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Introduction to 1 Peter

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of 1 Peter

  1. Introduction (1:1–2)

  2. Peter reminds the believers of their identity in Christ (1:3–2:10)

    • Praise to God for saving the believers (1:3–12)
    • Command to be holy (1:13–21)
    • Command to love each other as a family (1:22–2:10)
  3. Peter tells the believers how they should behave (2:11–4:11)

    • How believers should act toward other people (2:11–3:12)
    • How believers should endure suffering (3:13–4:6)
    • How believers should act because the end is near (4:7–11)
  4. Peter encourages the believers to persevere when suffering (4:12–5:11)

    • How believers should respond to trials (4:12–19)
    • How believers should interact with one another (5:1–11)
  5. Conclusion (5:12–14)

Who wrote the book of 1 Peter?

The author identified himself as Peter, who was also called Simon Peter. He was an apostle, and he also wrote the book of 2 Peter. Peter probably wrote this letter in Rome. He wrote the letter to Gentile Christians scattered throughout Asia Minor. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/peter]])

What is the book of 1 Peter about?

Peter wrote this letter to encourage Gentile Christians who were being persecuted and to exhort them to stand firm in “the true grace of God” (5:12). Peter told his readers how they should act in the midst of a society that hated them. He encouraged Christians to continue obeying God even when they were suffering. He told them to do this because Jesus would return soon. Peter also instructed Christians about submitting to people in authority over them.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title “1 Peter” or “First Peter, ” or they may choose a clearer title, such as “The First Letter from Peter” or “The First Letter Peter Wrote.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

How were Christians treated in Rome?

Peter was probably in Rome when he wrote this letter. In 5:13 Peter referred to Rome symbolically as “Babylon.” It appears that when Peter wrote this letter, Romans were severely persecuting Christians.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Singular and plural “you”

In this book, the word “I” refers to Peter, except in two places: 1:16 and 2:6. The word “you” is always plural and refers to Peter’s audience. Sometimes it refers to a specific group of people within Peter’s audience, such as wives, husbands, church leaders, or other groups. These groups are indicated in the notes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

What are the major issues in the text of the book of 1 Peter?

“Having purified your souls by obedience to the truth for sincere brotherly love, love one another earnestly from a pure heart” (1:22). The ULT, UST, and most other modern versions read this way. Some older versions read, “Having purified your souls by obedience to the truth through the Spirit for sincere brotherly love, love one another earnestly from the heart.” Translators are advised to follow the modern reading.

(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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1 Peter 1 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Introduction (1:1–2)
  2. Praise to God for saving the believers (1:3–12)
  3. Command to be holy (1:13–21)
  4. Command to love each other as a family (1:22–2:10)

Peter begins this letter in 1:1–2 by giving his name, identifying the people to whom he is writing, and offering a greeting. That was the way people typically began letters at that time.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 1:24–25.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

What God reveals

When Jesus comes again, everyone will see how good God’s people were because they had faith in Jesus. Then God’s people will see how gracious God has been to them, and all people will praise both God and his people.

Holiness

God wants his people to be holy because God is holy (1:15). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]])

Eternity

Peter tells Christians to live for things that will last forever and not to live for the things of this world, which will end. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Paradox

A paradox is a true statement that appears to describe something impossible. Peter writes that his readers are glad and sad at the same time (1:6). He can say this because they are sad because they are suffering, but they are also glad because they know that God will save them “in the last time” (1:5)

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g6b4

figs-123person

Πέτρος

1

In this culture, letter writers would give their own names first, and they would refer to themselves in the third person. If that would be confusing in your language, you could use the first person. If your language has a particular way of introducing the author of a letter, you could also use that. Alternate translation: “I, Peter, am writing this letter” or “From Peter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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translate-names

Πέτρος

1

Peter is the name of a man, a disciple of Jesus. See the information about him in Part 1 of the Introduction to 1 Peter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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h6om

figs-distinguish

ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

This phrase gives further information about Simon Peter. He describes himself as being someone given the position and authority of being Christ’s apostle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

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1

owrg

figs-123person

ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις

1

In this culture, after giving their own names, letter writers would then state to whom they were writing, naming those people in the third person. If that would be confusing in your language, you could use the second person. Alternate translation: “to you elect exiles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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g3n3

figs-abstractnouns

ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of elect and dispersion, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “to those whom God has elected and exiled among those whom God has dispersed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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u3zc

figs-metaphor

ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς

1

to the elect foreigners of the dispersion

When Peter calls his readers exiles, he could mean: (1) they are exiles because they are far away from their true home in heaven. Alternate translation: “to the elect exiles of the dispersion who are far from their home in heaven” (2) they are exiles because they were forced to leave their homes and go far away to Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. Alternate translation: “to you elect exiles of the dispersion who are far away from your homes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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bg47

figs-metaphor

διασπορᾶς

1

Here, dispersion could refer to: (1) groups of Gentile Christians who were spread throughout the world instead of in their true home in heaven. In this case, dispersion would have a similar meaning to exiles and would add emphasis. Alternate translation: “among those dispersed outside of their true home in heaven” (2) the groups of Jewish people who were spread across the Greek-speaking world that was outside of the land of Israel, which is the common technical meaning for this word. Alternate translation: “among the dispersed Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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qkl8

