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Introduction to Judges

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Judges

  1. History of the judges of Israel (1:1–16:31)
    • Introduction (1:1-3:6)
    • Othniel, Ehud, and Shamgar (3:7–31)
    • Deborah and Barak (4:1–5:31)
    • Gideon (6:1–8:35)
    • Abimelech, Tola, and Jair (9:1–10:5)
    • Jephthah (10:6-12:7)
    • Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15)
    • Samson (13:1–16:31)
  2. The account of Micah and his idols (17:1–18:31)
  3. The account of Gibeah; the other Israelites take revenge (19:1–21:25)

What is the Book of Judges about?

The Book of Judges tells of events that occurred after the Israelites settled in the Promised Land. The events in this book happened over a period of about 150 years.

This book describes how the Israelites repeatedly sinned against Yahweh during this time. They worshiped false gods and did the same wicked things as the peoples who lived around them. Therefore, God would allow enemies to defeat and oppress the Israelites. Eventually, the Israelites would call to Yahweh for help. Yahweh would then cause someone to help the Israelites defeat their enemies. This person was called a “judge.” The Israelites would live in peace until the judge died.

After that judge died, the Israelites would start sinning again. So this pattern of events would repeat.

How should the title of this book be translated?

This book traditionally has the title “Judges” because it gives accounts of some of the main leaders or judges in Israel before there were any kings over the people. Unless there are good reasons for following the title in other Bible versions, the translator should probably use the title “Judges” or a title such as “The Book about the Leaders in Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What kind of leaders were the judges?

These were men and women whom God chose to help the Israelites defeat their enemies. After defeating their enemies, these leaders usually continued to help the people by deciding disputes among them. They also helped them make important decisions. Many of these leaders served all the people of Israel, but some of these leaders may have served only certain tribes.

What kind of society was Israel during the time of the judges?

During this time, the twelve tribes of Israel were independent of one another. They were not a unified nation with one ruler. The tribes would sometimes help each other when enemies were threatening them.

These tribes were descended from the same ancestors: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. They shared in the same covenant with Yahweh.

What spiritual struggles did Israel experience during the time of the judges?

During this time, Israel struggled to remain faithful to Yahweh. The best judges encouraged Israel to be faithful to him, but some of the judges failed to do so. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faithful]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What is the meaning of the phrase “in those days there was no king in Israel, and everyone did what was right in his own eyes”?

This phrase occurs twice in the book of Judges. Shorter versions of the phrase occur two other times. These phrases imply that the writer or editor of this book was alive at a later time when there was a king in Israel. They also seem to imply that the writer thought that things were not good in Israel because there was no king.

The translation of these phrases should imply to the reader that the book’s writer is looking back into the past.

What is the meaning of the phrase “to this day”?

The narrator used this phrase to refer to the time when he was writing. The translator should be aware that “to this day” refers to a time already passed. The translator must avoid giving the impression that the present day of the translation’s readers is meant. The translator might decide to say, “to this day, at the time when this is being written,” or, “to this day, at the time of writing.” This Hebrew phrase occurs in Judges 1:21, 26; 6:24; 10:4; 15:19; 18:12.

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intro

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Judges 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

“After the death of Joshua”

This statement creates a seamless transition from the book of Joshua.

Special concepts in this chapter

Finishing the conquest of the Promised Land

Israel fought to clear the land of the Canaanites, but they also made treaties with other peoples and made some of them do hard labor. This was against God’s instruction to completely remove the Canaanite people from the land.

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Connecting Statement:

The book of Judges continues the story about Joshua and is also the beginning of a new part of the story.

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Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

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will attack the Canaanites for us

The word “us” refers to the people of Israel, but not to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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c4zw

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Judah will attack

Here “Judah” represents the men of the tribe of Judah. Yahweh is commanding these men to attack first. Alternate translation: “The men of Judah must attack first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

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this land

This refers to the land where the Canaanites lived. Alternate translation: “the land of the Canaanites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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their brothers

Alternate translation: “their fellow Israelites” or “their relatives”

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Come up with us

The people of the tribes of Judah and Simeon were camped with the rest of the Israelite people in the valley of the Jordan River. The land given to Judah was in the hills above the valley. Some languages do not usually indicate whether people were going up or down. Alternate translation: “Come with us” or “Go with us”

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p8mq

figs-activepassive

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that was assigned to us … that was assigned to you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that Yahweh assigned to us … that Yahweh assigned to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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We will likewise go with you

Alternate translation: “We will also go with you” or “In the same way, we will go with you”

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ku4h

figs-explicit

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The men of Judah attacked

It is implied that the men of Simeon attacked with the men of Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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n19d

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They killed ten thousand

“They killed about 10,000” or “They killed a large number” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

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of them

Alternate translation: “soldiers of the Canaanites and Perizzites” or “enemies”

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Bezek

This is an area in the mountains of Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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Adoni-Bezek

This man was the leader of the army of the Canaanites and the Perizzites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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i3pn

figs-synecdoche

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they fought against him

Here “him” actually refers to Adoni-Bezek and his army. Alternate translation: “they fought against him and his army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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pursued him

Alternate translation: “chased him”

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7

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Seventy kings

“70 kings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

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t5fd

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who had their thumbs and their big toes cut off

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “whose thumbs and big toes I told my men to cut off” or “whose thumbs and big toes we cut off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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p5cw

figs-metonymy

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gathered their food from under my table

Forcing these kings to eat scraps of food represents all the ways that Adoni-Bezek humiliated these kings. Here “gathering” food represents eating it. Alternate translation: “ate scraps of food from under my table” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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hh58

figs-metonymy

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the city of Jerusalem and took it

Here “city” represents the people. Alternate translation: “the people who lived in Jerusalem and defeated them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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ca78

figs-metonymy

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They attacked it

Here “it” refers to the city which represents the people of the city. Alternate translation: “They attacked the people of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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k6ze

figs-synecdoche

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with the edge of the sword

“with the point of the sword.” Here “sword” represents the swords and other weapons that the soldiers used in battle. Alternate translation: “with their swords” or “with their weapons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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the men of Judah went down to fight

It was common to use the word “down” when it refers to traveling from Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the men of Judah went to fight”

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in the Negev

Alternate translation: “in the southern Judean wilderness”

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foothills

hills at the base of a mountain or mountain range

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writing-background

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the name of Hebron was previously Kiriath Arba

This is background information. Some people who first read this book had probably heard of Kiriath Arba but did not know that it was the same as the city that they called Hebron. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai

These are the names of three Canaanite leaders of Hebron. Each leader represents his army. Alternate translation: “Sheshai, Ahiman, Talmai, and their armies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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lh59

writing-background

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the name of Debir was previously Kiriath Sepher

The author probably wrote this because his readers knew the city as Debir. But at the time Israel attacked it, it was called Kiriath Sepher. Alternate translation: “which used to be called Kiriath Sepher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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was previously

Alternate translation: “was in times past” or “was at an earlier time”

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e7kf

figs-metonymy

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Whoever attacks Kiriath Sepher and takes it

Here “Kiriath Sepher” represents the people. Alternate translation: “Whoever attacks and defeats the people of Kiriath Sepher and takes their city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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Aksah

This is the name of Caleb’s daughter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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Othniel, son of Kenaz

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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she urged him

Alternate translation: “Aksah urged Othniel”

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Give me a blessing

Alternate translation: “Do a favor for me” or “Do this for me”

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figs-explicit

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Since you have given me the land of the Negev

Caleb gave Aksah in marriage to Othniel, so she lived with Othniel in the city that he had captured in the Negev. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Since you have given me in marriage to live in the Negev” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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n8di

figs-explicit

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Since you have given me the land

This implies that Caleb did give her the field when she asked him for it (verse 14). She is now asking for springs of water in addition to that field. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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of Moses’ father-in-law

Alternate translation: “of the father of Moses’ wife”

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father-in-law the Kenite went up

Alternate translation: “father-in-law, who was one of the Ken people, went up”

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went up from the City of Palms … into the wilderness

Alternate translation: “left the City of Palms … and went into the wilderness”

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figs-explicit

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City of Palms

This is another name for the city of Jericho. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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translate-names

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Arad

This is the name of a city in Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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the men of Simeon their brothers

Here “brothers” means relatives who were in another tribe of Israel.

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translate-names

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Zephath

This is the name of a city in Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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iy2d

figs-explicit

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The name of the city was called Hormah

After the Israelites destroyed Zephath, they changed its name to “Hormah.” The name “Hormah” means “complete destruction.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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vtq2

figs-idiom

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Yahweh was with the people of Judah

Here “was with” means that Yahweh helped the people of Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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plains

a very large area of level, treeless ground

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figs-activepassive

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Hebron was given to Caleb (like Moses had said)

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Moses had given Hebron to Caleb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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eml1

figs-synecdoche

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three sons of Anak

The leaders of the people groups are used to refer to the entire group. Alternate translation: “three sons of Anak and their people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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tyj7

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Anak

This is the name of a man. Anak and his descendants were famous for being very tall. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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to this day

“until now.” This refers to the time the book of Judges was written.

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da33

figs-metonymy

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The house of Joseph

Here “house” represents descendants. Manasseh and Ephraim were sons of Joseph, and the “house of Joseph” can refer to the descendants of Manasseh and Ephraim. Alternate translation: “The descendants of Manasseh and Ephraim” or “The men of the tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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pc1n

figs-metonymy

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to attack Bethel

Here “Bethel” represents the people who live in Bethel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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spy

to get information secretly

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writing-background

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the city that was formerly called Luz

This is background information. Some people who first read this book had probably heard of Luz but did not know that it was the same as the city that they called Bethel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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spies

people who get information secretly

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dj1j

figs-metonymy

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they attacked the city

Here “city” represents the people. Alternate translation: “they attacked the people of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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ncm9

figs-synecdoche

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with the edge of the sword

“with the point of the sword.” Here “sword” represents the swords and other weapons that the soldiers used in battle. Alternate translation: “with their swords” or “with their weapons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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figs-idiom

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get away

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “escape” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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Luz

This new town started in the land of the Hittites was named after the town of Luz, near Bethel, that the man had left.

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ym4e

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which is its name to this day

“which is still its name.” Here “to this day” refers to the time when the book of Judges was written.

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translate-names

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Beth Shan … Taanach … Dor … Ibleam … Megiddo

These are names of cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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because the Canaanites were determined to live in that land

To “determine” is to firmly decide something. Alternate translation: “because the Canaanites firmly decided not to leave that land”

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m64k

figs-metonymy

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When Israel became strong

Here “Israel” represents the people. Alternate translation: “When the people of Israel became stronger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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h7tu

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they forced the Canaanites to serve them with hard labor

Alternate translation: “they forced the Canaanites to do hard work for them”

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ek8n

figs-metonymy

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Ephraim did not

Here “Ephraim” the men or the soldiers of the tribe of Ephraim. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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u8mq

translate-names

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Gezer

The name of one of the cities in the Ephraim area. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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z9je

figs-metonymy

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Zebulun did not drive out

Here “Zebulun” represents the men or the soldiers of the tribe of Zebulun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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p5am

translate-names

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Kitron … Nahalol

These are names of cities in the land of Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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l8tv

figs-metonymy

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but Zebulun forced

Here “Zebulun” represents the people of the tribe of Zebulun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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cp5q

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hard labor

Alternate translation: “difficult labor”

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e29r

figs-metonymy

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Asher did not drive

Here “Asher” represents the men or the soldiers of the tribe of Asher. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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translate-names

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Akko … Sidon … Ahlab, Akzib, Helbah, Aphek … Rehob

These are names of cities in the land of Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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translate-names

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Beth Shemesh … Beth Anath

These are names of cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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pck2

figs-activepassive

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the inhabitants of Beth Shemesh and Beth Anath were forced into hard labor for Naphthali

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the people of Naphtali forced the people of Beth Shemesh and Beth Anath to work for them as slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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w8it

0

not allowing them to come down

Alternate translation: “stopping them from coming down”

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ijt5

0

plain

a very large area of flat land without trees

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qwt2

translate-names

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Mount Heres

This is the name of a large hill on which the city of Aijalon was built. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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cw8t

translate-names

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Aijalon … Shaalbim

These are names of cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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x276

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the military might of the house of Joseph conquered them

Alternate translation: “the tribes of people who descended from Joseph were able to conquer them because of their powerful army”

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uvw1

figs-metonymy

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house of Joseph

Here “house” represents descendants. Manasseh and Ephraim were sons of Joseph, and the “house of Joseph” can refer to the descendants of Manasseh and Ephraim. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Manasseh and Ephraim” or “the men of the tribes of Manasseh and Ephraim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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g7nx

translate-names

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the hill of Akrabbim

This was a pass southwest of the Dead Sea. It is also called the “Scorpion Pass.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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qr2w

translate-names

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Sela

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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intro

mf6a

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Judges 2 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh tests Israel

Yahweh said, “Because this nation has broken the terms of my covenant.” Completely removing the Canaanites from the land was a test from Yahweh. While Yahweh displayed covenant faithfulness, Israel did not. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/test]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenantfaith]])

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tt9y

0

angel of Yahweh

This could mean: (1) “angel who represents Yahweh” or (2) “messenger who serves Yahweh” or (3) it may refer to Yahweh himself, who looked like an angel as he talked to a person. Either one of these meanings would explain the angel’s use of “I” as if Yahweh himself were talking.

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q2ka

0

went up from Gilgal to Bokim

Alternate translation: “left Gilgal and went to Bokim”

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x66i

translate-names

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Bokim

This is what the Israelites named this place in 2:5 after the angel rebukes the people. “Bokim” means “crying.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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JDG

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te37

figs-ellipsis

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and said

It is understood that the angel of Yahweh is speaking to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “and said to the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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im2i

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brought you up from Egypt

Alternate translation: “led you from Egypt”

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1

ha9u

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your fathers

Alternate translation: “your ancestors” or “your forefathers”

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p92u

figs-idiom

0

break my covenant with you

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “fail to do what I said I would do for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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JDG

2

2

syq4

figs-metonymy

0

you have not listened to my voice

Here “voice” represents what Yahweh said. Alternate translation: “you have not obeyed my commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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JDG

2

2

w8ys

figs-rquestion

0

What is this that you have done?

This question is asked to cause the people of Israel to realize they have disobeyed Yahweh and will suffer because of it. Alternate translation: “You have done a terrible thing.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

97

JDG

2

3

kdq3

figs-quotesinquotes

0

So now I say, ‘I will not … trap for you.’

This has a quotation within a quotation. This direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “So now I tell you that I will not … trap for you.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

98

JDG

2

3

plg4

figs-metaphor

0

become thorns in your sides

The Canaanites troubling the Israelites is spoken of as if the Canaanites would be thorns in the side of the Israelites. Alternate translation: “cause you trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

99

JDG

2

3

y4wm

0

thorns

sharp pieces of wood up to 7 centimeters long that stick out from some plants

100

JDG

2

3

b6w1

figs-metaphor

0

their gods will become a trap for you

The Israelites worshiping the Canaanite gods is spoken of as if the false gods were a hunter’s trap that catches an animal and causes it harm. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

101

JDG

2

4

f5v2

0

shouted and wept

Alternate translation: “cried many tears”

102

JDG

2

6

p53v

0

Now when Joshua

Here “Now” is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the narrator begins a summary that explains how the generations of Israelites after Joshua sinned and worshiped false gods so that Yahweh punished them, but then he would send judges to rescue them. This summary ends in 2:23.

103

JDG

2

6

u1xb

writing-background

0

when Joshua … of their land

The events of 1:1-2:5 happened after Joshua died. This is recounting events that happened at the end of the book of Joshua. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

104

JDG

2

6

i12e

figs-explicit

0

to the place assigned

You may want to help your readers by stating who assigned this place to them. Alternate translation: “to the place Yahweh gave them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

105

JDG

2

7

kcc2

writing-background

0

The background information that begins with the words “Now when Joshua” in verse 6 continues. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

106

JDG

2

7

ydz9

0

during the lifetime

This means the time that someone lived. Alternate translation: “during the life”

107

JDG

2

7

g5ah

0

the elders

Here this means the men who helped lead Israel, participating in matters of social justice and in religious matters such as maintaining the law of Moses.

108

JDG

2

7

qml9

0

outlived him

This means to live longer than someone else. Alternate translation: “lived longer than he did”

109

JDG

2

8

ii19

writing-background

0

The background information that begins with the words “Now when Joshua” in verse 6 continues. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

110

JDG

2

8

m4jx

writing-background

0

Joshua son of Nun … died at the age of 110 years old

The background information that begins with the words “Now when Joshua” in verse 6 ends. The events of 1:1-2:5 happened after Joshua died. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

111

JDG

2

8

k12w

translate-names

0

Nun

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

112

JDG

2

8

xfn6

translate-numbers

0

110 years old

“one hundred and ten years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

113

JDG

2

9

ne2z

figs-activepassive

0

he was assigned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that God gave him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

114

JDG

2

9

yk2s

translate-names

0

Timnath Heres

This is the name of an area of land. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

115

JDG

2

9

f8u2

translate-names

0

Mount Gaash

This is the name of a mountain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

116

JDG

2

10

umh1

figs-euphemism

0

All that generation was also gathered to their fathers

The phrase “was also gathered to their fathers” means that as the people of that generation died, their souls went to the same place as their ancestors who died before them. It is a polite way of saying they died. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

117

JDG

2

10

r6cs

0

fathers

Here this means the ancestors of a certain person or people group.

118

JDG

2

10

flq1

0

grew up

Alternate translation: “grew older” or “became older”

119

JDG

2

10

qd7f

0

who did not know Yahweh

Here “did not know” means they had not experienced Yahweh or his power the way the previous generation had.

120

JDG

2

11

yhh4

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “what was evil in Yahweh’s judgment” or “what Yahweh considered to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

121

JDG

2

11

gx61

translate-names

0

Baals

This is the plural of Baal. While “Baal” was generally the name of one false god, the word was also used for various other gods that were often worshiped along with Baal. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

122

JDG

2

12

tp3f

figs-metaphor

0

They broke away from Yahweh

The Israelites no longer obeying Yahweh is spoken of as if they physically broke away from him and left him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

123

JDG

2

12

re2c

0

their fathers

Alternate translation: “their ancestors” or “their forefathers”

124

JDG

2

12

n4xl

figs-metaphor

0

They went after other gods

The Israelites starting to worship false gods is spoken of as if the Israelites walked and went after the false gods. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

125

JDG

2

12

w9r2

translate-symaction

0

bowed down to them

This is an act of worship and giving honor to someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

126

JDG

2

12

j3xw

0

They provoked Yahweh to anger

Alternate translation: “They caused Yahweh to become angry”

127

JDG

2

13

ddu6

translate-names

0

Ashtoreths

This is the plural of Ashtoroth, who was worshiped as a goddess in many different forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

128

JDG

2

14

r6xm

figs-metaphor

0

The anger of Yahweh burned against Israel

The anger of Yahweh is described as burning like a fire. Alternate translation: “Yahweh became very angry with the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

129

JDG

2

14

bjf9

0

he gave them to the raiders who stole their possessions from them

Alternate translation: “he let raiders steal their possessions”

130

JDG

2

14

v1ki

figs-metaphor

0

He sold them as slaves who were held by the strength of their enemies around them, so they could no longer defend themselves against their enemies

Yahweh allowing the enemies to take the Israelites as slaves is spoken of as if he sold them into slavery. The phrase “who were held by” can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “He allowed their enemies to conquer them and take them as slaves, and they could no longer resist their powerful enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

131

JDG

2

15

b13p

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh’s hand was against them to defeat them

Here “hand” represents Yahweh’s power. Alternate translation: “Yahweh helped their enemies defeat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

132

JDG

2

15

n59g

0

they were in terrible distress

Alternate translation: “they were suffering terribly”

133

JDG

2

16

t2b3

figs-metaphor

0

Then Yahweh raised up judges

Yahweh appointing persons to be judges is spoken of as if he were raising or lifting the persons up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

134

JDG

2

16

myh2

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of those

Here “hand” refers to power. Alternate translation: “from the power of the enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

135

JDG

2

17

p49i

0

they would not listen to their judges

Alternate translation: “they would not obey their judges”

136

JDG

2

17

dv8s

figs-simile

0

gave themselves like prostitutes to other gods and worshiped them

The people betraying Yahweh and worshiping other gods is spoken of as if the people were prostitutes. Alternate translation: “betrayed him by worshiping false gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

137

JDG

2

17

wwn4

0

their fathers

Alternate translation: “their ancestors” or “their forefathers”

138

JDG

2

18

eau5

figs-metaphor

0

When Yahweh raised up judges

Yahweh appointing persons to be judges is spoken of as if he raised or lifted up the persons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

139

JDG

2

18

hz8j

0

judges for them … rescued them

The word “them” refers to the Israelites.

140

JDG

2

18

ql9k

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of their enemies

Here “hand” refers to power of the enemies to hurt Israel. Alternate translation: “the power of their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

141

JDG

2

18

j2rk

0

all the days the judge lived

Alternate translation: “as long as the judge lived”

142

JDG

2

18

n8w4

0

pity

to have compassion for someone or something

143

JDG

2

18

g95t

figs-metonymy

0

as they groaned

The sound made by a person who suffers is used to describe the pain of the Israelites as they suffer. Alternate translation: “as they suffered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

144

JDG

2

19

q63w

figs-metaphor

0

they would turn away

The people no longer obeying Yahweh is spoken of as if they would physically turn away from Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

145

JDG

2

19

fnt4

0

their fathers

Alternate translation: “their ancestors” or “their forefathers”

146

JDG

2

19

kid3

figs-metaphor

0

They would go after other gods to serve them and worship them

The Israelites worshiping other gods is spoken of as if they were walking and going after other gods. Alternate translation: “They would serve and worship other gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

147

JDG

2

19

lq1a

figs-litotes

0

They refused to give up any of their evil practices or their stubborn ways

“They refused to stop doing evil things and being stubborn.” This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “They continued doing evil things and being stubborn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

148

JDG

2

20

b7rk

figs-metaphor

0

The anger of Yahweh burned against Israel

The anger of Yahweh is described as burning like a fire. See how you translated this phrase in Judges 2:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

149

JDG

2

20

clk3

figs-metonymy

0

this nation has broken

Here “nation” represents the people. Alternate translation: “these people have broken” or “the Israelites have broken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

150

JDG

2

21

ry6q

figs-metonymy

0

any of the nations

Here “nations” represents the people groups that lived in Canaan before the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

151

JDG

2

22

n194

figs-metaphor

0

they will keep the way of Yahweh and walk in it

How Yahweh wants people to live or behave is spoken of as if it were a way or road. A person obeying Yahweh is spoken of as if they were walking in his way. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

152

JDG

2

23

tn49

figs-doublet

0

did not drive them out quickly and give them into the hand of Joshua

These two phrases mean the same thing and can be combined. Alternate translation: “he did not let Joshua quickly conquer them and drive them out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

153

JDG

2

23

b618

figs-metonymy

0

into the hand of Joshua

Here “hand” is a metonym for power, and “Joshua” represents himself and his army. Alternate translation: “into the power of Joshua and his army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

154

JDG

3

intro

k35h

0

Judges 3 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The people worship false gods

Israel worshiped idols and false gods. Because of this, Yahweh allowed Aram and Moab to rule over them. In the period of Judges, when Israel sinned, they were often placed under the rule of a foreign power. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Blew a trumpet”

When Ehud “blew a trumpet,” he was calling all of the men to come help him fight. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

155

JDG

3

1

w2is

0

Now Yahweh

Here “Now” begins a new section of the story.

156

JDG

3

1

hp8z

0

these nations

This refers to the people groups that the narrator will list in 3:3.

157

JDG

3

1

xj63

figs-activepassive

0

who had not experienced any of the wars fought in Canaan

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “who had not fought in any of the wars in Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

158

JDG

3

2

l4u8

writing-background

0

He did this to teach warfare to the new generation of the Israelites who had not known it before

This breaks from the main story line. The narrator gives background information about why Yahweh left some of the people groups in Canaan. Alternate translation: “Yahweh left nations among the Israelites to teach the young men who had not fought in battle before how to fight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

159

JDG

3

3

mgb4

figs-synecdoche

0

the five kings

These five kings represent themselves and their people. Alternate translation: “the five kings and their people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

160

JDG

3

3

upq5

translate-names

0

Mount Baal Hermon

This is the highest mountain in Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

161

JDG

3

3

z6zc

translate-names

0

Hamath Pass

This is the name of an area at the northern boundary of Canaan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

162

JDG

3

4

vqn2

figs-activepassive

0

These nations were left

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh left these nations in Canaan” or “Yahweh allowed these nations to continue to live in Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

163

JDG

3

4

dzs7

0

as a means

Alternate translation: “as a way”

164

JDG

3

4

f89f

0

whether they would … gave their ancestors

The words “they” and “their” refer to the people of Israel.

165

JDG

3

4

wbc7

0

the commands he gave

Alternate translation: “the commands Yahweh gave”

166

JDG

3

7

p6m5

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. See how you translated this in Judges 2:11. Alternate translation: “what was evil in Yahweh’s judgment” or “what Yahweh considered to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

167

JDG

3

7

e1t1

figs-idiom

0

forgot Yahweh their God

Here “forgot” is an idiom that means “they stopped obeying.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

168

JDG

3

8

yg7p

figs-metaphor

0

the anger of Yahweh was set on fire

Yahweh becoming very angry is spoken of as if his anger were something that could be set on fire. Alternate translation: “Yahweh became very angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

169

JDG

3

8

gwp8

figs-metaphor

0

sold them into the hand of Cushan-Rishathaim

Allowing the people of Israel to be conquered is spoken of as if Yahweh sold them to Cushan-Rishathaim. Alternate translation: “allowed Cushan-Rishathaim and his army to defeat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

170

JDG

3

8

zj78

figs-metonymy

0

into the hand of Cushan-Rishathaim

Here “hand” is a metonym that represents power or control. Also, “Cushan-Rishathaim” is a synechdoche that represents himself and his army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

171

JDG

3

8

b1vl

translate-names

0

Cushan-Rishathaim

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

172

JDG

3

8

a27l

translate-names

0

Aram Naharaim

This is the name of a country. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

173

JDG

3

9

vg5k

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh raised up someone

Yahweh appointing someone to do a special work for him is spoken of as if Yahweh raised or lifted up the person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

174

JDG

3

9

k6r6

0

Othniel … Kenaz

See how you translated these men’s names in Judges 1:13.

