unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.

315 KiB

1BookChapterVerseIDSupportReferenceOrigQuoteOccurrenceGLQuoteOccurrenceNote
2

2SA

front

intro

bs9v

0

Introduction to 2 Samuel

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of 2 Samuel

  1. The first years of David’s reign (1:1–7:29)
    • Saul is killed; David is kind to Ishbosheth (1:1–4:12)
    • David defeats the Philistines (5:1–25)
    • Victories, the ark, the house of God (6:1–7:29)
  2. David extends his rule to all the Promised Land (8:1–10:19)
  3. David’s sin with Bathsheba (11:1–12:31)
  4. Amnon and Tamar; Absalom kills Amnon (13:1–14:33)
  5. The later years of David’s reign (15:1–24:25)
    • Absalom rebels and is killed (15:1–18:33)
    • David’s kingdom restored (19:1–20:26)
    • Famine and warfare (21:1–14)
    • David’s song of praise (22:1–23:7)
    • David’s mighty men (23:8–39)
    • Yahweh judges David’s sin of numbering the people; the plague stopped (24:1–25)

What is the Book of 2 Samuel about?

This book is about David ruling as king over Israel. He first ruled over the tribe of Judah for seven years. Then the other eleven tribes agreed to have him become their king. He ruled over all Israel for thirty-three years.

Throughout this time, David led his army to fight foreign enemies who attacked Israel. However, he struggled the most against someone in his own family. Absalom, his son, rebelled and fought against him (2 Samuel 13-19).

The Book of 2 Samuel also tells about when David sinned greatly. He slept with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. When she became pregnant, David arranged for Uriah to be killed in battle. David and all Israel suffered much because of David’s sin. However, the writer also tells of Yahweh repeatedly showing David grace and love after David repented of his sin.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators can use the traditional title “2 Samuel,” or “Second Samuel.” Or translators may consider a clearer title such as “The Second Book about Samuel, Saul, and David.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

What was the purpose of the Book of 2 Samuel?

The Book of 2 Samuel begins where 1 Samuel ended. The writer continues to show how the tribes of Israel unite under the first kings of Israel. The Book of 2 Samuel centers around David as the king Yahweh chose to lead Israel.

Who wrote the Book of 2 Samuel?

It is uncertain who wrote 2 Samuel. It may have been someone alive soon after King Solomon died. When Solomon died, the kingdom of Israel split into two kingdoms. The author probably lived in the southern kingdom of Judah. A descendant of David continued to rule over the southern kingdom. The author may have written 2 Samuel to defend David’s right to be king. This would prove that David’s descendant was the rightful king of God’s people.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What covenant had its beginning in the Book of 2 Samuel?

In 2 Samuel 7, Yahweh made a covenant with David. God promised to make a descendant of David rule forever over Israel. Christians believe that Jesus Christ fulfills this covenant. Jesus was a descendant of David. Jesus is the true “anointed one,” the person God chose to be king forever. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Why does the book refer to someone being addressed indirectly?

David frequently refers to himself as “your servant” when he speaks to King Saul. He also calls Saul “my master.” Indirectly addressing a person in this way can be difficult to translate. It is intended to show that the speaker submits to the one being addressed. English sometimes uses the address “sir” or “ma’am” in this way.

Can I translate this book before 1 Samuel?

The Book of 1 Samuel should be translated before 2 Samuel, since 2 Samuel continues from where 1 Samuel ends.

How is the name “Israel” used in the Bible?

The name “Israel” is used in many different ways in the Bible. Jacob was the son of Isaac. God changed his name to Israel. The descendants of Jacob became a nation also called Israel. Eventually, the nation of Israel split into two kingdoms. The northern kingdom was named Israel. The southern kingdom was named Judah. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/israel]])

2 Samuel speaks of both the northern kingdom of Israel and the whole nation of Israel as “Israel.” However, these references appear in the narrative long before the two kingdoms split apart. It seems clear that the references to Israel and Judah indicate that the author wrote 2 Samuel at a time after the kingdoms split. (See: 2 Samuel 2:10; 2 Samuel 3:10; 2 Samuel 5:5; 2 Samuel 11:11; 2 Samuel 12:8; 2 Samuel 19:42-43; 2 Samuel 21:2; 2 Samuel 24:1).

3

2SA

1

intro

la44

0

2 Samuel 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetic song in 1:19-27.

This chapter continues the material from 1 Samuel.

Special concepts in this chapter

David’s funeral song

David praised Saul and Jonathan as great warriors and Jonathan as his dearest friend.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Synecdoche

David used two figures of speech to express that Jonathan and Saul were great warriors: “the bow of Jonathan did not turn back, and the sword of Saul did not return empty.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

4

2SA

1

1

q125

translate-names

0

Ziklag

This is the name of a city in the southern part of Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

5

2SA

1

2

vci9

translate-ordinal

0

On the third day

“After three days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

6

2SA

1

2

v6vv

translate-symaction

0

with his clothes torn and with dirt on his head

In this culture, tearing one’s own clothes and putting dirt on one’s head was an act of mourning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

7

2SA

1

2

js3t

translate-symaction

0

he lay facedown on the ground and prostrated himself

This was an act of showing submission to David, who was now the king of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

8

2SA

1

4

j45j

0

Many have fallen and many are dead

This could mean: (1) “Many were wounded and many were killed” or (2) “Many were wounded and killed.”

9

2SA

1

6

uks7

0

By chance I happened to be

This statement emphasizes that the man did not plan to meet Saul.

10

2SA

1

6

g386

figs-euphemism

0

Saul was leaning on his spear

This could mean: (1) Saul was weak and using the spear to support himself or (2) Saul was attempting to kill himself by falling on his own spear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

11

2SA

1

8

x88n

figs-quotations

0

He said to me, ‘Who are you?’ I answered him, ‘I am an Amalekite.’

These direct quotations could be stated as indirect speech. Alternate translation: “He asked me who I was, and I told him that I am an Amalekite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

12

2SA

1

8

nvy8

0

I am an Amalekite

These are the same people David just finishing attacking in 2 Samuel 1:1.

13

2SA

1

9

t8ly

figs-personification

0

great suffering has taken hold of me

Saul’s suffering is spoken of as something terrible that has grabbed hold of him. Alternate translation: “I am suffering terribly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

14

2SA

1

9

he7b

figs-idiom

0

life is still in me

This idiom means he is still alive. Alternate translation: “I am still alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

15

2SA

1

10

fh71

0

he would not live after he had fallen

Alternate translation: “he would die anyway”

16

2SA

1

11

lzf2

translate-symaction

0

David tore his clothes … the men with him did the same

David and his men tore their clothes as a sign of mourning for the death of King Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

17

2SA

1

12

j5yt

figs-parallelism

0

for the people of Yahweh, and for the house of Israel

Both statements mean basically same thing. The word “house” is a metonym that represents the descendants of Israel. But, both “people” and “house” probably are a synecdoche representing the soldiers of Israel. Alternate translation: “for the Israelite soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

18

2SA

1

12

v2al

0

Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

19

2SA

1

12

h78c

figs-euphemism

0

they had fallen by the sword

Here “fallen” is a polite way of referring to being killed. Also, “sword” represents a battle. This here means “had been killed.” Alternate translation: “they had died in battle” or “enemies had killed them in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

20

2SA

1

13

tje8

0

Where are you from?

The man had already stated that he is an Amalekite in 2 Samuel 1:8. David apparently asks the man to confirm this because of the serious judgment that David was going to pronounce on the man.

21

2SA

1

14

f3mp

figs-rquestion

0

Why were you not afraid to kill Yahweh’s anointed … hand?

This rhetorical question is used to rebuke the man. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should have feared Yahweh and not killed his anointed … hand!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

22

2SA

1

14

gdq9

0

Yahweh’s anointed king

This refers to Saul.

23

2SA

1

14

llc8

figs-metonymy

0

with your own hand

This phrase refers to doing something yourself. Alternate translation: “yourself” or “personally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

24

2SA

1

15

k3ww

figs-idiom

0

struck him down

This idiom means “killed him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

25

2SA

1

16

sv2e

figs-metonymy

0

Your blood is on your head

Here “blood” is a metonym that implies “shed blood” and is associated with death. Here “your head” is a synecdoche referring to the man and means that he is responsible. Alternate translation: “You are responsible for your own death” or “You have caused your own death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

26

2SA

1

16

e596

figs-synecdoche

0

your own mouth has testified against you

Here “your own mouth” refers to the man himself. Alternate translation: “you have testified against yourself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

27

2SA

1

17

k1zm

0

General Information:

David sings a song of mourning for Saul and Jonathan.

28

2SA

1

18

xw5d

0

Song of the Bow

This was the title of the song.

29

2SA

1

18

rz25

writing-background

0

which has been written in the Book of Jashar

This is background information added to tell the reader what happened to the song in the future. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

30

2SA

1

18

h5m5

translate-names

0

the Book of Jashar

The word “Jashar” means “upright.” Alternate translation: “the Book of the Upright” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

31

2SA

1

19

bch8

figs-metonymy

0

Your glory, Israel, is dead

“Your glory” refers to Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

32

2SA

1

19

luf3

figs-metonymy

0

the mighty

The phrase “the mighty” refers to both Saul and Jonathan. This nominal adjective is plural, and can be stated as “the mighty ones.”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

33

2SA

1

19

v53l

figs-euphemism

0

have fallen

The word “fallen” here means “died.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

34

2SA

1

20

as79

figs-parallelism

0

Do not tell it in Gath … do not proclaim it in the streets of Ashkelon

These two phrases mean the same thing and are repeated as part of the poetry of the song. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

35

2SA

1

20

new3

0

Gath … Ashkelon

Gath and Ashkelon are two of the Philistines’ major cities. The Philistines killed Saul and Jonathan.

36

2SA

1

20

m8lh

figs-parallelism

0

so that the daughters of the Philistines may not rejoice … so that the daughters of the uncircumcised may not celebrate

These two phrases mean the same thing and are repeated as part of the poetry of the song. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

37

2SA

1

20

kk6n

figs-metonymy

0

the daughters of the uncircumcised

This phrase refers to people who do not follow Yahweh, such as the Philistines. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

38

2SA

1

21

yma7

figs-apostrophe

0

Mountains of Gilboa

David speaks directly to the “Mountains of Gilboa” as if they were listening to his song. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

39

2SA

1

21

k9a4

0

let there not be dew or rain on you

David curses the ground where King Saul died in the battle. This was out of reverence for Saul, who was God’s anointed king.

40

2SA

1

21

nbh3

figs-metonymy

0

the shield of the mighty was defiled

The “mighty” here refers to Saul. The shield was defiled because it fell on the ground, and because the king’s blood was shed on it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

41

2SA

1

21

bh3a

0

The shield of Saul is no longer anointed with oil

Saul’s shield was made of leather. To care for the shield, it was rubbed with oil. Alternate translation: “No one will care for Saul’s shield anymore”

42

2SA

1

22

i5nk

figs-parallelism

0

From the blood of those who have been killed, from the bodies of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan did not turn back, and the sword of Saul did not return empty

Saul and Jonathan are shown here to have been fierce and valiant warriors. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

43

2SA

1

22

px2s

figs-personification

0

the sword of Saul did not return empty

Saul’s sword is spoken of as if it were a living thing that could return on its own. Rather than return empty, it was carrying the blood of Saul’s enemies that it killed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

44

2SA

1

23

zvc3

0

in their death they were not separated

The phrase “were not separated” is used to emphasize that they were always together. Alternate translation: “even in death they were together”

45

2SA

1

23

k29g

figs-metaphor

0

They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions.

Saul and Jonathan were spoken of as if they were faster than eagles and stronger than lions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

46

2SA

1

24

b7wi

figs-parallelism

0

who clothed you in scarlet as well as jewels, and who put ornaments of gold on your clothing

“who provided you nice clothes and jewelry.” These two phrases share similar meanings that describe providing the women with expensive, attractive clothing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

47

2SA

1

25

lw46

0

How the mighty have fallen in the midst of the battle

This phrase is repeated in verse 27 to emphasize that Israel’s best warriors are dead. Alternate translation: “The mighty men have died in battle”

48

2SA

1

25

s578

figs-nominaladj

0

the mighty

Here “mighty” is plural and may refer to only Saul and Jonathan, or to all of the soldiers of Israel. Alternate translation: “the mighty warriors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

49

2SA

1

25

ap6l

figs-euphemism

0

have fallen

This is a polite way to say “have died.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

50

2SA

1

25

l3rx

figs-activepassive

0

Jonathan is killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Jonathan has died in battle” or “The enemy has killed Jonathan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

51

2SA

1

25

i3z2

figs-apostrophe

0

on your high places

David continues to address this part of the song to the mountains of Gilboa as he started in 2 Samuel 1:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

52

2SA

1

26

eg6m

0

my brother Jonathan

Here “brother” is used in the sense of a very close friend.

53

2SA

1

26

l4ln

0

Your love to me was wonderful, exceeding the love of women

Here “love” is used in the sense of friendship and loyalty. Jonathan’s loyalty to David was even greater than the loyalty a woman has for her husband and children.

54

2SA

2

intro

k322

0

2 Samuel 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins the story of the civil war between Saul’s son and David.

Special concepts in this chapter

Civil war

There was a civil war in Israel. David was made king of Judah and Saul’s uncle (Abner) made Saul’s son (Ishbosheth) king of the rest of Israel. When they fought each other, Abner killed Joab’s brother, but David’s army was victorious.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical question

Abner finally stopped the battle with a rhetorical question to David’s army. “Must the sword devour forever?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

55

2SA

2

1

lt47

0

After this

Alternate translation: “After David mourned the deaths of Saul and Jonathan in battle”

56

2SA

2

1

ncw1

0

go up to one of the cities of Judah

At this time David was in the city of Ziklag. David used the phrase “go up” because Ziklag was lower in elevation than Judah. Alternate translation: “travel to one of the cities of Judah”

57

2SA

2

2

x7ln

0

David went up with his two wives

At this time David was in the city of Ziklag. The narrator uses the phrase “went up” because Ziklag was lower in elevation than Hebron. Alternate translation: “David traveled to Hebron with his two wives”

58

2SA

2

4

jw8k

translate-symaction

0

anointed David king

In this symbolic act, they poured oil on David’s head to show that he was selected to be the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

59

2SA

2

4

gc4b

0

the house of Judah

Here “house” is used in the sense of “tribe.” Alternate translation: “the tribe of Judah”

60

2SA

2

4

h1l8

translate-names

0

Jabesh Gilead

This is the name of a town in the region of Gilead. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

61

2SA

2

6

c5wi

0

General Information:

David speaks to the people of Jabesh Gilead.

62

2SA

2

6

jp9r

0

this thing

They buried Saul.

63

2SA

2

7

ss4u

figs-synecdoche

0

let your hands be strong

Here “hands” refers to the people of Jabesh Gilead. Alternate translation: “be strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

64

2SA

2

7

c3td

translate-symaction

0

anointed me king

In this symbolic act, they poured oil on David’s head to show that he was selected to be the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

65

2SA

2

8

m5pw

translate-names

0

Ner … Ishbosheth

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

66

2SA

2

8

i3ah

translate-names

0

Mahanaim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

67

2SA

2

9

e9wt

translate-names

0

Gilead … Jezreel

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

68

2SA

2

10

fb37

figs-idiom

0

the house of Judah followed David

Obeying David’s rule is spoken of as “following” him. Alternate translation: “the tribe of Judah obeyed David as their king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

69

2SA

2

10

kz8s

0

house of Judah

Here “house” is used to mean “tribe.”

70

2SA

2

12

t3hi

translate-names

0

Abner … Ner … Ishbosheth … Saul

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

71

2SA

2

13

n2wn

translate-names

0

Zeruiah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

72

2SA

2

16

ni8p

figs-euphemism

0

they fell down together

This is a polite way of saying they died. Alternate translation: “they both died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

73

2SA

2

16

x416

translate-names

0

Helkath Hazzurim

This is a name given to remind people what happened there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

74

2SA

2

17

gm4c

figs-explicit

0

The battle was very severe that day

It may be helpful to explicitly state that this was the large battle that followed the contest of the young men. Alternate translation: “Then the others started to fight also. It was a very fierce battle that day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

75

2SA

2

18

smv9

translate-names

0

Zeruiah … Joab … Abishai … Asahel

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

76

2SA

2

18

n11n

figs-simile

0

Asahel was swift in his feet like a wild gazelle

Here Asahel is compared to a gazelle, an animal that runs very fast. Alternate translation: “Asahel could run very fast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

77

2SA

2

18

aak9

0

wild gazelle

This small, four-legged animal, with two long horns on its head, runs very fast.

78

2SA

2

19

mmf2

translate-names

0

Abner

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

79

2SA

2

19

j8wb

0

followed him without turning away in any direction

Here “without turning away” is stated in negative form to emphasize how closely he followed Abner’s path. Alternate translation: “followed him wherever he went”

80

2SA

2

20

jd6r

translate-names

0

Asahel

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

81

2SA

2

21

we6k

0

Turn aside to your right or to your left … turn aside

Alternate translation: “Stop chasing me … stop chasing Abner”

82

2SA

2

21

ck9f

figs-euphemism

0

seize one of the young men and take his armor

Abner was asking Asahel to kill and plunder another younger soldier who would not be as dangerous as Abner. He did not want to kill Asahel. Alternate translation: “fight with another soldier and take his equipment as plunder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

83

2SA

2

22

mpv8

figs-rquestion

0

Why should I strike you to the ground?

This rhetorical question is used to warn Asahel of the danger he faced. “Strike to the ground” is a polite way of saying “to kill.” Alternate translation: “I do not wish to kill you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

84

2SA

2

22

k44v

figs-rquestion

0

How then could I hold up my face to Joab, your brother?

This rhetorical question emphasizes that Abner does not want to fight and kill Asahel because it would destroy Abner’s relationship with Joab. Here “hold up my face to Joab” is an idiom that means that he would be too ashamed to look at Joab. Alternate translation: “I would be too ashamed to look at your brother, Joab” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

85

2SA

2

23

y5pa

0

turn aside

This means to “halt” or “stop chasing.”

86

2SA

2

23

eb53

figs-explicit

0

the blunt end of his spear

This refers to the handle, which is not sharp or designed to pierce anything. It can be implied that Abner was only trying to stop Asahel from following him, and did not intend to kill him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

87

2SA

2

24

dk79

translate-names

0

Abishai

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

88

2SA

2

24

ja3r

translate-names

0

hill of Ammah … Giah

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

89

2SA

2

26

w79x

0

Abner called

Alternate translation: “Abner shouted” or “Abner yelled”

90

2SA

2

26

bju9

figs-rquestion

0

Must the sword devour forever?

This rhetorical question emphasizes that the battle had already continued too long. Here “sword” refers to the fighting. The killing in the battle is spoken of as if a wild animal was eating the soldiers. Alternate translation: “We do not need to keep using our swords to fight and kill each other.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

91

2SA

2

26

ukm3

figs-rquestion

0

Do you not know it will be bitter in the end?

This rhetorical question is used to force Joab to acknowledge that continued fighting could only result in more suffering. Here “bitter” is a euphemism for the terrible suffering that would occur. Alternate translation: “You know very well that there will be a terrible result if this continues!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

92

2SA

2

26

e6un

figs-rquestion

0

How long will it be before you tell your men to stop pursuing their brothers?

This rhetorical question is intended to convince Joab to stop fighting their fellow Israelites. Here “brother” is used to represent the members of the nation of Israel. Alternate translation: “Stop this now so that Israelites will not have to kill each other!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

93

2SA

2

27

yh65

0

Just as God lives

This is a very strong vow. Alternate translation: “With God as my witness” or “God will affirm that I mean what I say”

94

2SA

2

27

gze5

figs-hypo

0

if you had not said that … pursued their brothers until the morning

This hypothetical statement tells what might have happened if Abner had not spoken wisely to Joab. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

95

2SA

2

28

qt3n

figs-explicit

0

blew the trumpet

Trumpets were used to signal orders to the armies across great distances. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

96

2SA

2

28

zk88

figs-synecdoche

0

did not pursue Israel

Here “Israel” refers to the Israelite soldiers. Alternate translation: “did not continue to chase the Israelite soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

97

2SA

2

29

g9ir

translate-names

0

Arabah … Mahanaim

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

98

2SA

2

30

ju9l

translate-names

0

Asahel

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

99

2SA

2

31

e92j

0

360 men of Benjamin with Abner

“360 men from Benjamin who followed Abner.” Abner did not die.

100

2SA

2

31

qxt6

translate-numbers

0

360 men

“three hundred and sixty men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

101

2SA

2

31

d81h

figs-metonymy

0

of Benjamin

This phrase means “from the tribe of Benjamin.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

102

2SA

2

32

e5xq

0

took up Asahel

Alternate translation: “carried Asahel’s body with them”

103

2SA

2

32

pzw9

0

the day dawned on them at Hebron

Alternate translation: “they arrived at Hebron by dawn the next morning”

104

2SA

3

intro

ka39

0

2 Samuel 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter records the first attempt to end the civil war.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetic song in 3:33-34.

Special concepts in this chapter

David never wanted to hurt Saul’s family. Isbosheth criticized Abner and Abner became angry. He decided to help David become king of all of Israel. Abner came and made a treaty with David. As he left, Joab arrived and told him he wanted to talk to him and he murdered Abner. David was very unhappy that Abner had been killed.

105

2SA

3

1

sq7q

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here Samuel gives information about the war between David and the supporters of Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

106

2SA

3

1

u6f1

0

house

Here “house” is used to mean “supporters.”

107

2SA

3

1

lag1

figs-metaphor

0

grew stronger and stronger

This metaphor means the number of people supporting David increased. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

108

2SA

3

1

dju3

figs-metaphor

0

grew weaker and weaker

This metaphor means the number of people supporting Saul’s family decreased. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

109

2SA

3

2

w7d8

figs-activepassive

0

Sons were born to David

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “David’s wives gave birth to six sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

110

2SA

3

2

q2r6

translate-names

0

Ahinoam

This is the name of a woman, a wife of David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

111

2SA

3

3

j96y

translate-numbers

0

second son … third

These two sons were born after the “firstborn” (verse 2). This is the numerical order of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

112

2SA

3

3

hxl2

translate-names

0

Abigail … Maacah

These are women’s names. They are the wives of David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

113

2SA

3

3

hy1j

translate-names

0

Kileab … Nabal … Talmai

These are men’s names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

114

2SA

3

4

m8yp

translate-numbers

0

fourth son … fifth son

This is the numerical order of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

115

2SA

3

4

d5td

translate-names

0

Adonijah … Shephatiah

These are the names of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

116

2SA

3

4

ai9y

translate-names

0

Haggith … Abital

These are names of David’s wives. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

117

2SA

3

5

nky8

translate-numbers

0

the sixth

This is the numerical order of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

118

2SA

3

5

n4tz

translate-names

0

Ithream

This is the name of one of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

119

2SA

3

5

ujk6

translate-names

0

Eglah

This is the name of one of David’s wives. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

120

2SA

3

6

vrd9

writing-newevent

0

It came about

This introduces a new event in the story of the struggle between David’s supporters and Saul’s family. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

121

2SA

3

6

n8iu

0

house of Saul

This refers to Saul’s family and supporters who assumed control of his estate after he died.

122

2SA

3

6

fu4e

0

house of David

This refers to the supporters of David.

123

2SA

3

6

ahk2

figs-metaphor

0

Abner made himself strong in the house of Saul

Abner’s increasing power over Saul’s family is spoken of as if he became physically stronger. Alternate translation: “Abner gained more power over the family and supporters of Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

124

2SA

3

7

wnw6

translate-names

0

Rizpah … Aiah

These are names of women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

125

2SA

3

7

nvs7

translate-names

0

Ishbosheth

This is a male name, a son of Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

126

2SA

3

7

y6er

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you gone in to my father’s concubine?

Ishbosheth asked this question to rebuke Abner who was acting like he was the king. Alternate translation: “You did not have the right to go in to father’s concubine!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

127

2SA

3

7

x31p

figs-euphemism

0

gone in to

This is a euphemism for sexual relations. Alternate translation: “had sexual relations with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

128

2SA

3

8

jcd6

figs-rquestion

0

Am I a dog’s head that belongs to Judah?

This question is used by Abner as an angry denial of Ishbosheth’s accusation. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am not a traitor working for David!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

129

2SA

3

8

rjr7

figs-metaphor

0

Am I a dog’s head that belongs to Judah?

Abner speaks of himself as the head of a dog, which the Israelites considered to be loyal to anyone who fed them. Here “belongs to Judah” implies that Abner’s loyalty is to Judah, to which David belonged, and not to Saul’s house. Alternate translation: “Am I a traitor for Judah?” or “I am not a traitor working for David!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

130

2SA

3

8

jb39

figs-metonymy

0

into the hand of David

Here “hand” represents the power to defeat. Alternate translation: “to be defeated by David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

131

2SA

3

8

lub9

figs-rquestion

0

But now you accuse me of an offense concerning this woman?

Abner asks this question to rebuke Ishbosheth. It is unclear if Abner actually slept with Rizpah, or if he was falsely accused. This could mean: (1) Abner was guilty. Alternate translation: “You should not be upset that I slept with this woman!” or (2) Abner was not guilty. Alternate translation: “You should not think that I have slept with this woman!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

132

2SA

3

9

a45s

0

May God do so to me … and more also, if I do not

This is the form of a solemn vow in that time. Abner is asking God to judge him severely if he does not keep his vow. Your language may have a way of expressing vows. Alternate translation: “I am asking God to punish me if I do not”

133

2SA

3

10

h7qr

0

the house of Saul

Here “house” refers to Saul’s family and supporters who survived Saul’s death. Alternate translation: “the family and supporters of Saul”

134

2SA

3

10

m8b2

figs-metonymy

0

throne of David

This phrase refers to the authority of David as king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

135

2SA

3

12

y24c

translate-textvariants

0

to David

Some versions add “when he was at Hebron” and others do not. You may want to add the phrase if it is present in your national version. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

136

2SA

3

12

alc7

figs-rquestion

0

Whose land is this?

The original text of this question is not clear. This could mean: (1) Abner had the power to give the land to David. Alternate translation: “This land is mine!” or (2) David is chosen by God to rule the land: Alternate translation: “This land rightfully belongs to you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

137

2SA

3

12

mm4s

figs-metonymy

0

my hand is with you

Here “hand” represents Abner’s assistance that he is offering to David. Alternate translation: “I will assist you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

138

2SA

3

13

r77z

figs-synecdoche

0

you cannot see my face unless you first bring Michal

David is stating the condition under which he will meet Abner. Here “face” refers to David himself. Alternate translation: “you cannot see me unless you bring Michal to me first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

139

2SA

3

13

mks3

translate-names

0

Michal

This is the name of a daughter of Saul. She was David’s first wife. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

140

2SA

3

14

x49c

translate-numbers

0

one hundred Philistine foreskins

This represents the number of men David killed so that Saul would allow him to marry Michal. These men are represented here by their “foreskins.” The “foreskin” is the fold of skin that covers the male reproductive organ. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

141

2SA

3

15

ch63

figs-explicit

0

took her from her husband

Paltiel was Michal’s second husband. Saul gave her to him after David fled from Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

142

2SA

3

15

z1ti

translate-names

0

Paltiel … Laish

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

143

2SA

3

16

uhj7

translate-names

0

Bahurim

This is the name of a village. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

144

2SA

3

18

js5z

0

Now do it

Alternate translation: “So now make David your king”

145

2SA

3

18

iac5

figs-metonymy

0

By the hand of my servant David

Here “hand” refers to David’s power to defeat the Philistines. Alternate translation: “I will empower my servant David and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

146

2SA

3

18

c3te

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of the Philistines

Here “hand” refers to power over Israel. Alternate translation: “the power of the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

147

2SA

3

18

d2l2

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of all their enemies

Here “hand” refers to power over Israel. Alternate translation: “the power of all of their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

148

2SA

3

19

qv92

figs-metonymy

0

the people of Benjamin … the whole house of Benjamin

Both of these statements refer to the descendants of Benjamin, who were one of the tribes of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

149

2SA

3

20

bp1a

translate-numbers

0

twenty of his men

The number of men who came with Abner. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

150

2SA

3

21

k2bu

figs-metonymy

0

all Israel

This phrase means “all of the nation of Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

151

2SA

3

21

ej77

0

So David sent Abner away

They parted as friends. David was not angry with Abner.

152

2SA

3

22

x15t

0

plunder

These are items taken from the enemy.

153

2SA

3

22

c54e

0

Abner was not with David in Hebron

Abner had already left to return home.

154

2SA

3

23

e26m

0

they told Joab

Alternate translation: “someone told Joab”

155

2SA

3

23

d2r8

translate-names

0

Ner

This is a man’s name. He is the grandfather of Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

156

2SA

3

24

nzs6

figs-rquestion

0

What have you done?

