-rquestion

0

should the earth be forsaken for you or should the rocks be removed out of their places?

This rhetorical question suggests that letting Job, whom they consider a guilty man, go free would be like changing the whole world. Bildad uses these huge exaggerations here to emphasize how outrageous he thinks this is. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “asking God to let you, a guilty man, go free is as silly as asking for God to forsake the earth for your sake or for God to move the rocks out of their places to please you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1014

JOB

18

4

r5lg

figs-activepassive

0

should the earth be forsaken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “should everyone leave the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1015

JOB

18

4

zyh5

figs-activepassive

0

should the rocks be removed out of their places

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The word “rocks” here refers to large rocks, such as those in the mountains. Alternate translation: “should God remove the rocks from their places” or “should God move mountains around” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1016

JOB

18

5

e2fi

figs-metaphor

0

Indeed, the light of the wicked person will be put out; the spark of his fire will not shine

Bildad speaks of a wicked person dying as if his lamp were being blown out. Alternate translation: “What will happen is that the lives of wicked people like you end as quickly as we can put out a light or extinguish the flame of a fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1017

JOB

18

5

d868

figs-activepassive

0

will be put out

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “will go out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1018

JOB

18

6

uj2t

figs-metaphor

0

The light will be dark in his tent; his lamp above him will be put out

Bildad continues to speak of the wicked person dying. He speaks of the wicked man’s life as if it were the light in his tent. Alternate translation: It will be like the light in his tent has turned to darkness, like the lamp above him has gone out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1019

JOB

18

7

fxl3

figs-metaphor

0

The steps of his strength will be made short

This speaks of the wicked person suddenly experiencing disaster as if he no longer had strength to walk. Alternate translation: “It will be like he no longer has the strength to walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1020

JOB

18

7

bgk5

figs-metaphor

0

his own plans will cast him down

“his own advice makes him fall down.” This speaks of the wicked person undergoing disaster as if he fell down. Alternate translation: “his own plans will lead him into disaster” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1021

JOB

18

8

t3iw

figs-metaphor

0

For he will be thrown into a net by his own feet; he will walk into a pitfall

“His own feet will lead him into a net.” Bildad uses this image to say that the way that a wicked person lives his life leads him to sudden disaster. Alternate translation: “It will be as though he led himself into a net, as if he walked right into a pitfall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1022

JOB

18

8

fl11

0

a net

cords or ropes that people weave together to create a mesh. People used nets to catch animals.

1023

JOB

18

8

wa1n

0

a pitfall

a pit that has branches and leaves over it so that an animal will walk onto the branches and leaves and fall into the pit

1024

JOB

18

9

t6fv

figs-metaphor

0

A trap will take him … a snare will

These four phrases speak of the wicked man experiencing disaster as if he were caught in a trap. Alternate translation: “It will be as though a trap will take him … a snare will” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1025

JOB

18

9

jr8g

0

A trap

People used this kind of trap to catch birds. The trap snapped shut and held on to the foot of the bird.

1026

JOB

18

9

dnn6

figs-synecdoche

0

will take him by the heel

Here the “heel” refers to the whole foot. Alternate translation: “will take hold of his foot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1027

JOB

18

10

u5yk

figs-metaphor

0

A noose is … and a trap for him in the way

These four phrases speak of the wicked man experiencing disaster as if he were caught in a trap. Alternate translation: “It will be as though a noose is … and a trap for him in the way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1028

JOB

18

10

q4wx

figs-activepassive

0

A noose is hidden for him on the ground

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone has hidden a noose on the ground in order to catch him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1029

JOB

18

10

xp42

0

A noose

a rope with a loop that grabs hold of an animal’s leg when the animal steps in the middle of the loop

1030

JOB

18

10

f193

figs-ellipsis

0

a trap for him

The understood verbal phrase “is hidden” may be supplied. Alternate translation: “a trap is hidden on the path to catch him” or “someone will hide a trap to catch him in the way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1031

JOB

18

11

e8bw

0

Terrors will make him afraid on every side

Alternate translation: “Terrors all around will make him afraid”

1032

JOB

18

11

ln1g

figs-personification

0

they will chase him at his heels

This speaks of the things that terrify the wicked person as if they were enemies who chased him. Alternate translation: “it will be as if the terrors will chase him all around” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1033

JOB

18

12

v7el

figs-metaphor

0

His wealth will turn into hunger

This speaks of the wicked man becoming poor and hungry as if his wealth were something that turned into something else. Alternate translation: “Instead of being wealthy, he will become poor and hungry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1034

JOB

18

12

zbs5

figs-idiom

0

calamity will be ready at his side

The phrase “ready at his side” is an idiom that means that something is continually present. Alternate translation: “he will continually experience disaster” or “he will not be able to avoid calamity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1035

JOB

18

13

u5is

figs-activepassive

0

The parts of his body will be devoured

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Also, this speaks of a disease destroying his body as if it were an animal that had attacked him and was eating him. Alternate translation: “Disease will eat away at his skin” or “Disease will destroy his skin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1036

JOB

18

13

mrr7

figs-metaphor

0

the firstborn of death will devour his parts

Here a disease that kills many people is referred to as “the firstborn of death.” This speaks of that disease destroying his body as if it were an animal that had attacked him and was eating him. Alternate translation: “a deadly disease will destroy the different parts of his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1037

JOB

18

14

m1gl

figs-activepassive

0

He is torn from the safety of his tent

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Disaster rips him out of his tent, where he is safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1038

JOB

18

14

r3dq

figs-activepassive

0

marched off

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “it marches him off” or “it forces him to go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1039

JOB

18

14

atl1

figs-explicit

0

the king of terrors

This is a reference to “King Death,” a pagan god who was believed to rule over death. Alternate translation: “the one who rules over the dead” or “the king of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1040

JOB

18

15

n4sy

0

People not his own

Alternate translation: “People who are not his family”

1041

JOB

18

15

fpm9

figs-activepassive

0

after they see that sulfur is scattered within his home

People used sulfur to get rid of any diseases from a dying person. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “after they spread sulfur all over his home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1042

JOB

18

16

uul5

figs-metaphor

0

His roots will be dried up … branch be cut off

This speaks of the wicked man dying and having no descendants as if he were a tree whose roots dried up and branches withered, producing no fruit. Alternate translation: “He will die and leave no descendants, he will be like a tree whose roots have dried up and whose branches have all withered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1043

JOB

18

16

u1by

figs-activepassive

0

will his branch be cut off

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “his branches will wither” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1044

JOB

18

17

y9j9

figs-parallelism

0

His memory will perish from the earth; he will have no name in the street

These phrases have the same meaning and are used together to emphasize the fact that nobody will remember him after he dies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1045

JOB

18

17

m6xw

figs-metaphor

0

His memory will perish from the earth

This speaks of the “memory” of the wicked man as if it were a person who died. Alternate translation: “No one on the earth will remember him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1046

JOB

18

17

fs6r

figs-idiom

0

he will have no name in the street

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “no one walking along the street will even remember his name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1047

JOB

18

18

k7ju

figs-parallelism

0

He will be driven from light into darkness … and be chased out of this world

These phrases together emphasize the fact that the wicked person will be sent to Sheol, the place of the dead. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1048

JOB

18

18

er2m

figs-activepassive

0

He will be driven from light into darkness

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will drive the wicked person from light into darkness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1049

JOB

18

18

w8ix

figs-metonymy

0

from light into darkness

The word “light” refers to life, and the word “darkness” refers to death. Alternate translation: “from the light of life to the darkness of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1050

JOB

18

18

pgz1

figs-metaphor

0

be chased out of this world

This speaks of God making him leave earth and go where dead people go as if he were chasing him. Alternate translation: “God will make him leave this world” or “God will send him to the place where dead people go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1051

JOB

18

18

dr9v

figs-activepassive

0

be chased out

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will chase him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1052

JOB

18

19

u2ga

figs-parallelism

0

He will have no son … nor any remaining kinfolk where he had stayed

Together these two phrases emphasize that he will have no family or descendants left. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1053

JOB

18

19

chi9

0

son’s son

Alternate translation: “grandson” or “grandchild”

1054

JOB

18

19

asp3

0

kinfolk

Alternate translation: “relatives”

1055

JOB

18

20

wn9y

figs-merism

0

Those who live in the west … those who live in the east will be frightened by it

The phrases “in the west” and “in the east” are together a merism that refers to all people living everywhere. This is an exaggeration as not everyone on the earth will hear about what happened to a specific wicked person. Alternate translation: “Everyone in the whole world will be horrified and frightened when they see what happens to the wicked person” or “Many people who live in the east and in the west will be horrified and frightened when they see what happens to the wicked person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1056

JOB

18

20

r4pt

0

one day

Alternate translation: “someday”

1057

JOB

18

21

da3s

figs-parallelism

0

the homes of unrighteous people, the places of those who do not know God

These two phrases have the same meaning and refer to the same people. Here these people are referred to by the places where they live. Alternate translation: “unrighteous people, those who do not know God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1058

JOB

19

intro

vq57

0

Job 19 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Bildad.

Verses 25-27 are very important to this book. They show the great depth of Job’s faith in Yahweh after his most difficult time. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

1059

JOB

19

1

rlm3

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]

1060

JOB

19

1

u8kd

0

Connecting Statement:

Job speaks to his three friends.

1061

JOB

19

2

xxa9

figs-rquestion

0

How long will you make me suffer and break me into pieces with words?

Job uses this question to complain about how his friends are treating him. Alternate translation: “Stop making me suffer and breaking me into pieces with words.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1062

JOB

19

2

r3lw

figs-metaphor

0

break me into pieces with words

Job uses this image to say that their words make him feel very sad and hopeless. Alternate translation: “torment me with your words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1063

JOB

19

3

k4th

figs-idiom

0

These ten times you have reproached me

The phrase “These ten times” refers to the way that the friends have completely rebuked Job. Alternate translation: “You have completely reproached me” or “You have reproached me many times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1064

JOB

19

3

uy8e

0

you are not ashamed that you have treated me harshly

Job is rebuking them for this. This can be written in positive form. Alternate translation: “You should be ashamed that you have treated me so harshly”

1065

JOB

19

3

vjt8

0

have treated me harshly

Alternate translation: “have despised me” or “have publicly ridiculed me”

1066

JOB

19

4

f1ee

0

have erred

Alternate translation: “have sinned by accident” or “mistakenly sinned”

1067

JOB

19

4

bfn1

figs-explicit

0

my error remains my own concern

Job implies that his friends are not responsible for continuing to rebuke him since he is the one who made the error. Alternate translation: “my error is my own responsibility, so you should not continue to rebuke me” or “my error did not hurt you, so you should not continue to rebuke me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1068

JOB

19

4

fb5f

0

my error

Alternate translation: “my sin” or “my mistake”

1069

JOB

19

5

z7gm

0

If indeed you will exalt yourselves above me

Alternate translation: “If you think you are better than I am” or “Since you act as though you are better than I am”

1070

JOB

19

5

ms5y

figs-explicit

0

use my humiliation against me

How his friends would do this can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “claim that my humiliation is proof against me” or “use my humiliation as evidence that I am guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1071

JOB

19

5

tzm1

figs-abstractnouns

0

use my humiliation against me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word humiliation, you could express the same idea with the verb “humiliate.” Alternate translation: “claim that what has happened to humiliate me proves that I am guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1072

JOB

19

6

gb9h

figs-metaphor

0

has caught me in his net

Job speaks as if God were a hunter that has trapped Job in his net. This metaphor represents God taking control of Job and Job’s feeling of helplessness. Alternate translation: “has trapped me” or “has taken control of me” or “has control of what happens to me, so that I am helpless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1073

JOB

19

7

bp47

0

See, I cry out

Alternate translation: “Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: I cry out”

1074

JOB

19

7

zyg9

figs-explicit

0

Violence!

This is a cry for help. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Violence! Help!” or “Help! I am being attacked!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1075

JOB

19

7

i3lc

0

I call out for help

Alternate translation: “I shout for help” or “I cry for help”

1076

JOB

19

7

i4w8

figs-abstractnouns

0

but there is no justice

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word justice, you could express the same idea with a phrase that makes the meaning clear. Alternate translation: “but no one protects me from those who do me wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1077

JOB

19

8

dpr7

figs-metaphor

0

He has walled up … darkness in my path

Job uses these images to describe how God has made him feel helpless and hopeless. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1078

JOB

19

8

ly9g

0

He has walled up my way so that I cannot pass

Alternate translation: “God has put a wall on the road that I am walking on” or “He has blocked the way so I cannot keep going”

1079

JOB

19

9

wfj7

figs-metaphor

0

He has stripped … the crown from my head

Job uses these images to say that God has taken his good reputation, wealth, and dignity away from him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1080

JOB

19

9

hjr9

figs-metaphor

0

He has stripped me of my glory

Job speaks of his glory as if it were a robe that God has taken away. Alternate translation: “He has taken away my glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1081

JOB

19

9

rf7s

figs-metaphor

0

he has taken the crown from my head

The crown refers to Job’s dignity or honor. Alternate translation: “he has taken away my dignity and honor” or “it is as though he has taken my crown off my head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1082

JOB

19

10

tiq1

figs-metaphor

0

He has broken me down on every side

Job speaks of God ruining him as if Job were building that God is smashing down. Alternate translation: “He has ruined me in every way” or “He has attacked me in every way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1083

JOB

19

10

r4pd

figs-metaphor

0

I am gone

The metaphor “being gone” represents being completely destroyed. Alternate translation: “I am completely destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1084

JOB

19

10

jd8w

figs-simile

0

he has pulled up my hope like a tree

Job speaks of God causing Job not to have hope as if Job’s hope were a tree that God has pulled with its roots out of the ground. Alternate translation: “he has completely taken away all my hope” or “because of what he has done, I can no longer hope for anything good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1085

JOB

19

10

v64y

figs-simile

0

like a tree

This simile is also an ellipsis. You may need to supply the omitted words. Alternate translation: “the way a man pulls a tree up by its roots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1086

JOB

19

11

p3my

figs-metaphor

0

He has also kindled his wrath against me

Job speaks of God’s wrath as if it were a fire. Alternate translation: “God has also lit a fire of anger against me” or “God has also become very angry with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1087

JOB

19

11

p3pk

0

he regards me as one of his adversaries

Alternate translation: “he thinks of me as an enemy”

1088

JOB

19

12

wkz6

figs-metaphor

0

His troops come on together

Job speaks of God attacking him as if Job was a city and God was sending an army to attack it. Alternate translation: “God sends his army to attack me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1089

JOB

19

12

z3lb

figs-metaphor

0

they cast up siege mounds against me

Job speaks of God attacking him as if Job was a city and God’s army was piling up dirt against the city wall in order to climb over the wall and attack the city. Alternate translation: “the soldiers pile up dirt in order to climb over my wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1090

JOB

19

12

fg89

figs-metaphor

0

encamp around my tent

Job speaks of God attacking him as if Job was in his tent and God’s army was camping around him and preparing to attack him. Alternate translation: “they camp around my tent and prepare to attack me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1091

JOB

19

13

zk2b

figs-metaphor

0

He has put my brothers far from me

Being “far from” someone represents being unwilling to relate to him or help him. Alternate translation: “God has caused my brothers to stay away from me” or “God caused my brothers to refuse to help me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1092

JOB

19

13

iv61

figs-activepassive

0

my acquaintances are wholly alienated from me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “my acquaintances have alienated themselves from me” or “my friends treat me like a stranger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1093

JOB

19

14

m425

0

My kinsfolk have failed me

Alternate translation: “My relatives have left me without help”

1094

JOB

19

14

m7pr

0

my close friends

Alternate translation: “my intimate friends”

1095

JOB

19

14

l2e7

0

have forgotten me

“have abandoned me” or “have neglected me.” This means that they refuse to treat him according to how he and they had related to each other in the past. It implies that they abandoned him.

1096

JOB

19

15

kz75

0

regard me

Alternate translation: “consider me”

1097

JOB

19

15

y376

figs-metaphor

0

I am an alien in their sight

Job describes how people now think of him as an outsider. Here sight represents judgement or evaluation. Alternate translation: “they think of me as a foreigner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1098

JOB

19

16

x8ak

0

but he gives me no answer

“but he does not respond to me” or “but he does not come to me.” The answer is a response to Job’s call.

1099

JOB

19

16

hds8

figs-metonymy

0

although I entreat him with my mouth

The phrase “my mouth” is a metonym which refers to Job speaking. Alternate translation: “even though I speak to him and plead with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1100

JOB

19

16

h3pa

0

entreat him

Alternate translation: “plead with him”

1101

JOB

19

17

dgg7

figs-metonymy

0

My breath is offensive to my wife

Here “breath” represents the smell of his breath. If something is offensive to someone, it means that he hates it. Alternate translation: “My wife hates the smell of my breath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1102

JOB

19

17

ufr3

figs-explicit

0

those who were born from my mother’s womb

Job refers to his brothers and sisters this way to imply that they are people who should love him. The full meaning of this can be made clear. Alternate translation: “my own brothers who should love me” or “my brothers and sisters who should love me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1103

JOB

19

18

wi94

0

despise me

Alternate translation: “hate me” or “detest me”

1104

JOB

19

18

fp7g

0

they speak against me

Alternate translation: “they ridicule me” or “they make fun of me”

1105

JOB

19

19

uf7f

0

All my familiar friends

“All my closest friends” or “All of my friends with whom I shared my secrets.” This refers to his closest friends.

1106

JOB

19

19

c1c6

0

abhor me

Alternate translation: “think I am disgusting”

1107

JOB

19

19

t7hn

0

have turned against me

Alternate translation: “have betrayed me”

1108

JOB

19

20

lt45

0

My bones cling to my skin and to my flesh

“I am just skin and bones” or “My skin sticks to my bones.” Job speaks of his bones, skin, and flesh to describe his appearance. He was extremely thin, and people could easily see the shape of his bones. Some languages have idioms for this.

1109

JOB

19

20

ud4z

figs-idiom

0

I survive only by the skin of my teeth

This idiom means that he is barely surviving, that he almost does not survive. Alternate translation: “I am barely alive” or “I hardly survive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1110

JOB

19

21

ux63

0

Have pity upon me

Alternate translation: “Have compassion on me”

1111

JOB

19

21

tbg5

figs-metonymy

0

for the hand of God has touched me

Here “touched me” is a metonym for “hit me.” And, “hand” represents God’s power. Causing Job to suffer is spoken of as if Yahweh were physically hitting him with his hand. Alternate translation: “because God has afflicted me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1112

JOB

19

22

g28h

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you pursue me … God does?

Job uses this question to complain about how his friends are treating him. Alternate translation: “Do not persecute me … God does!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1113

JOB

19

22

c296

figs-rquestion

0

Will you ever be satisfied with my flesh?

Job uses this question to complain about how his friends are treating him. Alternate translation: “You have consumed my flesh enough!” or “Stop consuming my flesh!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1114

JOB

19

22

y17f

figs-metaphor

0

Will you ever be satisfied with my flesh?

Job speaks of his friends speaking so cruelly to him as if they were wild beasts eating up another animal. Alternate translation: “Stop violently slandering me.” or “Stop attacking me with your words.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1115

JOB

19

23

r9n7

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that my words were now written down

This exclamation tells what Job wishes for. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I wish that someone would write down my words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1116

JOB

19

23

llm4

0

my words

Alternate translation: “what I am saying”

1117

JOB

19

23

ti7g

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that they were inscribed in a book

This exclamation tells what Job wishes for. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I wish that someone would write them in a book” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1118

JOB

19

24

a2et

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that with an iron pen and lead they were engraved in the rock forever

This exclamation tells what Job wishes for. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I wish that someone would use an iron pen and lead to carve them in the rock forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1119

JOB

19

24

gz9c

0

an iron pen

“an iron chisel.” This was a tool used for writing. It was made of iron so that people could carve words in rock.

1120

JOB

19

24

nd22

0

lead

Lead is a soft metal. We do not know how people used lead when carving rock. They may have filled the letters of the inscription with lead in order to make the inscription last longer.

1121

JOB

19

25

q57z

0

my Redeemer

“My Defender.” Here “Redeemer” refers to a person who will rescue Job by proving Job’s innocence, restoring his honor, and giving him justice.

1122

JOB

19

25

yy3q

figs-metonymy

0

at last he will stand on the earth

This refers to standing to speak in court. This could mean: (1) the Redeemer will be the last one to speak in the court. Alternate translation: “he will judge whether or not I am guilty” or (2) the Redeemer will stand in this final court to defend Job. Alternate translation: “at last he will defend me in court” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1123

JOB

19

26

t5gt

0

after my skin … is destroyed

Possible meanings are that this refers to: (1) his body being destroyed by disease or (2) his body decaying after he has died.

1124

JOB

19

26

p2pl

figs-metonymy

0

in my flesh I will see God

His flesh represents his body, and “in my flesh” represents being alive. Alternate translation: “while I live in my body, I will see God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1125

JOB

19

27

m1wt

figs-synecdoche

0

my own eyes—I, and not someone else

The synecdoche “my own eyes” represents Job. The phrases “my eyes” and “and not someone else” emphasize that Job himself will actually see God. It is not that someone else will see God and tell Job about him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1126

JOB

19

27

c3pc

figs-metaphor

0

My heart fails within me

People thought of the heart as being where the emotions are. So the heart failing represents him having very many emotions. Alternate translation: “I am very emotional about it” or “My emotions overwhelm me as I think about that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1127

JOB

19

27

k566

figs-explicit

0

My heart fails within me

This could mean: (1) Job feels very hopeful, thankful, and happy or (2) Job feels exhausted waiting to see his Redeemer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1128

JOB

19

28

np8p

figs-exclamations

0

How we will persecute him!

This is an exclamation. This could mean: (1) that they will certainly persecute Job or (2) that they will persecute him severely. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1129

JOB

19

28

ddd3

figs-metaphor

0

The root of his troubles lies in him

The “root” represents the source. Alternate translation: “He is the source of all his troubles” or “He has all these troubles because of what he has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1130

JOB

19

29

tw35

figs-metonymy

0

then be afraid of the sword

Possible meanings are that the sword represents: (1) God judging them. Alternate translation: “then be afraid that God will judge you” or (2) God killing them. Alternate translation: “then be afraid that God will kill you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1131

JOB

19

29

t8gg

figs-abstractnouns

0

because wrath brings the punishment of the sword

The abstract nouns “wrath” and “punishment” can be expressed with the adjective “angry” and the verb “punish.” This could mean: (1) God’s anger results in punishment. Alternate translation: “because God will be angry with you and punish you” or (2) the anger of Job’s friends results in punishment. Alternate translation: “because if you are so angry with me, God will punish you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1132

JOB

19

29

yy9j

0

brings

Alternate translation: “causes” or “results in”

1133

JOB

19

29

n1i1

figs-abstractnouns

0

there is a judgment

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word judgment, you could express the same idea with the verb “judge.” Alternate translation: “God judges people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1134

JOB

20

intro

p78g

0

Job 20 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is the advice of Job’s friend, Zophar. His words in this chapter are much stronger than when he previously spoke, and he is even angry at Job. He claims that Job took advantage of the poor and is being punished for it.

Special concepts in this chapter

Zophar’s advice

Zophar tells Job to curse Yahweh. The advice Zophar gives to Job is bad advice. He tries to convince Job that he is sinning and has been punished by Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

There are many metaphors used in this chapter. Zophar uses them to explain the temporary nature of life and riches. He also uses them to describe God’s punishment of Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1135

JOB

20

1

p292

0

General Information:

Zophar replies to Job.

1136

JOB

20

1

chh1

0

Zophar the Naamathite

See how you translated this man’s name in Job 2:11. Since this is the second time that Zophar speaks, some translations omit “the Naamathite” here.

1137

JOB

20

2

eef1

figs-metaphor

0

My thoughts make me answer quickly

The idea of Zophar’s thoughts making him do something represents his strong desire to do something. Alternate translation: “I want very much to answer you quickly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1138

JOB

20

2

wy6h

figs-abstractnouns

0

because of the worry that is in me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word worry, you could express the same idea with the adjective “worried.” The reason for the worry can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “because I am very worried about you” or “because I am very worried because of what you said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1139

JOB

20

3

m5c5

figs-abstractnouns

0

I hear a rebuke that dishonors me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word rebuke, you could express the same idea with the verb “rebuke.” Alternate translation: “I hear you rebuke me, and what you say dishonors me” or “You insult me by how you rebuke me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1140

JOB

20

3

y21q

0

a spirit from my understanding answers me

Here “spirit” probably refers to a thought or idea. Alternate translation: “a thought from my understanding answers me”

1141

JOB

20

3

pk2s

figs-personification

0

a spirit from my understanding answers me

This “spirit” or thought is spoken of as if it were a person that could answer Zophar. Alternate translation: “I have a thought from my understanding, and now I know what I wanted to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1142

JOB

20

3

dt4l

figs-explicit

0

a spirit from my understanding answers me

The content of the answer can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “a thought from my understanding answers me about how I can reply to you” or “I have a thought from my understanding, and now I know how I can reply to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1143

JOB

20

3

dha7

figs-abstractnouns

0

a spirit from my understanding answers me

The abstract nouns “spirit” and “understanding” can be expressed with the verbs “think” and “understand.” Alternate translation: “because I understand things, I have thought, and now I know how I can reply to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1144

JOB

20

4

um5p

0

Do you not know this fact from ancient times … man on earth

Zophar begins a rhetorical question to cause Job to think deeply about what he will now say.

1145

JOB

20

5

cr4t

0

Connecting Statement:

Zophar finishes the rhetorical question he began in verse 4.

1146

JOB

20

5

nhc5

figs-rquestion

0

the triumph … for a moment?