175

JDG

3

10

y845

0

empowered him

This phrase means that Yahweh helped Othniel to have and develop the qualities he needed to be a great leader.

176

JDG

3

10

rq2z

0

he judged Israel

Here “judged” means he led the people of Israel.

177

JDG

3

10

k8cd

figs-synecdoche

0

he went out to war

Here “he” refers to Othniel who represents himself and the army of Israel. Alternate translation: “Othniel and the Israelite soldiers went to fight against the army of Cushan-Rishathaim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

178

JDG

3

10

l4lh

figs-synecdoche

0

Yahweh gave him victory over Cushan-Rishathaim king of Aram

Here “Cushan-Rishathaim” represents his army. Alternate translation: “Yahweh helped the Israelite army defeat the army of Cushan-Rishathaim king of Aram” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

179

JDG

3

10

f953

figs-metonymy

0

The hand of Othniel

Here “hand” is a metonym for army. Alternate translation: “The army of Othniel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

180

JDG

3

11

svg9

figs-metonymy

0

The land had peace

“The land” is used to refer to the people who lived in the land. Alternate translation: “The people lived peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

181

JDG

3

11

i8ks

translate-numbers

0

forty years

“40 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

182

JDG

3

12

l914

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. See how you translated this in Judges 2:11. Alternate translation: “what was evil in Yahweh’s judgment” or “what Yahweh considered to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

183

JDG

3

12

nj1t

figs-abstractnouns

0

Yahweh gave strength to Eglon king of Moab

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word strength, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “Yahweh made Eglon king of Moab strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

184

JDG

3

12

s1wn

figs-synecdoche

0

to Eglon king of Moab to overpower the Israelites

Here “Eglon king of Moab” represents himself and his army. Alternate translation: “to Eglon king of Moab and his soldiers as they attacked the Israelite army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

185

JDG

3

12

z23q

translate-names

0

Eglon

This is the name of a king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

186

JDG

3

13

rp3h

0

the City of Palms

This is another name for the city of Jericho. See how you translated this in Judges 1:16.

187

JDG

3

14

h6y6

translate-numbers

0

eighteen years

“18 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

188

JDG

3

15

mpv5

0

called out to Yahweh

Here this means to shout or speak loudly to someone far away. It can also mean to ask someone for help, especially God.

189

JDG

3

15

zn6d

figs-metaphor

0

raised up someone

Yahweh appointing someone to do a special service for him is spoken of as if he raised or lifted up the person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

190

JDG

3

15

jja5

translate-names

0

Ehud … Gera

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

191

JDG

3

15

w4sk

0

left-handed

Ehud was better able to hold a sword with his left hand.

192

JDG

3

16

fm5l

translate-bdistance

0

one cubit

If it is necessary to use a modern measurement of length, here are two ways of doing it. Alternate translation: “46 centimeters” or “about one half meter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

193

JDG

3

16

i3y7

0

he strapped it on under his clothing on his right thigh

Alternate translation: “he tied it to his right thigh under his clothing”

194

JDG

3

16

s4wh

0

thigh

the part of the leg between the knee and the hip

195

JDG

3

17

k42d

writing-background

0

Now Eglon was a very fat man

Here “Now” is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the narrator tells background information about Eglon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

196

JDG

3

19

q56y

figs-activepassive

0

when he reached the place where the carved images were made near Gilgal

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when he arrived at the place near Gilgal where people made carved images” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

197

JDG

3

20

f67g

0

in the coolness of the upper room

This is a room above the lower level that was used for rest and to remain cool during the hot part of the day.

198

JDG

3

20

p7ft

translate-symaction

0

The king got up out of his seat

Standing up was a sign of honoring God will listening to his message. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

199

JDG

3

22

k49p

0

The tip of the sword came out of his back

Alternate translation: “The sharp end of the sword came out of his back”

200

JDG

3

23

djg4

0

porch

an outside room with low walls and a roof covering

201

JDG

3

24

z2qt

figs-euphemism

0

Surely he is relieving himself

This is a polite way to speak about a person having a bowel movement (defecating) or urinating. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

202

JDG

3

25

d7zv

0

until they felt they were neglecting their duty

They waited until they became worried that something was wrong and it was their duty to open the doors to their king’s private room.

203

JDG

3

25

e1jf

0

took the key and opened them

Alternate translation: “took the key and opened the doors”

204

JDG

3

26

r2ig

figs-events

0

While the servants were waiting … Ehud escaped

This tells what happened before the servants opened the doors to the upper room and found the king dead. Alternate translation: “Meanwhile, as the servants were still waiting outside of the upper room … Ehud escaped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

205

JDG

3

26

x36q

translate-names

0

Seirah

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

206

JDG

3

27

zet1

figs-ellipsis

0

When he arrived

You may want to help your readers by stating where he arrived. Alternate translation: “When he arrived in Seirah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

207

JDG

3

28

s9y4

0

General Information:

Ehud speaks to the people of Israel in Ephraim.

208

JDG

3

28

ax6h

figs-metaphor

0

for Yahweh is about to defeat your enemies

Yahweh helping the Israelites to defeat their enemies is spoken of as if Yahweh were a warrior who would fight and defeat their enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

209

JDG

3

28

i3vy

0

captured the fords

Alternate translation: “gained control of the fords”

210

JDG

3

28

k9q1

0

fords

the areas of a river where it is shallow and easy to walk across to the other side

211

JDG

3

28

uf81

0

did not allow anyone to cross

Alternate translation: “did not let anyone cross”

212

JDG

3

29

jjy8

translate-numbers

0

ten thousand men

“10,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

213

JDG

3

29

e6ge

0

capable men

Alternate translation: “able men” or “men able to fight well”

214

JDG

3

30

ch1z

figs-activepassive

0

Moab was subdued by the strength of Israel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the Israelite army defeated the Moabites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

215

JDG

3

30

par9

figs-metonymy

0

the strength of Israel

Here “strength” represents the Israelite army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

216

JDG

3

30

w1xr

figs-metonymy

0

the land had rest

Here “land” represents the people. Alternate translation: “the Israelites lived peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

217

JDG

3

30

dln1

translate-numbers

0

eighty years

“80 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

218

JDG

3

31

psq1

0

judge

God appointed judges to lead the people of Israel in times of trouble after they entered the Promised Land and before they had kings. Often judges rescued the Israelites from their enemies.

219

JDG

3

31

xdh8

translate-names

0

Shamgar

The name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

220

JDG

3

31

uz68

translate-names

0

Anath

The name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

221

JDG

3

31

f6s9

translate-numbers

0

600 men

“six hundred men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

222

JDG

3

31

z3lr

0

a stick used to goad cattle

Cattle farmers would poke their cattle with a sharp stick to make them move. AT “a stick used to urge cattle to move” or “a stick used to direct cattle”

223

JDG

3

31

n8z3

figs-metonymy

0

He also delivered Israel from danger

The word “danger” refers to enemies that tried to harm the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “He also delivered the people of Israel from their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

224

JDG

4

intro

pjw5

0

Judges 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Chapters 4 and 5 form one section about Barak and Deborah.

Special concepts in this chapter

Barak’s leadership

At this time, it was very unusual for a woman to be a leader, especially a military leader. Barak lacked the strength to go into battle without Deborah. This indicates that Barak was a poor leader. If a woman won the battle for him, it would have brought Barak shame. It also indicates that Deborah was very well respected. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

225

JDG

4

1

h4q7

0

Ehud

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 3:15.

226

JDG

4

1

aq65

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. See how you translated this in Judges 2:11. Alternate translation: “what was evil in Yahweh’s judgment” or “what Yahweh considered to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

227

JDG

4

2

yj14

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh sold them into the hand of Jabin king of Canaan

Here “hand” refers to Jabin’s power over Israel. Yahweh’s decision to give Jabin power over them is spoken of as if Yahweh had sold them to Jabin. Alternate translation: “Yahweh allowed them to be defeated by the power of Jabin king of Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

228

JDG

4

2

i943

translate-names

0

Jabin … Sisera

These are the names of men (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

229

JDG

4

2

fk1t

translate-names

0

Hazor … Harosheth Haggoyim

These are the names of cities or places (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

230

JDG

4

3

ftq8

translate-numbers

0

nine hundred iron chariots

“900 iron chariots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

231

JDG

4

3

k27q

0

twenty years

Alternate translation: “20 years”

232

JDG

4

4

e7xn

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the narrator tells background information about Deborah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

233

JDG

4

4

nnu6

translate-names

0

Deborah

This is the name of a woman (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

234

JDG

4

4

gru6

translate-names

0

Lappidoth

This is the name of a man (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

235

JDG

4

4

lj93

0

judge

God appointed judges to lead the Israelites in times of trouble. Often the judges rescued them from their enemies.

236

JDG

4

5

uy3x

0

palm of Deborah

This tree was named after Deborah.

237

JDG

4

6

b5l8

translate-names

0

General Information:

The writer of Judges refers to men, a city, a mountain, and a river by their names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

238

JDG

4

6

ehp5

translate-names

0

Barak … Abinoam

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

239

JDG

4

6

yn83

translate-names

0

Mount Tabor

This is the name of a mountain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

240

JDG

4

6

vi2x

translate-numbers

0

ten thousand men

“10,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

241

JDG

4

7

rm5r

0

I will draw out

Here “I” refers to God.

242

JDG

4

7

mmc1

figs-synecdoche

0

draw out Sisera

Here “Sisera” represents himself and his army. Alternate translation: “draw out Sisera and his army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

243

JDG

4

7

hl3v

0

draw out

to cause people to come away from a safe location

244

JDG

4

7

k3na

0

Sisera … Jabin

See how you translated these men’s names in Judges 4:2.

245

JDG

4

7

sue6

translate-names

0

Kishon

This is the name of a river. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

246

JDG

4

8

qr6v

0

General Information:

Barak has a discussion with Deborah.

247

JDG

4

8

b27v

0

Barak

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 4:6.

248

JDG

4

9

y6ww

figs-metaphor

0

the road on which you are going will not lead to your honor

The choice Barak makes is spoken of as if Barak were choosing a road on which to travel. And, “honor” is spoken of as if it were a destination to which one travels. Alternate translation: “no one will honor you for what you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

249

JDG

4

9

v8ri

figs-metonymy

0

for Yahweh will sell Sisera into the hand of a woman

Here “hand” refers to her power to kill him. Alternate translation: “for Yahweh will cause a woman to defeat Sisera” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

250

JDG

4

9

msw7

0

Sisera

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 4:2.

251

JDG

4

9

bi9q

0

Deborah

See how you translated this woman’s name in Judges 4:4.

252

JDG

4

10

g69f

translate-numbers

0

Ten thousand men

“10,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

253

JDG

4

11

wq16

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the narrator tells background information about Heber the Kenite. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

254

JDG

4

11

fty7

translate-names

0

Heber … Hobab

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

255

JDG

4

11

aup8

0

Kenite

See how you translated this in Judges 1:16

256

JDG

4

11

jez1

0

Moses’ father-in-law

Alternate translation: “the father of Moses’ wife”

257

JDG

4

11

y5mf

translate-names

0

Zaanannim

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

258

JDG

4

12

rkt1

0

When they told Sisera

Here “they” does not identify anyone specifically. Alternate translation: “When someone told Sisera”

259

JDG

4

12

dcw1

0

Sisera

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 4:2.

260

JDG

4

12

i2cf

0

Barak … Abinoam … Mount Tabor

See how you translated these names in Judges 4:6.

261

JDG

4

13

r3xw

figs-metonymy

0

Sisera called out all his chariots

Here “chariots” represents the soldiers who drove the chariots. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

262

JDG

4

13

avt4

translate-numbers

0

nine hundred iron chariots

“900 iron chariots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

263

JDG

4

13

x4xy

0

Harosheth Haggoyim

See how you translated the name of this city in Judges 4:2.

264

JDG

4

13

a7q6

0

Kishon River

See how you translated this in Judges 4:7.

265

JDG

4

14

pb3b

figs-pastforfuture

0

Yahweh has given you victory

Because Deborah is certain of victory, she speaks as if Barak had already won the battle. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will give you victory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

266

JDG

4

14

r1ph

figs-rquestion

0

Is not Yahweh leading you?

Deborah asks this question to remind Barak that they fight on the side of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “Remember, Yahweh is leading you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

267

JDG

4

14

fv1q

translate-numbers

0

with ten thousand

“with 10,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

268

JDG

4

15

t5qj

0

Yahweh confused Sisera and all his chariots and all his army

Alternate translation: “Yahweh made Sisera and all his chariots and all his army unable to think clearly” or “Yahweh made Sisera and all his chariots and all his army panic”

269

JDG

4

15

u8qh

figs-metonymy

0

all his chariots

Here the word “chariots” is a metonym for the soldiers driving the chariots. Alternate translation: “all the men driving chariots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

270

JDG

4

16

qj43

figs-synecdoche

0

Barak pursued

Here “Barak” represents himself and his army. Alternate translation: “Barak and his soldiers chased” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

271

JDG

4

16

ce5l

0

Harosheth

Translate this the same way you did in Judges 4:2.

272

JDG

4

16

x3gk

figs-synecdoche

0

the whole army of Sisera was killed by the edge of the sword

Here “sword” represents the swords and other weapons that the soldiers used in battle. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Barak and his soldiers killed Sisera’s whole army with their swords” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

273

JDG

4

17

ayi3

0

Sisera … Jabin … Hazor

See how you translated these names in Judges 4:2.

274

JDG

4

17

h17w

figs-idiom

0

ran away on foot

This is an idiom that means he was walking rather than riding a horse or in a chariot. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

275

JDG

4

17

mp3u

translate-names

0

Jael

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

276

JDG

4

17

s2ne

0

Heber

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 4:11.

277

JDG

4

17

kwu8

0

Kenite

See how you translated this in Judges 1:16.

278

JDG

4

18

k8b1

figs-explicit

0

Turn aside

This means to change course during a journey in order to rest. Alternate translation: “Come here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

279

JDG

4

18

u5k9

0

blanket

a large covering for the body to sleep under for warmth, made of wool or animal skins

280

JDG

4

19

cn6j

0

He said to her

Alternate translation: “Sisera said to Jael”

281

JDG

4

21

ctd6

0

tent peg

a pointed piece of wood or metal, like a large nail, that is hammered into the ground to hold down a corner of a tent

282

JDG

4

21

i8q2

0

hammer

a heavy tool made of wood used to hit a tent peg into the ground

283

JDG

4

21

lvc4

figs-metaphor

0

a deep sleep

Like a person in a deep hole cannot easily climb out, a person in a deep sleep cannot easily wake up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

284

JDG

4

22

n7wq

0

Barak was pursuing

Alternate translation: “Barak was chasing” or “Barak was following after”

285

JDG

4

23

xzh1

figs-metaphor

0

God defeated Jabin, the king of Canaan, before the people of Israel

God causing the Israelites to defeat Jabin and his army is spoken of as is God himself defeated Jabin as the people of Israel watched. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

286

JDG

4

24

y25t

0

The might

Alternate translation: “The military power”

287

JDG

4

24

zcb9

figs-synecdoche

0

they destroyed him

Here “him” refers to Jabin who represents himself and his army. Alternate translation: “they destroyed Jabin and his army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

288

JDG

5

intro

jgd9

0

Judges 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Deborah and Barak continues in this chapter.

Some translations prefer to set apart quotations, prayers, and songs. The ULT and many other English translations set the lines of Chapter 5, which is a song, farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

The flood

God caused rain and flooding to bog down Jaban’s chariots making them vulnerable to soldiers on foot, even though it is not said. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

289

JDG

5

1

w7ex

figs-explicit

0

On that day

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “On the day the Israelites defeated the army of King Jabin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

290

JDG

5

1

pfq9

0

Deborah

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:4.

291

JDG

5

1

l3sj

0

Barak … Abinoam

See how you translated these names in Judges 4:6.

292

JDG

5

2

s181

0

when the people gladly volunteer for war

Alternate translation: “when the men agree to fight in battle”

293

JDG

5

3

hs8j

figs-apostrophe

0

Listen, you kings! Pay attention, you leaders

Deborah and Barak speak to the kings and leaders as if they were there listening to the song. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

294

JDG

5

3

cbt1

0

you kings … you leaders

This refers to kings and leaders in general, not to specific kings or leaders.

295

JDG

5

4

f5pu

figs-metaphor

0

when you went out from Seir, when you marched from Edom

This refers to the time when the Israelites left Edom to start conquering the people in Canaan. Yahweh empowering his people to defeat the people of Canaan is spoken of as if he were a warrior leading the Israelite army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

296

JDG

5

4

vj7e

translate-names

0

Seir

Seir is a mountain on the border of the land of Israel and Edom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

297

JDG

5

4

hw54

figs-metaphor

0

the earth shook, and the skies also trembled; also the clouds poured down water

This could mean: (1) this is poetic language that emphasizes Yahweh’s power by describing it as causing earthquakes and storms or (2) the people of Canaan being terrified as the Israelites were about to attack them is spoken of as if the earth and sky were shaking. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

298

JDG

5

5

p4qp

figs-personification

0

The mountains quaked

This probably refers to earthquakes and gives the impression that the mountains quaked because they were very afraid of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “The mountains trembled in fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

299

JDG

5

5

d62l

figs-metonymy

0

before the face of Yahweh

Here “face” refers Yahweh’s presence. Alternate translation: “in the presence of Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

300

JDG

5

5

wuf5

figs-explicit

0

even Mount Sinai quaked

When Moses and Israel were at Mount Sinai, it quaked. Alternate translation: “long ago, even Mount Sinai quaked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

301

JDG

5

6

he9e

0

In the days of

Alternate translation: “During the lifetime of”

302

JDG

5

6

asi7

translate-names

0

Shamgar … Anath … Jael

These are the names of people. See how you translated Shamgar and Anath in Judges 3:31 and Jael in Judges 4:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

303

JDG

5

6

rw34

writing-background

0

son of Anath

Shamgar’s father is mentioned to help identify Shamgar and when he lived. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

304

JDG

5

6

ki5e

figs-activepassive

0

the main roads were abandoned

This can be stated in active form and you can make explicit why the roads were abandoned Alternate translation: “people stopped using the main roads; because they were afraid of Israel’s enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

305

JDG

5

6

i6j5

0

the winding paths

This refers to smaller roads that fewer people traveled on.

306

JDG

5

7

n27x

figs-metaphor

0

I, Deborah, arose—arose as a mother in Israel

Deborah speaks of becoming a leader in Israel as if she were a mother taking care of young children. Alternate translation: “I, Deborah, began to lead—I took care of the Israelites as a mother takes care of her children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

307

JDG

5

8

mxk4

figs-explicit

0

they chose new gods

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel worshiped new gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

308

JDG

5

8

duj5

figs-synecdoche

0

there was fighting at the city gates

Here “gates” represents the entire city. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “enemies attacked the people within the Israelite cities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

309

JDG

5

8

v83h

figs-hyperbole

0

there were no shields or spears seen among forty thousand in Israel

This statement is probably an exaggeration about how few weapons the Israelites had. Alternate translation: “few weapons for battle remained in Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

310

JDG

5

8

dl2n

translate-numbers

0

forty thousand in Israel

“40,000 in Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

311

JDG

5

9

u5zy

figs-metonymy

0

My heart goes out to the commanders of Israel

The word “heart” represents a person’s emotions. The phrase “My heart goes out to” is a way of saying that Deborah feels gratitude or appreciation. Alternate translation: “I appreciate the commanders of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

312

JDG

5

10

dt2p

figs-merism

0

you who ride on white donkeys … you who walk along the road

This contrast probably refers to rich people and poor people. Alternate translation: “you rich people who ride on white donkeys … you poor people who walk along the road” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

313

JDG

5

10

vf24

0

sitting on rugs for saddles

These rugs were probably used as saddles on the donkey’s back to make the rider more comfortable.

314

JDG

5

11

v4bj

figs-synecdoche

0

Hear the voices of those

Here “voices” represents the people singing. Alternate translation: “Listen to those” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

315

JDG

5

11

f6il

figs-synecdoche

0

went down to the city gates

Here “gates” represents the whole city. Alternate translation: “returned to their cities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

316

JDG

5

12

de7e

0

Awake, awake

Possible speakers are: (1) the people of Israel or (2) Deborah who is speaking to herself or (3) the poet who wrote the song.

317

JDG

5

12

jc43

0

Deborah

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:4.

318

JDG

5

12

qc51

0

Barak … Abinoam

See how you translated these names in Judges 4:6.

319

JDG

5

13

tl3e

0

to me with the warriors

The word “me” refers to Deborah.

320

JDG

5

14

e478

figs-metaphor

0

from Ephraim, whose root is in Amalek

The people of Ephraim living in the land where the descendants of Amalek originally lived is spoken of as if the people of Ephraim were planted and their roots grew into the land. Alternate translation: “from Ephraim, that land where the descendants of Amalek once lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

321

JDG

5

14

k3ph

figs-you

0

followed you

Here “you” refers to the people of Ephraim. It can be stated in third person. Alternate translation: “followed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

322

JDG

5

14

yna1

translate-names

0

Machir

This is the place where the descendants of Machir live. Machir was the son of Manasseh and the grandson of Joseph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

323

JDG

5

14

rl91

figs-metonymy

0

from Zebulun those who carry an officer’s staff

Military leaders are described by the staff, a symbol of their authority. Alternate translation: “military leaders from Zebulun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

324

JDG

5

15

ruv4

figs-123person

0

My princes in Issachar were with Deborah

Here “My” refers to Deborah. This whole statement can be translated in first person. Alternate translation: “My princes in Issachar were with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

325

JDG

5

15

w1en

0

Deborah

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:4.

326

JDG

5

15

sn4n

figs-metonymy

0

Issachar was with Barak

Here “Issachar” refers to the tribe of Issachar. Alternate translation: “the tribe of Issachar was with Barak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

327

JDG

5

15

yt1t

0

Barak

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:6.

328

JDG

5

15

z2wa

0

rushing after him into the valley under his command

Alternate translation: “obeying his command and rushing after him into the valley”

329

JDG

5

15

u31z

0

rushing after

Alternate translation: “following after” or “hurrying after”

330

JDG

5

15

sdi1

figs-metonymy

0

there were great searchings of heart

Here “heart” represents thoughts. The people discussing with each other but being unable to decide what they should do is spoken of as if they were searching their heart. Alternate translation: “there was a lot of discussing about what they should do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

331

JDG

5

16

wc6c

figs-rquestion

0

Why did you sit between the fireplaces, listening to the shepherds playing their pipes for their flocks?

This question is asked to criticize the people of Reuben because they did not decide to come fight in the battle. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should have helped us fight, instead of staying at home and listening to the shepherds playing their pipes for their flocks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

332

JDG

5

16

xdd2

0

the fireplaces

Some versions of the Bible have the translation “the sheepfolds” or “the sheep pens.”

333

JDG

5

16

jg14

figs-metonymy

0

there were great searchings of heart

Here “heart” represents thoughts. The people discussing with each other but being unable to decide what they should do is spoken of as if they were searching their heart. See how you translated this in Judges 5:15. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

334

JDG

5

17

pg1n

figs-metonymy

0

Gilead stayed

Here “Gilead” the men from Gilead who should have gone to fight in battle. Alternate translation: “The men of Gilead stayed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

335

JDG

5

17

zwj6

figs-explicit

0

the other side of the Jordan

This refers to the east side of the Jordan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

336

JDG

5

17

l6vz

figs-rquestion

0

Dan, why did he wander about on ships?

This question is asked to express anger because the people of the tribe of Dan would not fight for Israel. Alternate translation: “the men of Dan should not have remained on their ships!” or “the people of the tribe of Dan did not help us in the battle. Instead they were wandering around on the sea in ships!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

337

JDG

5

17

wn8k

figs-metonymy

0

Dan, why did he

Here “Dan” represents the men from Dan who should have gone to fight in battle. Alternate translation: “the men of Dan, why did they” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

338

JDG

5

17

wy1c

figs-explicit

0

wander about on ships

The tribe of Dan was located near the Mediterranean sea. They sailed on the sea to make money through trade and fishing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

339

JDG

5

17

q466

figs-explicit

0

Asher remained on the coast and lived close to his harbors

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “The people of the tribe of Asher also failed to help us, they just remained on the coast near their harbors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

340

JDG

5

17

hk9v

figs-metonymy

0

Asher remained

Here “Asher” represents the men who should have gone to fight in battle. Alternate translation: “The men of Asher remained” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

341

JDG

5

17

s37f

0

harbors

places at the seacoast with deeper water where ships were kept

342

JDG

5

18

iq38

figs-ellipsis

0

Naphtali, also

You can make clear the understood information. Alternate translation: “Naphtali was a tribe who would also risk their lives to the point of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

343

JDG

5

19

klr4

figs-synecdoche

0

The kings came, they fought … the kings of Canaan fought

The king of a people group is used to refer to himself and the army he commands. Alternate translation: “The kings and their armies came and fought … the kings of Canaan and their armies fought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

344

JDG

5

19

qh9s

figs-ellipsis

0

they fought … fought

The word “us” is understood. Alternate translation: “they fought us … fought us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

345

JDG

5

19

bwx4

0

Taanach … Megiddo

Translate the names of these places as you did in Judges 1:27.

346

JDG

5

19

jn5l

figs-synecdoche

0

no silver as plunder

Here “silver” represents any treasure in general. Alternate translation: “no silver or other treasures as plunder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

347

JDG

5

19

lin6

0

plunder

things taken by force, usually in battle or by thieves

348

JDG

5

20

uwf8

figs-personification

0

From heaven the stars fought, from their paths across the heavens they fought against Sisera

Yahweh helping the Israelite to defeat Sisera and his army is spoken of as if the stars themselves fought against Sisera and his army. This may refer to Yahweh using natural elements, specifically rain storms, to defeat Sisera. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

349

JDG

5

20

r9rm

figs-synecdoche

0

against Sisera

Here “Sisera” represents himself and his whole army. Alternate translation: “Sisera and his army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

350

JDG

5

20

ac6p

0

Sisera

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:2.

351

JDG

5

21

yn1b

figs-explicit

0

The Kishon River swept them away

Because of the heavy rain the river flooded quickly causing the chariots to be stuck in the mud and drowning many soldiers. Alternate translation: “The Kishon River flooded and swept away Sisera’s soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

352

JDG

5

21

h8ac

0

Kishon

See how you translated this in Judges 4:6.