Joab asks this question to rebuke David for letting Abner go in peace. Alternate translation: “You should not have done this!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

157

2SA

3

24

ia9h

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you sent him away, and he is gone?

Joab asks this question to rebuke David for letting Abner escape. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Abner was here and you let him leave!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

158

2SA

3

25

c3xz

figs-rquestion

0

Do you not know … everything you are doing?

Joab asks this question to convince David that Abner is plotting against David. Alternate translation: “Surely you know … everything you are doing.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

159

2SA

3

26

v16b

translate-names

0

well of Sirah

“Sirah” is the name of a place where the well was located. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

160

2SA

3

27

w3m9

0

the middle of the gate

This refers to one of the gates in the city wall at Hebron. As the UST implies, city gates were constructed as part of buildings set into the city walls. Inside the passageway were doors leading to side rooms, where guests could be received and business and judicial proceedings could be conducted. It was probably in one of these rooms that Joab murdered Abner.

161

2SA

3

27

us2y

figs-metonymy

0

the blood of Asahel

Here “blood” is associated with the death of Asahel. Alternate translation: “the death of Asahel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

162

2SA

3

27

fbb9

translate-names

0

Asahel

This is the name of a male person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

163

2SA

3

28

esw1

figs-metonymy

0

the blood of Abner

Here “blood” refers to violent death. See how you translated a similar phrase in 2 Samuel 3:27. Alternate translation: “the death of Abner” or “the murder of Abner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

164

2SA

3

28

kq45

translate-names

0

Ner

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

165

2SA

3

29

h3l1

figs-metaphor

0

fall on the head of Joab and on all his father’s house

This phrase means the results of the guilt will happen to Joab and his family as if something heavy had collapsed on them. Alternate translation: “always cause suffering for Joab and for all his father’s house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

166

2SA

3

29

vz8z

figs-metonymy

0

all his father’s house

Here “house” refers to descendants. Alternate translation: “all the descendants of Joab’s father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

167

2SA

3

29

l3jd

figs-metonymy

0

May there never fail to be

This double negative emphasizes that there will always be someone with the problems listed. Alternate translation: “May there always be” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

168

2SA

3

29

lvn8

figs-metonymy

0

is killed by the sword

Here “sword” refers to violent death. Alternate translation: “dies violently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

169

2SA

3

29

wgz1

0

goes without food

Alternate translation: “is hungry”

170

2SA

3

30

x1zu

translate-names

0

Abishai … Asahel

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

171

2SA

3

31

g9pr

translate-symaction

0

Tear your clothes, put on sackcloth

These were symbolic actions to demonstrate their grief and sadness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

172

2SA

3

32

d6g4

figs-doublet

0

The king wept and cried loudly

The words “wept” and “cried loudly” mean basically the same thing and emphasize how much David mourned for Abner. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

173

2SA

3

33

aq3l

figs-rquestion

0

Should Abner die as a fool dies?

This rhetorical question is used to emphasize that his death was not fair. Alternate translation: “Abner should not have died in disgrace!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

174

2SA

3

34

b11c

figs-parallelism

0

Your hands were not bound. Your feet were not shackled

These two sentences express similar ideas. They can be combined into one sentence. Alternate translation: “You were in no way a criminal in prison” or “You were completely innocent of doing wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

175

2SA

3

34

ni42

figs-activepassive

0

Your hands were not bound

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “No one had tied your hands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

176

2SA

3

34

uia7

figs-activepassive

0

Your feet were not shackled

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “No one had attached your feet to chains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

177

2SA

3

34

im2l

figs-metonymy

0

the sons of injustice

This refers to people who are unjust or wicked. Alternate translation: “wicked men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

178

2SA

3

35

zt2v

figs-hyperbole

0

All the people came

This deliberate exaggeration is used to show that the nation of Israel wanted to take care of David in his grief. Alternate translation: “Many people came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

179

2SA

3

35

s8g2

0

May God do so to me, and more also, if

This is the form of a solemn vow in that time. David is asking God to judge him severely if he eats anything before sunset. Your language many have a way of expressing vows. Alternate translation: “I am asking God to punish me if”

180

2SA

3

37

ax2q

translate-names

0

Ner

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

181

2SA

3

38

z5pr

figs-rquestion

0

Do you not know that a prince and a great man has fallen this day in Israel?

This rhetorical question is used to show how much David respected Abner. Here “fallen” is a euphemism that means “died.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “It is certainly true that a great prince has died today in Israel!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

182

2SA

3

38

wxn9

figs-hendiadys

0

a prince and a great man

These two phrases both refer to Abner. Alternate translation: “a great prince” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

183

2SA

3

39

e6ux

translate-names

0

Zeruiah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

184

2SA

3

39

bw2y

0

are too brutal

Alternate translation: “are too much like animals” or “are too violent”

185

2SA

4

intro

hm82

0

2 Samuel 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

While the end of the civil war occurs in this chapter, David still only reigned over Judah (1-4).

Special concepts in this chapter

David and Ishbosheth

David never sought revenge against Saul’s family. When two men snuck into Ishbosheth’s room, cut off his head and brought it to David, David had them killed for killing an innocent man. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/avenge]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

When two men brought Ishbosheth’s head to David and expected to get a reward for it, David condemned them with the rhetorical question: “should I not now require his blood from your hand, and remove you from the earth?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/condemn]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/reward]])

186

2SA

4

1

jmf8

translate-names

0

Ishbosheth

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

187

2SA

4

1

jnb3

figs-synecdoche

0

his hands became weak

In this phrase “his hands” represents Ishbosheth himself. Alternate translation: “Ishbosheth became weak” or “Ishbosheth lost all strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

188

2SA

4

2

zhe1

translate-names

0

Baanah … Recab … Rimmon

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

189

2SA

4

2

uag2

writing-participants

0

Now Saul’s son had two men

This introduces the men Baanah and Rechab into the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

190

2SA

4

2

d6gi

writing-background

0

for Beeroth is also considered part of Benjamin

Here the author begins to provide background information about Beeroth for the reader. The area of Beeroth was part of the land that belonged to the tribe of Benjamin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

191

2SA

4

2

c93q

translate-names

0

Beeroth

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

192

2SA

4

3

uyh4

writing-background

0

and the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and have been living there until this very time

Here the author finishes providing background information about Beeroth for the reader. The area of Beeroth was part of the land that belonged to the tribe of Benjamin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

193

2SA

4

3

qq9m

translate-names

0

Gittaim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

194

2SA

4

4

th4j

writing-background

0

General Information:

This verse pauses the main story to provide background information about Mephibosheth, a descendent of Saul through Jonathan instead of through Ishbosheth. Mephibosheth will become an important character later in the book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

195

2SA

4

4

rav8

0

crippled in his feet

This phrase means “unable to walk.”

196

2SA

4

4

as76

translate-numbers

0

five years old

This was the age of Jonathan’s son at the time of his father’s death. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

197

2SA

4

4

d8qr

0

the news about Saul and Jonathan

This refers to the news about their death.

198

2SA

4

4

zj2w

0

nurse

This is a woman or girl who is hired to care for young children.

199

2SA

4

4

hwu8

0

became lame

This explains how Mephibosheth was injured so he was unable to walk.

200

2SA

4

4

xl1z

translate-names

0

Mephibosheth

This is the name of Jonathan’s young son, the grandson of Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

201

2SA

4

5

rr92

0

General Information:

The story returns to the actions of Rechab and Baanah who were introduced in 2 Samuel 4:2.

202

2SA

4

5

f4qv

0

the heat of the day

the middle of the day, the part of the day when it is the hottest

203

2SA

4

6

g8pb

0

sifting wheat

Alternate translation: “cleaning chaff from wheat”

204

2SA

4

8

n1gd

figs-idiom

0

sought your life

This idiom means “was trying to kill you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

205

2SA

4

9

c7l9

figs-idiom

0

As Yahweh lives

This is one of the strongest oaths David could swear, as Yahweh is the witness. Alternate translation: “I swear on the life of Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

206

2SA

4

9

qe3v

figs-synecdoche

0

who delivered my life

Here “life” refers to David himself. This means that Yahweh has kept David alive. Alternate translation: “who rescued me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

207

2SA

4

11

ve2r

figs-rquestion

0

How much more … should I not now require his blood from your hand, and remove you from the earth?

This question is used to show that the men had committed an especially serious crime. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are even more guilty! It is my duty to require his blood from your hand and to remove you from the earth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

208

2SA

4

11

pl52

figs-metonymy

0

require his blood from your hand

The phrase “his blood” represents the life of Ishbosheth. Here “from your hand” represents Rechab and Baanah, the sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, introduced in 2 Samuel 4:5. Alternate translation: “hold you responsible for the death of Ishbosheth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

209

2SA

4

12

b1ep

translate-symaction

0

cut off their hands and feet and hung them up

These were symbolic actions to show contempt for the men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

210

2SA

4

12

a16g

translate-symaction

0

they took the head of Ishbosheth and buried it in the grave

This was a symbolic act to honor Ishbosheth. This could be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “they honored Ishbosheth by burying his head in the grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

211

2SA

5

intro

jv2a

0

2 Samuel 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This records the beginning of the kingdom’s expansion.

Special concepts in this chapter

David conquers Jerusalem

David brought the combined army to Jerusalem and conquered it by going in through the water shaft. He enlarged the city and strengthened the defenses, and made it his capital. Jerusalem is an important place in the plans of God.

David consulting God

David always consulted God before fighting a battle. The Philistines invaded Israel trying to capture David. David asked God if he should attack the Philistines, and God said yes; so he defeated them. They invaded again and God told him to attack them from the rear and he defeated them again.

212

2SA

5

1

qs6r

figs-idiom

0

we are your flesh and bone

This phrase means “a relative.” Alternate translation: “we are related to you” or “we are of the same family” - (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

213

2SA

5

2

h5dx

writing-background

0

In the recent past

This is historical information. Saul had been their king before David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

214

2SA

5

2

fr5e

figs-parallelism

0

You will shepherd my people Israel, and you will become ruler over Israel

These two clauses mean basically the same thing and emphasize that Yahweh had chosen David to be king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

215

2SA

5

2

rcd5

figs-metaphor

0

You will shepherd my people Israel

Here ruling over the people is spoken of as shepherding them. Alternate translation: “You will care for my people Israel” or “You will rule over my people Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

216

2SA

5

3

ep1q

translate-symaction

0

They anointed David king over Israel

To “anoint” is a symbolic act to show that they recognized that God had chosen David as king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

217

2SA

5

6

w24t

0

General Information:

David and the army of Israel attack Jerusalem.

218

2SA

5

6

j73y

0

You will not come here except to be turned away by the blind and the lame

This can be stated in a positive form. Alternate translation: “If you come here, even the blind and the lame will be able to turn you away”

219

2SA

5

6

m16b

figs-nominaladj

0

the blind and the lame

Here “the blind” and “the lame” are nominal adjectives. Alternate translation: “those people who cannot see and those who cannot walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

220

2SA

5

8

c5p9

0

David said, “Those who attack the Jebusites

David was speaking to his soldiers. Alternate translation: “David said to his soldiers, ‘Those who want to get rid of the Jebus people”

221

2SA

5

8

z3vc

figs-metonymy

0

The ‘blind and the lame’

This could mean: (1) this refers to people who are truly lame and blind or (2) this is a metonym that speaks about the Jebusites inside the city of Jerusalem as if they were all weak and handicapped. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

222

2SA

5

11

m9gy

translate-names

0

Hiram

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

223

2SA

5

11

fv7z

0

carpenters

those who work with wood

224

2SA

5

11

s2rm

0

masons

those who work with stone or brick

225

2SA

5

13

d3s6

figs-activepassive

0

more sons and daughters were born to him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he had more sons and daughters” or “they bore him more sons and daughters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

226

2SA

5

14

fcd9

translate-names

0

Shammua … Shobab … Nathan … Solomon

These are the names of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

227

2SA

5

14

lw16

figs-activepassive

0

who were born to him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that his wives bore for him” or “he had” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

228

2SA

5

15

t2yz

translate-names

0

Ibhar … Elishua … Nepheg … Japhia

These are the names of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

229

2SA

5

16

xzm3

translate-names

0

Elishama … Eliada … Eliphelet

These are the names of David’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

230

2SA

5

17

y7vu

figs-activepassive

0

David had been anointed as king over Israel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Israel had anointed David as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

231

2SA

5

17

w75r

figs-hyperbole

0

they all went out looking for him

Here “all” is a generalization that means the Philistine army. Alternate translation: “the Philistine army went looking for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

232

2SA

5

18

f39y

translate-names

0

Valley of Rephaim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

233

2SA

5

20

sm5p

translate-names

0

Baal Perazim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

234

2SA

5

20

n37i

figs-simile

0

Yahweh has burst through my enemies before me like a bursting flood of water

Here David speaks of the victory that Yahweh brought as if it were a flood of water that overflowed its banks and covered the land, causing destruction. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has overwhelmed my enemies like a flood overwhelms the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

235

2SA

5

22

ipp2

0

the Philistines came up again

They “came up” because the Philistines lived at a lower elevation than David’s stronghold.

236

2SA

5

22

u2gr

translate-names

0

Valley of Rephaim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

237

2SA

5

23

lzk7

translate-names

0

balsam woods

“Balsam” here is a type of tree, and the “woods” describe many balsam trees growing together. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

238

2SA

5

24

vp29

figs-123person

0

When you hear … Yahweh will have gone out before you to attack the army of the Philistines

This is the continuation of Yahweh’s instruction to David that began in 2 Samuel 5:23. Yahweh here speaks of himself in the third person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

239

2SA

5

24

ccz2

figs-metaphor

0

When you hear the sound of marching in the wind blowing through the balsam treetops

This speaks of the sound of the leaves rustling as wind blows through them as if it were the sound of marching. Alternate translation: “When the wind blowing through the tops of the balsam trees sounds like men marching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

240

2SA

5

25

z8t1

translate-names

0

Geba … Gezer

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

241

2SA

6

intro

aen5

0

2 Samuel 6 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem

David organized a procession with many musical instruments to bring the ark to Jerusalem. They put it on a cart; but when the oxen stumbled, Uzzah reached out to steady it so it would not fall. God killed him for touching the ark. David was angry at God for killing Uzzah and was afraid to bring the ark any further. Uzzah died because the ark was perfectly holy. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]])

Dancing

David danced for joy in front of the ark. His wife, Michal, criticized David for uncovering himself as he danced, but David did not care. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/joy]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Irony

Michal criticized David by using irony: “How honored the king of Israel was today, who undressed himself today before the eyes of the slave girls among his servants, like one of the crude fellows who shamelessly undresses himself!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

242

2SA

6

1

prk3

0

Now

This word marks a new part of the story.

243

2SA

6

1

dz26

figs-metonymy

0

all the chosen men of Israel

This metonym represents the army of the nation of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

244

2SA

6

1

f7cl

translate-numbers

0

thirty thousand

“30,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

245

2SA

6

2

bci3

figs-explicit

0

from Baalah in Judah to bring up from there the ark of God

It is implied that they are taking the ark to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “from Baalah in Judah to take to Jerusalem the ark of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

246

2SA

6

2

vy3h

0

to bring up from there the ark of God

Jerusalem was higher than almost any other place in Israel, so it was normal for Israelites to speak of going up to Jerusalem and going down from it.

247

2SA

6

2

jrd4

figs-go

0

to bring up

The word “bring” can be translated as “take.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

248

2SA

6

2

t6ln

translate-names

0

Baalah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

249

2SA

6

2

pkw6

0

which is called by the name of Yahweh of hosts

Yahweh’s name was written on the ark.

250

2SA

6

2

ima6

figs-explicit

0

who sits enthroned over the cherubim

You may need to make explicit that the cherubim are those on the lid of the ark of the covenant. The biblical writers often spoke of the ark of the covenant as if it were Yahweh’s footstool upon which he rested his feet as he sat on his throne in heaven above. Alternate translation: “who sits on his throne above the cherubim on the ark of the covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

251

2SA

6

2

ae72

0

enthroned

to sit on a throne

252

2SA

6

3

y6lf

0

General Information:

David and the army of the nation of Israel move the ark of the covenant.

253

2SA

6

3

b2eb

translate-names

0

Abinadab … Uzzah … Ahio

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

254

2SA

6

5

h1vh

figs-metonymy

0

all the house of Israel

This metonym represents the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “all the other Israelites with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

255

2SA

6

5

g4xk

translate-unknown

0

tambourines

A tambourine is a musical instrument like the head of a drum with pieces of metal around the side that sound when the instrument is shaken or hit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

256

2SA

6

5

tc14

translate-unknown

0

rattles

musical instruments with many small, hard objects inside a hard shell, making rhythmic noise when shaken (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

257

2SA

6

5

d3bq

translate-unknown

0

cymbals

two thin, round metal plates that are hit together to make a loud sound (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

258

2SA

6

6

ju6g

translate-names

0

Nakon

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

259

2SA

6

7

yht6

figs-metaphor

0

anger of Yahweh burned

Here the “anger of Yahweh” is spoken of as if it were fire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

260

2SA

6

7

b8dy

figs-explicit

0

for his sin

It was a sin for Uzzah to touch the ark because Yahweh had commanded that no one should touch the ark. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

261

2SA

6

8

e8lq

translate-names

0

Perez Uzzah

This is the name of a place. Translator may add a footnote that says, “The name ‘Perez Uzzah’ means ‘the punishment of Uzzah.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

262

2SA

6

8

tqy3

0

to this day

This means to the time when this was being written, not to the present time in the twenty-first century.

263

2SA

6

9

yx34

figs-rquestion

0

How can the ark of Yahweh come to me?

David uses this question to emphasize that he is afraid to take the ark to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “I am too afraid to bring the ark of Yahweh with me to Jerusalem.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

264

2SA

6

10

qjd6

translate-names

0

Obed Edom the Gittite

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

265

2SA

6

11

a4fg

0

blessed him

Here “him” refers to Obed Edom the Gittite.

266

2SA

6

12

kg8i

0

Now

This word starts a new part of the story.

267

2SA

6

12

j7ru

figs-activepassive

0

King David was told

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people told King David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

268

2SA

6

12

tg1q

figs-metonymy

0

Obed Edom’s house

Here “house” represents a family. Alternate translation: “Obed Edom and his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

269

2SA

6

12

tke4

0

brought up the ark of God

Jerusalem was higher than almost any other place in Israel, so it was normal for Israelites to speak of going up to Jerusalem and going down from it. Alternate translation: “moved the ark of God” or “took the ark of God”

270

2SA

6

12

d195

figs-go

0

brought up

The word “brought” can be translated as “took.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

271

2SA

6

14

m97q

0

David danced before Yahweh with all his might

Dancing here is a form of joyfully worshiping Yahweh.

272

2SA

6

14

ubu5

0

linen

a cloth made from fibers of the flax plant

273

2SA

6

15

td5n

figs-metonymy

0

all the house of Israel

Here “house” represents the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “all the other Israelites with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

274

2SA

6

16

qn6w

0

Now … in her heart

The word “Now” marks a break in the story line. Here the narrator gives information about Michal.

275

2SA

6

16

jz44

0

Michal

Michal was the daughter of King Saul and also David’s first wife. See how you translated this name in 2 Samuel 3:13.

276

2SA

6

16

tjm7

figs-metonymy

0

she despised him in her heart

Here “heart” represents thoughts or emotions. Alternate translation: “she looked at him with disdain” or “she sneered at him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

277

2SA

6

16

b6w2

0

before Yahweh

Alternate translation: “to Yahweh”

278

2SA

6

18

k4ta

figs-metonymy

0

he blessed the people in the name of Yahweh of hosts

To bless “in the name of Yahweh of hosts” means to bless with Yahweh’s power and authority or as his representative. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

279

2SA

6

19

m8cs

0

cake of raisins

a baked sweet bread made with dried grapes

280

2SA

6

20

k14x

figs-go

0

came out

Here “came” can be translated as “went.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

281

2SA

6

20

jd22

figs-irony

0

How honored the king of Israel was today

This is an ironic statement. Michal means the opposite of what she said, and she does not believe David acted honorably. Michal speaks disrespectfully to King David about his dancing attire and behavior. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

282

2SA

6

20

nsq4

figs-synecdoche

0

before the eyes of the slave girls

Here “eyes of the slave girls” represents the slave girls. Alternate translation: “in front of the slave girls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

283

2SA

6

20

b7au

0

crude fellows

Michal is comparing David to vulgar and foolish men.

284

2SA

6

21

pz59

figs-you

0

who chose me above your father

Here “your” refers to Michal. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

285

2SA

6

21

a36n

figs-doublet

0

over the people of Yahweh, over Israel

Here “the people of Yahweh” and “Israel” mean the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

286

2SA

6

22

run9

figs-irony

0

I will be even more undignified than this

David is being ironic and means the opposite of what he said. He does not believe what he did was actually undignified or that his actions in the future will be undignified. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

287

2SA

6

22

y1pu

figs-metonymy

0

I will be humiliated in my own eyes

Here “in my own eyes” represents what a person considers or thinks about something. Alternate translation: “I will consider myself humiliated” or “I will consider myself a fool” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

288

2SA

6

22

ifj3

figs-activepassive

0

But by these slave girls you have spoken about, I will be honored

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “But the slave girls of whom you have spoken will honor me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

289

2SA

6

23

cjq6

0

had no children to the day of her death

Alternate translation: “was never able to bear any children”

290

2SA

7

intro

c6fb

0

2 Samuel 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This is the finishing of a small interruption about the house of God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/houseofgod]])

Special concepts in this chapter

David wanted to honor God by building him a temple. God told David that he would not build it, but his son would build it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/temple]])

Covenant of David

God made a covenant with David that was not conditioned upon anything David or his descendants did. God promised that one of David’s descendants would rule Israel forever. Because Israel would not have a king in the future, this promise did not begin at this time. The descendant, who would rule forever, is Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]])

291

2SA

7

1

cu7z

writing-newevent

0

It happened

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

292

2SA

7

1

r5ag

figs-abstractnouns

0

given him rest from all his surrounding enemies

“given him safety from all his surrounding enemies.” Here “rest” is an abstract noun. Alternate translation: “caused the enemy people groups to stop attacking Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

293

2SA

7

2

chf8

figs-explicit

0

I am living in a house of cedar

Cedar is a kind of tree that is known for its strength. If you have an equivalent type of tree in your culture, you can use that name, otherwise you can reword this. Alternate translation: “I am living in a strong, permanent house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

294

2SA

7

2

uvh3

figs-explicit

0

the ark of God is staying in the middle of a tent

Tents are temporary dwellings. If you do not have tents in your culture, you can word this differently. Alternate translation: “the ark of God is staying in a temporary place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

295

2SA

7

3

q2im

figs-metonymy

0

do what is in your heart

Here “heart” represents the mind. Alternate translation: “do what you think you should” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

296

2SA

7

3

aw2n

figs-idiom

0

for Yahweh is with you

Here “with you” means God is helping and blessing David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

297

2SA

7

4

l5r9

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came to Nathan, saying:

The idiom “the word of Yahweh came to” is used to introduce a special message from God. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message to Nathan. He said,” or “Yahweh spoke this message to Nathan:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

298

2SA

7

5

ebh5

0

Go and tell David my servant, ‘This is what Yahweh says: Will you build me a house in which to live?

This is the beginning of a quotation that contains quotations within it.

299

2SA

7

5

kj3l

figs-rquestion

0

Will you build me a house in which to live?

Yahweh uses a question to emphasize that David is not the one to build a house for Yahweh. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You will not build a house for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

300

2SA

7

5

j3s5

0

build me a house

Here “house” means a temple. In 7:11 Yahweh will say that he will build a house for David. There “house” means a family. If your language has a word that can express both ideas, use it here and in 7:11.

301

2SA

7

7

t5dj

figs-quotesinquotes

0

did I ever say anything to any of Israel’s leaders whom I appointed to shepherd my people Israel, saying, “Why have you not built me a house of cedar?”

This has a quotation within a quotation. The direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “did I ever ask any of Israel’s leaders, whom I appointed to shepherd my people Israel, why they had not built me a house of cedar?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

302

2SA

7

7

azt9

figs-rquestion

0

did I ever say anything to any of Israel’s leaders

Yahweh uses a question to emphasize that he never asked any of Israel’s leaders to build him a house. Alternate translation: “I never said anything to any of Israel’s leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

303

2SA

7

7

vnx2

figs-metaphor

0

whom I appointed to shepherd my people Israel

Those who are leaders of the people of Israel are spoken of as if they were shepherds and the people were sheep. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

304

2SA

7

7

kek6

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you not built me a house of cedar?

If Yahweh had asked the leaders this question, he would have been using a question to scold them for not building him a house of cedar. But, Yahweh said previously that he did not ask them this question. Alternate translation: “You should have built me a house of cedar.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

305

2SA

7

8

k8e3

0

General Information:

Yahweh describes his promises to King David through the prophet Nathan.

306

2SA

7

8

knq9

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

307

2SA

7

8

xsx1

figs-quotesinquotes

0

tell my servant David, ‘This is what Yahweh of hosts says: I took you … so that you would be ruler over my people Israel.

This has quotations within quotations. It may be necessary to translate the direct quotations as indirect quotations as in the UST. Alternate translation: “tell my servant David that I took him … so that he would be ruler over my people Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

308

2SA

7

8

fe6g

0

tell my servant David

Yahweh is still telling the prophet Nathan what he should tell David.

309

2SA

7

8

dae2

figs-metonymy

0

I took you from the pasture

David’s job as a shepherd is referred to by the place he watched his sheep. Alternate translation: “I took you from your job as a shepherd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

310

2SA

7

9

euh7

figs-quotesinquotes

0

I have been with you wherever you went. I have cut off all your enemies from before you. Now I will make your name great, like the names of the great ones of the earth

This continues the quotations within quotations. It may be necessary to translate the direct quotations as indirect quotations as in the UST. Alternate translation: “I have been with him wherever he went. I have cut off all his enemies from before him. Now I will make his name great, like the name of the great ones of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

311

2SA

7

9

arz6

figs-idiom

0

I have been with you

Here “with you” means that Yahweh has helped and blessed David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

312

2SA

7

9

pbz4

figs-metaphor

0

I have cut off all your enemies

Yahweh destroying David’s enemies is spoken of as if Yahweh cut them off, as one would cut a piece of cloth or cut a branch from a tree. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

313

2SA

7

9

g9f5

figs-metonymy

0

make your name great

Here “name” represents a person’s reputation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

314

2SA

7

9

vtf6

0

the great ones

The phrase “great ones” means famous persons.

315

2SA

7

10

k1yc

0

I will appoint a place

Alternate translation: “I will choose a place”

316

2SA

7

10

etx1

figs-metaphor

0

will plant them there

Yahweh causing the people to live in the land permanently and securely is spoken of as if he would plant them in the land. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

317

2SA

7

10

kax4

figs-activepassive

0

be troubled no more

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one will ever trouble them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

318

2SA

7

11

wxh3

0

from the days

Alternate translation: “from the time”

319

2SA

7

11

d6c8

0

I commanded judges

After the people of Israel entered the land of Canaan and before they had kings to rule them, God appointed leaders called “judges” to lead them in times of trouble.

320

2SA

7

11

gat9

figs-idiom

0

to be over my people Israel

To be in authority is referred to as being over someone. Alternate translation: “to rule my people Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

321

2SA

7

11

cyy5

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Now I will give you rest from all your enemies … declare to you that I will make you a house

If in 2 Samuel 7:8 and 2 Samuel 7:9 you translated the direct quotations as indirect quotation, then here you may need to translate “you” as “him” or “his.” Alternate translation: “Now I will give him rest from all his enemies … declare to him that I will make him a house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

322

2SA

7

11

a1aw

figs-abstractnouns

0

I will give you rest from all your enemies

“I will give you safety from all your enemies.” Here “rest” is an abstract noun. Alternate translation: “I will make all your enemies stop attacking you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

323

2SA

7

11

ax6w

figs-metonymy

0

I will make you a house

Here the metonym “house” refers to David’s ancestors continuing on as the rulers of Israel. In 2 Samuel 7:4 Yahweh asked David if he would be the one to build a house for Yahweh. There “house” represented a temple. If your language has a word that can express both ideas, use it here and in 7:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

324

2SA

7

12

bvq2

figs-parallelism

0

When your days are fulfilled and you lie down with your fathers

These two phrases have similar meanings and are combined for emphasis. They both are polite ways to refer to death and dying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

325

2SA

7

12

zh5i

figs-metaphor

0

I will raise up a descendant after you

Yahweh appointing David’s descendant is spoken of as if Yahweh would raise or lift him up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

326

2SA

7

12

n1u2

figs-idiom

0

one who will come out from your body

This is an idiom that means the person will be David’s descendant. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

327

2SA

7

12

wn76

figs-metonymy

0

I will establish his kingdom

Here “his kingdom” represents his power to rule. Alternate translation: “I will make him to be a very powerful king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

328

2SA

7

13

rz89

figs-metonymy

0

a house for my name

Here “name” refers to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “a permanent dwelling for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

329

2SA

7

13

nmu3

figs-metonymy

0

I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever

Here “throne” represents the person’s power to rule as king. Alternate translation: “I will make his rule over Israel to last forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

330

2SA

7

14

n2sv

0

I will be a father to him, and he will be my son

The prophecy in 7:12-14 refers to Solomon, David’s son. But, aspects of the prophecy will be fulfilled by Jesus. So, here it is best to translate the words “father” and “son” with your normal words for a biological father and son.