Zophar uses a rhetorical question to cause Job to think deeply about what he will now say. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “Surely you know … man on earth; the triumph … for a moment.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1147

JOB

20

5

ubq8

figs-abstractnouns

0

the triumph of a wicked man is short

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word triumph, you could express the same idea with the verbs “triumph” or “celebrate.” Alternate translation: “the wicked man triumphs only a short time” or “the wicked person celebrates for only a little while” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1148

JOB

20

5

u62f

figs-abstractnouns

0

the joy of a godless man lasts only for a moment

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word joy, you could express the same idea with the verb “rejoice” or the adjective “happy.” The word “moment” is an exaggeration to emphasize that the time is very short. Alternate translation: “a godless man rejoices for only a moment” or “the godless man is happy for only a very short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1149

JOB

20

6

jjd5

figs-abstractnouns

0

Though his height reaches up to the heavens

“Though the wicked person’s height reaches up to the heavens.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word height, you could express the same idea with the adjective “tall.” Alternate translation: “Though he is as tall as the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1150

JOB

20

6

v8z8

figs-metaphor

0

Though his height reaches up to the heavens

The wicked man’s height represents either his reputation or his pride. Also, here “reaches up to the heavens” represents being very great. Alternate translation: “Though his reputation is great” or “Though his pride is great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1151

JOB

20

6

by93

figs-metaphor

0

his head reaches to the clouds

“and though his head is as high as the clouds.” This also represents his reputation or pride being great. This means the same as the previous phrase. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1152

JOB

20

7

b9xv

figs-simile

0

will perish permanently like his own feces

Feces mixes in with the ground and disappears. The reference to feces may also imply that the wicked person is worthless. Alternate translation: “will perish permanently like his feces, which completely disappears in the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1153

JOB

20

7

x122

figs-simile

0

will perish permanently like his own feces

If people are embarrassed about the word feces, translators may refer to something else that disappears completely. Alternate translation: “will disappear permanently like dust that the wind blows away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1154

JOB

20

8

sfs4

0

He will

Alternate translation: “The wicked person will”

1155

JOB

20

8

rep3

figs-parallelism

0

He will fly away like a dream … he will be chased away like a vision of the night

Here “fly away” and “be chased away” represent disappearing. They may also imply being forgotten, since dreams and visions disappear when people forget them. Alternate translation: “He will disappear like a dream … he will be forgotten like a vision of the night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1156

JOB

20

8

byk9

figs-activepassive

0

will not be found

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one will find him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1157

JOB

20

9

xu8t

figs-synecdoche

0

The eye that saw him

The eye represents a person. Alternate translation: “Anyone who saw him” or “The people who saw him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1158

JOB

20

9

x7cu

figs-metonymy

0

his place

The phrase “his place” represents those who live in his place. Alternate translation: “the people who live in his place” or “his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1159

JOB

20

10

v5ee

0

His children

Alternate translation: “The wicked person’s children”

1160

JOB

20

10

lji7

figs-metonymy

0

his hands will have to give back his wealth

Here the word “hands” refers to the wicked man’s children. When he dies, his children will have to return everything that he took from others. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1161

JOB

20

11

re6y

figs-synecdoche

0

His bones are full of youthful strength

The word “bones” represents his body. Being “full of youthful strength” represents being strong like a young person. Alternate translation: “His body is strong like a young person’s body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1162

JOB

20

11

je7r

figs-metonymy

0

but it will lie down with him in the dust

The word “it” refers to his youthful strength. The metonym “lie down … in the dust” represents dying. The strength dying is a metaphor for disappearing. Alternate translation: “but his youthful strength will die with him” or “but his youthful strength will disappear when he dies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1163

JOB

20

12

w36z

figs-metaphor

0

Although wickedness is sweet in his mouth

Here “wickedness is sweet” represents a person enjoying doing wicked things. Alternate translation: “Although doing wicked things is pleasurable like tasting sweet food in the mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1164

JOB

20

12

nj4p

figs-metaphor

0

although he hides it under his tongue

Zophar speaks of wickedness as if it were sweet food that a person puts under his tongue so it will stay in his mouth and he can taste it for a long time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1165

JOB

20

13

d1n2

0

he holds it there and does not let it go but keeps it still in his mouth

Zophar speaks of wickedness as if it were sweet food that a person puts under his tongue so it will stay in his mouth and he can taste it for a long time. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

1166

JOB

20

14

n7jw

figs-metaphor

0

the food in his intestines turns bitter

When food turns bitter in the stomach, it causes pain and a bitter taste. This is a metaphor for a person experiencing the painful consequences of doing wicked things. Alternate translation: “those wicked things become like food that has turned bitter in the stomach” or “the consequences of those wicked things are painful like food that becomes sour in the stomach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1167

JOB

20

14

zrn4

figs-metaphor

0

it becomes the poison of asps inside him

This image is even worse than sour food in the stomach. This is a metaphor for a person experiencing the terrible consequences of doing wicked things. Alternate translation: “the consequences of doing those wicked things are painful like the poison of asps inside him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1168

JOB

20

14

lnj1

0

asps

poisonous snakes

1169

JOB

20

15

hs62

figs-metaphor

0

He swallows down riches … cast them out of his stomach

Zophar speaks of gaining and losing wealth as if it were food that a person eats and vomits. Alternate translation: “The wicked person becomes very wealthy, but he loses his wealth like a person who vomits up his food. God causes him to lose it all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1170

JOB

20

15

r51k

figs-metaphor

0

He swallows down riches

Here, swallows down riche could mean: (1) accumulating riches and storing them selfishly. Alternate translation: “The wicked man gains much wealth and keeps it all for himself” or (2) accumulating riches in wicked ways. Alternate translation: “The wicked man steals many riches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1171

JOB

20

15

t47g

figs-metonymy

0

God will cast them out of his stomach

Here “cast them out of his stomach” is a metonym for causing the man to vomit them. This is a metaphor for causing the man to lose his riches. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1172

JOB

20

15

iu2m

0

cast

throw

1173

JOB

20

16

l7yk

figs-metaphor

0

He will suck the poison of asps

Here “suck the poison of asps” represents doing evil things. Both are very dangerous. Alternate translation: “Doing evil things is like sucking the poison of asps” or “He will do evil things and endanger his life like a person who sucks the poison of asps” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1174

JOB

20

16

dg2b

0

asps

poisonous snakes

1175

JOB

20

16

m2pa

figs-metonymy

0

the viper’s tongue will kill him

The viper is a poisonous snake. Its tongue represents its poisonous bite. Alternate translation: “the viper’s poisonous bite will kill him” or “the viper will bite him and he will die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1176

JOB

20

16

rf6c

figs-metaphor

0

the viper’s tongue will kill him

The viper represents the man’s wickedness. Alternate translation: “his wickedness will kill him like a viper’s bite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1177

JOB

20

17

nb52

figs-metaphor

0

the streams, the torrents of honey and butter

“Streams” and “torrents” are metaphors that represent abundance. “Honey” and “butter” are metonyms that represent the good things that God gives people. Alternate translation: “the abundance of good things that God gives his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1178

JOB

20

18

th8a

figs-metaphor

0

the fruit of his labor

Normally “the fruit of his labor” simply refers to the results of his labor. In this case it refers to the things the wicked man had stolen. Alternate translation: “the things he had worked to get” or “the things he had stolen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1179

JOB

20

18

w9e5

figs-metaphor

0

will not be able to eat it

Here “to eat” the fruit of his labor represents enjoying the things he had stolen. Alternate translation: “will not be able to enjoy them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1180

JOB

20

21

e2vt

figs-doublenegatives

0

There is nothing left that he did not devour

This can be reworded with only one of the negatives. Alternate translation: “He devoured everything, and there is nothing left” or “There is nothing left because he devoured everything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1181

JOB

20

21

zi35

figs-metaphor

0

There is nothing left that he did not devour

Here “devour” represents taking things for himself. Alternate translation: “There is nothing left that he did not take for himself” or “He took everything for himself, and there is nothing left” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1182

JOB

20

22

k3n2

0

he will fall into trouble

Alternate translation: “he will suddenly experience trouble”

1183

JOB

20

22

tq3y

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of everyone who is in poverty will come against him

Here “hand” represents power, and “hand … will come against him” represents people attacking him. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word poverty, you could express the same idea with the adjective “poor.” Alternate translation: “everyone who is in poverty will attack him” or “everyone who is poor will attack him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1184

JOB

20

23

d4yy

figs-metonymy

0

to fill his stomach

Here “fill his stomach” is a metonym meaning eat a lot. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1185

JOB

20

23

kha9

figs-metaphor

0

God will throw the fierceness of his wrath on him

The “fierceness of his wrath” represents God’s anger and punishment. Throwing the punishment on him represents punishing him severely. Alternate translation: “God will be angry and throw down his punishment on him” or “God will be angry and punish him severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1186

JOB

20

23

i6l2

figs-metaphor

0

God will rain it down on him

“God will cause it to rain down on him.” Here “rain it down on him” represents causing much punishment to happen to the man. Alternate translation: “God will punish him severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1187

JOB

20

24

x5uw

figs-metonymy

0

will flee from the iron weapon

The iron weapon represents the person carrying it. Alternate translation: “will flee from the person carrying an iron weapon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1188

JOB

20

24

kj9m

figs-metonymy

0

a bow of bronze will shoot him

The bow represents the person who shoots an arrow with it. Alternate translation: “someone with a bronze bow will shoot him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1189

JOB

20

25

x7rq

0

liver

This is a large and important part of the body. If someone shoots through it with an arrow, the person who is shot will die.

1190

JOB

20

25

puf6

figs-metaphor

0

Terrors come over him

He will suddenly become very afraid. Alternate translation: “he is terrified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1191

JOB

20

26

w5yg

figs-metaphor

0

Complete darkness is reserved for his treasures

“Complete darkness” here is a metaphor for destruction. Alternate translation: “Destruction is reserved for his treasures” or “His treasures will be destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1192

JOB

20

26

syj5

figs-metaphor

0

a fire not fanned will devour him

Here “devour” is a metaphor meaning destroy. Alternate translation: “a fire that is not fanned will destroy him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1193

JOB

20

26

w47r

figs-explicit

0

a fire not fanned will devour him

The phrase “not fanned” implies that no human will start the fire. Rather, God will cause the fire. Alternate translation: “a fire that is not started by humans will destroy him” or “God will cause a fire to destroy him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1194

JOB

20

26

qsw9

figs-metaphor

0

it will consume

Here “consume” is a metaphor meaning destroy. Alternate translation: “the fire will destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1195

JOB

20

27

v1vg

figs-metonymy

0

The heavens … the earth

Possible meanings are: (1) those who live in the heavens and the earth or (2) Zophar is describing the heavens and the earth as if they are humans who will testify in court against the wicked person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1196

JOB

20

28

pfc3

0

General Information:

This concludes Zophar’s speech to Job.

1197

JOB

20

28

u2v7

0

vanish

disappear

1198

JOB

20

28

r6s5

figs-metaphor

0

his goods will flow away on

Here “flow away” represents being taken away from him. Alternate translation: “his goods will be taken away from him, like goods that float away in a flood, on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1199

JOB

20

28

wi73

0

his goods

Alternate translation: “his possessions”

1200

JOB

20

28

e2e8

figs-metonymy

0

the day of God’s wrath

Here “wrath” represents punishment. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wrath, you could express the same idea with the verb punish. Alternate translation: “the day when God punishes people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1201

JOB

20

29

d9w5

figs-metaphor

0

This is the wicked man’s portion from God

Here “portion from God” represents what God has decided should happen to someone. It is spoken of as if it were something that God would give him. Alternate translation: “This is what God has decided should happen to the wicked man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1202

JOB

20

29

a1s8

figs-metaphor

0

the heritage reserved for him by God

This represents what God has decided should happen to someone. It is spoken of as if it were something that God would give him as an inheritance. Alternate translation: “what God has planned to give to him” or “what God has planned should happen to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1203

JOB

21

intro

k6tx

0

Job 21 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Zophar. It is also a response to all three of his friends in general.

Special concepts in this chapter

Ancestor’s sin

In the ancient Near East, it was common to believe that a person could be punished because of the sins of their fathers and ancestors. It was seen as the punishment of a god. While a father’s sin may have consequences for their children, Yahweh does not punish people because of their father’s sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Zophar that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1204

JOB

21

1

l3vp

0

Connecting Statement:

Job begins to answer Zophar’s accusations.

1205

JOB

21

3

x7gy

0

Put up with me

Alternate translation: “Allow me” or “Be patient with me”

1206

JOB

21

3

w3a4

figs-irony

0

mock on

“you can continue mocking me.” Job is using sarcasm to imply that his friends would ignore what he would say and continue to mock him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1207

JOB

21

4

ztr6

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1208

JOB

21

4

d6w5

figs-rquestion

0

As for me, is my complaint to a person? Why should I not be impatient?

Job uses questions to emphasize that he thinks it is fair for him to complain to God. Alternate translation: “I am not complaining to a person. I have the right to be impatient” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1209

JOB

21

5

lu7q

translate-symaction

0

lay your hand upon your mouth

“cover your mouth with your hand.” Possible meanings are that: (1) this is a response to being astonished. Alternate translation: “cover your mouth with your hand” or (2) this is a symbol that the person will not speak. Alternate translation: “do not say anything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1210

JOB

21

6

f8uu

0

trembling seizes my body

Alternate translation: “fear causes my body to tremble” or “I shake with fear”

1211

JOB

21

7

suz1

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1212

JOB

21

7

i446

figs-rquestion

0

Why do wicked people continue to live, become old, and grow mighty in power?

Job uses this question to show that his friends are wrong to think evil men always suffer. Alternate translation: “Wicked people indeed continue to live, become old, and become wealthier.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1213

JOB

21

8

w7je

figs-parallelism

0

Their descendants are established with them in their sight … their offspring are established before their eyes

This two clauses mean the same thing and emphasize that this is true. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1214

JOB

21

8

n4np

figs-parallelism

0

in their sight … before their eyes

These phrases mean the same thing because “eyes” refers to sight. Wicked people get to watch their descendants grow strong and wealthy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1215

JOB

21

9

e8z5

figs-metonymy

0

Their houses

Here “houses” refers to the family members that lives in them. Alternate translation: “Their families” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1216

JOB

21

9

u9sb

figs-metonymy

0

rod of God

This refers to God’s punishment. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1217

JOB

21

10

v7y4

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1218

JOB

21

10

za7c

0

does not lose her calf prematurely

Alternate translation: “she does not miscarry” or “her calf is born healthy and strong”

1219

JOB

21

11

f9ae

figs-simile

0

little ones like a flock

Job compares these children to lambs to emphasize that they run, play, and are happy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1220

JOB

21

12

w5nf

translate-unknown

0

tambourine

a musical instrument with a head like a drum that can be hit and with pieces of metal around the side that sound when the instrument is shaken (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1221

JOB

21

13

elg8

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking with his friends.

1222

JOB

21

13

s7tf

0

their days

Alternate translation: “their lifetime”

1223

JOB

21

13

bx7u

figs-euphemism

0

they go down quietly to Sheol

This is a polite way of saying that they die. Alternate translation: “they die peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1224

JOB

21

14

fm9x

0

your ways

This refers to how God wants people to behave.

1225

JOB

21

15

k5g5

figs-rquestion

0

What is the Almighty, that we should worship him? What advantage would we get if we prayed to him?

The wicked people use these questions to mock God. Alternate translation: “We do not believe that this Almighty God is worthy of our worship. He can do nothing for us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1226

JOB

21

16

ke4m

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1227

JOB

21

16

t984

figs-metonymy

0

See, is not their prosperity in their own hands?

Here “hands” refers to their power or control. Job uses this question to challenge his friends. Alternate translation: “Look, these wicked people claim that they make themselves prosper!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1228

JOB

21

17

d4mw

figs-rquestion

0

How often is it … their calamity comes upon them?

Job uses this question to emphasize that it seems to him that God does not punish the wicked very often. Alternate translation: “It is not often … their calamity comes upon them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1229

JOB

21

17

c9nn

figs-metaphor

0

the lamp of wicked people is put out

Job compares extinguishing the lamp to a person dying. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that God causes them to die suddenly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1230

JOB

21

17

g7cl

figs-metaphor

0

the lamp of wicked people

Job compares the life of the wicked to a lamp that is burning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1231

JOB

21

17

bmg2

figs-rquestion

0

How often does it happen … in his anger?

Job uses this second question to emphasize that it seems to him that God does not punish the wicked very often. Alternate translation: “It is not often … in his anger.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1232

JOB

21

18

lhr9

figs-rquestion

0

How often is it … the storm carries away?

Job uses this third question to emphasize that it seems to him that God does not punish the wicked very often. Alternate translation: “It is not often … the storm carries away.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1233

JOB

21

18

a6g9

figs-simile

0

they become like stubble before the wind or like chaff that the storm carries away

The death of the wicked is spoken of as if they were worthless less chaff and stubble that blows away. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God takes them away like the wind blows away the chaff” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1234

JOB

21

19

sac1

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1235

JOB

21

19

gwj5

0

You say

These words are added by most versions in order to make it clear that the Job is quoting his friends in the next statement.

1236

JOB

21

19

ev9v

figs-metaphor

0

God lays up one’s guilt for his children to pay

Guilt is spoken of as something that can be stored for later use. Here “to pay” refers to punishment for sin. Alternate translation: “God keeps a record of a person’s sins, then he punishes the person’s children for his wicked deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1237

JOB

21

19

iyl4

figs-explicit

0

Let him pay it himself,…know his guilt

Job now begins to state his own opinion. It may be helpful to state this explicitly using an indirect quotation. “But I say that he should pay it himself,…know his guilt’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1238

JOB

21

20

j2ut

figs-synecdoche

0

Let his eyes see

Here “eyes” refers to the person. Alternate translation: “Let him see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1239

JOB

21

20

wq4y

figs-metaphor

0

let him drink of the wrath of the Almighty

Here the wrath of God is spoken of as if it were a drink that a person can taste, and tasting is a metonym for experiencing the drink. Job wants the wicked person to experience God’s punishment. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1240

JOB

21

21

vtu2

figs-rquestion

0

For what does he care about his family after him when the number of his months is cut off?

Job uses this question to show that punishing the evil man’s children is not effective. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “For the wicked man does not care what happens to his family after he has died!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1241

JOB

21

21

rky2

figs-euphemism

0

the number of his months is cut off

This is a polite way of saying that he dies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1242

JOB

21

21

m58j

0

the number of his months

This refers to the length of his life.

1243

JOB

21

22

yte9

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1244

JOB

21

22

ail2

figs-rquestion

0

Can anyone teach God knowledge since he judges even those who are high?

Job asks this question to emphasize that God knows everything. Alternate translation: “Obviously, no one can teach anything to God since he even judges those in heaven.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1245

JOB

21

22

x9p8

0

those who are high

This could mean: (1) “those who are in heaven” or (2) “powerful people.”

1246

JOB

21

23

krv3

figs-explicit

0

One man dies in his full strength

Job contrasts this man who dies in health and peace to the man who dies in sorrow and pain in Job 21:25. You can make this explicit. Alternate translation: “If there are two men, one may die in his full strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1247

JOB

21

24

mli3

figs-parallelism

0

His body is full of milk … the marrow of his bones is moist

Both of these phrases mean that the person is very healthy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1248

JOB

21

24

sa7q

figs-idiom

0

His body is full of milk

The word for “milk” may mean “fat.” Either rendering means he is well-fed. Alternate translation: “His body if full of fat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1249

JOB

21

24

uug7

figs-idiom

0

the marrow of his bones is moist

This idiom means his body is youthful and healthy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1250

JOB

21

25

k7cw

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1251

JOB

21

25

s5ge

0

Another man dies

Job contrasts this man to the man who dies in peace in Job 21:23.

1252

JOB

21

25

m7zq

figs-metaphor

0

in bitterness of soul

Here sorrow is spoken of as if it tasted bitter, and “soul” refers to the whole man. Alternate translation: “with anger and resentment” or “after living a sad life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1253

JOB

21

25

xpm3

0

has never experienced anything good

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “has experienced only bad things”

1254

JOB

21

26

fc95

figs-euphemism

0

They lie down alike in the dust

This is a polite way to say that they died. Alternate translation: “They both die and people bury them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1255

JOB

21

26

tyf2

figs-explicit

0

the worms cover them both

Worms are associated with decay of dead bodies. Alternate translation: “the worms in the dirt eat their dead bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1256

JOB

21

27

veu9

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1257

JOB

21

27

jy5r

0

See

Job uses this phrase to call attention to the statement that follows. Alternate translation: “Listen”

1258

JOB

21

28

n1y2

figs-rquestion

0

Where now is the house of the prince? Where is the tent in which the wicked man once lived?

Job believes his friends will ask these question to scold him. Both questions mean the same thing. Alternate translation: “See, the house of the evil ruler is gone. The tent of the wicked man has disappeared.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1259

JOB

21

29

czd4

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1260

JOB

21

29

asa9

figs-rquestion

0

Have you never asked traveling people?

Job uses these questions to rebuke his friends for not learning from people who travel. Alternate translation: “You should listen to those who have traveled to distant places.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1261

JOB

21

30

q7hn

0

Connecting Statement:

Job finishes asking a rhetorical question that begins with the words “Do you not know” in verse 29.

1262

JOB

21

30

x25q

figs-rquestion

0

the wicked man is kept … from the day of wrath?

Job uses these questions to rebuke his friends for not learning from people who travel. “Those who have traveled to distant places will tell you … from the day of wrath.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1263

JOB

21

30

wy2e

figs-activepassive

0

the wicked man is kept from the day of calamity … he is led away from the day of wrath

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God keeps the wicked man from the day of calamity … God leads him away from the day of wrath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1264

JOB

21

31

ri98

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to his friends.

1265

JOB

21

31

b6yh

figs-rquestion

0

Who will condemn the wicked man’s way to his face?

Job uses this question to contradict his friends’ belief that the wicked are always judged. Alternate translation: “No one condemns the wicked man to his face.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1266

JOB

21

31

wlf1

figs-idiom

0

to his face

This means no one will go directly to the wicked person and condemn him personally. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1267

JOB

21

31

wn61

figs-rquestion

0

Who will repay him for what he has done?

Job uses this question to contradict his friends’ belief that the wicked are always judged. Alternate translation: “No one repays him for the bad things that he has done.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1268

JOB

21

32

g68a

figs-activepassive

0

he will be borne

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people will carry him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1269

JOB

21

33

eqt1

figs-synecdoche

0

The clods of the valley will be sweet to him

Job imagines that the dead person will even enjoy the dirt that is put on him. This means the wicked person will even have a good death and a nice burial after a fulfilling life. “Clods” refer to the earth that covers the grave. Alternate translation: “He will enjoy being covered with the dirt of the valley” or “He will enjoy being buried in the dirt of the valley” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1270

JOB

21

33

p9wd

figs-hypo

0

all people will follow after him, as there were innumerable people before him

Job emphasizes that a large crowd of people will be in the funeral procession of this imaginary wicked man to honor him. Alternate translation: “a huge number of people go to the grave site; some go in front of the procession and some come behind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1271

JOB

21

34

aa8a

0

Connecting Statement:

This concludes Job’s speech to his friends.

1272

JOB

21

34

j6yy

figs-rquestion

0

How then do you comfort me with nonsense, since in your answers there is nothing but falsehood?

Job uses a question to scold his friends. Alternate translation: “You cannot comfort me with nonsense. All of your answers are false.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1273

JOB

22

intro

m13v

0

Job 22 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of the advice of Job’s friend, Eliphaz. His words in this chapter are much stronger than when he previously spoke.

Special concepts in this chapter

Repentance

Eliphaz tries to get Job to repent in this chapter. Eliphaz assumes that he is righteous, while assuming Job is not. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Eliphaz uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to build Eliphaz’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1274

JOB

22

1

cea8

translate-names

0

Eliphaz the Temanite

See how you translated this man’s name in Job 2:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1275

JOB

22

2

r9kd

figs-parallelism

0

Can a man be useful to God? Can a wise man be useful to him?

Both questions mean basically the same thing. Eliphaz uses questions to emphasize that a person’s actions and wisdom do not benefit God. Alternate translation: “A man cannot be useful to God. A wise man cannot be useful to him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1276

JOB

22

3

h3pe

figs-parallelism

0

Is it any pleasure to the Almighty if you are righteous? Is it gain to him if you make your ways blameless?

Both of these statements mean the same thing. Eliphaz uses questions to emphasize that Job’s actions do not help God. Alternate translation: “The Almighty does not receive any pleasure if you are righteous. He does not gain anything if you make your ways blameless.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1277

JOB

22

4

g1nn

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1278

JOB

22

4

s9qh

figs-rquestion

0

Is it because of your reverence for him that he rebukes you and takes you to judgment?

Eliphaz uses questions to scold Job and accuse him of committing terrible sins. Alternate translation: “It is certainly not because you have been devoted to him that God rebukes you and takes you to judgment!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1279

JOB

22

5

zd3w

figs-rquestion

0

Is not your wickedness great? Is there no end to your iniquities?

Eliphaz uses questions to scold Job and accuse him of committing terrible sins. Alternate translation: “As you know, he judges you because your wickedness is great and you keep on sinning!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1280

JOB

22

6

z1dn

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1281

JOB

22

6

hip2

0

you have demanded guarantee of a loan

This refers to a lender taking something from the borrower to ensure that the borrower pays him back.

1282

JOB

22

6

qq5g

0

you have stripped away clothing from the naked

Eliphaz is accusing Job of taking clothes as security from poor people who borrowed from him.

1283

JOB

22

7

q9nb

figs-synecdoche

0

withheld bread

Here “bread” refers to food in general. Alternate translation: “withheld food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1284

JOB

22

8

dj3n

figs-parallelism

0

possessed the earth … lived in it

Eliphaz is accusing Job of taking land from poor people and not allowing them to live on it. He is emphasizing this point by restating it twice. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1285

JOB

22

8

gry9

figs-hyperbole

0

possessed the earth

Eliphaz is exaggerating the amount of land that Job owned in order to portray Job as greedy. Alternate translation: “possessed a great amount of land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1286

JOB

22

9

ti2j

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1287

JOB

22

9

u5gg

0

You have sent widows away empty

Alternate translation: “You made widows go away with nothing”

1288

JOB

22

9

kyr7

0

widows

women whose husbands have died

1289

JOB

22

9

pdd7

figs-metonymy

0

the arms of the fatherless have been broken

Here “arms” refer to power. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you even oppressed orphans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1290

JOB

22

10

wdg6

figs-metaphor

0

snares are all around you … sudden fear troubles you

These are metaphors for trouble and danger. Alternate translation: “you are always in danger … you become afraid for no reason” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1291

JOB

22

11

kz5f

figs-metaphor

0

There is darkness … an abundance of waters covers you

Each of these metaphors means troubles and dangers are all around Job because of his sin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1292

JOB

22

11

a6pa

0

an abundance of waters

Alternate translation: “a flood”

1293

JOB

22

12

n1zi

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1294

JOB

22

12

st8p

figs-rquestion

0

Is not God in the heights of heaven?

Eliphaz uses this question to say that God sees Job’s sin and will judge him. Alternate translation: “God is in the heights of heaven and sees everything that happens on earth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1295

JOB

22

12

rtk3

figs-explicit

0

Look at the height of the stars, how high they are!

Eliphaz implies that God is higher than the stars. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Look at how high the stars are. God is even higher than the stars!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1296

JOB

22

13

y6zh

figs-rquestion

0

What does God know? Can he judge through the thick darkness?

Eliphaz uses these questions to imply that Job has said these things against God. Alternate translation: “God does not know what happens on earth. He sits in dark clouds and cannot see to judge us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1297

JOB

22

14

x5ap

figs-explicit

0

he walks on the vault of heaven

Here “vault” refers to the barrier that ancient people believed separated the earth from heaven. Alternate translation: “he lives too far away in heaven to see what happens here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1298

JOB

22

15

cvp4

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1299

JOB

22

16

iid8

figs-metaphor

0

those who were snatched away

Dying is compared to God snatching them away. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “those who died” or “those whom God took away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1300

JOB

22

16

lc5k

figs-simile

0

those whose foundations have washed away like a river

The death of wicked people is compared to buildings that had their foundations washed away by a flood. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1301

JOB

22

17

q2mt

figs-rquestion

0

What can the Almighty do to us?

Eliphaz quotes a question wicked people use to mock God. Alternate translation: “The Almighty cannot do anything to us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1302

JOB

22

18

nr68

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1303

JOB

22

18

jh2r

0

Yet he filled

Alternate translation: “Yet God filled”

1304

JOB

22

18

l57x

figs-idiom

0

the plans of wicked people are far from me

The idiom “far from me” means Eliphaz rejects them. Alternate translation: “but I will not listen to their wicked plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1305

JOB

22

19

ku9s

0

see their fate

Alternate translation: “know what will happen to the wicked”

1306

JOB

22

19

q2jl

0

laugh them to scorn

Alternate translation: “mock the wicked people”

1307

JOB

22

20

j4fq

0

They say

Alternate translation: “The righteous say”

1308

JOB

22

20

jwg8

figs-activepassive

0

Surely those who rose up against us are cut off

Here “those who rose up” refers to the wicked people. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Surely God has destroyed the wicked people who harmed us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1309

JOB

22

21

z6jk

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1310

JOB

22

21

aj2c

0

Now

Eliphaz uses this word to introduce something important he is about to say.

1311

JOB

22

22

ll7g

figs-metonymy

0

instruction from his mouth

Here “from his mouth” represents what God has spoken. Alternate translation: “the instruction that God has spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1312

JOB

22

22

dp7d

figs-idiom

0

store up his words

God’s words are compared to treasures that Job could keep in a storeroom. Alternate translation: “treasure his commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1313

JOB

22

22

y867

figs-metonymy

0

your heart

Here “heart” refers to Job’s thoughts. Alternate translation: “your mind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1314

JOB

22

23

x1jk

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1315

JOB

22

23

mz1i

figs-metaphor

0

you will be built up

Eliphaz compares Job’s restoration to the rebuilding of a house that has fallen. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he will heal you and make you prosper again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1316

JOB

22

23

kbt1

figs-metaphor

0

if you put unrighteousness far away from your tents

Unrighteousness is pictured as a person who is living in Job’s tent who must be removed. Alternate translation: “if you and everyone in your house stops sinning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1317

JOB

22

24

u6qk

figs-idiom

0

Lay your treasure down in the dust

To lay a treasure in the dust is to treat it as unimportant. Alternate translation: “Consider your riches as unimportant as dust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1318

JOB

22

24

m1gk

figs-idiom

0

the gold of Ophir among the stones of the brooks

To put gold in the stream is to treat it as no more valuable than stones. Alternate translation: “the gold of Ophir is as worthless as stones in a stream” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1319

JOB

22

24

g8dq

translate-names

0

Ophir

This is the name of a region famous for its gold. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1320

JOB

22

25

wg73

figs-metaphor

0

the Almighty will be your treasure, precious silver to you

This means God will be more valuable to Job than any treasure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1321

JOB

22

26

wd8v

0

Connecting Statement:

Eliphaz continues speaking to Job.

1322

JOB

22

26

l352

figs-idiom

0

you will lift up your face to God

This means Job will no longer be ashamed but will trust in God. Alternate translation: “you will be able to approach God confidently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1323

JOB

22

28

ldp9

figs-activepassive

0

it will be confirmed for you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will cause you to succeed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1324

JOB

22

28

k1nu

figs-metaphor

0

light will shine on your paths

God’s blessing is compared to a light on all of Job’s paths. Alternate translation: “it will be like a light shining on the road in front of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1325

JOB

22

29

yck5

0

Connecting Statement:

This concludes Eliphaz’s speech to Job.

1326

JOB

22

29

xgw4

figs-idiom

0

the one with lowered eyes

Here “lowered eyes” refers to humility. Alternate translation: “the humble person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1327

JOB

22

30

f84n

figs-metaphor

0

He will rescue even the man who is not innocent; who will be rescued through the cleanness of your hands

Job being innocent is spoken of as if his hands were physically clean. The phrase “who will be rescued” can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will rescue even the person who is not innocent because you do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1328

JOB

22

30

wrz4

0

He will rescue even the man who is not innocent; who will be rescued through the cleanness of your hands

Some versions of the Bible read, “He rescues the innocent person; so he will rescue you when your hands are clean”

1329

JOB

23

intro

fb42

0

Job 23 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Eliphaz.