353

JDG

5

21

je12

figs-synecdoche

0

March on my soul, be strong

Here “soul” refers to the whole person. The word “my” refers to Deborah. Alternate translation: “I tell myself to march on and to be strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

354

JDG

5

22

wx9v

figs-explicit

0

Then came the sound of horses’ hooves—galloping, the galloping of his mighty ones

This describes the sound of many horses running away from the battle. Alternate translation: “Then I heard the sound of horses running away. Sisera’s mighty horses were running away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

355

JDG

5

22

n754

0

galloping

runninb quickly

356

JDG

5

23

gg5n

figs-metonymy

0

Curse Meroz

Here “Meroz” represents the people who lived there. Alternate translation: “Curse the people of Meroz” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

357

JDG

5

23

cdl6

translate-names

0

Meroz

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

358

JDG

5

24

n5q6

0

Jael

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:18.

359

JDG

5

24

r37w

0

Heber

See how you translated this name in Judges 4:11.

360

JDG

5

24

jve5

0

Kenite

Translate the name of this people group as you did in Judges 1:16.

361

JDG

5

25

a4wl

0

brought him butter

Here “butter” refers to curdled milk. This was the best milk and a favorite drink among Jael’s people. Alternate translation: “brought him yogurt” or “brought him curds”

362

JDG

5

25

viu5

figs-explicit

0

a dish fit for princes

This phrase means the dish was of the best quality because princes were given the best things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

363

JDG

5

26

k8d2

0

She put her hand to the tent peg

Alternate translation: “Jael grabbed the tent peg with her left hand”

364

JDG

5

26

iyf8

0

tent peg

This is a pointed piece of wood or metal, like a large nail, that is hammered into the ground to hold down a corner of a tent. See how you translated this in Judges 4:21.

365

JDG

5

26

c1yp

figs-ellipsis

0

her right hand to the workman’s hammer

This can be stated as a complete sentence. Alternate translation: “she grabbed a hammer with her right hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

366

JDG

5

26

va7c

0

hammer

This is a heavy tool made of wood used to hit a tent peg into the ground. See how you translated this in Judges 4:21.

367

JDG

5

26

hkm3

0

Sisera

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 4:2.

368

JDG

5

27

e9gf

0

limp

without strength or movement

369

JDG

5

27

ezv3

figs-activepassive

0

he was violently killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “she killed him” or “he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

370

JDG

5

28

duq1

0

the lattice

This is a frame in the window made of crossed wood.

371

JDG

5

28

mw4d

figs-parallelism

0

Why has it taken his chariot so long to come? Why have the hoofbeats of the horses that pull his chariots been delayed?

Both of these questions mean the same thing. These two statements can be combined. Alternate translation: “Why is it taking Sisera so long to arrive home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

372

JDG

5

28

k2dy

figs-metonymy

0

taken his chariot … Why have the hoofbeats of the horses that pull his chariots

Both of these represent Sisera. Alternate translation: “taken Sisera … Why has he” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

373

JDG

5

29

xa2n

0

wisest princesses

A “princess” is the daughter of a king, but a “princess” can also mean female advisers to the king’s family. Alternate translation: “wisest ladies”

374

JDG

5

29

mw32

0

she gave herself the same answer

Alternate translation: “she said to herself the same thing”

375

JDG

5

30

l98i

figs-rquestion

0

Have they not found and divided up the plunder—a womb … plunder?

The women use a question to emphasize that they believe this is what certainly happened. Alternate translation: “They must have so much plunder that it is taking a long time to divide it. They have … plunder.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

376

JDG

5

30

cw6v

figs-rquestion

0

a womb, two wombs for every man … of those who plunder?

The women use a question to emphasize that they believe this is what certainly happened. Alternate translation: “There must be a womb, two wombs for every man … of those who plunder.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

377

JDG

5

30

xgr7

figs-synecdoche

0

a womb, two wombs for every man

Here “womb” represents a woman. Sisera’s mother believes Sisera’s men have captured many women. Alternate translation: “Each soldier will receive a woman or two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

378

JDG

5

30

p9nz

0

dyed fabric

Alternate translation: “colored cloth” or “colored clothes”

379

JDG

5

30

zp9h

0

embroidered

having designs made of colored threads

380

JDG

5

30

yg2c

figs-synecdoche

0

for the necks of those who plunder

Here “necks” represents Sisera’s soldiers. Alternate translation: “for the soldiers who plunder to wear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

381

JDG

5

31

bi4x

figs-simile

0

like the sun when it rises in its might

The people of Israel wish to be like the sun that rises because no nation’s army is powerful enough to stop the sunrise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

382

JDG

5

31

q1yt

figs-metonymy

0

the land had peace

Here “the land” represents the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “and the people of Israel lived peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

383

JDG

5

31

mw3u

translate-numbers

0

for forty years

“for 40 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

384

JDG

6

intro

p5sj

0

Judges 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins a section about Gideon. (Chapters 6-8)

Special concepts in this chapter

Israel’s punishment

In Judges, Israel’s actions are connected to their obedience to Yahweh. When Israel does evil, they are oppressed. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oppress]])

385

JDG

6

1

ht3z

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. See how you translated this in Judges 2:11. Alternate translation: “what was evil in Yahweh’s judgment” or “what Yahweh considered to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

386

JDG

6

1

l9nl

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of Midian

Here “Midian” represents the people of Midian. Also, “hand” represents control. Alternate translation: “the control of the people of Midian” or “the control of the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

387

JDG

6

2

bs4z

figs-metonymy

0

The power of Midian oppressed Israel

Here “the power of Midian” refers to the people of Midian. Alternate translation: “The people of Midian were more powerful than the people of Israel and they oppressed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

388

JDG

6

2

pl5z

0

dens

places in the rocky cliffs that would provide shelter

389

JDG

6

4

zcp1

0

They would set up their army

Alternate translation: “The army would encamp” or “The army would set up their tents”

390

JDG

6

5

i2ld

0

Whenever they and their livestock and tents came up

The land of Midian was south of the land of Israel, near the Red Sea. It was common to use the phrase “came up” when speaking of traveling from Midian to Israel. Alternate translation: “Whenever the Midianites brought their livestock and tents to the land of Israel”

391

JDG

6

5

e5sl

figs-simile

0

they would come as a swarm of locusts

The Midianites are compared to a swarm of locusts because they came in with a great number of people and their livestock ate everything that grew. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

392

JDG

6

5

ra2i

figs-hyperbole

0

it was impossible to count

This is an exaggeration, a hyperbole, showing the number is very great. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

393

JDG

6

6

eg3l

figs-metonymy

0

Midian weakened

Here “Midian” represents the people of Midian. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

394

JDG

6

6

lcc3

figs-idiom

0

called out to Yahweh

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “prayed to Yahweh for help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

395

JDG

6

7

z7sa

figs-idiom

0

called out to Yahweh

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “prayed to Yahweh for help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

396

JDG

6

7

r2ej

figs-metonymy

0

because of Midian

Here “Midian” represents the people of Midian. Alternate translation: “because of the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

397

JDG

6

8

q22q

0

I brought you up from Egypt

Alternate translation: “I led you out of Egypt”

398

JDG

6

8

h336

figs-metaphor

0

the house of slavery

Moses speaks of Egypt as if it were a house where people keep slaves. Alternate translation: “the place where you were slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

399

JDG

6

9

ue1t

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand

In this phrase “hand” represents power or control. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

400

JDG

6

10

ne4s

figs-metonymy

0

obeyed my voice

  • Here “my voice” represents what Yahweh commanded. Alternate translation: “obeyed my command” or “obeyed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
401

JDG

6

11

sex8

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the story line. Here the narrator starts to tell a new part of the story.

402

JDG

6

11

r6sg

translate-names

0

Ophrah

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

403

JDG

6

11

iz4d

translate-names

0

Abiezrite

This is a people group named after their ancestor Abiezer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

404

JDG

6

11

y3ww

0

was separating out the wheat by beating it on the floor

This is a process called “threshing.” Gideon was beating the wheat against the floor to separate the wheat grain from the rest of the wheat plant.

405

JDG

6

12

fe5w

0

appeared to him

Alternate translation: “went to him”

406

JDG

6

13

as35

0

my master

Gideon uses the word “master” as a polite way to greet a stranger. He does not realize he is speaking to Yahweh in the form of an angel or a man.

407

JDG

6

13

in9x

figs-rquestion

0

Where are all his wonderful deeds that our fathers told us about, when they said, ‘Did not Yahweh bring us up from Egypt?’

Gideon uses a question to challenge the stranger’s statement that Yahweh was with him. Also, the direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “We have not seen any wonderful deeds like the ones our fathers told us about when Yahweh brought them up from Egypt.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

408

JDG

6

13

e2k9

figs-idiom

0

gave us into the hand of Midian

The phrase “gave us into” means Yahweh allowed the Israelites to be defeated. Alternate translation: “allowed the Midianites to defeat us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

409

JDG

6

13

vi7e

figs-metonymy

0

gave us into the hand

Here “hand” represents power or control. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

410

JDG

6

13

buc4

figs-metonymy

0

of Midian

Here “Midian” represents the people of Midian. Alternate translation: “of the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

411

JDG

6

14

n2w1

0

Yahweh looked at him

Alternate translation: “Yahweh looked at Gideon”

412

JDG

6

14

kx2t

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand

Here “hand” represents power or control. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

413

JDG

6

14

wuu9

figs-metonymy

0

of Midian

Here “Midian” represents the people of Midian. Alternate translation: “of the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

414

JDG

6

14

zs9h

figs-rquestion

0

Have I not sent you?

Yahweh uses a question to ensure Gideon that he is sending him. Here “sent” means Yahweh has appointed Gideon with a specific task. Alternate translation: “I, Yahweh, am sending you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

415

JDG

6

15

w5e8

0

Please, Lord

Gideon now calls the person “Lord” instead of “my master” as in Judges 6:13. Here it seems Gideon either knows or suspects that he is speaking with Yahweh.

416

JDG

6

15

wn75

figs-rquestion

0

how can I deliver Israel?

Gideon uses a question to emphasize that he does not think he can rescue the Israelites. Alternate translation: “I cannot possibly rescue the Israelites!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

417

JDG

6

15

gpv8

0

See, my family

Alternate translation: “Look at my family and me and you will see that it”

418

JDG

6

15

gp6c

0

in Manasseh

Alternate translation: “in the tribe of Manasseh”

419

JDG

6

15

tw55

figs-metonymy

0

in my father’s house

Here “house” represents a family. Alternate translation: “in my father’s family” or “in my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

420

JDG

6

16

p1xa

figs-idiom

0

I will be with you

Here “be with you” is an idiom that means Yahweh will help and bless Gideon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

421

JDG

6

16

fhe8

figs-explicit

0

as one man

You can state the full meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “as easily as if you were fighting only one man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

422

JDG

6

18

ngy5

0

set it before you

Alternate translation: “place it in front of you”

423

JDG

6

19

kmz6

translate-bvolume

0

from an ephah of flour

If it is necessary to use a modern measurement; here is one way of doing it. Alternate translation: “with 22 liters of flour” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

424

JDG

6

19

c4pf

0

broth

water that has had food, such as meat, cooked in it

425

JDG

6

19

r55k

0

them to him

Alternate translation: “them to the angel of God”

426

JDG

6

20

u9cs

0

angel of God

This is the same as the angel of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “God, who was in the form of an angel” or “God”

427

JDG

6

21

ggc2

0

angel of Yahweh

In 6:11-24 Yahweh appears to Gideon in the form of an angel. See how you translated this in Judges 6:11.

428

JDG

6

21

x8t9

0

went away

Alternate translation: “disappeared”

429

JDG

6

22

x6iw

0

angel of Yahweh

In 6:11-24 Yahweh appears to Gideon in the form of an angel. See how you translated this in Judges 6:11.

430

JDG

6

22

l2pp

figs-exclamations

0

Ah, Lord Yahweh!

The word “Ah” here shows that Gideon was very frightened. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

431

JDG

6

22

c1kt

figs-idiom

0

seen the angel of Yahweh face to face

This phrase refers to two people being close to each other. Alternate translation: “really seen the angel of Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

432

JDG

6

23

b3ha

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh said to him

Apparently Yahweh spoke to Gideon from heaven. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

433

JDG

6

24

s81y

0

To this day

This means to the time when the book of Judges was written.

434

JDG

6

24

y4ya

0

Ophrah

Translate the name of this town as you did in Judges 6:11.

435

JDG

6

24

w4kn

0

the clan of Abiezer

Translate the name of this people group as you did in Judges 6:11.

436

JDG

6

25

h71y

translate-ordinal

0

a second bull

The word “second” is the ordinal number for “two.” Alternate translation: “another bull” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

437

JDG

6

25

n1rh

0

that is beside it

Alternate translation: “that is beside the altar of Baal”

438

JDG

6

26

tj4p

0

on the top of this place of refuge

The city of Ophrah was on top of a hill. Israelites fled there for refuge from the Midianites.

439

JDG

6

26

gvr9

0

construct it the correct way

Alternate translation: “place the stones in an orderly manner” or “and build it properly”

440

JDG

6

27

xp8k

0

did as Yahweh had told him

This refers to Yahweh’s command in Judges 6:25-26.

441

JDG

6

28

mii1

0

got up

Alternate translation: “got up out of bed” or “woke up”

442

JDG

6

28

i5zb

figs-activepassive

0

the altar of Baal was broken down, and the Asherah that was beside it was cut down, and the second bull had been offered on the altar that had been built

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they noticed that someone had broken down the altar of Baal, cut down the Asherah that was beside it, and built an altar and sacrificed the second bull on it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

443

JDG

6

30

r7h5

figs-activepassive

0

he may be put to death

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we may kill him as punishment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

444

JDG

6

31

jw4v

figs-rquestion

0

Will you plead the case for Baal?

Joash uses a question to emphasize that a human should not have to defend a god. Alternate translation: “You should not have to defend Baal.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

445

JDG

6

31

xk3a

0

plead the case

Alternate translation: “make a defense” or “give an excuse”

446

JDG

6

31

n471

figs-rquestion

0

Will you save him?

Joash uses a question to emphasize that a human should not have to rescue a god. Alternate translation: “You should not have to save Baal.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

447

JDG

6

32

j4wk

translate-names

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. It means “let Baal defend himself.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

448

JDG

6

32

q44c

0

because he said

Alternate translation: “because Joash said”

449

JDG

6

33

ual5

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the story line. Here the narrator starts to tell a new part of the story.

450

JDG

6

33

eu5d

figs-explicit

0

gathered together

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “gathered together as an army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

451

JDG

6

34

d9eb

figs-idiom

0

came over Gideon

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “took control of Gideon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

452

JDG

6

34

sz1y

0

clan of Abiezer

Translate the name of this people group as you did in Judges 6:11.

453

JDG

6

34

zxl8

figs-ellipsis

0

so they might follow him

The words “to battle” are understood. Alternate translation: “so they might follow him to battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

454

JDG

6

35

sy9t

figs-activepassive

0

and they too, were called out to follow him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “calling them out to follow him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

455

JDG

6

35

qb25

figs-metonymy

0

to Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali

These all represent the people of each tribe. Alternate translation: “to the tribes of Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

456

JDG

6

37

uf1b

0

woolen fleece

the woolly coat of a sheep

457

JDG

6

37

qz5z

0

dew

water that forms on plants during the night

458

JDG

6

37

s8ri

figs-explicit

0

then I will know that you will

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “this will be a sign from you, and then I will know that you will” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

459

JDG

6

38

cs87

0

Gideon rose

Alternate translation: “Gideon got out of bed”

460

JDG

6

38

ub6l

0

wrung

twist and squeeze something to remove water

461

JDG

7

intro

q545

0

Judges 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Gideon continues in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

God gets all of the credit

God said, “There are too many soldiers for me to give you victory over the Midianites. Make sure that Israel will not boast against me, saying, ‘Our own power has saved us.’” By lowering the number of fighting soldiers, it emphasizes that the victory is achieved through God’s power. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/glory]])

462

JDG

7

1

u963

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated his name in Judges 6:32.

463

JDG

7

1

se4n

0

they encamped

Alternate translation: “they set up their camp”

464

JDG

7

1

q9lu

translate-names

0

spring of Harod … hill of Moreh

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

465

JDG

7

1

w8xb

figs-metonymy

0

The camp of Midian was to their north

Here “Midian” represents the Midianite army. Alternate translation: “The Midianite army set up their camp to the north of the Israelite army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

466

JDG

7

2

ja78

figs-abstractnouns

0

for me to give you victory over the Midianites

The word “victory” is an abstract noun that can be translated as a verb or an adjective. Alternate translation: “for me to allow you to defeat the Midianites” or “for me to cause you to be victorious over the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

467

JDG

7

2

ww36

figs-metonymy

0

Our own power has saved us

Here “power” represents the people themselves. Alternate translation: “We have saved ourselves without God’s help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

468

JDG

7

3

i31q

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

469

JDG

7

3

ahw6

figs-synecdoche

0

proclaim in the ears of the people

Here “the ears” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “proclaim to the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

470

JDG

7

3

gt6x

figs-parallelism

0

Whoever is afraid, whoever trembles

Both of these phrases have the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

471

JDG

7

3

h7mv

0

trembles

This word describes fear that causes a person to uncontrollably shake. Alternate translation: “shakes with fear”

472

JDG

7

3

m53a

figs-explicit

0

let him return

You can make explicit where he will go. Alternate translation: “let him return to his home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

473

JDG

7

3

iup9

translate-names

0

Mount Gilead

This is the name of a mountain in the region of Gilead. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

474

JDG

7

3

s1sd

translate-numbers

0

twenty-two thousand

“22,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

475

JDG

7

3

wn6f

figs-ellipsis

0

ten thousand remained

The word “people” or “men” is understood. Alternate translation: “10,000 people remained” or “10,000 men remained” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

476

JDG

7

3

z1zr

translate-numbers

0

ten thousand

“10,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

477

JDG

7

4

t9yd

figs-metonymy

0

I will make their number smaller for you there

Here “number” represents the army. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “there, I will show you who to send home so the army will have less men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

478

JDG

7

5

iem1

figs-go

0

Gideon brought

The word “brought” can be translated as “took” or “led.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

479

JDG

7

5

w69s

0

laps

to drink by licking with the tongue

480

JDG

7

6

ae7k

translate-numbers

0

Three hundred men

“300 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

481

JDG

7

7

e8uv

translate-numbers

0

three hundred men

“300 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

482

JDG

7

7

gk97

figs-you

0

I will rescue you and give you victory

Here “you” is plural and refers to Gideon and the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

483

JDG

7

8

j7gy

figs-activepassive

0

So those who were chosen

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “So those whom Yahweh chose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

484

JDG

7

8

u2nh

0

took their supplies and their trumpets

Here “their” refers to the Israelite soldiers who were leaving the army.

485

JDG

7

8

cx8b

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the story line. Here the narrator starts to tell a new part of the story.

486

JDG

7

9

u84q

figs-metonymy

0

Attack the camp, for I am going to give you victory over it

Here “camp” refers to the whole Midianite army. The word “victory” is an abstract noun that can be translated as a verb or an adjective. Alternate translation: “Attack the Midianites at their camp, for I am going to help you defeat them” or “Attack the Midianites at their camp, for I am going to cause you to be victorious over them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

487

JDG

7

10

xqh7

figs-ellipsis

0

afraid to go down

You can make clear the understood information. Alternate translation: “afraid to go down to attack” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

488

JDG

7

10

u4w3

translate-names

0

Purah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

489

JDG

7

11

j99j

figs-activepassive

0

your courage will be strengthened

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “what you hear will be encourage you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

490

JDG

7

11

wv5r

0

guard posts

places around the edge of an area where soldiers stand to watch for an enemy army

491

JDG

7

12

r5ww

figs-simile

0

as thick as a cloud of locusts

Here “cloud” means a swarm. The author speaks of the army as if it were a swarm of locusts to emphasize how many soldiers there were. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

492

JDG

7

12

zt6s

figs-hyperbole

0

Their camels were more … in number than the grains of the sand on the seashore

The author uses a hyperbole, an exaggeration, to emphasize that there were very many camels. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

493

JDG

7

12

d37k

figs-activepassive

0

Their camels were more than could be counted

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Their camels were more than anyone could count” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

494

JDG

7

14

yg52

figs-metonymy

0

This is nothing other than the sword of Gideon

Here “the sword of Gideon” refers to Gideon’s army attacking. Alternate translation: “The loaf of barley bread in your dream must be the army of Gideon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

495

JDG

7

14

v4e2

figs-pastforfuture

0

God has given him victory over Midian

This future event is spoken of as if it were a past event. This emphasizes that it will certainly happen. Alternate translation: “God will certainly help the Israelites defeat the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

496

JDG

7

16

xjf2

translate-numbers

0

three hundred men

“300 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

497

JDG

7

18

rj9w

figs-explicit

0

For Yahweh and for Gideon!

The words “we fight” are implied. Alternate translation: “We fight for Yahweh and for Gideon!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

498

JDG

7

19

cxa7

translate-numbers

0

hundred men

“100 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

499

JDG

7

19

wba7

0

right at the beginning of the middle watch

The beginning of the middle watch would be around 10 o’clock at night.

500

JDG

7

20

zfw1

figs-metonymy

0

The sword of Yahweh and of Gideon

Here “sword” refers to their fighting. Alternate translation: “We fight for Yahweh and for Gideon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

501

JDG

7

22

nw1r

translate-numbers

0

three hundred trumpets

“300 trumpets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

502

JDG

7

22

nk36

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh set every Midianite man’s sword against his comrades

Here “sword” refers to their attack with the use of the sword. Alternate translation: “Yahweh caused every Midianite man to fight against his fellow soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

503

JDG

7

22

rv5b

translate-names

0

Beth Shittah … Zererah … Abel Meholah … Tabbath

These are the names of towns and cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

504

JDG

7

23

u5e9

figs-activepassive

0

The men of Israel from Naphtali, Asher, and all Manasseh were called out

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Gideon called out the Israelites from the tribes of Naphtali, Asher, and all Mannasseh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

505

JDG

7

24

js9y

translate-names

0

Beth Barah

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

506

JDG

7

24

u7ze

0

took control of the waters, as far as Beth Barah and the Jordan River

Alternate translation: “took control of the area of the Jordan River as far south as Beth Barah”

507

JDG

7

25

hn84

figs-explicit

0

at the rock of Oreb … at the winepress of Zeeb

The places were given these names after the Israelites killed Oreb and Zeeb there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

508

JDG

7

25

rvj8

translate-names

0

Oreb … Zeeb

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

509

JDG

8

intro

zh95

0

Judges 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Gideon concludes in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Succoth’s refusal to help Gideon

The men of Succoth feared the Midianites more than Gideon. This is why they refused to help Gideon. By allying themselves with the Midianites, they aligned themselves against Yahweh. Because of this, Gideon treated them like he treated the Midianites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Gideon refuses to be king

Gideon said to them, “I will not rule over you, neither will my son rule over you. Yahweh will rule over you.” Although the book of Deuteronomy anticipates a king in Israel, it was sinful for Israel to desire to have a king. He did though take a share of everyone’s plunder as a king would have done through taxes. This may serve as a warning to Israel about their desire to have a king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

510

JDG

8

1

sea3

figs-rquestion

0

What is this you have done to us?

The people of the tribe of Ephraim were rebuking Gideon with this rhetorical question for not including them in his army. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have not treated us fairly.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

511

JDG

8

1

f8fy

figs-metonymy

0

against Midian

Here “Midian” represents the Midianite army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

512

JDG

8

1

whc1

0

they had a violent argument with him

they argued angrily with him” or “they rebuked him severely”

513

JDG

8

2

xg1a

0

General Information:

Gideon replies to the men from Ephraim.

514

JDG

8

2

wpi2

figs-rquestion

0

What have I done now compared to you?

Gideon uses this question to honor the people of Ephraim. Alternate translation: “I have done very little compared with what you have done!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

515

JDG

8

2

xg8b

figs-rquestion

0

Are not the gleanings of Ephraim’s grapes better than the full grape harvest of Abiezer?

Gideon was calming the people of Ephraim with this rhetorical question. Alternate translation: “Certainly the grapes you people of Ephraim gleaned are better than what we the descendants of Abiezer gathered from the whole harvest!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

516

JDG

8

2

i6yr

figs-rquestion

0

Are not the gleanings of Ephraim’s grapes better than the full grape harvest of Abiezer?

Gideon and his army defeating the Medianites is spoken of as if it were a grape harvest. The people of Ephraim killing Oreb and Zeeb at the end of the battle is spoken of as if they were gleaning grapes at the end of the harvest. Alternate translation: “What you people of Ephraim did at the end of the battle is more important than what we descendants of Abiezer did at the beginning.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

517

JDG

8

2

rr59

figs-metonymy

0

Abiezer

This is the name of one of Gideon’s ancestors. Gideon used his name to refer to Abiezer’s descendants and their land. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

518

JDG

8

3

x1xa

0

Oreb and Zeeb

See how you translated these names in Judges 7:25.

519

JDG

8

3

bi55

figs-rquestion

0

What have I accomplished compared to you?

Gideon uses this question to honor the people of Ephraim. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “What you have done is more important than what I have done.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

520

JDG

8

3

riv2

0

died down

Alternate translation: “became less”

521

JDG

8

4

f6yp

translate-numbers

0

the three hundred men

“the 300 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

522

JDG

8

4

s9yv

figs-abstractnouns

0

kept up the pursuit

The word “pursuit,” an abstract noun, can be expressed as a verb. Alternate translation: “continued to chase their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

523

JDG

8

5

zt2q

translate-names

0

Zebah and Zalmunna

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

524

JDG

8

6

l71p

figs-rquestion

0

Are the hands of Zebah and Zalmunna now in your hand?

The leaders use a question to emphasize that the Israelites have not yet captured Zebah and Zalumnna. Alternate translation: “You have not captured Zebah and Zalmunna yet.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

525

JDG

8

6

aw3g

figs-synecdoche

0

Are the hands of Zebah and Zalmunna

Here “hands” refer to the whole body. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

526

JDG

8

6

bn4x

figs-metonymy

0

now in your hand

Here “hand” represents power or control. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

527

JDG

8

6

k3em

figs-rquestion

0

Why should we give bread to your army?