331

2SA

7

15

hg5v

0

General Information:

Yahweh finishes describing his promises to King David through the prophet Nathan.

332

2SA

7

15

h75j

figs-abstractnouns

0

But my covenant faithfulness will not leave him, as I took it from Saul

The word “faithfulness” is an abstract noun that can be stated as “faithfully loving.” Alternate translation: “I will never stop faithfully loving him as I stopped loving Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

333

2SA

7

15

a6sg

figs-quotations

0

from before you

If in 2 Samuel 7:8 and 2 Samuel 7:9 you translated the direct quotations as indirect quotation, then here you may need to translate “you” as “David” or “him” or “his” as in the UST. Alternate translation: “from before David. David’s house … before him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

334

2SA

7

16

q3bd

figs-quotations

0

Your house … before you. Your throne

If in 2 Samuel 7:8 and 2 Samuel 7:9 you translated the direct quotations as indirect quotation, then here you may need to translate “you” as “David” or “him” or “his” as in the UST. Alternate translation: “David’s house … before him. His throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

335

2SA

7

16

t2rk

figs-parallelism

0

Your house and kingdom will be confirmed forever before you. Your throne will be established forever.

These two sentences have similar meanings and emphasize that David’s dynasty will last forever. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

336

2SA

7

16

y1vv

figs-doublet

0

Your house and kingdom will be confirmed forever before you

Here the word “house” represents David’s descendants, who will rule as kings. Here “kingdom” means about the same thing as “house.” This can also be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “You will live to see me establish your family and their rule over the people of Israel forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

337

2SA

7

16

bu2w

figs-activepassive

0

Your throne will be established forever

Here “throne” represents the power to rule as king. Alternate translation: “I will cause your descendants to rule over Israel forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

338

2SA

7

17

mei7

0

all these words

“all these things.” This refers to what Yahweh had said.

339

2SA

7

17

m93t

0

he told him about the entire vision

Alternate translation: “he told him about everything Yahweh revealed to him”

340

2SA

7

18

nf24

figs-rquestion

0

Who am I, Yahweh God, and what is my family that you have brought me to this point?

David asks this question to express the deep emotion he felt from hearing Yahweh’s proclamation. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “My family and I are not worthy of this honor, Yahweh God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

341

2SA

7

19

tj8j

figs-metaphor

0

in your sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “in your judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

342

2SA

7

19

r9in

figs-123person

0

your servant’s family

Here David refers to himself as “your servant.” This can be stated in first person. Alternate translation: “my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

343

2SA

7

19

uvu1

figs-metaphor

0

for a great while to come

This speaks about time as if it were something that travels and arrives somewhere. Alternate translation: “and what will happen to them in the future” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

344

2SA

7

19

btd7

figs-123person

0

your servant

Here David refers to himself as “your servant.” This can be stated in first person. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

345

2SA

7

20

sd87

figs-rquestion

0

What more can I, David, say to you?

David uses this question to emphasize that he has nothing left to say to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “There is nothing more I can say to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

346

2SA

7

21

d51g

0

For your word’s sake

Alternate translation: “Because of what you promised to do”

347

2SA

7

21

wy8w

0

to fulfill your own purpose

Alternate translation: “to accomplish what you planned to do”

348

2SA

7

21

mia3

figs-123person

0

to your servant

David refers to himself as “your servant.” It can be stated in first person. Alternate translation: “to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

349

2SA

7

22

s9d3

figs-idiom

0

as we have heard with our own ears

The phrase “with our own ears” is used for emphasis. Alternate translation: “as we ourselves have heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

350

2SA

7

22

eu9y

figs-exclusive

0

as we have heard

Here “we” refers to David and the nation of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

351

2SA

7

23

gt3c

figs-rquestion

0

What nation is like your people Israel, the one nation on earth whom you, God, went and rescued for yourself?

David uses a question emphasize that there is no other nation like Israel. Alternate translation: “There is no nation like your people Israel, the one nation on earth whom you, God, went and rescued for yourself.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

352

2SA

7

23

u6gx

figs-metonymy

0

to make a name for yourself

Here “name” represents Yahweh’s reputation. Alternate translation: “to make all people know who you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

353

2SA

7

23

gpj6

figs-metonymy

0

for your land

Here “land” represents the people. Alternate translation: “for your people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

354

2SA

7

23

y68y

figs-metonymy

0

You drove out nations

Here “nations” represents the people groups that were living in Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

355

2SA

7

25

s7y8

0

So now

Here “now” does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

356

2SA

7

25

wp22

figs-activepassive

0

may the promise that you made concerning your servant and his family be established forever

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “may you do what you promised to me and my family, and may your promise never change” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

357

2SA

7

25

i7rz

figs-123person

0

your servant and his family

David is speaking about himself in the third person. This can be stated in the first person. Alternate translation: “me and my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

358

2SA

7

26

yq4v

figs-metonymy

0

May your name be forever great

Here “name” represents Yahweh’s reputation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

359

2SA

7

26

tv8x

figs-metonymy

0

the house of me, David, your servant

Here “house” represents family. Alternate translation: “my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

360

2SA

7

26

r53a

figs-activepassive

0

is established before you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “is secure because of you” or “continues because of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

361

2SA

7

27

i375

figs-123person

0

to your servant that you will build him a house

David refers to himself as “your servant.” Alternate translation: “to me that you will build me a house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

362

2SA

7

27

l4yn

figs-metonymy

0

that you will build him a house

Here the metonym “house” refers to David’s ancestors continuing on as the rulers of Israel. In 2 Samuel 7:4 Yahweh asked David if he would be the one to build a house for Yahweh. There “house” represented a temple. If your language has a word that can express both ideas, use it here and in 7:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

363

2SA

7

27

fs5t

figs-metonymy

0

house

Here “house” represents David’s family. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

364

2SA

7

28

ie54

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

365

2SA

7

28

pvq1

0

your words are trustworthy

Alternate translation: “I trust what you say”

366

2SA

7

29

n6ik

figs-activepassive

0

with your blessing your servant’s house will be blessed forever

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you will continue to bless my family forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

367

2SA

7

29

k3a5

figs-123person

0

your servant’s house

Here David refers to himself as “your servant.” Alternate translation: “my house” or “my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

368

2SA

8

intro

hc4j

0

2 Samuel 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter returns to the theme of the expansion of David’s kingdom.

Special concepts in this chapter

God enabled victory

God enabled David to conquer all the surrounding nations. Much of the loot and tribute David received, he saved for the temple that his son would build.

369

2SA

8

1

drj7

figs-synecdoche

0

David attacked

Here David represents his soldiers. Alternate translation: “David and his soldiers attacked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

370

2SA

8

2

xbr2

figs-synecdoche

0

Then he defeated

Here “he” refers to David who represents his soldiers. Alternate translation: “Then they defeated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

371

2SA

8

2

tcx6

0

measured their men with a line … He measured off two lines to put to death, and one full line to keep alive

Here the “line” is a “rope.” David had the soldiers lie down on the ground to be measured and sorted into three groups. The men in two groups were killed, and in the third, they were allowed to live.

372

2SA

8

3

r73a

figs-synecdoche

0

David then defeated Hadadezer

Here both “David” and “Hadadezer” represent their armies. Alternate translation: “David and his army then defeated the army of Hadadezer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

373

2SA

8

3

y7af

translate-names

0

Hadadezer … Rehob

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

374

2SA

8

3

met2

translate-names

0

Zobah

This is the name of a region in Aram. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

375

2SA

8

3

r3d2

0

to recover his rule

Alternate translation: “to regain control over a region” or “to recapture a region”

376

2SA

8

4

f43e

translate-numbers

0

1,700 chariots

“one thousand seven hundred chariots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

377

2SA

8

4

d1te

translate-numbers

0

twenty thousand footmen

“20,000 footmen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

378

2SA

8

4

cc6y

0

David hamstrung

This is a practice where the tendons in the backs of the legs are cut so that the horses cannot run.

379

2SA

8

4

b5pr

0

reserved enough

Alternate translation: “set aside enough” or “saved enough”

380

2SA

8

4

izr7

translate-numbers

0

a hundred chariots

“100 chariots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

381

2SA

8

5

u7vw

figs-synecdoche

0

David killed

Here David represents his soldiers. Alternate translation: “David and his soldiers killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

382

2SA

8

5

il6u

translate-numbers

0

twenty-two thousand Aramean men

“22,000 Aramean men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

383

2SA

8

6

ph45

0

put garrisons in Aram

Alternate translation: “ordered large groups of his soldiers to remain in Aram”

384

2SA

8

7

ft9e

figs-metonymy

0

David took

Here “David” is probably a metonym for his soldiers. Alternate translation: “David’s soldiers took” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

385

2SA

8

8

qtw6

figs-metonymy

0

King David took

Here “David” is probably a metonym for his soldiers. Alternate translation: “King David’s soldiers took” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

386

2SA

8

8

nu2q

translate-names

0

Tebah and Berothai

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

387

2SA

8

9

t4en

translate-names

0

Tou

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

388

2SA

8

9

le1q

translate-names

0

Hamath

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

389

2SA

8

9

l3de

figs-synecdoche

0

David had defeated

Here “David” is a metonym for his army. Alternate translation: “David’s army had defeated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

390

2SA

8

10

yiq3

translate-names

0

Tou … Hadoram

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

391

2SA

8

12

cjj3

0

and Amalek

Alternate translation: “and the Amalekites”

392

2SA

8

12

d7vv

0

the plundered goods

These are the valuable items that soldiers take from the people they defeated.

393

2SA

8

12

z5x6

0

Hadadezer son of Rehob, the king of Zobah

See how you translated these names in 2 Samuel 8:3.

394

2SA

8

13

hrc2

figs-metonymy

0

David’s name was well known

Here “name” refers to David’s reputation. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “David was very famous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

395

2SA

8

13

c9s7

translate-names

0

Valley of Salt

This is the name of a place. Its exact location is unknown. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

396

2SA

8

13

th6r

translate-numbers

0

eighteen thousand men

“18,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

397

2SA

8

14

gc6u

0

He placed garrisons throughout all of Edom

Alternate translation: “He ordered groups of his soldiers to remain in areas throughout all of Edom”

398

2SA

8

16

r8xj

0

Joab … Zeruiah

See how you translated these names in 2 Samuel 2:13.

399

2SA

8

16

d81q

figs-explicit

0

Ahilud was recorder

A recorder was a person who spoke to the people and told them the king’s announcements. Alternate translation: “Ahilud was the herald” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

400

2SA

8

16

nig1

translate-names

0

Ahilud

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

401

2SA

8

17

k3p5

translate-names

0

Ahitub … Ahimelech … Seraiah

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

402

2SA

8

18

gm1f

translate-names

0

Benaiah … Jehoiada

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

403

2SA

8

18

xxs8

translate-names

0

Kerethites … Pelethites

These are names of people-groups. These people were David’s bodyguards. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

404

2SA

9

intro

lwh6

0

2 Samuel 9 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter is another interruption to the story of David expanding his kingdom. David is concerned with fulfilling his oath to Jonathan’s descendants.

Special concepts in this chapter

David’s vow

David determined to fulfill his vow to Jonathan to care for Jonathan’s descendants. He found Jonathan’s son and told him he would treat him as if he was one of his sons. He restored all of Saul’s property to him and had him eat every day at the king’s table. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/vow]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/restore]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical question and metaphor

Jonathan’s son expressed his surprise and feeling of unworthiness with a rhetorical question: “What is your servant, that you should look with favor on such a dead dog as I am?” and by a metaphor comparing himself to “a dead dog.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

405

2SA

9

1

t1g1

0

for Jonathan’s sake

Alternate translation: “because of my love for Jonathan”

406

2SA

9

1

cy22

0

Jonathan’s sake

Jonathan was Saul’s son and David’s best friend.

407

2SA

9

2

id7a

translate-names

0

Ziba

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

408

2SA

9

2

ura2

0

I am your servant

Ziba calls himself “your servant” to show great respect to David.

409

2SA

9

3

j5la

0

I may show the kindness of God

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word kindness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “kind.” Alternate translation: “I may be kind as I promised God I would be”

410

2SA

9

3

u7ba

figs-metonymy

0

who is lame in his feet

“whose feet are damaged.” The word “feet” here refers to the ability to walk. Alternate translation: “who is unable to walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

411

2SA

9

4

ee6a

translate-names

0

Machir … Ammiel

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

412

2SA

9

4

st1r

translate-names

0

Lo Debar

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

413

2SA

9

5

tj7u

figs-ellipsis

0

King David sent

It is understood that David sent messengers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

414

2SA

9

6

fp3x

0

Mephibosheth

See how you translated this in 2 Samuel 4:4.

415

2SA

9

6

wni4

figs-go

0

came to David

The word “came” can be translated as “went.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

416

2SA

9

6

huu6

0

I am your servant

Mephibosheth refers to himself as “your servant” to show great honor to David.

417

2SA

9

7

fe5j

0

for Jonathan your father’s sake

Alternate translation: “because I loved your father, Jonathan”

418

2SA

9

7

zy8z

figs-metonymy

0

you will always eat at my table

Here “my table” represents being together with David or in his presence. Eating with the king at his table was a great honor. Alternate translation: “you will always eat with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

419

2SA

9

8

fvp8

figs-rquestion

0

What is your servant, that you should look with favor on such a dead dog as I am?

This rhetorical question shows that Mephibosheth understands that he is not important enough for the king to take care of him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am like a dead dog. I do not deserve for you to be kind to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

420

2SA

9

8

j13e

figs-metaphor

0

such a dead dog

Here Mephibosheth represents the line of Saul, and he compares himself to a “dead dog.” Dogs were feral animals, not cared for, and of little importance. A dead dog would be considered even less important. Alternate translation: “such a person like me who is worthless as a dead dog” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

421

2SA

9

10

cb8w

figs-metonymy

0

must always eat at my table

Here “my table” represents being together with David or in his presence. Eating with the king at his table was a great honor. Alternate translation: “must always eat with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

422

2SA

9

10

ae24

writing-background

0

Now Ziba … servants

Here “now” makes a break in the main story line. The narrator gives background information about Ziba. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

423

2SA

9

10

tgt5

translate-numbers

0

fifteen sons and twenty servants

“15 sons and 20 servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

424

2SA

9

11

fwy9

figs-123person

0

Your servant will do all that my master the king commands his servant

Ziba refers to himself as “your servant” and refers to David as “my master.” Alternate translation: “I, your servant will do all that you, my king, command me to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

425

2SA

9

12

eu17

translate-names

0

Mika

This is the name of the son of Mephibosheth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

426

2SA

9

12

u3qr

figs-metonymy

0

All who lived in the house of Ziba

Here “house” represents Ziba’s family. Alternate translation: “All of Ziba’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

427

2SA

9

13

caj8

figs-metonymy

0

he always ate at the king’s table

Here “table” represents being together with David or in his presence. Eating with the king at his table was a great honor. Alternate translation: “he always ate with the king at his table” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

428

2SA

9

13

du2g

figs-metonymy

0

though he was lame in both his feet

“thouge both of his feet were damaged.” Here “feet” represents the ability to walk. Alternate translation: “though he was unable to walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

429

2SA

10

intro

abca

0

2 Samuel 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The chapter records the last expansion of David’s kingdom. This chapter is also the beginning of a section dealing with the war between Israel and Ammon.

Special concepts in this chapter

Shame

It was apparently the cause of shame or embarrassment in ancient Ammon to have their beards shaved off or to have their garments cut off. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

The Ammon people used a metaphor comparing themselves to a bad smell: “they had become a stench to David” when they realized they had made David very angry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

430

2SA

10

1

g3zs

translate-names

0

Hanun

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

431

2SA

10

2

k9r2

translate-names

0

Hanun … Nahash

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

432

2SA

10

3

r4at

figs-rquestion

0

Do you really think that … you?

The leaders use a question to suggest to the king that he should not trust David. Alternate translation: “You are wrong to think that … you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

433

2SA

10

3

zys4

0

to spy

to secretly learn information about someone else

434

2SA

10

3

gmb8

figs-rquestion

0

Has not David … overthrow it?

The leaders use a question to suggest to the king that he should not trust David. Alternate translation: “You need to know that David … overthrow it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

435

2SA

10

3

d8ec

figs-metonymy

0

in order to overthrow it

Here “it” refers to the city which represents the people who live there. Alternate translation: “in order to conquer us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

436

2SA

10

3

bm5t

0

the city

Here “the city” refers to Rabbah, the capital city of the Ammonites.

437

2SA

10

4

g9ma

figs-explicit

0

shaved off half their beards

This act was meant as an insult to humiliate the men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

438

2SA

10

5

jt3x

figs-idiom

0

were deeply ashamed

Here “deeply” is an idiom that means “very.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

439

2SA

10

5

v21l

figs-ellipsis

0

then return

It is understood that they should return to Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

440

2SA

10

6

v8si

figs-metaphor

0

they had become a stench to David

The phrase “become a stench” is a metaphor for “they had become offensive.” Alternate translation: “they had become offensive like a bad smell to David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

441

2SA

10

6

t6tc

translate-names

0

Beth Rehob … Zobah … Maacah … Tob

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

442

2SA

10

6

gk6y

translate-numbers

0

twenty thousand … a thousand … twelve thousand

“20,000…1,000…12,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

443

2SA

10

8

u7sj

0

to their city gate

Here “the city” refers to Rabbah, the capital city of the Ammonites.

444

2SA

10

10

ka2a

0

The rest of his people he put into the hand of Abishai his brother

Alternate translation: “He put Abishai his brother in charge of the rest of the army”

445

2SA

10

11

i9k3

0

General Information:

Joab gets the army ready for battle.

446

2SA

10

11

nlq4

figs-synecdoche

0

for me, then you, Abishai, must rescue me

Here “me” refers to Joab. Joab and Abishai represents themselves and their armies. Alternate translation: “for us, then you, Abishai, and your army must rescue us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

447

2SA

10

14

q6sp

figs-synecdoche

0

from Abishai

Here Abishai represents himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “from Abishai and his soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

448

2SA

10

14

d64c

0

into the city

Here “the city” refers to Rabbah, the capital city of the Ammonites.

449

2SA

10

14

v8x9

0

went back to Jerusalem

Alternate translation: “returned to Jerusalem”

450

2SA

10

15

rg85

figs-activepassive

0

When the Arameans saw that they were being defeated by Israel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when the Arameans realized that the Israelites were defeating them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

451

2SA

10

16

yd3i

translate-names

0

Hadarezer … Shobak

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

452

2SA

10

16

sle1

0

from beyond the Euphrates River

This means the east side of the Euphrates River.

453

2SA

10

16

nik5

figs-go

0

They came to Helam

Here “came to” can be translated as “went to” or “gathered at” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

454

2SA

10

16

rhn4

translate-names

0

Helam

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

455

2SA

10

17

pz1s

figs-activepassive

0

When David was told this

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “When David heard about this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

456

2SA

10

17

vk7a

figs-metonymy

0

gathered all Israel together

Here “Israel” represents the army of Israel. Alternate translation: “assembled all the army of Israel together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

457

2SA

10

17

ism8

0

Helam

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 10:16.

458

2SA

10

17

ln59

figs-synecdoche

0

against David and fought him

Here David represents himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “against David and his soldiers and fought them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

459

2SA

10

18

tev3

figs-synecdoche

0

David killed

Here “David” is a synecdoche for himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “David and his soldiers killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

460

2SA

10

18

uc7z

translate-numbers

0

seven hundred … forty thousand

“700…40,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

461

2SA

10

18

zwc8

figs-activepassive

0

Shobak the commander of their army was wounded and died there

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The Israelites wounded Shobak the commander of the Aramean army, and he died there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

462

2SA

10

18

s2lg

0

Shobak

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 10:16.

463

2SA

10

19

s2mk

0

Hadarezer

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 10:16.

464

2SA

10

19

dzd4

figs-activepassive

0

saw that they were defeated by Israel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “realized that the Israelites had defeated them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

465

2SA

11

intro

abcb

0

2 Samuel 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins a new section of David’s life. God punished David by allowing his family to have many problems.

Special concepts in this chapter

David’s adultery and the murder of Uriah

The army of Israel defeated the army of Ammon and then they besieged Ammon’s capital while David stayed in Jerusalem. One day, David saw a beautiful woman, named Bathsheba, bathing. He committed adultery with her. When she became pregnant, David tried to cover up his sin. When this did not work, he had her husband killed in battle. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

466

2SA

11

1

eqn9

writing-newevent

0

It came about in the springtime

“It happened in the springtime.” This introduces a new event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

467

2SA

11

1

jf4r

0

at the time

Alternate translation: “at the time of year”

468

2SA

11

1

a4ds

figs-explicit

0

David sent out Joab, his servants, and all the army of Israel

David sent them out to war. This can be stated clearly. Also, the word “his” refers to David. Alternate translation: “David sent Joab, his servants, and all the army of Israel to war” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

469

2SA

11

1

qac9

0

the army of Ammon

Alternate translation: “the Ammonite army”

470

2SA

11

1

myy2

translate-names

0

Rabbah

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

471

2SA

11

2

wi9y

writing-newevent

0

So it came about

“So it happened” or “So it came to pass.” The author uses this phrase to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

472

2SA

11

2

qi78

figs-explicit

0

a woman who was bathing

The woman was not on the roof, she would have been bathing outside in the courtyard of her house. Alternate translation: “a woman who was bathing in the courtyard of her house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

473

2SA

11

3

yv7g

figs-idiom

0

So David sent

Here the word “sent” means that David sent a messenger. Alternate translation: “So David sent a messenger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

474

2SA

11

3

r92k

figs-metonymy

0

he asked people who would know about the woman

David was trying to find out who the woman was. The word “he” refers to David, but is a metonym for the messenger that David sent. The messenger was to ask the people for information about her. Alternate translation: “the messenger asked the people who knew her about who she was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

475

2SA

11

3

ht5y

figs-rquestion

0

Is not this Bathsheba … and is she not the wife of Uriah the Hittite?

This question gives information and can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “This is Bathsheba … and she is the wife of Uriah the Hittite.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

476

2SA

11

4

s4dn

figs-metonymy

0

took her

David actually sent messengers, and they took her and brought her to him. Alternate translation: “they brought her to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

477

2SA

11

4

x8kf

figs-metonymy

0

she came in to him

She came into his palace and into his bedroom. Alternate translation: “she came into the place where he was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

478

2SA

11

4

qka3

figs-euphemism

0

he lay with her

This is a polite way of saying that he had sexual relations with her. You may need to use a different euphemism in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

479

2SA

11

4

n2gg

0

menstruation

the time when a woman bleeds from her womb

480

2SA

11

5

e4v5

figs-idiom

0

she sent and told David; she said, “I am pregnant.”

Here the word “sent” means that she sent a messenger to tell David that she was pregnant. Alternate translation: “she sent a messenger to David, and the messenger told David that she was pregnant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

481

2SA

11

6

bds8

figs-idiom

0

Then David sent

Here the word “sent” means that David sent a messenger. Alternate translation: “Then David sent a messenger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

482

2SA

11

7

vjr7

figs-idiom

0

how Joab was, how the army was doing, and how the war was going

David was asking if Joab and the army were well and about the progress of the war. Alternate translation: “if Joab was well, if other soldiers were well, and how the war was progressing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

483

2SA

11

8

qzu2

figs-idiom

0

Go down to your house

The phrase go down could mean: (1) Uriah’s house was located at a lower elevation than the king’s palace or (2) Uriah’s house was of lesser importance than the king’s palace. Alternate translation: “Go to your house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

484

2SA

11

8

f1gh

figs-metonymy

0

wash your feet

This phrase is a metonym for returning home to rest for the night after working all day. Alternate translation: “rest for the night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

485

2SA

11

8

s4b9

figs-metonymy

0

the king sent a gift for Uriah

David sent someone to bring the gift to Uriah. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “the king sent someone to take a gift to Uriah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

486

2SA

11

9

fp1u

0

his master

The word “his” refers to Uriah and the word “master” refers to David.

487

2SA

11

10

p5tg

figs-rquestion

0

Have you not come from a journey? Why did you not go down to your house?

This rhetorical question is used to show David’s surprise that Uriah did not visit his wife. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “After coming from such a long journey, you should have gone down to your house.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

488

2SA

11

11

t1wr

figs-synecdoche

0

Israel and Judah

This refers to their armies. Alternate translation: “the armies of Israel and Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

489

2SA

11

11

w65k

figs-rquestion

0

How then can I go into my house … with my wife?

This rhetorical question is used to emphasize Uriah’s refusal to visit his wife and can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “It would be wrong for me to go into my house … with my wife while the other soldiers in my army are in danger.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

490

2SA

11

11

k6b2

figs-euphemism

0

to lie with my wife

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “to have sexual relations with my wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

491

2SA

11

11

ww5l

figs-simile

0

As sure as you are alive, I will not do this

Uriah swears a strong promise that he will not go home to his wife as long as the rest of the soldiers are at war. He makes this promise by comparing the truth of his promise to the certainty that the king was alive. Alternate translation: “I solemnly promise that I will not do this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

492

2SA

11

13

a9yz

0

he ate and drank before him

Alternate translation: “Uriah ate and drank with David”

493

2SA

11

13

xex1

figs-idiom

0

down to his house

Possible meanings of the word down are: (1) Uriah’s house was located at a lower elevation than the king’s palace or (2) Uriah’s house was of lesser importance than the king’s palace. See how you translated the similar phrase “down to your house” in 2 Samuel 11:8. Alternate translation: “to his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

494

2SA

11

14

c9uz

figs-synecdoche

0

sent it by the hand of Uriah

The phrase “the hand of Uriah” refers to Uriah himself. Alternate translation: “sent Uriah himself to deliver it to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

495

2SA

11

15

r9ph

0

very front of the most intense battle

Alternate translation: “very front of the battle line where the fighting is the worst”

496

2SA

11

15

z3us

0

withdraw from him

Alternate translation: “command the soldiers to back away from him”

497

2SA

11

15

sac7

0

he may be hit and killed

Alternate translation: “he may be wounded and killed”

498

2SA

11

16

di6w

figs-abstractnouns

0

the siege upon the city

The word “siege” can be expressed with the verbs “surround” and “attack.” Alternate translation: “his army surround and attack the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

499

2SA

11

17

x2mt

figs-euphemism

0

some of the soldiers of David fell

The word “fell” is a polite way to refer to the soldiers being killed. Alternate translation: “David’s soldiers were killed” or “they killed some of David’s soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

500

2SA

11

17

s5r9

figs-activepassive

0

and Uriah the Hittite was also killed there

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “including Uriah the Hittite” or “and the men of the city also killed Uriah the Hittite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

501

2SA

11

18

g9kw

figs-metonymy

0

Joab sent word to David

The phrase “sent word” means that he sent a messenger to give a report. Alternate translation: “Joab sent a messenger to David to give a report” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

502

2SA

11

20

a8wj

figs-rquestion

0

Why did you go so near … from the wall?

Joab says that David may rebuke him by asking these rhetorical questions. These questions may be written as statements. Alternate translation: “You should not have gone so near to the city to fight. You should have known that they would shoot from the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

503

2SA

11

20

n65u

figs-explicit

0

shoot from the wall

This refers to men of the city shooting arrows down at their enemy from the top of the city wall. Alternate translation: “shoot arrows at you from the top of the city wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

504

2SA

11

21

h8q7

figs-rquestion

0

Who killed Abimelech son of Jerub-Besheth?

Joab says that David may rebuke him by asking these rhetorical questions. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Remember how Abimelech son of Jerub-Besheth was killed!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

505

2SA

11

21

h97r

translate-names

0

Abimelech son of Jerub-Besheth

This is the name of a man. His father is also know by the name Gideon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

506

2SA

11

21

uf4w

figs-rquestion

0

Did not a woman cast an upper millstone on him from the wall, so that he died at Thebez?