Special concepts in this chapter

Court

This chapter uses an extended metaphor of a court case to describe Job’s “case,” which he seeks to bring to Yahweh, who is a judge. Cultures without a legal system will have difficulty translating this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1330

JOB

23

2

fi9s

0

Even today my complaint is bitter

Here “Even today” emphasizes that his friends arguments have not changed Job’s situation at all. Alternate translation: “In spite of what you have said, my complaint is still bitter”

1331

JOB

23

2

ke1p

figs-idiom

0

my complaint is bitter

Job speaks of his unanswered complaint against God as if it was a bitter taste in his mouth. Alternate translation: “my unanswered complaint is as bad as bitter food in my mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1332

JOB

23

2

cm2j

figs-metonymy

0

my hand … heavy because of my groaning

This could mean: (1) “I can barely lift my hand because of my groaning” or (2) “God’s hand continues to make me suffer in spite of my groaning” where “hand” refers to God’s power to punish. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1333

JOB

23

3

k3e2

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1334

JOB

23

3

pn2b

figs-parallelism

0

Oh, that I knew where … Oh, that I might come

These two lines mean the same thing and emphasize Job’s desire to meet with God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1335

JOB

23

3

rpr9

0

I might find him

Alternate translation: “I might find God”

1336

JOB

23

4

u14t

figs-parallelism

0

lay my case … fill my mouth

These two lines mean the same thing and emphasize Job’s desire to explain his situation to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1337

JOB

23

4

vtm3

figs-metonymy

0

fill my mouth with arguments

Here “fill my mouth” refers to speaking. Alternate translation: “I would speak all of my arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1338

JOB

23

5

jln8

figs-parallelism

0

I would learn the words … would understand

These two lines mean basically the same thing and emphasize Job’s desire to hear God’s answer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1339

JOB

23

5

s5td

0

the words with which he would answer me

Alternate translation: “the answer that he would give me”

1340

JOB

23

6

p72s

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1341

JOB

23

6

tw6n

0

Would he

Alternate translation: “Would God”

1342

JOB

23

7

lx63

0

There

This refers to the place where God is.

1343

JOB

23

7

aw1l

figs-activepassive

0

I would be acquitted forever by my judge

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “my judge would acquit me forever” or “God, who is my judge, would say that I am innocent once and for all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1344

JOB

23

8

tfb8

figs-merism

0

Job continues speaking. He begins using a merism to say that he has looked everywhere. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1345

JOB

23

9

ja9l

figs-merism

0

north … south

This is the end of the merism that begins with the words “eastward … westward” in verse 8. By mentioning these four directions, Job emphasizes that he has looked everywhere. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1346

JOB

23

9

br9j

0

where he hides himself

Job speaks of God as if he is a person who hides.

1347

JOB

23

10

x7cb

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1348

JOB

23

10

lq4v

figs-metaphor

0

he knows the way that I take

Job’s actions are spoken of as if he is walking on a path. Alternate translation: “God knows what I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1349

JOB

23

10

v4c5

figs-simile

0

I will come out like gold

Job believes that the test will prove that he is as pure as refined gold. Alternate translation: “he will see that I am as pure as gold when anything not pure has been burned away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1350

JOB

23

11

w13v

figs-synecdoche

0

My foot has held fast to his steps

Here “My foot” refers to Job. Alternate translation: “I have followed the path he has shown me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1351

JOB

23

11

xw5w

figs-metaphor

0

I have kept to his way

Job’s obedience is spoken of as if he is walking in a path that God showed him. Alternate translation: “I have done what he told me to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1352

JOB

23

11

gk1e

0

turned not aside

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “followed it exactly”

1353

JOB

23

12

fg26

0

I have not gone back from

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “I have always obeyed”

1354

JOB

23

12

m22y

figs-metonymy

0

of his lips

This phrase refers to the message that God spoke. Alternate translation: “that he spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1355

JOB

23

12

tcz4

figs-synecdoche

0

the words of his mouth

Here God is represented by his “mouth.” Alternate translation: “what he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1356

JOB

23

13

xe4e

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1357

JOB

23

13

l1d5

figs-rquestion

0

But he is one of a kind, who can turn him back?

Job uses this question to emphasize that there is no one like God and no one can force him to change. Alternate translation: “But there is no one like him, and nobody can make him change his mind.” or “But he alone is God, and no one can influence him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1358

JOB

23

13

if99

0

What he desires, he does

Alternate translation: “He does whatever he wants to do”

1359

JOB

23

14

g641

0

he carries out his decree against me

Alternate translation: “he is doing to me what he said he would do”

1360

JOB

23

14

i8u2

0

there are many like them

Alternate translation: “he has many similar plans for me”

1361

JOB

23

15

n27i

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

Each of these verses has the form of a parallelism to emphasize the main point Job makes there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1362

JOB

23

15

sw44

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1363

JOB

23

16

p6ma

figs-parallelism

0

For God has made my heart weak; the Almighty has terrified me

These two lines mean basically the same thing and emphasize that Job is very afraid of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1364

JOB

23

16

d4fw

figs-idiom

0

made my heart weak

A person whose heart is weak is a person who is timid or fearful. Alternate translation: “made me afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1365

JOB

23

17

dng4

figs-explicit

0

I have not been brought to an end by darkness

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) “The thick darkness in front of me has not made me silent” or (2) “Darkness has not stopped me” or “God has stopped me, not the darkness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1366

JOB

23

17

qpa8

figs-synecdoche

0

the gloom of my face

Here Job refers to himself by his “face.” Alternate translation: “my sadness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1367

JOB

24

intro

e2gb

0

Job 24 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Eliphaz. It is a continuation of the previous chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Court

This chapter uses an extended metaphor of a court case to describe Job’s “case,” which he seeks to bring to Yahweh, who is a judge. Cultures without a legal system will have difficulty translating this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Job uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Eliphaz that he is wrong. These questions help to build Job’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1368

JOB

24

1

mg7h

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1369

JOB

24

1

thc8

figs-rquestion

0

Why are times for judging wicked people not set by the Almighty?

Job uses this question to express his frustration that God has not judged evil. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I do not understand why God does not set a time when he will judge wicked people.” or “The Almighty should set a time when he will judge wicked people.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1370

JOB

24

1

ej3y

figs-rquestion

0

Why do not those who are faithful to God see his days of judgment come?

Job uses this question to express his frustration that the righteous have not seen God judge evil. Alternate translation: “It seems that those who obey him never get to see him judge the wicked.” or “God should show the day he will judge the wicked to those who know him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1371

JOB

24

2

h88w

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1372

JOB

24

2

pse5

0

boundary markers

These are stones or other objects to mark the boundary between the lands owned by different people.

1373

JOB

24

2

mn98

0

pastures

land with grass for animals to eat

1374

JOB

24

3

fml5

0

They drive away

Alternate translation: “They steal”

1375

JOB

24

3

y9i2

0

those without fathers

Alternate translation: “orphans” or “children whose parents have died”

1376

JOB

24

3

m884

0

they take the widow’s ox as security

Alternate translation: “they take widows’ oxen to guarantee that the widows will pay back the money that they loaned to those widows”

1377

JOB

24

3

e6wc

0

widow

a woman whose husband has died

1378

JOB

24

3

uu5w

0

as security

A lender would take something from a borrower to ensure that the borrower pays him back.

1379

JOB

24

4

lzi7

0

out of their path

Alternate translation: “out of their way” or “off the road”

1380

JOB

24

4

r5d2

figs-hyperbole

0

poor people of the earth all hide themselves

The word “all” is an exaggeration to show that many poor people are afraid of these wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1381

JOB

24

5

d79k

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1382

JOB

24

5

m813

figs-simile

0

these poor people go out to their work like wild donkeys in the wilderness, looking carefully for food

These poor people are spoken of as if they are wild donkeys who do not know where they will find food. Alternate translation: “these poor people go out to search for food as if they were wild donkeys in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1383

JOB

24

5

yaj6

0

wild donkeys

Alternate translation: “donkeys that no one owns or cares for”

1384

JOB

24

6

j8dx

figs-parallelism

0

Poor people reap in the night … they glean grapes

These two lines describe the same thing and are used together to emphasize that these people are so hungry that they are forced to steal food at night. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1385

JOB

24

7

u7w8

figs-parallelism

0

They lie naked … they have no covering

These two lines describe the same thing and are used together to emphasize that these people do not have enough clothing to keep warm. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1386

JOB

24

8

a2gx

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1387

JOB

24

8

j5eb

0

They are wet with the showers of the mountains

Alternate translation: “They become wet when it rains in the mountains”

1388

JOB

24

9

t1ki

figs-synecdoche

0

orphans from their mothers’ breast

Here “breast” refers to the mother. This implies that these orphans are still very young. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “young orphans out of their mothers’ arms” or “fatherless infants from their mothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1389

JOB

24

9

ahj1

0

orphans

This generally refers to children without parents. Here, however, it is used for children who have mothers but do not have fathers.

1390

JOB

24

9

ma3c

0

take children as security from poor people

Alternate translation: “take poor people’s children to guarantee that the poor people will pay back money that they borrowed from the wicked people”

1391

JOB

24

9

yq41

0

as security

A lender would take something from a borrower to ensure that the borrower pays him back. See how you translated this in Job 24:3.

1392

JOB

24

10

u922

0

go about

Alternate translation: “walk around”

1393

JOB

24

10

eps1

figs-doublet

0

naked without clothing

The words “without clothing” mean the same thing as “naked.” Alternate translation: “completely naked” or “naked because they have no clothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1394

JOB

24

10

qj7x

0

they carry bundles of grain belonging to other people

This means their work will provide food for others but not for themselves.

1395

JOB

24

11

fp3g

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1396

JOB

24

11

rks1

0

The poor people make oil

they squeezed olives in order to extract olive oil from them

1397

JOB

24

11

mr4m

figs-synecdoche

0

within the walls of those wicked men

Here “walls” refers to the whole house. Alternate translation: “in the houses of those evil men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1398

JOB

24

11

z8b4

figs-explicit

0

they tread the wicked men’s winepresses

It may be helpful to state that they do this to produce juice to make wine. Alternate translation: “they tread on grapes to make juice for wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1399

JOB

24

11

a1m7

0

they themselves suffer thirst

Alternate translation: “they suffer from thirst” or “they are thirsty”

1400

JOB

24

13

m581

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1401

JOB

24

13

dl4e

figs-metaphor

0

rebel against the light

Here, light could mean: (1) visible light or (2) spiritual light, which refers to God or living righteously. Alternate translation: “hate the daylight” or “do not want to do things openly” or “rebel against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1402

JOB

24

13

djk4

figs-metaphor

0

they know not its ways, nor do they stay in its paths

These two lines describe the same thing, and are used together to emphasize that they do not want to follow the ways of the light. Alternate translation: “they do not know how to live a moral life; they stay far away from living a righteous life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1403

JOB

24

14

u116

figs-doublet

0

poor and needy people

The words “poor” and “needy” refer to the same group of people and emphasize that these are people who are unable to help themselves. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1404

JOB

24

14

d2ft

figs-simile

0

he is like a thief

The murderer kills in secret just like a thief steals without anyone seeing what he does. Alternate translation: “he kills people secretly, just like a thief steals secretly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1405

JOB

24

15

jp3l

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1406

JOB

24

15

mza9

figs-synecdoche

0

the eye of the adulterer

Here “eye” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “the adulterer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1407

JOB

24

15

ymp3

0

for the twilight

Alternate translation: “for the sunset”

1408

JOB

24

15

ewy1

figs-synecdoche

0

No eye will see me

Here “eye” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “No one will see me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1409

JOB

24

16

c35g

figs-explicit

0

wicked people dig into houses

They dig into the houses in order to steal from them. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “wicked people dig into houses to steal from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1410

JOB

24

16

k9sq

0

they shut themselves up

Alternate translation: “they hide inside”

1411

JOB

24

17

g55x

figs-simile

0

For all of them, thick darkness is like the morning

The thick darkness is as comfortable for the wicked as light of the morning is for normal people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1412

JOB

24

17

y5ib

0

the terrors of thick darkness

Alternate translation: “the scary things that happen at night”

1413

JOB

24

18

ay3v

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1414

JOB

24

18

f772

figs-simile

0

like foam on the surface of the waters

Foam lasts only a short time. This emphasizes how quickly God will cause the wicked to disappear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1415

JOB

24

18

lat6

figs-activepassive

0

their portion of the land is cursed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God curses the part of the land that they own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1416

JOB

24

19

b8g4

figs-simile

0

As drought and heat melt away … those who have sinned

Job says that sinners will disappear in Sheol in the same way as snow melts and disappears when it becomes warm. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1417

JOB

24

19

u6db

figs-hendiadys

0

drought and heat

These two words describe essentially the same weather and are used together to describe it fully. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1418

JOB

24

20

hnl6

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1419

JOB

24

20

dg9v

figs-synecdoche

0

The womb

This refers to the mother. Alternate translation: “The mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1420

JOB

24

20

ja3y

figs-idiom

0

the worm will feed sweetly on him

This means that he will die and worms will eat his body. Alternate translation: “the worm will enjoy eating his dead body” or “he will die and then his body will be eaten by worms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1421

JOB

24

20

auf1

figs-activepassive

0

he will be remembered no more

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one will remember him anymore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1422

JOB

24

20

k6gl

figs-metaphor

0

wickedness will be broken like a tree

God’s destruction of the wicked man is describes as if he were cutting down a tree. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will destroy the wicked as if he were a tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1423

JOB

24

21

ys4w

figs-metaphor

0

The wicked one devours

This metaphor emphasizes how ruthless the wicked man is. Alternate translation: “Just like a wild animal kills its prey, so the wicked person harms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1424

JOB

24

21

m9u5

0

the barren women who have not borne children

The people of that day considered that a woman who was barren was cursed by God. Therefore, this represents the most unfortunate women.

1425

JOB

24

21

i5m9

0

widow

a woman whose husband has died

1426

JOB

24

22

xl8g

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking.

1427

JOB

24

22

ps1m

0

by his power

Alternate translation: “by using his power” or “because he is powerful”

1428

JOB

24

22

x59s

figs-idiom

0

he rises up and does not strengthen them in life

Here “does not strengthen them in life” means God does not keep them alive. Alternate translation: “God rises up and does not give wicked people the strength to live” or “God rises up and causes them to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1429

JOB

24

23

qks3

figs-synecdoche

0

but his eyes are on their ways

Here “eyes” refers to God. Alternate translation: “but he is always watching what they do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1430

JOB

24

24

yq9p

0

Connecting Statement:

This concludes Job’s speech.

1431

JOB

24

24

b7v1

figs-activepassive

0

they will be brought low

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will bring them low” or “God will destroy them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1432

JOB

24

24

j5za

translate-textvariants

0

they will be gathered up like all the others

Some translations are based on a different early text, which says “they wither and fade like weeds.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1433

JOB

24

24

ix1v

figs-activepassive

0

they will be gathered up like all the others

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. What “the others” refers to can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “God will gather them up as he gathered up the other wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1434

JOB

24

24

mqt2

figs-simile

0

they will be cut off like the tops of ears of grain

These wicked people will be cut off in the same way heads of grain are cut off during harvest. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will cut them off like a farmer cuts off the top of a stalk of grain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1435

JOB

24

25

cfk7

figs-rquestion

0

If it is not so, who can prove me to be a liar; who can make my speech worth nothing?

Job uses this question to express the certainty of his argument. The implicit answer is: “no one.” Alternate translation: “This is true, and no one can prove that I am a liar; no one can prove me wrong.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1436

JOB

24

25

iy58

0

make my speech worth nothing

Alternate translation: “prove what I say is wrong”

1437

JOB

25

intro

yz1x

0

Job 25 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of the advice of Job’s friend, Bildad. His words in this chapter are much stronger than when he previously spoke.

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s holiness and man’s sin

Bildad describes the holiness of Yahweh and the universal nature of man’s sinfulness. While his points are accurate, they are not convincing for Job because he has been righteous. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Bildad uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job that he is wrong. These questions help to build Bildad’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1438

JOB

25

1

vb52

0

Bildad the Shuhite

See how you translated this man’s name in Job 2:11.

1439

JOB

25

2

cz5c

figs-abstractnouns

0

Dominion and fear are with him

Here “him” refers to God. The abstract nouns “dominion” and “fear” can be stated as verbs. Alternate translation: “God rules over all and people should fear only him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1440

JOB

25

2

t8t1

0

he makes order in his high places of heaven

Alternate translation: “he makes peace in the high heaven”

1441

JOB

25

3

agz7

figs-rquestion

0

Is there any end to the number of his armies?

Bildad uses this question to emphasize how great God is. The implicit answer is “no.” This refers to the armies of God’s angels. Alternate translation: “There is no end to the number of angels in his army.” or “His armies are so big that no one can count them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1442

JOB

25

3

tb5c

figs-rquestion

0

Upon whom does his light not shine?

Bildad uses this question to emphasize that God gives light to every person. Alternate translation: “There is no one upon whom his light does not shine.” or “God makes his light shine over everyone.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1443

JOB

25

4

gq9p

0

Connecting Statement:

Bildad continues speaking.

1444

JOB

25

4

w2pf

figs-parallelism

0

How then can man … God? How can he who is born … him?

These two questions are used together to emphasize that it is impossible for a man to be good enough before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1445

JOB

25

4

v4y8

figs-rquestion

0

How then can man be righteous with God?

The implicit reaction is that he cannot. Alternate translation: “A man can never be righteous before God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1446

JOB

25

4

z1j1

figs-rquestion

0

How can he who is born … acceptable to him?

The implicit reaction is that he cannot. Alternate translation: “He who is born of a woman cannot be clean or acceptable to him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1447

JOB

25

4

kx6l

figs-idiom

0

he who is born of a woman

This idiom includes everyone. Alternate translation: “any person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1448

JOB

25

5

f8pe

0

See

The word “See” here adds emphasis to what follows. Alternate translation: “Indeed”

1449

JOB

25

5

un12

figs-abstractnouns

0

the moon has no brightness to him

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word brightness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “the moon is not bright enough for God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1450

JOB

25

5

kt4v

0

the stars are not pure in his sight

Here “pure” means “perfect.” Alternate translation: “he does not think even the stars are perfect”

1451

JOB

25

6

c7kh

figs-parallelism

0

How much less man … a son of man, who is a worm

These two lines say the same thing and are used together to emphasize that man is not perfect. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1452

JOB

25

6

h6x7

figs-metaphor

0

who is a worm

Bildad states that human beings are as worthless as worms. Alternate translation: “who is as worthless as a worm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1453

JOB

25

6

l7b7

figs-metonymy

0

a son of man

This is another way of referring to a person. Alternate translation: “a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1454

JOB

26

intro

f665

0

Job 26 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is Job’s response to Bildad.

This chapter begins a section continuing through chapter 31.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s power

While Bildad describes Yahweh’s power as being so much greater than Job’s, Job understands the true extent of Yahweh’s power. It is not just over Job’s life, but over all of creation.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Sarcasm

Job uses sarcasm in this chapter. This is the use of irony to insult Bildad. (See: Job 1-4 and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1455

JOB

26

2

lud4

figs-irony

0

How you have helped one … the arm that has no strength

In these statements, Job is accusing Bildad. The word “one” refers to Job. And, the word “arm” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I am powerless and have no strength, but you act like you have helped me; but really, you have not helped me at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1456

JOB

26

3

s1r5

figs-irony

0

How you have advised one who has no wisdom and announced to him sound knowledge

Job is saying that Bildad has not provided him with good advice and knowledge. Alternate translation: “You act like I have no wisdom and that you have advised me, that you have given me good advice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1457

JOB

26

3

y2kk

0

announced to him sound knowledge

Alternate translation: “given him good advice”

1458

JOB

26

4

n9vj

figs-rquestion

0

With whose help have you spoken these words? Whose spirit was it … you?

In these questions Job continues to mock Bildad. They are both rhetorical questions and have basically the same meaning. They are used together to strengthen each other. Alternate translation: “You must have had help speaking these words. Perhaps some spirit helped you speak them!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1459

JOB

26

5

c81a

figs-nominaladj

0

The dead

This refers to dead people. Alternate translation: “Those who are dead” or “The spirits of the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1460

JOB

26

5

xqx7

figs-explicit

0

tremble

They tremble because they are afraid of God. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “tremble in fear” or “tremble in fear of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1461

JOB

26

5

hs8h

0

those who are beneath the waters

This refers to the dead people who tremble.

1462

JOB

26

5

th6n

0

all who dwell in them

This refers to the dead people who dwell in the waters.

1463

JOB

26

6

c8rl

figs-metaphor

0

Sheol is naked before God; destruction itself has no covering

Sheol is spoken of as if it were a person. These two phrases have the same meaning. To be “naked” or have “no covering” is to be completely exposed and not able to hide anything. Alternate translation: “It is like sheol is naked before God, for nothing in sheol, the place of destruction, is hidden from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1464

JOB

26

6

v85x

0

destruction

This is another name for sheol. Alternate translation: “the place of destruction”

1465

JOB

26

7

ts32

figs-metaphor

0

He stretches out the northern skies over the empty space

The northern skies represent heaven, the place where God dwells with the beings he created to dwell there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1466

JOB

26

8

q4f6

0

He binds up the waters in his thick clouds

The clouds are compared to a large blanket in which God wraps the rainwater. Alternate translation: “He wraps up the water in his thick clouds”

1467

JOB

26

8

sxg4

figs-activepassive

0

but the clouds are not torn under them

This can be stated actively. The word “them” refers to the waters. Alternate translation: “but the weight of the waters does not tear the clouds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1468

JOB

26

9

r35v

0

and spreads his clouds on it

This phrase tells how he covers the surface of the moon. Alternate translation: “by spreading his clouds in front of it”

1469

JOB

26

10

l8k5

0

He has engraved a circular boundary on the surface of the waters

This speaks of the horizon, where the earth appears to meet the sky, as if God has marked a boundary on the ocean.

1470

JOB

26

11

n3vz

figs-personification

0

The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at his rebuke

People thought of heaven or the sky as resting on pillars. Job speaks as though the pillars are humans that shake in fear when God is angry. Alternate translation: “The pillars that hold up heaven shake in fear when God rebukes them” or “The pillars that hold up the sky shake like people who are afraid when God rebukes them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1471

JOB

26

12

f7hn

0

he shattered Rahab

Alternate translation: “he destroyed Rahab”

1472

JOB

26

12

x7ti

translate-names

0

Rahab

This is the name of a frightening monster that lived in the sea. See how you translated this in Job 9:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1473

JOB

26

13

c72v

figs-metaphor

0

By his breath he made the skies clear

The noun “breath” can be translated with the verb “breathe” or “blow.” This image represents God causing the wind to blow away the clouds. Alternate translation: “God blew away the clouds so that the skies were clear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1474

JOB

26

13

r5le

figs-explicit

0

his hand pierced the fleeing serpent

It is implied that God his holding a sword, and here “his hand” represents that sword. Also, “pierced” represents killing. Alternate translation: “With his sword he pierced the fleeing serpent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1475

JOB

26

13

c2jc

0

the fleeing serpent

“the serpent as it was trying to escape from him.” This refers to Rahab, the monster in the sea. See Job 26:12.

1476

JOB

26

14

qb3u

figs-metaphor

0

See, these are but the fringes of his ways

Here “fringes” represents a small part that we can see of something that is much bigger. Alternate translation: “See, these things that God has done show only a small part of his great power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1477

JOB

26

14

k819

figs-exclamations

0

how small a whisper do we hear of him!

This is an exclamation that expresses Job’s amazement of all the great things that God does that we do not even know about. Seeing what God does is spoken of as hearing God’s voice. Alternate translation: “it is as if we heard only his quiet whisper!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1478

JOB

26

14

b468

figs-rquestion

0

Who can understand the thunder of his power?

The “thunder of his power” represents God’s greatness. Job uses this question to emphasize that God’s power is so great that no one can understand it. Alternate translation: “The thunder displays the greatness of his power which no one can understand!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1479

JOB

27

intro

mkb5

0

Job 27 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s response to Bildad.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

Despite being upset about his circumstances, Job does not curse God. Instead, he recognizes Yahweh’s authority. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

1480

JOB

27

2

vm9g

0

As surely as God lives

This phrase shows that Job is taking an oath. Job compares the certainty that God is alive to the certainty of what he is saying. This is a way of making a solemn promise. Alternate translation: “I swear by God”

1481

JOB

27

2

zm2r

figs-metaphor

0

has taken away my justice

Justice is spoken of as if it were an object that could be taken away or given. Taking it away represents refusing to treat Job with justice. Alternate translation: “has refused to treat me justly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1482

JOB

27

2

tp23

figs-metonymy

0

made my life bitter

Job’s “life” being bitter represents Job feeling resentful toward God. Alternate translation: “has caused me to become resentful” or “has made me feel angry because of the unfair way he has treated me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1483

JOB

27

3

m4bm

0

while my life is yet in me

This refers to the duration of the rest of his life. Alternate translation: “during the whole time that my life is yet in me” or “as long as my life is yet in me”

1484

JOB

27

3

ny28

figs-abstractnouns

0

while my life is yet in me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word life, you could express the same idea with the adjective “alive” or the verb “live.” Alternate translation: “as long as I am still alive” or “while I still live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1485

JOB

27

3

xg5k

figs-metonymy

0

the breath from God is in my nostrils

“Breath … in my nostrils” represents being able to breathe. “Breath from God” represents God making him able to breathe. Alternate translation: “God enables me to breathe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1486

JOB

27

3

krx8

0

nostrils

Alternate translation: “nose”

1487

JOB

27

4

xct5

figs-parallelism

0

My lips will not speak wickedness, neither will my tongue speak deceit

These two phrases have basically the same meaning and are used together to emphasize that he will not speak in such ways. The phrases “My lips” and “my tongue” represent Job himself. Alternate translation: “I will not speak wickedness or deceit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1488

JOB

27

4

vg54

figs-abstractnouns

0

speak wickedness … speak deceit

The abstract nouns “wickedness” and “deceit” can be expressed with “wickedly” and “deceitfully.” Alternate translation: “speak wickedly … speak deceitfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1489

JOB

27

5

tp64

0

I will never admit that you three are right

Alternate translation: “I will never agree with you and say that you three are right”

1490

JOB

27

5

n6mb

figs-you

0

that you three are right

The word “you” here is plural. It refers to Job’s friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1491

JOB

27

5

uy2n

0

I will never deny my integrity

Alternate translation: “I will never say that I am not innocent” or “I will always say that I am innocent”

1492

JOB

27

6

rv4l

figs-metaphor

0

I hold fast to my righteousness

Here “hold fast” is a metaphor that represents being determined to continue to say something. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word righteousness, you could express the same idea with “righteous.” Alternate translation: “I am determined to continue saying that I am righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1493

JOB

27

6

ccm5

figs-metaphor

0

will not let it go

Here “will not let it go” is a metaphor that represents not stopping saying something. Alternate translation: “will not stop saying that I am righteous” or “will not stop saying so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1494

JOB

27

6

ttu9

figs-metonymy

0

my thoughts will not reproach me

Here the phrase “my thoughts” represents Job. Alternate translation: “even in my thoughts, I will not reproach myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1495

JOB

27

7

x6mp

figs-parallelism

0

Let my enemy be … let him who rises up against me be

The two clauses that start with these words share the same meaning. They are used together to emphasize Job’s strong desire that this should happen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1496

JOB

27

7

qkh5

figs-explicit

0

Let my enemy be like a wicked man

How he wants his enemy to be like a wicked person can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Let my enemy be punished like a wicked man” or “Let God punish my enemy as he punishes wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1497

JOB

27

7

yjq8

figs-explicit

0

let him who rises up against me be like an unrighteous man

How he wants this person to be like an unrighteous man can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “let him who rises up against me be punished like an unrighteous man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1498

JOB

27

7

cin4

figs-metaphor

0

him who rises up against me

Here “rises up against me” is a metaphor meaning “opposes me.” The whole phrase refers to Job’s adversary. Alternate translation: “him who opposes me” or “my adversary” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1499

JOB

27

8

m193

figs-rquestion

0

For what is the hope of a godless man when … when God takes away his life?

Job uses this question to say that such a man has no hope. This question can be translated as a simple statement. Alternate translation: “There is no hope for the godless when God … takes away his soul.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1500

JOB

27

8

ucr8

figs-parallelism

0

when God cuts him off, when God takes away his life

These two phrases have the same meaning. Alternate translation: “when God cuts him off and takes away his life” or “when God causes him to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1501

JOB

27

8

d94d

figs-metaphor

0

cuts him off

This is a metaphor meaning “kills him” or “causes him to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1502

JOB

27

8

twt1

figs-metaphor

0

takes away his life

This is a metaphor meaning “kills him” or “makes him stop living” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1503

JOB

27

9

jh1p

figs-rquestion

0

Will God hear his cry when trouble comes upon him?

Job uses this question to say that God will not help that person. This question can be translated as a simple statement. Alternate translation: “God will not hear his cry when trouble comes upon him.” or “When trouble comes upon him and he cries out for help, God will not hear him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1504

JOB

27

9

a8tx

figs-metonymy

0

Will God hear his cry

Here “hear his cry” represents responding to the godless man’s cry and helping him. Alternate translation: “Will God respond to his cry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1505

JOB

27

10

kq3b

figs-rquestion

0

Will he delight himself in the Almighty and call upon God at all times?

Job uses this question to say that the godless man will not do these things. This question can be translated as a simple statement. Alternate translation: “He will not delight himself in the Almighty and call upon God at all times.” or “He will not be happy about what the Almighty does and he will not pray to God often.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1506

JOB

27

11

s3uq

figs-you

0

I will teach you

Each occurrence of “you” in these verses is plural and refers to Job’s three friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1507

JOB

27

11

fyx9

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of God

God’s “hand” represents his power. Alternate translation: “the power of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1508

JOB

27

11

re4m

figs-abstractnouns

0

I will not conceal the thoughts of the Almighty

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word thoughts, you could express the same idea with the verb “think.” Alternate translation: I will not hide from you what the Almighty thinks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1509

JOB

27

12

pnx9

figs-rquestion

0

why then have you spoken all this nonsense?