translate-names

Πόντου, Γαλατίας, Καππαδοκίας, Ἀσίας, καὶ Βιθυνίας

1

Cappadocia … Bithynia

Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia are names of Roman provinces that were located in what is now the country of Turkey. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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ba1h

figs-abstractnouns

πρόγνωσιν Θεοῦ Πατρός

1

the foreknowledge of God the Father

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of foreknowledge, you can express the same idea with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “what God the Father foreknew” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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lcps

figs-explicit

πρόγνωσιν Θεοῦ Πατρός

1

This phrase could mean: (1) God had determined what would happen ahead of time. Alternate translation: “what God the Father planned previously” (2) God knew what would happen ahead of time. Alternate translation: “what God the Father knew beforehand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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z59t

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Πατρός

1

Father is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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huw6

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἁγιασμῷ Πνεύματος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of sanctification, you can express the same idea with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “by the Spirit sanctifying you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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sfrr

figs-possession

ἐν ἁγιασμῷ Πνεύματος

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe sanctification that is produced by the Holy Spirit. If this is not clear in your language, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “by the Spirit causing you to be sanctified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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ukos

figs-explicit

εἰς ὑπακοὴν καὶ ῥαντισμὸν αἵματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Here, obedience could refer to: (1) obeying God. Alternate translation: “for obedience of God and the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ” (2) obeying Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “for obedience of Jesus Christ and the sprinkling of his blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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oiuz

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς ὑπακοὴν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of obedience, you can express the same idea with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “for you to obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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j96u

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς ὑπακοὴν

1

Here, for introduces a purpose clause. Peter is stating a purpose for which the Holy Spirit sanctifies believers. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a purpose clause. Alternate translation: “for the purpose of obedience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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figs-metaphor

ῥαντισμὸν αἵματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ

Peter uses sprinkling to refer to believers being in a covenant relationship with God. Just as Moses sprinkled blood on the people of Israel in Exodus 24:1–11 to symbolize that they were joining in a covenant relationship with God, believers are joined in a covenant relationship with God by means of Jesus’ death. Moses also sprinkled blood on the priests to set them apart to serve God as priests (Leviticus 8:30). If your readers would not understand this, you could use a simile or state the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the covenant between believers and God established by the blood of Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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i9kf

figs-metonymy

αἵματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

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of the blood of Jesus Christ

Here, blood refers to the death of Jesus. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “of the blood, the symbol of the death of Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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translate-blessing

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη

1

In this culture, letter writers would offer a good wish for the recipient before introducing the main business of the letter. Use a form in your language that makes it clear that this is a greeting and blessing. Alternate translation: “May God increase his kind acts to you and make you more peaceful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

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iam1

figs-abstractnouns

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns Grace and peace by stating the ideas behind them with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “May God multiply his kind acts to you and give you a more peaceful spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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z7df

figs-metaphor

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη

1

May grace be to you, and may your peace increase

Peter speaks of Grace and peace as if they were objects that could increase in size or number. If this is confusing in your language, you can use a different metaphor that means that these things will increase, or use plain language. Alternate translation: “May grace and peace increase in your lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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gj71

figs-activepassive

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “May God multiply grace and peace to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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General Information:

Peter begins to talk about the believers’ salvation and faith. Verses 3–5 are one sentence, but you may need to divide them into shorter sentences in your language.

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l4vi

figs-declarative

εὐλογητὸς

1

Peter is using a statement to give an exhortation. If this is confusing in your language, you can use a more natural form for exhortation. Alternate translation: “Let us bless” or “Let us praise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

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z6wk

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Πατὴρ

1

Father is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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cyf6

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν…ἡμᾶς

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our … us

The words our and us are inclusive. They refer to Peter and those believers to whom he is writing. Your language may require you to mark these forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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ib1x

figs-possession

τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe Jesus as the Lord who rules over those who believe in him. If this is not clear in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “of the person who is lord over us,” or “of the person who rules over us,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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mdvi

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ τὸ πολὺ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of mercy, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “according to his great merciful character” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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c92y

figs-metaphor

ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς

1

he has given us new birth

The phrase born again is a metaphor that refers to spiritual rebirth. Since this is an important metaphor in the Bible, you should keep it in your translation and include an explanation if necessary. Alternate translation: “who … has caused us to be spiritually reborn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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cbxb

figs-infostructure

ἀναγεννήσας ἡμᾶς εἰς ἐλπίδα ζῶσαν, δι’ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

The clause into a living hope is parallel to “into an imperishable and undefiled and unfading inheritance” in the next verse. If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of the phrases in this verse in order to show that parallel structure. Alternate translation: “who … has caused us to be born again through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from dead ones into a living hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

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qe1c

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς ἐλπίδα ζῶσαν

1

Here, into introduces a purpose clause. Peter is stating a purpose for which God causes believers to be born again. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a purpose clause. Alternate translation: “for the purpose of giving us a living hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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kngt

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἐλπίδα ζῶσαν

1

Peter uses living to describe hope that is certain and will not lead to disappointment. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “into a hope that will not disappoint you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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lh0r

figs-abstractnouns

δι’ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of resurrection, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “through Jesus Christ being resurrected from among dead ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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v9jq