Joab says that David may rebuke him by asking these rhetorical questions. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Remember he died at Thebez when a woman cast an upper millstone on him from the top of the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

507

2SA

11

21

zx1s

0

millstone

a heavy stone that would roll, used to crush grain for making bread

508

2SA

11

21

g9p7

0

from the wall

Alternate translation: “from the top of the city wall”

509

2SA

11

21

q6dz

translate-names

0

Thebez

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

510

2SA

11

21

p6i4

figs-rquestion

0

Why did you go so near the wall?

Joab says that David may rebuke him by asking these rhetorical questions. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not have gone so near the wall!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

511

2SA

11

23

ax3f

0

the gate

Alternate translation: “the city gate”

512

2SA

11

24

jnl2

0

their shooters shot

Alternate translation: “their shooters shot arrows”

513

2SA

11

24

ay8n

figs-activepassive

0

some of the king’s servants were killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they killed some of the king’s servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

514

2SA

11

24

ych3

0

king’s servants

Here “servants” refers to soldiers, not slaves, because soldiers were servants of the king.

515

2SA

11

24

bf6f

figs-activepassive

0

your servant Uriah the Hittite was killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they killed your servant Uriah the Hittite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

516

2SA

11

25

v2pb

figs-metonymy

0

for the sword devours one as well as another

Here “the sword” refers to a person who kills someone with sword. Also, killing someone with a sword is spoken of as if the sword were “eating” the people. Alternate translation: “for one man can be killed by a sword the same as another man” or “for any man can die in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

517

2SA

11

25

mk7a

0

Make your battle even stronger

Alternate translation: “Fight even stronger”

518

2SA

11

26

gx4s

figs-metaphor

0

she lamented deeply

Here the author speaks of her lamenting very much as if it were deep inside her. Alternate translation: “she lamented very much” or “she lamented greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

519

2SA

11

27

d34z

0

sorrow

a deep feeling of sadness caused by suffering, disappointment or misfortune

520

2SA

11

27

d21w

figs-idiom

0

David sent and took her home

Here the word “sent” means that he sent a messenger to get her and bring her to him. Alternate translation: “David sent a messenger to her to bring her home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

521

2SA

11

27

cq8x

0

displeased Yahweh

Alternate translation: “saddened Yahweh” or “angered Yahweh”

522

2SA

12

intro

abcc

0

2 Samuel 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This is the final expansion of David’s kingdom and records the end of the war with Ammon.

Special concepts in this chapter

David’s punishment

God sent a prophet to confront David. He said that because David had Uriah killed, there would always be killing in his family and that the baby conceived with Bathsheba would die. David prayed that the baby be allowed to live, but the infant died. Bathsheba then had another son, who was named Solomon. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

523

2SA

12

3

jfa8

0

ewe lamb

a female lamb

524

2SA

12

3

wd4g

figs-simile

0

was like a daughter to him

This refers to the closeness of this man and his little lamb. Alternate translation: “he loved it as much as if it were one of his daughters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

525

2SA

12

4

vv6b

0

ewe lamb

a young, female sheep

526

2SA

12

4

c763

figs-explicit

0

for his visitor

It was for his visitor to eat. Alternate translation: “for his visitor to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

527

2SA

12

5

tm95

figs-metaphor

0

David was hot with anger against

Here the author describes how David was very angry as if his body were physically hot because of his anger. Alternate translation: “David became furious with” or “David became very angry with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

528

2SA

12

5

v4ka

0

he raged to Nathan

This means that David spoke angrily to Nathan.

529

2SA

12

5

gd2w

figs-explicit

0

As Yahweh lives

This expresses that David was swearing an oath or serious promise. Alternate translation: “I declare, as surely as Yahweh lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

530

2SA

12

5

r45b

figs-idiom

0

to be put to death

This means to be killed. Also, that can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “to be killed” or “to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

531

2SA

12

6

m494

translate-numbers

0

He must pay back the lamb four times over

The amount the rich man was required to pay back to the poor man was to be four times what the little lamb cost. “He must pay the poor man four times the price of the lamb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

532

2SA

12

6

l1te

0

pity

to feel sadness and love for someone who is suffering or hurt or not loved

533

2SA

12

7

x85z

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of Saul

Here the word “hand” refers to control. Alternate translation: “out of Saul’s control” or “from Saul’s control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

534

2SA

12

8

ty2v

figs-metaphor

0

your master’s wives into your arms

Here Yahweh describes David having his master’s wives as his own wives, by saying that they are “in his arms.” Alternate translation: “your master’s wives as your own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

535

2SA

12

8

v7tc

figs-metaphor

0

I also gave you the house of Israel and Judah

Here Yahweh speaks of how he gave David his authority as king over Israel and Judah as if he gave him the houses of Israel and Judah as a gift. The phrase “the house of” means “the people of.” Alternate translation: “I also gave you authority as king over the people of Israel and Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

536

2SA

12

8

sr3v

0

if that had been too little

Alternate translation: “if I had not given you enough”

537

2SA

12

9

nb14

figs-rquestion

0

So why have you despised … Yahweh, so as to do what is evil in his sight?

This rhetorical question is used to rebuke David. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not have despised … Yahweh and should not have done what is evil in his sight!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

538

2SA

12

9

ctt1

figs-metaphor

0

what is evil in his sight

Here “sight” refers to Yahweh’s thoughts or opinion. Alternate translation: “what he considers to be evil” or “what is evil in Yahweh’s judgement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

539

2SA

12

9

iy29

figs-metonymy

0

You have struck down Uriah the Hittite with the sword

David did not kill Uriah himself, rather he arranged for him to be killed in battle. The phrase “with the sword” represents how Uriah died in battle. Alternate translation: “You have arranged for Uriah the Hittite to die in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

540

2SA

12

9

n595

figs-metonymy

0

You killed him with the sword of the army of Ammon

David did not kill Uriah himself, rather he arranged for him to be killed in battle when Israel was fighting against Ammon. The phrase “with the sword” refers to how he died in battle. Alternate translation: “You arranged for him to die in battle against the army of Ammon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

541

2SA

12

10

t13v

figs-metonymy

0

the sword will never leave your house

Here the word “sword” refers to people dying in war. Also, David’s “house” refers to his descendants. Alternate translation: “some of your descendants will always die in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

542

2SA

12

11

zbq2

figs-metonymy

0

out of your own house

Here David’s “house” refers to his family. Alternate translation: “from among your own family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

543

2SA

12

11

d9za

figs-synecdoche

0

Before your own eyes

Here David is referred to by his eyes to emphasize what he would see. Alternate translation: “While you are watching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

544

2SA

12

11

bc2j

figs-euphemism

0

he will lie with your wives

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “he will have sexual relations with your wives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

545

2SA

12

11

br6x

figs-metaphor

0

in broad daylight

“in full daylight.” The idea of doing something “openly” or in a way that people are fully aware of what is happening is often spoken about as being done in the “daylight.” Alternate translation: “openly” or “and everyone will see what is happening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

546

2SA

12

12

cy92

0

committed your sin

Alternate translation: “sinned”

547

2SA

12

12

g9jf

figs-metonymy

0

before all Israel

This phrase speaks of the people of Israel knowing about what has happened to his wives as if they all actually witnessed it happening. Alternate translation: “before all the people of Israel” or “and all the people of Israel will know about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

548

2SA

12

13

u54j

figs-metaphor

0

passed over

Yahweh has forgiven David of his sin. This is spoken of here as Yahweh passing over his sin as if it were something that he walked by and disregarded. Alternate translation: “forgiven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

549

2SA

12

13

zze1

figs-activepassive

0

You will not be killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Sometimes men died because of their sins, but he will not die because of his sin with the woman. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “You will not die” or “you will not die because of this sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

550

2SA

12

14

m7z5

0

despised

to strongly dislike or hate someone or something

551

2SA

12

14

vm9h

figs-idiom

0

the child who is born to you

The phrase “born to you” means that it is David’s baby. Alternate translation: “your child who will be born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

552

2SA

12

15

z3d2

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh attacked the child that … and he was very sick

Here the author speaks of Yahweh causing the baby to become sick as Yahweh attacking the child. Alternate translation: “Yahweh afflicted the child that … and he was very sick” or “Yahweh caused the baby that … to become very sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

553

2SA

12

15

eh1x

figs-idiom

0

the child that Uriah’s wife bore to David

This means that she gave birth to a child and that David was his father. Alternate translation: “David’s child, who Uriah’s wife gave birth to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

554

2SA

12

16

t71m

0

implored

to beg or pray with strong desire

555

2SA

12

16

k5zu

figs-explicit

0

went inside

David went into his room when he was alone. Alternate translation: “went inside his room” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

556

2SA

12

17

dyf7

0

to raise him up from the floor

Alternate translation: “and urged him to get up from the floor”

557

2SA

12

18

cbe1

0

It came about

Alternate translation: “It happened”

558

2SA

12

18

f2jx

figs-synecdoche

0

he did not listen to our voice

The servants are referred to here by their voices to emphasize that they were speaking. Alternate translation: “he did not listen to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

559

2SA

12

18

ueh7

figs-explicit

0

the seventh day

“day 7.” This refers to the seventh day after the baby was born. Alternate translation: “the seventh day after he was born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

560

2SA

12

18

j2pi

0

Look

This is used to get people’s attention. Alternate translation: “Listen”

561

2SA

12

18

sz9x

figs-rquestion

0

What might he do to himself if we tell him that the boy is dead?!

The servants ask this rhetorical question to express their fear. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We are afraid that he may harm himself if we tell him that the boy is dead!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

562

2SA

12

19

s1tv

0

were whispering together

Alternate translation: “were speaking very quietly to each other”

563

2SA

12

19

mh6l

0

David perceived

Alternate translation: “David understood”

564

2SA

12

20

aa4t

0

David arose

Alternate translation: “David got up”

565

2SA

12

21

nx6q

0

General Information:

These verses contain rhetorical questions that emphasize that David realizes that Yahweh has allowed this to happen.

566

2SA

12

22

p2za

figs-rquestion

0

Who knows whether or not Yahweh will be gracious to me, that the child may live?

David asked this rhetorical question to empathize that no one knew if Yahweh would let the child live. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one knows whether or not Yahweh will be gracious to me so that the child may live.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

567

2SA

12

23

pf4k

figs-rquestion

0

But now he is dead, so why should I fast?

David asks this rhetorical question to empathize that he no longer has a reason to fast. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Now that he is dead it would be of no use to fast any longer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

568

2SA

12

23

cc5p

figs-rquestion

0

Can I bring him back again?

David asks this rhetorical question to empathize that the boy cannot come back to life. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I cannot bring him back to life.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

569

2SA

12

23

qs7p

figs-explicit

0

I will go to him

David implies that he will go to where his child is when he dies. Alternate translation: “When I die I will go to where he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

570

2SA

12

24

f8ut

figs-doublet

0

went in to her and lay with her

Both the phrase “went in to her” and the phrase “lay with her” refer to David having sexual relations with Bathsheba and emphasize what they did. Alternate translation: “had sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

571

2SA

12

25

m6ce

figs-metonymy

0

he sent word through Nathan the prophet

Here “word” refers to a message that Yahweh told Nathan to tell David. Alternate translation: “he sent Nathan to tell him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

572

2SA

12

25

rd3r

translate-names

0

Jedidiah

This is another name for David’s son Solomon, which Yahweh chose for him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

573

2SA

12

26

jf3t

figs-synecdoche

0

Joab fought … he captured

Here the author says “Joab” but he is referring to Joab and his soldiers who fought with him. Alternate translation: “Joab and his soldiers fought … they captured” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

574

2SA

12

26

ar6m

figs-metonymy

0

Rabbah

Fighting against this city literally means to fight against the people of Rabbah. Translate the name the same as you did in 2 Samuel 11:1. Alternate translation: “the people of Rabbah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

575

2SA

12

27

ip2q

0

So Joab sent messengers to David and said

Alternate translation: “So Joab sent messengers to David to say to him”

576

2SA

12

27

c6au

figs-metaphor

0

have taken the city’s water supply

“Taking” a place or landmark means to take control of it. Alternate translation: “have taken control of the city’s water supply” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

577

2SA

12

27

n5s7

figs-synecdoche

0

I have fought … I have taken

Here Joab speaks of himself when he is actually referring to himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “My soldiers and I have fought … my soldier and I have taken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

578

2SA

12

28

ue9d

figs-synecdoche

0

if I take

Here Joab speaks of himself when he is actually referring to himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “if my soldiers and I take” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

579

2SA

12

28

ej7u

figs-idiom

0

camp against

This means to surround and attack. Alternate translation: “besiege” or “surround” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

580

2SA

12

28

zt5k

figs-metaphor

0

take it … take the city

“Taking” a place or landmark means to take control of it. Alternate translation: “take control of it … take control of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

581

2SA

12

28

gj9r

figs-activepassive

0

it will be named

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people will name it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

582

2SA

12

29

z74s

figs-synecdoche

0

he fought

Here the author speaks of David when he is actually referring to David and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “David and his soldiers fought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

583

2SA

12

30

n7vb

translate-bweight

0

a talent

This may be written in modern weights. Alternate translation: “about 33 kilograms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

584

2SA

12

30

t9em

0

a precious stone

a rare gemstone such as a diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, or opal

585

2SA

12

30

nw9j

figs-activepassive

0

The crown was placed on David’s own head

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “They placed the crown on David’s own head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

586

2SA

12

30

wz14

figs-metonymy

0

he brought out

Here the author speaks of David when he is actually referring to David’s soldiers. Alternate translation: “they brought out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

587

2SA

12

30

g4xl

0

plunder

valuable things taken from a defeated enemy

588

2SA

12

30

nq3u

0

large quantities

Alternate translation: “large amounts”

589

2SA

12

31

a3vv

figs-metonymy

0

He brought out the people

David did not bring out the people himself; he commanded his soldiers to bring them out. Alternate translation: “David commanded his soldiers to bring out the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

590

2SA

12

31

ya1w

0

saws, iron picks, and axes

These are tools to cut wood or break up the ground.

591

2SA

12

31

tl3i

0

brick kilns

ovens where bricks are dried and hardened

592

2SA

12

31

ew58

figs-metonymy

0

all the cities of the people of Ammon

This refers to the people in the cities. Alternate translation: “all the people of the cites of Ammon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

593

2SA

13

intro

abcd

0

2 Samuel 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins the story about the difficulties and killings in David’s family. David’s sin caused these problems in his family. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Amnon raped Absalom’s sister

Amnon raped Absalom’s sister, who was his own half-sister. David did nothing to punish him and David’s lack of action caused significant problems in his family and in Israel. This eventually caused Solomon to become king, even though he was not the oldest son.

594

2SA

13

1

e2ti

writing-newevent

0

It came about after this

“It happened after this.” This phrase is used to introduce a new event to the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

595

2SA

13

1

tup1

0

half-sister

Amnon and Tamar shared the same father but not the same mother.

596

2SA

13

1

fj5k

0

full sister

Absalom and Tamar shared the same father and mother.

597

2SA

13

2

fmq1

figs-explicit

0

Amnon was so frustrated that he became sick because of his sister Tamar

Amnon was frustrated because he desired to sleep with his sister Tamar. Alternate translation: “Amnon was so frustrated with desire for his sister Tamar that he felt sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

598

2SA

13

3

rz6p

translate-names

0

Jonadab son of Shimeah, David’s brother

These are the names of men. Shimeah was David’s brother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

599

2SA

13

3

knc5

0

shrewd

crafty or deceptive

600

2SA

13

4

qef9

0

depressed

in an emotional state of extreme unhappiness

601

2SA

13

4

s99u

figs-ellipsis

0

Will you not tell me?

It is understood that he is asking him about his depression, which can be stated clearly. Also, this rhetorical question is a request for Jehonadab to tell him why he is depressed. It may be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “Will you not tell me why you are depressed?” or “Please, tell me why you are depressed.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

602

2SA

13

5

qen4

0

Jonadab

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 13:3.

603

2SA

13

5

xjs4

figs-idiom

0

eat it from her hand

This is probably a request for her to serve food to him personally. He probably did not want her to put the food in his mouth. Alternate translation: “have her serve it to me herself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

604

2SA

13

6

tsl3

figs-idiom

0

I may eat from her hand

This is probably a request for her to serve food to him personally. He probably did not expect her to put the food in his mouth. Alternate translation: “she may serve it to me to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

605

2SA

13

6

n1c2

0

pretended to be sick

This means he gave a false appearance of being ill.

606

2SA

13

6

a3i8

figs-metonymy

0

for my sickness in front of me

The food is not for his sickness, but rather it is for him, because he is sick. The phrase “in front of me” is a request for Tamar to prepare the food in his presence. Alternate translation: “in front of me because I am sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

607

2SA

13

7

we8h

figs-metonymy

0

David sent word

This means that he sent a messenger to speak to Tamar. Alternate translation: “David sent a messenger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

608

2SA

13

8

k69t

0

dough

a thick mixture of flour and liquid used for baking

609

2SA

13

8

di8s

0

kneaded

used her hands to mix the dough

610

2SA

13

8

l12v

figs-idiom

0

in his sight

This means that Tamar made the bread in front of him. Alternate translation: “in front of him” or “in his presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

611

2SA

13

9

cwh1

figs-idiom

0

So everyone went out from him

To “go out from someone” means to leave them. Alternate translation: “So everyone left him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

612

2SA

13

10

y3b4

figs-idiom

0

that I may eat from your hand

This is a request for Tamar to serve the food to him personally. Alternate translation: “and serve it to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

613

2SA

13

11

c79f

figs-euphemism

0

lie with me

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “have sexual relations with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

614

2SA

13

12

rly8

figs-ellipsis

0

do not force me

She is referring to having sexual relations with him. Alternate translation: “do not force me to have sexual relations with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

615

2SA

13

12

fd8t

0

appalling

very shameful

616

2SA

13

13

j8jb

figs-rquestion

0

How could I be rid of my shame?

Tamar asks this rhetorical question to emphasize how much shame she would have if she slept with him. Tamar speaks of getting rid of her shame as if it were an enemy or a tormentor that she needed to escape from. Alternate translation: “If you do this, I would have to endure shame everywhere I go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

617

2SA

13

14

ras3

figs-euphemism

0

he lay with her

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “he had sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

618

2SA

13

16

zc24

figs-abstractnouns

0

Because this great evil of making me leave is even worse

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word this great evil, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “It would be very evil to make me leave! It would be even worse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

619

2SA

13

17

au8l

figs-explicit

0

bolt the door after her

This means to lock the door so that she will not be able to come back in again. Alternate translation: “lock the door so that she cannot come back in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

620

2SA

13

18

c6te

figs-explicit

0

bolted the door after her

This means to lock the door so that she will not be able to come back in again. Alternate translation: “locked the door so that she could not go back in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

621

2SA

13

19

i3wt

translate-symaction

0

put ashes on her head and tore her robe. She put her hands on her head

These are acts of mourning and grief in the Israelite culture. Alternate translation: “put ashes on her head and tore her robe to show that she was very sad. Then to show her grief, she put her hands on her head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

622

2SA

13

20

w3wp

figs-euphemism

0

Has Amnon your brother been with you?

This is a polite way to ask is Amnon has had sexual relations with her. Alternate translation: “Has Amnon your brother slept with you?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

623

2SA

13

20

ffu3

figs-idiom

0

keep quiet

This means to not tell anyone about something. Alternate translation: “do not tell anyone about this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

624

2SA

13

20

ce3a

figs-idiom

0

Do not take this thing to heart

The phrase “take something to heart” means “to worry about it.” Alternate translation: “Do not worry about what has happened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

625

2SA

13

20

m1az

0

So Tamar remained alone

This means that she did not marry.

626

2SA

13

22

j3li

0

said nothing

Alternate translation: “did not speak”

627

2SA

13

23

q5hh

writing-newevent

0

It came about after two full years

This explains that two whole years has passed and introduces the next event in the story line. The phrase “full years” means that they are complete years. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

628

2SA

13

23

qef5

0

shearers

These are people who cut the wool from sheep.

629

2SA

13

23

am6l

translate-names

0

Baal Hazor

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

630

2SA

13

24

e8ml

0

Look now

This is a phrase used to draw someone’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

631

2SA

13

24

wmj8

0

your servant

Absalom is calling himself “your servant” to show respect.

632

2SA

13

24

uq3x

0

has sheep shearers

It was customary for people in Israel to have a party after they had sheared their sheep.

633

2SA

13

24

tav8

0

may the king

Although he is talking to his father the king, he calls him “the king” instead of “you” to show respect for him.

634

2SA

13

26

b7e9

0

please let my brother Amnon go with us

The oldest son could often represent his father in Israelite culture. Amnon was David’s oldest son.

635

2SA

13

26

ep6f

0

Why should Amnon go with you?

David knew that Amnon was not Absalom’s friend.

636

2SA

13

27

kd8k

figs-metaphor

0

Absalom pressed David

Here the author speaks of Absalom urging David to let Amnon come as if he were putting physical pressure on him. Alternate translation: “Absalom begged David for Amnon to come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

637

2SA

13

27

w3cs

figs-synecdoche

0

all the king’s sons

This does not include Absalom and Amnon who is dead. It includes the rest of the sons that the king allowed to go to the celebration. Alternate translation: “the rest of the king’s sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

638

2SA

13

28

yfb3

figs-explicit

0

Do not be afraid

This implies that they do not need to be afraid of the consequences for killing Amnon. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Do not be afraid that you will be blamed for killing the king’s son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

639

2SA

13

28

ev94

figs-rquestion

0

Have I not commanded you?

Absalom asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that he will be blamed for killing Amnon because he is commanding them. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I have commanded you to do this.” or “I will be the one guilty for killing him because I have commanded you to do this.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

640

2SA

13

28

fa5u

figs-ellipsis

0

not commanded you

What Absalom has commanded them to do may be stated in the question. Alternate translation: “not commanded you to kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

641

2SA

13

29

jr7q

0

every man

This refers to the king’s sons who left the celebration.

642

2SA

13

30

jr55

writing-newevent

0

So it came about

“It happened that.” This phrase is used here to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

643

2SA

13

30

x2s3

0

on the road

Alternate translation: “travelling along the road”

644

2SA

13

30

hpn8

figs-metonymy

0

that the news came to David saying

Here it says that the news came, when really someone came and told David the news. Alternate translation: “that someone came and reported the news to David saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

645

2SA

13

31

l6aw

0

Then the king arose

Alternate translation: “Then the king stood up”

646

2SA

13

31

a8qp

translate-symaction

0

tore his clothes, and lay on the floor

He did these things to show that he was extremely sad. Alternate translation: “tore his clothes, and threw himself on the floor grieving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

647

2SA

13

31

a62g

translate-symaction

0

with their clothes torn

They did this to show their sadness and to mourn with their king. Alternate translation: “and tore their clothes, mourning with the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

648

2SA

13

32

a6vi

0

Jonadab … Shimeah

See how you translated these men’s names in 2 Samuel 13:3.

649

2SA

13

32

dsh2

0

Let not my master believe

Alternate translation: “My master, do not believe”

650

2SA

13

32

ev3e

0

my master

Jonadab calls David “my master” to show respect.

651

2SA

13

32

a8f7

figs-euphemism

0

Amnon violated his sister

This is a polite way of saying that Amnon raped his sister. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

652

2SA

13

33

qjg1

0

let not my master the king

Alternate translation: “my master the king, do not”

653

2SA

13

33

cf2y

figs-idiom

0

take this report to heart

The phrase “take something to heart” means “to worry about it.” Alternate translation: “worry about this report” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

654

2SA

13

34

rh5b

figs-idiom

0

keeping watch

This means that the servant was watching for enemies while guarding at the city wall. Alternate translation: “who was guarding” or “who was guarding at the city wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

655

2SA

13

34

j8la

figs-metaphor

0

raised his eyes

Here the servant looking up at something is spoken of as if he lifted up his eyes. Alternate translation: “looked up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

656

2SA

13

36

r5i8

writing-newevent

0

So it came about

This phrase is used to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

657

2SA

13

36

r9gz

figs-metaphor

0

raised their voices

Here the sons crying out is spoken of as if their voices were something they lifted into the sky. Alternate translation: “cried out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

658

2SA

13

37

dqp1

translate-names

0

Talmai … Ammihud

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

659

2SA

13

37

wxs3

0

for his son

Alternate translation: “for his son Amnon”

660

2SA

13

38

pbz9

0

where he was for three years

Alternate translation: “where he stayed for three years”

661

2SA

13

39

ky6u

figs-synecdoche

0

The mind of King David longed

Here David is referred to by his mind to emphasize his thoughts. Alternate translation: “King David longed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

662

2SA

13

39

t9kb

0

for he was comforted concerning Amnon and his death

“because he was no longer grieving about Amnon being dead.” This refers to three years after Absalom fled to Geshur.

663

2SA

14

intro

abce

0

2 Samuel 14 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Reconciliation

David missed his son, Absalom, who was in exile. Joab summons a wise woman to reconcile David and Absalom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reconcile]])

Important figures of speech used in this chapter

Parable

The wise woman uses a type of parable to convince David that his actions were wrong. He treated a stranger worse than he treated his own son. This hypothetical situation was intended to convict David of his sin. She uses David’s own words against him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

664

2SA

14

1

c5gz

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author tells about a new person in the story.

665

2SA

14

1

zlp2

0

Zeruiah

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 2:13.

666

2SA

14

1

nt9e

0

perceived

This means Joab discerned or understood what David was thinking.

667

2SA

14

2

g3b4

figs-metonymy

0

sent word to Tekoa and had a wise woman brought

This means that Joab sent someone with a message to Tekoa and had him bring back a woman to him. This can be written in active form. Alternate translation: “sent someone with a message to Tokoa and had him bring a wise woman back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

668

2SA

14

2

t4f8

translate-names

0

Tekoa

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

669

2SA

14

2

rm87

figs-nominaladj

0

the dead

This refers to someone who has died, not dead people in general. Alternate translation: “someone who has died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

670

2SA

14

4

an12

translate-symaction

0

she lay facedown on the ground

She did this to show her respect and submission to the king. Alternate translation: “she showed her respect to the king by laying facedown on the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

671

2SA

14

6

ij2w

0

One struck the other

Alternate translation: “One of my sons hit the other son with something”

672

2SA

14

7

jb47

0

the whole clan

Alternate translation: “my entire family”

673

2SA

14

7

aq9y

0

your servant

To show respect for the king the woman refers to herself as “your servant.”

674

2SA

14

7

fj59

figs-idiom

0

put him to death

This is an idiom which means to kill. Alternate translation: “kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

675

2SA

14

7

hhk3

figs-explicit

0

they would also destroy the heir

If they put the guilty brother to death there would not be a son left to inherit the family’s possessions. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “if they did this, they would be destroying our family’s heir” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

676

2SA

14

7

vfb2

figs-metaphor

0

Thus they will put out the burning coal that I have left

Here the woman refers to her only living son as if he were a burning piece of coal. She speaks of the men killing her son as stopping the coal’s burning. Alternate translation: “In this way they will kill the only child I have left” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

677

2SA

14

7

vk75

figs-doublenegatives

0

they will leave for my husband neither name nor descendant

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “they will not leave for my husband name or descendant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

678

2SA

14

7

jl3j

figs-metonymy

0

neither name nor descendant

This refers to a son to carry on the family’s name into the next generation. Alternate translation: “no son to preserve our family’s name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

679

2SA

14

7

xe94

0

on the surface of the earth

“on the earth.” This descriptive phrase emphasizes that the family line would not continue on earth after the husband died. “The surface of the earth” refers to the ground on which people walk.

680

2SA

14

8

w2wr

figs-activepassive

0

I will command something to be done for you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I will take care of this matter for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

681

2SA

14

9

sev7

0

Tekoa

Translate the name of this place the same as you did in 2 Samuel 14:2.

682

2SA

14

9

gz85

figs-explicit

0

may the guilt be on me and on my father’s family

This means that if people say that the king was wrong for helping the woman’s family that the king should not be guilty. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “if anyone blames you for helping our family, may my family be considered guilty instead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

683

2SA

14

9

e186

figs-metonymy

0

The king and his throne

Here the word “throne” refers to anyone who later becomes king in David’s place. Alternate translation: “The king and his descendants” or “The king and his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

684

2SA

14

9

uik4

figs-explicit

0

are guiltless

“are innocent.” This implies that in the future if anyone accuses the king of wrongdoing, he will be innocent in the matter. Alternate translation: “will be innocent regarding the matter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

685

2SA

14

10

fz7h

figs-synecdoche

0

says anything to you

Here speaking threats is spoken of as speaking in general. Alternate translation: “threatens you” or “speaks threats to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

686

2SA

14

10

pq9j

figs-metaphor

0

he will not touch you anymore

Here David speaks of a person not threatening or hurting her, by saying that the person would not touch her. It is implied that David will not allow the person threatening her to bother her again. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “I will make sure he does not threaten you again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

687

2SA

14

11

jfs2

figs-idiom

0

Please, may the king call to mind Yahweh your God

This could mean: (1) The phrase “call to mind” is an idiom meaning to pray. Alternate translation: “Please, pray to Yahweh your God” or (2) Here “call to mind” means to remember and it is implied that after he remembers Yahweh he will promise in his name. Alternate translation: “Please promise in the name of Yahweh your God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

688

2SA

14

11

xm1u

figs-explicit

0

the avenger of blood

This refers to the man who wants to avenge the death of the dead brother. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “the man who wants to avenge my son’s brother’s death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

689

2SA

14

11

ez62

0

destroy anyone further

“cause anyone else to die.” This is in addition to the brother who already died.