Job uses this question to rebuke his friends for saying such foolish things. This question can be translated as a simple statement. Alternate translation: “you should not have spoken so foolishly!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1510

JOB

27

13

g6qh

0

This is the portion of a wicked man with God

Alternate translation: “This is what God has planned for the wicked man”

1511

JOB

27

13

djh6

figs-metaphor

0

the heritage of the oppressor that he receives from the Almighty

Here “the heritage of the oppressor” is a metaphor representing what will happen to the oppressor. What God will do to him is spoken of as if it were an inheritance that God will give him. Alternate translation: “what the Almighty will do to the oppressor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1512

JOB

27

14

f7mj

figs-metonymy

0

it is for the sword

Here “the sword” represents dying in battle. Alternate translation: “they will die in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1513

JOB

27

15

mbb8

figs-explicit

0

Those who survive him

This refers to the wicked man’s children. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Those who continue to live after their wicked father dies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1514

JOB

27

15

dic8

figs-metonymy

0

will be buried by plague

Here “be buried” represents dying. Alternate translation: “will die by plague” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1515

JOB

27

15

p4u3

0

their widows … them

The words “their” and “them” refer to “Those who survive him,” that is, the children of the wicked man.

1516

JOB

27

16

nm9m

figs-simile

0

heaps up silver like the dust

Here “heaps up” is a metonym meaning “gathers much.” Job speaks as if the silver were as easy to get as dust. Alternate translation: “gathers large piles of silver” or “gathers silver as easily as he could gather dust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1517

JOB

27

16

bh15

figs-simile

0

heaps up clothing like clay

Here “heaps up” is a metonym meaning “gathers much.” Job speaks as if the clothing were as easy to get as clay. Alternate translation: “gathers large piles of clothing” or “gathers clothing as easily as he could gather clay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1518

JOB

27

18

l6yf

figs-ellipsis

0

He builds his house like a spider

After “spider,” the phrase “builds its web” is understood information. It can be made clear. Alternate translation: “He builds his house as a spider builds its web” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1519

JOB

27

18

q8ia

figs-simile

0

He builds his house like a spider

A spider web is fragile and easily destroyed. Alternate translation: “He builds his house as fragile as a spider builds its web” or “He builds his house as fragile as a spider’s web” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1520

JOB

27

18

inb4

figs-simile

0

like a hut

A hut is a temporary house that is also not very strong. Alternate translation: “like a temporary hut” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1521

JOB

27

19

la2p

0

He lies down in bed rich

“He is wealthy when he lies down in bed.” This refers to his lying down in bed at night and sleeping.

1522

JOB

27

19

i6ex

0

but he will not keep doing so

Alternate translation: “but he will not keep lying down in bed rich” or “but he will not continue to be wealthy when he lies down in bed”

1523

JOB

27

19

b9sa

figs-metonymy

0

he opens his eyes

Opening his eyes represents waking up in the morning. Alternate translation: “he wakes up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1524

JOB

27

19

x5lq

0

everything is gone

Alternate translation: “all of his riches are gone” or “everything has vanished”

1525

JOB

27

20

ul69

0

Terrors overtake him

Here “overtake him” represents suddenly happening to him. Possible meanings are that terrors is a metonym for:: (1) things that cause people to be afraid. Alternate translation: “Terrifying things suddenly happen to him” or (2) fear. Alternate translation: “He suddenly becomes terrified”

1526

JOB

27

20

zw56

figs-simile

0

like waters

The word “waters” refers to a flood. Floods can happen very suddenly when people do not expect them, and they are dangerous and frightening. Alternate translation: “like a flood” or “like waters that rise up suddenly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1527

JOB

27

20

l3kn

0

a storm takes him away

Alternate translation: “a violent wind blows him away”

1528

JOB

27

21

l4at

figs-personification

0

it sweeps him out of his place

Job speaks of the wind blowing the wicked man out of his house as if the wind were a person sweeping dust out of a house with a broom. Alternate translation: “the wind sweeps him out of his place like a woman who sweeps dirt out of a house” or “the wind easily blows him out of his place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1529

JOB

27

21

i9ce

0

his place

Alternate translation: “his home”

1530

JOB

27

22

wmn4

figs-personification

0

General Information:

In verses 22-23 Job speaks of the wind as if it were a person attacking the wicked person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1531

JOB

27

22

xs2l

figs-personification

0

It throws itself at him

Here the phrase “throws itself at him” represents the wind blowing strong against him like an attacker. Alternate translation: “It blows strong against him like someone attacking him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1532

JOB

27

22

fa8c

figs-personification

0

he tries to flee out of its hand

Here “hand” represents the power or control that the wind has over the wicked man. Alternate translation: “he tries to flee out of its control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1533

JOB

27

23

kvs2

translate-symaction

0

It claps its hands at him

Clapping the hands is a way of mocking someone. Here it represents the wind making loud noises. Alternate translation: “It makes loud noises like someone clapping his hands to mock him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1534

JOB

27

23

r28v

translate-symaction

0

hisses him from his place

The wind makes a noise as it blows him out of his place, and the noise is like the hissing sound that people make to mock someone. Alternate translation: “it makes a hissing noise as it causes him to leave his home” or “it blows him out of his place and makes a hissing noise like someone who hisses at him to mock him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1535

JOB

28

intro

i55c

0

Job 28 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s response to Bildad.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s wisdom

Despite being upset about his circumstances, Job does not curse God. Instead, he recognizes Yahweh’s wisdom and authority. This chapter especially focuses on Yahweh’s wisdom as he controls the circumstances of Job’s life. Men cannot understand because they do not have Yahweh’s wisdom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]])

1536

JOB

28

1

fb4g

0

mine

This is a place where people dig rocks out of the earth. These rocks have metal in them.

1537

JOB

28

1

zr9q

0

refine

This is the process of heating a metal to remove all of the impurities that are in it.

1538

JOB

28

2

a9j8

figs-activepassive

0

Iron is taken out of the earth

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “People take iron out of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1539

JOB

28

2

b12i

figs-activepassive

0

copper is smelted out of the stone

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people smelt copper out of the stone” or “people heat stone to melt copper out of it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1540

JOB

28

2

rb24

0

copper

an important red-brown colored metal

1541

JOB

28

2

uui9

0

smelted

This is a process of heating rocks to melt the metal in them in order to get the metal out of the rocks.

1542

JOB

28

3

fm47

figs-metonymy

0

A man sets an end to darkness

Here “sets an end to darkness” represents shining a light in the darkness. People used a lantern or a torch for light. Alternate translation: “A man carries light into dark places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1543

JOB

28

3

l74r

0

to the farthest limit

Alternate translation: “to the farthest parts of the mine”

1544

JOB

28

3

sce6

figs-doublet

0

obscurity … thick darkness

These two phrases are used together to emphasize that the mine is extremely dark. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1545

JOB

28

4

kp1m

0

shaft

a deep narrow hole dug into the ground or rock. People go down into the hole to mine it.

1546

JOB

28

4

hz3j

figs-personification

0

places that are forgotten by anyone’s foot

The foot is spoken of as if it is a person who can remember. Alternate translation: “places where people no longer walk” or “where no one ever walks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1547

JOB

28

4

yed2

figs-explicit

0

He hangs far away from people

How and where he hangs can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Far away from people, he hangs from a rope in the shaft” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1548

JOB

28

5

r3d3

figs-synecdoche

0

the earth, out of which comes bread

Here “bread” represents food in general. Food coming out of the ground is a metaphor for food growing out of the ground. Alternate translation: “the earth, where food grows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1549

JOB

28

5

p8vk

0

it is turned up below as if by fire

This could mean: (1) people made fires under the ground to break apart the rock. Alternate translation: “it is broken up below by the fires that the miners make” or (2) “turned” is a metaphor for changed. Alternate translation: “it is broken up below so much that it appears that it was destroyed by fire”

1550

JOB

28

5

mha5

0

it is turned

The word “it” refers to the earth.

1551

JOB

28

6

c4dw

0

Its stones … its dust

The word “its” refers to the earth.

1552

JOB

28

6

lw93

0

sapphires

a rare and valuable blue gemstone

1553

JOB

28

7

c71r

figs-parallelism

0

No bird of prey knows the path to it … nor has the falcon’s eye seen it

These clauses express a similar meaning. Alternate translation: “No bird of prey or falcon knows or has ever seen the path that goes to the mine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1554

JOB

28

7

u8np

0

bird of prey

a bird that eats other animals

1555

JOB

28

7

ft9l

0

falcon

This may also be translated “hawk.” Both are birds that hunt and eat other animals. You may translate this with a similar bird from your culture.

1556

JOB

28

8

ad94

figs-parallelism

0

The proud animals have not walked such a path … nor has the fierce lion passed there

These clauses also express similar meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1557

JOB

28

8

zce2

0

The proud animals

This refers to very strong, wild animals.

1558

JOB

28

9

nh4p

figs-metonymy

0

lays his hand on the flinty rock

This represents breaking up the rock. Alternate translation: “digs into the flinty rock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1559

JOB

28

9

d3ss

0

flinty rock

Alternate translation: “hard rock”

1560

JOB

28

9

ng34

figs-hyperbole

0

he overturns mountains by their roots

Digging up the mountains and the ground underneath them is a metaphor from digging out weeds or trees, an exaggeration that represents digging minerals out of the ground. Alternate translation: “he turns the mountains upside down by pulling out their roots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1561

JOB

28

10

h31b

figs-synecdoche

0

his eye sees

Here “his eye” represents him. Alternate translation: “he sees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1562

JOB

28

11

ar22

figs-metaphor

0

He ties up the streams so they do not run

Here “ties up the streams” means damming or blocking the streams. Alternate translation: “He blocks the streams so they do not flow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1563

JOB

28

11

c3wt

0

what is hidden there

This refers to things that people normally do not see because they are in the ground or underwater.

1564

JOB

28

12

n9fd

figs-metaphor

0

General Information:

In 28:12-28, wisdom and understanding are spoken of as if they were precious objects that are in some place and people want to find them. Finding wisdom and understanding represents becoming wise and learning to understand things well. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1565

JOB

28

12

k2hz

figs-parallelism

0

Where will wisdom be found? Where is the place of understanding?

These questions mean the same thing and are used to show that it is very difficult to find wisdom and understanding. Alternate translation: “It is very difficult to find wisdom and understanding.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1566

JOB

28

12

bcr2

figs-metaphor

0

Where will wisdom be found? Where is the place of understanding

Becoming wise and understanding is spoken of as finding wisdom and understanding. Alternate translation: “How do people become wise? How do people learn to understand things well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1567

JOB

28

13

drv1

figs-metaphor

0

Man does not know its price

This could mean: (1) wisdom is spoken of as if it were something that people can buy. Alternate translation: “People do not know what it is worth” or (2) the word translated as “price” means “place.” Alternate translation: “People do not know where it is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1568

JOB

28

13

z9ip

figs-activepassive

0

neither is it found in the land of the living

“and it is not found in the land of the living.” The “land of the living” refers to this world where people live. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “and no one can find wisdom in this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1569

JOB

28

14

xi4c

figs-personification

0

The deep waters … say, ‘It is not in me’; the sea says, ‘It is not with me.’

The deep waters and the sea are presented as if they are people that can speak. Alternate translation: “Wisdom is not in the deep waters under the earth, nor is it in the sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1570

JOB

28

15

h4ty

figs-explicit

0

It cannot be gotten for gold

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This implies that wisdom is worth much more than gold. Alternate translation: “People cannot pay for wisdom with gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1571

JOB

28

15

nff6

figs-explicit

0

neither can silver be weighed as its price

This implies that wisdom is worth much more than silver. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “and people cannot weigh out enough silver to pay for wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1572

JOB

28

16

hg4i

figs-explicit

0

It cannot be valued with … sapphire

This implies that wisdom is much more valuable than the gold of Ophir, precious onyx and sapphire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1573

JOB

28

16

t2r7

translate-names

0

Ophir

This is the name of a land where there was fine gold. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1574

JOB

28

16

ui38

0

onyx

a valuable black gemstone

1575

JOB

28

16

na32

0

sapphire

a valuable blue gemstone

1576

JOB

28

17

qp37

0

Gold and crystal cannot equal it in worth

This implies that wisdom is much more valuable than gold and crystal.

1577

JOB

28

17

z7jx

0

crystal

a valuable gemstone that is clear or lightly colored

1578

JOB

28

17

v4um

0

neither can it be exchanged for jewels of fine gold

“and it cannot be exchanged for jewels of fine gold.” This implies that wisdom is much more valuable than jewels of fine gold.

1579

JOB

28

17

nid2

0

exchanged

Alternate translation: “traded”

1580

JOB

28

18

hgr1

figs-explicit

0

No mention is worth making of coral or jasper

“It is not worth making mention of coral and jasper.” This implies that wisdom is worth so much more than coral and jasper that there is no need for Job to say anything about them. Alternate translation: “I will not bother to mention coral or jasper” or “Coral and jasper are worthless compared to wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1581

JOB

28

18

vgj8

translate-unknown

0

coral

This is a beautiful, hard substance that grows on ocean reefs. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1582

JOB

28

18

sqn7

0

jasper … rubies

These are valuable gemstones.

1583

JOB

28

19

mwy7

0

The topaz of Cush does not equal it

This implies that wisdom is much more valuable than the finest topaz.

1584

JOB

28

19

nxz5

0

topaz

This is a valuable gemstone.

1585

JOB

28

19

ycn8

0

neither can it be valued in terms of pure gold

“and wisdom cannot be valued in terms of pure gold.” This implies that wisdom is much more valuable than pure gold.

1586

JOB

28

20

jiu5

figs-rquestion

0

From where, then, comes wisdom? Where is the place of understanding?

Job uses these questions to introduce how people get wisdom and understanding. Alternate translation: “I will tell you where wisdom comes from and where understanding is.” or “I will tell you how to become wise and how to learn to understand things.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1587

JOB

28

20

z82u

figs-metaphor

0

From where, then, comes wisdom

Wisdom is spoken of as if it were in a place and comes to people. Its coming represents people becoming wise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1588

JOB

28

20

ghy4

figs-metaphor

0

Where is the place of understanding

Understanding is spoken of as if it were in a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1589

JOB

28

21

bj7x

figs-synecdoche

0

Wisdom is hidden from the eyes of all living things

This means that living things are unable to see wisdom. It can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “No living thing can see wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1590

JOB

28

21

j3u4

figs-activepassive

0

is kept hidden from the birds of the heavens

This means that the birds are unable to see wisdom. This can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “even the birds that fly in the skies cannot see wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1591

JOB

28

22

y7e5

figs-personification

0

Destruction and Death say

Here “Destruction” and “Death” are spoken of as if they are living things who can speak. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1592

JOB

28

23

qlj3

figs-metaphor

0

God understands the way to it; he knows its place

Wisdom is spoken of as if it were in a certain place. Alternate translation: “God knows how to find wisdom. He knows where it is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1593

JOB

28

24

q6zd

0

the very ends of the earth

Alternate translation: “the farthest places on the earth”

1594

JOB

28

25

l7lk

figs-metaphor

0

parceled out the waters by measure

This describes God deciding how much water should be in each place. Possible meanings are that this refers to deciding: (1) how much rain should be in each cloud or (2) how much water should be in each sea. Alternate translation: “decided how much water should be in each place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1595

JOB

28

26

qy1s

0

a path for the thunder

Alternate translation: “he decided how the thunder can be heard” or “he decided the path of the thunderstorm”

1596

JOB

28

28

l4bu

figs-abstractnouns

0

See, the fear of the Lord—that is wisdom

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word fear, you could express the same idea with the verbs “fear” or “respect.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wisdom, you could express the same idea with another word such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “Listen, if you fear the Lord, you will be wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1597

JOB

28

28

m7dq

figs-metaphor

0

to depart from evil is understanding

Here “depart from evil” means refusing to do evil things. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word understanding, you could express the same idea with the verb “understand.” Alternate translation: “if you refuse to do evil, then you will understand many things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1598

JOB

29

intro

eli2

0

Job 29 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s statement, but now it is directly addressed to Yahweh.

In this chapter, Job recalls the days before Yahweh’s blessings were taken from him. This is only one part of Job’s argument that continues for the next 3 chapters.

1599

JOB

29

2

h8k3

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that I were as I was in the past months

Job uses this exclamation to express a wish. Alternate translation: “I wish that I were as I was in past months” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1600

JOB

29

3

n6gg

figs-metaphor

0

when his lamp shined on my head

God’s lamp shining on Job represents God blessing Job. Alternate translation: “when God’s blessing was like a lamp shining its light on my head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1601

JOB

29

3

z42n

figs-metaphor

0

when I walked through darkness by his light

Walking through darkness represents experiencing difficult situations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1602

JOB

29

4

bk56

figs-metaphor

0

in the ripeness of my days

Job speaks of when he was young and strong as if his days were the time when the harvest is ripe. Alternate translation: “when I was young and strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1603

JOB

29

4

d6y9

figs-abstractnouns

0

when the friendship of God was on my tent

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word friendship, you could express the same idea with the noun “friend.” The word “tent” represents Job’s home. Alternate translation: “when God was my friend and protected my home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1604

JOB

29

6

xbc3

figs-hyperbole

0

when my way was covered with cream

“when my path was flowing with cream.” Job uses this exaggeration to express that he had many cows and they produced much more cream than he and his family needed. Alternate translation: “when my cows provided an abundance of cream” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1605

JOB

29

6

bt34

figs-hyperbole

0

and the rock poured out for me streams of oil

“and the rock poured out streams of oil for me.” Job uses this exaggeration to express that he had many olive vines and great amounts of olive oil. The rock is where his servants pressed the oil out of the olives. Alternate translation: “when my servants pressed out a great amount of olive oil” or “when oil flowed like streams from the pressing rock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1606

JOB

29

7

tvt7

0

city square

This is an open area in a village or city where two or more streets meet.

1607

JOB

29

8

e835

translate-symaction

0

rose and stood for me

This is a symbol of respect. It can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “rose and stood respectfully for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1608

JOB

29

9

c8d6

translate-symaction

0

The princes used to refrain from talking when I came

This was a sign of respect. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1609

JOB

29

9

v8ym

translate-symaction

0

they would lay their hand on their mouths

They did this to show that they would not speak. This was a sign of their respect for Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1610

JOB

29

10

u1bb

figs-activepassive

0

The voices of the noblemen were hushed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The noblemen hushed their voices” or “The noblemen stopped speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1611

JOB

29

10

nm6j

figs-metonymy

0

their tongue clung to the roof of their mouths

This represents them having so much respect for Job that they had nothing to say. Alternate translation: “they felt that they were unable to speak” or “they had nothing to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1612

JOB

29

11

n94l

figs-synecdoche

0

after their ears heard me … after their eyes saw me

The ears represent those who heard him, and the eyes represent those who saw him. Alternate translation: “after they heard what I told them … after they saw me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1613

JOB

29

11

t3tu

0

they would then give witness to me and approve of me

Alternate translation: “they would witness approvingly of me”

1614

JOB

29

12

ui1t

figs-genericnoun

0

I rescued the one who was poor when he cried out

Here “the one who was poor” refers to any poor person. Alternate translation: “I used to rescue poor people who cried out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1615

JOB

29

13

qs27

figs-metaphor

0

The blessing of him who was about to perish came on me

Someone’s blessing coming on another represents that person blessing another. Alternate translation: “He who was about to perish would bless me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1616

JOB

29

13

ii9w

figs-genericnoun

0

him who was about to perish

This represents anyone who was about to die. Alternate translation: “those who were about to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1617

JOB

29

13

v84a

figs-synecdoche

0

I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy

Here “the widow’s heart” represents any widow. Alternate translation: “I caused widows to sing joyfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1618

JOB

29

14

r9i7

figs-metaphor

0

I put on righteousness, and it clothed me

People often spoke of righteousness as if it were clothing. Alternate translation: “I did what was righteous, and it was like clothing that I put on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1619

JOB

29

14

rc4i

figs-simile

0

my justice was like a robe and a turban

People often spoke of justice as if it were clothing. Alternate translation: “I did what was just, and it was like a robe and a turban on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1620

JOB

29

14

qe3s

0

turban

a long cloth that men wrap around their heads and wear as a hat

1621

JOB

29

15

z9qd

figs-metaphor

0

I was eyes to blind people

This represents helping blind people. Alternate translation: “I was like eyes for blind people” or “I guided blind people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1622

JOB

29

15

qwg2

figs-metaphor

0

I was feet to lame people

This represents helping blind people. Alternate translation: “I was like feet for lame people” or “I supported lame people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1623

JOB

29

16

dv24

figs-metaphor

0

I was a father to needy people

Here “I was a father” represents providing for people. Alternate translation: “I provided for needy people as a father provides for his children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1624

JOB

29

17

h48z

0

General Information:

In verses 18-20 Job tells about the things he used to say before bad things happened to him.

1625

JOB

29

17

rxh7

figs-metaphor

0

I broke the jaws of … I plucked the victim

Job speaks of unrighteous people who persecute others as if they were wild animals that attack their victims by picking them up between their teeth. Alternate translation: “I made unrighteous people stop persecuting people, like someone who breaks the jaw of a wild animal and rescues its victim from between its teeth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1626

JOB

29

18

mx7p

figs-metaphor

0

I will die in my nest

Here “nest” represents Job’s home and family. Job used to speak as if he were a bird that lived in a nest with his baby birds. Alternate translation: “I will die at home with my family” or “I will die in the safety of my home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1627

JOB

29

18

ree7

figs-hyperbole

0

I will multiply my days like the grains of sand

There are more grains of sand on the shore than anyone can count. To say that he would live more days than anyone could count is an exaggeration to express that he would live a very long time. Alternate translation: “I will live a very long time” or “I will live many years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1628

JOB

29

19

f52q

figs-metaphor

0

My roots … my branches

Job used to speak of his strength as if he were strong like a well-watered tree. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1629

JOB

29

20

r1t1

figs-abstractnouns

0

The honor in me is always fresh

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word honor, you could express the same idea with the verb “honor.” Here “fresh” represents the honor being constantly given. Alternate translation: “People constantly give me honor” or “People always honor me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1630

JOB

29

20

bz9x

figs-metaphor

0

the bow of my strength is always new in my hand

A new bow is very strong. Job’s bow of strength in his hand represents his physical strength. Alternate translation: “I am always strong like a new bow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1631

JOB

29

22

l3t7

figs-simile

0

my speech dropped like water on them

Here “dropped like water on them” represents refreshing the people who heard him. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word speech, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “speak” or “say.” Alternate translation: “my speech refreshed their hearts as drops of water refresh people’s bodies” or “what I said to them refreshed them like drops of water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1632

JOB

29

23

g4bi

figs-simile

0

They always waited for me as they waited for rain

People waited for Job patiently and expected to hear good things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1633

JOB

29

23

dye5

figs-metaphor

0

they opened their mouth wide to drink in my words

This represents waiting eagerly for Job to speak in order to benefit from what said. Alternate translation: “they eagerly waited for me to speak in order to benefit from what I said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1634

JOB

29

23

wd9h

0

as they would do for the latter rain

Alternate translation: “as farmers wait eagerly for the latter rain”

1635

JOB

29

23

v5kv

0

the latter rain

This refers to the large amount of rain that falls just before the dry season.

1636

JOB

29

24

vxz9

figs-explicit

0

I smiled on them

It can be stated clearly that the purpose of smiling was to encourage them. Alternate translation: “I smiled on them to encourage them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1637

JOB

29

24

b3dw

figs-metaphor

0

the light of my face

This represents the kindness they saw in Job’s face. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1638

JOB

29

25

nhm5

figs-metaphor

0

I selected their way

Here “selected their way” represents deciding what they should do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1639

JOB

29

25

gh9m

figs-metonymy

0

sat as their chief

Here “sat” represents ruling or leading. Chiefs sat down when they made important decisions. Alternate translation: “led them as their chief” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1640

JOB

29

25

azd4

figs-metonymy

0

sat as their chief

Job was their chief. Alternate translation: “led them because I was their chief” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1641

JOB

29

25

dv86

figs-simile

0

I lived like a king in his army

Job speaks of how he led the people and how they obeyed him as if he were a king and they were his army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1642

JOB

29

25

nmq6

figs-explicit

0

like one who comforts mourners

This phrase means that Job actually was one who comforted people. Alternate translation: “I comforted them when they mourned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1643

JOB

30

intro

u96h

0

Job 30 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s statement, but now it is directly addressed to Yahweh.

In this chapter, Job laments his current condition as others insult him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lament]])

1644

JOB

30

1

ghr9

figs-explicit

0

whose fathers I would have refused to allow to work beside the dogs of my flock

This shows how much he despised those fathers. They were not even good enough to be with his dogs. Alternate translation: “whose fathers I despised and would not have allowed to work beside the dogs of my flock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1645

JOB

30

1

bw8l

figs-explicit

0

the dogs of my flock

The dogs’ relationship to the flock can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “the dogs that guarded my flock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1646

JOB

30

2

dkd7

figs-rquestion

0

Indeed, the strength of their fathers’ hands, how could it have helped me … perished?

Job uses this question to mock the weakness of those men. Alternate translation: “The strength of their fathers’ hands could not have helped me … perished.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1647

JOB

30

2

n58x

figs-metaphor

0

men in whom the strength of their mature age had perished

Their strength perishing is a metaphor that represents no longer being strong but weak. The phrase “mature age” refers to them being old. Alternate translation: “men who had become old and had no strength” or “men who had become old and weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1648

JOB

30

3

b5gi

0

They were thin from poverty and hunger

The word “They” refers to the fathers of the young mockers.

1649

JOB

30

3

i6mn

figs-abstractnouns

0

They were thin from poverty and hunger

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word poverty, you could express the same idea with another word such as “poor.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word hunger, you could express the same idea with the words “hungry” or “starving.” Alternate translation: “They were very thin because they were poor and starving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1650

JOB

30

3

j6n1

figs-metonymy

0

they gnawed at the dry ground

This could mean: (1) “dry ground” is a metonym for the dry roots that grow in the ground. Alternate translation: “they chewed on the dry roots they found in the ground” or (2) “gnawed at the dried ground” is a metonym for eating whatever they could find in the dry ground. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1651

JOB

30

4

dz4r

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to talk about the fathers of the mockers.

1652

JOB

30

4

lbt6

0

saltwort … bushes’ leaves … the roots of the broom tree

These are plants that people would eat only if they could find nothing better.

1653

JOB

30

4

c9mn

0

the roots of the broom tree were their food

This could mean: (1) the people ate the roots of the broom tree or (2) the people warmed themselves by burning the roots of broom trees.

1654

JOB

30

5

k9yz

figs-activepassive

0

They were driven out from among people who shouted after them as … a thief

The phrase “were driven out” means “were forced to leave.” These phrases can be reordered and stated in active form. Alternate translation: “The people shouted after them as … a thief and forced them to leave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1655

JOB

30

5

lwr2

0

shouted after them as one would shout after a thief

Alternate translation: “shouted at them as though they were thieves”

1656

JOB

30

7

f7j8

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to talk about the fathers of the mockers.

1657

JOB

30

7

kkv4

figs-simile

0

brayed like donkeys

Job speaks of the men crying out in hunger as if they were wild donkeys making a loud noise. Alternate translation: “cried out like wild donkeys because they were hungry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1658

JOB

30

7

dmg5

0

they gathered together under the nettles

“Nettles” are bushes with sharp thorns. This implies that they did not have a home.

1659

JOB

30

8

i8tx

figs-metaphor

0

They were the sons of fools

Here “were the sons of fools” represents having the characteristics fools. Alternate translation: “They were like fools” or “they were fools” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1660

JOB

30

8

h66q

figs-metaphor

0

indeed, sons of nameless people

The word “indeed” shows that what follows strengthens the previous thought. Here “sons of nameless people” represents having the characteristics of nameless people. Alternate translation: “indeed, they were nameless people” or “indeed, they were worthless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1661

JOB

30

8

juk5

figs-metaphor

0

nameless people

Here being “nameless” represents having no honor or respect. It means that they are worthless. Alternate translation: “worthless people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1662

JOB

30

8

wl4w

figs-metonymy

0

They were driven out of the land with whips

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) the idea of whips implies that they were being treated like criminals. Alternate translation: “People treated them like criminals and forced them to leave the land” or (2) people actually used whips to force them out. Alternate translation: “People whipped them and forced them to leave the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1663

JOB

30

8

r31i

0

They were driven out of the land

Here “the land” refers to the land where they lived before they were forced to go out to the wilderness.

1664

JOB

30

9

krm8

0

Connecting Statement:

Job speaks again about the people who were mocking him.

1665

JOB

30

9

v6wt

figs-abstractnouns

0

But now I have become the subject of their taunting song

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word song, you could express the same idea with the verb “sing.” Alternate translation: “But now they sing songs about me to taunt me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1666

JOB

30

9

u5hm

figs-metonymy

0

I have become a byword for them

Here “byword” is a metonym for the person about whom people make cruel jokes. Alternate translation: “I am now one whom they make cruel jokes about” or “They joke and say cruel things about me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1667

JOB

30

10

sx1h

figs-litotes

0

they do not refrain from spitting in my face

This can be stated positively. Alternate translation: “they even spit in my face” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1668

JOB

30

11

r95h

figs-metaphor

0

God has unstrung the string to my bow

A bow that is unstrung is not useful. The phrase “has unstrung the string of my bow” is a metaphor for making Job powerless. Alternate translation: “God has taken away my power to defend myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1669

JOB

30

11

pll3

0

those who taunt me

Alternate translation: “those who mock me”

1670

JOB

30

11

sq6d

figs-metaphor

0

cast off restraint before my face

A restraint keeps a person from moving freely and doing what he wants. Here “restraint” represents refraining from doing something, and “cast off restraint” represents not refraining from doing something. In this case the mockers did not refrain from being cruel to Job. Alternate translation: “do not refrain from being cruel to me” or “do whatever cruel things they want to do to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1671

JOB

30

12

u9wm

figs-metaphor

0

General Information:

Job speaks about the mockers treating him cruelly as if they were a mob and an army attacking him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1672

JOB

30

12

l5wg

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak about the people who were mocking him.