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς κληρονομίαν ἄφθαρτον, καὶ ἀμίαντον, καὶ ἀμάραντον

1

Here, into introduces a purpose clause. Peter is stating a second purpose for which God causes believers to be born again. This clause states what the “living hope” in the previous verse is. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a purpose clause. Alternate translation: “for the purpose of giving us an imperishable and undefiled and unfading inheritance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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b2zy

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς κληρονομίαν ἄφθαρτον, καὶ ἀμίαντον, καὶ ἀμάραντον

1

for an imperishable and undefiled and unfading inheritance

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word inheritance, you can express the same idea with a verb. Alternate translation: “into what we will inherit that is imperishable and undefiled and unfading” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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cy1g

figs-metaphor

κληρονομίαν ἄφθαρτον, καὶ ἀμίαντον, καὶ ἀμάραντον

1

an … inheritance

Peter uses inheritance to refer to what we will receive in heaven. This could refer to: (1) The promise of God that we will live forever with him. Alternate translation: “a sure and unfailing promise the we will live forever with God” (2) future blessings in heaven after this life. Alternate translation: “imperishable and undefiled and unfading blessings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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z6w4

figs-activepassive

τετηρημένην ἐν οὐρανοῖς εἰς ὑμᾶς

1

reserved in heaven for you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “which God has kept in heaven for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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r4es

figs-activepassive

τοὺς ἐν δυνάμει Θεοῦ φρουρουμένους

1

who are protected by the power of God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the ones whom God is protecting with his power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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a4ab

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ πίστεως

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through faith

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of faith, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “by believing in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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ymh2

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς σωτηρίαν

1

Here, for introduces a purpose clause. Peter is stating a purpose for which God is protecting believers. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a purpose clause. Alternate translation: “for the purpose of giving us a salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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gj5s

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς σωτηρίαν ἑτοίμην ἀποκαλυφθῆναι

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of salvation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “for the time when God saves you, which is ready to be revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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g4rb

figs-activepassive

ἑτοίμην ἀποκαλυφθῆναι

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that is ready to be revealed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that God is ready to reveal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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xsp2

figs-explicit

ἐν καιρῷ ἐσχάτῳ

1

Here, {the} last time refers to “the day of the Lord,” which is the time when Jesus returns to the world to judge everyone and vindicate those who believe in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/dayofthelord]]) If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in the last time, when Jesus returns and judges everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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p1ta

writing-pronouns

ἐν ᾧ

1

Here, this could refer to: (1) the “last time” referred to at the end of the previous verse. Alternate translation: “About this last time” (2) everything described in verses 3–5. Alternate translation: “In all of this that I have said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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hy8d

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐν ᾧ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε

1

In this you greatly rejoice

In here introduces the reason why Peter’s readers rejoice. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “On account of this you greatly rejoice” or “Because of this you greatly rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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dtvb

grammar-connect-condition-fact

ἄρτι, εἰ δέον λυπηθέντες

1

Peter is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Peter is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “if now it is necessary, and it is, to have been distressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

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a2bq

figs-activepassive

ὀλίγον ἄρτι, εἰ δέον λυπηθέντες ἐν ποικίλοις πειρασμοῖς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if now it is necessary for various trials to distress you a little while” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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vvp1

figs-metaphor

τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως…διὰ πυρὸς δὲ δοκιμαζομένου

1

so that the proof of your faith

Here Peter speaks of faith, as if it were gold that is refined by passing it through fire. He also uses fire to refer to the hardships that test how well believers trust in Christ. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “the genuineness of your faith … but being tested by hardships the way fire tests gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ct3n

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως

1

the proof of your faith

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of genuineness and faith, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “the fact that you genuinely believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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g1oe

figs-infostructure

ἵνα τὸ δοκίμιον ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως πολυτιμότερον χρυσίου τοῦ ἀπολλυμένου, διὰ πυρὸς δὲ δοκιμαζομένου, εὑρεθῇ εἰς ἔπαινον, καὶ δόξαν, καὶ τιμὴν, ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “so that the genuineness of your faith might be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ; that faith is more precious than the perishing gold, but being tested by fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

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u63m

figs-explicit

ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως πολυτιμότερον χρυσίου τοῦ ἀπολλυμένου, διὰ πυρὸς δὲ δοκιμαζομένου

1

of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes. But, being tested by fire

In this clause Peter means that faith is more valuable than gold because faith lasts forever but gold does not, even if it is refined by someone passing it through fire. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. It may be helpful to make this a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “of your faith, which is more precious than gold because even gold that is tested by fire can perish, but your faith will not perish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

55

1PE

1

7

a6q4

figs-activepassive

εὑρεθῇ εἰς ἔπαινον, καὶ δόξαν, καὶ τιμὴν

1

it might be found to result in praise, and glory, and honor

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “it might result in praise and glory and honor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

56

1PE

1

7

lewt

figs-explicit

ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Peter assumes that his readers will know that he is referring to the future revelation of Jesus Christ, when Jesus returns to earth. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “at the future revelation of Jesus Christ” or “when Jesus Christ reveals himself again in the future” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