690

2SA

14

11

yv76

0

that they will not destroy my son

Alternate translation: “that they will not kill my son” or “that they will not execute my son”

691

2SA

14

11

vgi3

figs-simile

0

As Yahweh lives

Often people would make promises and compare how surely they would fulfil their promise to how surely Yahweh is alive. Alternate translation: “I promise you, as surely as Yahweh lives” or “In Yahweh’s name I promise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

692

2SA

14

11

d9l6

figs-hyperbole

0

not one hair of your son will fall to the ground

The means that her son will not be harmed, which is exaggerated by saying that he will not lose even a single hair. Alternate translation: “your son will be completely safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

693

2SA

14

12

l1s3

0

your servant

To show respect for the king the woman refers to herself as “your servant.”

694

2SA

14

12

hy2e

0

speak a further word to

“talk about something else to.” The woman is requesting to speak to the king about another topic.

695

2SA

14

12

mw9s

figs-idiom

0

Speak on

This is an idiom. The king was giving her permission to continue speaking. Alternate translation: “You may speak to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

696

2SA

14

13

ia2l

figs-rquestion

0

Why then have you devised such a thing against the people of God?

The woman asks this rhetorical question to rebuke David for how he has treated Absalom. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “What you have just said proved that you did wrong.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

697

2SA

14

13

t35u

0

the king is like someone who is guilty

The woman compares the king to someone who is guilty to suggest that he is guilty without saying it directly. Alternate translation: “the king has declared himself guilty”

698

2SA

14

13

f3ci

0

his banished son

Alternate translation: “his son whom he banished”

699

2SA

14

14

ll3p

figs-simile

0

For we all must die, and we are like water spilled on the ground … up again

Here the woman speaks of a person dying as if they were water being spilled on the ground. Alternate translation: “We all must die, and after we die we cannot be brought back to life again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

700

2SA

14

14

f5lf

figs-explicit

0

God … finds a way for those who were driven away to be restored

The woman is implying that David should bring his son back to himself. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “God brings back someone whom he has driven away and you should do the same for your son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

701

2SA

14

15

hm99

figs-ellipsis

0

because the people have made me afraid

The understood information may be supplied. Alternate translation: “because the people have made me afraid that I have come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

702

2SA

14

15

nkn7

0

your servant

To show respect for the king the woman refers to herself as “your servant”

703

2SA

14

16

x4ut

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand of the man

This phrase is an idiom. Also, “the hand” is a metonym referring to the man’s control. Alternate translation: “out of the control of the man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

704

2SA

14

17

pn2s

0

the word of my master the king

Alternate translation: “the message of my master the king”

705

2SA

14

17

nm7g

figs-simile

0

for as an angel of God, so is my master … from evil

Here David, the king, is compared to an “angel of God.” Alternate translation: “for the king is like an angel of God because they both know how to tell good from evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

706

2SA

14

18

u2d4

figs-litotes

0

Please do not hide from me anything that I will ask you

The negative form here is used for emphasis and can be stated in a positive form. Alternate translation: “Please tell me the truth about everything I ask you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

707

2SA

14

19

p42h

figs-metonymy

0

Is not the hand of Joab with you in all this

Here the word “hand” refers to Joab’s influence. Alternate translation: “Has not Joab influenced you in all this” or “Did Joab send you here to speak these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

708

2SA

14

19

uz25

figs-idiom

0

As you live

“As surely as you are alive.” Here the woman compares the certainty of what David has said to the certainty that he is alive, to emphasize how true his statement is. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

709

2SA

14

19

q69g

figs-metaphor

0

no one can escape to the right hand … the king has spoken

Here the woman describes the difficulty of speaking to the king and keeping him from finding out the truth by comparing it to a person not being about to escape in any direction. Alternate translation: “no one can keep you from knowing the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

710

2SA

14

19

vyl1

figs-merism

0

to the right hand or to the left

The expression gives two extremes and means “anywhere.” Alternate translation: “anywhere at all” or “anywhere” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

711

2SA

14

20

yvt6

0

My master is wise

Alternate translation: “My master the king is wise”

712

2SA

14

20

j2lm

figs-simile

0

is wise, like the wisdom of an angel of God

The woman compares David’s wisdom to the wisdom of an angel to emphasize how very wise he is. Alternate translation: “you are very wise, like an angel of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

713

2SA

14

21

n8az

figs-explicit

0

So the king said to Joab

It is implied that the king had Joab brought before him so that he could speak to him. The full meaning of this can be made clear. Alternate translation: “Then the king summoned Joab and said to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

714

2SA

14

21

g87y

0

Look now

This phrase is used to draw someone’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

715

2SA

14

21

r58j

figs-explicit

0

this thing

This refers to what Joab wants the king to do. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “what you want me to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

716

2SA

14

22

n6a2

translate-symaction

0

Joab lay facedown on the ground

Joab did this to honor the king and show his gratitude. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

717

2SA

14

22

qd1b

0

your servant

To show respect for the king Joab refers to himself as “your servant.”

718

2SA

14

22

f6n4

figs-idiom

0

I have found favor in your eyes

The phrase “found favor” is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, “eyes” is a metonym for sight, and sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “you are pleased with me” or “you have approved of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

719

2SA

14

22

x4g1

0

in that the king

Alternate translation: “because the king”

720

2SA

14

22

gl13

0

the king has performed the request of his servant

Alternate translation: “you have done what I asked you to do”

721

2SA

14

24

i98k

figs-synecdoche

0

but he may not see my face … the king’s face

Here the word “face” refers to the king himself. Alternate translation: “but he may not see me … the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

722

2SA

14

25

u9cd

writing-background

0

Now

This word marks a break in the main story line. This new section gives background information for the part of the story that follows. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

723

2SA

14

25

fb8b

figs-activepassive

0

there was no one praised for his handsomeness more than Absalom

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people praised Absalom for his handsomeness more than they praised anyone else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

724

2SA

14

25

m4bk

0

handsomeness

good and pleasing appearance, especially of the face

725

2SA

14

25

tiv6

figs-merism

0

From the sole of his foot to the top of his head there was no blemish in him

This means the whole person was without blemish. Alternate translation: “There were no blemishes on any part of his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

726

2SA

14

26

j4bd

translate-bweight

0

two hundred shekels

This can be written in modern units. Alternate translation: “two and a half kilograms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

727

2SA

14

26

a94i

0

the weight of the king’s standard

The king had weights that determined the standard weight of the shekel and other weights and measurements.

728

2SA

14

27

raf5

0

To Absalom were born three sons and one daughter

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Absalom had three sons and one daughter”

729

2SA

14

28

p8nr

figs-synecdoche

0

the king’s face

Here “the king’s face” refers to the king himself. Alternate translation: “the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

730

2SA

14

29

nwh8

figs-metonymy

0

Absalom sent word for Joab

Here “word” is a metonym for “a message.” This means that he sent a messenger to Joab with a request. Alternate translation: “Absalom sent a messenger to Joab asking him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

731

2SA

14

29

km4z

figs-explicit

0

to send him to the king

It is implied that Absalom wanted Joab to come to him to see him and to intercede for him so that he would be allowed to see the king. The full meaning of this can be made clear. Alternate translation: “to come to him and to intercede for him so that he could see the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

732

2SA

14

29

f1c7

figs-metonymy

0

So Absalom sent word a second time

Here “word” is a metonym for “a message.” This means that he sent a messenger to Joab again with the same request. The full meaning of this can be made clear. Alternate translation: “So Absalom sent a messenger to Joab again with the same request” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

733

2SA

14

30

g6kt

0

See

Here this word is used to remind people of something. Alternate translation: “As you know”

734

2SA

14

32

wb3r

0

Look

Alternate translation: “Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important”

735

2SA

14

32

cr53

figs-metonymy

0

I sent word

Here “word” is a metonym for “a message.” This means that he sent a messenger. Alternate translation: “I sent a messenger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

736

2SA

14

32

ay13

figs-explicit

0

to the king to say

The message here for the king is written as if Absalom were the speaker. Absalom was asking Joab to speak the message on his behalf. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “to say to the king on my behalf” or “to ask the king for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

737

2SA

14

32

ehw7

figs-synecdoche

0

the king’s face

Here “king’s face” refers to the king himself. Alternate translation: “the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

738

2SA

14

33

xix9

translate-symaction

0

bowed low to the ground before the king

Absalom is showing respect to the king. Alternate translation: “bowed low to the ground to honor the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

739

2SA

14

33

lr12

figs-explicit

0

the king kissed Absalom

This implies that the king forgave and restored Absalom. The full meaning of this can be made clear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

740

2SA

15

intro

abcf

0

2 Samuel 15 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins the story of Absalom’s attempted revolt.

Special concepts in this chapter

Absalom’s conspiracy

For four years, Absalom made many allies in an attempt to make himself king. This is why he acted as a judge for the people. Since this was all done in secret, it is called a “conspiracy.” David found out and fled with those in the army who were loyal to him.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

The author used the metaphor of a thief to describe how Absalom was able to win people’s loyalty: “So Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

741

2SA

15

1

m44b

writing-newevent

0

It came about

This phrase is used to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

742

2SA

15

1

a4qh

translate-symaction

0

with fifty men to run before him

These men would run in front of the chariot to honor Absalom. Alternate translation: “with fifty men to run before him to honor him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

743

2SA

15

2

f1j6

0

Your servant

When a man would respond to Absalom’s question he would refer to himself as “your servant” to honor Absalom.

744

2SA

15

3

cl8u

figs-explicit

0

So Absalom would say to him

It is implied that the person told his case to Absalom. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Absalom would ask him what his problem was, and the man would then explain to Absalom why he sought justice. Absalom would then say to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

745

2SA

15

3

yts5

figs-doublet

0

good and right

These words have basically the same meaning and are used together to emphasize that his case is good. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

746

2SA

15

3

d3e6

figs-metonymy

0

to hear your case

“Hearing” a case means to listen to it and to make a judgement decision over it. Alternate translation: “to judge your case” or “to oversee your case” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

747

2SA

15

5

n3n6

translate-symaction

0

put out his hand and take hold of him and kiss him

This action is a friendly greeting. Alternate translation: “greet him as a friend by embracing him and kissing him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

748

2SA

15

6

ty61

figs-explicit

0

for judgment

This means that they can for the king to decide their disputes. Alternate translation: “to judge over their disputes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

749

2SA

15

6

xc8j

figs-metaphor

0

So Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel

This sentence means Absalom convinced the men to be loyal to him rather than to David. Here the author speaks of how the people became loyal to Absalom by saying that he stole their hearts. Alternate translation: “In this way, Absalom convinced the men of Israel to be loyal to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

750

2SA

15

7

k1ju

writing-newevent

0

It came about

This phrase is used to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

751

2SA

15

7

u4br

figs-explicit

0

at the end of four years that Absalom

This refers to four years after he returned to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “fours years after Absalom had returned to Jerusalem, he” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

752

2SA

15

7

z9fc

0

and pay a vow that I have made to Yahweh in Hebron

Alternate translation: “to Hebron and there fulfill a vow that I have made to Yahweh”

753

2SA

15

8

x8c1

0

For your servant

Here Absalom refers to himself this way to honor the king.

754

2SA

15

9

z24j

0

So Absalom arose

Alternate translation: “So Absalom left”

755

2SA

15

10

k6i1

figs-metonymy

0

throughout all the tribes of Israel

Here the places where the tribes of Israel lived are referred to as the tribes themselves. Alternate translation: “throughout the land of the tribes of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

756

2SA

15

10

yb9l

0

the sound of the trumpet

Alternate translation: “a trumpet being blown”

757

2SA

15

11

y3hm

figs-activepassive

0

who were invited

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “who he had invited” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

758

2SA

15

11

j5ty

0

went in their innocence

Alternate translation: “went innocently”

759

2SA

15

12

p6px

figs-idiom

0

he sent for Ahithophel

This means that he sent a messenger to go get Ahithophel and bring him back to him. Alternate translation: “he sent a messenger to go get Ahithophel who was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

760

2SA

15

12

b237

translate-names

0

Ahithophel

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

761

2SA

15

12

v7wx

translate-names

0

Giloh

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

762

2SA

15

13

wjk4

figs-synecdoche

0

The hearts of the men of Israel are following after

Here the men are referred to by their “hearts” to emphasize their loyalty to Absalom. Alternate translation: “The men of Israel are loyal to” or “The men of Israel are following after” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

763

2SA

15

14

brg3

figs-synecdoche

0

escape from Absalom … he will quickly … and he will bring

Here David speaks of Absalom and the men with him as “Absalom” himself because the men are following Absalom’s authority. Alternate translation: “escape from Absalom and his men … he and his men will quickly … and they will bring” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

764

2SA

15

14

t8eh

figs-metonymy

0

attack the city with the edge of the sword

The “city” is a metonym referring to the people in the city. The “edge of the sword” is a synecdoche referring to the Israelites’ swords and emphasize that they killed the people in battle. Alternate translation: “will attack the people of our city and kill them with their swords” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

765

2SA

15

14

s5ik

figs-idiom

0

bring down disaster

This means to cause disaster to happen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

766

2SA

15

16

hpv6

figs-idiom

0

to keep the palace

Here the word “keep” means to care for. Alternate translation: “to care for the palace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

767

2SA

15

17

cv7p

figs-explicit

0

at the last house

This refers to the last house they would come to when leaving the city. Alternate translation: “at the last house as they were leaving the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

768

2SA

15

18

hx7p

0

Kerethites … Pelethites

Translate the names of these people groups the same as you did in 2 Samuel 8:18.

769

2SA

15

18

vht5

0

Gittites

Translate the name of this people group the same as you did in 2 Samuel 6:10.

770

2SA

15

18

tp2a

translate-numbers

0

six hundred men

“600 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

771

2SA

15

19

u5p9

translate-names

0

Ittai

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

772

2SA

15

19

n5dh

0

Gittite

Translate the name of this people group the same as you did in 2 Samuel 6:10.

773

2SA

15

19

k4yp

figs-rquestion

0

Why will you come with us?

This rhetorical question indicates that the king does not think they should go along with him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You do not need to go with us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

774

2SA

15

20

dw1l

figs-rquestion

0

why should I make you wander all over with us?

This rhetorical question emphasizes David did not want Ittai to come. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not want to cause you to wander around with us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

775

2SA

15

20

wfd5

figs-hyperbole

0

Since you just left yesterday

Here “yesterday” is an exaggeration that emphasizes a short amount of time. Ittai the Gittite had lived there for several years. Alternate translation: “Since you have lived here only a short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

776

2SA

15

20

e3e8

figs-explicit

0

May loyalty and faithfulness go with you

This is a blessing that David is giving to him. Alternate translation: “May Yahweh be faithful and loyal to you always” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

777

2SA

15

21

m7sh

figs-simile

0

As Yahweh lives, and as my master the king lives

Here the speaker is making a solemn promise. He compare the certainty the he will fulfill his promise to the certainty that Yahweh and the king are alive. Alternate translation: “I solemnly promise that as surely as Yahweh and the king live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

778

2SA

15

21

q3e6

0

your servant

Ittai refers to himself this way to honor the king.

779

2SA

15

21

u8i6

0

whether that means living or dying

Alternate translation: “even if I get killed supporting you”

780

2SA

15

23

y8br

figs-hyperbole

0

All the country wept with a loud voice

Many of the people of Israel wept loudly when they saw the king leaving. Here this is generalized by saying that the whole country wept. Alternate translation: “All the people along the road wept” or “Many of the people wept” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

781

2SA

15

23

cpg7

figs-metaphor

0

with a loud voice

Here the many people who were weeping are spoken of as if they shared one loud voice. Alternate translation: “loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

782

2SA

15

23

qn5p

translate-names

0

Kidron Valley

This is the name of a place near Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

783

2SA

15

25

x2mv

figs-metonymy

0

I find favor in the eyes of Yahweh

Here the “eyes of Yahweh” refer to Yahweh’s thoughts and opinion. If you “find favor” with someone it means that they are pleased with you. Alternate translation: “Yahweh is pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

784

2SA

15

25

cm5c

figs-metonymy

0

where he lives

“where his presence is.” The ark of the covenant symbolizes Yahweh’s presence. This refers to the place where the ark is. Alternate translation: “where it is kept” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

785

2SA

15

27

w3ii

translate-names

0

Ahimaaz

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

786

2SA

15

27

k6y6

0

Abiathar

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 8:17.

787

2SA

15

27

sn4s

figs-rquestion

0

Are you not a seer?

This rhetorical question is used to rebuke Zadok and can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You will be able to find out what is happening.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

788

2SA

15

28

nvl5

0

See

Here this word means for the listener to pay attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

789

2SA

15

28

a6gq

figs-metonymy

0

until word comes from you

This refers to him sending a messenger to the king. Alternate translation: “until you send a messenger to me to inform me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

790

2SA

15

28

g6m3

figs-explicit

0

to inform me

Here the king implies he is to receive a message informing him about what is happening in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “to tell me what is happening in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

791

2SA

15

30

m59t

0

barefoot

wearing no shoes or sandals

792

2SA

15

30

hz16

translate-symaction

0

his head covered

This is a sign of mourning and shame. Alternate translation: “his head covered in mourning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

793

2SA

15

31

e31r

0

Ahithophel

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:11.

794

2SA

15

31

a24n

0

conspirators

people who join together against someone else

795

2SA

15

31

e4pr

figs-explicit

0

please turn Ahithophel’s advice into foolishness

David is asking Yahweh to make Ahitohphel’s advice foolish and useless. Alternate translation: “please let whatever advice Ahithophel gives be foolishness and unsuccessful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

796

2SA

15

32

lr8g

writing-newevent

0

It came about

“It happened.” This phrase marks the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

797

2SA

15

32

q4pe

figs-explicit

0

at the top of the road

The word “top” is used here because David went up in elevation and is at the top of a hill. Alternate translation: “at the top of the hill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

798

2SA

15

32

kgp7

figs-activepassive

0

where God used to be worshiped

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “where people once worshiped God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

799

2SA

15

32

bxf8

translate-names

0

Hushai

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

800

2SA

15

32

fmi7

translate-names

0

Arkite

This is the name of a people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

801

2SA

15

32

jt8s

translate-symaction

0

with his coat torn and earth on his head

This is an act showing shame or repentance. Here the word “earth” means dirt. Alternate translation: “He had torn his clothes and put dirt on his head to show that he was very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

802

2SA

15

34

xy6g

figs-explicit

0

you will confuse Ahithophel’s advice for me

David is suggest to Hushai that he oppose whatever Ahithopel advises. Alternate translation: “you can serve me by opposing Ahithophel’s advice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

803

2SA

15

35

fr9e

figs-rquestion

0

Will you not have the priests Zadok and Abiathar with you?

David asks this rhetorical question to tell Hushai that he will not be alone. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Zadok and Abiathar the priests will be there to help you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

804

2SA

15

35

rkm7

figs-hyperbole

0

whatever you hear

This is a generalization. It means all of the important and insightful things that he hears, not every single word he hears. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

805

2SA

15

36

yg9d

translate-names

0

Ahimaaz … Jonathan

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

806

2SA

15

36

z36k

figs-synecdoche

0

by their hand

The phrase “their hand” refers to the sons and means that they were to serve as messengers. Alternate translation: “their sons to tell me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

807

2SA

16

intro

abcg

0

2 Samuel 16 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Absalom seeks advice from David’s advisers

David’s best adviser, Ahithophel, told Absalom to publicly seduce the concubines that David had left to take care of the palace. Because the concubines were the king’s property, having sexual relations with a king’s concubines implied that Absalom was now the king. This would show the people that the break with David was complete. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Simile

To show how seriously people took Ahithophel’s advice, the author used a [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] comparing his advice to God’s advice. “Now the advice of Ahithophel that he gave in those days was as if a man heard from the mouth of God himself.”

808

2SA

16

1

uv2h

translate-names

0

Ziba

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

809

2SA

16

1

rzt4

0

Mephibosheth

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 4:4.

810

2SA

16

1

eex7

translate-numbers

0

two hundred loaves … one hundred clusters … one hundred bunches

“200 loaves…100 clusters…100 bunches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

811

2SA

16

1

md5n

0

loaves of bread

Alternate translation: “cakes of bread”

812

2SA

16

1

sje6

0

clusters of raisins … bunches of figs

These phrases refer to raisins or figs pressed together.

813

2SA

16

1

ibp3

0

raisins

dried grapes

814

2SA

16

1

x3jp

0

a skin of wine

Alternate translation: “a wineskin full of wine”

815

2SA

16

2

j2cp

0

faint

tired and weak

816

2SA

16

3

h7rz

0

your master’s grandson

Alternate translation: “Mephibosheth, your master’s grandson”

817

2SA

16

3

bdv9

0

grandson

the son of one’s son or daughter

818

2SA

16

3

x26u

0

Look

Here this word is used to draw someone’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

819

2SA

16

3

b9kv

figs-metonymy

0

house of Israel

This refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

820

2SA

16

3

fvn6

figs-metaphor

0

will restore my father’s kingdom to me

Having a descendant of Saul being allowed to rule is spoken of as the kingdom being restored to their family. Alternate translation: “will allow me to rule the kingdom that my grandfather ruled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

821

2SA

16

4

h3df

0

Mephibosheth

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 4:4.

822

2SA

16

4

cvm5

figs-metaphor

0

I bow in humility to you

Ziba is not literally bowing before the king when he is speaking here. This means that he will serve the king with the same amount of humility he would be showing if he were literally bowing before him. Alternate translation: “I will humbly serve you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

823

2SA

16

4

ewk1

figs-idiom

0

Let me find favor in your eyes

The phrase “find favor” means to be approved of by someone. Also, “eyes” is a metonym for sight, and sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “I want you to be pleased with me” or “I desire you for to be pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

824

2SA

16

5

q8fi

0

Bahurim

Translate the name of this city the same as you did in 2 Samuel 3:16.

825

2SA

16

5

y6uz

translate-names

0

Shimei … Gera

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

826

2SA

16

6

j39l

0

in spite of

Alternate translation: “even though there was”

827

2SA

16

6

nmf8

0

bodyguards

These are men who protect an important person.

828

2SA

16

7

tj6a

0

villain

someone who is evil, a criminal or lawbreaker

829

2SA

16

7

h2c4

figs-metonymy

0

man of blood

Here “blood” refers to all of men he was responsible for killing in battle. Alternate translation: “murderer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

830

2SA

16

8

ju1y

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh has repaid

Yahweh repays them by punishing them. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has punished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

831

2SA

16

8

cvt3

figs-metonymy

0

for the blood you shed within the family of Saul

Here “blood” refer to people who were killed from Saul’s family. The king was responsible for them dying. Alternate translation: “for killing many of Saul’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

832

2SA

16

8

mve3

figs-explicit

0

in whose place you have reigned

David reigned as king over the same people whom Saul had previously reigned. Alternate translation: “in whose place you have reigned as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

833

2SA

16

8

uqf8

figs-metonymy

0

into the hand of Absalom

Here “hand” refers to control. Alternate translation: “into the control of Absalom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

834

2SA

16

9

wg1j

translate-names

0

Abishai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 2:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

835

2SA

16

9

jz4r

translate-names

0

Zeruiah

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 2:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

836

2SA

16

9

b6wq

figs-rquestion

0

Why should this dead dog curse my master the king?

Abishai asked this question to express his anger at the man. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “This dead dog must not speak to the king this way.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

837

2SA

16

9

p79k

figs-metaphor

0

this dead dog

Here the man is being described as worthless by being compared to a dead dog. Alternate translation: “this worthless man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

838

2SA

16

10

i1pm

figs-rquestion

0

What have I to do with you, sons of Zeruiah?

This rhetorical question is asked to correct the sons of Zeruiah. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not want to know what you think!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

839

2SA

16

10

wrg4

0

Perhaps he is cursing me because

Alternate translation: “He may be cursing me because”

840

2SA

16

10

g4rx

figs-rquestion

0

Who then could say to him, ‘Why are you cursing the king?

This is said as a rhetorical question to emphasize that the answer is “no one.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one then can ask him, ‘Why are you cursing the king?’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

841

2SA

16

11

y6it

figs-explicit

0

my son, who was born from my body

David describes his son this way to emphasize the close bond between a father and his son. Alternate translation: “my own son” or “my dear son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

842

2SA

16

11

l8bj

figs-euphemism

0

wants to take my life

This is a polite way to refer to killing someone. Alternate translation: “wants to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

843

2SA

16

11

znl2

figs-rquestion

0

How much more may this Benjamite now desire my ruin?

David uses this rhetorical question to express that he is not surprised that the man wants to kill him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Of course this Benjamite desires my ruin!” or “I am not surprised this Benjamite desires my ruin as well!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

844

2SA

16

11

t9uf

figs-metaphor

0

desire my ruin

Here David describes the man’s desire to kill him as if David were something that the man wanted to ruin. Alternate translation: “desire me to be killed” or “desire to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

845

2SA

16

11

tb7g

figs-idiom

0

Leave him alone and let him curse

Here the phrase “leave him alone” means to not stop him from what he is doing. Alternate translation: “Do not stop him from cursing me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

846

2SA

16

12

xk9r

figs-idiom

0

will look at

Here “looking” means “considering.” Alternate translation: “will consider” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

847

2SA

16

12

smf2

figs-personification

0

the misery unleashed on me

Here David speaks of misery as if it were a dangerous animal that the Benjamite unleashed on him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

848

2SA

16

13

h7jk

0

Shimei went beside him up on the hillside

Shimei was walking parallel to David and his men, though Shimei was up higher on the hillside.

849

2SA

16

15

l6bc

translate-names

0

Ahithophel

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

850

2SA

16

16

p1gq

translate-names

0

Hushai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:32. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

851

2SA

16

16

d97z

writing-newevent

0

It came about

“It happened that.” This phrase is used to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

852

2SA

16

16

gp9v

translate-names

0

Arkite

See how you translated the name of this people group in 2 Samuel 15:32. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

853

2SA

16

17

x1al

0

loyalty

a strong feeling of support and love

854

2SA

16

17

b4yd

figs-rquestion

0

Is this your loyalty to your friend? Why did you not go with him?

These rhetorical questions are asked to criticize Hushai. They can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have been a loyal friend to David; you should have gone with him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

855

2SA

16

18

t8c4

0

the one whom Yahweh

Hushai is referring to Absalom.

856

2SA

16

18

k7hr

figs-123person

0

the one whom … that is the man … with him

Here Hushai is referring to Absalom in the third person to take emphasize off of him and place it on Yahweh and the people who chose him. This can be written in second person. Alternate translation: “you are the one whom … you are the man … with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

857

2SA

16

19

hq49

figs-rquestion

0

what man should I serve? Should I not serve in the presence of his son?

Hushai asks these rhetorical questions to emphasize that he wants to serve Absalom. They can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “I should serve only David’s son, so I will serve in his presence.” or “I should serve you, for you are David’s son.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

858

2SA

16

20

f7w3

translate-names

0

Ahithophel

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

859

2SA

16

21

d7c8

figs-euphemism

0

Go into your father’s slave wives

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “Have sexual relations with your father’s slave wives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

860

2SA

16

21

sm7v

figs-idiom

0

to keep the palace

The phrase “to keep” means to take care of. Alternate translation: “to take care of the palace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

861

2SA

16

21

jx59

figs-metaphor

0

become a stench to your father

Ahithophel speaks of Absalom offending his father as if he would become something that had a strong and offensive odor. Alternate translation: “become offensive to your father” or “greatly insulted father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

862

2SA

16

21

bu9j

figs-synecdoche

0

Then the hands of all who are with you will be strong

Here the people who followed Absalom are referred to by their hands. The news will strengthen the peoples’ loyalty to Absalom and encourage them. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “The news of this will strengthen the loyalty of all who follow you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

863

2SA

16

22

cj6n

0

they spread

Alternate translation: “they set up”

864

2SA

16

22

gx92

figs-euphemism

0

Absalom went in to his father’s slave wives

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “Absalom had sexual relations with his father’s slave wives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

865

2SA

16

22

v3ik

figs-hyperbole

0

in the sight of all Israel

This means that people were able to see the tent and Absalom walking in and out of the tent with the women. The phrase “all of Israel” is a generalization, for only people near the palace could see it. Alternate translation: “where the Israelites could see him go into the tent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

866

2SA

16

23

k3y9

figs-simile

0

Now the advice of Ahithophel … was as if a man heard

Here the author compare how much people trusted Ahithophel’s advice with how much they would trust advice directly from God. Alternate translation: “Now people trusted the advice of Ahithophel in those days in the same way they would have trusted it if had come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

867

2SA

16

23

qt97

figs-synecdoche

0

as if a man heard from the mouth of God himself

Here God’s mouth represents himself and emphasizes his speech. Alternate translation: “as if God had said it with his own mouth” or “as if a man heard it spoken by God himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

868

2SA

16

23

jqr6

0

all of Ahithophel’s advice was viewed by both David and Absalom

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “both David and Absalom viewed all of Ahithophel’s advice”

869

2SA

16

23

p2g1

0

was viewed

Alternate translation: “was thought of”

870

2SA

17

intro

abch

0

2 Samuel 17 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Confusion

Ahithophel gives good advise to Absalom, but Hushai confuses Absalom. God is using the misleading advice to protect David, his king.