1673

JOB

30

12

z8g5

figs-metonymy

0

Upon my right hand rise the rabble

“the rabble rise upon my right hand.” This could mean: (1) rising upon Job’s right hand represents attacking his strength. Alternate translation: “Gangs of young people attack my strength” or (2) rising upon Job’s right hand represents attacking his honor. Alternate translation: “Mobs attack my honor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1674

JOB

30

12

bxs3

0

they drive me away

Alternate translation: “they force me to run away”

1675

JOB

30

12

tdu8

figs-metaphor

0

pile up against me their siege mounds

Armies would pile up mounds of dirt along a city’s wall in order to climb over the wall and attack the city. Job speaks of the mockers preparing to attack him as if they were doing that. Alternate translation: “prepare to attack me like an army that prepares to attack a city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1676

JOB

30

13

sv3y

figs-metaphor

0

They destroy my path

This represents keeping Job from escaping their attack. Alternate translation: “They prevent me from escaping from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1677

JOB

30

13

x9pd

figs-metaphor

0

they push forward disaster for me

Here “push forward disaster” represents trying to make disaster happen. Alternate translation: “they try to make disaster happen to me” or “they try to destroy me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1678

JOB

30

13

ayx7

figs-metaphor

0

men who have no one to hold them back

Here “hold them back” represents stopping them from doing something. Alternate translation: “men who have no one to stop them from attacking me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1679

JOB

30

14

su1s

figs-metaphor

0

General Information:

Job speaks about the mockers treating him cruelly as if they were an army attacking him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1680

JOB

30

14

p4jw

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues to speak about the people who were mocking him.

1681

JOB

30

14

b1fx

figs-simile

0

They come against me like an army through a wide hole in a city wall

This represents attacking Job forcefully. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1682

JOB

30

14

g1ji

figs-metaphor

0

they roll themselves in on me

This represents many coming to attack him at once, like giant ocean waves rolling in on him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1683

JOB

30

15

su3j

figs-metaphor

0

Terrors are turned upon me

This could mean: (1) Job has become terrified or (2) things are happening to Job that make him afraid. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1684

JOB

30

15

y58l

figs-simile

0

my honor is driven away as if by the wind

Job speaks of suddenly having no honor as if the wind had blown it from him. Alternate translation: “Nobody honors me” or “I am now a person that people do not honor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1685

JOB

30

15

qzd6

figs-simile

0

my prosperity passes away as a cloud

Job speaks of his prosperity ending as if it were a cloud that was blown away. Here “prosperity” may refer to well-being or safety. Alternate translation: “I no longer prosper at all” or “I am no longer safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1686

JOB

30

16

vq4c

figs-metaphor

0

Now my life is pouring out from within me

Job speaks as if his life were a liquid and his body were a container. He feels he is about to die. Alternate translation: “Now I am dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1687

JOB

30

16

yd79

figs-personification

0

many days of suffering have laid hold on me

Job speaks of his continuous suffering as if the days of suffering have grabbed hold of him. Alternate translation: “I suffer many days, and the suffering does not end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1688

JOB

30

17

s5h2

figs-metaphor

0

my bones in me are pierced

Job speaks of the pain in his bones as if his bones were being pierced. Alternate translation: “my bones ache terribly” or “I have sharp pain in my bones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1689

JOB

30

17

q849

figs-personification

0

the pains that gnaw at me take no rest

Job speaks of his constant pain as if it were alive and biting him and refuses to rest. Alternate translation: “the pains that cause me to suffer do not stop” or “I am in constant pain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1690

JOB

30

18

x296

figs-metonymy

0

God’s great force has seized my clothing

Job speaks of God using his force as if God’s force were actually doing something. Here “God’s … force” stands for “God.” Alternate translation: “God has seized my clothing by his great force” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1691

JOB

30

18

wpi4

figs-metaphor

0

God’s great force has seized my clothing

The image of God’s force seizing Job is a metaphor. This could mean: (1) it represents Job’s pain. Alternate translation: “My pain feels like God has grabbed my clothing tightly” or (2) it represents God’s causing Job’s many problems. Alternate translation: “It is as though by his great force God has grabbed me by my clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1692

JOB

30

18

tm94

figs-metaphor

0

it wraps around me like the collar of my tunic

The image of God’s force wrapping around Job is a metaphor. This could mean: (1) it represents Job’s pain. Alternate translation: “he wraps the collar of my tunic tightly around me” or (2) it represents God’s causing Job’s many problems. Alternate translation: “It is as though he grabs me by the collar of my tunic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1693

JOB

30

19

aa4h

figs-metaphor

0

He has thrown me into the mud

Job says that God has humiliated him. Alternate translation: “It is as though he has thrown me in the mud” or “He has humiliated me, like a person thrown in the mud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1694

JOB

30

19

m43k

figs-simile

0

I have become like dust and ashes

This represents Job’s feeling of being worthless. Alternate translation: “I have become as worthless as dust and ashes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1695

JOB

30

21

k1ga

0

cruel

This word means unkind.

1696

JOB

30

21

xk2h

figs-metonymy

0

with the strength of your hand you persecute me

The word “hand” represents God’s power. Alternate translation: “you persecute me with your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1697

JOB

30

22

v3bi

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to God.

1698

JOB

30

22

zy94

figs-metaphor

0

lift me up to the wind … throw me back and forth in a storm

These expressions represent the extreme suffering that God made Job endure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1699

JOB

30

22

h7x7

0

cause it to drive me along

Alternate translation: “cause the wind to push me along”

1700

JOB

30

23

py4p

figs-metaphor

0

you will bring me to death

Here “bring me to death” represents causing Job to die. Alternate translation: “you will cause me to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1701

JOB

30

23

a3ym

figs-metaphor

0

the house appointed for all the living

Job speaks of the world of the dead as if it were a house to which God has appointed all living things to go. Alternate translation: “the world of the dead, to which everything that has ever lived goes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1702

JOB

30

23

nf6m

0

all the living

That is, all things now alive, but that will die one day.

1703

JOB

30

24

ly2e

0

Connecting Statement:

Job continues speaking to God.

1704

JOB

30

24

s7pp

figs-rquestion

0

does no one reach out with his hand to beg for help when he falls? Does no one in trouble call out for help?

Job uses these questions to justify himself for crying out to God for help. Alternate translation: “Everyone reaches out with his hand to beg for help when he falls. Everyone who is in trouble calls out for help.” or “I have fallen, and so God should not think I am doing wrong when I beg for his help. I am in trouble, so of course I call out for help!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1705

JOB

30

24

giv9

figs-rquestion

0

does no one reach out with his hand to beg for help when he falls? Does no one in trouble call out for help?

Some versions interpret these questions as Job complaining that God has reached out with his hand to harm Job when Job was in trouble and crying out for help. Alternate translation: “Surely no one would reach out with his hand against someone who falls and calls out for help.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1706

JOB

30

25

k5gw

figs-rquestion

0

Did not I weep … trouble? Did I not grieve … man?

Job uses these questions to remind God of how Job had done good to others. A: “You know that I wept … trouble, and I grieved … man!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1707

JOB

30

26

dxl4

figs-metaphor

0

When I hoped for good, then evil came

Looking for good represents hoping for good things, and evil coming represents evil things happening. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1708

JOB

30

26

n1jn

figs-metaphor

0

I waited for light … darkness came

Here “light” represents God’s blessing and favor and “darkness” represents trouble and suffering. Alternate translation: “I waited for the light of God’s blessing, but instead I experienced the darkness of suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1709

JOB

30

27

r36u

figs-personification

0

My heart is troubled and does not rest

Job speaks of his heart as if it were a person. Alternate translation: “I am troubled in my heart and the feeling does not end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1710

JOB

30

27

u2gl

figs-metaphor

0

days of affliction have come on me

Days of affliction coming on Job represents Job experiencing affliction for many days. Alternate translation: “I experience affliction many days” or “I suffer every day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1711

JOB

30

28

i5gu

figs-metaphor

0

I have gone about

Here “have gone about” represents living. Alternate translation: “I have lived” or “I live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1712

JOB

30

28

fj2n

figs-metaphor

0

like one who was living in the dark, but not because of the sun

Here “living in the dark” is a metaphor that represents being extremely sad. The phrase “but not because of the sun” clarifies that “living in the dark” is a metaphor, that is, the darkness is not caused by the sun being hidden. Alternate translation: “like one who is terribly sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1713

JOB

30

29

f66b

figs-metaphor

0

a brother to jackals, a companion of ostriches

Being a brother to these animals is a metaphor for being like them. Alternate translation: “I am like jackals and ostriches that cry out in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1714

JOB

30

30

udu9

figs-synecdoche

0

my bones are burned with heat

Here “bones” refers to the whole body, which suffers from fever. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1715

JOB

30

31

qj9s

figs-metonymy

0

my harp is tuned for songs of mourning

Here “my harp” represents Job himself, and also represents his desire to sing only songs of mourning. Alternate translation: “I play only songs of mourning on my harp” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1716

JOB

30

31

v1kr

figs-metonymy

0

my flute for the singing of those who wail

Here “my flute” represents Job himself, and also his desire to sing only songs of crying. Alternate translation: “I play only songs of wailing on my flute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1717

JOB

30

31

d2w2

0

wail

To wail is to cry very loudly because of terrible sadness or pain.

1718

JOB

31

intro

leq9

0

Job 31 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This chapter is a continuation of Job’s statement and it is directly addressed to Yahweh.

In this chapter, Job presents his case to Yahweh that he is upright and not guilty of the sins he is being accused of. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/guilt]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

1719

JOB

31

1

ka6e

figs-metaphor

0

I have made a covenant with my eyes

Job speaks of making a promise about what he would look at as though his eyes were a person and he made a covenant with them. Alternate translation: “I have made a firm promise about what I will look at” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1720

JOB

31

1

af9x

figs-explicit

0

I have made a covenant with my eyes

What job promised can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “I made a promise that I will not look lustfully on a virgin” or “I promised that I will not look lustfully on a virgin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1721

JOB

31

1

sxi9

figs-rquestion

0

how then should I look with desire on a virgin?

Job uses this question to emphasize that he would never break his promise. Alternate translation: “So I certainly will not look with lust at a virgin.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1722

JOB

31

2

p7x8

figs-metaphor

0

For what is the portion from God above, the inheritance from the Almighty on high?

Job speaks of God’s response to people’s behavior as if it were the portion of an inheritance that God gives. Alternate translation: “For how will God above respond to me? What will the Almighty on high do?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1723

JOB

31

2

ygr6

figs-rquestion

0

For what is the portion from God above, the inheritance from the Almighty on high?

Possible meanings are Job uses this question to emphasize: (1) that God will not bless bad behavior. Alternate translation: “For if I look lustfully on a woman, God Almighty on high will not bless me.” or (2) that God will punish bad behavior. Alternate translation: “For if I look lustfully on a woman, God Almighty on high will certainly punish me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1724

JOB

31

4

vf6m

figs-metaphor

0

Does not God see my ways and count all my steps?

Here “my ways” and “my steps” are metaphors for Job’s behavior. Here “see my ways” and “count all my steps” are metaphors for knowing everything Job does. Job uses this question to emphasize that God does know all he does. Alternate translation: “Certainly God watches me and knows everything that I do.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1725

JOB

31

4

n2eh

figs-explicit

0

Does not God see my ways and count all my steps?

Job may be implying that God should know that Job is righteous and does not deserve calamity and disaster. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1726

JOB

31

5

zdh8

figs-hypo

0

If I have

In 31:5-40 Job describes different situations in which he would deserve God’s punishment. But, he knows that they are not true and he is innocent. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1727

JOB

31

5

a5st

figs-metaphor

0

walked with falsehood, if my foot has hurried to deceit

Here “walked” and “hurried” are metaphors that represent how Job lived. Alternate translation: “done anything false or purposely deceived anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1728

JOB

31

6

ndj9

figs-metaphor

0

let me be weighed in an even balance

People used balances to weigh items and to determine their value. This image represents judging honestly. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “let me be judged honestly” or “let God judge me honestly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1729

JOB

31

7

fm8c

figs-metaphor

0

If my step has turned aside from the way

Here “my step” is a metaphor for Job’s behavior, and “turned out of the right way” is a metaphor for changing from living right. Alternate translation: “If I have changed from living right” or “If I have stopped doing what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1730

JOB

31

7

r29i

figs-metonymy

0

if my heart has gone after my eyes

Here “my heart” and “my eyes” are metonyms for what Job desires and sees. The heart going after the eyes is a metaphor for desiring to do what he sees. It is implied that this refers to sinful things that Job sees. Alternate translation: “if I have wanted to do any sinful things that I see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1731

JOB

31

7

tvw5

figs-metaphor

0

if any spot has stuck to my hands

This is a metaphor for being guilty. Alternate translation: “if I am guilty of any sin at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1732

JOB

31

8

b7e8

0

then let me sow, and let another eat, and let my crops be uprooted

Job is saying that if he really has sinned, then this bad thing should happen to him. He would do the hard work of sowing his fields, but he would not be able to eat any of it.

1733

JOB

31

8

xs19

figs-activepassive

0

let my crops be uprooted

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “let someone else come and take the harvest from my field” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1734

JOB

31

9

p1yn

figs-synecdoche

0

If my heart has been deceived by a woman

Here “my heart” represents Job. Here the word “deceived” expresses the idea of “enticed.” The word “woman” expresses the idea of “another man’s wife.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “If another man’s wife has enticed me” or “If I have desired another man’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1735

JOB

31

9

rs8z

figs-explicit

0

if I have lain in wait at my neighbor’s door

It can be stated clearly why he was waiting at his neighbor’s door. Alternate translation: “if I have waited at my neighbor’s door so I could sleep with his wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1736

JOB

31

10

ngk5

figs-euphemism

0

then let my wife grind grain for another

This could mean: (1) this is an euphemism which means Job is saying may his wife sleep with another man or (2) it means she will become a slave and work for another man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1737

JOB

31

11

ds7e

0

For that would be a terrible crime

The word “that” refers to Job sleeping with another woman.

1738

JOB

31

11

h8zi

figs-activepassive

0

it would be a crime to be punished by judges

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “it would be a crime for which judges would be right to punish me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1739

JOB

31

12

r4vn

figs-metaphor

0

For that is a fire that consumes as far as Abaddon, and it would burn all my harvest to the root

Job speaks of the harm that sleeping with another woman causes as if it were a fire that destroys everything. The words “that” and “it” refer to sleeping with another man’s wife. Alternate translation: “For adultery is like a fire that burns up everything from here to Abaddon and that would burn up all my harvest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1740

JOB

31

12

i923

figs-metaphor

0

consumes as far as Abaddon

These words are probably a metaphor for “destroys everything so I have nothing good for the rest of my life,” but you should probably translate this literally. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1741

JOB

31

12

bn97

figs-metonymy

0

it would burn all my harvest to the root

The word “it” here refers to the action sleeping with another man’s wife. This action is a metonym for the punishment that Job would suffer as a result of the action. A fire burning up his harvest is a synecdoche for losing everything he has worked for. Alternate translation: “those who punish me would take away everything I have worked for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1742

JOB

31

14

s3xg

figs-rquestion

0

what then would I do when God rises up to accuse me? When he comes to judge me, how would I answer him?

Job uses these questions to emphasize that if God were to judge him, Job would not be able to make himself appear to be good. Alternate translation: “then there would be absolutely nothing I could say to defend myself when God comes to judge me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1743

JOB

31

15

jl2j

figs-rquestion

0

Did the one who made me in the womb not make them also? Did not the same one mold us all in the womb?

Job uses these questions to emphasize that he is no different from his servants. He implies that God would be angry if Job were to treat his servants as less valuable than himself. Alternate translation: “The one who made me in the womb also made them. He formed us all in the womb.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1744

JOB

31

16

yzr5

0

If I have withheld poor people from their desire

Alternate translation: “If I have kept poor people from getting what they desire”

1745

JOB

31

16

e9r8

figs-idiom

0

if I have caused the eyes of the widow to grow dim from crying

Here “to grow dim” refers to the widow having bad eyesight from crying a lot. Alternate translation: “if I have caused a widow to cry in great sadness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1746

JOB

31

17

gs2b

0

my morsel

Alternate translation: “my food”

1747

JOB

31

18

xz2i

figs-genericnoun

0

because from my youth the orphan grew up with me as with a father

Here “the orphan” represents orphans in general. Job is describing how he truly treated orphans. Alternate translation: “because even when I was young I took care of orphans like a father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1748

JOB

31

18

z518

figs-ellipsis

0

because from my youth

The phrase “But I have done none of those things” is understood from the context. Alternate translation: “But I have done none of those things, because from my youth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1749

JOB

31

18

ibm5

figs-hyperbole

0

I have guided his mother, a widow, from my own mother’s womb

Job is describing how he truly treated widows. With the phrase “from my own mother’s womb” he uses exaggeration to emphasize that he did this all his life. Alternate translation: “all my life I have guided the orphan’s mother, a widow” or “all my life I have guided widows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1750

JOB

31

20

ut9q

figs-synecdoche

0

if his heart has not blessed me

The phrase “his heart” represents the poor man who needs clothing. Alternate translation: “if he has not blessed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1751

JOB

31

20

r66u

figs-metonymy

0

because he has not been warmed with the wool of my sheep

Here “the wool of my sheep” represents blankets or clothing made from the wool of Job’s sheep. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “because the wool of my sheep has not warmed him” or “because I have not given him clothing made from the wool of my sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1752

JOB

31

21

mf7q

figs-metonymy

0

if I have lifted up my hand against fatherless people

Lifting up the hand against someone represents threatening to harm him. Alternate translation: “if I have threatened to harm fatherless people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1753

JOB

31

21

wu45

figs-metaphor

0

I saw my support in the city gate

Here “saw” is a metaphor for “knew,” “support” is a metaphor for “approval,” and “the city gate” is a metonym for the leaders who sit at the city gate. Alternate translation: “I knew that the leaders at the city gate would approve of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1754

JOB

31

21

w7s9

0

in the city gate

This is where the important men of the city would gather to make decisions.

1755

JOB

31

21

y72n

0

then bring charges against me

This phrase is not in the original language or in other versions of the Bible. It was added here to help preserve the meaning of Job’s statement in this long sentence.

1756

JOB

31

22

sqk5

figs-activepassive

0

then let my shoulder fall from the shoulder blade, and let my arm be broken from its joint

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “then let someone tear off my shoulder from the shoulder blade and break my arm from its joint” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1757

JOB

31

23

ss4j

0

For I dreaded … his majesty

This is the reason that Job did not do any of the wicked things he spoke of in verses 7 through 21.

1758

JOB

31

24

r6lg

figs-abstractnouns

0

If I have made gold my hope

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word hope, you could express the same idea with the verbs “trust” or “hope.” Alternate translation: “If I trusted in gold” or “If I hoped that having a lot of gold would make me secure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1759

JOB

31

24

s4sm

figs-parallelism

0

if I have said to fine gold, ‘You are what I am confident in’

This line means the same as the previous line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1760

JOB

31

25

bt3p

figs-metonymy

0

my hand had gotten many possessions

Here “my hand” represents Job’s ability to do things. Alternate translation: “I have gained many possessions by my own ability” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1761

JOB

31

25

sk1t

0

then bring charges against me

This phrase is not in the original language or in other versions of the Bible. It was added here to help preserve the meaning of Job’s statement in this long sentence.

1762

JOB

31

26

g5il

figs-personification

0

the moon walking

Here “walking” represents moving slowly. Alternate translation: “the moon moving across the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1763

JOB

31

26

m93p

figs-abstractnouns

0

the moon walking in its brightness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word brightness, you could express the same idea with the words “bright” or “brightly.” Alternate translation: “the bright moon moving across the sky” or “the moon moving brightly across the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1764

JOB

31

27

qcf6

figs-synecdoche

0

if my heart has been secretly attracted

Here “my heart” represents Job. This phrase can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “if I have been secretly attracted to them” or “if I have secretly desired to worship them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1765

JOB

31

27

wm2t

translate-symaction

0

so that my mouth has kissed my hand

Here “my mouth” represents Job. This is a sign of love and devotion. Alternate translation: “so that I have kissed my hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1766

JOB

31

28

pwl3

figs-activepassive

0

to be punished by judges

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “for which judges would be right to punish me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1767

JOB

31

28

g5xt

0

I would have denied the God who is above

Alternate translation: “I would have been unfaithful to the God who is above”

1768

JOB

31

29

b1im

figs-abstractnouns

0

at the destruction of anyone who hated me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word destruction, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “destroy.” Alternate translation: “when anyone who hated me was destroyed” or “when bad things happened to anyone who hated me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1769

JOB

31

29

p1nt

0

when disaster overtook him

Alternate translation: “when he experienced disasters”

1770

JOB

31

29

hvt5

0

then bring charges against me

This phrase is not in the original language or in other versions of the Bible. It was added here to help preserve the meaning of Job’s statement in this long sentence.

1771

JOB

31

30

w93c

figs-synecdoche

0

Indeed, I have not even allowed my mouth to sin

Here “my mouth” represents Job speaking. Alternate translation: “Truly I did not let myself sin” or “Truly, I did not sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1772

JOB

31

30

jng4

figs-metonymy

0

by asking for his life with a curse

Here “asking for his life with a curse” represents cursing someone’s life so that he will die. Alternate translation: “by cursing him so that he would die” or “by cursing his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1773

JOB

31

31

ng3a

figs-metonymy

0

the men of my tent

The tent represents Job’s household. The men of his tent includes family members and servants. All of these knew Job well. Alternate translation: “the men of my household” or “my family members and servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1774

JOB

31

31

hwl9

figs-rquestion

0

Who can find one who has not been filled with Job’s food?

Job’s men would have used this question to emphasize that Job was generous to everyone. Alternate translation: “Everyone has been filled with Job’s food!” or “Everyone we know of has eaten as much of Job’s food as he wanted!”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1775

JOB

31

32

uns3

figs-metonymy

0

even the foreigner has never had to stay in the city square

Job is explaining how he truly treated foreigners. Here “stay in the city square” represents sleeping overnight in the city square. Alternate translation: “foreigners have never had to sleep in the city square” or “foreigners have never had to sleep outside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1776

JOB

31

32

h895

figs-metonymy

0

I have always opened my doors to the traveler

Here “opened my doors to the traveler” represents welcoming the traveler into his home. Alternate translation: “I have always welcomed the traveler into my home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1777

JOB

31

32

p6kk

0

and if that is not so, then bring charges against me

This phrase is not in the original language or in other versions of the Bible. It was added here to help preserve the meaning of Job’s statement in this long sentence.

1778

JOB

31

33

sb1q

figs-metaphor

0

If … I have hidden my sins

Here “have hidden my sins” represents trying to keep people from knowing that he had sinned. Alternate translation: “If … I have tried to keep my sins a secret” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1779

JOB

31

33

jav4

figs-metaphor

0

by hiding my guilt inside my tunic

This represents trying to keep people from knowing that he is guilty. Alternate translation: “by hiding the evidence of my guilt inside my tunic” or “like one who hides the evidence of his guilt inside his tunic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1780

JOB

31

34

b8ml

figs-parallelism

0

because I feared the great multitude, because the contempt of families terrified me

This would be the reason for hiding his sins. These mean the same thing. They emphasize that a person may hide his sin because he fears what other people may think about him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1781

JOB

31

34

ia4h

0

then bring charges against me

This phrase is not in the original language or in other versions of the Bible. It was added here to help preserve the meaning of Job’s statement in this long sentence.

1782

JOB

31

35

i9lk

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, if only I had someone to hear me!

This exclamation expresses Job’s wish. Alternate translation: “I wish I had someone to hear me” or “I wish that someone would listen to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1783

JOB

31

35

vmt3

figs-metaphor

0

here is my signature

Here “my signature” represents Job’s promise that everything he is saying is true. He speaks of his complaint as if he had written a legal document. Alternate translation: “I solemnly promise that all I have said is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1784

JOB

31

35

v1vp

figs-explicit

0

let the Almighty answer me!

Here an answer probably refers to telling Job what wrong he accuses Job of doing. Alternate translation: “let the Almighty tell me what I have done wrong” or “I wish the Almighty would say what I have done wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1785

JOB

31

35

u84z

0

If only I had the indictment that my opponent has written!

This expresses Job’s wish. Job speaks as though his troubles are evidence that someone has written something accusing him of terrible sin. Alternate translation: “I wish I had the accusation that my opponent has written” or “If only I could read my opponent’s complaint against me”

1786

JOB

31

35

qku3

0

my opponent

This could mean: (1) this refers to God or (2) this refers to someone else.

1787

JOB

31

36

gw5a

figs-metaphor

0

Surely I would carry it openly on my shoulder; I would put it on like a crown

This represents putting it where everyone could read it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1788

JOB

31

37

l5p7

figs-metaphor

0

I would declare to him an accounting for my steps

Here “my steps” represents Job’s actions. Alternate translation: “I would declare to him an accounting for all I have done” or “I would tell him everything I have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1789

JOB

31

37

mvd6

figs-simile

0

as a confident prince I would go up to him

This means Job would approach God without any fear. Job implies that he could do this because he was not guilty. Alternate translation: “I would approach him boldly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1790

JOB

31

38

g2jv

figs-hypo

0

General Information:

This concludes Job’s description of situations in which he would deserve God’s punishment, but he knows they are not true. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1791

JOB

31

38

r91t

figs-personification

0

If my land ever cries out against me, and its furrows weep together

Job speaks of being guilty as if his land were a person who cries out against Job because of the wrong Job has done to the land. Alternate translation: “If I have done wrong concerning my land” or “If I have stolen my land from someone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1792

JOB

31

39

vfe3

figs-metonymy

0

to lose their lives

This represents dying. Alternate translation: “to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1793

JOB

31

40

k93z

figs-ellipsis

0

weeds instead of barley

The words “let” and “grow” are understood from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “let weeds grow instead of barley” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1794

JOB

32

intro

pq4v

0

Job 32 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Job’s friends give up on trying to convince him that he is being punished for sinning. This chapter introduces Elihu who was a witness to these interactions between Job and his friends. According to Elihu, instead of being punished for his sins, Job is sinning in the midst of these difficulties. This is the first of Elihu’s four statements. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

Some translations prefer to set apart extended quotations, prayers, or songs. The ULT and many other English translations set the lines of 32:6-22, which is an extended quotation, farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. This quotation continues through the next chapter.

1795

JOB

32

1

k2f6

figs-metaphor

0

he was righteous in his own eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “he considered himself righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1796

JOB

32

2

cr7d

figs-metaphor

0

Then was kindled the anger of Elihu son of Barakel the Buzite, of the family of Ram; it was kindled against Job

This compares Elihu’s anger to someone starting a fire. Also, If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Then Elihu son of Barakel the Buzite, of the family of Ram, became very angry with Job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1797

JOB

32

2

hxc1

translate-names

0

Elihu … Barakel … Ram

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1798

JOB

32

2

l6vj

translate-names

0

Buzite

This is the name of a people-group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1799

JOB

32

2

iub4

figs-explicit

0

he justified himself rather than God

This means that he considered himself innocent and believed God had been wrong to punish him. Alternate translation: “he justified himself and claimed that God had been wrong to punish him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1800

JOB

32

3

p4aw

figs-metaphor

0

Elihu’s anger was also kindled against his three friends

This compares Elihu’s anger to someone starting a fire. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Elihu also became very angry with his three friends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1801

JOB

32

4

w92d

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. This tells background information about Elihu. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1802

JOB

32

5

mm6z

figs-metaphor

0

that there was no answer in the mouths of these three men

This means that the men were done speaking to Job. This speaks of the men possibly having an answer as if the answer were an object that would be in their mouths. Alternate translation: “that these three men had nothing else to say” or “that these three men had no more answers to give Job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1803

JOB

32

5

xt4n

figs-metaphor

0

his anger was kindled

This compares Elihu’s anger to someone starting a fire. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he became very angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1804

JOB

32

6

jj95

figs-you

0

you are very old

Here “you” is plural and refers to Job and his three friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1805

JOB

32

7

z9d9

figs-metonymy

0

Length of days should speak; a multitude of years should teach wisdom

These two lines mean the same thing. Elihu emphasizes that since older people are wiser than younger people, they should be the first to speak of what they know. Alternate translation: “He who has lived many years should speak; He would is older should teach wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1806

JOB

32

8

le8v

figs-parallelism

0

there is a spirit in a man; the breath of the Almighty

Both phrases mean the same thing. Elihu is emphasizing that a man’s wisdom comes from God. Alternate translation: “there is a spirit in a man, that is, the breath of the Almighty that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1807

JOB

32

8

tg64

figs-metonymy

0

the breath of the Almighty

Here the spirit is represented by “breath.” Alternate translation: “the spirit of the Almighty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1808

JOB

32

11

c94u

0

See

Elihu uses this word here to draw the mens’ attention to what he says next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

1809

JOB

32

11

vq5w

figs-you

0

I waited for your words

“I waited to hear what you would say.” The word “your” refers to Job’s friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1810

JOB

32

12

cem5

0

who could respond to his words

Here the word “respond” does not just mean to answer, but to answer with a helpful response.