57

1PE

1

7

bkr9

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

at the revealing of Jesus Christ

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of revelation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “at the time when Jesus Christ is revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

58

1PE

1

8

eka3

figs-doublet

χαρᾷ ἀνεκλαλήτῳ καὶ δεδοξασμένῃ

1

with joy that is inexpressible and filled with glory

Here, inexpressible and filled with glory mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize how great the joy is. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “with joy so great that words cannot describe it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

59

1PE

1

9

hw6y

figs-metaphor

κομιζόμενοι…σωτηρίαν

1

the salvation

Here Peter speaks of salvation as if it were an object that someone could receive. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “experiencing … the salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

60

1PE

1

9

jkcb

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of faith, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “of you believing in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

61

1PE

1

9

j2qe

figs-abstractnouns

σωτηρίαν ψυχῶν

1

the salvation of your souls

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of salvation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “God saving your souls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

62

1PE

1

9

uk4a

figs-synecdoche

σωτηρίαν ψυχῶν

1

the salvation of your souls

Here, souls refers to the individual Christians to whom Peter is writing this letter. If this might confuse your readers, you could use plain language. Alternate translation: “your salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

63

1PE

1

10

yyz4

figs-doublet

ἐξεζήτησαν καὶ ἐξηραύνησαν

1

searched and inquired carefully

The phrases searched and inquired carefully mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize how hard the prophets tried to understand this salvation. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “examined very carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

64

1PE

1

10

gmcy

figs-abstractnouns

ἧς σωτηρίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of salvation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “God saving you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

65

1PE

1

10

wx95

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς εἰς ὑμᾶς χάριτος

1

Here, {this} grace refers to {this} salvation, mentioned earlier in this verse. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of grace, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “God being gracious to you by saving you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

66

1PE

1

11

j917

figs-explicit

εἰς τίνα ἢ ποῖον καιρὸν

1

The word translated whom could also be translated “what.” In that case, “what” would refer to the time when salvation would take place and what time would then refer to the specific circumstances. However, most translations agree with the ULT’s use of whom. Alternate translation: “into what time or what circumstances” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

67

1PE

1

11

w3n8

figs-possession

τὸ…Πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ

1

the Spirit of Christ

Peter is using the possessive form to describe the Holy Spirit as being the Spirit that is associated with Christ. If this is not clear in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit, associated with Christ,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

68

1PE

1

11

hjq5

προμαρτυρόμενον

1

This could indicate: (1) the time when the Spirit of Christ was revealing information to the prophets. Alternate translation: “when testifying beforehand” (2) the means by which the Spirit of Christ was revealing information to the prophets. Alternate translation: “by means of testifying beforehand”

69

1PE

1

11

x5x8

figs-abstractnouns

τὰ εἰς Χριστὸν παθήματα, καὶ τὰς μετὰ ταῦτα δόξας

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of sufferings and glories, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “about how Christ would suffer, and glorious things would happen afterwards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

70

1PE

1

12

x4b1

figs-activepassive

οἷς ἀπεκαλύφθη

1

It was revealed to them

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God revealed to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

71

1PE

1

12

hi9u

figs-activepassive

ἃ νῦν ἀνηγγέλη ὑμῖν, διὰ τῶν εὐαγγελισαμένων ὑμᾶς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “which those who proclaimed the gospel to you have now declared to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

72

1PE

1

12

c7jz

figs-explicit

Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ, ἀποσταλέντι ἀπ’ οὐρανοῦ

1

This phrase indicates the means by which the evangelists proclaimed the gospel to Peter’s readers. Peter uses {the} Holy Spirit here to refer specifically to the Holy Spirit’s work of giving those evangelists the ability or power to proclaim the gospel effectively. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “by means of the Holy Spirit sent from heaven enabling them to do so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

73

1PE

1

12

yzqk

figs-activepassive

ἀποσταλέντι ἀπ’ οὐρανοῦ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

74

1PE

1

12

lyzl

figs-explicit

εἰς ἃ

1

Here, {things} refers to what God had revealed to the prophets and some evangelists had proclaimed to Peter’s readers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “into which things God revealed to the prophets and which were declared to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

75

1PE

1

12

xi4d

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἃ ἐπιθυμοῦσιν ἄγγελοι παρακύψαι

1

into which things angels long to look

Peter uses look to refer to getting a clearer understanding of what God has revealed about salvation. This does not mean that the angels do not understand salvation at all. If this might confuse your readers, you could state the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “things which angels desire to understand more clearly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

76

1PE

1

13

bjg9

grammar-connect-words-phrases

διὸ

1

So

Therefore here refers back to everything that Peter has written in verses 1–12. If it might be helpful to your readers, you could state this concisely. Alternate translation: “Since all these things I have just written are true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

77

1PE

1

13

zvgh

figs-declarative

ἀναζωσάμενοι τὰς ὀσφύας τῆς διανοίας ὑμῶν, νήφοντες, τελείως ἐλπίσατε

1

The clauses having girded up the loins of your mind and being sober could indicate: (1) two commands in addition to the command to hope fully that occurs in the next phrase. Alternate translation: “gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, hope fully” (2) two actions that are means by which Peter wants his readers to obey the command to hope fully. Alternate translation: “hope fully, by having girded up the loins of your mind and by being sober” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