The leaders use a question to emphasize that they have no reason to give bread to the Israelites. Alternate translation: “We see no reason to give bread to your army.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

528

JDG

8

7

gwp6

figs-explicit

0

I will tear your skin with the desert thorns and briers

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “I will make whips out of desert thorns and briers and use them to beat you and cut you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

529

JDG

8

7

j77m

0

thorns and briers

sharp, pointed pieces on vines or tree limbs that stick out and can cut people and animals

530

JDG

8

8

bi3x

figs-synecdoche

0

He went up from there

Here “He” refers to Gideon. Gideon represents himself and the soldiers following him. Alternate translation: “They left there” or “Gideon and his 300 men left there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

531

JDG

8

8

ikw7

translate-names

0

Peniel

The name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

532

JDG

8

8

ak91

figs-ellipsis

0

spoke to the people there in the same way

You can make clear the understood information. Alternate translation: “asked for food there in the same way” or “he also asked them for food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

533

JDG

8

9

y4qf

figs-euphemism

0

When I come again in peace

This is a polite way of referring to the defeat of his enemies. Alternate translation: “After I have completely defeated the Midian army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

534

JDG

8

9

nth4

figs-synecdoche

0

I will pull down this tower

Here “I” refers to Gideon and represents himself and his men. Alternate translation: “My men and I will pull down this tower” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

535

JDG

8

10

nfu6

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the story line. Here the narrator starts to tell a new part of the story.

536

JDG

8

10

tli8

0

Zebah and Zalmunna

See how you translated these names in Judges 8:5.

537

JDG

8

10

vw38

translate-names

0

Karkor

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

538

JDG

8

10

bh2j

translate-numbers

0

fifteen thousand men

“15,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

539

JDG

8

10

p2iw

figs-euphemism

0

had fallen

This is a polite way of referring to people who died in battle. Alternate translation: “had been killed” or “had died in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

540

JDG

8

10

j3dk

translate-numbers

0

120,000 men

“one hundred thousand men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

541

JDG

8

10

mz6t

figs-metonymy

0

men who drew the sword

Here drawing the sword represents using the sword in battle. This could mean: (1) this phrase refers to soldiers who use swords in battle. Alternate translation: “swordsmen” or “men who fought with swords” or (2) this phrase refers to any soldiers. Alternate translation: “soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

542

JDG

8

11

t81p

figs-synecdoche

0

Gideon went up

Here “Gideon” represents himself and all of his soldiers. Alternate translation: “Gideon and his soldiers went up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

543

JDG

8

11

y551

figs-synecdoche

0

He defeated

Here “He” refers to Gideon and represents himself and all of his soldiers. Alternate translation: “Gideon and his soldiers defeated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

544

JDG

8

11

jbu9

translate-names

0

Nobah and Jogbehah

These are names of towns. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

545

JDG

8

12

dmu9

0

Zebah and Zalmunna

See how you translated these names in Judges 8:5.

546

JDG

8

12

if5y

0

panic

extreme fear or worry that makes someone unable to think or act normally

547

JDG

8

13

w2l7

translate-names

0

the pass of Heres

This is the name of a road that passes between two mountains. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

548

JDG

8

14

a6z2

figs-explicit

0

questioned him

It can be stated explicitly what Gideon asked the young man. Alternate translation: “he asked him to identify all the names of the leaders in the town” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

549

JDG

8

14

l2rr

translate-numbers

0

seventy-seven officials

“77 officials” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

550

JDG

8

15

buj3

0

Zebah and Zalmunna

See how you translated these names in Judges 8:5.

551

JDG

8

15

bnf8

figs-rquestion

0

Have you already conquered Zebah and Zalmunna?

Gideon quotes the people of Succoth as using a question to mock him. Alternate translation: “You have not yet conquered Zebah and Zalmunna.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

552

JDG

8

16

ct8g

figs-synecdoche

0

Gideon took … he punished

Here “Gideon” represents himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “Gideon and his soldiers took … they punished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

553

JDG

8

16

vr3e

0

thorns and briers

These are sharp, pointed pieces on vines or tree limbs that stick out and can cut people and animals. See how you translated this in Judges 8:7.

554

JDG

8

17

dbh6

figs-synecdoche

0

he pulled

Gideon and his soldiers pulled. Alternate translation: “Gideon and his soldiers pulled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

555

JDG

8

17

jg81

0

Peniel

Translate the name of this city as you did in Judges 8:8.

556

JDG

8

18

lav2

0

Zebah and Zalmunna

See how you translated these names in Judges 8:5.

557

JDG

8

18

gw8k

0

Tabor

Translate the name of this city as you did in Judges 4:6.

558

JDG

8

18

q1pd

0

As you are, so were they

Alternate translation: “They were just like you”

559

JDG

8

19

jb1y

figs-idiom

0

As Yahweh lives

This idiom is a religious oath used for emphasis that what he is about to say is true. Alternate translation: “I promise you that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

560

JDG

8

20

xg9f

translate-names

0

Jether

This is the name of Gideon’s son. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

561

JDG

8

21

p21p

figs-idiom

0

For as the man is, so is his strength

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “It is a job for a man to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

562

JDG

8

21

lzn1

0

crescent

This is a curved shape with two points. This shape occurs when the moon is mostly covered in shadow.

563

JDG

8

21

eu98

0

ornaments

decorations

564

JDG

8

22

n3hy

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of Midian

Here “hand” represents the power of Midian over Israel. Alternate translation: “from the power of Midian” or “from Midian” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

565

JDG

8

22

zz2f

figs-metonymy

0

of Midian

Here “Midian” represents the people of Midian. Alternate translation: “of the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

566

JDG

8

24

va81

0

Gideon said to them

Alternate translation: “Gideon said to the men of Israel”

567

JDG

8

24

qb9s

0

earrings

jewelry worn on the ear

568

JDG

8

24

e5zj

0

plunder

things stolen by force or taken off of people killed in war

569

JDG

8

24

c2b3

writing-background

0

The Midianites had golden earrings because they were Ishmaelites

Here the narrator tells background information about the Midianites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

570

JDG

8

25

ark2

0

cloak

clothing made from a large piece of fabric and worn over the shoulders as a coat

571

JDG

8

26

z8qb

translate-numbers

0

1,700 shekels of gold

“one thousand seven hundred shekels of gold.” If it is necessary to use modern weight units, here are two ways of doing it. Alternate translation: “18.7 kilograms of gold” or “about 20 kilograms of gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

572

JDG

8

26

w5mz

0

crescent ornaments

See how you translated this in Judges 8:21.

573

JDG

8

26

rc47

0

pendants

pieces of jewelry that hang at the end of the chains or cords of necklaces

574

JDG

8

26

z7ld

figs-activepassive

0

that was worn by the kings of Midian

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that the kings of Midian wore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

575

JDG

8

27

awh9

0

Gideon made an ephod out of the earrings

Alternate translation: “Gideon used the gold from the earrings to make an ephod”

576

JDG

8

27

tir6

0

Ophrah

Translate the name of this city as you did in Judges 6:11.

577

JDG

8

27

tyw2

figs-metaphor

0

all Israel prostituted themselves by worshiping it there

This speaks of worshiping a false god as if it were prostitution. Alternate translation: “the Israelites sinned against Yahweh by worshiping the ephod there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

578

JDG

8

27

j6ye

figs-hyperbole

0

all Israel

Here “all” is an exaggeration to emphasize that very many worshiped the garment. Alternate translation: “very many people in Israel worshiped the garment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

579

JDG

8

27

bbx3

figs-metaphor

0

It became a trap for Gideon and for those in his house

This speaks of Gideon and his family being tempted to worship the ephod as if the ephod were a hunter’s snare that would trap them. Alternate translation: “It became a temptation for Gideon and his family” or “Gideon and his family sinned by worshiping it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

580

JDG

8

27

i29y

figs-metonymy

0

for those in his house

Here “his house” represents Gideon’s family. Alternate translation: “for his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

581

JDG

8

28

wui8

figs-activepassive

0

So Midian was subdued before the people of Israel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “So Yahweh subdued the Midianites before the people of Israel” or “So Yahweh helped the Israelites defeat the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

582

JDG

8

28

u2ar

figs-idiom

0

they did not raise their heads up again

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “they did not attack Israel again” (See:[[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

583

JDG

8

28

un4l

figs-metonymy

0

So the land had peace

Here “land” represents the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “So the Israelites lived peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

584

JDG

8

28

mw8q

translate-numbers

0

forty years

“40 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

585

JDG

8

28

z3zj

0

in the days of Gideon

Alternate translation: “during the life of Gideon”

586

JDG

8

29

z3sb

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated his name in Judges 6:32.

587

JDG

8

30

m14n

translate-numbers

0

seventy sons

“70 sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

588

JDG

8

32

i3jl

figs-idiom

0

a good old age

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “when he was very old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

589

JDG

8

32

w8yg

figs-activepassive

0

was buried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they buried him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

590

JDG

8

32

aen4

0

Ophrah

Translate the name of this city as you did in Judges 6:11.

591

JDG

8

32

pc1f

0

the clan of Abiezer

Translate the name of this people group as you did in Judges 6:11.

592

JDG

8

33

be44

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

593

JDG

8

33

l1r2

figs-metaphor

0

turned again

The people rejecting Yahweh is spoken of as if they physically turned away from him. Alternate translation: “they stopped worshiping Yahwheh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

594

JDG

8

33

gh13

figs-metaphor

0

prostituted themselves by worshiping the Baals

This speaks of worshiping false gods as if it were prostitution. Alternate translation: “they sinned against Yahweh by worshiping the Baals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

595

JDG

8

33

ce8s

translate-names

0

Baal-Berith

This is the name of a false god. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

596

JDG

8

34

k1h5

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand of all their enemies

Here “hand” represents power or control. Alternate translation: “from the power of all their enemies” or “from all their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

597

JDG

8

34

lqk5

0

on every side

Alternate translation: “who surrounded them”

598

JDG

8

35

svf8

figs-metonymy

0

the house of Jerub Baal

Here “the house of” represents a person’s family. Alternate translation: “the family of Jerub Baal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

599

JDG

8

35

w3k3

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

600

JDG

9

intro

zl19

0

Judges 9 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Jotham’s curse

Gideon’s son, Abimelech, killed all of his brothers except Jotham in order to become king of Shechem. Jotham cursed Abimelech for having murdered Gideon’s other sons. “Let fire come out from Abimelech and burn up the men of Shechem and the house of Millo. Let fire come out from the men of Shechem and Beth Millo, to burn up Abimelech.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Tree metaphor

This chapter contains an extended metaphor about trees. This metaphor functions as a parable instructing Israel about their sinful desire to have a king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

601

JDG

9

1

cb58

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

602

JDG

9

2

gfl5

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Please say this, so that all the leaders in Shechem may hear, ‘Which is better for you, that all seventy sons of Jerub Baal rule over you, or that just one rule over you?’

This has a quotation within a quotation. A direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “Please ask the leaders of Shechem if they would rather have all seventy sons of Jerub Baal rule over them, or if they would rather have just one of his sons rule over them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

603

JDG

9

2

lpf2

translate-numbers

0

seventy

“70” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

604

JDG

9

2

e38y

figs-metonymy

0

I am your bone and your flesh

Here “your bone and your flesh” represents being someone’s relative. Alternate translation: “I am a member of your family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

605

JDG

9

3

ie29

0

His mother’s relatives spoke for him to the leaders

This means that the relatives of the mother of Abimelech spoke to the leaders, suggesting that they make Abimelech their king.

606

JDG

9

3

ubh9

0

they agreed to follow Abimelech

Alternate translation: “they agreed to let Abimelech be their leader”

607

JDG

9

4

yf44

figs-metonymy

0

the house

Here “house” represents a temple. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

608

JDG

9

4

yf3w

translate-bmoney

0

seventy pieces of silver

This means seventy shekels of silver. A shekel weighs 11 grams. If it is necessary to translate this with modern measurements, you can translate it like this. Alternate translation: “almost one kilo of silver” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

609

JDG

9

4

v8x5

translate-numbers

0

seventy

“70” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

610

JDG

9

4

g7i4

0

Baal-Berith

This is the name of a false god. See how you translated it in Judges 8:33.

611

JDG

9

4

mi77

0

worthless and reckless

Alternate translation: “violent and foolish”

612

JDG

9

5

c56j

0

Ophrah

Translate the name of this city as you did in Judges 6:11.

613

JDG

9

5

jer7

translate-numbers

0

one stone

“1 stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

614

JDG

9

5

gnp3

translate-numbers

0

seventy

“70” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

615

JDG

9

5

ilv2

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

616

JDG

9

6

up6d

translate-names

0

Beth Millo

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

617

JDG

9

7

d3ws

figs-parables

0

General Information:

Jotham begins telling a parable in which the trees try to find someone to rule them. The trees represent the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]])

618

JDG

9

7

ksz5

figs-activepassive

0

When Jotham was told about this

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “When Jotham heard that Abimelech had murdered his brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

619

JDG

9

7

z9vx

translate-names

0

Mount Gerizim

This is a mountain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

620

JDG

9

8

p19p

figs-parables

0

The trees once went out to anoint a king over them. For they said to the olive tree, ‘Reign over us.’

In this parable Jotham describes the trees doing things that humans do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

621

JDG

9

8

x1ky

translate-symaction

0

to anoint a king over them

Here, to anoint with oil is a symbolic action that represents appointing a person to be king. Alternate translation: “to appoint a king to rule over all of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

622

JDG

9

8

ai6t

0

Reign over us

Alternate translation: “Be our king”

623

JDG

9

9

q6h3

figs-rquestion

0

Should I give up my abundance … over the other trees?

The olive tree is asking this question to refuse to be king. This question can be expressed as a statement. Alternate translation: “I will not give up my abundance … over the other trees.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

624

JDG

9

9

v5cc

figs-metonymy

0

abundance

This word for “wealth” is a metonym for the olives that come from the tree. People ate olives as food and crushed them to make oil for lamps. Alternate translation: “oil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

625

JDG

9

9

b42t

0

by which gods and men are honored

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “by which people honor both gods and other men”

626

JDG

9

9

ctc8

0

gods

It is possible to translate the same Hebrew word as “god,” “God,” or “gods,” so this could mean: (1) “gods” or (2) “God.”

627

JDG

9

9

a9cy

figs-metaphor

0

sway over

To sway is to move back and forth. Trees sway when the wind blows them. Here this is a metaphor for ruling over people. Jotham is also using irony, saying that the work of any ruler will be useless because the “trees,” the people, will not obey anyone who rules them. Alternate translation: “rule over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

628

JDG

9

11

df3r

figs-parables

0

the fig tree said to them

Jotham continues describing the trees as doing things that humans do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

629

JDG

9

11

bi3f

figs-rquestion

0

Should I give up my sweetness … over the other trees?

The fig tree is asking this question to refuse to be king. This question can be expressed as a statement. Alternate translation: “I will not give up my sweetness … over the other trees.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

630

JDG

9

11

jkz5

figs-abstractnouns

0

my sweetness and my good fruit

The word “sweetness” is an abstract noun. It can be stated as an adjective that describes the fruit that grows on the tree. Alternate translation: “my good sweet fruit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

631

JDG

9

12

m2h3

figs-parables

0

The trees said to the vine

In this parable, Jotham describes the trees and the vine as doing things that humans do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

632

JDG

9

13

i2y3

figs-rquestion

0

Should I give up my new wine … over the other trees?

The vine is asking this question to refuse to be king. This question can be expressed as a statement. Alternate translation: “I will not give up my new wine … over the other trees.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

633

JDG

9

14

mp3a

0

thornbush

Thorns are sharp spikes or spurs that hurt. This bush has many sharp spikes along its branches.

634

JDG

9

15

g1p2

figs-parables

0

The thornbush said to the trees

In this parable, Jotham describes the thornbush and the trees as doing things that humans do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parables]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

635

JDG

9

15

zea8

translate-symaction

0

to anoint me as king over you

To anoint someone with oil is a symbolic action that appoints a person to be king. Alternate translation: “to appoint me as your king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

636

JDG

9

15

cm8a

figs-abstractnouns

0

find safety

The word “safety” is an abstract noun that can be expressed as an adjective. Alternate translation: “be safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

637

JDG

9

15

hvs5

0

fire come out of the thornbush and let it burn up the cedars of Lebanon

This means to let the thornbush burn so that it will burn the cedars.

638

JDG

9

15

xn44

figs-123person

0

then let fire come out of the thornbush

The thornbush refers to itself as “the thornbush.” Alternate translation: “then may fire come out from me, the thornbush” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

639

JDG

9

16

ayq2

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

640

JDG

9

16

y7g3

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

641

JDG

9

16

nu7n

figs-metonymy

0

his house

Here “house” represents Gideon’s family. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

642

JDG

9

17

x8ae

0

General Information:

Jotham makes the application to the situation at that time and place.

643

JDG

9

17

fpm7

0

to think that my father fought for you … out of the hand of Midian

Here Jotham is expressing that he cannot believe how badly the people of Shechem have treated Gideon and his family even after Gideon fought to save the people of Shechem.

644

JDG

9

17

kqc3

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hand of Midian

Here “hand” represents power or control. Alternate translation: “from the power of the Midianites” or “from the Midianites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

645

JDG

9

18

cr5w

figs-idiom

0

you have risen up against

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “you have opposed” or “you have rebelled against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

646

JDG

9

18

i5zw

figs-metonymy

0

my father’s house

Here “house” represents family. Alternate translation: “my father’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

647

JDG

9

18

yy47

translate-numbers

0

seventy

“70” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

648

JDG

9

18

ym97

translate-numbers

0

one stone

“1 stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

649

JDG

9

18

c154

0

his female servant

Here “his” refers to Gideon.

650

JDG

9

19

cwl5

figs-hypo

0

If you acted with honesty and integrity with Jerub Baal and his house

Jotham offered the possibility that what they did was good, but Jotham does not actually believe what they did was good. Alternate translation: “If you treated Jerub Baal and his family as they deserved to be treated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

651

JDG

9

19

re1x

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. It means “let Baal defend himself.” See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

652

JDG

9

19

r5ce

figs-metonymy

0

his house

Here “house” refers to family. Alternate translation: “his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

653

JDG

9

20

rv9v

figs-hypo

0

But if not

Jotham offered the opposite possibility that what they did was evil and applied a curse. Jotham does believe what they did was evil. Alternate translation: “But if you treated Jerub Baal and his family as they did not deserve to be treated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

654

JDG

9

20

g8i6

figs-metaphor

0

let fire come out from Abimelech and burn up the men of Shechem

Jotham is speaking a curse. He speaks of Abimelech destroying the people of Shechem as if he would burn them with fire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

655

JDG

9

20

ibq3

figs-metaphor

0

Let fire come out from the men of Shechem and Beth Millo, to burn up Abimelech

Jotham is speaking a curse. He speaks of the people of Shechem and Beth Millo destroying Abimelech as if they would burn him with fire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

656

JDG

9

20

iey1

0

Beth Millo

This is the name of a place. See how you translated this in Judges 9:6.

657

JDG

9

21

pan4

translate-names

0

Beer

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

658

JDG

9

23

bv9r

0

God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the leaders of Shechem

This means that God applied the curse Jotham made by sending an evil spirit to cause trouble and animosity between Abimelech and the leaders of Shechem.

659

JDG

9

24

xf1e

figs-activepassive

0

God did this so the violence done … helped him murder his brothers

The passive phrases can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “God did this to avenge the seventy sons whom Abimelech their brother murdered and the men of Shechem helped murder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

660

JDG

9

24

cb41

translate-numbers

0

seventy

“70” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

661

JDG

9

24

b1g1

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

662

JDG

9

25

b7tx

0

positioned men to lie in wait on the hilltops that they might ambush him

Alternate translation: “sent men to hide on the hilltops and wait to attack Abimelech”

663

JDG

9

25

pd3x

figs-activepassive

0

This was reported to Abimelech

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone told Abimelech about the men waiting to attack him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

664

JDG

9

26

r2ue

translate-names

0

Gaal … Ebed

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

665

JDG

9

26

mv9b

figs-abstractnouns

0

had confidence in him

The word “confidence” is an abstract noun that can be stated with the verb “trust.” Alternate translation: “trusted him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

666

JDG

9

27

i6sf

0

They went out into the field

Here “They” refers to Gaal and his relatives and the men of Shechem.

667

JDG

9

27

r8w9

figs-explicit

0

they trampled on them

They did this to squeeze out the grape juice to make wine with it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

668

JDG

9

27

c3x3

0

trampled

Alternate translation: “crushed” or “stomped”

669

JDG

9

27

d9l2

figs-metonymy

0

in the house

Here “house” represents a temple. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

670

JDG

9

28

yyy5

0

Gaal … Ebed

See how you translated these names in Judges 9:26.

671

JDG

9

28

w9hj

figs-rquestion

0

Who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him?

Gaal uses a question to emphasize that the people of Shechem should not serve Abimelech. Alternate translation: “We should not serve Abimelech!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

672

JDG

9

28

dfp7

figs-parallelism

0

Who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him?

Both of these questions means the same thing. Gaal refers to Abimelech as “Shechem” because Abimelech’s mother was from Shechem. Alternate translation: “We should not serve Abimelech, that is, Shechem!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

673

JDG

9

28

a6ws

figs-rquestion

0

Is he not the son of Jerub Baal? Is Zebul not his officer?

Gaal uses a question to emphasize that the people of Shechem should not serve Abimelech. Alternate translation: “He is just the son of Jerub Baal, and Zebul is just his officer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

674

JDG

9

28

p2s8

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this in Judges 6:32.

675

JDG

9

28

b36z

translate-names

0

Zebul

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

676

JDG

9

28

rq5n

0

Serve the men of Hamor, Shechem’s father

Gaal means the people of Shechem should serve those who descended from Hamor, that is, those who are truly Canaanites, and not serve someone whose father was an Israelite.

677

JDG

9

28

ju72

figs-rquestion

0

Why should we serve Abimelech?

Gaal uses a question to emphasize that the people of Shechem should not serve Abimelech. Alternate translation: “We should not serve Abimelech!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

678

JDG

9

29

v1e2

0

I wish that this people were under my command

Alternate translation: “I wish that I ruled the people of Shechem”

679

JDG

9

30

qj5l

0

Zebul

See how you translated this name in Judges 9:28.

680

JDG

9

30

a53k

0

heard the words of Gaal son of Ebed

Alternate translation: “heard what Gaal son of Ebed said”

681

JDG

9

30

p2rs

0

Gaal … Ebed

See how you translated these names in Judges 9:26.

682

JDG

9

30

u13b

figs-metaphor

0

his anger was kindled

Becoming angry is spoken of as if a fire were starting. Alternate translation: “he became very angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

683

JDG

9

30

lx8u

figs-metonymy

0

the city

Here “city” represents the people of the city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

684

JDG

9

31

u898

0

in order to deceive

Zebul is deceiving Gaal and the people of Shechem. Alternate translation: “secretly”

685

JDG

9

31

gvg1

figs-metaphor

0

they are stirring up the city against you

This speaks of the people of the city becoming upset as if they were liquid in a pot moving around. Alternate translation: “they are persuading the people of the city to rebel against you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

686

JDG

9

32

yn4z

0

General Information:

Zebul’s messengers continue talking to Abimelech.

687

JDG

9

32

j18v

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

688

JDG

9

32

mrh8

0

an ambush

Alternate translation: “to hide and attack them suddenly”

689

JDG

9

33

k1f3

0

do whatever you can to them

This means that they can do what they want to destroy the followers of Gaal.

690

JDG

9

34

be8t

0

all the men who were with him

Alternate translation: “all the men accompanying Abimelech” or “all the men fighting for Abimelech”

691

JDG

9

34

b14p

translate-numbers

0

dividing into four units

“separating into 4 groups” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

692

JDG

9

35

q22c

0

Gaal … Ebed

See how you translated these names in Judges 9:26.

693

JDG

9

36

v8bb

0

Gaal

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Judges 9:26.

694

JDG

9

36

vu4i

0

Zebul

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Judges 9:28.

695

JDG

9

36

gz9v

0

You are seeing the shadows on the hills like they are men

Zebul is trying to confuse Gaal and keep him from preparing for battle. Alternate translation: “That is not people, it is only shadows on the hills”

696

JDG

9

37

kmf8

translate-numbers

0

one unit

“1 group” or “1 troop” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

697

JDG

9

38

tqh1

0

Zebul

See how you translated this name in Judges 9:28.

698

JDG

9

38

qap7

figs-rquestion

0

Where are your proud words now, you

Zebul is scolding Gaal with this rhetorical question. Alternate translation: “You are not speaking proudly now, you” or “You are not proud now, you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

699

JDG

9

38

fub2

figs-rquestion

0

you who said, ‘Who is Abimelech that we should serve him?’

Zebul is quoting Gaal’s boast back to Gaal. This can be translated as a statement and as an indirect quote. Alternate translation: “you who said that we should not serve Abimelech.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

700

JDG

9

38

qdj1

figs-rquestion

0

Are these not the men you despised?

Zebul is challenging Gaal with this rhetorical question. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Here are the men that you despised.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

701

JDG

9

38

u392

0

despised

strongly disliked or hated

702

JDG

9

39

h55i

0

Gaal

See how you translated this name in Judges 9:26.

703

JDG

9

40

p7lv

figs-idiom

0

Many fell with deadly wounds

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “And many men died of wounds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

704

JDG

9

41

y21z

translate-names

0

Arumah

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

705

JDG

9

41

q5ep

0

Zebul

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Judges 9:28.

706

JDG

9

41

f6ud

0

Gaal

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Judges 9:26.