1811

JOB

32

13

ys9l

0

We have found wisdom

This means that they believe that they have figured out what is wise. Alternate translation: “We have discovered what is wise”

1812

JOB

32

13

pwq9

figs-metaphor

0

to defeat Job

This speaks of God responding to Job and correcting him as if he were defeating him in battle. Alternate translation: “to refute Job” or “to answer Job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1813

JOB

32

14

q8fq

0

with your words

Alternate translation: “by saying what you have said”

1814

JOB

32

15

gi7d

0

dumbfounded

amazed, unable to speak

1815

JOB

32

16

k7n7

figs-rquestion

0

Should I wait because they are not speaking, because they stand there silent and answer no more?

Elihu uses a question to emphasize that he will not wait any longer to speak. Elihu answers this question himself in the next verse. Alternate translation: But because you do not speak, I certainly will not wait any longer; you merely stand there and do not reply anymore. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1816

JOB

32

17

ii5q

0

I also will answer on my part

Alternate translation: “I will now take my turn to answer”

1817

JOB

32

18

j46i

figs-metaphor

0

I am full of words

Elihu speaks of having a lot to say as being full of words. Alternate translation: “I have so much to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1818

JOB

32

18

t9et

0

the spirit in me compels me

Alternate translation: “my spirit forces me to say it”

1819

JOB

32

19

l5s6

figs-simile

0

my breast is like fermenting wine that has no vent; like new wineskins, it is ready to burst

While wine is fermenting, gas collects in the container. If the gas is not let out the container will burst. Elihu means that he has so much to say that if he does not speak he feels like he will burst. Also, these two phrases are parallel and have the same meaning. Alternate translation: “I feel like my breast is about to burst, like a container of fermenting wine that has no vent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1820

JOB

32

19

a7cz

figs-synecdoche

0

my breast is

This represents Elihu, specifically his spirit. Alternate translation: “my spirit is” or “I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1821

JOB

32

20

m29y

figs-activepassive

0

I may be refreshed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I may feel better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1822

JOB

32

20

w6zz

figs-synecdoche

0

open my lips

Here the “lips” represent the mouth. Alternate translation: “open my mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1823

JOB

32

21

mi73

0

neither will I give honorific titles to any man

Alternate translation: “neither will I praise any man or give him titles of honor”

1824

JOB

32

22

nb65

0

my Maker

This is a name referring to God. Alternate translation: “God who made me”

1825

JOB

32

22

i4r2

figs-euphemism

0

take me away

This means that he would destroy him. Alternate translation: “destroy me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1826

JOB

33

intro

t7rx

0

Job 33 General Notes

Structure and formatting

According to Elihu, instead of being punished for his sins, Job is sinning in the midst of these difficulties. This is a continuation of the first of Elihu’s four statements and it is addressed to Job. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. This quotation is a continuation of the previous chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s mercy

While Job has been complaining about the lack of justice and response from Yahweh, Elihu shows Job that Yahweh has shown him great mercy along the way. He is still alive because of Yahweh’s mercy. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/mercy]])

1827

JOB

33

1

m7lu

figs-parallelism

0

hear my speech; listen to all my words

These two phrases mean the same thing. Elihu is emphasizing that Job must listen carefully. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1828

JOB

33

2

j572

figs-parallelism

0

I have opened my mouth … my tongue has spoken in my mouth

These mean the same thing. Elihu is emphasizing that he is now ready to speak. His “tongue” speaking represents himself speaking. Alternate translation: “I have opened my mouth and I have begun to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1829

JOB

33

3

u1kk

figs-synecdoche

0

My words come from the uprightness of my heart

Here Elihu refers to himself by his “heart” as he speaks of being upright. Alternate translation: “I will speak with uprightness” or “I will speak with complete honesty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1830

JOB

33

3

j6sd

figs-synecdoche

0

my lips speak pure knowledge

Here Elihu refers to himself by his “lips” to emphasize his speech. Alternate translation: “I will speak sincerely to you the things I know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1831

JOB

33

4

g749

figs-parallelism

0

The Spirit of God … has given me life

These two lines mean the same thing. Elihu is emphasizing that God has made him and so gives authority to what he is saying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1832

JOB

33

5

ikf4

figs-metaphor

0

set your words in order before me and stand up

This speaks of Job preparing what he will say as if he were setting up and organizing physical objects. Alternate translation: “prepare what you will say, and stand up and answer me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1833

JOB

33

6

ie4u

0

See

Elihu uses this word here to draw Job’s attention to what he says next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

1834

JOB

33

6

dis8

figs-metaphor

0

I am just as you are in God’s sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “I am just as you are in God’s judgment” or “God judges me the same way that he judges you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1835

JOB

33

6

ym3b

figs-metaphor

0

I also have been formed out of the clay

Though people are not made out of clay, God has made everyone as a potter carefully makes things out of clay. Alternate translation: “God has made both of us just as a potter forms things from clay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1836

JOB

33

6

q828

figs-activepassive

0

I also have been formed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has also made me” or “God has formed both of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1837

JOB

33

7

dmb1

0

terror of me will not make you afraid

Alternate translation: “you do not need to be afraid of me”

1838

JOB

33

7

y53l

figs-metaphor

0

neither will my pressure be heavy upon you

This means that he will not hinder Job or burden him. He speaks of emotional burden here as if it were a heavy physical burden. Alternate translation: “neither will I burden you” or “I will not oppress you with what I say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1839

JOB

33

8

zu7c

0

in my hearing

Alternate translation: “where I could hear you”

1840

JOB

33

8

c2f7

0

I have heard the sound of your words saying

Alternate translation: “I have heard you say”

1841

JOB

33

9

f62q

figs-metaphor

0

clean

A person who God considers spiritually acceptable is spoken of as if the person were physically clean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1842

JOB

33

9

h3f9

0

there is no sin in me

Alternate translation: “I have not sinned”

1843

JOB

33

10

f8tf

0

See

The speaker uses this word here to draw attention to what he says next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

1844

JOB

33

11

ra4e

figs-metaphor

0

He puts my feet in stocks

“Stocks” are wooden blocks a jailer puts around a prisoner’s feet to restrict his movement. Job speaks of feeling like he is a prisoner by saying that he is in stocks. Alternate translation: “I feel he has made me a prisoner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1845

JOB

33

11

w3ja

figs-metonymy

0

my paths

These words refer to where he goes. Here where he goes represents what he does. Alternate translation: “everything that I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1846

JOB

33

12

bbu1

0

I will answer you

Elihu is speaking to Job.

1847

JOB

33

13

z74q

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you struggle against him?

Elihu uses this question to emphasize that Job should not struggle against God. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not struggle against God.” or “You should not try to argue with God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1848

JOB

33

13

m749

0

He does not account for any of his doings

Alternate translation: “He does not have to explain to us anything he does”

1849

JOB

33

14

gyh6

figs-idiom

0

God speaks once—yes, twice

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “God speaks again and again in different ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1850

JOB

33

15

zz7a

figs-parallelism

0

a dream … a vision of the night

These phrases have the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1851

JOB

33

15

vq5q

figs-metaphor

0

when deep sleep falls upon men, in slumber on the bed

This speaks of people being in a deep sleep as if the sleep fell upon them or overcame them. Alternate translation: “when people are fully asleep on their bed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1852

JOB

33

16

cgu3

figs-metaphor

0

then God opens the ears of men

This speaks of God making people aware of things as if he were opening their ears so that they could hear. Alternate translation: “then God reveals things to people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1853

JOB

33

17

qd6y

figs-metaphor

0

in order to pull man back from

This speaks of God keeping someone from doing something as if he were physically pulling him away from harm. Alternate translation: “in order to keep him from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1854

JOB

33

18

t4um

figs-parallelism

0

God keeps man’s life back from the pit … his life from crossing over to death

Both of these statements mean the same thing. Alternate translation: “God saves people from the grave and from death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1855

JOB

33

18

d93m

figs-metaphor

0

the pit

The place where people go when they die is referred to here as “the pit.” Alternate translation: “the place where dead people are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1856

JOB

33

18

bd6l

figs-idiom

0

man’s life back … his life

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “man from dying and … he keeps him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1857

JOB

33

18

lgc1

figs-metonymy

0

from crossing over to death

Here “death” represents the place where people go when they die, that is, sheol. Alternate translation: “from going to sheol” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1858

JOB

33

19

pgn6

figs-activepassive

0

Man is punished also

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God also punishes a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1859

JOB

33

19

x9jg

figs-explicit

0

with pain on his bed

This means that the person is experiencing such pain that he must lie in bed. Alternate translation: “with pain so that he must lie in bed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1860

JOB

33

20

ubm9

figs-parallelism

0

so that his life abhors food, and his soul abhors delicacies

These two phrases mean basically the same thing, that the person is in so much pain that he cannot even eat. The person is represented by his “life” and his “soul.” Alternate translation: “the result is that he does not desire any food, not even very special food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1861

JOB

33

20

x7zp

0

abhors delicacies

Alternate translation: “hates even very special food”

1862

JOB

33

21

f64y

figs-activepassive

0

His flesh is consumed away so that it cannot be seen; his bones, once not seen, now stick out

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. “His flesh” refers to his fat and muscles, not to his body’s outer skin. Alternate translation: “Disease makes his body weak and thin so that a person can see his bones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1863

JOB

33

22

gup8

figs-synecdoche

0

his soul draws close to the pit

Here a person is represented by his “soul.” Alternate translation: “he is close to going into the grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1864

JOB

33

22

v3zi

figs-metaphor

0

the pit

The place where people go when they die is referred to here as “the pit.” Alternate translation: “the place where dead people are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1865

JOB

33

22

ne1h

figs-synecdoche

0

his life to those who wish to destroy it

Here the person is represented by his “life.” The phrase “those who wish to destroy it” refers to the place where people go after they die. Alternate translation: “and he is close to going to the place where dead people go” or “and he will soon go to the place of the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1866

JOB

33

23

kt34

0

for him

This does not refer to a specific person. Elihu continues speaking about any person in general.

1867

JOB

33

23

zbw1

translate-numbers

0

one out of a thousand

In some languages it may be more natural to refer to “a great number” instead of “a thousand.” Alternate translation: “one from the great number of angels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1868

JOB

33

24

a1rp

figs-metaphor

0

the pit

The place where people go when they die is referred to here as “the pit.” Alternate translation: “the place where dead people are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1869

JOB

33

24

es6z

figs-explicit

0

I have found a ransom for him

This means that the angel has found a way to pay for the sins of the man so that he does not have to die. Alternate translation: “for I have found a way for you to keep him from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1870

JOB

33

25

ze1v

0

Then

This word is used here to mark what will happen if God grants the angel’s request. Alternate translation: “Then as a result” or “As a result of the angel’s request to God”

1871

JOB

33

25

mu51

figs-simile

0

his flesh will become fresher than a child’s

This speaks of the man being healed and his body growing strong again as if his body became new like a child’s body. Alternate translation: “the sick man’s body will become new again like a young person’s body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1872

JOB

33

25

k7le

figs-hyperbole

0

fresher than a child’s

In this comparison, the word “fresher” is an exaggeration. Alternate translation: “fresh like a child’s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1873

JOB

33

25

n9hs

figs-ellipsis

0

a child’s

This refers to a child’s flesh. Alternate translation: “a child’s flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1874

JOB

33

25

s1tk

figs-metaphor

0

it is restored to the days of his youth

This speaks of the man’s flesh again being as strong as it was when he was young. Alternate translation: “it will become strong again, as it was when he was young” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1875

JOB

33

26

yt2q

figs-idiom

0

he sees God’s face with joy

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “he joyfully worships God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1876

JOB

33

26

d3zd

figs-synecdoche

0

God’s face

Here God is represented by his “face.” Alternate translation: “God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1877

JOB

33

26

ysy8

0

God will give the person his triumph

Alternate translation: “God will save the person” or “God will make things right for the person again”

1878

JOB

33

27

t53p

figs-activepassive

0

but my sin was not punished

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “but God did not punish me for sinning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1879

JOB

33

28

wt12

figs-synecdoche

0

rescued my soul from going down into the pit

Here the person is referred to by his “soul.” Alternate translation: “rescued me from dying and going to the pit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1880

JOB

33

28

u2a3

figs-metaphor

0

the pit

The place where people go when they die is referred to here as “the pit.” Alternate translation: “the place where dead people are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1881

JOB

33

28

f6ps

figs-metonymy

0

my life will continue to see light

Here the person is represented by his “life.” Also, living is spoken of as seeing the light. Alternate translation: “I will continue to live and see the daylight” or “I will continue to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1882

JOB

33

29

m27i

0

See

Elihu uses this word here to draw Job’s attention to what he says next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

1883

JOB

33

29

w47t

figs-idiom

0

twice, yes, even three times

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “again and again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1884

JOB

33

30

b2bf

figs-synecdoche

0

his soul

The person is represented by his “soul.” Alternate translation: “him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1885

JOB

33

30

cik5

figs-metaphor

0

to bring his soul back from the pit

This speaks of saving the man from dying as if he had died and was being brought back to life. Alternate translation: “to keep him from dying and going to the pit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1886

JOB

33

30

qg5z

figs-metaphor

0

the pit

The place where people go when they die is referred to here as “the pit.” Alternate translation: “the place where dead people are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1887

JOB

33

30

myd4

figs-activepassive

0

he may be enlightened with the light of life

This is an idiom and may be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “he may be happy to still be alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1888

JOB

33

31

z1l9

figs-doublet

0

Pay attention, Job, and listen to me

These phrases mean the same thing. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully to me, Job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1889

JOB

33

32

g3l6

figs-idiom

0

that you are in the right

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “that you are innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1890

JOB

34

intro

b9ku

0

Job 34 General Notes

Structure and formatting

According to Elihu, instead of being punished for his sins, Job is sinning in the midst of these difficulties. This is the second of Elihu’s four statements and it is addressed first to Job’s friends and then to Job. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. Elihu uses many of Job’s statements against him. His attitude is not too different from Job’s friends.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s justice

Elihu defends the justice of Yahweh after Job claimed that Yahweh was being unjust. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]])

1891

JOB

34

1

h9vc

0

Moreover, Elihu

Alternate translation: “Then, Elihu”

1892

JOB

34

1

yw36

translate-names

0

Elihu

See how you translated this man’s name in Job 32:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1893

JOB

34

2

k8a4

0

Listen to my words

Alternate translation: “Listen to what I say”

1894

JOB

34

2

zux7

figs-irony

0

you wise men … you who have knowledge

Elihu is criticizing Job and his friends. He does not think they are actually wise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1895

JOB

34

3

ln8s

figs-simile

0

For the ear tries words as the palate tastes food

Elihu means people listen carefully to determine what is right or wrong just like we taste food to determine if it is good or bad. Here people are referred to by their “ear” and their “palate” to emphasize that they are tasting and hearing. Alternate translation: “For we listen to words to know what is good and bad, just as we taste foods to know what is good to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1896

JOB

34

4

v6hj

figs-exclusive

0

Let us

Here “us” refers to Elihu, Job, and his three friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1897

JOB

34

5

k2e1

0

has taken away my rights

Alternate translation: “refused to give me justice”

1898

JOB

34

6

k523

figs-activepassive

0

I am considered to be a liar

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God considers me to be a liar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1899

JOB

34

6

i95p

figs-metaphor

0

My wound is incurable

Here Job’s sickness and suffering is spoken of as if it were a “wound.” Alternate translation: “I am sick and no one can heal me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1900

JOB

34

7

nd2a

figs-rquestion

0

What man is like Job

Elihu uses this rhetorical question to scold Job. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “There is no one else like Job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1901

JOB

34

7

glm5

figs-simile

0

who drinks up mockery like water

Elihu is accusing Job of mocking others as often as a person drinks water. Alternate translation: “who mocks other people as frequently as he drinks water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1902

JOB

34

8

j3zr

figs-metaphor

0

who walks with wicked men

Here “walk” is an idiom for how a person acts. Alternate translation: “who behaves like wicked men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1903

JOB

34

10

n22e

figs-irony

0

you men of understanding

Elihu is criticizing Job and his friends. He does not actually think they are wise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1904

JOB

34

10

meh8

figs-parallelism

0

far be it from God … far be it from the Almighty that he should commit sin

These two phrases have the same meaning and are used together to emphasize that God would never do anything wrong. The phrase “far be it from” is an idiom. Alternate translation: “Almighty God would never consider doing anything that is wicked or wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1905

JOB

34

11

ia8g

figs-metaphor

0

For he pays back a person’s work

This means that he gives to a person what he deserves for the work he has done. Here “work” is a metaphor for what a person does. Alternate translation: “For he gives to a person what he deserves in return for he does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1906

JOB

34

11

y31y

figs-idiom

0

he makes every man come upon the reward of his own ways

The phrase “his own ways” is an idiom for how a person lives his life. Elihu emphasizes that God gives to people what they deserve. Alternate translation: “he causes every man to receive the reward he deserves for how he lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1907

JOB

34

13

n1w5

figs-parallelism

0

Who put him in charge over the earth? Who put the whole world under him?

Both of these rhetorical questions have the same meaning and emphasize that no one needed to grant God authority because it was already his. These questions can be written as statements. Alternate translation: “No one needed to give permission to God to take responsibility over all the earth. He is the rightful one to rule the world.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1908

JOB

34

14

d4kx

figs-hypo

0

If he ever

Elihu is describing a situation that he does not believe would ever happen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1909

JOB

34

14

t8rt

figs-explicit

0

his spirit and his breath

The “spirit” and “breath” of God are what makes all living things alive. Alternate translation: “his spirit and breath which give us life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1910

JOB

34

15

lah1

figs-synecdoche

0

all flesh

Here all living things are represented by their “flesh.” Alternate translation: “all living things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1911

JOB

34

15

tmc7

figs-explicit

0

mankind would return to dust again

This means that all people would die and their bodies would decay and become soil. In the beginning God created man from the dust. Alternate translation: “the bodies of mankind would soon become soil again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1912

JOB

34

16

h7bg

0

now

Elihu uses this word to bring attention to something important he is about to say.

1913

JOB

34

16

lpb8

figs-you

0

you have

Here “you” is singular and refers to Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1914

JOB

34

16

giw9

figs-parallelism

0

listen to the sound of my words

“listen to what I say.” This means the same as the previous part of the sentence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1915

JOB

34

17

rc4c

figs-rquestion

0

Can one who hates justice govern? Will you condemn God, who is righteous and mighty?

Elihu uses this question to rebuke Job for implying that God hates justice. Alternate translation: “One who hates justice cannot be expected to rule over people. So you really cannot criticize God, who is righteous and powerful, and you cannot say that what he has done is wrong.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1916

JOB

34

17

s1zl

figs-rquestion

0

Can one who hates justice govern?

The implicit answer to this rhetorical question is “no.” This question implies that God could not rule the world if he hated justice. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “One who hates justice cannot govern the world.” or “God could certainly never hate what is right and still rule the world.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1917

JOB

34

17

l8xs

figs-rquestion

0

Will you condemn God, who is righteous and mighty?

This rhetorical question is used to emphasize that Job does not have the authority or a reason to condemn God. Alternate translation: “You cannot condemn God, who is righteous and mighty!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1918

JOB

34

18

n5xx

figs-rquestion

0

God, who says to a king, ‘You are vile,’ or says to nobles, ‘You are wicked’?

This continues the rhetorical question from the previous verse, emphasizing to Job that he cannot condemn God. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He says to some kings, ‘You are vile,’ and he says to some nobles, ‘You are wicked.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1919

JOB

34

18

pa2a

figs-ellipsis

0

God, who says to a king

This is part of the previous question. The understood words from the previous verse, “will you condemn God,” may be supplied. Alternate translation: “Will you condemn God, who says to a king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1920

JOB

34

18

n3qi

0

vile

Alternate translation: “evil” or “worthless”

1921

JOB

34

19

sj41

figs-metonymy

0

for they all are the work of his hands

Here “hands” refer to power. Alternate translation: “for God made them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1922

JOB

34

20

xkd5

figs-idiom

0

at midnight

Midnight is the time when one day ends and another begins. Here “midnight” is used as an idiom. Alternate translation: “at night” or “suddenly, at night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1923

JOB

34

20

yx7f

figs-activepassive

0

people will be shaken and will pass away

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The phrase “will be shaken” is an idiom that means to be “struck.” Alternate translation: “God strikes them and they die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1924

JOB

34

20

nq3g

figs-euphemism

0

mighty people will be taken away, but not by human hands

This means that it is God who causes people to die, not people. Also, If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “it is God and not humans who cause mighty people to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1925

JOB

34

20

dsu9

figs-synecdoche

0

not by human hands

Here people are represented by their “hands.” Alternate translation: “not by humans” or “not by people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1926

JOB

34

21

syl2

figs-metonymy

0

For God’s eyes are upon a person’s ways

God’s “eyes” represent his sight. The phrase “a person’s ways” is an idiom for what he does and how he lives. Alternate translation: “For God watches everything a person does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1927

JOB

34

21

wn28

figs-explicit

0

he sees all his steps

This means that he always knows where the person is and where he is going. Alternate translation: “he sees him wherever he goes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1928

JOB

34

22

em2w

figs-doublet

0

no darkness, no thick gloom

The words “thick gloom” mean basically the same thing as, and intensify, the word “darkness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1929

JOB

34

23

dy7z

0

in judgment

Alternate translation: “so he may judge him” or “to be judged”

1930

JOB

34

24

hwl1

figs-idiom

0

He breaks mighty men into pieces

This speaks of God destroying these men as if he actually broke their bodies into pieces. Alternate translation: “He destroys mighty men” or “He destroys important people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1931

JOB

34

24

nyi9

figs-explicit

0

for their ways that need no further investigation

He does not need to investigate what they have done because he already knows everything about them. Alternate translation: “without needing to do further investigation, because he already knows their ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1932

JOB

34

24

i96c

0

their ways

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the things they have done”

1933

JOB

34

24

z5n9

figs-explicit

0

he puts others in their places

This means that he appoints other people to rule in their positions. Alternate translation: “and he chooses other people to rule in their places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1934

JOB

34

25

hq7v

figs-idiom

0

in the night

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “when they are not expecting it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1935

JOB

34

25

rxl8

figs-activepassive

0

they are destroyed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “and destroys them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1936

JOB

34

26

mwg7

figs-simile

0

In the open sight of others, he kills them for their wicked deeds like criminals

This phrase compares the way that these people die to how criminals die. Alternate translation: “He kills them for their wicked deeds, in the open sight of others as if they were criminals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1937

JOB

34

26

y46j

figs-idiom

0

In the open sight of others

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “In a place where everyone can see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1938

JOB

34

26

af3k

figs-explicit

0

he kills them

This speaks of God causing these people to die, though he does not actually strike them with a sword himself. He may cause someone else to kill them or disaster to come upon them. Alternate translation: “he causes them to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1939

JOB

34

27

mv8l

figs-idiom

0

his ways

This refers to God’s instructions for how people should behave. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1940

JOB

34

28

d5r1

figs-abstractnouns

0

they made the cry of poor people come to him

The word “cry” can be expressed as a verb. This speaks of God hearing their cry as if the cry were a person that came to him. Alternate translation: “they made the poor people cry, and God heard them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1941

JOB

34

29

w485

figs-metaphor

0

When he stays silent, who can condemn him? If he hides his face, who can perceive him?

These two questions speak of God not punishing wicked people as if he were being silent and hiding his face. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1942

JOB

34

29

k61c

figs-rquestion

0

When he stays silent, who can condemn him?

Elihu uses this rhetorical question to teach Job. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one can criticize God if he decides to remain silent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1943

JOB

34

29

j5ex

figs-rquestion

0

If he hides his face, who can perceive him?

Elihu uses this rhetorical question to teach Job. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one can go and see him if he decides to hide his face” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1944

JOB

34

29

pdu7

figs-synecdoche

0

his face

Here God is represented by his “face.” Alternate translation: “himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1945

JOB

34

30

n7qw

figs-metaphor

0

no one to entrap people

This compares a godless ruler harming people as if he were a hunter trapping his prey. Alternate translation: “no one to harm the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1946

JOB

34

32

u6ly

figs-metonymy

0

teach me what I cannot see

Here to “see” means to know. Alternate translation: “teach me what I have done wrong that I am not aware of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1947

JOB

34

33

kc72

figs-rquestion

0

Do you think that God will punish that person’s sin, since you dislike what God does?

“Since you dislike what God does, do you think that God should punish this person’s sin?” Elihu uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that he should not think that God will not punish this man. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Even though you do not like what God does, surely even you do not think that God will punish this person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1948

JOB

34

33

xdv4

figs-metonymy

0

that person’s sin

Here punishing the person because of his sin is referred to as punishing the “person’s sin.” Alternate translation: “that person because of his sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1949

JOB

34

33

nw6c

0

since you dislike

Alternate translation: “because you dislike”

1950

JOB

34

33

px78

0

what it is that you know

Alternate translation: “what you are thinking about this”

1951

JOB

34

34

qbs3

0

who hears me

Alternate translation: “who hears me speaking”

1952

JOB

34

36

znm7

figs-activepassive

0

If only Job were put on trial in

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “If only we could put Job on trial in” or “If only we could take Job to court so a judge could listen to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1953

JOB

34

36

mvs5

figs-idiom

0

in the smallest details of his case

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “to listen to his case thoroughly” or “to hear all of the details of his case” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1954

JOB

34

36

w7eb

0

of his talking like wicked men

Alternate translation: “of how he has spoken like a wicked man”

1955

JOB

34

37

jr4v

figs-explicit

0

he adds rebellion

This refers to rebellion against God. Alternate translation: “he adds rebellion against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1956

JOB

34

37

fm5k

figs-explicit

0

he claps his hands in mockery in our midst

In this accusation, this means that Job clapped his hands to strengthen his mockery of God. Alternate translation: “he claps his hands as he mocks God in our midst” or “he mocks God right in front of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1957

JOB

34

37

g7nc

figs-metaphor

0

he piles up words against God

Elihu speaks of “words” as if they were objects, and of speaking many words as if it were piling those objects one on top of the other. Alternate translation: “he speaks many words against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1958

JOB

35

intro

mfr6

0

Job 35 General Notes

Structure and formatting

According to Elihu, instead of being punished for his sins, Job is sinning in the midst of these difficulties. This is the third of Elihu’s four statements and it is addressed first to Job’s friends and then to Job. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. Elihu uses many of Job’s statements against him.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Elihu uses many different rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to try to convince Job. These questions help to build Elihu’s argument. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Ironic situation

Elihu explains the irony of Job’s claim. He claimed to be righteous and desired Yahweh to intervene. In this chapter, Elihu explains to Job that his claims of righteousness are prideful. This makes him unrighteous. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

1959

JOB

35

2

s9jw

figs-rquestion

0

Do you think this is just…‘My right before God’?

Elihu uses questions to challenge Job. Alternate translation: “You must think you are right…‘My right before God.’” or “It is not just…‘My right before God.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1960

JOB

35

2

yh9l

0

Do you think this is just when you say

Alternate translation: “Do you think it is right for you to say”

1961

JOB

35

2

g7jg

figs-you

0

Do you think

Here “you” is singular and refers to Job. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1962

JOB

35

2

l3t8

0

My right before God

This could mean: (1) Job is claiming to be innocent before God or (2) Job is claiming that he, rather than God, is right.

1963

JOB

35

3

w8qv

figs-rquestion

0

For you ask, ‘What use is it to me?’ and, ‘Would I be better off if I had sinned?’

Elihu quotes Job as saying the these two rhetorical questions. Alternate translation: “For you say, ‘It does not benefit me’ and, ‘I am no better off than if I had sinned.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1964

JOB

35

4

tp7p

0

Connecting Statement:

Elihu continues speaking.

1965

JOB

35

6

t2vl

0

Connecting Statement:

Elihu continues speaking.

1966

JOB

35

6

pdd2

figs-parallelism

0

If you have sinned … what do you do to him?

These two lines share similar meanings. The second line intensifies the meaning of the first line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1967

JOB

35

6

t1v8

figs-rquestion

0

If you have sinned, what harm do you do to God?

Elihu asks this question to emphasize that Job’s sins cannot actually do anything to God. Alternate translation: “If you have sinned, you have not done any harm to God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1968

JOB

35

6

s7x4

figs-metaphor

0

If your transgressions pile up high, what do you do to him?

Elihu speaks of “transgressions” as if they were objects, and of committing many transgressions as if it were piling those objects one on top of the other. He asks this question to emphasize that Job does nothing to God by his transgressions. Alternate translation: “If you committed a great many transgressions, you still do nothing to him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1969

JOB

35

7

m97k

figs-rquestion

0

If you are righteous, what can you give to him? What will he receive from your hand?