78

1PE

1

13

u87y

figs-idiom

ἀναζωσάμενοι τὰς ὀσφύας τῆς διανοίας ὑμῶν

1

having girded the loins of your mind

Girding up the loins is an idiom that means to prepare to work hard. It comes from the custom of tucking the bottom of one’s robe into a belt around the waist in order to move with ease. If this might confuse your readers, you could state the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “having prepared your minds for action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

79

1PE

1

13

i56f

figs-metaphor

νήφοντες

1

Here Peter uses sober to refer to mental clarity and alertness. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “thinking clearly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

80

1PE

1

13

y771

figs-activepassive

τὴν φερομένην ὑμῖν χάριν

1

the grace that is being brought to you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the grace God is bringing to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

81

1PE

1

13

ut69

figs-metaphor

τὴν φερομένην ὑμῖν χάριν

1

the grace that is being brought to you

Here Peter speaks of grace as if it were an object that could be brought to people. If this might confuse you readers, you could state the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the grace God is giving to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

82

1PE

1

13

qk5s

figs-metonymy

τὴν φερομένην ὑμῖν χάριν

1

Here, the grace refers to salvation, as it also does in verse 10. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the gracious salvation being brought to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

83

1PE

1

13

l45d

figs-possession

ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

in the revelation of Jesus Christ

See how you translated this phrase in verse 7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

84

1PE

1

14

opvh

figs-metaphor

ὡς τέκνα ὑπακοῆς

1

Here Peter uses children to refer to people who love and obey God. The relationship between God and those who love him is like the relationship between a father and his children. Because this is an important concept in the Bible, you should not express the meaning plainly here, but you may use a simile. Alternate translation: “Like children of obedience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

85

1PE

1

14

n5wg

figs-possession

τέκνα ὑπακοῆς

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe children who are characterized by obedience. If this is not clear in your language, you could use the adjective “obedient” instead of the noun “obedience.” Alternate translation: “obedient children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

86

1PE

1

14

e4tb

figs-idiom

μὴ συνσχηματιζόμενοι ταῖς πρότερον…ἐπιθυμίαις

1

not being conformed to your former desires

Here, not being conformed to is an idiom meaning “not letting one’s life be controlled by.” If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “not being controlled by your former desires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

87

1PE

1

14

nepq

figs-declarative

μὴ συνσχηματιζόμενοι ταῖς πρότερον…ἐπιθυμίαις

1

Peter is using a statement to give a command. If this is confusing in your language, you can use a more natural form for a command. Alternate translation: “do not be conformed to your former desires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

88

1PE

1

14

j2wo

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ἀγνοίᾳ ὑμῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of ignorance, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “when you were ignorant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

89

1PE

1

15

edvw

figs-explicit

τὸν καλέσαντα ὑμᾶς

1

This phrase refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “God who called you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

90

1PE

1

15

mrbq

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πάσῃ ἀναστροφῇ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of behavior, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “in how you conduct yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

91

1PE

1

16

m1q7

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

For it is written

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, Moses was the author of the quotation that follows. Alternate translation: “Moses had written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

92

1PE

1

16

e6el

writing-quotations

γέγραπται

1

Here Peter uses it is written to introduce a quotation from an Old Testament book (Leviticus 11:44). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “it had been written in the scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

93

1PE

1

16

tt52

figs-declarative

ἅγιοι ἔσεσθε

1

Peter quotes God using a future statement to give a command. If this is confusing in your language, you can use a more natural form for a command. Alternate translation: “You must be holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

94

1PE

1

16

s8kz

figs-123person

ὅτι ἐγὼ ἅγιος

1

You will be holy, because I am holy

In this quotation from the Old Testament, I refers to God. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “because I, God, am holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

95

1PE

1

17

x0xl

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ…ἐπικαλεῖσθε

1

Peter is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Peter is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “because you call” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

96

1PE

1

17

c53b

figs-explicit

τὸν ἀπροσωπολήμπτως κρίνοντα

1

This phrase refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “God, who judges impartially” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

97

1PE

1

17

s6gv

figs-metaphor

τὸν τῆς παροικίας ὑμῶν χρόνον

1

conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your journey

Here Peter speaks of his readers as if they were people living in a foreign land far away from their homes. Like people living away from home, so are Christians living away from their home in heaven. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “during the time that you are living away from your true home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

98

1PE

1

18

pcm5

figs-infostructure

οὐ φθαρτοῖς, ἀργυρίῳ ἢ χρυσίῳ, ἐλυτρώθητε ἐκ τῆς ματαίας ὑμῶν ἀναστροφῆς πατροπαραδότου

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “you have been redeemed from your futile behavior handed down from your fathers, not with perishable things, with silver or with gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

99

1PE

1

18

q4pc

figs-activepassive

ἐλυτρώθητε

1

you have been redeemed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has redeemed you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

100

1PE

1

18

git3

figs-metaphor

ἐκ τῆς ματαίας ὑμῶν ἀναστροφῆς πατροπαραδότου

1

Here, handed down refers to one generation teaching futile behavior to another generation, as if that behavior were an object that could be passed by hand from one person to another. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “from your futile behavior taught to you by your fathers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