871

2SA

17

1

jz1q

translate-names

0

Ahithophel

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

872

2SA

17

1

y3kl

translate-numbers

0

twelve thousand men

“12,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

873

2SA

17

1

xpm7

0

arise and

Alternate translation: “begin to”

874

2SA

17

2

p8re

0

come on

Alternate translation: “come to”

875

2SA

17

2

ukx7

figs-doublet

0

weary and weak

These words mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize how weak David was. Alternate translation: “weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

876

2SA

17

2

si3k

figs-abstractnouns

0

will surprise him with fear

Here the word “fear” can be expressed with the adjective “afraid.” Alternate translation: “will surprise him and make him afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

877

2SA

17

2

txi8

figs-explicit

0

I will attack only the king

It is implied that he intends to kill the king. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “I will kill only the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

878

2SA

17

3

b53b

figs-explicit

0

bring back all the people

This refers to all of the people who were with David. Alternate translation: “bring back all of the people who were with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

879

2SA

17

3

b385

figs-simile

0

like a bride coming to her husband

Here Ahithophel speaks of the peoples’ happiness by comparing it to a bride’s happiness. Alternate translation: “and they will come happily, like a bride is happy when she comes to her husband” or “and they will come happily” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

880

2SA

17

3

fwq6

figs-idiom

0

be at peace

This means to have peace or to live peacefully. Alternate translation: “live peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

881

2SA

17

3

d16g

figs-metonymy

0

under you

This refers to being under the king’s authority. Alternate translation: “under your authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

882

2SA

17

5

b9n4

0

Hushai the Arkite

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:32.

883

2SA

17

6

lw7i

0

Ahithophel

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:12.

884

2SA

17

8

w2fu

figs-simile

0

they are like a bear robbed of her cubs

The anger of the soldiers here is being compared to that of a mother bear who cubs are taken from her. Alternate translation: “they are angry, like a mother bear whose cubs have been take from her” or “they are very angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

885

2SA

17

8

ytp8

0

a bear

a large furry animal that walks on four legs and has sharp claws and teeth

886

2SA

17

8

q99g

figs-explicit

0

is a man of war

This means that his has fought in many battles and knows well the ways of war. Alternate translation: “has fought in many battles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

887

2SA

17

9

vwd2

0

Look

Here this word is used to draw someone’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

888

2SA

17

9

kc65

0

pit

a deep hole in the ground

889

2SA

17

9

v2xp

figs-ellipsis

0

or in some other place

This is another place he may be hiding. Alternate translation: “or hidden in some other place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

890

2SA

17

9

d2wh

figs-activepassive

0

when some of your men have been killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when his soldiers kill some of your men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

891

2SA

17

9

f1q8

figs-abstractnouns

0

A slaughter has taken place among the soldiers who follow Absalom

The noun “slaughter” means an event where many people are brutally killed. This can be expressed as a verb. Alternate translation: “Many of the soldiers who follow Absalom have been slaughtered” or “The enemy soldiers have killed many of the soldiers who follow Absalom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

892

2SA

17

10

g7bl

figs-synecdoche

0

whose hearts are like the heart of a lion

Here the soldiers are refers to by their “hearts.” Also, their strong bravery is compared to that of a lion’s. Alternate translation: “who are as brave as lions” or “who are very brave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

893

2SA

17

11

sm9p

figs-activepassive

0

that all Israel should be gathered together to you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Also, here “all Israel” represents only the Israelite soldiers. Alternate translation: “that you should gather together all of the Israelite soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

894

2SA

17

11

jz3g

figs-merism

0

from Dan to Beersheba

This phrase means from the northern border of Israel to the southern border. Alternate translation: “from the whole nation of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

895

2SA

17

11

vl1f

figs-hyperbole

0

as numerous as the sands that are by the sea

This is an exaggeration where all the grains of sand on a beach are compared to the number of Israelite soldiers. Alternate translation: “so many that they can barely be counted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

896

2SA

17

11

lbr4

figs-idiom

0

that you go to battle in person

The phrase “in person” means to go yourself and not send someone else instead. Alternate translation: “then lead them yourself into battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

897

2SA

17

12

v92h

figs-idiom

0

come on him

This means to purposefully go to where he is and then to attack. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

898

2SA

17

12

rys8

figs-simile

0

we will cover him as the dew falls on the ground

Absalom’s army is described as covering David’s army like the dew covers the ground in the morning. Alternate translation: “we will overwhelm and completely defeat David’s army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

899

2SA

17

12

k6bm

0

dew

the fog or misty cloud of water that can fall onto the ground during the night, covering the ground and leaving it wet in the morning

900

2SA

17

12

jdy3

figs-litotes

0

We will not leave even one of his men … alive

This negative sentence is used for emphasis and can be stated in a positive form. Alternate translation: “We will kill every one of his men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

901

2SA

17

12

dwr7

figs-rpronouns

0

him himself

Both these words refer to David. Alternate translation: “David himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

902

2SA

17

13

cez7

figs-synecdoche

0

then all Israel

This refers to Israel’s soldiers, not to all of Israel. Alternate translation: “then all of our soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

903

2SA

17

13

v4rx

figs-explicit

0

will bring ropes to that city and we will drag it into the river

This means that the soldiers would tear down the city walls and drag the pieces to river. Alternate translation: “will destroy the city and drag the stones to the river with ropes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

904

2SA

17

13

ua57

figs-hyperbole

0

until there is no longer even a small stone found there

This is an exaggeration to describe how completely they will destroy the city. The would not literally sweep away every small stone from the city. Alternate translation: “until the city is completely destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

905

2SA

17

14

vg6q

0

Hushai the Arkite

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:32. Arkite is the name of a people group.

906

2SA

17

14

erd5

0

Ahithophel

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:12.

907

2SA

17

14

j39m

figs-abstractnouns

0

the rejection of Ahithophel’s good advice

The word “rejection” can be expressed with the verb “reject.” Alternate translation: “for the men of Israel to reject Ahithophel’s good advice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

908

2SA

17

14

rwx8

figs-idiom

0

to bring destruction on Absalom

To “bring” something on someone means to cause it to happen to them. Alternate translation: “to cause a disaster to happen to Absalom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

909

2SA

17

15

pp5p

translate-names

0

Zadok … Abiathar

See how you translated these men’s names in 2 Samuel 15:24. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

910

2SA

17

15

f3gh

figs-idiom

0

in such and such a way

This phrase, meaning “like this,” refers to what Ahithophel advised Absalom earlier beginning in 2 Samuel 17:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

911

2SA

17

16

b624

0

the fords of the Arabah

A ford is a shallow part of a river where people can walk across. The Arabah is the land along both sides of the Jordan River.

912

2SA

17

16

u94n

figs-idiom

0

by all means

This means to make sure that you do something. Alternate translation: “be sure to” or “make sure that you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

913

2SA

17

16

adt3

figs-metaphor

0

the king will be swallowed up

Here the king and his people being killed is describes as if they were “swallowed” by their enemy. Alternate translation: “the king will be killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

914

2SA

17

17

u8z7

translate-names

0

Jonathan … Ahimaaz

See how you translated these men’s names in 2 Samuel 15:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

915

2SA

17

17

q25n

figs-metonymy

0

When the message came

Here the “message” is spoken of as coming to them, when really it is the woman who came to then bringing the message. Alternate translation: “When she brought them a message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

916

2SA

17

17

h5de

translate-names

0

spring of Rogel

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

917

2SA

17

18

q737

0

this time

Alternate translation: “one time”

918

2SA

17

18

r7rc

figs-explicit

0

So Jonathan and Ahimaaz went away

It is implied that they found out that the young man had told Absalom about them being there. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Jonathan and Ahimaaz found out what the young man had done, so they went away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

919

2SA

17

18

t68a

translate-names

0

Bahurim

This is the name of a small town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

920

2SA

17

18

fa3m

0

they descended

Alternate translation: “they lowered themselves and hid”

921

2SA

17

19

j4xb

translate-names

0

Jonathan … Ahimaaz

See how you translated these men’s names in 2 Samuel 15:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

922

2SA

17

20

f1dc

0

the woman of the house

Alternate translation: “the man’s wife”

923

2SA

17

20

n16k

translate-names

0

Ahimaaz … Jonathan

See how you translated these men’s names in 2 Samuel 15:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

924

2SA

17

21

kx9m

writing-newevent

0

It came about

“It happened.” This phrase marks the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

925

2SA

17

21

r493

figs-metonymy

0

cross quickly over the water

Here “the water” refers to the Jordan River. Alternate translation: “cross quickly over the river” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

926

2SA

17

21

h17r

figs-idiom

0

has given such and such advice

The idiom “such and such” is used in the place of information that is already know by the reader. Here it refers to what Ahithophel advised Absalom beginning in 2 Samuel 17:1. This information can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “has advised that Absalom send him with an army to attack you now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

927

2SA

17

22

l8sk

figs-litotes

0

By morning daylight not one of them had failed to cross over the Jordan

This negative sentence is used to emphasize that they all crossed the river. It can be stated in a positive form. Alternate translation: “By morning daylight every one of them had crossed over the Jordan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

928

2SA

17

23

gix9

0

Ahithophel saw

Alternate translation: “Ahithophel knew” or “Ahithophel realized”

929

2SA

17

23

x22t

figs-activepassive

0

his advice had not been followed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Absalom had not followed his advice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

930

2SA

17

23

pmh2

0

saddled his donkey

placed a blanket or small leather seat on the donkey so he could sit on it

931

2SA

17

23

zw5j

figs-idiom

0

set his affairs in order

He prepared for his death by telling his family what to do after he died. Alternate translation: “he prepared for his death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

932

2SA

17

23

yg9t

0

In this way

Alternate translation: “And this is how”

933

2SA

17

23

b2wa

figs-activepassive

0

was buried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they buried him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

934

2SA

17

24

c8ze

translate-names

0

Mahanaim

Translate the name of this place the same as you did in 2 Samuel 2:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

935

2SA

17

25

dur7

translate-names

0

Amasa … Joab … Jether … Nahash

These are the names of men. See how you translated Joab and Zeruiah (Joab’s mother) in 2 Samuel 2:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

936

2SA

17

25

v1vl

0

Ishmaelite

This word means that the person is descended from Ishmael. Some versions say “Israelite” here. See the footnote. You may want to choose the word that is used in the majority language Bible in your area.

937

2SA

17

25

q7fs

figs-euphemism

0

who went in to Abigail

This is a polite way of speaking of sexual relations. You may have to use other words in your translation. Alternate translation: “who had sexual relations with Abigail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

938

2SA

17

25

yn85

translate-names

0

Abigail … Zeruiah

These are the names of women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

939

2SA

17

26

p8z6

translate-names

0

Gilead

Translate the name of this place the same as you did in 2 Samuel 2:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

940

2SA

17

27

a88x

writing-newevent

0

It came about

This phrase is used to introduce the next event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

941

2SA

17

27

ya8t

translate-names

0

Mahanaim … Rabbah … Lo Debar … Rogelim

These are the names of cities or places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

942

2SA

17

27

sb1a

translate-names

0

Shobi … Nahash … Machir … Ammiel … Barzillai

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

943

2SA

17

27

g662

translate-names

0

Ammonites … Gileadite

These are the names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

944

2SA

17

28

td28

0

sleeping mats and blankets

A mat is something soft to sleep on, and a blanket is a cloth covering for warmth.

945

2SA

17

28

sk67

0

flour

crushed grain made into powder and used to make bread

946

2SA

17

28

wym6

0

roasted

cooked with dry heat

947

2SA

17

28

epx5

0

beans

seeds that are cooked and eaten

948

2SA

17

28

s9d6

0

lentils

a kind of seed that is cooked and eaten

949

2SA

17

29

vx1d

0

curds

milk that has soured and become solid

950

2SA

17

29

hpg5

0

thirsty

in need of water or some other drink

951

2SA

18

intro

abci

0

2 Samuel 18 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter tells of the defeat and death of Absalom, ending this section on Absalom’s rebellion.

Special concepts in this chapter

David’s mercy

David reorganized his army and sent them out to battle, but told them to be merciful to Absalom. When David’s army defeated Absalom’s army, Absalom fled on a mule, but his hair caught in a tree limb and the mule ran on, leaving him hanging. One of David’s soldiers saw him and told Joab. Joab went and killed him. When David heard about this he mourned for his son, Absalom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/mercy]])

952

2SA

18

1

y2u4

figs-metonymy

0

David counted the soldiers who were with him and appointed

David did not count all of the people himself, rather other men counted them. Alternate translation: “David commanded for the soldiers who were with him to be counted and he appointed” or “David arranged the soldiers who were with him and appointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

953

2SA

18

1

qt9x

translate-numbers

0

captains of thousands and captains of hundreds

This could mean: (1) these numbers represent the exact amount of soldiers that these captains led. Alternate translation: “captains of 1,000 soldiers and captains of 100 soldiers” or (2) the words translated as “thousands” and “hundreds” do not represent exact numbers, but are the names of larger and smaller military divisions. Alternate translation: “captains of large military divisions and captains of smaller military divisions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

954

2SA

18

1

pa96

0

captains

A captain is a person who is in authority over a group of soldiers.

955

2SA

18

2

x31q

translate-fraction

0

one-third … another third

“one-third of the army … another third of the army.” A “third” is one part out of three equal parts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

956

2SA

18

2

lu6k

translate-names

0

Abishai … Zeruiah

See how you translated these men’s names in 2 Samuel 2:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

957

2SA

18

2

xwu2

translate-names

0

Ittai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

958

2SA

18

2

zy14

translate-names

0

Gittite

This refers to a person from Gath, which is a Philistine city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

959

2SA

18

2

s8e1

figs-explicit

0

I will certainly go out with you myself, too

This means that he will go out with them to battle. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “I myself will go with you to battle” or “I personally will go with you into battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

960

2SA

18

3

z3p1

translate-numbers

0

half of us

The word “half” refers to one out of two equal parts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

961

2SA

18

3

cmi5

figs-explicit

0

you are worth ten thousand of us

This means that the enemy army considering killing David of greater worth than killing 10,000 of the other men. The number 10,000 here is an exaggeration used to emphasize a very great number of people. Alternate translation: “they would rather kill you than to kill 10,000 of us” or “killing you is worth more to them than killing a great number of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

962

2SA

18

3

nx5a

translate-numbers

0

ten thousand

“10,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

963

2SA

18

3

r2hd

figs-explicit

0

that you be ready to help us from the city

David could help them from the city by advising them and sending men to help them. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “that you stay here in the city and send help to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

964

2SA

18

5

idy7

translate-names

0

Abishai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 2:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

965

2SA

18

5

nnf5

translate-names

0

Ittai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

966

2SA

18

5

jbs6

0

Deal gently for my sake with the young man, with Absalom

“For my sake, do not harm the young man, Absalom.” The phrase “Deal gently” means to be kind to someone and not to harm them.

967

2SA

18

5

s62a

0

my sake

Alternate translation: “my well-being” or “my account”

968

2SA

18

6

ak3c

figs-explicit

0

went out into the countryside against Israel

This means that they went out and fought against them in battle. Alternate translation: “went out into the countryside and fought against Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

969

2SA

18

6

na7e

figs-synecdoche

0

against Israel

Here “Israel” refers to their soldiers, not all of the Israelites. Alternate translation: “against the Israelite soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

970

2SA

18

7

xa6g

figs-activepassive

0

The army of Israel was defeated there before the soldiers of David

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “There the soldiers of David defeated the army of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

971

2SA

18

7

ef2b

0

a great slaughter

an event where many people are brutally killed

972

2SA

18

7

qgp8

translate-numbers

0

twenty thousand men

“20,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

973

2SA

18

8

ndw4

figs-personification

0

more men were consumed by the forest than by the sword

Here “the forest” is described as if it were alive and could act. “The sword” refers to David’s soldiers who fought with swords. Alternate translation: “dangerous things in the forest killed more men than David’s soldiers killed with their swords” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

974

2SA

18

9

fye9

figs-explicit

0

Absalom happened to meet some of David’s soldiers

This is an event that happened during the battle. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “During the battle, Absalom happened to meet some of David’s soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

975

2SA

18

9

ua3f

figs-metonymy

0

his head was caught up in the tree branches

Absalom had long hair that got caught in the tree branches. Alternate translation: “his hair was caught in the tree branches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

976

2SA

18

9

iq6e

0

dangling

hanging or swinging loosely

977

2SA

18

9

eys5

0

between the ground and the sky

Alternate translation: “in the air”

978

2SA

18

10

n893

0

Look

Here this word is used to draw a person’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen”

979

2SA

18

11

w13x

figs-rquestion

0

Why did you not strike him down to the ground?

This rhetorical question means that he should have killed him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. The phrase “strike down” means to kill. Alternate translation: “You should have struck him down to the ground!” or “You should have killed him immediately!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

980

2SA

18

11

aik2

translate-bmoney

0

ten silver shekels

This can be written in modern units. Alternate translation: “ten silver coins” or “110 grams of silver” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

981

2SA

18

11

xu84

0

belt

This is a special belt that shows people that someone is a great soldier and should be honored.

982

2SA

18

12

m6ur

translate-bmoney

0

a thousand silver shekels

“1,000 silver shekels.” This can be stated in modern units. Alternate translation: “1,000 silver coins” or “11 kilograms of silver” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

983

2SA

18

12

y75l

figs-idiom

0

would not have reached out my hand against the king’s son

The phrase “reached out my hand” means to attack. Alternate translation: “would not have attacked the king’s son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

984

2SA

18

12

c6je

figs-idiom

0

No one must touch

Here “touching” refers to “harming.” Alternate translation: “No none must harm” or “Do not harm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

985

2SA

18

13

if8q

figs-abstractnouns

0

a falsehood

The word “falsehood” can be expressed with a verbal phrase. Also, this refers to disobeying the king’s command. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “doing something that is wrong” or “by disobeying the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

986

2SA

18

13

b1r6

figs-metaphor

0

there is nothing hidden from the king

Here the man speaks about how the king knows about almost everything that happens as if everything were a physical object he knew the location of. Alternate translation: “there is nothing that the king does not know” or “the king hears about everything that happens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

987

2SA

18

14

jl1n

figs-explicit

0

I will not wait for you

Joab meant that he should not continue talking to the man. Alternate translation: “I will not waste anymore time talking to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

988

2SA

18

14

m7ub

figs-synecdoche

0

heart of Absalom

Here Absalom’s heart refers to his chest or upper body. Alternate translation: “chest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

989

2SA

18

15

va7x

figs-synecdoche

0

armor

This refers to both the armor he would wear to protect himself and to his weapons. Alternate translation: “armor and weapons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

990

2SA

18

16

f9za

figs-explicit

0

Then Joab blew the trumpet, and the army returned from pursuing Israel, for Joab held back the army

This describes what Joab commanded by blowing the trumpet. Alternate translation: “Then Joab blew the trumpet to call back the army, and the army returned from pursuing Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

991

2SA

18

16

ji7k

figs-synecdoche

0

returned from pursuing Israel

Here “Israel” refers to the Israelite army. Alternate translation: “returned from pursuing the Israelite army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

992

2SA

18

17

st6r

0

They took Absalom and threw him

Alternate translation: “They took Absalom’s body and threw it”

993

2SA

18

17

d3n5

figs-explicit

0

they buried his body under a very large pile of stones

After putting his body in the pit they covered it with a pile of stones. This can be stated more clearly. Alternate translation: “they covered his body with a huge pile of stones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

994

2SA

18

17

b87l

figs-synecdoche

0

while all Israel fled

Here “all Israel” refers to the Israelite soldiers. The word “fled” means “ran away.” Alternate translation: “while all the Israelite soldiers ran away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

995

2SA

18

18

s18q

translate-names

0

the King’s Valley

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

996

2SA

18

18

j9s8

figs-metonymy

0

to carry along the memory of my name

Absalom uses the phrase “my name” to refer to himself and his family line. Alternate translation: “to carry on my family name, by which people would remember me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

997

2SA

18

18

tg1p

figs-activepassive

0

so it is called Absalom’s Monument to this very day

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “so people called it Absalom’s Monument from that day on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

998

2SA

18

18

h1qh

0

to this very day

This refers to the present time when this book of the Bible was written.

999

2SA

18

19

md2p

translate-names

0

Ahimaaz

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 15:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1000

2SA

18

19

qby5

figs-metaphor

0

run to the king with the good news

Here Ahimaaz speaks of running to go and tell the king the good news as if the good news were a object that he were carrying. Alternate translation: “run to tell the king the good news” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1001

2SA

18

19

jyg5

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of his enemies

Here “hand” refers to control. Alternate translation: “the control of his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1002

2SA

18

20

qeg4

0

the bearer of news

Alternate translation: “the one who tells the news”

1003

2SA

18

20

v56v

figs-explicit

0

you will bear no news

This refers to not bearing the news to the king. Alternate translation: “you will not tell the news to the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1004

2SA

18

21

q3lf

0

tell the king what you have seen

Joab is telling him to go and tell the king about the news of the battle.

1005

2SA

18

24

zqb5

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line and the beginning of a new part of the story.

1006

2SA

18

24

t7w3

figs-metaphor

0

raised his eyes

Here the watchman looking to see something is spoken of as if he lifted up his eyes. Alternate translation: “looked out beyond the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1007

2SA

18

25

r6br

figs-metaphor

0

there is news in his mouth

Here the king speaks of the man having a message as if the news were an object sitting in his mouth. Alternate translation: “he has news to tell us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1008

2SA

18

27

zpr6

figs-simile

0

I think the running of the man in front is like the running of Ahimaaz son of Zadok

The watchman compares the way the man ran to the way Ahimaaz runs to suggest that it may be him. Alternate translation: “I think the man running in front is Ahimaaz son Zadok, because he runs like Ahimaaz” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1009

2SA

18

28

ft3g

translate-symaction

0

He bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground

He did this to honor the king. Alternate translation: “He bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground to honor the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1010

2SA

18

28

qm8v

0

Blessed be Yahweh

“Praise Yahweh.” Here “bless” means to praise.

1011

2SA

18

28

e5ky

figs-metaphor

0

the men who lifted up their hand against my master the king

Here Ahimaaz speaks of the men opposing the king as if they were raising their hands before him. Alternate translation: “the men who opposed and fought against my master the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1012

2SA

18

29

l8s8

0

a great disturbance

This means that people were acting as though things were not right.

1013

2SA

18

30

bg95

0

Turn aside and stand here

Alternate translation: “Move out of the way” or “Stand aside”

1014

2SA

18

31

e1tf

figs-idiom

0

rose up against

This means to oppose. Alternate translation: “opposed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1015

2SA

18

32

s9h4

figs-simile

0

The enemies of my master the king,…should be as that young man is

The Cushite uses a comparison as a polite way to tell the king that Absalom is dead. This can be stated more directly. Alternate translation: “I would like all your enemies … to die the way that young man died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1016

2SA

18

33

la2k

0

was deeply unnerved

Alternate translation: “was very unhappy” or “was trembling with grief”

1017

2SA

19

intro

abcj

0

2 Samuel 19 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

David told to stop mourning Absalom

Joab warned David that if he continued to mourn Absalom and not thank his army, they would all desert him. So David went out to encourage the soldiers. David was both a good father and a good leader.

David made king again

This chapter record the recognition that David was the true king of Israel. It is important to remember that even though Absalom had power for a while, David never stopped being the king.

The ten tribes and Judah argue over David

The ten tribes of Israel argued with the tribe of Judah about who would bring David across the river. The men of Judah answered the ten tribes very harshly. This may foreshadow, or give a glimpse of, the future civil war that would come to divide these two groups.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

The people wanted David back as their king and expressed it in a rhetorical question: “So why are we not talking about bringing the king back?” David also used a question to persuade the people of Judah to bring him back: “You are my brothers, my flesh and bone. Why then are you the last to bring back the king?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1018

2SA

19

1

wl3f

figs-activepassive

0

Joab was told

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone told Joab” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1019

2SA

19

1

ggg6

0

Look, the king is weeping

The word “Look” is used here to draw someone’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen, the king is weeping”

1020

2SA

19

2

jq6i

figs-explicit

0

So the victory that day was turned into mourning for all the army

This means that the whole army mourned instead of celebrating. AT “So instead of celebrating victory that day, the whole army mourned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1021

2SA

19

3

c8b8

figs-simile

0

like people who are ashamed sneak away when they run from battle

The author compares the way that the soldiers had to sneak back into the city to the way that soldiers sneak away when they are running away from battle. This emphasizes that they were made to feel ashamed. Alternate translation: “in the same way that people who had run away from battle would sneak away because they were ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1022

2SA

19

3

z9zj

0

sneak

move without being seen by others

1023

2SA

19

4

bt57

translate-symaction

0

The king covered his face

This is a way to express grief and mourning. Alternate translation: “The king showed his grief by covering his face” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1024

2SA

19

5

ve2h

figs-synecdoche

0

You have shamed the faces of all your soldiers today

Here the soldiers are referred to by their face to emphasize how they would have hid their faces because of their shame” Alternate translation: “You have caused all your soldiers to hide their faces in shame today” or “You have caused all of your soldiers to be ashamed today” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1025

2SA

19

6

sx3c

figs-hyperbole

0

nothing to you

This phrase is an exaggeration, but it expresses the very low value that David showed for the army. Alternate translation: “are worth very little to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1026

2SA

19

6

si4j

figs-hypo

0

if Absalom had lived, and we all had died, then that would have pleased you

The speaker is giving a hypothetical situation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1027

2SA

19

7

h9b9

figs-explicit

0

I swear by Yahweh

Joab is making a very strong oath. Alternate translation: “I swear, as surely as Yahweh is alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1028

2SA

19

7

p34h

figs-doublenegatives

0

if you do not go, not one man will remain with you

This means that only if David went would his soldiers remain with him. Alternate translation: “only if you go will any of your men remain with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1029

2SA

19

7

m2uc

figs-idiom

0

not one man will remain with you

This refers to them remaining loyal to him. Alternate translation: “not one man will remain loyal to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1030

2SA

19

8

e6vs

figs-hyperbole

0

all the people were told

This is a generalization. It means most of the men. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “many of the men who were there heard others saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1031

2SA

19

8

msv7

0

Look, the king is sitting

The word “Look” is used here to draw someone’s attention to what is said next. Alternate translation: “Listen, the king is sitting”

1032

2SA

19

8

q8cd

figs-hyperbole

0

all the people

Here “the people” refer to the people who followed David. Here “all” is an generalization. It means a large number came and gathered around him. Alternate translation: “many of the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1033

2SA

19

8

k5ue

figs-synecdoche

0

So Israel fled, every man to his home

Here “Israel” refers to the Israelite soldiers who followed Absalom. Alternate translation: “And every Israelite soldier fled to his own home” or “And all of the Israelite soldiers fled to their homes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1034

2SA

19

9

ypj8

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of our enemies

Here “hand” means control. Alternate translation: “from under the control of our enemies” or “from our enemies’ control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1035

2SA

19

9

wn5a

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of the Philistines

Here “hand” means control. Alternate translation: “from under the control of the Philistines” or “from the Philistines’ control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1036

2SA

19

9

w56d

figs-explicit

0

out of the land because of Absalom

This means that he had left the country fleeing from Absalom. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “out of the country fleeing from Absalom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1037

2SA

19

10

h2rq

figs-rquestion

0

why do you say nothing about bringing the king back?

This means they should consider bringing David back now that Absalom was dead. The question may be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “we should be talking about bringing the king back.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1038

2SA

19

10

n7fv

0

the king

This refers to David.

1039

2SA

19

11

ywv6

figs-idiom

0

sent to Zadok and to Abiathar

This means that David sent a messenger to Zadok and Abiathar. Alternate translation: “sent a messenger to Zadok and to Abiathar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1040

2SA

19

11

jd6q

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you the last to bring the king back … to bring him back to his palace?