The two rhetorical questions mean basically the same thing, that Job’s righteousness adds nothing to God. Alternate translation: “If you are righteous, that does not enable you to give anything to him, and there is nothing that he will receive from your hand.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1970

JOB

35

7

i418

figs-synecdoche

0

receive from your hand

Here the word “hand” represents Job. Alternate translation: “receive from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1971

JOB

35

8

fa27

0

another son of man

Alternate translation: “another human-being” or “another person”

1972

JOB

35

9

p9sw

figs-abstractnouns

0

Because of many acts of oppression

The word “oppression” can be translated with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “Because of the many things that people do to oppress others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1973

JOB

35

9

zb6t

figs-metonymy

0

they call for help from the arms of mighty men

Here “arms” refers to power or strength. Alternate translation: “they call for someone to deliver them from the power of mighty men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1974

JOB

35

10

f89r

figs-metaphor

0

who gives songs in the night

Elihu speaks of God enabling people to have hope in troubling circumstances as if he were giving to them songs which they can sing during the night. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1975

JOB

35

12

gme8

0

Connecting Statement:

Elihu continues speaking.

1976

JOB

35

12

xj4y

0

they cry out

Alternate translation: “the oppressed people cry out”

1977

JOB

35

14

di2g

figs-exclamations

0

How much less will he answer you … that you are waiting for him!

Since God will not hear the prayers of prideful, evil men, it is even less likely that he will hear Job, who is complaining against him. Alternate translation: “So he certainly will not answer you … that you are waiting for him!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1978

JOB

35

14

njy6

0

that your case is before him

Alternate translation: “you have presented your case to him”

1979

JOB

35

14

c513

0

you are waiting for him

Alternate translation: “you are waiting for him to respond”

1980

JOB

35

15

ub2k

0

Now you say that his anger does not punish, and he does not take even a litte notice of transgression

Because Job is saying these things about God that are untrue, it is even less likely that God will answer Job’s prayers.

1981

JOB

35

15

kpu8

figs-metonymy

0

his anger does not punish

Here “his anger” is a metonym for “him.” Alternate translation: “he never punishes anyone because he is angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1982

JOB

35

16

ben3

figs-metaphor

0

he piles up words without knowledge

Elihu speaks of “words” as if they were objects, and of speaking many words as if it were piling those objects one on top of the other. The word “knowledge” can be translated with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “he speaks many words without knowing what he is talking about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1983

JOB

36

intro

pp2j

0

Job 36 General Notes

Structure and formatting

According to Elihu, instead of being punished for his sins, Job is sinning in the midst of these difficulties. This is the last of Elihu’s four statements and it is addressed first to Job’s friends and then to Job. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. His attitude is not too different from Job’s friends.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s justice

This chapter focuses on the justice of Yahweh. It is important to remember that justice won’t always come in this life. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]])

1984

JOB

36

2

h1hx

figs-metaphor

0

I will show you some things

Elihu speaks of explaining things to Job as if he were going to show those things to Job. Alternate translation: “I will explain some things to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1985

JOB

36

3

c3pd

figs-metaphor

0

I will obtain my knowledge from far off

Elihu speaks of having knowledge of many different subjects as if it were getting his knowledge from far away places. Alternate translation: “I will show you my great knowledge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1986

JOB

36

3

u4g9

figs-abstractnouns

0

that righteousness belongs to my Maker

Here the word “righteousness” can be translated with an adjective. Alternate translation: “that my Maker is righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1987

JOB

36

4

sqx3

0

my words will not be false

Alternate translation: “what I say will not be false”

1988

JOB

36

4

br1k

figs-metaphor

0

someone who is mature in knowledge is with you

The word “someone” refers to Elihu himself. He speaks of being very knowledgeable as if it were being mature in knowledge. Alternate translation: “I, who am with you, am very knowledgeable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1989

JOB

36

5

z14c

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

1990

JOB

36

5

j9ct

figs-doublet

0

he is mighty in strength of understanding

The phrase “mighty in strength” forms a doublet that means “very strong.” Elihu speaks of God understanding everything perfectly as if his understanding were very strong. Alternate translation: “he is very strong in understanding” or “he understands everything completely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1991

JOB

36

7

q9mj

figs-metaphor

0

He does not withdraw his eyes from righteous people

Elihu speaks of God protecting righteous people as if God were watching them with his eyes, and of God ceasing to protect them as if he withdrew his eyes from them. Alternate translation: “He does not stop protecting the righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1992

JOB

36

7

yc6f

figs-metaphor

0

sets them on thrones like kings

Elihu speaks of God honoring the righteous people as if God were causing them to sit on thrones like kings do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1993

JOB

36

7

x6yz

figs-metaphor

0

they are lifted up

Elihu speaks of God honoring the righteous people as if he lifted them up to a high place. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he lifts them up” or “he honors them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1994

JOB

36

8

a6cw

figs-activepassive

0

If they are bound in chains

Here the word “they” refers righteous people whom God will discipline if they sin. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “If someone binds them in chains” or “If someone makes them a prisoner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1995

JOB

36

8

f3xm

figs-metaphor

0

trapped in cords of suffering

Elihu speaks of a person being made to suffer as if that person were trapped in ropes that cause suffering. Alternate translation: “someone causes them to suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1996

JOB

36

9

qj2k

figs-ellipsis

0

their transgressions and their pride

The verb may be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “he reveals to them their transgressions and their pride” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1997

JOB

36

10

i8aj

figs-metaphor

0

He also opens their ears

Elihu speaks of causing a person to listen as if it were opening that person’s ear. Alternate translation: “He also causes them to listen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1998

JOB

36

10

gn8h

figs-abstractnouns

0

to his instruction

The noun “instruction” can be translated with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “to what he is instructing them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1999

JOB

36

10

emb8

figs-metaphor

0

to turn back from iniquity

Elihu speaks of stopping an action as if it were turning back from it. Alternate translation: “to stop committing iniquity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2000

JOB

36

11

hx9k

figs-synecdoche

0

they will spend their days in prosperity, their years in contentment

The words “days” and “years” both refer to the person’s lifetime. Alternate translation: “they will spend their lives in prosperity and contentment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2001

JOB

36

12

q2nz

figs-metaphor

0

they will perish by the sword

Elihu speaks of a person dying violently as if someone had killed them with a sword. Alternate translation: “they will die a violent death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2002

JOB

36

13

j1gi

figs-metonymy

0

who are godless in heart

Here the word “heart” refers to the thoughts and emotions. The phrase may indicate that the person stubbornly refuses to trust God. Alternate translation: “who refuse to trust in God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2003

JOB

36

13

z1u5

figs-metaphor

0

store up their anger

Elihu speaks of a person remaining angry as if that person stored up their anger like one would store up treasure. Alternate translation: “are always angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2004

JOB

36

13

a4sw

figs-metaphor

0

even when God ties them up

Elihu speaks of God disciplining people as if God were tying them up with ropes. Alternate translation: “even when God punishes them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2005

JOB

36

14

ny42

0

their lives end among the cultic prostitutes

Here “cultic prostitutes” refers to young men who served in pagan temples performing sexually immoral acts as part of their rituals. This phrase could mean: (1) the godless die because of their immoral behavior or (2) the godless die in shame and disgrace.

2006

JOB

36

15

wt6t

figs-metaphor

0

he opens their ears

Elihu speaks of God causing a person to listen as if God were opening their ears. See how you translated this in Job 36:10. Alternate translation: “he causes them to listen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2007

JOB

36

16

h4g2

figs-metaphor

0

into a broad place where there is no hardship

Elihu speaks of living without trouble as if it were being in a wide-open space where there were no hardships. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2008

JOB

36

16

qjt9

figs-metaphor

0

where your table would be set with food full of fatness

Elihu speaks of living prosperously as if it were having one’s table filled with the best foods. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2009

JOB

36

16

yn9l

figs-activepassive

0

your table would be set

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “your servants would set your table” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2010

JOB

36

16

pw88

figs-idiom

0

food full of fatness

Meat that had plenty of fat on it was a sign of prosperity because the animals were healthy and well-fed. Alternate translation: “the very best food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2011

JOB

36

17

ybk9

0

you are full of judgment on wicked people

This could mean: (1) “God is punishing you as he would punish the wicked” or (2) “you are obsessed with the judgment that the wicked deserve.”

2012

JOB

36

17

ji7m

figs-personification

0

judgment and justice have laid hold of you

Elihu speaks of God judging Job and giving him justice as if judgment and justice were people that have laid hold of Job. Alternate translation: “God has brought you to judgment and given you justice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2013

JOB

36

18

mp6j

0

Do not let your anger entice you to mockery

Some versions of the Bible translate this as “Beware that you are not enticed by wealth.”

2014

JOB

36

19

m4pr

figs-rquestion

0

Can your wealth benefit you, so that you will not be in distress, or can all the force of your strength help you?

Elihu asks these questions to state that money and power will not be able to help Job if he acts unjustly. Alternate translation: “Your wealth cannot cause you to no longer be in distress, and all the force of your strength cannot help you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2015

JOB

36

19

z8pw

0

all the force of your strength

Alternate translation: “all of your great strength” or “all of your mighty efforts”

2016

JOB

36

20

q5v5

figs-metaphor

0

when peoples are cut off in their place

This could mean: (1) that “peoples” refers to people in general and “cut off in their place” is a metaphor for oppressing others by dragging them away from their homes. Alternate translation: “when people drag others away from their homes” or (2) that “peoples” represents nations and “cut off in their place” is a metaphor for nations being destroyed. Alternate translation: “when nations will perish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2017

JOB

36

21

qhr8

figs-activepassive

0

you are being tested by suffering

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God is testing you by making you suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2018

JOB

36

22

c7mn

0

See, God

Alternate translation: “You know this already: God”

2019

JOB

36

22

x4qx

0

God is exalted in his power

This could mean: (1) “God is extremely powerful” or (2) “people exalt God because he is powerful”

2020

JOB

36

22

ay6d

figs-rquestion

0

who is a teacher like him?

Elihu asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that no one is a teacher like God. Alternate translation: “no one is a teacher like him.” or “no one teaches like he does.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2021

JOB

36

23

r88v

figs-rquestion

0

Who has ever instructed him about his way?

Elihu asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that no one has ever taught God what to do. Alternate translation: “No one has ever instructed him about what he should do.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2022

JOB

36

23

tz9r

figs-rquestion

0

Who can ever say to him, ‘You have committed unrighteousness?’

Elihu asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that no one can accuse God of having committed unrighteousness. Alternate translation: “No one can ever say to him, ‘You have committed unrighteousness.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2023

JOB

36

25

c8rq

figs-metaphor

0

they see those deeds only from far away

Elihu speaks of people not being fully able to understand God’s deeds as if people were only able to see those deeds from far away. Alternate translation: “they do not fully understand them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2024

JOB

36

26

k1vw

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

2025

JOB

36

26

zd6h

figs-idiom

0

the number of his years is incalculable

This refers to how long God has existed. Alternate translation: “people cannot know how long he has lived” or “people cannot know his age” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2026

JOB

36

27

z98g

figs-explicit

0

that he distills as rain from his vapor

The word “distills” can also mean “refine” or “filter.” Elihu describes how God turns the drops of water, or vapor, that he draws up into rain. Alternate translation: “that he turns into rain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2027

JOB

36

29

q3k1

figs-rquestion

0

can anyone understand the extensive spread of the clouds and the thunder from his hut?

Elihu asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that no one can do these things. Alternate translation: “no one can understand the extensive spread of the clouds and the thunder from his hut.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2028

JOB

36

29

a4ve

figs-abstractnouns

0

the extensive spread of the clouds

The phrase “the extensive spread” can be translated with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “how the clouds spread across the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2029

JOB

36

29

wh4w

figs-metaphor

0

from his hut

Elihu speaks of the sky as if it were a “hut” in which God lives. Alternate translation: “from the sky, where God lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2030

JOB

36

30

ip5f

0

See, he spreads

Alternate translation: “Look carefully and see how he spreads”

2031

JOB

36

30

e9es

figs-metaphor

0

and covers the roots of the sea

Elihu speaks of the deep parts of the sea as if the sea were a plant and its depths were its roots. This could mean: (1) although the lightning causes light in the sky, the deep parts of the sea remain dark. Alternate translation: “but the depths of the sea remain dark” or (2) the lightning in the sky cause even the depths of the sea to have light. Alternate translation: “and lights up the depths of the sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2032

JOB

36

32

tsi9

figs-metaphor

0

He fills his hands with the lightning

Elihu speaks of the lightning that storms cause as if God were holding the lightning in his hand and directing it to strike where he wills. This could mean: (1) that God holds the lightning bolts in his hands in order to throw them, or (2) that God hides the lightning bolts in his hands until he is ready to use them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2033

JOB

36

33

k3qk

0

Its thunder

Alternate translation: “The thunder caused by the lightning” or “The thunder”

2034

JOB

36

33

se83

0

hear it is coming

Alternate translation: “hear that the storm is coming”

2035

JOB

37

intro

ccm7

0

Job 37 General Notes

Structure and formatting

According to Elihu, instead of being punished for his sins, Job is sinning in the midst of these difficulties. This is a continuation of the previous chapter and the last of Elihu’s four statements, and it is addressed first to Job’s friends and then to Job. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. His attitude is not too different from Job’s friends.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s justice

This chapter focuses on the justice of Yahweh. It is important to remember that justice won’t always come in this life. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]])

2036

JOB

37

1

mup1

figs-parallelism

0

my heart trembles … it is moved out of its place

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize the intensity of his fear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2037

JOB

37

1

eid2

0

my heart trembles at this

The word “this” refers to the storm in Job 36:33.

2038

JOB

37

1

nhy8

figs-metaphor

0

it is moved out of its place

Elihu speaks of his heart beating violently as if it were to jump out of his chest. Alternate translation: “it moves out of its place” or “it beats violently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2039

JOB

37

2

ilg9

figs-metaphor

0

the noise of his voice, the sound that goes out from his mouth

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. Elihu speaks of the thunder as if it is God’s voice. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2040

JOB

37

3

q5ea

figs-metaphor

0

to the edges of the earth

Elihu speaks of the farthest places on the earth as if they were the earth’s borders. Alternate translation: “everywhere in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2041

JOB

37

4

l4nh

figs-metaphor

0

A voice roars after it … the voice of his majesty

Elihu continues to speak of the thunder as if it is God’s voice. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2042

JOB

37

4

x26r

0

roars after it

Alternate translation: “roars after the lightning”

2043

JOB

37

4

nei1

0

the voice of his majesty

Alternate translation: “his majestic voice”

2044

JOB

37

4

k5js

figs-activepassive

0

when his voice is heard

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when people hear his voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2045

JOB

37

6

btz3

figs-ellipsis

0

likewise to the rain shower

The verb may be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “likewise, he says to the rain shower” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

2046

JOB

37

7

y45f

figs-synecdoche

0

He stops the hand of every man

Here the word “hand” represents the entire person. Alternate translation: “He stops every man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2047

JOB

37

9

cpb8

figs-explicit

0

The storm comes from its chamber in the south and the cold from the scattering winds in the north

In Israel, strong wind storms blow in from the south and cold weather approaches from the north. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2048

JOB

37

9

j84c

figs-metaphor

0

The storm comes from its chamber in the south

Elihu speaks of the storm blowing in from the south as if the storm has a place where it resides until it comes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2049

JOB

37

10

u9mk

figs-metaphor

0

By the breath of God ice is given

Elihu speaks of the cold north wind as if it were God’s breath. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God’s breath makes ice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2050

JOB

37

10

dc5f

figs-simile

0

frozen like metal

Elihu compares the hardness of ice to the hardness of metal. Alternate translation: “frozen, as hard as metal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2051

JOB

37

11

gl6n

figs-metaphor

0

he weighs down the thick cloud with moisture

Elihu speaks of God causing the storm clouds to be full of water as if the moisture weighed heavily on the clouds. Alternate translation: “he causes the thick clouds to be full of moisture” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2052

JOB

37

13

it32

figs-abstractnouns

0

sometimes it happens for correction

The word “correction” can be translated with a verbal phrase. The object of his “correction” is people. Alternate translation: “sometimes it happens to correct his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2053

JOB

37

13

mjf4

figs-explicit

0

sometimes for his land

This means that the rain waters the ground and causes vegetation to grow. Alternate translation: “sometimes to water the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2054

JOB

37

13

uep4

figs-abstractnouns

0

sometimes as acts of covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “faithful” or “faithfully.” Alternate translation: “sometimes to act faithfully to his covenant” or “sometimes to be faithful to his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2055

JOB

37

15

ch2b

figs-rquestion

0

Do you know how God establishes the clouds and makes the lightning bolts to flash in them?

Elihu asks this question to emphasize that Job cannot know this. Alternate translation: “You cannot understand how God establishes the clouds and makes the lightning bolts to flash in them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2056

JOB

37

15

cbz2

0

establishes the clouds

Alternate translation: “controls the clouds” or “makes the clouds obey him”

2057

JOB

37

16

w6jd

figs-rquestion

0

Do you understand the floating of the clouds, the marvelous deeds of God, who is perfect in knowledge?

Elihu asks this question to emphasize that Job does not know these things. Alternate translation: “You do not understand the floating of the clouds, the marvelous deeds of God, who is perfect in knowledge.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2058

JOB

37

16

z95q

0

the floating of the clouds

Alternate translation: “how the clouds float”

2059

JOB

37

16

s2ui

figs-ellipsis

0

the marvelous deeds of God

The verb may be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “or do you understand the marvelous deeds of God” or “and you do not understand the marvelous deeds of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

2060

JOB

37

17

a6f1

figs-rquestion

0

Do you understand how your garments become hot … from the south?

Elihu asks this question to emphasize that Job does not know these things. Alternate translation: “You do not understand how your garments become hot … from the south.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2061

JOB

37

17

hy96

0

how your garments become hot

Alternate translation: “how you become hot in your clothes” or “how you sweat in your clothes”

2062

JOB

37

17

r98k

figs-explicit

0

because the wind comes from the south

In Israel, hot winds blow in across the desert from the south and cause hot temperatures. Alternate translation: “because of the hot, dry wind blowing in from the south” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2063

JOB

37

18

zlb7

figs-rquestion

0

Can you spread out the sky … a mirror of cast metal?

Elihu asks this question to emphasize that Job cannot do this. Alternate translation: “You cannot spread out the sky … a mirror of cast metal.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2064

JOB

37

18

c2kf

figs-metaphor

0

as strong as a mirror of cast metal

In biblical days, mirrors were made of metal. Elihu speaks of the sky giving no rain as if it were as hard as solid metal. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2065

JOB

37

18

ww4s

0

cast metal

This refers to metal that is melted, poured into a mold, and then hardens as it cools.

2066

JOB

37

19

s7ig

figs-exclusive

0

Teach us what we should say to him

Here the words “us” and “we” refer to Elihu, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, but not to Job. Elihu uses this phrase sarcastically. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2067

JOB

37

19

q3st

figs-metaphor

0

because of the darkness of our minds

Elihu speaks of the inability to understand as if it were having darkness in one’s mind. Alternate translation: “because we do not understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2068

JOB

37

20

z1tr

figs-rquestion

0

Should he be told that I wish to speak with him?

Elihu asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that no one can do this. Alternate translation: “I cannot have someone tell him that I wish to speak with him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2069

JOB

37

20

fp7n

figs-activepassive

0

Should he be told

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Should I have someone tell him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2070

JOB

37

20

b2q9

figs-rquestion

0

Would a person wish to be swallowed up?

Elihu asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that no one would want this to happen. Alternate translation: “No person would want to be swallowed up.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2071

JOB

37

20

x2hn

figs-metaphor

0

to be swallowed up

Elihu speaks of a person being destroyed as if the person were swallowed up. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “for God to destroy him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2072

JOB

37

22

l64j

figs-metaphor

0

over God is fearsome majesty

The word “fearsome” means that it causes fear. Elihu speaks of God’s majesty as if it were something that rests upon God. Alternate translation: “God’s majesty causes people to fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2073

JOB

37

23

c4sd

figs-metaphor

0

we cannot find him

This could mean: (1) “we cannot approach him” or (2) this is a metaphor in which Elihu speaks of a person’s being unable to fully understand God as if he could not find God. Alternate translation: “we cannot comprehend him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2074

JOB

37

24

n2pv

figs-metonymy

0

those who are wise in their own minds

Here “minds” represents the person’s thoughts. Alternate translation: “those who are wise in their own thinking” or “those who consider themselves to be wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2075

JOB

38

intro

bs8p

0

Job 38 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. Yahweh finally speaks in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s greatness

Yahweh is far greater than any man. He is the creator of the earth, and his ways will not always be understood by men because their knowledge is always limited.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Yahweh uses a series of rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to defend his character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2076

JOB

38

1

b53y

0

Then Yahweh called

Here, the word “then” marks the beginning of a new part of the book. See if your language has a similar way to introduce a new scene. Alternate translation: “After all that had happened, Yahweh called.

2077

JOB

38

1

zh2u

0

called to Job

Alternate translation: “answered Job” or “responded to Job”

2078

JOB

38

1

zk13

0

out of a fierce storm

Alternate translation: “from a powerful storm”

2079

JOB

38

2

ln5m

figs-rquestion

0

Who is this who brings darkness to plans by means of words without knowledge?

Yahweh uses this question to emphasize that Job spoke of things he did not know about. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You bring darkness to my plans by means of words without knowledge.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2080

JOB

38

2

u9fl

0

Who is this who brings

Alternate translation: “Who are you to bring”

2081

JOB

38

2

kw1v

figs-metaphor

0

brings darkness to plans

“obscures my plans” or “confuses my purposes.” How Job confuses God’s plans is spoken of as if he were making God’s plans harder to see. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word darkness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “darkens.” Alternate translation: “darkens plans” or “makes plans hard to see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2082

JOB

38

2

lq69

0

by means of words without knowledge

Alternate translation: “by speaking of things about which you do not know”

2083

JOB

38

2

nng1

figs-abstractnouns

0

words without knowledge

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word knowledge, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “unknowing words” or “ignorant words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2084

JOB

38

3

ur9i

figs-idiom

0

gird up your loins like a man

“tie your robe up around your waist like a man.” Men tied up their robes around their waists so that their legs could move more freely as they did heavy work. The idiom “gird up your loins like a man” means to get ready to do something involving action such as work, a contest, or a battle. Job was to prepare for the hard work of answering God. Alternate translation: “get yourself ready for hard work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2085

JOB

38

4

k38w

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh begins to challenge Job with a series of questions that emphasize he created the earth and Job did not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2086

JOB

38

4

xgy2

figs-rquestion

0

Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundations? Tell me, if you have so much understanding

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tell me where you were when I laid the foundations of the earth, if you have so much understanding” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2087

JOB

38

4

e2l4

figs-metaphor

0

I laid the earth’s foundations

Yahweh describes creating the earth as though he was building a structure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2088

JOB

38

4

p418

figs-abstractnouns

0

if you have so much understanding

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word understanding, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “understand.” Alternate translation: “if you understand so much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2089

JOB

38

5

y99g

figs-rquestion

0

Who determined its dimensions? Tell me, if you know

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tell me who determined its dimensions, if you know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2090

JOB

38

5

sp2s

0

dimensions

Alternate translation: “size”

2091

JOB

38

5

nt85

figs-rquestion

0

Who stretched the measuring line over it?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tell me who stretched the measuring line over it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2092

JOB

38

5

wjp1

0

measuring line

a rope or cord that people use to make something the right size and shape

2093

JOB

38

6

i7br

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

The word “its” refers to the earth. Yahweh uses more questions to emphasize that Job could never understand how great God is. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2094

JOB

38

6

a776

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2095

JOB

38

6

i5wb

figs-rquestion

0

On what were its foundations laid?

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “On what did I set its foundations?” or “Tell me on what its foundations were laid.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2096

JOB

38

6

p5tv

figs-rquestion

0

Who laid its cornerstone

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tell me who laid its cornerstone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2097

JOB

38

7

r55l

figs-rquestion

0

Job finishes the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who laid its cornerstone” in verse 6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2098

JOB

38

7

g3kf

figs-rquestion

0

when the morning stars … the sons of God shouted for joy?

Job finishes the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who laid its cornerstone” in verse 6. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “Tell me who laid its cornerstone when the morning stars … the sons of God shouted for joy.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2099

JOB

38

7

ql8y

figs-personification

0

when the morning stars sang together

The morning stars are spoken of as singing like people sing. Possible meanings are: (1) the “morning stars” are the same as the “sons of God” in the next line or (2) “the morning stars” refer to stars in the sky. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2100

JOB

38

7

z79e

0

the morning stars

Alternate translation: “the bright stars that shine in the morning”

2101

JOB

38

7

j365

0

sons of God

This refers to angels, heavenly beings. See how you translated this in Job 1:6.

2102

JOB

38

7

x5id

figs-abstractnouns

0

shouted for joy

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word joy, you could express the same idea with the adverb “joyfully.” Alternate translation: “shouted joyfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2103

JOB

38

7

uc38

0

for joy

Alternate translation: “because they were full of joy”

2104

JOB

38

8

nk5s

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses another question to emphasize that he created the earth and Job did not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2105

JOB

38

8

h82c

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2106

JOB

38

8

i6wl

figs-rquestion

0

Who shut up the sea … of the womb

This can be translated as a command. Alternate translation: “Tell me who shut up the sea … of the womb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2107

JOB

38

8

x8t1

figs-metaphor

0

shut up the sea with doors

Yahweh compares the way that he prevented the sea from covering all of the earth to holding it back with doors. Alternate translation: “prevented the water from flooding over the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2108

JOB

38

8

txy1

figs-simile

0

as if it had come out of the womb

Yahweh compares his creation of the sea to childbirth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2109

JOB

38

9

un26

figs-rquestion

0

This is the end of the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who shut up” in verse 8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2110

JOB

38

9

fhm1

figs-rquestion

0

when I made clouds … and thick darkness its swaddling bands?

This can be translated as a command. Alternate translation: “Tell me who shut up … when I made clouds … and thick darkness its swaddling bands.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2111

JOB

38

9

n9tt

0

its clothing

Alternate translation: “as clothes for the sea”

2112

JOB

38

9

zkz3

figs-abstractnouns

0

thick darkness its swaddling bands

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word darkness, you could express the same idea with the adjective “dark.” Alternate translation: “made dark clouds its swaddling bands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2113

JOB

38

9

s1lf

0

swaddling bands

long pieces of cloth that people use to wrap a baby in after it is born

2114

JOB

38

10

iq3r

0

I marked out for the sea my boundary

Alternate translation: “I made a boundary for the sea”

2115

JOB

38

10

j829

0

boundary

Yahweh set a limit beyond which the sea was not allowed to cross.

2116

JOB

38

10

hyj2

figs-metaphor

0

I placed its bars and doors

Yahweh compares the way that he made a boundary for the sea to containing the sea with bars and doors. Alternate translation: “I set up its barriers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2117

JOB

38

10

b38y

0

bars

long pieces of wood or metal that are used to keep a door shut

2118

JOB

38

11

hv5f

figs-personification

0

when I said to it

“when I said to the sea.” Yahweh speaks to the sea as though it were a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2119

JOB

38

11

ixn6

figs-explicit

0

You may come this far, but no farther

The words “this far” mean only as far as the boundary that Yahweh set up. Alternate translation: “You may come as far as this boundary, but no farther” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2120

JOB

38

11

iy3q

figs-personification

0

to the pride of your waves

“to the power of your waves.” The waves are spoken of as if they could have pride. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word pride, you could express the same idea with the adjective “proud.” Alternate translation: “to your proud waves” or “to your powerful waves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2121

JOB

38

12

c1ks

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses a question to emphasize that he created the light of day and Job did not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2122

JOB

38

12

b56i

figs-rquestion

0

Yahweh continues to challenge Job. He begins to ask a rhetorical question. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2123

JOB

38

12

hi2g

figs-rquestion

0

Have you … to know its place

This question expects a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have never … shaken the wicked out of it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2124

JOB

38

12

i57a

figs-personification

0

given orders to the morning

Yahweh describes the morning as being able to receive orders and know things like a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2125

JOB

38

12

gc16

0

caused the dawn to know its place

Alternate translation: “caused the dawn to know where it belongs”

2126

JOB

38

12

q9wm

0

dawn

the daylight that appears in the morning sky before the sun rises

2127

JOB

38

13

zak3

0

Connecting Statement:

This is the end of the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Have you given” in verse 12.

2128

JOB

38

13

l3k7

figs-rquestion

0

so that it might take hold … shake the wicked out of it?

This is the end of the rhetorical question that begins with the words “Have you given” in verse 12. This question expects a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “You have never given … so that it might take hold … shaken the wicked out of it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2129

JOB

38

13

s9db

figs-metaphor

0

take hold of the edges of the earth

The light of dawn is spoken of as if it seizes the horizons of the earth. Alternate translation: “grasp the ends of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2130

JOB

38

13

m62q

figs-metaphor

0

shake the wicked out of it

The daylight is pictured as causing wicked people to leave like shaking something to remove unwanted things. Alternate translation: “shake wicked people out of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2131

JOB

38

14

m9rx

figs-simile

0

The earth is changed in appearance like clay changes under a seal

At nighttime, people cannot see clearly, but in the morning the light reveals the distinct shape of everything, just like a seal creates distinct images in clay. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2132

JOB

38

14

dn8y

figs-simile

0

all things on it stand out clearly like the folds of a piece of clothing

Here “it” refers to the earth. This phrase has a similar meaning to the first phrase in this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2133

JOB

38

15

w5i8

figs-activepassive

0

From wicked people their ‘light’ is taken away

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The morning takes away the ‘light’ of wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2134

JOB

38

15

jfq3

figs-irony

0

their ‘light’

The wicked consider darkness to be their light, because they do their evil deeds in the darkness and they are familiar with the darkness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

2135

JOB

38

15

e6v7

figs-metaphor

0

their uplifted arm is broken

The raised arm of the wicked represents their power and intention to do evil things, but the wicked stop doing those evil things when the morning light comes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2136

JOB

38

16

e754

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses five questions to emphasize that he understands the earth and seas and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2137

JOB

38

16

yt52

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2138

JOB

38

16

vy8n

figs-rquestion

0

Have you gone to the sources of the waters of the sea?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have not gone to the sources of the waters of the sea.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2139

JOB

38

16

lcg5

figs-rquestion

0

Have you walked in the lowest parts of the deep?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have not walked in the lowest parts of the deep.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2140

JOB

38

16

kmu4

0

the sources of the waters

Alternate translation: “the springs”

2141

JOB

38

16

jrv9

figs-nominaladj

0

the deep

This refers to the sea or ocean where the water is very deep. Alternate translation: “the deep sea” or “the ocean depths” or “the deep water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

2142

JOB

38

17

a7xy

figs-metaphor

0

Have the gates of death been revealed to you

Death is spoken of as if it were a city that had gates through which people enter into it. This can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “Has anyone shown the gates of death to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2143

JOB

38

17

g37w

0

the shadow of death

See how you translated this in Job 3:5.