101

1PE

1

18

ctgm

figs-abstractnouns

ἐκ τῆς ματαίας ὑμῶν ἀναστροφῆς

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of behavior, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “from behaving in futile ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

102

1PE

1

18

b5qa

figs-activepassive

πατροπαραδότου

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that your fathers handed down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

103

1PE

1

19

s4jd

figs-metonymy

τιμίῳ αἵματι…Χριστοῦ

1

with the precious blood of Christ

Peter uses {the} precious blood of Christ to refer to Jesus’ death. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “with Christ’s precious death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

104

1PE

1

19

gk6a

figs-simile

ὡς ἀμνοῦ ἀμώμου καὶ ἀσπίλου

1

as an unblemished and spotless lamb

Peter compares Jesus’ blood to the blood of the lambs that the Jewish priests sacrificed to God because of the people’s sins. The point of this comparison is that Jesus died as a sacrifice so that God would forgive people’s sins. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “like that of the unblemished and spotless lambs that the Jewish priests sacrificed to God for sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

105

1PE

1

19

smu8

figs-doublet

ἀμώμου καὶ ἀσπίλου

1

unblemished and spotless

The words unblemished and spotless mean basically the same thing. Peter uses this repetition to emphasize that Christ was completely perfect and sinless. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “completely perfect” or “with no imperfections at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

106

1PE

1

20

msw5

figs-activepassive

προεγνωσμένου

1

He has been chosen

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God having foreknown him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

107

1PE

1

20

tnrv

figs-explicit

προεγνωσμένου

1

This phrase could mean: (1) God had determined what Christ would do. Alternate translation: “having been planned previously” (2) God knew what Christ would do ahead of time. Alternate translation: “having been known beforehand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

108

1PE

1

20

ky7a

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

1

before the foundation of the world

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of foundation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “before God founded the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

109

1PE

1

20

dkk2

figs-activepassive

φανερωθέντος

1

he has been revealed … for your sake

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God having revealed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

110

1PE

1

20

pmf2

figs-explicit

φανερωθέντος

1

Here, having been revealed refers to the first time Jesus came to the earth. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “having been revealed when he came to earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

111

1PE

1

20

kzi0

figs-explicit

ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων

1

Here, {the} last of the times refers to the final period of history which began when Jesus came to the earth for the first time. This period will end when Jesus returns to earth. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “in this final time period of history” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

112

1PE

1

21

lt5u

figs-idiom

τὸν ἐγείραντα αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

who has raised him from the dead

Here, to raise him is an idiom for causing someone who has died to become alive again. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “who caused him to live again so that he was no longer among the dead people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

113

1PE

1

21

f7mn

figs-abstractnouns

δόξαν αὐτῷ δόντα

1

has given him glory

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of glory, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “has glorified him” or “has shown that he is glorious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

114

1PE

1

21

k85r

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν πίστιν ὑμῶν καὶ ἐλπίδα, εἶναι εἰς Θεόν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of faith and hope, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “you would believe and hope in God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

115

1PE

1

22

hj14

figs-metaphor

τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν ἡγνικότες

1

Having purified

Having purified refers to being forgiven for sins. In the Bible, sin is often referred to as something that makes people dirty, and the forgiveness for sin is referred to as the removal of that dirt. God is the one who forgives sins and purifies those who believe in Jesus. However, here Peter is referring to his readers’ responsibility in their salvation, which is the responsibility to repent and believe that the gospel is true. Alternate translation: “Having made your souls spiritually pure” or “Having cleansed your souls from sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

116

1PE

1

22

luj3

figs-synecdoche

τὰς ψυχὰς

1

Having purified your souls

See how you translated souls in verse 9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

117

1PE

1

22

qyt5

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ὑπακοῇ τῆς ἀληθείας

1

by obedience to the truth

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of obedience and truth, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “by obeying what is true” or “by obeying the true information” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

118

1PE

1

22

iyze

figs-explicit

τῆς ἀληθείας

1

Here, the truth refers to the true teaching about Jesus, which includes the command to repent and believe the gospel. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “to the true message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

119

1PE

1

22

j777

figs-gendernotations

φιλαδελφίαν

1

brotherly love

Although brotherly is a masculine word, Peter is using the phrase brotherly love in a generic sense to refer to the kind of love that all believers should have for other believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “love for fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

120

1PE

1

22

e9wr

figs-metonymy

ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας, ἀλλήλους ἀγαπήσατε ἐκτενῶς

1

love one another earnestly from a pure heart

Peter uses heart here to refer to a person’s thoughts or emotions. The word from indicates that the heart must be the source of the love that Peter is telling his readers to have. Therefore, this phrase has a similar meaning to the word “sincere” in the previous clause. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “love one another earnestly based on sincere thoughts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

121

1PE

1

23

k79f

figs-metaphor

ἀναγεγεννημένοι

1

See how you translated born again in verse 3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