This rhetorical question is asked to rebuke the elders in Judah. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should have been the first to favor the king and bring him back to the palace, not the people of the nation of Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1041

2SA

19

11

d4d9

figs-abstractnouns

0

since the talk of all Israel favors the king, to bring

The noun “talk” can be expressed with the verb “talk” or “speak.” Alternate translation: “since all Israel speaks favorably about the king and desires to bring” or “since what the people of Israel are saying is in the king’s favor, to bring” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1042

2SA

19

11

v8mv

figs-metaphor

0

to bring the king back to his palace

Here restoring the king’s authority to rule is spoken of as bringing him back to his palace. Alternate translation: “to restore the king’s authority as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1043

2SA

19

12

si3p

figs-metaphor

0

You are my brothers, my flesh and bone

The king uses these to phrases to emphasize that they are closely related. Being or having the same flesh is a metaphor for belonging to the same family or tribe. Alternate translation: “You are my brothers, and we have the same flesh and bone” or “You are my brothers, my close relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1044

2SA

19

12

n4pu

figs-rquestion

0

Why then are you the last to bring back the king?

This is the second rhetorical question here and it is also a rebuke for the elders of Judah. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should have been the first, not the last, to bring back the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1045

2SA

19

13

uf92

translate-names

0

Amasa

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 17:25. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1046

2SA

19

13

h28k

figs-rquestion

0

Are you not my flesh and my bone?

David uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that they are related. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are my flesh and my bones.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1047

2SA

19

13

f88h

figs-metaphor

0

my flesh and my bone

Here David speaks of them being related by saying that they have the same flesh and bones. See how you translated a similar phrase in 2 Samuel 19:12. Alternate translation: “my relative” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1048

2SA

19

13

gk6u

figs-idiom

0

God do so to me

This is an idiom that means for God to kill him. Alternate translation: “May God kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1049

2SA

19

14

g6z6

figs-metonymy

0

he won the hearts

Here the mens’ loyalty is referred to as their “hearts.” Alternate translation: “he won the loyalty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1050

2SA

19

14

w82p

figs-metaphor

0

as one man

This speaks of the men being united in their loyalty to the king as if they were one man with the same mind. Alternate translation: “and they were united together” or “they were united in their loyalty to the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1051

2SA

19

14

a3id

figs-idiom

0

They sent to the king

This means that they sent a messenger to the king. Alternate translation: “They sent a messenger to the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1052

2SA

19

16

p33r

translate-names

0

Gera

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1053

2SA

19

16

ke2l

translate-names

0

Bahurim

Translate the name of this place the same as you did in 2 Samuel 3:16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1054

2SA

19

17

kj6a

translate-names

0

Ziba

This is the name of a man. Translate as you did in 2 Samuel 9:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1055

2SA

19

17

e34y

translate-numbers

0

one thousand men … fifteen sons … twenty servants

“1,000 men…15 sons…20 servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1056

2SA

19

17

s7u2

figs-explicit

0

in the presence of the king

This means that the king was there and was aware of what was happening. Alternate translation: “at the place where the king was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1057

2SA

19

19

tx71

figs-idiom

0

call to mind

This means “to remember.” Alternate translation: “remember” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1058

2SA

19

19

m7n5

0

your servant

Here Shimei refers to himself this way to humble himself before the king and honor the king.

1059

2SA

19

19

s3zc

figs-idiom

0

not take it to heart

“To take something to heart” means to think about something seriously or to be bothered by it. Alternate translation: “not be bothered by it” or “forget about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1060

2SA

19

21

w2c6

translate-names

0

Abishai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 2:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1061

2SA

19

21

p13v

translate-names

0

Zeruiah

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 2:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1062

2SA

19

21

yth5

figs-rquestion

0

Should not Shimei be put to death for this, because he cursed Yahweh’s anointed?

Abishai was angry at Shimei for cursing David and is suggesting that he should be killed. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Shimei should be put to death because he cursed Yahweh’s anointed.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1063

2SA

19

21

spv5

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh’s anointed

This refers to David. It means that he is the man that Yahweh had anointed as king. Alternate translation: “the man that Yahweh has anointed as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1064

2SA

19

22

dn85

figs-rquestion

0

What have I to do with you … that you should today be adversaries to me?

David uses this rhetorical question to rebuke Abishai. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We have nothing in common with you, you sons of Zeruiah! You have no good reason to become my adversaries today.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1065

2SA

19

22

s4fe

figs-rquestion

0

Will any man be put to death today in Israel? For do I not know that today I am king over Israel?

David uses these rhetorical questions to continue rebuking Abishai. These questions can be written as statements. Alternate translation: “No person will be executed today in the nation of Israel, because today I am the one who is king over all of Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1066

2SA

19

22

f3ky

figs-idiom

0

Will any man be put to death

This phrase “put to death” means to be killed or executed. Alternate translation: “Will any man be killed” or “Will I order any man to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1067

2SA

19

22

t2u7

figs-rquestion

0

For do I not know that today I am king over Israel?

Possible meanings of this rhetorical question are: (1) “I know that I am still king of Israel.” or (2) “Today I am the one who is king over Israel!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1068

2SA

19

24

kg79

translate-names

0

Mephibosheth

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 4:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1069

2SA

19

24

sc2i

0

He had not dressed his feet

“He had not cared for his feet.” Mephibosheth’s feet were crippled. This phrase means that he had not taken proper care of his feet.

1070

2SA

19

25

zrh9

figs-explicit

0

Why did you not go with me, Mephibosheth?

David is asking Mephibosheth why he did not go with David when David and all the people who followed him left Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “Why did you not go with me when I left Jerusalem, Mephibosheth?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1071

2SA

19

27

vh2u

translate-names

0

Ziba

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 9:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1072

2SA

19

27

bk18

figs-simile

0

my master the king is like an angel of God

Here David’s wisdom is compared to the wisdom of an angel. Alternate translation: “my master the king is as wise as an angel of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1073

2SA

19

27

jn77

figs-idiom

0

do what is good in your eyes

This means to do what you think is right. Alternate translation: “do what you believe to be the right thing to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1074

2SA

19

28

rll4

figs-metaphor

0

all my father’s house were dead men before my master the king

Mephibosheth speaks of how his relatives had deserved to be executed as if they had already been executed and were dead. Alternate translation: “all my father’s house deserved for my master the king to order them to be executed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1075

2SA

19

28

ww9q

figs-metonymy

0

my father’s house

This refers to his father’s relatives. Alternate translation: “my father’s relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1076

2SA

19

28

fa5b

figs-rquestion

0

What right therefore have I that I should still cry any more to the king?

Mephibosheth uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that he has no right to request anything from the king. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Therefore, I have no right to ask the king to do anything else for me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1077

2SA

19

29

wt65

figs-rquestion

0

Why explain anything further?

David uses this rhetorical question to tell him that he does not need to continue talking about his conflict with Ziba. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You do not need to explain this any further.” or “You certainly do not need to say any more.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1078

2SA

19

31

yk1p

translate-names

0

Barzillai

See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 17:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1079

2SA

19

31

zak8

translate-names

0

Gileadite

See how you translated the name of this people group in 2 Samuel 17:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1080

2SA

19

31

w1ce

translate-names

0

Rogelim

See how you translated the name of this place in 2 Samuel 17:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1081

2SA

19

31

g56k

0

the Jordan

the Jordan River

1082

2SA

19

32

ffn7

translate-names

0

Mahanaim

See how you translated the name of this place in 2 Samuel 17:27. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1083

2SA

19

32

cj9q

translate-numbers

0

eighty years old

“80 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1084

2SA

19

32

a2k7

0

had furnished the king with provisions

Alternate translation: “had provided what the king needed”

1085

2SA

19

34

y2r5

figs-rquestion

0

How many days are left in the years of my life, that I should go up with the king to Jerusalem?

Here Barzillai means that he is old and that there is no reason for him to accompany David. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am certainly not going to live many more years. There is no good reason for me to go up with the king to Jerusalem.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1086

2SA

19

35

sy7w

translate-numbers

0

eighty years old

“80 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1087

2SA

19

35

n8fn

figs-rquestion

0

Can I distinguish between good and bad?

Barzillai uses rhetorical questions to emphasize why he does not want to go to Jerusalem. Here “good” and “bad” refer to what is desirable and what is not. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I cannot distinguish between what is desirable and what is not.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1088

2SA

19

35

d6qd

figs-rquestion

0

Can your servant taste what I eat or what I drink?

Barzillai uses rhetorical questions to emphasize why he does not want to go to Jerusalem. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I cannot enjoy the taste of what I eat and drink.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1089

2SA

19

35

dgv2

figs-rquestion

0

Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women?

Barzillai uses rhetorical questions to emphasize why he does not want to go to Jerusalem. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I cannot hear well the voices of singing men and singing women.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1090

2SA

19

35

f2zi

figs-rquestion

0

Why then should your servant be a burden to my master the king?

Barzillai uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that he does not want to be a burden to the king. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Your servant should not go with you and be a burden to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1091

2SA

19

36

x8m1

figs-rquestion

0

Why should the king repay me with such a reward?

Barzillai uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that he does not know why the king would reward him this way. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not know why the king would repay me with such a great reward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1092

2SA

19

37

tj5t

0

General Information:

Barzillai asks that Kimham be allowed to take his place instead with David.

1093

2SA

19

37

lt2a

translate-names

0

Kimham

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1094

2SA

19

37

wef7

figs-explicit

0

by the grave of my father and my mother

This does not mean that he wants to die right next to their graves, but rather, that he wants to die in the city where they are buried. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “where my father’s and my mother’s graves are” or “where my father and my mother are buried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1095

2SA

19

37

sn5r

figs-ellipsis

0

Let him cross over

This refers to crossing the Jordan River. Alternate translation: “Let him cross over the Jordan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1096

2SA

19

38

sm6q

figs-explicit

0

Kimham will go over with me

This refers to crossing the Jordan River. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Kimham will cross the river with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1097

2SA

19

40

v221

figs-ellipsis

0

crossed over to Gilgal

They crossed over the Jordan River. Alternate translation: “crossed over the river to Gilgal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1098

2SA

19

40

hzp4

0

Kimham

See how you translated this name in 2 Samuel 19:37.

1099

2SA

19

40

jw3n

0

All the army of Judah brought the king over, and also half the army of Israel

Alternate translation: “All the army of Judah and half the army of Israel brought the king over”

1100

2SA

19

40

t9rb

figs-ellipsis

0

brought the king over

They crossed over the Jordan River with the king. Alternate translation: “escorted the king over the river” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1101

2SA

19

41

sbd9

figs-rquestion

0

Why have our brothers, the men of Judah … and all David’s men with him?

The men of Israel use this question to express that they feel betrayed by the people of Judah. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “It is not right that our brothers, the men of Judah, who did not support you as king, had the privilege of bringing you and your family back across the Jordan River.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1102

2SA

19

41

r7ae

figs-metaphor

0

stolen you away

The men of Israel speak of how the men of Judah escorted the king across the river as if the king were something they stole that did not belong to them. Alternate translation: “taken you away from us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1103

2SA

19

41

hgi3

0

the Jordan

the Jordan River

1104

2SA

19

42

nu1g

figs-rquestion

0

Why then are you angry about this?

The men of Judah ask this rhetorical question to rebuke the men of Israel. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “But you have no reason to be upset about this.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1105

2SA

19

42

u3wj

figs-rquestion

0

Have we eaten anything that the king had to pay for? Has he given us any gifts?

The men of Judah ask the question to express that they have not taken anything from the king. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “The king has never paid for our food, and he has never given us any gifts.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1106

2SA

19

43

nbt3

figs-explicit

0

we have even more right to David than you

“we have a greater claim to David than you do.” It may be helpful to state clearly what having “more right” means. Alternate translation: “we have more right to serve the king and to be with the king than you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1107

2SA

19

43

vc2s

figs-rquestion

0

Why then did you despise us?

The men of Israel ask this rhetorical question to express their anger. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not have despised us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1108

2SA

19

43

vlb7

figs-rquestion

0

Was not our proposal to bring back our king the first to be heard?

The men of Israel ask this question to remind and rebuke the people of Judah. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We were the first to suggest that we bring back the king!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1109

2SA

19

43

el5k

0

the words of the men of Judah were even more harsh than the words of the men of Israel

Alternate translation: “the men of Judah spoke even more harshly than the men of Israel did”

1110

2SA

20

intro

abck

0

2 Samuel 20 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Sheba’s revolt

A man named Sheba told the people of the ten tribes that David was Judah’s king, but not their king. David worked hard to preserve unity in Israel after this time of division.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Idiom

Joab used an idiom “has lifted up his hand against the king, against David” meaning “revolted against David,” to explain why his army was attacking the city of Able. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1111

2SA

20

1

fz8c

0

to be at the same place

This refers to the town of Gilgal.

1112

2SA

20

1

a6ci

translate-names

0

Sheba … Bikri

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1113

2SA

20

1

l45i

figs-parallelism

0

We have no part in David, neither have we any inheritance in the son of Jesse

Both of these statements mean the same thing. Sheba is emphasizing that he and the tribes of Israel have no relationship with David. Alternate translation: “The inheritance of David and his father’s family does not belong to us” or “We are not a part of David and his father’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1114

2SA

20

3

j97w

figs-idiom

0

to keep the palace

Here the phrase “to keep” means to take care of. Alternate translation: “to take care of the palace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1115

2SA

20

3

e4kn

figs-idiom

0

in a house under guard

If a house is “under guard” it means that a guard is posted at the house. Alternate translation: “in a house and put a guard there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1116

2SA

20

3

ymh8

figs-euphemism

0

he did not lie with them

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “he did not have sexual relations with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1117

2SA

20

3

b16i

figs-idiom

0

they were shut up

This means that they were not allowed to leave the house. Alternate translation: “they were shut inside the house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1118

2SA

20

3

p4su

0

widows

These are women whose husbands have died.

1119

2SA

20

4

zm4y

translate-names

0

Amasa

This is the commander of David’s army. See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 17:25. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1120

2SA

20

6

ai94

translate-names

0

Abishai

This is another commander of David’s army. See how you translated his name in 2 Samuel 2:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1121

2SA

20

6

qm7j

0

do us more harm

Alternate translation: “hurt us more”

1122

2SA

20

6

gm22

0

your master’s servants, my soldiers

The phrase “my soldiers” clarifies which “servants.” David refers to himself as “your master” as a formal way of speaking to someone with less authority.

1123

2SA

20

6

q3jp

0

pursue after

Alternate translation: “chase after”

1124

2SA

20

6

g2i6

figs-explicit

0

he will find fortified cities

This means that Sheba and his men will enter these cities to hide from David’s army. The word “he” represents Sheba but refers to both him and his men. Alternate translation: “he and his men will hide in fortified cities” or “he and his men will take refuge in fortified cities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1125

2SA

20

6

lm43

figs-metonymy

0

out of our sight

Here David refers to his army by their sight to emphasize that Sheba and his men would be hidden and David’s army would be unable to capture them. Alternate translation: “from us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1126

2SA

20

7

x1ai

translate-names

0

Kerethites … Pelethites

These are the names of people groups who helped to protect King David. See how you translated this man’s name in 2 Samuel 8:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1127

2SA

20

8

kyh2

0

When they were

Alternate translation: “When Joab and the men of Judah were”

1128

2SA

20

8

g899

0

belt

a strip of leather or other material used to hold clothing or weapons in place

1129

2SA

20

8

gg8n

0

sheathed sword

This means the sword was in its protective covering.

1130

2SA

20

8

mw2c

figs-explicit

0

the sword fell out

Joab let the sword fall out to fool Amasa into thinking that he Joab was unarmed, so that Amasa would allow him to walk closer to him. Alternate translation: “he allowed the sword to fall on the ground so Amasa would think he was unarmed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1131

2SA

20

9

cca2

0

my cousin

Amasa was the son of the sister of Joab’s mother.

1132

2SA

20

9

yw2u

0

took Amasa by the beard with his right hand to kiss him

This was a common way for men to greet one another.

1133

2SA

20

10

e612

0

dagger

a short sword that is easy to hide and was often used for close-in fighting and assassinations

1134

2SA

20

10

pd2k

0

bowels spilled

Alternate translation: “intestines spilled”

1135

2SA

20

11

m94g

figs-idiom

0

he who is for David

To be “for” someone means to support them. Alternate translation: “he who supports David” or “he who is loyal to David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1136

2SA

20

12

dp5t

figs-explicit

0

Amasa lay wallowing in his blood

“Amasa lay squirming in his blood.” Amasa may have still been alive and rolling in his blood, but he was probably dead by this time. It is described this way to show how gruesome his body looked. Alternate translation: “Amasa lay dead in his blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1137

2SA

20

12

r75k

figs-explicit

0

all the people stood still … came by him stood still

This means they stopped walking and were staring at Amasa’s dead body. Alternate translation: “all the people stood still staring at the dead body … came by him stood still, staring at his dead body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1138

2SA

20

12

rgl8

0

he carried Amasa

Alternate translation: “he carried Amasa’s body”

1139

2SA

20

13

y3pd

figs-activepassive

0

After Amasa was taken off the road

This may be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “After the man took Amasa off the road” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1140

2SA

20

13

x48e

figs-abstractnouns

0

in pursuit of

This abstract noun can be stated as a verb. Alternate translation: “pursuing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1141

2SA

20

14

ppx4

figs-synecdoche

0

Sheba passed through

Here “Sheba” refers to both him and his army. Alternate translation: “Sheba and his army” or “Sheba and his men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1142

2SA

20

14

b6n5

translate-names

0

Abel Beth Maacah

Both Abel and Beth Maacah names refer to the same place and may be combined. It is a city near the tribe of Dan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1143

2SA

20

14

k4pw

translate-names

0

of the Bikrites

This is the name of a people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1144

2SA

20

14

ig39

0

also pursued Sheba

Alternate translation: “also followed Sheba”

1145

2SA

20

15

u7dg

0

They caught up with him

Alternate translation: “Joab and the soldiers caught up with him”

1146

2SA

20

15

t6t2

0

against the city against the wall

Alternate translation: “against the city wall”

1147

2SA

20

15

n7h9

figs-explicit

0

battered the wall to knock it down

This means that they used a battering ram to knock down the wall. A battering ram was a cut tree or large log with a sharpened end or an end covered in metal. It was held by several men who would pound the end against a wall. Alternate translation: “used a battering ram to knock down the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1148

2SA

20

16

k1s4

0

Listen, please listen

The repetition of “Listen” strengthens the woman’s plea.

1149

2SA

20

17

a5x5

0

Listen to the words of your servant

The woman refers to herself as “your servant.” This is a polite way to speak to someone with greater authority.

1150

2SA

20

18

xv3v

0

that advice would end the matter

Alternate translation: “that advice would solve the problem”

1151

2SA

20

19

l2yb

figs-ellipsis

0

most peaceful and faithful in Israel

This describes the cities. Alternate translation: “most peaceful and faithful cities in Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1152

2SA

20

19

vb6k

figs-metaphor

0

city that is a mother in Israel

This speaks of the importance of this city among the nation of Israel as if it were a well respected mother. Alternate translation: “city that everyone in Israel respects like they would their mother” or “city that is very important and that Israel respects” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1153

2SA

20

19

f7wf

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you want to swallow up the inheritance of Yahweh?

Here the woman uses a rhetorical question to suggest to Joab what they should not do. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not destroy the city that is Yahweh’s inheritance!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1154

2SA

20

19

h83g

figs-metaphor

0

swallow up

Here the woman speaks of the army destroying the city as if the city were food to be swallowed. Alternate translation: “destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1155

2SA

20

19

v31s

figs-metonymy

0

the inheritance of Yahweh

Here the city is referred to as Yahweh’s inheritance to emphasize that it belongs to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “a city that belongs to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1156

2SA

20

20

kn3j

figs-idiom

0

Far be it, far be it from me, that I should

He repeats this phrase to emphasize that this is something he would never do. Alternate translation: “Truly, truly, I would never” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1157

2SA

20

20

u14u

figs-ellipsis

0

that I should swallow up or destroy

This refers to destroying the city. This may be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “that I should swallow up or destroy your city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1158

2SA

20

20

lh3j

figs-doublet

0

swallow up or destroy

Both of these phrases means to destroy. In the first phrase “destroying” is spoken of as if it were “swallowing.” These may be combined. Alternate translation: “ruin or destroy the city” or “destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1159

2SA

20

21

bq5h

figs-idiom

0

has lifted up his hand against

This means to rebel and fight against someone. Alternate translation: “has opposed” or “is rebelling against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1160

2SA

20

21

vu8h

figs-idiom

0

Give up him alone

Joab is asking for the people of the city to release Sheba to him. Alternate translation: “Hand this man over to us” or “Give this man to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1161

2SA

20

21

rt99

figs-synecdoche

0

I will withdraw from the city

Here the “I” refers to both Joab and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “We will withdraw from the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1162

2SA

20

21

tda3

figs-activepassive

0

His head will be thrown

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “We will throw his head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1163

2SA

20

22

p855

figs-explicit

0

Then the woman went to all the people in her wisdom

This means that the woman acted wisely and spoke to her people about what they should do. Alternate translation: “Then the wise woman spoke to all the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1164

2SA

20

22

l63y

0

every man to his home

Alternate translation: “every man went to his own home”

1165

2SA

20

23

ail7

writing-background

0

Now

“Now” marks a break in the main story line. This new section gives background information about the men who served King David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1166

2SA

20

23

bu9z

figs-idiom

0

Joab was over … Benaiah son of Jehoiada was over

The phrase “was over” refers to having authority over a group of people. Alternate translation: “Joab had authority over … Benaiah son of Jehoiada had authority over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1167

2SA

20

23

di2d

translate-names

0

Benaiah … Jehoiada

Translate the names of these men the same as you did in 2 Samuel 8:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1168

2SA

20

23

s3i1

translate-names

0

Kerethites … Pelethites

Translate the names of these people groups the same as you did in 2 Samuel 8:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1169

2SA

20

24

hw6f

figs-idiom

0

Adoniram was over

The phrase “was over” refers to having authority over a group of people. Alternate translation: “Adoniram had authority over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1170

2SA

20

24

qv95

translate-names

0

Adoniram

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1171

2SA

20

24

rx8x

0

the men who did forced labor

Alternate translation: “the slave workers”

1172

2SA

20

24

hbx2

translate-names

0

Jehoshaphat … Ahilud

Translate the names of these men the same as you did in 2 Samuel 8:16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1173

2SA

20

25

pjz3

translate-names

0

Sheva

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1174

2SA

20

26

w67i

translate-names

0

Ira

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1175

2SA

20

26

qk9a

translate-names

0

Jairite

This is the name of a people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1176

2SA

21

intro

abcl

0

2 Samuel 21 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Special concepts in this chapter

Famine caused by a broken oath

When Israel first conquered the land, they promised not to kill the people of Gibeon. When Saul tried to kill them all, God caused a famine in Israel. David made amends with the people of Gideon and the famine ended. David also kept his vow to Jonathan’s sons. This helps to show the wisdom of king David. Although these people were not Israelites, they believed in Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/vow]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])

Wisdom, grace and justice

David is seen to have many great qualities in this chapter. These were qualities important for a king of Israel: wisdom, grace and justice. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/grace]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]])

1177

2SA

21

1

yc9z

figs-synecdoche

0

sought the face of Yahweh

Here “face” is a synecdoche for Yahweh’s presence. This means David prayed to Yahweh for an answer about the famine. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1178

2SA

21

1

f1fs

0

because of Saul and his murderous family

Saul had killed many Gibeonites, and Saul’s descendants are guilty because of this sin.

1179

2SA

21

2

j82w

writing-background

0

Now

Here “Now” marks a break in the main story line. This gives background information about the Gibeonites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1180

2SA

21

3

r66c

figs-parallelism

0

What should I do for you? How can I make atonement … promises?

These two sentences have similar meanings. Alternate translation: “What can I do to remove this sin, so that you may bless the people of Yahweh, who inherit his goodness and promises?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1181

2SA

21

4

xp8q

0

It is not a matter of silver or gold

Alternate translation: “Money will not solve the problem”

1182

2SA

21

5

tq7e

0

who schemed against us

Alternate translation: “who made plans against us”

1183

2SA

21

6

hce6

figs-activepassive

0

let seven men from his descendants be handed over to us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “allow your men to give seven of his descendants to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1184

2SA

21

6

ac94

0

we will hang them

Alternate translation: “we will execute them by hanging”

1185

2SA

21

6

gb8q

0

in Gibeah of Saul

Saul was from the town of Gibeah.

1186

2SA

21

6

s77u

figs-activepassive

0

the one chosen by Yahweh

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the one whom Yahweh chose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1187

2SA

21

7

u686

0

Mephibosheth

Mephibosheth was the son of Jonathan. See how you translated his name in 2 Samuel 4:4.

1188

2SA

21

8

nz4w

0

Rizpah … Aiah

Rizpah was a woman and her father was Aiah. See how you translated these names in 2 Samuel 3:7.

1189

2SA

21

8

vnv4

translate-names

0

Armoni and Mephibosheth … Adriel … Barzillai

These are names of men. This is not the same Mephibosheth as the son of Jonathan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1190

2SA

21

8

ab2b

0

Merab

This is the name of a woman. See how you translated it in 2 Samuel 3:13.

1191

2SA

21

8

p5t5

translate-names

0

Meholathite

This is the name of a people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1192

2SA

21

9

ji6t

figs-metonymy

0

He handed them over into the hands of the Gibeonites

Here “the hands of the Gibeonites” represents the Gibeonite people’s control. Alternate translation: “He gave them to the Gibeonites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1193

2SA

21

9

uyb2

figs-activepassive

0

They were put to death

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “The Gibeonites put them to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1194

2SA

21

10

vaz5

0

Rizpah … Aiah

Rizpah was a woman and her father was Aiah. See how you translated these names in 2 Samuel 3:7.

1195

2SA

21

11

hs9e

figs-activepassive

0

It was told to David

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone told David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1196

2SA

21

12

z1rv

0

Jabesh Gilead

Jabesh is a town in the region of Gilead. See how you translated this in 2 Samuel 2:4.

1197

2SA

21

12

vw7s

0

the public square

This is an area near the city gate where people did various kinds of business.

1198

2SA

21

12

nd8d

translate-names

0

Beth Shan

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1199

2SA

21

12

ku3i

0

Gilboa

See how you translated the name of this place in 2 Samuel 1:6.

1200

2SA

21

13

n7ji

figs-activepassive

0

who had been hanged

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “whom the Gibeonites executed by hanging” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1201

2SA

21

14

ai2f

translate-names

0

Zela

This is the name of a town in Benjamin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1202

2SA

21

14

bga5

translate-names

0

Kish

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1203

2SA

21

14

kw3r

0

his father

Alternate translation: “Saul’s father”

1204

2SA

21

16

d7sb

translate-names

0

Ishbi-Benob

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1205

2SA

21

16

b31k

translate-bweight

0

three hundred shekels

“300 shekels.” This is about 3.4 kilograms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1206

2SA

21

17

e49h

0

Abishai son of Zeruiah

Abishai and Zeruiah are names of men. See how you translated these names in 2 Samuel 2:18.

1207

2SA

21

17

d893

figs-metaphor

0

you do not put out the lamp of Israel

The “lamp of Israel” is a metaphor that refers to David’s leadership and the idea that if David were to die, the people of Israel would have no clear direction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1208

2SA

21

18

i8h8

0

It came about after this that

This phrase marks the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

1209

2SA

21

18

ei1h

translate-names

0

Gob

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1210

2SA

21

18

zih5

translate-names

0

Sibbekai … Saph

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1211

2SA

21

18

zz7e

translate-names

0

Hushathite … Rephaim

These are names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1212

2SA

21

18

g7p1

translate-names

0

Rephaim

This people group was known for its giant warriors. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1213

2SA

21

19

pv8s

translate-textvariants

0

Elhanan son of Jair the Bethlehemite killed Goliath the Gittite

Some versions translate this as “Elhanan son of Jair the Bethlehemite killed the brother of Goliath the Gittite.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1214

2SA

21

19

xl44

translate-names

0

Elhanan son of Jair … Goliath

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1215

2SA

21

19

x5yp

translate-names

0

Bethlehemite … Gittite

These are names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1216

2SA

21

19

b7w9

figs-simile

0

whose spear was like a weaver’s beam

When a person was weaving a cloth he would run the threads through hooks attached to large sticks called a “weaver’s beam.” This means Goliath’s spear was larger than a normal spear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1217

2SA

21

20

nqr4

translate-numbers

0

twenty-four in number

“24 fingers and toes altogether” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1218

2SA

21

20

cka4

translate-names

0

Rephaim

This people group was known for its giant warriors. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1219

2SA

21

21

j56u

translate-names

0

Jonathan son of Shimeah

These are names of men. Shimeah was David’s brother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1220

2SA

21

22

mqg8

figs-idiom

0

they were killed by the hand of David and by the hand of his soldiers

Here “by the hand of” means “through” or “by.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “David and his soldiers killed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1221

2SA

22

intro

abcm

0

2 Samuel 22 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetic song in 22:2-51.

Special concepts in this chapter

God rescued David

God rescued David when he thought he would die. He protected David, fought against his enemies, and enabled him to defeat his enemies.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

David uses many metaphors to express his trust in God’s protection: “my rock, my fortress, my shield, the horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge.” He used other metaphors to express his hopelessness: “the waves of death surrounded me,” “the rushing waters of worthlessness overwhelmed me,” “the cords of sheol surrounded me;” “the snares of death trapped me,” and “the surging water.” He also used metaphors for the victory God gave him: “I can run over a barricade” and “by my God I can leap over a wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

1222

2SA

22

1

vx4y

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

David’s song to Yahweh starts. He uses parallelism to emphasize what he is saying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1223

2SA

22

1

sh9l

0

out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul

This is a progression from enemies in general to one specific enemy of David, King Saul.