2144

JOB

38

18

q2iv

figs-rquestion

0

Have you understood the earth in its expanse?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You do not understand the earth in its expanse.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2145

JOB

38

18

k9n7

0

the earth in its expanse

Alternate translation: “the great broad places of the earth”

2146

JOB

38

18

l8zz

0

if you know it all

Alternate translation: “if you know all about these things”

2147

JOB

38

19

kmt5

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses three questions to emphasize that he understands light and darkness and Job does not. Each of these verses have two parallel phrases. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2148

JOB

38

19

z2nq

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2149

JOB

38

19

p4uw

figs-rquestion

0

Where is the way to the resting place of light—as for darkness, where is its place?

This question can be expressed as a statement. Alternate translation: “You do not know the way to the resting place of light or the place of darkness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2150

JOB

38

19

q3uk

figs-personification

0

the resting place of light

“the dwelling of light.” Light is spoken of as having a resting place from which it comes forth each day. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2151

JOB

38

19

he61

0

light

Alternate translation: “daylight” or “sunlight”

2152

JOB

38

20

d9pc

figs-rquestion

0

Can you lead light and darkness to their places of work? Can you find the way back to their houses for them?

These questions expect a negative answer. They can be expressed as statements. Alternate translation: “You cannot lead light and darkness to their places of work, or find the way back to their houses for them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2153

JOB

38

20

tyy4

figs-personification

0

to their places of work

“to their territory.” Light and darkness are spoken of as being led out and back each day to accomplish Yahweh’s purposes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2154

JOB

38

21

ca1q

figs-irony

0

Undoubtedly … so large

Yahweh uses mocking irony to emphasize that Job does not understand light and darkness. Alternate translation: “It is obvious that you do not know, because you were not born when I created them, and you are not very old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

2155

JOB

38

21

zfd6

0

for you were born then

The word “then” refers to the time when light was created and separated from darkness. Alternate translation: “for you were already born when I created them”

2156

JOB

38

21

hy8k

0

the number of your days is so large

Alternate translation: “you have lived so many years”

2157

JOB

38

22

h59t

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses a question to emphasize that he rules over the natural world and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2158

JOB

38

22

w7gx

figs-rquestion

0

Yahweh continues to challenge Job. He bgins to ask a rhetorical question. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2159

JOB

38

22

sj2h

figs-metaphor

0

storehouses for the snow … storehouses for the hail

Snow and hail are pictured as being stored by Yahweh to do his will. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2160

JOB

38

22

q2qv

0

hail

balls of ice (usually small) that sometimes fall down from the sky during a storm

2161

JOB

38

23

hve3

0

Connecting Statement:

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Have you entered” in verse 22 ends here.

2162

JOB

38

23

vl8g

figs-rquestion

0

these things that I have kept … and war?

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Have you entered” in verse 22 ends here. “You have never entered the storehouses for the snow, and you have never seen the storehouses for the hail, these things that I have kept … and war.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2163

JOB

38

23

fv91

0

these things that I have kept

The words “these things” refer to the snow and the hail (verse 22).

2164

JOB

38

24

ctg6

figs-activepassive

0

What is the path to where the lightning bolts are distributed or to where the winds are scattered from the east over the earth?

These can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “What is the path to where I distribute the lightning bolts or to where I scatter the winds from the east over the earth?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2165

JOB

38

24

auw5

0

the winds are scattered

Alternate translation: “the winds are blown”

2166

JOB

38

25

q4hg

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh questions Job to emphasize that he causes it to rain and thunder and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2167

JOB

38

25

f7pp

figs-rquestion

0

Yahweh continues to challenge Job. He begins to ask a series of rhetorical questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2168

JOB

38

25

eh5t

figs-rquestion

0

Who has created the channels for the floods of rain

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Only I have created the channels for the floods of rain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2169

JOB

38

25

j3xx

figs-rquestion

0

or who has made a path for the thunder

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “and only I have made a path for the thunder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2170

JOB

38

25

ve3k

0

the floods of rain

Alternate translation: “the torrents of rain”

2171

JOB

38

25

cd75

0

a path for the thunder

Alternate translation: “a way for the rumble of thunder to be heard.”

2172

JOB

38

26

g934

figs-parallelism

0

on lands where no person exists, and on the wilderness, in which there is no one

These two phrases have nearly the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2173

JOB

38

26

na1j

0

where no person exists

Alternate translation: “where there are no people”

2174

JOB

38

27

b6m2

figs-rquestion

0

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who has created” in verse 25 ends here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2175

JOB

38

27

lf5w

figs-rquestion

0

to satisfy … sprout with grass?

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who has created” in verse 25 ends here. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “I am the one who has created … of rain, and I am the one who has made … to satisfy … sprout with grass.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2176

JOB

38

27

d9vt

figs-explicit

0

to satisfy

The implied information is that it is the rain that meets the needs of the land to grow grass. Alternate translation: “so that the rain can satisfy the needs of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2177

JOB

38

27

q9sc

figs-hendiadys

0

devastated and desolate

“ruined and wasted.” These two words have nearly the same meaning and emphasize the ruined and empty nature of these regions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

2178

JOB

38

27

v1hz

0

with grass

“the new grass” or “the fresh grass.” This is grass that is just starting to grow.

2179

JOB

38

27

cug4

0

make the ground sprout with

Alternate translation: “make the ground support new grass”

2180

JOB

38

28

t8tq

figs-rquestion

0

Yahweh begins a series of four questions to emphasize to Job that he makes rain, dew, ice, and frost and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]]) Rain, dew, ice, and frost are spoken of as though they could be born like people are. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2181

JOB

38

28

y3ap

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2182

JOB

38

28

be1t

figs-rquestion

0

Does the rain have a father, or, who fathers the drops of dew?

These can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “Tell me who the rain’s father is, and tell me who has become the father of the drops of dew.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2183

JOB

38

28

geg1

figs-metaphor

0

fathers the drops of dew

Becoming the father of the dew is a metaphor for creating it. Alternate translation: “causes the drops of dew to exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2184

JOB

38

29

gw3s

figs-rquestion

0

Out of whose womb did the ice come? Who bore the white frost out of the sky?

These can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “Tell me whose womb the ice came out of. Tell me who bore the white frost out of the sky.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2185

JOB

38

29

fm77

0

ice

Alternate translation: “frozen water”

2186

JOB

38

29

l9y4

0

bore

Alternate translation: “gave birth to”

2187

JOB

38

29

qu6n

0

the white frost

dew that freezes on the ground on cold, clear nights

2188

JOB

38

30

jjp9

figs-personification

0

The waters hide themselves and become like stone

The waters are spoken of as being able to hide. During the winter the ice hides the water underneath it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

2189

JOB

38

30

iw86

figs-simile

0

become like stone

The hardness of ice is spoken of as if it was stone. Alternate translation: “become hard like stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2190

JOB

38

30

cul4

figs-nominaladj

0

the deep

This refers to the sea or ocean where the water is very deep. Alternate translation: “the deep sea” or “the ocean depths” or “the deep water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

2191

JOB

38

31

l2s5

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses five questions to emphasize to Job that he rules the heavens and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2192

JOB

38

31

w86h

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2193

JOB

38

31

rik8

figs-rquestion

0

Can you fasten chains on the Pleiades, or undo the cords of Orion?

These can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “You cannot fasten chains on the Pleiades, and you cannot undo the cords of Orion.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2194

JOB

38

31

kqa9

0

fasten chains on

Alternate translation: “bind chains onto” or “tie the bonds of”

2195

JOB

38

31

p1ai

0

the Pleiades … Orion

These are the names of constellations. See how you translated them in Job 9:9.

2196

JOB

38

31

wb4a

0

undo the cords of Orion

Alternate translation: “loosen the cords that hold Orion”

2197

JOB

38

32

n1r3

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2198

JOB

38

32

ys38

figs-rquestion

0

Can you lead the constellations … proper times? Can you guide … children?

These rhetorical questions can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “You cannot lead the constellations … proper times. You cannot guide … children.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2199

JOB

38

32

lrw6

0

constellations

groups of stars that seem like they form a particular shape in the sky

2200

JOB

38

32

qx9k

0

to appear at their proper times

Alternate translation: “so that they appear at the right time”

2201

JOB

38

32

x8g2

0

the Bear

This is the name of a constellation. Translate as in Job 9:9.

2202

JOB

38

32

a6br

0

its children

Alternate translation: “its cubs”

2203

JOB

38

33

y4fp

figs-rquestion

0

Do you know the regulations of the sky? Could you set in place the sky’s rule over the earth?

These can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “You do not know the regulations of the sky? You could not set in place the sky’s rule over the earth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2204

JOB

38

34

i5q7

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses two questions to emphasize to Job that he rules the rain clouds and lightning and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2205

JOB

38

34

mq7j

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2206

JOB

38

34

tca5

figs-rquestion

0

Can you raise … may cover you?

These can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “You cannot raise … may cover you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2207

JOB

38

34

yh4f

figs-abstractnouns

0

an abundance of rainwater

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word abundance, you could express the same idea with the adjective “abundant.” Alternate translation: “an abundant amount of rainwater” or “a flood of waters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2208

JOB

38

35

na4p

figs-rquestion

0

Can you send out … you, ‘Here we are’?

These can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “You cannot send out you, ‘Here we are!’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2209

JOB

38

35

z4cb

figs-personification

0

Here we are

The lightning bolts are spoken of as servants saying they are ready to follow commands. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2210

JOB

38

36

a9d6

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses three questions to emphasize to Job that he rules the clouds and rain and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2211

JOB

38

36

sx1r

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2212

JOB

38

36

h7ay

figs-rquestion

0

Who has put wisdom in the clouds or has given understanding to the mists?

If your readers would misunderstand these questions, you can express them as statements. Alternate translation: “I am the one who has put wisdom in the clouds and given understanding to the mists.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2213

JOB

38

36

sfx3

0

has put wisdom in the clouds

Alternate translation: “has given wisdom to the clouds”

2214

JOB

38

37

pv86

figs-rquestion

0

A rhetorical question begins here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2215

JOB

38

37

qju4

figs-rquestion

0

Who can pour out the water skins of the sky

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am the one who can pour out the water skins of the sky.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2216

JOB

38

37

w7u7

figs-metaphor

0

the water skins

These are skins that people sew together so that they can hold water. Yahweh refers to the thick clouds as “waters skins” because they hold much water just like water skins. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2217

JOB

38

38

hj6z

figs-rquestion

0

when the dust runs … tightly together?

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who can pour out” in verse 37 ends here. “Only I can pour out … when the dust runs … tightly together.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2218

JOB

38

38

qh39

figs-activepassive

0

when the dust runs into a hard mass

The rain makes the loose dry dirt stick together like one piece of dirt. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when the rain molds the dirt into a hard mass” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2219

JOB

38

38

njw9

0

the clods of earth clump tightly together

Alternate translation: “the lumps of soil stick together”

2220

JOB

38

39

s331

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses a question to emphasize that he knows how to feed the lions and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2221

JOB

38

39

hqx6

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2222

JOB

38

39

f7aw

figs-rquestion

0

Can you hunt down a victim for a lioness or satisfy the appetite of her young lion cubs

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You know that you cannot hunt down a victim for a lioness or satisfy the appetite of her young lion cubs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2223

JOB

38

39

y8rn

0

a victim

“prey.” This is an animal that a lion could eat.

2224

JOB

38

39

i376

0

lioness

This is a female lion.

2225

JOB

38

39

n1pj

0

appetite

hunger

2226

JOB

38

39

j1aw

0

of her young lion cubs

“of young lions.” These are young lions that are old enough to hunt for themselves.

2227

JOB

38

40

awl8

0

Connecting Statement:

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Can you hunt” in verse 39 ends here.

2228

JOB

38

40

yb24

figs-rquestion

0

when they are crouching … to lie in wait?

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Can you hunt” in verse 39 ends here. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “You know that you cannot hunt down … when they are crouching … to lie in wait.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2229

JOB

38

40

hu7v

0

dens

A “den” is a lair or shelter where lions live.

2230

JOB

38

40

g23n

0

sheltering in hiding

“hiding in a thicket.” Lions hide in thick vegetation when hunting their prey.

2231

JOB

38

40

fx6l

figs-explicit

0

to lie in wait

The implied information is that the lions are hiding and waiting for their prey to come near. Alternate translation: “to lie waiting for a victim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2232

JOB

38

41

t9jb

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses a question to emphasize that he provides food for the ravens and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2233

JOB

38

41

u1rq

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2234

JOB

38

41

sxy9

figs-rquestion

0

Who provides victims … for lack of food?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tell me who provides victims … for lack of food.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2235

JOB

38

41

f3g8

0

provides victims

“provides food.” This refers to animals that ravens look for and can eat.

2236

JOB

38

41

hc2b

0

ravens

large birds with shiny black feathers that feed on dead animals

2237

JOB

38

41

y9ey

figs-explicit

0

cry out to God

The implied information is that the ravens are crying out for food. Alternate translation: “cry to God for help” or “cry out for God to give them food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2238

JOB

38

41

nde9

0

stagger about

This means to walk around in an unsteady way.

2239

JOB

38

41

i8kr

0

for lack of food

Alternate translation: “because they have no food” or “because they have nothing to eat”

2240

JOB

39

intro

l9e1

0

Job 39 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The ULT sets the lines of this chapter farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text because it is a poem. Yahweh continues to speak in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s greatness

Yahweh is far greater than any man. He is the creator of the earth, and his ways will not always be understood by men because their knowledge is always limited. Since Job cannot understand creation, he cannot truly understand Yahweh.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Yahweh uses a series of rhetorical questions in this chapter in order to defend his character. Many of these questions focus on nature because Yahweh is the creator of the heavens and the earth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

2241

JOB

39

1

b1wa

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses four questions to emphasize that he is greater than Job because Yahweh takes care of the wild mountain goats and deer and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2242

JOB

39

1

sw6i

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2243

JOB

39

1

m8kw

figs-rquestion

0

Do you know at what time … bear their young?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Surely you do not know when … bear their young!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2244

JOB

39

1

d7nh

figs-rquestion

0

Can you watch when the deer are having their fawns?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are not able to watch to make sure everything goes well when the deer give birth to their fawns!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2245

JOB

39

1

j6ic

0

are having their fawns

Alternate translation: “give birth to their fawns”

2246

JOB

39

2

phe5

figs-rquestion

0

Can you count the months that they gestate?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You cannot count the months that they are pregnant.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2247

JOB

39

2

nrm8

0

that they gestate

Alternate translation: “to complete their pregnancy”

2248

JOB

39

2

w95t

0

they

The word “they” refers to the goats and the deer.

2249

JOB

39

2

w3w9

0

gestate

Alternate translation: “are pregnant”

2250

JOB

39

2

txy4

figs-rquestion

0

Do you know the time when they bear their young?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Of course you do not know when they give birth to their young.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2251

JOB

39

3

sq9c

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2252

JOB

39

3

uj6h

0

They crouch down

The word “They” refers to the wild mountain goats and the deer.

2253

JOB

39

3

rvs4

0

birth their young

Alternate translation: “give birth to their offspring”

2254

JOB

39

3

n62w

figs-metonymy

0

then they finish their labor pains

This could mean: (1) their labor pains are over when the birth is finished or (2) “labor pains” is a metonym that refers to the offspring of the goats and deer because they are the result of the mother’s labor and pain. Alternate translation: “send out their offspring from their womb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2255

JOB

39

4

wey9

0

the open fields

Alternate translation: “the countryside” or “the wild”

2256

JOB

39

4

v8ps

0

do not come back again

Alternate translation: “do not come back to them” or “do not come back to their mothers”

2257

JOB

39

5

p64r

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses two questions to emphasize that he is greater than Job because Yahweh takes care of the wild donkeys and Job does not. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2258

JOB

39

5

g9xs

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2259

JOB

39

5

twv9

figs-rquestion

0

Who let the wild donkey go free?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am the one who let the wild donkey go free.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2260

JOB

39

5

x4tg

0

the wild donkey … the swift donkey

These are different names for the same kind of donkey.

2261

JOB

39

5

mg7f

figs-rquestion

0

Who has untied the bonds of the swift donkey

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am the one who untied the bonds of the swift donkey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2262

JOB

39

5

pp7e

0

bonds

ropes, chains, or straps that hold an animal and keep it from running away

2263

JOB

39

6

dku4

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who has untied” in verse 5 ends here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2264

JOB

39

6

z26m

figs-rquestion

0

whose home I have made … in the salt land?

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Who has untied” in verse 5 ends here. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. “I am the one who has untied … whose home I have made in the Arabah, his house in the salt land.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2265

JOB

39

6

qyi5

figs-personification

0

whose home I have made in the Arabah

Yahweh describes the donkey as though he were a person that had a house. “I gave him the Arabah as a place to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2266

JOB

39

6

hfq8

0

the salt land

the land around the Salt Sea that has a lot of salt in it

2267

JOB

39

7

b9s6

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2268

JOB

39

7

j9rx

0

He

The word “He” refers to the wild donkey.

2269

JOB

39

7

m4ln

figs-personification

0

laughs in scorn

Yahweh describes the donkey as though he were a person. The donkey laughs because those in the city have to hear loud noise, but he lives in a quiet place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2270

JOB

39

7

rpn6

0

the driver’s

someone who forces an animal to work

2271

JOB

39

8

t3sa

0

pastures

places where animals can eat plants growing in the field

2272

JOB

39

9

u4vx

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Here Yahweh uses four questions to emphasize that Job is not like Yahweh because Job cannot control the wild ox. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2273

JOB

39

9

s6zs

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2274

JOB

39

9

ss2c

figs-rquestion

0

Will the wild ox be happy to serve you?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “The wild ox will not be happy to serve you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2275

JOB

39

9

yl5m

0

the wild ox

This could mean: (1) a type of ox that used to live in the wild or (2) some kind of buffalo that looked like oxen.

2276

JOB

39

9

f9tw

0

be happy

Alternate translation: “be willing”

2277

JOB

39

9

v7dg

figs-rquestion

0

Will he consent to stay by your manger?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He will not consent to stay by your manger.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2278

JOB

39

9

t1u5

0

consent to stay by your manger

Alternate translation: “stay by your manger through the night”

2279

JOB

39

9

sgz6

0

manger

something that holds food so that animals can eat it

2280

JOB

39

10

iqy5

figs-rquestion

0

Can you use ropes to hold the wild ox in the furrows?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You cannot control the wild ox with a rope in order to plow furrows in your fields.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2281

JOB

39

10

mt1p

0

ropes

Farmers would tie ropes to animals’ heads or necks in order to lead them.

2282

JOB

39

10

gny8

0

furrows

These are long channels made in the dirt while plowing. See how you translated this in Job 31:38.

2283

JOB

39

10

g8w9

figs-rquestion

0

Will he harrow the valleys as he follows after you?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He will never harrow the valleys as he follows after you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2284

JOB

39

10

uq7t

0

harrow

to smooth and break up the soil

2285

JOB

39

11

b4gj

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Here Yahweh uses three questions to continue his argument that Job is not like Yahweh because Job cannot control the wild ox. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2286

JOB

39

11

epz6

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2287

JOB

39

11

au79

figs-rquestion

0

Will you trust him because his strength is great?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You cannot trust him because his strength is great.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2288

JOB

39

11

zx9v

0

trust him

The word “him” refers to the “wild ox.”

2289

JOB

39

11

cgj2

figs-rquestion

0

Will you leave your work to him to do?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You will not be able to make him do your work for you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2290

JOB

39

11

f3u1

0

leave your work to him to do

Alternate translation: “have him do your hard work for you”

2291

JOB

39

12

ht1z

figs-rquestion

0

Will you depend on him … grain for your threshing floor?

These two clauses basically mean the same thing. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You will not be able to depend on him … grain for your threshing floor.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2292

JOB

39

13

g5i9

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2293

JOB

39

13

xrh3

figs-rquestion

0

The wings of the ostrich … pinions and plumage of love?

Yahweh uses this question to emphasize that Job cannot explain why ostriches behave the way they do. Alternate translation: “You do not know whether the pinions and plumage of the ostrich represent love when they wave their wings proudly.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2294

JOB

39

13

c9hc

0

ostrich

a very large bird that can run very fast but cannot fly

2295

JOB

39

13

k698

0

wave proudly

Alternate translation: “move with joy”

2296

JOB

39

13

b62x

0

pinions

the very long feathers on the wings of birds

2297

JOB

39

13

y8q9

0

plumage

the smaller feathers that cover the body of a bird

2298

JOB

39

13

a7t4

0

of love

The Hebrew word is uncertain. This could mean: (1) “of faithfulness” or (2) “of a stork.” The name of the stork meant “the faithful one” or “the loving one” because people knew that storks take very good care of their chicks.

2299

JOB

39

14

ix8t

0

on the earth

Alternate translation: “on the ground”

2300

JOB

39

15

eg2i

0

crush them

The word “them” refers to the eggs.

2301

JOB

39

15

p8ek

0

trample them

Alternate translation: “step on them”

2302

JOB

39

16

n7gh

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2303

JOB

39

16

dn58

0

She deals roughly

The word “She” refers to the female ostrich.

2304

JOB

39

16

u9gc

0

her labor

the work that she does when she lays the eggs

2305

JOB

39

16

uqn1

figs-explicit

0

might have been in vain

If the chicks die, all of her work was useless. Alternate translation: “might have been useless if the chicks die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2306

JOB

39

17

jm95

0

deprived her of wisdom

Alternate translation: “made her forget wisdom” or “not given her wisdom”

2307

JOB

39

17

c8hu

0

understanding

See how you translated this in Job 11:6.

2308

JOB

39

18

bd6w

0

When she runs

This verse is in contrast to her weakness in caring for her chicks. Alternate translation: “However, when she runs”

2309

JOB

39

18

y8sh

figs-explicit

0

she laughs … its rider

It is implied that she laughs because she is faster than the horse. Alternate translation: “she laughs … its rider because she can run faster than the horse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2310

JOB

39

19

j9tb

figs-rquestion

0

General Information:

Yahweh uses three questions to emphasize that Job is not like Yahweh because Job cannot control the wild horse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2311

JOB

39

19

ma5j

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2312

JOB

39

19

jg2w

figs-rquestion

0

Have you given the horse his strength?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have never given the horse his strength.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2313

JOB

39

19

sul3

figs-rquestion

0

Did you clothe his neck with his flowing mane?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You cannot clothe his neck with his flowing mane.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2314

JOB

39

19

z5th

figs-metonymy

0

clothe his neck with his flowing mane

The horse’s “mane” is spoken of as if it was clothing for the neck of the horse. Alternate translation: “made his flowing main to cover his neck like clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2315

JOB

39

19

j215

0

flowing mane

the long hair on the top of the neck of a horse

2316

JOB

39

20

lpb2

figs-rquestion

0

Have you ever made him jump like a locust?

If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are not able to make him jump like a locust.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2317

JOB

39

20

ul5g

0

a locust

a large kind of grasshopper that can jump very far and very quickly

2318

JOB

39

20

mh2c

0

snorting

a very loud sound that horses make with their nose

2319

JOB

39

21

c17t

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2320

JOB

39

21

gcq9

figs-explicit

0

He paws

The word “He” refers to the horse. The horse paws the ground because he is very excited to begin the fight. Alternate translation: “He paws with excitement and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2321

JOB

39

21

nvw4

0

paws

Alternate translation: “digs at the ground with his hooves”

2322

JOB

39

21

k6rc

figs-metonymy

0

to meet the weapons

Here “the weapons” represent the battle in which they are used. Alternate translation: “to join in the battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2323

JOB

39

22

vse1

0

He mocks fear

Alternate translation: “He is not afraid at all”

2324

JOB

39

22

juq5

0

mocks

Alternate translation: “laughs at”

2325

JOB

39

22

qlb7

0

dismayed

discouraged

2326

JOB

39

22

uk9z

0

does not turn back

Alternate translation: “does not run away”

2327

JOB

39

23

cvi2

0

quiver

a container that holds arrows

2328

JOB

39

23

ldn9

0

rattles

shakes and makes noise

2329

JOB

39

23

i34d

0

flank

the side of a horse

2330

JOB

39

23

q76b

0

javelin

a long stick with a sharp end that people throw at their enemies

2331

JOB

39

24

r5sq

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2332

JOB

39

24

frz2

0

He

The word “He” refers to the horse.

2333

JOB

39

24

sh13

figs-metaphor

0

swallows up ground

The horse runs over the ground so quickly that the ground passes by like water that a person drinks. Alternate translation: “runs very fast over the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2334

JOB

39

24

bkv1

0

with fierceness and rage

The horse is very excited, so he moves quickly and strongly.

2335

JOB

39

24

kx1q

figs-explicit

0

at the trumpet’s sound

It can be stated that someone blows the trumpet. Alternate translation: “when someone blows a trumpet to announce that a battle has begun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2336

JOB

39

24

yf1b

0

he cannot stand in one place

Alternate translation: “he is too excited to stand still”

2337

JOB

39

25

q35d

figs-personification

0

he says, ‘Aha

The word “Aha” is a sound people make when they discover something. The horse makes a sound because he has discovered the battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2338

JOB

39

25

nry6

figs-explicit

0

the thunderous shouts

It is implied that the horse hears these things. Alternate translation: “he hears the thunderous shouts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2339

JOB

39

25

i8r5

0

the outcries

“the battle cries.” People have special shouts that they use in war to show their great strength and bravery and to scare the enemy.

2340

JOB

39

26

i2wf

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2341

JOB

39

26

e41g

figs-rquestion

0

Is it by your wisdom … for the south?

Yahweh uses this question to prove that Job is not as great as Yahweh. The implicit answer to this question is “no.” Alternate translation: “It is not by your wisdom … for the south.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2342

JOB

39

26

rx7s

figs-metonymy

0

stretches out his wings for the south

Here the stretching out of his wings refers to flying. Alternate translation: “flies to the south” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2343

JOB

39

26

ckg8

0

for the south

In the biblical geography, birds fly south during the winter in order to live in warmer climates.

2344

JOB

39

27

bv18

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2345

JOB

39

27

qk6s

figs-rquestion

0

Is it at your orders … nest in high places?

Yahweh uses this question to prove that Job is not powerful enough to command the eagles. The implicit answer to this question is “no.” Alternate translation: “You are not able to command the eagle to mount up and build his nest in high places.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2346

JOB

39

27

cd7k

figs-abstractnouns

0

at your orders

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word orders, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “because you tell it to do so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2347

JOB

39

27

cz3r

figs-idiom

0

mounts up

This means he flies upward. Alternate translation: “flies up into the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2348

JOB

39

28

u8qm

0

a stronghold

The high cliffs are strongholds for eagles because the animals that would want to eat them cannot reach them.

2349

JOB

39

29

ps15

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues to challenge Job.

2350

JOB

39

29

ak87

0

he searches for victims

Here the word “he” refers to the eagle.

2351

JOB

39

29

e6kd

0

for victims

Alternate translation: “for animals that he can kill and eat”

2352

JOB

39

29

t32l

figs-synecdoche

0

his eyes see them

Here “his eyes” refer to the eagle. Alternate translation: “he sees them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2353

JOB

39

30

e2b5

0

His young

It may be helpful to state that this happens after the eagle kills and animal. Alternate translation: “After an eagle kills an animal, the baby eagles”

2354

JOB

39

30

s29l

0

drink up blood

Alternate translation: “drink the blood of the animal that he killed”

2355

JOB

39

30

iv5j

0

where killed people are

“where there are dead people.” This phrase refers to dead bodies that are lying out in the open, not to bodies that are buried in the ground.

2356

JOB

39

30

nx3p

figs-explicit

0

there he is

It can be made explicit that he comes to eat the dead bodies. Alternate translation: “he is there to eat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2357

JOB

40

intro

k9mj

0

Job 40 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations prefer to set apart extended quotations, prayers, or songs. The ULT and many other English translations set the lines of 40:1-2, 4-5, 7-24, which are extended quotations of Job and Yahweh, farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text.

Special concepts in this chapter

Job’s righteousness

In seeking to defend his own righteousness, Job accuses Yahweh of being unjust. Yahweh asks a very important question: “Will you condemn me so you may claim you are right?” This is the essence of Job’s error.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Irony

Yahweh states, “He who argues with God, let him answer.” Job immediately answers him. This is irony. While Job is forced to acknowledge the power of Yahweh, he does not repent of his former st