122

1PE

1

23

w4v3

figs-metaphor

οὐκ ἐκ σπορᾶς φθαρτῆς

1

having been born again, not from perishable seed, but from imperishable

The word seed usually refers to either the seed of a plant or the sperm cell of a man, which is used to produce a baby. However, here Peter uses seed as a metaphor. It could refer to: (1) the word of God mentioned later in the verse. In this case, Peter is saying what the word of God is not. Alternate translation: “not by means of a human message that can perish” (2) physical human birth, in which case the meaning is similar to the idea expressed in John 1:13. Alternate translation: “not by means of mortal physical birth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

123

1PE

1

23

nh9r

figs-ellipsis

ἀφθάρτου

1

from imperishable

Peter is leaving out a word that a phrase would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply the word from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “from imperishable seed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

124

1PE

1

23

tjq9

figs-metonymy

λόγου ζῶντος Θεοῦ, καὶ μένοντος

1

through the living and enduring word of God

Here Peter uses word to describe the gospel message that came from God and was proclaimed to Peter’s readers by using words. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “God’s living and enduring message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

125

1PE

1

23

pkpl

figs-doublet

ζῶντος…καὶ μένοντος

1

Here, living and enduring mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize that God’s word is permanent. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “perpetually enduring” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

126

1PE

1

24

kyc5

writing-quotations

διότι

1

For here introduces a quotation of some phrases from an Old Testament book (Isaiah 40:6–8). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “It is as Isaiah wrote in the scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

127

1PE

1

24

e299

figs-quotemarks

πᾶσα σὰρξ ὡς χόρτος, καὶ πᾶσα δόξα αὐτῆς ὡς ἄνθος χόρτου. ἐξηράνθη ὁ χόρτος, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος ἐξέπεσεν,

1

In these clauses and the first clause of the next verse, Peter quotes parts of Isaiah 40:6–8. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

128

1PE

1

24

dr75

figs-metonymy

πᾶσα σὰρξ

1

All flesh

Here Peter quotes Isaiah using the term flesh to refer to human beings in general, which are made of flesh. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “All humankind” or “Everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

129

1PE

1

24

zaa4

figs-metaphor

πᾶσα δόξα αὐτῆς

1

Peter quotes Isaiah using glory to refer to whatever is beautiful or magnificent about humankind. If this might confuse your readers, you could state the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “everything that is glorious about humankind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

130

1PE

1

24

ysnb

figs-genericnoun

ἄνθος χόρτου. ἐξηράνθη ὁ χόρτος, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος ἐξέπεσεν

1

Peter quotes Isaiah speaking of grass and flowers in general, not of one particular blade of grass or one flower. If this would be misunderstood in your language, use a more natural phrase. Alternate translation: “flowers of grass. Grass dried up, and flowers fell off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

131

1PE

1

24

w0s8

figs-possession

ἄνθος χόρτου

1

Here Peter quotes Isaiah using the possessive form to describe the flower that grows in the grass. If this is not clear in your language, you could use state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the flower that grows in the grass” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

132

1PE

1

24

r0fd

figs-simile

ἐξηράνθη ὁ χόρτος

1

All flesh is like grass … The grass dries up

In this clause the prophet Isaiah continues the comparison between humankind and grass. Just like grass dies quickly, so human beings only live a short time. If this would confuse your readers, you could express this meaning by repeating the simile language from earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “Like the grass dries up, so do people die after a short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

133

1PE

1

24

hd2f

figs-simile

τὸ ἄνθος ἐξέπεσεν

1

all its glory is like the flower of the grass … its flower falls off

In this clause the prophet Isaiah continues the comparison between the glory of humankind and flowers. Just like a flower dies and falls to the ground, so does the beauty of mankind disappear. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could express this meaning by repeating the simile language from earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “like the flower that fell off the plant, so does everything that is glorious about humankind come to an end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

134

1PE

1

25

lqjz

figs-quotemarks

τὸ δὲ ῥῆμα Κυρίου μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

1

This clause completes Peters quotation of Isaiah 40:6–8 that began in the previous verse. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this ending by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

135

1PE

1

25

aba2

figs-metonymy

τὸ…ῥῆμα Κυρίου

1

the word of the Lord

Peter quotes Isaiah using word to describe all that God has spoken by using words. This general reference to God’s word would include what God had said about the Messiah. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the message that comes from the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

136

1PE

1

25

pp62

figs-metonymy

τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν τὸ ῥῆμα

1

Here Peter uses word in the same specific sense as in verse 23. It is not the general meaning of word used earlier in the verse. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “And this is the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

137

1PE

1

25

s11j

figs-activepassive

τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ εὐαγγελισθὲν

1

the word that has been proclaimed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the word that we have proclaimed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

138

1PE

2

intro

a121

0

1 Peter 2 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Command to love each other as a family (1:22–2:10)
  2. How believers should act toward other people (2:11–3:12)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 2:10 and the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in 2:6, 7, 8, and 22.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Stones

The Bible uses a building made of large stones as a metaphor for the church. Jesus is the cornerstone, which is the most important stone. According to Ephesians 2:20, the apostles and prophets are the foundation, which is the part of the building on which all the other stones rest. In this chapter, Christians are the stones that make up the walls of the building. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/cornerstone]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/foundation]])

Milk and babies

When Peter tells his readers to “long for pure spiritual milk” in 2:2, he is using the metaphor of a baby craving his mother’s milk. Peter wants Christians to crave God’s word the same way a baby craves milk. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Sheep and shepherds