707

JDG

9

42

em2h

figs-activepassive

0

this was reported to Abimelech

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “someone reported this to Abimelech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

708

JDG

9

43

rm73

translate-numbers

0

divided them into three units

“separated them into 3 groups” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

709

JDG

9

43

e8ph

0

they set an ambush in the fields

Alternate translation: “they hid in the fields to attack the people by surprise”

710

JDG

9

43

l12e

figs-synecdoche

0

he attacked

Here “he” refers to Abimelech who represents himself and all of his soldiers. Alternate translation: “they attacked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

711

JDG

9

44

h6g9

0

the units

Alternate translation: “the groups of soldiers”

712

JDG

9

44

a246

translate-numbers

0

other two

“other 2” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

713

JDG

9

45

e7uy

figs-synecdoche

0

Abimelech fought … He tore down

Here “Abimelech” represents himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “Abimelech and his soldiers fought … They tore down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

714

JDG

9

45

ch7p

figs-metonymy

0

against the city

Here “city” represents the people. Alternate translation: “against the people of Shechem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

715

JDG

9

45

zi77

0

tore down

Alternate translation: “demolished”

716

JDG

9

45

t928

figs-explicit

0

spread salt over it

“spread salt over the land.” Spreading salt over land keeps anything from growing there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

717

JDG

9

46

lty1

figs-metonymy

0

the house

Here this represents a temple. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

718

JDG

9

46

kw6q

translate-names

0

El-Berith

The word “El” means “god.” This is the same false god as “Baal-Berith” in Judges 8:33. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

719

JDG

9

47

hnv1

figs-activepassive

0

Abimelech was told

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone told Abimelech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

720

JDG

9

48

h1s8

translate-names

0

Mount Zalmon

This is the name of a mountain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

721

JDG

9

49

thc7

0

piled

This means to stack the branches into a large heap.

722

JDG

9

49

f9xs

translate-numbers

0

about a thousand men

“about 1,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

723

JDG

9

50

jh8f

translate-names

0

Thebez

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

724

JDG

9

50

nyj8

0

encamped against Thebez

Alternate translation: “camped outside the city of Thebez”

725

JDG

9

52

jgq2

0

fought against it

Alternate translation: “attacked it”

726

JDG

9

53

z9j6

0

upper millstone

Two large, flat, round stones were used to grind grain in a mill. An upper millstone was the top one that was rolled on the lower one to crush the grain in between them.

727

JDG

9

54

vm49

0

armor-bearer

This is the man who carried the weapons of Abimelech.

728

JDG

9

54

is1h

0

pierced him through

This means the young man put the sword right through the body of Abimelech.

729

JDG

9

56

h9fb

translate-numbers

0

seventy

“70” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

730

JDG

9

57

fx65

figs-idiom

0

made all the evil of the men of Shechem turn back on their own heads

“Evil turn back on their heads” here is an idiom. Alternate translation: “punished the men of Shechem for all the evil they had done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

731

JDG

9

57

hua1

figs-idiom

0

on them came the curse of Jotham son of Jerub Baal

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “the curse of Jotham son of Jerub Baal happened to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

732

JDG

9

57

q7dp

0

Jerub Baal

This is another name for Gideon. See how you translated this name in Judges 6:32.

733

JDG

10

intro

zqn2

0

Judges 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins the account of Jephthah (Judges 10-12).

Special concepts in this chapter

Israel’s punishment

In Judges, Israel’s actions are connected to their obedience to Yahweh. When Israel does evil, they are oppressed. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oppress]])

734

JDG

10

1

g7ww

translate-names

0

Tola … Puah … Dodo

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

735

JDG

10

1

ti4g

translate-names

0

Shamir

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

736

JDG

10

1

lxh7

0

arose to deliver Israel

Alternate translation: “came to deliver Israel” or “became the leader to deliver Israel”

737

JDG

10

1

i5f3

figs-metonymy

0

deliver Israel

Here “Israel” represents the people of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

738

JDG

10

2

m2fd

0

He judged Israel

Here “judged” means he led the people of Israel.

739

JDG

10

2

m93u

translate-numbers

0

twenty-three years

“23 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

740

JDG

10

2

unp5

figs-activepassive

0

was buried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they buried him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

741

JDG

10

3

f3wi

figs-activepassive

0

He was followed by Jair the Gileadite

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Jair the Gileadite was leader after Tola” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

742

JDG

10

3

m9uk

translate-names

0

Jair

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

743

JDG

10

3

j6fm

0

the Gileadite

Jair was from the tribe of Gilead.

744

JDG

10

3

fmn8

0

He judged Israel

Here “judged” means he led the people of Israel.

745

JDG

10

3

d5gs

figs-metonymy

0

Israel

Here “Israel” represents the people of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

746

JDG

10

3

ezp7

translate-numbers

0

twenty-two years

“22 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

747

JDG

10

4

i1hv

translate-numbers

0

thirty sons

“30 sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

748

JDG

10

4

vb1y

translate-names

0

Havvoth Jair

This is the name of a region, which is named after a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

749

JDG

10

4

h644

0

to this day

This means to the time when the book of Judges was being written.

750

JDG

10

5

t8ka

figs-activepassive

0

was buried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they buried him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

751

JDG

10

5

s19j

translate-names

0

Kamon

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

752

JDG

10

6

lj2d

figs-metaphor

0

added to the evil they had done in the sight of Yahweh

This speaks of evil as if it were an object that a person could add to and make bigger. Alternate translation: “continued doing what Yahweh said was evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

753

JDG

10

6

ki1z

figs-metaphor

0

in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “according to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

754

JDG

10

6

p7j4

0

Ashtoreths

This is the plural of Ashtoroth, who was worshiped as a goddess in many different forms. See how you translated this in Judges 2:13.

755

JDG

10

6

r515

figs-parallelism

0

They abandoned Yahweh and no longer worshiped him

The author basically said the same thing twice for emphasis. These can be combined. Alternate translation: “They completely stopped worshiping Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

756

JDG

10

6

p6q5

figs-metaphor

0

They abandoned Yahweh

No longer obeying and worshiping Yahweh is spoken of as if the people left Yahweh and went somewhere else. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

757

JDG

10

7

zf61

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh burned with anger toward Israel

Yahweh becoming angry is spoken of as if anger were a burning fire. Alternate translation: “Yahweh was very angry at Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

758

JDG

10

7

f4v2

figs-metaphor

0

he sold them into the hand of the Philistines and into the hand of the Ammonites

Yahweh allowing the Philistines and the Ammonites to defeat the Israelites is spoken of as if he sold the Israelites to them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

759

JDG

10

7

aj5n

figs-metonymy

0

into the hand

Here “hand” represents power or control. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

760

JDG

10

8

psa9

figs-doublet

0

crushed and oppressed

These two words basically mean the same and emphasize how much the Israelites suffered. Alternate translation: “terribly oppressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

761

JDG

10

8

q2ml

translate-numbers

0

eighteen years

“18 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

762

JDG

10

8

msz6

0

who were beyond the Jordan

This means on the east side of the Jordan River.

763

JDG

10

8

b5w4

0

which is in Gilead

Alternate translation: “this region is also called Gilead”

764

JDG

10

9

wq6g

figs-metonymy

0

Judah … Benjamin

“Judah” and “Benjamin” refer to the people belonging to those tribes. Alternate translation: “the people of the tribe of Judah … the people of the tribe of Benjamin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

765

JDG

10

9

nt9c

figs-metonymy

0

house of Ephraim

The “house” refers to the people of the tribe of Ephraim. Alternate translation: “the people of the tribe of Ephraim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

766

JDG

10

9

gl3b

figs-metonymy

0

so that Israel was greatly distressed

“Israel” refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “so that the people of Israel suffered much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

767

JDG

10

10

lda9

0

the people of Israel called out to Yahweh

This means the people of Israel desperately asked Yahweh for help.

768

JDG

10

10

b8t5

figs-metaphor

0

because we abandoned our God

The people no longer obeying and worshiping Yahweh is spoken of as if they left Yahweh and went somewhere else. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

769

JDG

10

10

t38a

figs-123person

0

abandoned our God

The people are speaking to Yahweh and refer to him as “our God.” This can be stated in second person. Alternate translation: “abandoned you, our God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

770

JDG

10

12

lf73

figs-rquestion

0

and also from the Sidonians?

God is rebuking the people of Israel for their worship of other gods. The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Did I not deliver you” in verse 11 ends here. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am the one who delivered you … and also from the Sidonians.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

771

JDG

10

12

w39a

translate-names

0

Maonites

These are the people from the clan or family of Maon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

772

JDG

10

12

e4ml

figs-metonymy

0

from their power

Here “power” represents the Amalekites and the Maonites. Alternate translation: “from them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

773

JDG

10

13

p759

figs-metaphor

0

you abandoned me again

The people no longer obeying and worshiping Yahweh is spoken of as if they left Yahweh and went somewhere else. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

774

JDG

10

13

zdy2

figs-idiom

0

I will not keep adding to the times I deliver you

The phrase “keep adding to the times” is an idiom that means to continue to do something. You can make explicit the implicit meaning of Yahweh’s saying. Alternate translation: “I will not keep on delivering you again and again” or “You can be sure that I will stop delivering you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

775

JDG

10

16

i2l8

figs-explicit

0

foreign gods among them

You can make explicit the implicit meaning of this statement. Alternate translation: “foreign gods whose images they possessed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

776

JDG

10

16

m6hd

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh could bear Israel’s misery no longer

Here Israel refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “And Yahweh did not want the people of Israel to suffer any longer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

777

JDG

10

18

j3k2

0

Who is the man who will begin to fight the Ammonites?

Alternate translation: “Who will lead our army to fight against the Ammonites?”

778

JDG

11

intro

q7si

0

Judges 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Jephthah continues in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Jephthah the leader

Jephthah was half Israelite and half Canaanite by birth. While all of the judges were called by Yahweh, it is the leaders who called Jephthah to help them, but Yahweh still used Jephthah to help them.

779

JDG

11

1

yk6s

translate-names

0

Gileadite

This is someone who is from the region of Gilead. It is a coincidence that his father’s name is also Gilead. See how you translated this in Judges 10:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

780

JDG

11

2

r35b

0

When his wife’s sons grew up

Alternate translation: “When the sons of Gilead’s wife became adults”

781

JDG

11

3

aw1r

translate-names

0

the land of Tob

Tob is the name of a region. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

782

JDG

11

3

f5ze

0

they traveled with him

Alternate translation: “they followed him” or “they went everywhere together”

783

JDG

11

4

cn67

0

Some days later

Alternate translation: “Some time later”

784

JDG

11

4

s6ku

figs-idiom

0

made war against Israel

The phrase “made war” is an idiom which means that they attacked Israel and were at war with them. Here “Israel” refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “attacked the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

785

JDG

11

6

b37n

0

that we may fight with

Alternate translation: “so that we can fight against”

786

JDG

11

7

f7vj

figs-metonymy

0

my father’s house

Here “house” refers to people living in the house. Alternate translation: “my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

787

JDG

11

8

ph3x

figs-explicit

0

That is why we are turning to you now

The word “that” refers to what Jephthah said about them being in trouble. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “We are turning to you now because we are in trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

788

JDG

11

8

uem9

0

fight with the people of Ammon

Alternate translation: “fight against the people of Ammon”

789

JDG

11

11

hf4c

figs-doublet

0

leader and commander

These two words basically have the same meaning repeated to emphasize how important Jephthah had became. You can combine the two words. Alternate translation: “commander” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

790

JDG

11

11

v6uq

figs-idiom

0

When he was before Yahweh in Mizpah, Jephthah repeated all the promises he made

This is an idiom. Here the phrase “before Yahwheh” means that he repeated his promises as a vow before Yahweh. Alternate translation: “When Jephthah was in Mizpah he repeated all of these promises as a vow before Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

791

JDG

11

11

w6mk

0

all the promises he made

This refers to the promises he made to the leaders of Gilead about becoming their leader.

792

JDG

11

12

ybt9

0

What is this conflict between us

“Why is there conflict between us?” Jephthah is asking the king why they are angry with Israel.

793

JDG

11

12

su7k

figs-synecdoche

0

Why have you come with force to take our land

The word “you” refers to the King of Ammon and represents himself and his soldiers. Alternate translation: “Why have your soldiers come to seize our land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

794

JDG

11

12

hwk4

0

come with force to take

Alternate translation: “come to forcefully take”

795

JDG

11

13

qdz6

translate-names

0

Arnon … Jabbok

These are the names of two rivers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

796

JDG

11

13

ps71

0

over to the Jordan

Alternate translation: “on the other side of the Jordan River”

797

JDG

11

13

tsw4

0

in peace

Alternate translation: “peacefully” or “and do not try to defend them”

798

JDG

11

15

i4ns

figs-explicit

0

he said

Here the word “he” refers to the messenger who was speaking to the king. This may be written with the word “they” as in the UST, referring to the group of messengers. Alternate translation: “Jephthah told the messengers to say” or “they said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

799

JDG

11

16

e7sj

figs-idiom

0

they came up from Egypt

Whenever people traveled to the promised land it is referred to as going “up” to the promised land. When the Israelites left Egypt they were on their way to the promised land. Alternate translation: “they left Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

800

JDG

11

17

je4p

0

General Information:

Jephthah’s messengers continue to speak.

801

JDG

11

17

tn6f

figs-synecdoche

0

When Israel sent messengers

The messengers were sent by the leaders of Israel. Alternate translation: “When the leaders of Israel sent messengers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

802

JDG

11

17

kl4c

0

pass through

Alternate translation: “go through” or “cross”

803

JDG

11

17

v8aa

figs-idiom

0

would not listen

This phrase is an idiom that means to “refuse.” Alternate translation: “refused” or “denied their request” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

804

JDG

11

17

q2mz

figs-explicit

0

They also sent messengers to the king of Moab

The reason that Israel sent messengers to the king of Moab can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “They also send messengers to the king of Moab with the same request” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

805

JDG

11

17

x2ue

figs-explicit

0

but he refused

The king of Moab refused Israel’s request to pass through Moab. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “but he also refused and would not let them pass through the land of Moab” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

806

JDG

11

18

el82

0

Arnon

This is the name of a river. See how you translated this in Judges 11:13.

807

JDG

11

19

msq6

0

General Information:

Jephthah’s messengers continue to speak.

808

JDG

11

19

ur8x

figs-synecdoche

0

Israel sent messengers to Sihon

The messengers were sent by the leaders of Israel. Alternate translation: “When the leaders of Israel sent messengers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

809

JDG

11

19

j2t5

translate-names

0

Sihon

This is the name of a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

810

JDG

11

19

pyu6

translate-names

0

Heshbon

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

811

JDG

11

20

mn9x

translate-names

0

Jahaz

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

812

JDG

11

20

ew16

figs-explicit

0

But Sihon did not trust Israel to pass through his territory

Sihon did not trust the people of Israel to pass through his land peacefully. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “But Sihon did not trust the people of Israel to pass through his territory peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

813

JDG

11

20

d9ga

figs-synecdoche

0

there he fought

The word “he” refers to Sihon and represents himself and his army. Alternate translation: “there they fought” or “there his army fought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

814

JDG

11

21

sf5x

0

General Information:

Jephthah’s messengers continue to speak.

815

JDG

11

21

fsk6

0

Sihon

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 11:19.

816

JDG

11

21

vp7w

figs-metonymy

0

gave Sihon and all his people into the hand of Israel

Here “hand” refers to power to defeat in battle. Alternate translation: “gave Israel power over Sihon and all his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

817

JDG

11

22

ce2e

0

Arnon … Jabbok

See how you translated the names of these rivers in Judges 11:13.

818

JDG

11

23

v22e

0

General Information:

Jephthah’s messengers continue to speak.

819

JDG

11

23

ru3n

figs-rquestion

0

should you now take possession of their land?

Jephthah is rebuking the king of the Ammonites with this rhetorical question. The word “their” refers to the Israel. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “therefore, you should not take possession of their land.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

820

JDG

11

24

nr59

figs-rquestion

0

Will you not take over the land that Chemosh, your god, gives you?

Jephthah is rebuking the king of the Ammonites with a rhetorical question. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should only take over the land that Chemosh, your god, gives you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

821

JDG

11

24

bcm5

figs-idiom

0

take over

This is an idiom which means to take control of something. Alternate translation: “take control of” or “take possession of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

822

JDG

11

24

z3zh

translate-names

0

Chemosh

This is the name of a false god. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

823

JDG

11

25

wln3

figs-rquestion

0

Now are you really better than Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab?

Jephthah is rebuking the king of the Ammonites with a rhetorical question. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are not better than Balak son of Zippor, who was king of Moab.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

824

JDG

11

25

fk7m

translate-names

0

Balak … Zippor

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

825

JDG

11

25

giw3

figs-rquestion

0

Did he dare to have an argument with Israel?

Jephthah is rebuking the king of the Ammonites with a rhetorical question. This question can be translated with a statement. Alternate translation: “Yet he did not dare to have an argument with Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

826

JDG

11

25

k8y5

figs-rquestion

0

Did he ever wage war against them?

Jephthah is rebuking the king of the Ammonites with a rhetorical question. This question can be translated with a statement. Alternate translation: “Nor did he ever wage war against them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

827

JDG

11

26

pty2

0

General Information:

Jephthah’s messengers continue to speak.

828

JDG

11

26

t5g4

translate-numbers

0

three hundred years

“300 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

829

JDG

11

26

pu9w

0

Heshbon

Translate the name of this city the same way that you did in Judges 11:19.

830

JDG

11

26

c2xi

translate-names

0

Aroer

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

831

JDG

11

26

h61t

figs-rquestion

0

why then did you not take them back during that time?

Jephthah is rebuking the king of the Ammonites with a rhetorical question. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “you should have taken them back during that time.” or “now it is too late; you should have taken them back long ago.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

832

JDG

11

27

aei3

figs-synecdoche

0

I have not done you wrong, but you are doing me wrong by attacking me

Jephthah is speaking to the Sihon. Here Jephthah speaks about the Israelites as though they were himself and of the Ammonites as if they were Sihon their king. Alternate translation: “The Israelites have not done wrong to your people, but your people are doing us wrong by attacking us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

833

JDG

11

27

n4fk

figs-idiom

0

done you wrong … doing me wrong

This is an idiom. To do someone wrong means to do something wrong to them. Alternate translation: “treated you wrongly … treating me wrongly” or “treated you unfairly … treating me unfairly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

834

JDG

11

29

p2lw

figs-idiom

0

the Spirit of Yahweh came on Jephthah

This is an idiom which means that the Spirit influenced Jephthah’s decisions. Alternate translation: “the Spirit of Yahweh took control of Jephthah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

835

JDG

11

29

dq1c

figs-explicit

0

he passed through Gilead and Manasseh … from Mizpah of Gilead

Jephthah passed through these places enlisting men for his army to go to war with the people of Ammon. The full meaning of this can be made clear. Alternate translation: “he gathered men for his army as he passed through Gilead and Manasseh … from Mizpah of Gilead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

836

JDG

11

31

kh4e

figs-idiom

0

I will offer it up

This is an idiom which means to give something as an offering. Alternate translation: “I will offer it to you” or “I will sacrifice it to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

837

JDG

11

32

wr1n

figs-synecdoche

0

So Jephthah passed through … Yahweh gave him victory

Since Jephthah was the leader of his army, he and his army are often spoken of as Jephthah himself. Alternate translation: “So Jephthah and his army passed through … Yahweh gave them victory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

838

JDG

11

33

rt2j

figs-synecdoche

0

He attacked

Since Jephthah was the leader of his army, he and his army are often spoken of as Jephthah himself (verse 32). Alternate translation: “they attacked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

839

JDG

11

33

dl1t

0

Aroer

Translate the name of this city the same way you did in Judges 11:26.

840

JDG

11

33

pfq6

translate-names

0

Minnith … Abel Keramim

These are the names of cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

841

JDG

11

33

i18j

translate-numbers

0

twenty cities

“including 20 cities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

842

JDG

11

34

ng9v

translate-unknown

0

tambourines

musical instruments with heads like drums that can be hit and with pieces of metal around their sides that sound when the instruments are shaken (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

843

JDG

11

35

md3n

translate-symaction

0

he tore his clothes

This is an act that shows mourning or great sadness. Alternate translation: “he tore his clothes from grief” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

844

JDG

11

35

puu2

figs-parallelism

0

You have crushed me with sorrow … you have become one who causes me pain

Jephthah said basically the same thing twice to emphasize that he was very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

845

JDG

11

35

qi6c

figs-metaphor

0

You have crushed me with sorrow

Here Jephthah speaks of his great sorrow as something that crushes him. Alternate translation: “You have caused me great sorrow” or “You have filled me with sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

846

JDG

11

35

dvs5

figs-metaphor

0

you have become one who causes me pain

Here Jephthah talks about his great distress and trouble as if it were pain. Alternate translation: “you have become someone who troubles me” or “you cause me great distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

847

JDG

11

35

gvy5

figs-idiom

0

I cannot turn back on my promise

This is an idiom. To turn back on a promise means to not do what you have promised to do. Alternate translation: “I must do what I have promised” or “I cannot break my promise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

848

JDG

11

36

e6gu

figs-explicit

0

has taken vengeance for you against your enemies, the Ammonites

Yahweh has taken vengence for him by defeating his enemies. The meaning of this can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “has taken vengeance for you against your enemies, the Ammonites, by defeating them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

849

JDG

11

37

hj6q

figs-activepassive

0

Let this promise be kept for me

This can be stated in an active form. Alternate translation: “Keep this promise for me” or “Keep this promise concerning me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

850

JDG

11

37

dh7s

0

grieve over my virginity

Alternate translation: “weep because I am a virgin” or “cry because I will never be married”

851

JDG

11

39

n4my

figs-euphemism

0

had never known a man

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “had never had sexual relations with a man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

852

JDG

11

40

s739

0

the Gileadite

This refers to someone from Gilead. See how you translated this in Judges 10:3.

853

JDG

12

intro

p8zn

0

Judges 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Jephthah concludes in this chapter.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Shibboleth

This is a word in Hebrew. Its importance in this chapter is because of its sounds, not its meaning. The translator should not translate the meaning of this word, but should transliterate or transfer it into the target language by substituting letters that have the same sounds. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

854

JDG

12

1

mp3k

figs-abstractnouns

0

A call went out to the men of Ephraim

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word call, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “The men of Ephraim were called together” or “The men … of Ephraim called together their soldiers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

855

JDG

12

1

ubq3

translate-names

0

Zaphon

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

856

JDG

12

1

hh1l

0

passed through … pass through

or “traveled through … travel” or “journeyed through … journey”

857

JDG

12

1

lt7l

figs-idiom

0

We will burn your house down over you

This idiom means to burn down a house with people inside it. Alternate translation: “We will burn your house down with you still in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

858

JDG

12

2

fsb1

figs-you

0

When I called you, you

Here the word “you” is plural and refers to the people of Ephraim. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

859

JDG

12

2

nxf4

figs-synecdoche

0

did not rescue me

Jephthah uses the word “me” to refer to himself and all the people of Gilead. Alternate translation: “do not rescue us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

860

JDG

12

3

s3v2

figs-you

0

you did not rescue me

The word “you” is plural and refers to the men of Ephraim. Jephthah is referring to the people of Gilead, including himself, when he says “me.” Alternate translation: “you did not rescue us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

861

JDG

12

3

zev7

figs-idiom

0

I put my life in my own hand

This is an idiom which means to risk one’s life and to rely only on one’s own strength. Jephthah continues to refer to the people of Gilead as himself. Alternate translation: “We risked our lives, relying on our own strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

862

JDG

12

3

u5y7

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh gave me victory

Jephthah is referring to Yahweh giving the men of Gilead victory over the Ammonites. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave us victory over them” or “Yahweh allowed us to defeat them in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

863

JDG

12

3

uje8

figs-you

0

Why have you come to fight against me

The word “you” is plural and refers to the men of Ephraim. Jephthah is referring to the people of Gilead, including himself, when he says “me.” Alternate translation: “Why have you come to fight against us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

864

JDG

12

3

nt4r

figs-explicit

0

passed through against the people of Ammon

This means that they fought against the Ammonites as they passed through Ammon. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “fought against the people of Ammon as we passed through their region” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

865

JDG

12

4

by47

figs-synecdoche

0

he fought against Ephraim

The word “he” refers to Jephthah and all the fighting men of Gilead. Alternate translation: “they fought against Ephraim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

866

JDG

12

4

y6zx

figs-explicit

0

You Gileadites are fugitives

You can make the meaning of this insult explicit. Alternate translation: “You Gileadites do not really belong here. You are just people who came here to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

867

JDG

12

4

p9f2

0

Gileadites

people from Gilead

868

JDG

12

4

h3vl

0

in Ephraim—in Ephraim and Manasseh

“in the regions of Ephraim and Manasseh” or “in the land of Ephraim and Manasseh.” Here “Ephraim” and “Manasseh” refer to regions and are named after the tribes which live there.

869

JDG

12

5

dcy5

0

to Ephraim

Alternate translation: “to the land of Ephraim”

870

JDG

12

5

f8sh

0

The Gileadites captured

Alternate translation: “The Gileadites controlled” or “The Gileadites occupied”

871

JDG

12

5

yc1p

0

fords

These are places where you can cross the river on foot because the water is shallow.

872

JDG

12

5

w1cc

0

Ephraimite

person from the tribe of Ephraim

873

JDG

12

6

cee8

translate-transliterate

0

Shibboleth … Sibboleth

These words have no meaning. Copy these words into your language, and make sure that the beginning of the words, that is the letters “Sh” and “S” are translated differently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

874

JDG

12

6

uc7k

0

pronounce the word

Alternate translation: “make the sound of the word”

875

JDG

12

6

d82p

translate-numbers

0

Forty-two thousand

“42,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

876

JDG

12

6

c2bb

figs-activepassive

0

Forty-two thousand Ephraimites were killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “They killed forty-two thousand Ephraimites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

877

JDG

12

7

v8rv

figs-activepassive

0

Jephthah the Gileadite died and was buried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Jephthah the Gileadite died and they buried him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

878

JDG

12

8

ha85

translate-names

0

Ibzan of Bethlehem

This is the name of a man from Bethlehem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

879

JDG

12

9

d515

figs-idiom

0

He gave away thirty daughters in marriage

Here “give away … in marriage” is an idiom which means that he allowed his daughters to get married. Alternate translation: “He had thirty daughters and arranged a marriage for each of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

880

JDG

12

9

r2m9

figs-idiom

0

he brought in thirty daughters of other men for his sons, from the outside

The idiom “bring them in from the outside” means that he had women from other clans marry his sons. Alternate translation: “he arranged for thirty daughters of other men from outside of his clan to marry his sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

881

JDG

12

10

jbg6

figs-activepassive

0

was buried at Bethlehem

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they buried him in Bethlehem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

882

JDG

12

11

k8nx

translate-names

0

Elon

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

883

JDG

12

11

jl6e

0

Zebulunite

someone from the tribe of Zebulun

884

JDG

12

12

dn79

0

Aijalon

Translate the name of this place the same way you did in Judges 1:35.