1224

2SA

22

1

gzu9

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of

This metonym means “out of the power of.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1225

2SA

22

2

t5y8

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh is my rock, my fortress

This metaphor shows a progression from a part, “rock,” to the whole, “fortress.” A fortress is built of many large rocks. This means Yahweh has the strength to protect his people from harm. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1226

2SA

22

3

h8pd

figs-metaphor

0

God is my rock … He is my shield, the horn of my salvation, my stronghold

All of these metaphors are symbols of God’s strength and power. They emphasize God’s ability to protect and save his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1227

2SA

22

4

v4up

figs-activepassive

0

who is worthy to be praised

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “who is worthy to receive praise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1228

2SA

22

4

p1jc

figs-activepassive

0

I will be saved from my enemies

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he will save me from my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1229

2SA

22

5

xvj7

figs-metaphor

0

For the waves of death surrounded me, the rushing waters of destruction overwhelmed me

David compares the wicked men who wanted to kill him to flood waters that are about to drown him. These sentences have similar meanings and are used for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1230

2SA

22

5

p6bv

0

the rushing waters of destruction

This is a picture of fast-flowing flood waters that destroy everything in their path.

1231

2SA

22

6

d6ka

figs-personification

0

The cords of Sheol surrounded me; the snares of death trapped me

David speaks about death and Sheol as if they are people who are trying to trap him as a hunter traps an animal. These phrases have similar meanings and are used for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1232

2SA

22

7

m7xw

0

In my distress

Alternate translation: “In my great trouble”

1233

2SA

22

7

dv16

0

he heard my voice from his temple

David is referring to the heavenly temple where Yahweh dwells. The earthly temple has not yet been built.

1234

2SA

22

7

v2zx

figs-metonymy

0

my call for help went into his ears

Here the metonym “his ears” refers to Yahweh and his hearing of David’s call for help. Alternate translation: “he heard my prayer for help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1235

2SA

22

7

w8ts

figs-personification

0

his ears

David speaks of Yahweh as if he had ears. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1236

2SA

22

8

ai6g

figs-metaphor

0

Then the earth shook

This is Yahweh’s response to David’s cry for help from his enemies (1 Samuel 22:7). David uses the imagery of the earth shaking to emphasize Yahweh’s terrible anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1237

2SA

22

8

gxt8

figs-merism

0

earth shook … heavens trembled

David speaks of the two extremes to include everything in creation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1238

2SA

22

8

x6xl

figs-activepassive

0

and were shaken, because God was angry

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “because God’s anger shook them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1239

2SA

22

9

qf19

figs-metaphor

0

were ignited by it

This is Yahweh’s response to David’s cry for help from his enemies (1 Samuel 22:7). David uses the imagery of fire coming from Yahweh to emphasize Yahweh’s terrible anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1240

2SA

22

9

c8xq

figs-personification

0

his nostrils … his mouth

David speaks of Yahweh as if he had these humans parts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1241

2SA

22

9

cq54

figs-metaphor

0

Coals were ignited by it

Here Yahweh’s anger is compared to fire, which causes coals to ignite and burn. Alternate translation: “The flame from his mouth set coals on fire” or “He also sent burning coals from his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1242

2SA

22

10

f5ym

figs-metaphor

0

He opened the heavens

David describes Yahweh’s way of saving David from his enemies as a storm cloud gathering over a place. This emphasizes God’s power and his anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1243

2SA

22

10

pg86

figs-personification

0

under his feet

David speaks of God as having feet like humans. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1244

2SA

22

11

r4l7

figs-activepassive

0

He was seen on the wings of the wind

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “He appeared on the wings of the wind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1245

2SA

22

11

gmc9

figs-metaphor

0

the wings of the wind

This expression speaks of the wind as if it were a bird. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1246

2SA

22

12

mit5

figs-metaphor

0

rain clouds in the skies

David describes Yahweh’s way of saving David from his enemies as a storm cloud gathering over a place. This emphasizes God’s power and his anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1247

2SA

22

12

ee39

figs-metaphor

0

He made darkness a tent around him

Here the darkness Yahweh creates is compared to a tent which hides him completely. Alternate translation: “He hid himself in the darkness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1248

2SA

22

13

t957

0

From the lightning before him coals of fire fell

This could mean: (1) “Out of his bright light he sent burning coals” or (2) “From his brightness he sent lightning”

1249

2SA

22

13

g4lk

figs-metaphor

0

From the lightning before him

David continues describing Yahweh, whom he compares to a storm, coming to save him from his enemies. This emphasizes God’s power and anger towards David’s enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1250

2SA

22

14

d4ht

figs-personification

0

The Most High shouted.

David describes Yahweh doing these actions a person would do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1251

2SA

22

15

h783

figs-personification

0

He shot arrows

David describes Yahweh doing these actions a person would do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1252

2SA

22

15

i235

figs-metaphor

0

He shot arrows … lightning bolts

David compares the lightning from Yahweh’s storm to arrows that a soldier would use. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1253

2SA

22

15

rg2n

figs-metaphor

0

lightning bolts and dispersed them

David continues describing Yahweh, whom he compares to a storm, coming to save him from his enemies. This emphasizes God’s power and anger towards David’s enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1254

2SA

22

16

za11

figs-metaphor

0

Then the channels of the sea were seen … breath of his nostrils

When Yahweh shouted in his attack against David’s enemies, it is compared to his power to create upheaval in the deepest parts of the ocean and the earth. This shows his great power and fierce anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1255

2SA

22

16

dcq2

figs-activepassive

0

the channels of the sea were seen

This means that the sea water moved and the ocean floor was visible. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “People could see the channels of the sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1256

2SA

22

16

it2c

0

the channels of the sea

the deepest part of the sea, from which the Hebrews believed was where the water in the sea came

1257

2SA

22

16

kcr5

figs-activepassive

0

the foundations of the world were laid bare at the rebuke of Yahweh, at the blast of the breath of his nostrils

David compares Yahweh’s anger to turbulent movements of the ground. “If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh’s rebuke, the breath of his nostrils, laid bare the foundations of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1258

2SA

22

17

kw87

figs-metaphor

0

out of the surging water

David compares his enemies to a flood that threatens to drown him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1259

2SA

22

18

lg3q

0

He rescued me from my strong enemy

David’s enemies were overwhelming. He praises God for delivering him from all his enemies.

1260

2SA

22

19

zv1u

0

They came against me on the day of my distress

Alternate translation: “My enemies fought against me when I was in great trouble”

1261

2SA

22

19

nty3

0

the day of my distress

Alternate translation: “the time of my distress”

1262

2SA

22

19

v9h4

0

but Yahweh was my support

Alternate translation: “but Yahweh supported me” or “but Yahweh helped me”

1263

2SA

22

20

yh2u

0

a wide open place

This refers to a place where there was no danger and his enemies could not trap him.

1264

2SA

22

21

en85

figs-idiom

0

to the measure of the cleanness of my hands

Here “cleanness of my hands” means the same as “righteousness.” Alternate translation: “because I obey his commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1265

2SA

22

22

s787

0

I have kept the ways of Yahweh

Here “the ways of Yahweh” refers to how Yahweh wants his people to act. This means David has done what Yahweh commands.

1266

2SA

22

23

ze3e

0

have been before me

This means David constantly reads and thinks about God’s decrees.

1267

2SA

22

24

j1e5

figs-idiom

0

I have kept myself from sin

This refers to choosing not to sin against Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1268

2SA

22

25

qdu9

figs-idiom

0

to the degree of my cleanness in his sight

Here “my cleanness” means the same as “my righteousness.” Alternate translation: “because he knows that I have done what he commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1269

2SA

22

27

b64p

0

you are perverse to the twisted

Here “perverse” means to be cunning or crafty, and “twisted” means to turn away from what is good and right. This means God is wise in how he deals with wicked people.

1270

2SA

22

28

yma2

figs-personification

0

your eyes are against the proud

Here the metonym “your eyes” refers to what Yahweh sees. This means Yahweh watches the proud person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1271

2SA

22

28

b16y

0

you bring them down

Alternate translation: “you destroy their pride”

1272

2SA

22

29

h2zr

figs-metaphor

0

you are my lamp, Yahweh. Yahweh lights up my darkness

This metaphor compares Yahweh to a lamp, which means he gives David light and helps him to see when things seem hopeless. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1273

2SA

22

30

l2yd

0

I can run over a barricade

Here “barricade” may refer to a group of soldiers or to a stone wall. Either way it means God enables David to defeat his enemies.

1274

2SA

22

30

ul6k

figs-hyperbole

0

I can leap over a wall

David is exaggerating to emphasize Yahweh’s help. Alternate translation: “I can climb over the wall that surrounds their city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1275

2SA

22

31

gj1g

0

The word of Yahweh is pure

Alternate translation: “Everything Yahweh says is true”

1276

2SA

22

31

udr8

figs-metonymy

0

He is a shield

The metaphor “a shield” emphasizes God’s power to protect his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1277

2SA

22

32

p5ua

figs-rquestion

0

For who is God except Yahweh, and who is a rock except our God?

David uses this question to emphasize that there is no God apart from Yahweh. These may be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “Yahweh alone is God. Our God alone is a rock.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1278

2SA

22

32

d37f

figs-metaphor

0

who is a rock

David compares Yahweh to a rock to emphasize his strength and ability to protect his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1279

2SA

22

33

c5tv

0

he leads the blameless person on his path

Yahweh keeps the blameless person safe and removes anything that may harm him.

1280

2SA

22

34

wm3b

figs-simile

0

He makes my feet swift like a deer and places me on the high hills

Here David’s feet are compared to those of a deer using exaggeration. Yahweh gives David the strength to move quickly and provides secure places for protection and rest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1281

2SA

22

35

n5gz

figs-synecdoche

0

my hands … and my arms

Both of these refer to David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1282

2SA

22

35

p7ie

0

to bend a bow of bronze

Only a very strong man could use a bow made from metal.

1283

2SA

22

36

ly9s

figs-metaphor

0

the shield of your salvation

David compares Yahweh’s power to save him to a shield that protects a soldier from his enemy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1284

2SA

22

36

ae4t

0

your favor

God answered David’s prayers and granted him blessings and success over his enemies.

1285

2SA

22

37

p573

figs-synecdoche

0

You have made a wide place for my feet beneath me

Yahweh has put David in a safe place where his enemies cannot trap him. Here he refers to himself by his “feet” to emphasize his ability to stand securely. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1286

2SA

22

38

w4kt

0

pursued my enemies

Alternate translation: “chased my enemies”

1287

2SA

22

39

ax1n

figs-metaphor

0

I devoured them and smashed them

Here David compares himself to a wild animal. Alternate translation: “I completely destroyed them like a wild animal devouring its prey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1288

2SA

22

39

e2qk

figs-metonymy

0

under my feet

Here “feet” refers to the power and control of victory over his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1289

2SA

22

40

k5cg

figs-simile

0

You put strength on me like a belt for battle

Here the strength that Yahweh gives is compared to a belt for battle that allowed David to do mighty things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1290

2SA

22

40

ea24

0

you put under me those who rise up against me

Alternate translation: “you helped me defeat those who fought against me”

1291

2SA

22

41

p97v

0

the back of my enemies’ necks

This could mean: (1) David seeing the backs of the enemy as they run away or (2) David putting his foot on the back of his enemy’s neck after he defeats him.

1292

2SA

22

41

ip4h

0

I annihilated

Alternate translation: “I completely destroyed”

1293

2SA

22

42

h32w

0

They cried

Alternate translation: “My enemies cried”

1294

2SA

22

42

c9qg

0

they cried out to Yahweh, but he did not answer them

The time for Yahweh’s judgment had come upon them.

1295

2SA

22

43

fum1

figs-simile

0

like dust on the ground … like mud in the streets

This means that David completely destroyed his enemies. These two phrases “like dust on the ground” and “like mud on the streets” have a similar meaning and are used for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1296

2SA

22

44

th42

0

from the disputes of my own people

This refers to those among the Israelites who rebelled against King David.

1297

2SA

22

44

tjl8

0

You have kept me as the head of nations

“You placed me as ruler over the nations.” Here “nations” refers to other nations besides Israel.

1298

2SA

22

44

p5i2

0

A people that I have not known

Alternate translation: “A foreign people”

1299

2SA

22

45

t5y6

figs-activepassive

0

Foreigners were forced to bow to me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Foreigners bowed down to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1300

2SA

22

47

u5bd

figs-parallelism

0

May my rock be praised. May God be exalted

These sentences have similar meaning and are used for emphasis. These may be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “May everyone praise my rock. May everyone exalt God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1301

2SA

22

47

xr9u

figs-metaphor

0

my rock … the rock

David compares Yahweh to a rock to emphasize his power to protect his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1302

2SA

22

48

z1qb

0

the one who brings down peoples under me

Alternate translation: “the one who puts the people of other nations under my rule”

1303

2SA

22

49

iu4b

0

you lifted me up above those who rose up against me

Alternate translation: “you saved me from my enemies and gave me honor”

1304

2SA

22

49

e1y3

0

from violent men

Alternate translation: “from those who want to harm me”

1305

2SA

22

50

r7zu

0

General Information:

David concludes his song to Yahweh.

1306

2SA

22

50

qk4d

figs-metonymy

0

to your name

Here the metonym “name” refers to Yahweh’s reputation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1307

2SA

22

51

fz6y

0

he shows his covenant loyalty to his anointed one

Here David may be referring to the promises Yahweh made in 2 Samuel 7:8

1308

2SA

23

intro

abcn

0

2 Samuel 23 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 23:2-7.

2 Samuel 23:8-39 is a list of the famous people in David’s army along with some of the special deeds some of them did. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/works]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Everlasting covenant

This is a reference to the covenant God previously made with David. (See: 2 Samuel 7, [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]]).

1309

2SA

23

1

jk1i

0

Now

This marks the beginning of a new section of the book.

1310

2SA

23

1

lw9i

0

these are the last words

This refers to what David will say in 2 Samuel 23:2-7.

1311

2SA

23

1

hvt1

figs-activepassive

0

the man who was highly honored, the one anointed by the God of Jacob

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the man whom the God of Jacob highly honored and anointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1312

2SA

23

1

y2lz

translate-symaction

0

anointed by the God of Jacob

Anointing was done by pouring oil on a person’s head. This was done to choose who would serve God as king or priest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1313

2SA

23

1

khe9

0

psalmist

This is a person who writes psalms or songs.

1314

2SA

23

2

ey25

0

by me

by David

1315

2SA

23

2

r3yy

figs-metonymy

0

and his word was on my tongue

Here “on my tongue” is a metonym for David speaking. Alternate translation: “he gave me a message to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1316

2SA

23

3

c9yd

figs-parallelism

0

The God of Israel spoke, the Rock of Israel … me

Here the “God of Israel” is the same as the “Rock of Israel.” The two phrases say essentially the same thing. David compares God to a rock to emphasize his power to protect his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1317

2SA

23

3

w218

figs-parallelism

0

The one who rules righteously over men, who rules in the fear of God

These two sentences both say that the king will respect God and do what God wants him to do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1318

2SA

23

3

a7ac

0

in the fear of God

Alternate translation: “respecting God”

1319

2SA

23

4

er3p

figs-simile

0

He will be like the morning light … sunshine after rain

Here God is comparing the king to the morning light and sunshine after the rain. These are all ways of saying this king would be a delight to God and a blessing for the people. These two phrases have a similar meaning and are used for emphasis. Alternate translation: “He will be a delight to all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1320

2SA

23

5

hef3

figs-rquestion

0

Indeed, is my family not like this before God?

Here David is saying that he agrees with God. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “My family is indeed like this before God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1321

2SA

23

5

n1tt

figs-rquestion

0

Has he not made … way?

David acknowledges that God has made a covenant with him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He has indeed made … way.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1322

2SA

23

5

gq5b

0

ordered and sure

This means God’s covenant is properly organized and will not change so David’s family can trust it.

1323

2SA

23

5

r8xz

figs-rquestion

0

Does he not increase my salvation … desire?

David believes that God will always help him and cause him to prosper. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He increases my salvation and gives me my every desire.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1324

2SA

23

6

abg3

0

General Information:

This concludes David’s last words.

1325

2SA

23

6

ic15

figs-simile

0

But the worthless will all be like thorns to be thrown away

Here the wicked person is compared to useless thorns. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “But the wicked person is worthless and dangerous like thorns we throw away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1326

2SA

23

6

dgn8

0

because they cannot be gathered by one’s hands

Alternate translation: “because no one can pick them up with his hands without the thorns hurting him”

1327

2SA

23

7

api5

0

They must be burned up where they lie

“Where thorns are found, that is where they must be burned.” This means God will destroy wicked people.

1328

2SA

23

8

ck79

translate-names

0

Jeshbaal

This is the name of a man. Other versions read Josheb Basshebeth, Jashobeam, Ishbaal, or Ishbosheth because various ancient copies have these variations. Translators may choose to say this in a footnote to their translation (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1329

2SA

23

8

pka9

translate-names

0

Hachmonite

This is the name of a people group. Alternate translation: “son of Hachmon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1330

2SA

23

8

vbh7

translate-numbers

0

eight hundred

“800” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1331

2SA

23

10

lw96

figs-explicit

0

The army returned after Eleazar

This means that the army returned after Eleazar returned from battle. Alternate translation: “The Israeli army returned to the battle field after Eleazer had already won the battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1332

2SA

23

10

jab4

0

only to strip the bodies

Alternate translation: “only to take what they wanted from the dead bodies of the enemies”

1333

2SA

23

11

kv12

0

a field of lentils

Alternate translation: “a field where someone had planted lentils”

1334

2SA

23

11

t6zi

translate-unknown

0

lentils

a flat seed, eaten like beans (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1335

2SA

23

11

dqs9

0

the army fled

Alternate translation: “the Israelite army ran away”

1336

2SA

23

13

jyy8

0

Three of the thirty

These are not the same three soldiers mentioned in 2 Samuel 23:8-12.

1337

2SA

23

13

de7l

translate-numbers

0

the thirty

“the 30” or “the thirty bravest Israelite soldiers.” The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1338

2SA

23

13

y5db

translate-names

0

cave of Adullam

“cave near the town of Adullam.” Adullam is near Bethlehem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1339

2SA

23

13

w9u8

0

Valley of Rephaim

This is the name of a place. See how you translated this in 2 Samuel 5:18.

1340

2SA

23

14

f68v

0

in his stronghold

Alternate translation: “in his protected place”

1341

2SA

23

14

pej4

0

the Philistines had established at Bethlehem

Alternate translation: “some Philistines soldiers were controlling the village of Bethlehem”

1342

2SA

23

16

r8yf

0

broke through the army

Alternate translation: “fought their way through the enemy army”

1343

2SA

23

17

nz91

figs-rquestion

0

Should I drink the blood of men who have risked their lives?

David compares the water to blood because the men risked their lives to bring the water to him. He uses a question to emphasize this. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Drinking this water would be like drinking the blood of those men who have risked their lives to bring it to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1344

2SA

23

18

jjf7

0

Abishai … Zeruiah

These are the names of men. Translate them as in 2 Samuel 2:18.

1345

2SA

23

18

xve2

0

captain over the three

This means Abishai was the leader of the three who went and got water for David.

1346

2SA

23

18

cs6f

translate-numbers

0

three hundred men

“300 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1347

2SA

23

18

gxa6

figs-activepassive

0

He was often mentioned along with the three soldiers

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “People often mentioned him when they spoke about the three bravest men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1348

2SA

23

19

ir5c

figs-rquestion

0

Was he not even more famous than the three?

This question is used to emphasize how famous he was. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “He was even more famous than the three.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1349

2SA

23

19

gph9

0

three most famous soldiers

This refers to Josheb Basshebeth, Eleazar, and Shimeah. Abishai was not as famous as these soldiers.

1350

2SA

23

20

l41w

translate-names

0

Kabzeel

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1351

2SA

23

20

g72h

0

Jehoiada

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in 2 Samuel 8:18.

1352

2SA

23

20

vqy6

0

Ariel

This is the name of a man.

1353

2SA

23

22

k95v

0

did these feats

Alternate translation: “did these mighty deeds”

1354

2SA

23

22

y87l

figs-activepassive

0

he was named alongside the three mighty men

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people praise him like they praised the three mighty men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1355

2SA

23

22

nbw7

0

three mighty men

This refers to Josheb Basshebeth, Eleazar, and Shimeah.

1356

2SA

23

23

b1df

translate-numbers

0

He was more highly regarded than the thirty soldiers in general, but he was not regarded quite as highly as the three mighty men

“He was more famous than the other 30 soldiers except for the three best soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1357

2SA

23

23

l8t2

0

his bodyguard

a group of soldiers in charge of guarding David

1358

2SA

23

24

q89a

translate-names

0

General Information:

This is a list of David’s greatest soldiers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1359

2SA

23

24

h79d

translate-numbers

0

The thirty

“The 30 very famous soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1360

2SA

23

37

ud59

translate-names

0

General Information:

This concludes the list of David’s greatest soldiers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1361

2SA

23

39

t6d8

translate-numbers

0

thirty-seven in all

“there were 37 total” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1362

2SA

24

intro

abco

0

2 Samuel 24 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Counting soldiers

David ordered the leaders of his army to count how many men of fighting age there were. He was not supposed to do this because it showed he did not trust God. God was displeased and offered David three punishments. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

1363

2SA

24

1

c86d

figs-metaphor

0

the anger of Yahweh was ignited against Israel

The word “ignite” means start a fire. Here Yahweh’s anger is compared to that of a fire. Alternate translation: “the anger of Yahweh started to burn like a fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1364

2SA

24

1

dq6l

0

he moved David against them

Alternate translation: “he caused David to oppose them”

1365

2SA

24

1

x6eq

figs-explicit

0

Go, count Israel and Judah

In the law of Moses, God prohibited the kings of Israel from taking a census of fighting men. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1366

2SA

24

2

u7bz

figs-merism

0

Dan to Beersheba

This phrase uses two place names Dan, in the far north, and Beersheba, in the far south, to represent the entire country. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1367

2SA

24

2

fu4s

0

count all the people … fit for battle

This means to count all the men except those men who are either too young, too old, or physically unable to fight.

1368

2SA

24

3

qi23

translate-numbers

0

multiply … hundred times

This means “produce 100 more people for every one person there is now.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1369

2SA

24

4

b9zy

0

the king’s word was final against Joab

Joab and the other commanders of King David’s army were not able to convince David to not take a census.

1370

2SA

24

4

c8cv

figs-synecdoche

0

the king’s word

This phrase represents the king’s command to them. Alternate translation: “what the king had commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1371

2SA

24

5

h1bw

0

They crossed

Alternate translation: “Joab and the commanders of the army crossed”

1372

2SA

24

5

pt7b

translate-names

0

Aroer

This was a city on the northern edge of the Arnon River. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1373

2SA

24

5

zpx8

translate-names

0

Jazer

This is a town in Gad. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1374

2SA

24

6

wc3c

translate-names

0

Tahtim Hodshi

This may refer to the town of Kadesh in the land of the Hittite people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1375

2SA

24

8

db36

0

they had gone

Alternate translation: “Joab and the commanders had gone”

1376

2SA

24

8

i1gd

translate-numbers

0

nine months and twenty days

“9 months and 20 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1377

2SA

24

9

qq68

0

Then Joab reported the total of the count of the fighting men to the king

Alternate translation: “Then Joab told the king the total number of men ready for battle”

1378

2SA

24

9

b91x

0

in Israel

This refers to the northern tribes of Israel.

1379

2SA

24

9

k78w

translate-numbers

0

800,000…500,000

“eight hundred thousand … five hundred thousand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1380

2SA

24

9

t1ix

figs-metonymy

0

who drew the sword

This metonym refers to the men who were ready to fight in the army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1381

2SA

24

9

e4ft

0

of Judah

This refers to the southern tribe of Judah.

1382

2SA

24

10

cb8t

figs-metonymy

0

David’s heart afflicted him

The “heart” here is a metonym for David’s emotions and conscience. Alternate translation: “David felt guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1383

2SA

24

10

bvb3

0

Now, Yahweh, take away your servant’s guilt

David refers to himself as “your servant.” This is a polite way to speak to someone with greater authority.

1384

2SA

24

11

h1gv

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came to the prophet Gad, David’s seer, saying,

The idiom “the word of Yahweh came to” is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this idiom in 2 Samuel 7:4. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message to the prophet Gad, David’s seer. He said,” or “Yahweh spoke this message to the prophet Gad, David’s seer:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1385

2SA

24

11

a4ac

0

David’s seer

This means Gad was the official prophet in the royal palace.

1386

2SA

24

14

q8an

0

I am in deep trouble

Alternate translation: “I am in terrible trouble”

1387

2SA

24

14

d6ux

figs-metonymy

0

Let us fall into Yahweh’s hands rather than into the hand of man

Here “hands” refer to power or control. Alternate translation: “Let Yahweh and not people punish us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1388

2SA

24

15

jgc8

0

a fixed time

This is the time God decided he would stop the plague.

1389

2SA

24

15

s22f

translate-numbers

0

seventy thousand

“70,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1390

2SA

24

15

gt1z

figs-merism

0

from Dan to Beersheba

Here mentioning the city of Dan in the extreme north and the city Beersheba in the extreme south means the entire nation of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1391

2SA

24

16

tl5x

figs-metonymy

0

the angel reached out with his hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it

Here the metonym “hand” stands for the angel’s power. Alternate translation: “the angel was about to destroy the people in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1392

2SA

24

16

ap2v

0

Yahweh changed his mind because of the harm

This means that Yahweh stopped the evil that he was allowing the angel to do. Alternate translation: “Yahweh felt grieved about the harm”

1393

2SA

24

16

x95i

figs-metonymy

0

Now draw back your hand

The metonym “hand” stands for the angel’s power. Alternate translation: “Do not harm them any longer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1394

2SA

24

16

y4es

translate-names

0

Araunah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1395

2SA

24

16

ug3p

0

the threshing floor

A threshing floor was a hard, flat surface where edible grain was separated from chaff.

1396

2SA

24

17

c2r6

figs-parallelism

0

I have sinned, and I have acted perversely

These phrases mean the same thing and are combined for emphasis. Alternate translation: “I have sinned terribly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1397

2SA

24

17

b9vn

figs-rquestion

0

But these sheep, what have they done?

David uses a question and compares the people to sheep to emphasize that they have done nothing wrong. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “These ordinary people have done nothing wrong.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1398

2SA

24

17

e2dt

figs-metonymy

0

Please let your hand punish me

Here the metonym “hand” refers to power. Alternate translation: “Please punish me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1399

2SA

24

20

q15a

translate-symaction

0

bowed to the king with his face to the ground

He was showing deep respect and honor to the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1400

2SA

24

21

r7k9

figs-activepassive

0

so that the plague may be removed from the people

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “so that Yahweh will remove this plague from the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1401

2SA

24

22

bwm7

figs-metaphor

0

what is good in your sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “what you think is good” or “what is good in your judgement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1402

2SA

24

22

p54x

0

threshing sledges

heavy boards used to separate grain from the rest of the wheat plant

1403

2SA

24

24

m1m6

figs-doublenegatives

0

I will not offer … anything that costs me nothing

This can be stated in a positive form. Alternate translation: “I will only offer … something that I have paid for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1404

2SA

24

24

w2n6

translate-numbers

0

fifty shekels

“50 shekels.” A shekel is 11 grams. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

1405

2SA

24

25

xl51

figs-metonymy

0

on behalf of the land

Here the metonym “land” stands for the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “on behalf of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1406

2SA

24

25

lp9s

figs-activepassive

0

the plague on Israel was confined

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “God confined the plague that had been on Israel” or “God took the plague away from Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])