885

JDG

12

12

dzh4

figs-activepassive

0

was buried in Aijalon

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they buried him in Aijalon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

886

JDG

12

13

x9gz

translate-names

0

Abdon … Hillel

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

887

JDG

12

13

z3n6

translate-names

0

Pirathon

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

888

JDG

12

14

n7k2

figs-metonymy

0

They rode on seventy donkeys

These men owned seventy donkeys, which they did ride. Here the word “rode” is used instead of “owned.” Alternate translation: “They owned seventy donkeys” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

889

JDG

12

14

ua8s

translate-numbers

0

forty sons … thirty grandsons … seventy donkeys

“40 sons…30 grandsons…70 donkeys (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

890

JDG

12

15

wqm2

translate-names

0

Pirathonite … Pirathon

Pirathon is the name of a place, someone who is from that place is called a Pirathonite. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

891

JDG

13

intro

eu67

0

Judges 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins the account of Samson (Judges 13-16).

Special concepts in this chapter

Warning not to cut his hair

The angel of the Lord prophesied about Samson and gave instructions to Samson’s mother. Samson’s mother was to offer up her son under a Nazarite vow. This was a special type of vow, dedicating Samson to Yahweh. Part of this vow prohibited the cutting of the person’s hair. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/vow]])

892

JDG

13

1

acr5

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The sight of Yahweh represents Yahweh’s judgment or evaluation. See how you translated this in Judges 2:11. Alternate translation: “what was evil in Yahweh’s judgment” or “what Yahweh considered to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

893

JDG

13

1

g29r

figs-metonymy

0

he gave them into the hand of the Philistines

Here “hand” refers to power to gain victory in battle. Alternate translation: “he allowed the Philistines to defeat them” or “he allowed them to be oppressed by the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

894

JDG

13

1

jxd2

translate-numbers

0

forty years

“40 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

895

JDG

13

2

y3dj

translate-names

0

Zorah

This was the name of a town in Israel. It was in the region of Judah near the border of Dan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

896

JDG

13

2

l3wl

0

Danites

people from the tribe of Dan

897

JDG

13

2

v9vw

translate-names

0

Manoah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

898

JDG

13

3

a36u

figs-idiom

0

give birth to a son

This refers to childbirth. Alternate translation: “bear a son” or “have a baby boy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

899

JDG

13

4

nfl8

figs-metaphor

0

anything unclean

Something that Yahweh has stated is unfit to eat is spoken of as if it were physically unclean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

900

JDG

13

5

q3p1

0

Look

Alternate translation: “Pay attention” or “Listen”

901

JDG

13

5

wb3h

figs-metonymy

0

No razor will be used upon his head

Here the word “head” refers to his hair. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “No one should ever cut his hair” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

902

JDG

13

5

lb1d

0

razor

a sharp knife used to cut hair close to the skin

903

JDG

13

5

vq8h

figs-explicit

0

a Nazirite to God

This means that he will be devoted to God as a Nazirite. Alternate translation: “a Nazirite devoted to God” or “devoted to God as a Nazirite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

904

JDG

13

5

zui7

figs-metonymy

0

from the womb

Here the word “womb” refers to the time before the child is born. Alternate translation: “from before he is born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

905

JDG

13

5

am6s

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of the Philistines

Here the word “hand” means control. Alternate translation: “the control of the Philistines” or “being under the Philistine’s control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

906

JDG

13

6

djg9

figs-explicit

0

A man of God

This means that the man was sent by God. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “A man that God sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

907

JDG

13

6

w3z3

figs-simile

0

his appearance was like that of an angel of God, very terrible

Here “terrible” means “frightening.” Alternate translation: “I was very afraid of him because he looked like an angel of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

908

JDG

13

7

n53c

0

Look

Alternate translation: “Pay attention” or “Listen”

909

JDG

13

7

p1sr

figs-idiom

0

give birth to a son

This refers to childbirth. Alternate translation: “bear a son” or “have a baby boy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

910

JDG

13

7

s1qy

figs-metaphor

0

any food that the law declares to be unclean

Something that Yahweh has stated is unfit to eat is spoken of as if it were physically unclean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

911

JDG

13

7

pd9a

figs-explicit

0

a Nazirite to God

This means that he will be devoted to God as a Nazirite. See how you translated this in Judges 3:5. Alternate translation: “a Nazirite devoted to God” or “devoted to God as a Nazirite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

912

JDG

13

7

xct1

figs-merism

0

from the time he is in your womb until the day of his death

This emphasizes that it would be for his entire life. Alternate translation: “all his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

913

JDG

13

8

nb4i

0

Manoah

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 13:2.

914

JDG

13

9

m96n

figs-explicit

0

came to the woman

You can make explicit the implicit meaning of the author’s words. Alternate translation: “came to Manoah’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

915

JDG

13

10

me6y

0

Look

Alternate translation: “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

916

JDG

13

10

snn4

figs-explicit

0

The man

This refers to the angel of God in Judges 13:3. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the man of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

917

JDG

13

12

gti5

0

your words

Alternate translation: “what you have said”

918

JDG

13

14

u67r

figs-metonymy

0

anything that comes from the vines

Here the angel refers to any food that grow on a vine as “coming” from the vine. Alternate translation: “anything that grows on a vine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

919

JDG

13

14

f8vu

figs-metaphor

0

unclean

Something that Yahweh has stated is unfit to eat is spoken of as if it were physically unclean. See how you translated this phrase in Judges 13:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

920

JDG

13

15

aw65

figs-explicit

0

prepare a young goat for you

You can make explicit the implicit meaning of Manoah’s statement. Alternate translation: “cook a young goat for you to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

921

JDG

13

17

ut4y

0

your words come true

Alternate translation: “what you have said comes true”

922

JDG

13

18

dsd7

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you ask my name?

The angel asks this question as a rebuke. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not ask me what my name is.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

923

JDG

13

18

rr96

figs-explicit

0

It is wonderful

It may be helpful to explain more explicitly why they should not ask his name. Alternate translation: “It is too wonderful for you to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

924

JDG

13

19

lw91

figs-explicit

0

with the grain offering

This law requires a grain offering to be offered when a burnt offering is made. Alternate translation: “with the grain offering required with it” or “with the grain offering to accompany it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

925

JDG

13

19

d2km

0

on the rock

“on the altar.” The altar Manoah sacrificed the offering on was a rock.

926

JDG

13

19

pqv4

0

He did something

Alternate translation: “The angel did something”

927

JDG

13

20

s8h8

0

the angel of Yahweh went up in the flame of the altar

Alternate translation: “the angel of Yahweh went back up into heaven through the flames on the altar”

928

JDG

13

20

g2fz

translate-symaction

0

lay facedown on the ground

“lay with their faces to the ground.” This is a sign of respect and honor, but it also shows their fear of Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

929

JDG

13

21

yi5q

0

that he was the angel of Yahweh

The word “he” refers to the man who Manoah and his wife had seen.

930

JDG

13

22

f9uz

figs-explicit

0

We are sure to die, because we have seen God

It is implied that they think God will cause them to die. This can be made clear. Alternate translation: “God will cause us to die because we have seen him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

931

JDG

13

23

u22x

figs-parallelism

0

He would not have shown us all these things, nor at this time would he have let us hear such things

Manoah’s wife said basically the same thing twice for emphasis. These two statements can be combined. Alternate translation: “He would not have told us what he wanted us to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

932

JDG

13

24

n565

0

the woman

Alternate translation: “Manoah’s wife”

933

JDG

13

24

lz2q

figs-idiom

0

gave birth to a son

This refers to childbirth. Alternate translation: “bore a son” or “had a baby boy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

934

JDG

13

24

ht9i

0

grew up

Alternate translation: “became an adult” or “matured”

935

JDG

13

25

hmc1

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh’s Spirit began to stir him

Here the way Yahweh’s Spirit influences Samson is compared to the way a spoon stirs food in a pot. Alternate translation: “Yahweh’s Spirit began to influence Samson” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

936

JDG

13

25

wnc2

translate-names

0

Mahaneh Dan … Eshtaol

Mahaneh Dan is the name of a temporary camp that the tribe of Dan lived in while they looked for a permanent home. Eshtaol is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

937

JDG

13

25

x4d3

0

Zorah

Translate the name of this town the same way you did in Judges 13:2.

938

JDG

14

intro

cl2d

0

Judges 14 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Samson continues in this chapter.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 14:14, 18.

Special concepts in this chapter

Intermarriage

It was considered sinful for an Israel to marry a Canaanite or anyone from a different people group. This is why Samson’s parents did not want him to marry a Philistine woman. They use rhetorical questions to convince him that he is sinning. This woman caused Samson many problems. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

939

JDG

14

1

bwa3

translate-names

0

Samson went down to Timnah

The phrase “went down” is used here because Timnah is lower in elevation than where his father’s house was. Timah is the name of a city in the Sorek Valley. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

940

JDG

14

1

u7xb

figs-euphemism

0

one of the daughters of the Philistines

The word “daughter” is a polite way to refer to a young, unmarried woman. Alternate translation: “one of the unmarried women among the Philistine people” or “a Philistine girl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

941

JDG

14

2

b9h1

figs-idiom

0

Now get her for me to be my wife

This is an idiom. Samson was demanding his parents to speak to the Philistine woman’s parents about marriage. Alternate translation: “Now arrange for her to become my wife” or “Make the arrangements for me to marry her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

942

JDG

14

3

lcb9

figs-rquestion

0

Is there not a woman among the daughters of your relatives, or among all our people?

They ask this question to suggest that they could find Samson a wife among their own people. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Surely there are women among your people whom you could marry.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

943

JDG

14

3

x278

figs-euphemism

0

the daughters of your relatives

The word “daughter” is a polite way to refer to a young, unmarried woman. Alternate translation: “one of the unmarried women among your relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

944

JDG

14

3

wj22

figs-rquestion

0

Are you going to take a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines?

This question is asked to rebuke Samson. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. You can make explicit the reason his parents do not want him to marry a Philistine. Alternate translation: “You really should not marry a Philistine woman because the Philistine people do not worship Yahweh.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

945

JDG

14

3

srv6

figs-idiom

0

Get her for me

This is an idiom. Samson was demanding his parents to speak to the Philistine woman’s parents about marriage. Alternate translation: “Now arrange for her to be my wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

946

JDG

14

3

r62c

figs-explicit

0

she pleases me

This means that Samson thinks she is beautiful. “I am pleased by how beautiful she is” or “she is beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

947

JDG

14

4

ubq9

0

this matter

This refers to Samson’s request to marry the Philistine woman.

948

JDG

14

4

k7hy

0

for he desired to create a conflict

The word “he” refers to Yahweh.

949

JDG

14

5

d4lt

translate-names

0

Samson went down to Timnah

The phrase “went down” is used here because Timnah is lower in elevation than where his father’s house was. Timnah was a city in the Sorek Valley. Translate the name of this city the same way you did in Judges 14:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

950

JDG

14

5

ty9r

figs-idiom

0

And, look, there one of the young lions came up

Here the word “look” is used to draw the readers attention to a surprising event that happens in the story. The phrase “came up” means that the lion came near him. Alternate translation: “Suddenly, a young lion came near him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

951

JDG

14

5

szi7

0

was roaring at him

“threatened him.” This is the kind of noise that a lion makes when it threatens to attack something.

952

JDG

14

6

m9m5

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh’s Spirit suddenly came on him

The phrase “came on” means that Yahweh’s Spirit influenced Samson. In this case, he made him very strong. Alternate translation: “Yahweh’s Spirit made him very strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

953

JDG

14

6

ryx9

0

tore … apart

tore into two pieces

954

JDG

14

6

t92d

figs-litotes

0

had nothing in his hand

Here it states that he had nothing in his hand to emphasize that he was not holding a weapon. Alternate translation: “did not have a weapon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

955

JDG

14

7

s2mj

figs-explicit

0

she pleased Samson

This means that he thought she was very beautiful. Alternate translation: “he was pleased by how beautiful she was” or “he thought she was very beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

956

JDG

14

8

d5v9

figs-idiom

0

he turned aside

This means that he left his path to do something. Alternate translation: “he left the path” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

957

JDG

14

8

ude7

0

carcass

dead body

958

JDG

14

8

um8z

figs-idiom

0

And, look, there was a swarm of bees

Here the word “look” is used to draw the reader’s attention to something surprising that happens in the story. Alternate translation: “He found a swarm of bees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

959

JDG

14

8

y8ha

0

swarm

large group of insects

960

JDG

14

9

u3ie

0

scraped up

Alternate translation: “gathered up”

961

JDG

14

10

cm3z

figs-idiom

0

Samson’s father went down to where the woman was

The phrase “went down” is used to describe Timnah which is lower in elevation than where Samson’s father lives. Alternate translation: “Samson’s father went to where the woman lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

962

JDG

14

10

ugh2

figs-explicit

0

the custom of the young men

It may be helpful to state that this was a marriage custom. Alternate translation: “the custom of young men who were getting married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

963

JDG

14

11

ff89

translate-numbers

0

thirty of their friends

“30 of their friends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

964

JDG

14

12

kh6c

0

riddle

a game in which the players must discover the answer to a difficult question

965

JDG

14

12

a8er

figs-idiom

0

can find it out

This means to figure out the meaning of the riddle. Alternate translation: “can figure out its meaning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

966

JDG

14

12

fk4t

translate-numbers

0

thirty linen robes and thirty sets of clothes

“30 linen robes and 30 sets of clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

967

JDG

14

12

ze1u

0

linen

a type of cloth

968

JDG

14

13

yu1y

figs-you

0

But if you cannot tell me

Here the word “you” is plural and refers to the guests at the feast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

969

JDG

14

14

z49r

0

General Information:

Samson tells his riddle. Since it is supposed to be hard to understand, do not translate it in a way that people will immediately know what it means.

970

JDG

14

14

j8sv

0

Out of the eater was something to eat

Alternate translation: “Out of the eater came something to eat” or “Something to eat came out of something that eats”

971

JDG

14

14

mcm3

0

the eater

The noun “eater” can be expressed as a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “the thing that eats”

972

JDG

14

14

hsz9

0

out of the strong was something sweet

Alternate translation: “out of the strong came something sweet” or “Something that is sweet came out of something that is strong”

973

JDG

14

14

ck4e

figs-nominaladj

0

the strong

This refers to something that is strong. Alternate translation: “the strong thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

974

JDG

14

14

bdu6

0

his guests

Alternate translation: “the men at his feast”

975

JDG

14

14

mf31

figs-metaphor

0

could not find the answer

Here figuring out the answer to the riddle is spoke of as if it were something hidden that the guest had to search for and find. Alternate translation: “could not figure out the answer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

976

JDG

14

15

wrs2

translate-ordinal

0

the fourth day

“day 4” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

977

JDG

14

15

w5dc

0

Trick

mislead or fool someone into doing something they would not want to do

978

JDG

14

15

jx5r

figs-metonymy

0

your father’s house

This could mean: (1) this refers to the actual house. Alternate translation: “the house your father and his family live in” or (2) “house” refers to the people who live in it. Alternate translation: “your family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

979

JDG

14

15

t8sh

figs-idiom

0

will burn up

The phrase “burn up” means to burn something completely. If a person is “burnt up,” it means that person is burned to death. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

980

JDG

14

15

si25

figs-rquestion

0

Did you invite us here in order to make us poor?

They ask her this question to accuse her of doing evil. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have brought us here to make us poor!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

981

JDG

14

15

sg4i

figs-explicit

0

to make us poor

They would become poor if they had to buy him new clothes if they could not solve the riddle. Alternate translation: “to make us poor by forcing us to buy him new clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

982

JDG

14

16

hr3k

figs-parallelism

0

All you do is hate me! You do not love me

Samson’s wife basically said the same thing twice for emphasis. Alternate translation: “You do not really love me at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

983

JDG

14

16

d72a

0

riddle

a game in which the players must discover the answer to a difficult question

984

JDG

14

16

j4gp

0

Look here

This is used to get someones attention. Here “look” means to “listen.” Alternate translation: “Listen to me” or “Pay attention to what I am about to say”

985

JDG

14

16

zq8z

figs-rquestion

0

if I have not told my father or my mother, should I tell you?

Samson was rebuking her for demanding that he tell her the answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I have not even told my father or mother. I will not tell you.” or “you should not demand that I tell you, since I have not even told my parents, and they are closer to me than you are.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

986

JDG

14

17

ejm7

0

during the seven days that their feast lasted

This could mean: (1) “during the seven days of their feast” or (2) “during the rest of the seven days of their feast.”

987

JDG

14

17

rfq6

translate-ordinal

0

the seventh day

“day 7” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

988

JDG

14

17

xid1

figs-idiom

0

she pressured him very much

Here the word “pressured” means “urged.” Alternate translation: “she kept urging him to tell her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

989

JDG

14

18

ui6t

figs-explicit

0

the men of the city

This refers to Samson’s wife’s relatives. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “the young men” or “her relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

990

JDG

14

18

mq6y

translate-ordinal

0

the seventh day

“day 7” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

991

JDG

14

18

vi1z

figs-rquestion

0

What is sweeter than honey? What is stronger than a lion?

This is the answer to the riddle. It may be written as a statement instead of as questions. If necessary it could be made clear how this relates to the riddle by adding more information. Alternate translation: “Honey is sweet and a lion is strong.” or “Honey is sweet and it came out of a lion.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

992

JDG

14

18

scv6

figs-metaphor

0

If you had not plowed with my heifer

Samson compares their using his wife to get the answer to someone using another person’s heifer to plow his field. Alternate translation: “If you had not used my wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

993

JDG

14

18

cl8w

0

plowed

To plow is to use an animal to pull a blade through soil to prepare the soil for seeds.

994

JDG

14

19

m2gz

figs-idiom

0

came on Samson with power

The phrase “came on” means that Yahweh’s Spirit influenced Samson. In this case, he made him very strong. Alternate translation: “made Samson very strong” or “made Samson very powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

995

JDG

14

19

ht3c

translate-numbers

0

killed thirty of their men

“killed 30 of their men” - (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

996

JDG

14

19

kc4e

0

their men

Alternate translation: “the men who lived there”

997

JDG

14

19

u2u5

0

plunder

things taken by force, usually after a fight or battle

998

JDG

14

19

axx7

figs-explicit

0

their clothes

These were from the plunder he had taken from Ashkelon. Alternate translation: “the sets of clothing that he had taken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

999

JDG

14

19

ym43

0

Burning with anger

Alternate translation: “Very angry”

1000

JDG

14

19

d5ji

0

went up to his father’s house

The phrase “went up” is used here because Samson was at Timnah which is lower in elevation than where his father’s house is located.

1001

JDG

14

20

hb14

figs-activepassive

0

Samson’s wife was given to his best friend

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “his wife’s father gave her to his best friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1002

JDG

14

20

ibt7

0

best friend

Alternate translation: “closest friend”

1003

JDG

15

intro

dn16

0

Judges 15 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Samson continues in this chapter.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 15:16.

Special concepts in this chapter

Samson’s strength

The Spirit of Yahweh rushed upon Samson. This meant God gave Samson extraordinary strength. Samson’s power is the power of Yahweh himself and he enacted the judgment of God on the Philistines. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyspirit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

1004

JDG

15

1

gn7w

figs-idiom

0

He said to himself

This refers to thinking. Alternate translation: “He thought to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1005

JDG

15

1

n6ml

figs-explicit

0

I will go to my wife’s room

Samson intended to sleep with his wife. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “I will go to my wife’s room, so we may sleep together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1006

JDG

15

1

hmg4

figs-ellipsis

0

would not allow him to go in

The phrase “her room” is understood from what Samson said to himself. It can be repeated here. Alternate translation: “would not permit him to go into her room” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1007

JDG

15

2

f2qk

figs-explicit

0

so I gave her to your friend

This means that he gave her to be his friend’s wife. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “so I gave her to be married to your friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1008

JDG

15

2

pn1a

figs-rquestion

0

is she not?

He asks this question to imply that Samson should agree with him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I hope you agree.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1009

JDG

15

2

ruf2

figs-explicit

0

Take her instead

He is suggesting that Samson take her as his wife. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Take her to be your wife instead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1010

JDG

15

3

b19a

figs-explicit

0

I will be innocent in regard to the Philistines when I hurt them

Samson thinks that he will be innocent if he attacks the Philistines because they wronged him. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “I will be innocent if I hurt the Philistines because they have wronged me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1011

JDG

15

4

vl3y

translate-numbers

0

three hundred foxes

“300 foxes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1012

JDG

15

4

bxn9

0

foxes

Foxes are animals like dogs that have long tails and that eat nesting birds and other small animals.

1013

JDG

15

4

g4ms

0

each pair

a pair is two of anything, such as two foxes, or two tails

1014

JDG

15

4

l3z7

0

tail to tail

Alternate translation: “by their tails”

1015

JDG

15

4

b6p3

0

torches

A torch is a stick of wood with something flammable attached to one end; a torch is often used to light other things or to be carried for light.

1016

JDG

15

5

p7mc

0

standing grain

grain that is still growing on its stalk in the field

1017

JDG

15

5

i6qn

0

stacked grain

the stalks of grain collected in piles after it has been harvested

1018

JDG

15

5

a7kw

0

orchards

An orchard is a place where fruit trees are grown.

1019

JDG

15

6

mns7

0

the Timnite’s son-in-law

The husband of a man’s daughter is a “son-in-law.”

1020

JDG

15

6

r78s

translate-names

0

Timnite

This is a person from Timnah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1021

JDG

15

6

uk9a

figs-explicit

0

took Samson’s wife and gave her to his friend

Samson’s wife’s father gave her in marriage to Samson’s friend. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “took Samson’s wife and allowed her to marry Samson’s friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1022

JDG

15

6

hz8u

figs-idiom

0

burned up

The phrase “burned up” means to burn something completely. If a person is “burned up,” it means that person is burned to death. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1023

JDG

15

7

sj8e

0

said to them

Alternate translation: “said to the Philistines”

1024

JDG

15

7

k4eu

0

If this is what you do

Alternate translation: “Because you have done this.”

1025

JDG

15

8

x42b

figs-synecdoche

0

he cut them to pieces, hip and thigh

Here “hip and thigh” refers to the whole body. This is a graphic description of how Samson killed the Philistines. Alternate translation: “He cut their bodies to pieces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1026

JDG

15

8

m2qa

figs-idiom

0

he went down

Here the phrase “went down” does not likely mean that he changed elevation, but rather, it is a way to describe someone going to another place. Alternate translation: “he went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1027

JDG

15

8

xk3p

0

cave

an opening in a hill or mountainside

1028

JDG

15

8

yl63

0

cliff

a high, rocky hill or mountainside

1029

JDG

15

8

b6rw

translate-names

0

Etam

This is the name of the rocky hill country near Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1030

JDG

15

9

g7cb

0

the Philistines came up … in Judah

The phrase “came up” is used here because the Philistines went to Judah which is higher in elevation than where they traveled from.

1031

JDG

15

9

fkh2

0

prepared for battle

Alternate translation: “organized themselves for battle”

1032

JDG

15

9

v6jw

translate-names

0

Lehi

This is the name of a town in Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1033

JDG

15

10

ut2q

figs-explicit

0

do to him as he has done to us

The Philistines are comparing how they want to kill Samson to how he killed many of the Philistines. Alternate translation: “kill him like he killed many of our people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1034

JDG

15

11

y64p

translate-numbers

0

three thousand men of Judah

“3,000 men of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1035

JDG

15

11

ji18

0

cave in the cliff of Etam

See how you translated this phrase in Judges 15:8.

1036

JDG

15

11

k7fw

figs-rquestion

0

Do you not know that the Philistines are rulers over us? What is this you have done to us?

The men of Judah ask Samson these questions to rebuke him. This questions may be written as a statements. Alternate translation: “You know that the Philistines are rulers over us but you act like they are not. What you have done has caused us great harm.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1037

JDG

15

11

td2d

figs-explicit

0

They did to me, and so I have done to them

Samson is referring to how they killed his wife and how he killed them in revenge. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “They killed my wife, so I killed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1038

JDG

15

12

a6ty

figs-metonymy

0

the hands of the Philistines

Here “hands” refers to power. Alternate translation: “the Philistine’s control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1039

JDG

15

13

nz1k

figs-idiom

0

hand you over to them

This means to cause someone to be under someone else’s control. Alternate translation: “give you to the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1040

JDG

15

13

m8g6

figs-explicit

0

up from the rock

This refers to the cave in the cliff of Etam where Samson had gone in Judges 15:8. Here the words “up from” mean that they had brought him away from the cave. Alternate translation: “away from the cave in the large rock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1041

JDG

15

14

dr4z

figs-explicit

0

When he came

Samson was not travelling alone, he was being led by the men who had tied him with ropes. Alternate translation: “When they came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1042

JDG

15

14

xp7l

0

Lehi

This is the name of a town in Judah. See how you translated this in Judges 15:9.

1043

JDG

15

14

w48h

figs-idiom

0

came on him with power

The phrase “came on” means that Yahweh’s Spirit influenced Samson. In this case, he made him very strong. Alternate translation: “made Samson very strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1044

JDG

15

14

nue5

figs-simile

0

The ropes on his arms became like burnt flax

Samson easily broken the ropes that bound his hands. The author describes how easily he broke the ropes by saying it was as if they had become burnt flax. Alternate translation: “He snapped the ropes on his arms as easily as if they had been stalks of burned flax” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1045

JDG

15

14

d1fe

0

flax

fibers from the flax plant used for making threads and cloth

1046

JDG

15

15

w6nt

0

a fresh jawbone

This means that the donkey had died very recently and its bones had not yet begun to decay. A jawbone is the bone in which the lower rows of teeth are set.

1047

JDG

15

15

nb59

translate-numbers

0

a thousand men

“1,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1048

JDG

15

16

dzp6

0

the jawbone of a donkey

Alternate translation: “a donkey’s jawbone”

1049

JDG

15

16

dm4v

figs-explicit

0

heaps upon heaps

This phrase describes how many people Samson killed. There were enough bodies to make large piles of bodies. Alternate translation: “I have made heaps of dead bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1050

JDG

15

17

ra2d

translate-names

0

Ramath Lehi

This is the name of a place. It’s name means “Jawbone Hill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1051

JDG

15

18

ta26

0

was very thirsty

Alternate translation: “needed water to drink”

1052

JDG

15

18

t3wx

figs-hyperbole

0

But now will I die of thirst and fall into … uncircumcised?

This could mean: (1) Samson is so thirsty he could literally die. Alternate translation: “But now I will die of thirst and my body will fall into … uncircumcised.” or (2) Samson exaggerates how thirsty he is by asking if he will die of thirst. Alternate translation: “But now will you allow me to become so weak from my thirst that I fall into … uncircumcised?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1053

JDG

15

18

h9yr

figs-idiom

0

die of thirst

This means to die because you have not drank enough and therefore, you do not have enough water in your body. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1054

JDG

15

18

u4x9

figs-idiom

0

fall into the hands of those who are uncircumcised

The phrase “fall into the hands” means to be captured. “Those who are uncircumcised” refers to the Philistines and with the word “uncircumcised” emphasizing that they do not worship Yahweh. Alternate translation: “be captured by those godless Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1055

JDG

15

19

c7pf

0

split open the hollow place

“opened a hole in the ground” or “opened the low place.” This refers to a low area of ground where Yahweh caused a spring of water to appear.

1056

JDG

15

19

c776

0

Lehi

See how you translated this in Judges 15:9

1057

JDG

15

19

rty1

figs-parallelism

0

his strength returned and he revived

These two phrase mean basically the same thing and emphasize that Samson became strong again. These two statements can be combined. Alternate translation: “he became strong again” or “he was revived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1058

JDG

15

19

r7ji

translate-names

0

En Hakkore

This is the name of a spring of water. The name means “spring of him who prayed.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1059

JDG

15

19

k47v

figs-idiom

0

it is at Lehi to this day

This means that the spring did not dry up but that it remained. The phrase “to this day” refers to the “present” time. Alternate translation: “the spring can still be found at Lehi, even today” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1060

JDG

15

20

ru29

figs-explicit

0

in the days of the Philistines

This refers to the time period that the Philistines controlled the land of Israel. Alternate translation: “during the time the Philistines controlled Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1061

JDG

15

20

l52v

translate-numbers

0

for twenty years

“for 20 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1062

JDG

16

intro

u81n

0

Judges 16 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The account of Samson concludes in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Samson’s mistake

Samson mistakenly thought that he was the source of his strength. He did not realize that Yahweh had left him and without Yahweh, he had no strength. This was not Samson’s only mistake. His foreign wife created most of his problems.

1063

JDG

16

1

l289

figs-euphemism

0

he went to bed with her

The phrase “went to bed with” is a polite way of referring to having sex. Alternate translation: “he had sex with her” or “he slept with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1064

JDG

16

2

j859

translate-names

0

The Gazites were told

The word “Gazites” refers to people from Gaza. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone told the people of Gaza” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1065

JDG

16

2

fyj2

0

The Gazites surrounded the place … they waited for him all night at the city gate

This implies that some Gazites surrounded the place where Samson was staying and others waited at the city gate so that he could not leave.

1066

JDG

16

2

lsy6

0

They kept silent all night

This could mean: (1) “They did not make any noise all night” or (2) “They made no attempt to attack him all night.”

1067

JDG

16

3

iye2

0

until midnight

Alternate translation: “until the middle of the night”

1068

JDG

16

3

fv5x

0

its two posts

These are supports for the city gate. These posts were probably made from tree trunks and were buried deep into the ground. The doors of the city gate were attached to these posts.

1069

JDG

16

3

c2m4

0

bar and all

The bar was probably a heavy rod of iron that connected the gate to the posts. The doors of the city gate were probably made of heavy wooden beams or iron bars.

1070

JDG

16

3

m4dx

0

shoulders

the part of the human body where the arms and the neck attach to the body

1071

JDG

16

3

yq6t

translate-names

0

Hebron

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1072

JDG

16

4

itb4

translate-names

0

Valley of Sorek

This is the name of a valley near Samson’s home. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1073

JDG

16

5

c6wz

0

Trick

to mislead or fool someone into doing something they would not want to do

1074

JDG

16

5

x4w2

figs-idiom

0

to see

This is an idiom that means to learn something. Alternate translation: “to understand” or “to learn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1075

JDG

16

5

vq28

figs-idiom

0

where his great strength lies

This is an idiom that refers to where his strength comes from. Alternate translation: “what causes him to be very strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1076

JDG

16

5

y38x

0

by what means we may overpower him

Alternate translation: “how we might overpower him”””

1077

JDG

16

5

g3bg

translate-numbers

0

1,100 pieces of silver

“one thousand one hundred pieces of silver.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1078

JDG

16

6

r4hy

figs-activepassive

0

bind you, so you might be controlled

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “bind you to control you” or “bind you to restrain you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1079

JDG

16

7

ae1p

0

fresh bowstrings

Bowstrings were often made from parts of an animal, often from the tendons. The words “fresh bowstrings” refer to those that come from a freshly slaughtered animal that have not yet dried.

1080

JDG

16

7

z8ml

figs-activepassive

0

that have not been dried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that have not yet dried” or “that are not dry yet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1081

JDG

16

8

xv64

figs-activepassive

0

that had not been dried

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that had not yet dried” or “that were not dry yet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1082

JDG

16

8

xt1g

0

she tied Samson up with them

Alternate translation: “Delilah tied Samson up with the fresh bowstrings”

1083

JDG

16

9

n6px

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author tells background information about Philistine men that Delilah had waiting to capture Samson. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1084

JDG

16

9

by3q

figs-idiom

0

The Philistines are upon you

The phrase “upon you” means that they are ready to capture him. Alternate translation: “The Philistines are here to capture you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1085

JDG

16

9

sy3a

figs-simile

0

he broke the bowstrings like a thread of yarn when it touches the fire

The author describes how easily he broke the bowstrings by comparing them to how yarn breaks when it is burned. Alternate translation: “he broke the bowstrings as easily as if he were breaking burned yarn” or “he broke the bowstrings as easily as if they were made of thin yarn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1086

JDG

16

10

x2km

figs-parallelism

0

This is how you have deceived me and told me lies.

Deceiving and lying mean the same thing and are stated to emphasize how angry Delilah felt. Alternate translation: “You have greatly deceived me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1087

JDG

16

10

e5iw

0

you can be overpowered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people can overpower you”

1088

JDG

16

12

vpr3

figs-idiom

0

The Philistines are upon you

The phrase “upon you” means that they are there to capture him. Alternate translation: “The Philistines are here to capture you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1089

JDG

16

12

rnx9

figs-idiom

0

lying in wait

This means that they were hiding and waiting for the right moment to attack. Alternate translation: “waiting to attack him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1090

JDG

16

12

j7zp

figs-simile

0

like they were a piece of thread

The author describes how easily Samson broke the ropes by comparing it to him breaking a piece of thread. Alternate translation: “as easily as if they were only a piece of thread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1091

JDG

16

13

hg41

figs-parallelism

0

you have deceived me and told me lies

Deceiving and lying mean the same thing and are stated to emphasize how angry Delilah felt. Alternate translation: “you have greatly deceived me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1092

JDG

16

13

t97z

figs-activepassive

0

you may be overpowered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people can overpower you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1093

JDG

16

13

s6f3

0

weave

crossing pieces of material together so they hold each other in place

1094

JDG

16

13

h8x3

0

locks of my hair

small bunches of hair

1095

JDG

16

13

c2e8

0

fabric

cloth made from weaving material together

1096

JDG

16

13

wv5v

translate-unknown

0

loom

a machine used for combining many threads of material into a cloth (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1097

JDG

16

13

gkr7

0

then nail that to the loom

Alternate translation: “then nail the fabric to the loom”

1098

JDG

16

13

pn2m

0

nail

to hammer a nail in order to hold something in one place

1099

JDG

16

13

w58a

figs-explicit

0

I will be like any other man

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “I will be as weak as any other man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1100

JDG

16

14

h61l

figs-idiom

0

The Philistines are upon you

The phrase “upon you” means that they are there to capture him. Alternate translation: “The Philistines are here to capture you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1101

JDG

16

14

k9fi

figs-explicit

0

he pulled out the fabric and the pin from the loom

Samson pulled out the fabric from the loom when he pulled his hair away from the loom. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “pulled away his hair, taking with it the pin of the loom and the fabric in the loom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1102

JDG

16

14

lc6p

0

the pin

This is the wooden nail or peg used to fasten the fabric to the loom.

1103

JDG

16

15

zzt1

figs-rquestion

0

How can you say, ‘I love you,’ when you do not share your secrets with me?

Delilah asks this question to say that if Samson really loved her he would tell her his secrets. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “When you say ‘I love you,’ you are lying because you do not share your secrets with me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1104

JDG

16

16

s5ui

figs-idiom

0

pressed him hard … pressured him

Here the author speaks of how Delilah tries to persuade Samson as if she were putting pressure on him to convince him to tell her what she wants to know. Alternate translation: “tried hard to persuade him … kept trying to persuade him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1105

JDG

16

16

imn2

0

with her words

Alternate translation: “by what she said to him”

1106

JDG

16

16

iqa6

figs-hyperbole

0

that he wished he would die

The author used a hyperbole, an exaggeration, to emphasize how miserable Sampson felt. Alternate translation: “that he was completely miserable” or “that he was very unhappy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1107

JDG

16

17

c8q9

figs-explicit

0

told her everything

everything about the source of his strength. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “told her the source of his strength” or “told her the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1108

JDG

16

17

y8xz

0

razor

a sharp blade used to cut hair close to a person’s skin

1109

JDG

16

17

z2nf

figs-explicit

0

a Nazirite for God

This means that he is devoted to God as a Nazirite. See how you translated a similar phrase in Judges 13:5. Alternate translation: “a Nazirite devoted to God” or “devoted to God as a Nazirite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1110

JDG

16

17

fhm4

figs-metonymy

0

from my mother’s womb

Here “from my mother’s womb” refers to when he was born. This means that he has been a Nazirite since he was born. Alternate translation: “my entire life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1111

JDG

16

17

t2us

figs-activepassive

0

If my head is shaved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “If someone shaves my head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1112

JDG

16

17

seg5

0

shaved

to have had the hair cut close to the skin with a razor

1113

JDG

16

17

iq1l

figs-personification

0

my strength will leave me

Samson speaks about his strength as if it were a person who could leave him. Alternate translation: “I will not be strong any more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1114

JDG

16

18

m9zg

figs-idiom

0

Delilah saw

Here the word “saw” is a idiom that means to realize something. Alternate translation: “Delilah realized” or “Delilah learned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1115

JDG

16

18

z2eu

figs-explicit

0

the truth about everything

Here the word “everything” refers to everything about why Samson was strong. Alternate translation: “the truth about why he is strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1116

JDG

16

18

x4mm

0

Come up again

Delilah is telling the rulers to come again to where she lives. Her home is likely at a higher elevation than where the rulers would be travelling from.

1117

JDG

16

18

ipi8

figs-explicit

0

bringing the silver in their hands

This means that they brought to her the silver that they had promised to give her if she helped them capture Samson. Alternate translation: “bringing the silver that they had promised to give her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1118

JDG

16

19

h2jg

0

She had him fall asleep

Alternate translation: “She caused him to fall asleep”

1119

JDG

16

19

x4y8

figs-explicit

0

in her lap

This means that he slept with his head on her lap. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “with his head on her lap” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1120

JDG

16

19

gjg3

0

lap

The lap is the level area of the upper legs when a person is sitting down.

1121

JDG

16

19

vai4

figs-possession

0

the seven locks of his head

Samson had seven locks of hair on his head. Locks are small bunches of hair. Here his locks of hair are described as “belonging” to his head. Alternate translation: “the seven locks of hair on his head” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1122

JDG

16

19

w8dj

0

subdue him

Alternate translation: “control him”

1123

JDG

16

19

qt31

figs-personification

0

his strength had left him

Here Samson’s strength is described as if it were a person who could leave him. Alternate translation: “his strength was gone” or “he was no longer strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1124

JDG

16

20

e9dj

figs-idiom

0

The Philistines are upon you

The phrase “upon you” means that they are ready to capture him. Alternate translation: “The Philistines are here to capture you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1125

JDG

16

20

jt7e

0

woke up

Alternate translation: “awakened”

1126

JDG

16

20

n31e

0

get out

Alternate translation: “escape”

1127

JDG

16

20

n47x

figs-explicit

0

But he did not know that Yahweh had left him

It is implied that if Yahweh left Samson, he would no longer be strong. Alternate translation: “But he did not know that Yahweh had left him and that he would not be strong enough to defeat the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1128

JDG

16

21

ve9n

figs-idiom

0

put out his eyes

This means that they removed his eyes from his head. Alternate translation: “removed his eyes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1129

JDG

16

21

z2vv

0

down to Gaza

The phrase “down to” is used here because they brought Samson to Gaza which is lower in elevation than his home where they captured him.

1130

JDG

16

21

t7gr

0

bound him with bronze shackles

Alternate translation: “chained him with bronze shackles” or “tied him up using bronze shackles”

1131

JDG

16

21

t1sq

0

shackles

locks on the end of chains that hold a prisoner at his feet or hands, or both

1132

JDG

16

21

mn74

0

turned the millstone

Alternate translation: “pulled the millstone around in a circle”

1133

JDG

16

21

ujq1

0

millstone

This is a very large, heavy, circular stone. Normally, a large animal pulls the millstone around in a circle to crush grain. Here the Philistines humiliate Samson by making him pull it.

1134

JDG

16

22

ru6p

figs-activepassive

0

after it had been shaved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “after the Philistines had shaved it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1135

JDG

16

23

b13v

translate-names

0

Dagon

a major false god of the Philistines (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1136

JDG

16

23

p125

0

has conquered

Alternate translation: “has defeated”

1137

JDG

16

23

ekg1

figs-metaphor

0

put him in our grasp

Here the author speak of Samson being under the rulers’ control as if he were something grasped tightly by their hands. Alternate translation: “put him under our control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1138

JDG

16

24

ums1

0

the destroyer of our country

This refers to Samson. The word “destroyer” can be expressed with the verb “destroy.” Alternate translation: “the man who has destroyed our country”

1139

JDG

16

24

y4qk

figs-synecdoche

0

who killed many of us

Here the word “us” refers to the Philistine people. Those who are talking are not counting themselves among the people whom Samson killed. Alternate translation: “who killed many of our people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1140

JDG

16

25

hiy5

figs-explicit

0

Call for Samson … They called for Samson

Since Samson was a prisoner, he would not be called directly, but rather the people were asking for the men in charge of the prison to bring him to them. Alternate translation: “Call for them to bring out Samson … They brought Samson” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1141

JDG

16

26

b8yg

0

the boy

“the young man” This was not a young child, but rather a youth.

1142

JDG

16

26

d2gs

0

Permit me to touch the pillars on which the building rests

Alternate translation: “Allow me to touch the pillars which hold up the building”

1143

JDG

16

27

fx8p

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story while the writer tells background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1144

JDG

16

27

cp19

translate-numbers

0

three thousand men and women

“3,000 men and women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1145

JDG

16

27

l6hc

0

looking on

Alternate translation: “watching”

1146

JDG

16

27

ulj6

0

while Samson was entertaining them

It is unclear what Samson did to entertain them. It seems the Philistines were making him do things that would humiliate him so that they could make fun of him.

1147

JDG

16

28

n4yh

0

called to Yahweh

Alternate translation: “prayed to Yahweh”

1148

JDG

16

28

ypq4

figs-idiom

0

call me to mind

This means to remember him and his situation. Alternate translation: “remember me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1149

JDG

16

28

ld69

0

only this once

Alternate translation: “one more time”

1150

JDG

16

28

f2en

figs-idiom

0

in one blow on the Philistines

This idiom means that he wants to have one more powerful act against the Philistines to get full revenge for what they did to him. Alternate translation: “with one strike against the Philistine” or “in one powerful act against the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1151

JDG

16

29

dmd3

0

on which the building rested

Alternate translation: “which held up the building”

1152

JDG

16

30

mt5g

figs-explicit

0

He stretched out with his strength

When Samson stretched out his arms he pushed down the pillars of the building. Alternate translation: “He used his strength to push down the pillars” or “He used his strength to push over the pillars” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1153

JDG

16

30

i5lw

figs-nominaladj

0

the dead

This refers to people who are dead. Alternate translation: “the dead people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1154

JDG

16

30

u7yd

0

were more

Alternate translation: “were a greater amount”

1155

JDG

16

31

rl5r

figs-metonymy

0

all the house of his father

Here the word “house” refers to his family. Alternate translation: “all of his father’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1156

JDG

16

31

jg6m

0

came down

The phrase “came down” is used here because the place that Samson’s family traveled form was higher in elevation than Gaza.

1157

JDG

16

31

na1k

0

Zorah … Eshtaol

See how you translated the names of these places in Judges 13:2 and Judges 13:25.

1158

JDG

16

31

de6c

0

in the burial place of Manoah, his father

Alternate translation: “where his father, Manoah, is buried”

1159

JDG

16

31

i2d4

translate-names

0

Manoah

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 13:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1160

JDG

16

31

wv8z

figs-explicit

0

Samson had judged Israel for twenty years

This same sentence is also in Judges 15:20. It is repeated here to remind readers of how long he judged Israel. Alternate translation: “Samson had judged Israel for twenty years before he died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1161

JDG

16

31

vmv2

translate-numbers

0

twenty years

“20 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1162

JDG

17

intro

c454

0

Judges 17 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins a section explaining how Israel came to have a king.

Special concepts in this chapter

Idols and figures

According to the law of Moses, the Israelites were prohibited from making wooden figures or cast metal idols. This was a form of idolatry. This practice was common in Canaan and it shows the influence the Israelites allowed these people to have on them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]])

1163

JDG

17

1

rrp1

writing-participants

0

There was a man

This is a way to introduce a new person to the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1164

JDG

17

1

ke46

translate-names

0

Micah

This is the name of a man. It is not the same man who wrote the book of Micah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1165

JDG

17

2

c1x6

translate-numbers

0

1,100 pieces

“one thousand one hundred pieces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1166

JDG

17

2

k7it

figs-activepassive

0

that were taken from you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “which someone stole from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1167

JDG

17

2

m56x

0

I stole it

Alternate translation: “I was the one who took it”

1168

JDG

17

3

z9j9

translate-numbers

0

1,100 pieces

“one thousand one hundred” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1169

JDG

17

3

p6yd

figs-idiom

0

set apart

This means to dedicate something to a specific purpose. Alternate translation: “dedicate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1170

JDG

17

3

sc6v

0

cast metal

metal that has been melted and poured into a mold to form a special shape

1171

JDG

17

3

ss9u

0

I restore it to you

Alternate translation: “I give it back to you”

1172

JDG

17

4

xsr8

translate-numbers

0

two hundred pieces of silver

“200 pieces of silver” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1173

JDG

17

4

r9hl

figs-activepassive

0

they were placed in the house of Micah

The word “they” refers to the metal figures. This may be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Micah placed them in his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1174

JDG

17

5

f5zy

figs-explicit

0

a house of idols

This refers to a house used specifically for worshiping idols. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “a house for worshiping idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1175

JDG

17

6

mxx3

figs-metaphor

0

everyone did what was right in his own eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “each person did what he decided was right” or “each person did what he judged to be right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1176

JDG

17

7

z9bc

0

of Bethlehem

Alternate translation: “from Bethlehem”

1177

JDG

17

7

u5wv

figs-explicit

0

of the clan of Judah

This means that he was living among the family of Judah, that is, the tribe of Judah. Alternate translation: “who was living among the tribe of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1178

JDG

17

7

ktm7

0

He stayed there to fulfill his duties

Alternate translation: “He lived and worked there”

1179

JDG

17

8

pd1z

0

find a place to live

Alternate translation: “find a different place to live”

1180

JDG

17

9

u9x8

figs-explicit

0

where I might live

It is implied that he is looking for a place to live and work. Alternate translation: “where I might live and have a job” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1181

JDG

17

10

s5tz

figs-metonymy

0

a father and a priest

The word “father” is here used in the sense of an advisor, and not to a literal father. Alternate translation: “an advisor and a priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1182

JDG

17

10

mw13

0

I will give you ten pieces of silver a year

Alternate translation: “I will give you ten pieces of silver each year”

1183

JDG

17

10

j73e

0

a suit of clothes

Alternate translation: “a set of clothes”

1184

JDG

17

10

tm7m

figs-explicit

0

So the Levite went into his house

It is implied that the Levite accepted Micah’s offer, and therefore, entered Micah’s house. Alternate translation: “So the Levite accepted his offer and went into his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1185

JDG

17

11

mvs9

figs-simile

0

the young man became to Micah like one of his sons

The relationship between the Levite and Micah became like the close relationship between a father and son. Alternate translation: “the young man became close to Micah and was like one of his sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1186

JDG

17

12

t9an

figs-idiom

0

Micah set apart the Levite

Here “set apart” means that Micah “dedicated” or “ordained” him. Alternate translation: “Micah dedicated the Levite” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1187

JDG

17

12

s6d6

figs-metonymy

0

was in Micah’s house

Here living in Micah’s house is spoken of as “being” in his house. Alternate translation: “lived in Micah’s house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1188

JDG

18

intro

y2ru

0

Judges 18 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The tribe of Dan

The tribe of Dan lacked faith in Yahweh and had yet to conquer its inheritance. In this chapter, they begin to conquer their land, but they also started to worship an idol. Their conquering of the land is much different than the other tribes’ victories. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]])

1189

JDG

18

1

d1r4

writing-newevent

0

In those days

This phrase introduces the beginning of another event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1190

JDG

18

1

w9qn

writing-background

0

In those days … from among the tribes of Israel

This is background information about Israel and the people of the tribe of Dan. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1191

JDG

18

1

g4f2

figs-explicit

0

not received any inheritance from

This refers specifically to land inherited where they would live. Alternate translation: “not received a land inheritance from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1192

JDG

18

2

f83t

figs-metonymy

0

from the whole number of their tribe

The phrase “the whole number” refers to all of the men in the tribe. Alternate translation: “from among all of the men in their tribe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1193

JDG

18

2

j6xd

0

experienced warriors

Alternate translation: “experienced fighters”

1194

JDG

18

2

jv96

0

Zorah

See how you translated the name of this town in Judges 13:2.

1195

JDG

18

2

cgy7

0

Eshtaol

See how you translated the name of this town in Judges 13:25.

1196

JDG

18

2

wg6e

figs-idiom

0

to scout the land on foot

The phrase “on foot” means to walk. Alternate translation: “to scout the land by walking through it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1197

JDG

18

2

bt98

0

Micah

See how you translated this man’s name in Judges 17:1.

1198

JDG

18

3

c2tl

figs-metonymy

0

they recognized the speech of the young Levite

They recognized the man by the sound of his voice. Here “speech” refers to his “voice.” Alternate translation: “they heard the young Levite talking, and they recognized his voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1199

JDG

18

7

i57p

translate-names

0

Laish

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1200

JDG

18

7

a8c9

0

There was no one who conquered

Alternate translation: “There were no enemies living in their land who had conquered them”

1201

JDG

18

7

ch81

0

had no dealings with anyone

“had no contact with any outsiders.” This means they lived far enough away from any other city that they lived secluded from other people.

1202

JDG

18

8

f5il

0

Zorah

Translate the name of this city the same as you did in Judges 13:2.

1203

JDG

18

8

lih2

0

Eshtaol

Translate the name of this city the same as you did in Judges 13:25.

1204

JDG

18

9

zpe9

figs-rquestion

0

Are you doing nothing?

This rhetorical question is asked sarcastically and means that they should be doing the opposite. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should be acting now!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1205

JDG

18

9

n8um

figs-doublenegatives

0

Do not be slow to attack

These two negative words “not” and “slow” together emphasize the positive idea to attack quickly. Alternate translation: “Hurry! Attack” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1206

JDG

18

10

r61z

0

the land is wide

“the land is large.” This is a description of the size of the land.

1207

JDG

18

10

ab9j

figs-hyperbole

0

that does not lack anything in the land

The men use a hyperbole, an exaggeration, to emphasize that it is a very desirable place to live. Alternate translation: “where we will have everything there that we need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1208

JDG

18

10

aj2l

figs-doublenegatives

0

that does not lack anything

The two negative words together emphasize a positive idea. Alternate translation: “has everything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1209

JDG

18

11

b97l

translate-numbers

0

Six hundred men

“600 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1210

JDG

18

12

z66i

translate-names

0

Kiriath Jearim

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1211

JDG

18

12

q4cf

0

Mahaneh Dan

Translate the name of this place the same as you did in Judges 13:25.

1212

JDG

18

12

f453

figs-idiom

0

to this day

This means that something remains the same. It refers to the “present” time. Alternate translation: “and that is still its name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1213

JDG

18

14

l46p

0

Laish

Translate the name of this town the same as you did in Judges 18:7.

1214

JDG

18

14

g3gr

figs-rquestion

0

in these houses there are an ephod,…metal figure? Decide … will do

The five men asked this question to suggest and encourage the men that they should steal the idols. This can be written as a statement, and the implied information may be given in a parenthetical phrase. Alternate translation: “these houses contain an ephod,…metal figure. (They were suggesting that the men steal these things.) Decide … will do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1215

JDG

18

14

g8xi

0

in these houses there are

Alternate translation: “in one of these house there is” or “among these houses is”

1216

JDG

18

15

cx88

0

they turned in there

Alternate translation: “they turned”

1217

JDG

18

15

tf6m

0

they greeted him

The word “him” refers to the Levite.

1218

JDG

18

16

m84v

translate-numbers

0

six hundred Danites

“600 Danites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1219

JDG

18

17

a6nq

translate-numbers

0

six hundred men

“600 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1220

JDG

18

19

fje7

figs-rquestion

0

Is it better for you to be priest for the house of one man … a clan in Israel?

They ask this as a rhetorical question to imply that it is true. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “It is better for you to be priest for a tribe and a clan in Israel than for just the house of one man.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1221

JDG

18

20

z2bp

figs-synecdoche

0

The priest’s heart was glad

Here the priest is referred to by his “heart” to emphasize his emotions. Alternate translation: “The priest was glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1222

JDG

18

21

v31e

figs-explicit

0

They put the small children in front of themselves

They traveled this way to protect the children. If Micah and his people attacked them the would reach the warriors first and not the children. Alternate translation: “They put the small children in front of themselves to protect them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1223

JDG

18

21

t33e

0

they turned

Alternate translation: “the Danites turned around”

1224

JDG

18

22

p9e2

figs-idiom

0

a good distance

“some distance.” This refers a short distance but one that is long enough to be considered as measurable progress. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1225

JDG

18

22

l34e

figs-activepassive

0

the men who were in the houses near Micah’s house were called together

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he called together the men who were in the houses near his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1226

JDG

18

22

vkf1

0

they caught up with the Danites

This implies that they ran after them. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “running after the Danites, they caught up with them”

1227

JDG

18

23

c2k3

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you been called together?

This question is a rebuke. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not have called your men together to chase us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1228

JDG

18

23

sbb8

figs-activepassive

0

been called together

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “called these men together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1229

JDG

18

24

dy7i

figs-metonymy

0

the gods that I made

Micah did not make his gods, rather the craftsman made them. Alternate translation: “the gods which I had made for me” or “the gods which a craftsman made for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1230

JDG

18

24

edz2

figs-rquestion

0

What else do I have left?

Micah asks this question to emphasize that he no longer has the things that are important to him. Alternate translation: “I have nothing left.” or “You have taken everything that is important to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1231

JDG

18

24

i1v2

figs-rquestion

0

How can you ask me, ‘What is bothering you?’

Micah asks this question to emphasize that the Danites definitely know what is bothering him. Alternate translation: “You know that I am greatly distressed!’” or “You know how much I am bothered by what you have done to me!’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1232

JDG

18

25

yzy3

figs-metonymy

0

let us hear you say anything

The phrase “us hear you say” refers to the Danites hearing Micah speaking about what had happened, but it also includes if they are told by others that Micah had spoken about what had happened. Alternate translation: “let us find out that you have said anything” or “say anything about this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1233

JDG

18

25

pgt9

figs-explicit

0

hear you say anything

The word “anything” refers to any information about the Danites coming to Micah’s house and stealing his idols. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “hear you say anything about this matter” or “hear you say anything about what has happened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1234

JDG

18

25

fqe4

figs-activepassive

0

you and your family will be killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “kill you and your family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1235

JDG

18

26

g59x

figs-idiom

0

went their way

This means that they continued on their journey. Alternate translation: “continued on their journey” or “continued travelling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1236

JDG

18

26

v6df

figs-explicit

0

they were too strong for him

This refers to the Danites being too strong for Micah and his men to fight against. Alternate translation: “they were too strong for him and his men to fight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1237

JDG

18

27

k9py

figs-metonymy

0

what Micah had made

Micah did not make his gods, rather a craftsman made them for him. Also, If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the things that had been made for Micah” or “Micah’s things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1238

JDG

18

27

fw33

0

Laish

See how you translated this in Judges 18:7.

1239

JDG

18

27

r1pv

figs-synecdoche

0

with the edge of the sword

“with their swords.” Here “the sword” represents the swords and other weapons that the soldiers used in battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1240

JDG

18

28

p5rb

0

they had no dealings with anyone

this means they lived far enough away from any other city, that they lived secluded from other people. See how you translated this phrase in Judges 18:7.

1241

JDG

18

28

vw28

translate-names

0

Beth Rehob

This is a name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1242

JDG

18

30

z23n

figs-explicit

0

Jonathan son of Gershom, son of Moses

This is the name of the young Levite who used to serve as priest for Micah. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “The young Levite’s name was Jonathan the son of Gershom, son of Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1243

JDG

18

30

myi7

figs-metaphor

0

until the day of the land’s captivity

This refers to a time later on when the people of Dan would be captured by their enemies. Here the land being conquered is spoken of as if it were a prisoner taken captive by an enemy. Alternate translation: “until the day that their enemies conquered their land” or “until the day that their enemies took them captive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1244

JDG

18

31

m78z

figs-metonymy

0

that he made

Micah did not make his gods, rather the craftsman made them for him. Alternate translation: “that had been made for him” or “that his craftsman made for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1245

JDG

19

intro

gj7f

0

Judges 19 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The sin of Benjamin

People from a village of the tribe of Benjamin raped a visitor’s wife to death. This was very evil, especially in the ancient Near East. The people of Israel considered mistreatment of a guest one of the worst crimes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

1246

JDG

19

1

akh7

writing-newevent

0

In those days

This phrase introduces the beginning of another event in the story line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1247

JDG

19

1

u1qs

0

remote

far from where most people live

1248

JDG

19

2

p37k

figs-explicit

0

was unfaithful to him

This means that she was unfaithful in their relationship and that she began to sleep with other men. This can be stated explicitly if necessary. Alternate translation: “began to sleep with other men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1249

JDG

19

3

e9q8

0

His servant was with him, and a pair of donkeys

Alternate translation: “He took with him his servant and two donkeys”

1250

JDG

19

4

bhr2

0

His father-in-law, the girl’s father, persuaded

Alternate translation: “His father-in-law, that is, the girl’s father, persuaded” or “The girl’s father persuaded”

1251

JDG

19

4

v2kw

0

persuaded him to stay

Alternate translation: “spoke to him so he decided to stay”

1252

JDG

19

5

in6x

0

he prepared

the Levite prepared

1253

JDG

19

5

kp5g

figs-synecdoche

0

Strengthen yourself with a bit of bread

Here “bread” refers to “food.” Alternate translation: “Eat some food so you will be strong enough to travel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1254

JDG

19

6

j88k

0

Please be willing to spend the night

Alternate translation: “Please stay another night”

1255

JDG

19

8

a9ur

figs-metonymy

0

Strengthen yourself, and wait until the afternoon

The father-in-law is suggesting that he strengthen himself by eating. He is also asking him to wait until the afternoon to leave. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Eat some food so you will be strong enough to travel, and wait until afternoon to leave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1256

JDG

19

9

lvj4

0

now the day is advancing toward evening

Alternate translation: “the day is almost over” or “it is almost evening”

1257

JDG

19

10

amf9

0

that is Jerusalem

Alternate translation: “which was later called Jerusalem”

1258

JDG

19

11

l8er

figs-idiom

0

Come, let us

This is an idiom used to make a suggestion. Alternate translation: “I suggest that we” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1259

JDG

19

11

k4l3

figs-idiom

0

turn aside to

This means to take a break from their journey and stop somewhere along the route. Alternate translation: “stop at” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1260

JDG

19

12

yc4v

figs-idiom

0

turn aside into

This means to take a break from their journey and stop at a place along the route. See how you translated a similar phrase in Judges 19:11. Alternate translation: “stop at” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1261

JDG

19

13

mke2

figs-idiom

0

Come, let us

This is an idiom used to make a suggestion. Alternate translation: “I suggest that we” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1262

JDG

19

15

fgr6

figs-idiom

0

turned aside

This means to take a break from their journey and stop at a place along the route. See how you translated a similar phrase in Judges 19:11. Alternate translation: “stopped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1263

JDG

19

15

bqt5

0

the city square

the marketplace where people gathered during the day

1264

JDG

19

15

w9ny

figs-idiom

0

took them into his house

This phrase means for someone to invite them to spend the night in their home. Alternate translation: “invited them to stay in their house for that night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1265

JDG

19

16

z1l2

0

Benjamites

A Benjamite was a descendant of Benjamin. See how you translated the name of this people group in Judges 3:15.

1266

JDG

19

17

lsd3

figs-metaphor

0

He raised his eyes

Here the man looked up and paid attention to what was around him. Alternate translation: “He looked up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1267

JDG

19

17

h3nh

0

the city square

the marketplace where people gathered during the day. See how you translated this in Judges 19:14.

1268

JDG

19

18

jzg4

figs-idiom

0

who will take me into his house

This phrase refers to someone inviting other people into his house to spend the night there. Alternate translation: “who has invited me to stay in his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1269

JDG

19

18

c5ti

figs-synecdoche

0

will take me

Here the Levite says “me,” but he is actually referring to himself along with his servant and his concubine. Alternate translation: “will take us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1270

JDG

19

19

he3w

figs-activepassive

0

there is bread and wine

Change to active voice. Alternate translation: “we have plenty of bread and wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1271

JDG

19

19

gw93

figs-123person

0

me and your female servant here, and for this young man with your servants

The Levite speaks of himself and the others as servants and in the third person to show respect. Alternate translation: “me, my concubine, and my servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1272

JDG

19

19

w8hb

figs-litotes

0

We lack nothing

This can be written as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “We have everything we need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1273

JDG

19

20

ep3p

0

Only do not

“Do not.” The word “only” is used here to emphasize what he did not want the Levite to do.

1274

JDG

19

20

jm1p

0

square

This refers to the city square. See how you translated this Judges 19:17.

1275

JDG

19

21

z5ah

figs-idiom

0

brought the Levite into his house

This means that he invited the Levite to spend the night in his house. Also, by inviting the Levite he was inviting the man’s concubine and servant as well. Alternate translation: “invited the Levite and his servants to stay in his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1276

JDG

19

22

dx6j

figs-idiom

0

they were making their hearts glad

The phrase “making their hearts glad” is an idiom that means to have a good time with someone else. Alternate translation: “they were have a good time together” or “they were enjoying themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1277

JDG

19

22

q1dh

0

some men of … surrounded the house

Some men stood on all sides of the house.

1278

JDG

19

24

k4nm

0

See

This word is used to get the peoples’ attention. Alternate translation: “Listen”

1279

JDG

19

25

lk3t

figs-metaphor

0

the men would not listen to him

Here the author speaks of “agreeing” as if it were “listening.” Alternate translation: “the men would not accept his offer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1280

JDG

19

25

ty8i

0

the man seized his concubine

there could be confusion as to the identity of the man. Alternate translation: “the Levite seized his concubine”

1281

JDG

19

25

d28f

0

at dawn

“when the sun was coming up” or “at first light” This refers to when the sun begins to rise.

1282

JDG

19

26

irp4

figs-idiom

0

it was light

This refers to morning when it is bright outside. Alternate translation: “the sun was fully risen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1283

JDG

19

28

gk5s

figs-explicit

0

But there was no answer

The woman did not answer because she was dead. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “But she did not answer because she was dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1284

JDG

19

29

r79a

figs-idiom

0

limb by limb

“section by section.” The author uses this graphic description of how the Levite cut up her body into specific pieces to emphasize what he did. “Limbs” refers to a person’s arms and legs. If there is not a similar phrase in your language, this description may be left out of the translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1285

JDG

19

29

fx7u

translate-numbers

0

twelve pieces

“12 pieces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1286

JDG

19

29

xd3i

figs-explicit

0

sent the pieces everywhere throughout Israel

This means that he sent the different pieces to twelve different areas of Israel. Alternate translation: “sent each piece to a different place throughout Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1287

JDG

20

intro

lla1

0

Judges 20 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Benjamin destroyed

The army of Israel destroys all the tribe of Benjamin except 600 men. After this point in time, the tribe of Benjamin becomes mostly insignificant.

1288

JDG

20

1

wg4p

figs-simile

0

as one man

This simile speaks of the group as acting as a single person. It refers to a group of who people do everything together in the same way. Alternate translation: “as if they were a single man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1289

JDG

20

1

jp6a

figs-merism

0

from Dan to Beersheba

This refers to the land as a whole. Alternate translation: “from all the eleven tribes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1290

JDG

20

2

ze7s

0

God—400,000 men on foot

Alternate translation: “God and also 400,000 regular soldiers came”

1291

JDG

20

2

hzs8

0

ready to fight

“capable of going to war.” They were not going to fight each other.

1292

JDG

20

3

sl7g

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author of the book tells background information about what the people of Benjamin knew.

1293

JDG

20

3

x8r4

0

had gone up to Mizpah

Mizpah was located high in the mountains.

1294

JDG

20

4

sa27

0

to spend the night

Alternate translation: “for the night” or “to stay for a night”

1295

JDG

20

6

gkc4

figs-hendiadys

0

wickedness and outrage

The word “outrage” describes the “wickedness.” Alternate translation: “outrageous wickedness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1296

JDG

20

7

h9h3

0

Now

This word is used to introduce the conclusion of the speech of the Levite.

1297

JDG

20

7

wp5t

figs-doublet

0

give your advice and counsel here

The words “advice” and “counsel” refer to the same thing and are repeated for emphasis. They can be combined. Alternate translation: “decide what we need to do about this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1298

JDG

20

8

s9g2

figs-simile

0

as one

This simile speaks of the group as acting as a single person. They all acted together in exactly the same way. Alternate translation: “as if they were a single man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1299

JDG

20

8

s835

figs-parallelism

0

None of us will go to his tent … none of us will return to his house

These two clauses say basically the same thing twice for emphasis. They can be combined. The words “none … go” and “none … return” emphasizes how the people will continue to stay there. They can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “We will all stay here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1300

JDG

20

9

xy7l

0

But now

These words introduce the main portion of what the people say after the initial exclamation.

1301

JDG

20

9

l369

0

as the lot directs

This involved tossing or rolling small marked stones to determine what God wants.

1302

JDG

20

10

wsa9

translate-numbers

0

ten men of a hundred … one hundred of a thousand … one thousand of ten thousand

“10 men out of 100…100 out of 1,000…1,000 out of 10,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1303

JDG

20

10

mm9k

0

provisions

food and other things the people need

1304

JDG

20

11

wfs1

0

assembled against the city

Alternate translation: “came together to attack the city”

1305

JDG

20

13

m9f5

figs-idiom

0

put them to death

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “kill them” or “execute them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1306

JDG

20

13

n1zx

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of their brothers

Here “voice” refers to the message that they spoke. Alternate translation: “what their brother said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1307

JDG

20

15

s9ku

translate-numbers

0

twenty-six thousand

“26,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1308

JDG

20

15

g1vk

translate-numbers

0

seven hundred

“700” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1309

JDG

20

16

a8xm

0

left-handed

A left-handed person is someone who is more skilled with their left hand than with their right hand.

1310

JDG

20

16

u1tj

0

could sling a stone at a hair and not miss

This show how amazingly well they could aim and hit their target. It can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “could throw a stone at even a hair and hit it” or “could throw a stone at something as small as a hair and hit it”

1311

JDG

20

17

apy5

0

not counting

Alternate translation: “not including”

1312

JDG

20

17

g8sz

translate-numbers

0

400,000

“four hundred thousand men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1313

JDG

20

18

w2v7

0

asked for advice from God

Alternate translation: “asked God what to do” or “asked God how to continue”

1314

JDG

20

19

k8jq

0

moved their camp near Gibeah

There is some question about the meaning of the Hebrew text. Instead of meaning that they set up their camp near Gibeah, it could mean that the army went out and stood across from Gibeah ready to fight.

1315

JDG

20

21

vj4c

translate-numbers

0

twenty-two thousand

“22,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1316

JDG

20

22

cr9j

figs-idiom

0

strengthened themselves

Here “strengthened” is an idiom that means they encouraged each other. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1317

JDG

20

22

wb6t

0

they formed the battle line

This probably means that the Israelites prepared their battle lines for the next day’s fighting. Alternate translation: “they got ready to fight the next day”

1318

JDG

20

23

cpc2

0

they sought direction from Yahweh

The method they used is not stated. The priest may have cast lots to determine God’s will.

1319

JDG

20

25

t59r

translate-numbers

0

eighteen thousand

“18,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1320

JDG

20

26

y97x

0

before Yahweh

Alternate translation: “in Yahweh’s presence” or “to Yahweh”

1321

JDG

20

27

usm6

writing-background

0

for the ark of the covenant of God was there in those days

This is background information that the author inserted to help the reader understand how the people asked Yahweh for an answer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1322

JDG

20

27

cs7a

0

was there in those days

Alternate translation: “was at Bethel in those days”

1323

JDG

20

28

ly8e

writing-background

0

and Phinehas … was serving before the ark in those days

This is background information that the author inserted to help the reader understand how the people asked Yahweh for an answer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1324

JDG

20

28

d9ma

figs-explicit

0

was serving before the ark

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “was serving as priest before the ark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1325

JDG

20

28

w427

figs-explicit

0

Attack

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Attack the army of Benjamin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1326

JDG

20

29

f7uq

figs-metonymy

0

Israel set men

Here “Israel” refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1327

JDG

20

29

k5i5

0

secret places

Alternate translation: “in ambush”

1328

JDG

20

31

t9eh

figs-explicit

0

fought against the people

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “fought against the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1329

JDG

20

31

d8me

figs-activepassive

0

they were drawn away from the city

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel drew them away from the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1330

JDG

20

31

z77c

figs-explicit

0

They began to kill some of the people

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “The people of Benjamin began to kill some of the men of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1331

JDG

20

32

e81w

0

just as at first

Alternate translation: “just as before” or “just like the first two times”

1332

JDG

20

33

a2ik

translate-names

0

Baal Tamar

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1333

JDG

20

33

swx2

translate-names

0

Maareh Gibeah

This is the name of a place. Other translations may read “fields of Gibeah” or “west of Gibeah” or “Maareh Geba.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1334

JDG

20

34

de7z

translate-numbers

0

ten thousand

“10,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1335

JDG

20

34

wk8a

figs-idiom

0

chosen men

This is an idiom that means these were particularly good soldiers. Alternate translation: “well-trained soldier” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1336

JDG

20

34

p4k5

figs-metaphor

0

disaster was close to them

Here immanent disaster is spoken of as if it was standing very close by them. Alternate translation: “they would soon be completely defeated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1337

JDG

20

35

bt91

translate-numbers

0

25,100 men

“twenty-five thousand one hundred men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1338

JDG

20

36

mrd4

writing-background

0

The men of Israel had given ground to Benjamin, because they were counting on the men … outside Gibeah

From this sentence until the end of verse 41 is background information that the writer inserted to explain to the readers how the ambush defeated the Benjamites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1339

JDG

20

36

i3ru

figs-idiom

0

had given ground to Benjamin

This is an idiom that means they intentionally retreated. Alternate translation: “had allowed Benjamin to move forward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1340

JDG

20

36

sq9e

figs-idiom

0

they were counting on the men

This is an idiom that means they trusted their men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1341

JDG

20

39

t29b

0

would turn from the battle

Alternate translation: “would retreat from the fight”

1342

JDG

20

39

vbr9

figs-activepassive

0

they are defeated before us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we have defeated them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1343

JDG

20

41

ltm1

0

disaster

great harm, trouble, misery

1344

JDG

20

41

jg8p

figs-idiom

0

come on them

This idiom means it happened to them. Alternate translation: “happened to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1345

JDG

20

42

pdp2

figs-personification

0

But the fighting overtook them

This speaks about fighting as if it were a person who could overtake someone. Alternate translation: “But the soldiers of Israel caught up to them” or “But they were not able to escape the fighting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1346

JDG

20

43

xh56

translate-names

0

Nohah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1347

JDG

20

43

cis4

figs-metaphor

0

trampled them down

The completed destruction of the Benjamites is spoken of as if the Israelites stomped on their bodies. Alternate translation: “they completely destroyed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1348

JDG

20

44

jd79

translate-numbers

0

eighteen thousand

“18,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1349

JDG

20

44

c8tw

0

were distinguished in battle

Alternate translation: “had fought bravely in the battle”

1350

JDG

20

45

akn8

0

They turned and fled

Alternate translation: “The remaining Benjamites turned and fled”

1351

JDG

20

45

e3cs

translate-numbers

0

five thousand … two thousand

“5,000…2,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1352

JDG

20

45

y3ry

translate-names

0

Gidom

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1353

JDG

20

46

d674

translate-numbers

0

twenty-five thousand

“25,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1354

JDG

20

47

h1ci

translate-numbers

0

six hundred

“600” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1355

JDG

20

48

h7m3

0

turned back against the people of Benjamin

These people of Benjamin are not the soldiers who fled to the rock of Rimmon, but the ones who were still in the city.

1356

JDG

20

48

l4rw

figs-metonymy

0

the city

Here “the city” refers to the people in that city. Alternate translation: “everyone who was in the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1357

JDG

20

48

ue39

figs-idiom

0

in their path

This idiom refers to everything that they found as they went toward the city. Alternate translation: “they came to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1358

JDG

21

intro

bf76

0

Judges 21 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter concludes the account of the previous chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Sin and immorality

At the end of Judges, there is much sin and immorality. The people are doing wrong and fixing their wrongs by doing more evil things. This period of Judges is typified by this final account and summarized by the statement, “everyone did what was right in his own eyes.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

1359

JDG

21

1

w65e

writing-background

0

Now the men of Israel had made a promise … marry a Benjamite.”

This background information tells the reader about the promise that the Israelites made before the battle with the Benjamites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1360

JDG

21

1

rw2t

0

Benjamite

This is the name of the descendants of Benjamin. See how you translated this in Judges 3:15.

1361

JDG

21

3

q8cb

figs-rquestion

0

Why, Yahweh, God of Israel, has this happened to Israel, that one of our tribes should be missing today?

The people of Israel used this rhetorical question to express their deep sadness. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Oh Yahweh, we are so sad that one of the tribes of Israel has been completely destroyed.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1362

JDG

21

5

xs35

0

The people of Israel said, “Which of all the tribes of Israel did not come up in the assembly to Yahweh?”

The people are referring back to the assembly of the Israelites at Mizpah before they attacked the Benjamites.

1363

JDG

21

5

p72f

writing-background

0

For they had made an important promise concerning anyone who did not come up to Yahweh at Mizpah. They said, “He would certainly be put to death.”

This is background information to explain to the reader the promise that the Israelites had made at Mizpah before they attacked the Benjamites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1364

JDG

21

5

flc8

figs-activepassive

0

He would certainly be put to death

Here “He” refers to anyone who did not go to Mizpah. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “We will certainly kill that person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1365

JDG

21

6

yb7g

figs-metaphor

0

their brother Benjamin

This speaks of the tribe of Benjamin as if it were Israel’s brother to show their closeness to the tribe. Alternate translation: “the surviving Benjamites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1366

JDG

21

6

j93p

figs-metaphor

0

one tribe has been cut off from Israel

The destruction of the tribe of Benjamin is spoken of as if it had been cut off from Israel by a knife. This was an exaggeration because 600 men were still left. However, the women of Benjamin had been killed, so the future of the tribe was in question. Alternate translation: “one tribe has been removed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1367

JDG

21

7

dms9

0

Who will provide wives for those who are left, since we have made a promise to Yahweh that we will not let any of them marry our daughters?

The Israelites wanted to provide wives for the few surviving Benjamites, but their promise at Mizpah prevented them from doing that.

1368

JDG

21

8

vtf2

translate-names

0

Jabesh Gilead

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1369

JDG

21

9

jyg7

0

people were set out in an orderly manner

Alternate translation: “people that were assembled at Mizpah were accounted for”

1370

JDG

21

9

qs2v

figs-explicit

0

none of the inhabitants of Jabesh Gilead were there

This refers back to the earlier assembly at Mizpah. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “none of the inhabitants of Jabesh Gilead had been present at Mizpah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1371

JDG

21

10

p52b

translate-numbers

0

twelve thousand

“12,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1372

JDG

21

10

qw5x

0

strike the inhabitants of Jabesh Gilead with the edge of the sword, including the women and children

The next verse will add an exception to this general instruction.

1373

JDG

21

10

ajh8

0

strike … with the edge of the sword

Alternate translation: “kill … with their swords”

1374

JDG

21

12

n2u2

0

Jabesh Gilead

This is the name of a city. See how you translated this in Judges 21:8.

1375

JDG

21

12

ani7

translate-numbers

0

four hundred young women

“400 young women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1376

JDG

21

12

w47b

figs-euphemism

0

who had not known a man by lying with him

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “who had not had sexual relations with a man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1377

JDG

21

13

c39b

figs-abstractnouns

0

they were offering them peace

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word peace, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “they wanted to stop fighting with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1378

JDG

21

14

h1ad

0

Jabesh Gilead

This is the name of a city. See how you translated this in Judges 21:8.

1379

JDG

21

14

iu7g

0

there were not enough women for all of them

There were six hundred Benjamite men, and only four hundred women from Jabesh Gilead.

1380

JDG

21

15

v114

0

made a division between the tribes of Israel

Alternate translation: “had caused the tribes of Israel not to be unified”

1381

JDG

21

16

sc2b

0

Benjamites

This refers to the descendants of Benjamin. See how you translated this in Judges 3:15.

1382

JDG

21

16

rgy2

figs-activepassive

0

the women of Benjamin have been killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we killed all the Benjamite women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1383

JDG

21

17

mk7l

figs-hyperbole

0

There must be an inheritance … is not destroyed from Israel

The Israelites are exaggerating. They had already given wives to four hundred of the Benjamites, so the tribe would not be completely destroyed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1384

JDG

21

18

qnk3

figs-synecdoche

0

a wife to Benjamin

Here Benjamin refers to the male descendants of Benjamin. Alternate translation: “a wife to the men of Benjamin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1385

JDG

21

19

u453

writing-background

0

which is north of Bethel, east of the road that goes up from Bethel to Shechem, and south of Lebonah

This is background information to explain to the reader where the city of Shiloh is located. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1386

JDG

21

19

m2hz

translate-names

0

Lebonah

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1387

JDG

21

21

am3f

figs-explicit

0

each one of you should grab a wife … go back to the land of Benjamin

It is understood that the Benjamites would take these women back to their own land with them. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “each one of you should seize one of the girls of Shiloh, and then take her back with you to the land of Benjamin to become your wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1388

JDG

21

22

z5gg

figs-abstractnouns

0

Show us favor

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word favor, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “Act kindly toward us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1389

JDG

21

22

zsi5

figs-explicit

0

because we did not get wives for each man during the war

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “because we did not get wives for each of them during the war with Jabesh Gilead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1390

JDG

21

22

pcc6

0

You are innocent … not give your daughters to them

This refers to the men of Shiloh. They did not voluntarily give their daughters to the Benjamites, and therefore did not break their promise not to do that.

1391

JDG

21

23

ng9r

0

the number of wives that they needed

This refers to one wife for each of the two hundred Benjamite men who did not receive wives from Jabesh Gilead (Judges 21:14).

1392

JDG

21

25

b8xe

0

there was no king in Israel

Alternate translation: “Israel did not yet have a king”

1393

JDG

21

25

d46g

figs-metaphor

0

what was right in his own eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “what he judged to be right” or “what he considered to be right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])