The Bible often speaks metaphorically of people as sheep because sheep do not see well, do not think well, often walk away from those who care for them, and cannot defend themselves when other animals attack them. In verse 25, Peter alludes to Isaiah 53:6 to describe unbelievers as sheep that wander aimlessly and don’t know where they are going. God’s people are also similar to sheep in that they are weak and do foolish things like rebelling against God. In verse 25, Peter also refers to Jesus as a shepherd who takes care of believers, which is a similar idea to what Jesus said in John 10:11–18. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/sheep]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/shepherd]])

139

1PE

2

1

n3x5

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Therefore

Therefore here refers back to everything that Peter has said in the previous paragraph (1:22–25). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

140

1PE

2

1

inct

figs-declarative

ἀποθέμενοι…πᾶσαν κακίαν, καὶ πάντα δόλον, καὶ ὑποκρίσεις, καὶ φθόνους, καὶ πάσας καταλαλιάς

1

This clause indicates a command in addition to the command to “long for pure spiritual milk” that occurs next in the verse. If this is confusing in your language, you can use a more natural form for a command. Alternate translation: “put aside all evil and all deceit and hypocrisies and envies and all slanders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

141

1PE

2

1

g65y

figs-metaphor

ἀποθέμενοι…πᾶσαν κακίαν, καὶ πάντα δόλον, καὶ ὑποκρίσεις, καὶ φθόνους, καὶ πάσας καταλαλιάς

1

having put aside all evil, and all deceit and hypocrisy and envy, and all slander

Peter speaks of these sinful actions as if they were objects that people could put aside the way people remove dirty clothing. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “having stopped being evil or being deceptive or being hypocritical or being envious or speaking slander” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

142

1PE

2

1

r853

figs-abstractnouns

ἀποθέμενοι…πᾶσαν κακίαν, καὶ πάντα δόλον, καὶ ὑποκρίσεις, καὶ φθόνους, καὶ πάσας καταλαλιάς

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of evil, deceit, hypocrisies, envies, or slanders, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “having put aside every kind of evil and all deceitful, hypocritical, deceptive, and slanderous acts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

143

1PE

2

2

y6fv

figs-simile

ὡς ἀρτιγέννητα βρέφη τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα ἐπιποθήσατε

1

As newborn infants, long for pure spiritual milk

The point of this comparison is that Peter wanted his readers to desire knowledge of God’s word just as newborn babies desire milk. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “Just as babies long for their mother’s milk, so you must long for the pure rational milk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

144

1PE

2

2

rm71

ἐπιποθήσατε

1

long for

Alternate translation: “desire intensely” or “yearn for”

145

1PE

2

2

fn81

figs-metaphor

τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα

1

pure spiritual milk

The word translated as rational could also be translated “pertaining to the word”; it refers to the word of God. Peter speaks of the word of God as if it were rational milk that nourishes children. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “God’s pure word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

146

1PE

2

2

ypy6

figs-metaphor

αὐξηθῆτε

1

you may grow up

Peter speaks of believers advancing in the knowledge of God and faithfulness to him as if they were children growing up. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “you may mature in your faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

147

1PE

2

2

vg76

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς σωτηρίαν

1

to salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of salvation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “until you are saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

148

1PE

2

2

wmw2

figs-explicit

εἰς σωτηρίαν

1

Here, salvation refers to when Jesus returns and God completes the salvation of his people. Peter also uses this meaning for salvation in 1:5. See how you translated salvation there. Alternate translation: “until God saves you completely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

149

1PE

2

3

uja9

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ ἐγεύσασθε

1

Peter is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Peter is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “since you have tasted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

150

1PE

2

3

tui9

figs-metaphor

εἰ ἐγεύσασθε

1

if you have tasted that the Lord is kind

Peter uses tasted to refer to personally experiencing something. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “if you have experienced” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

151

1PE

2

3

hruw

figs-quotemarks

ἐγεύσασθε ὅτι χρηστὸς ὁ Κύριος

1

This clause is a paraphrase of Psalm 34:8. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

152

1PE

2

4

n5pm

figs-explicit

πρὸς ὃν προσερχόμενοι

1

Here, coming could indicate: (1) a factual statement, as in the UST. (2) a command, in which case “being built up” in the next verse would also be a command. Alternate translation: “Come to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

153

1PE

2

4

apbp

writing-pronouns

πρὸς ὃν

1

The pronoun him refers to Jesus, who is called “Lord” in the previous verse. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

154

1PE

2

4

c4lu

figs-metaphor

πρὸς ὃν προσερχόμενοι λίθον ζῶντα

1

coming to him, a living stone

Peter refers to Jesus as if he were a stone in a building. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or with a simile. Alternate translation: “coming to him, who is like a living stone in a building” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

155

1PE

2

4

ihq2

figs-personification

λίθον ζῶντα

1

him, a living stone

Peters speaks of a stone as if it were living. This could refer to: (1) a stone that is alive. This interpretation emphasizes the fact that Jesus is alive even though he had died. Alternate translation: “a stone that lives” (2) a stone that gives life. This interpretation emphasizes the fact that Jesus gives eternal life to everyone who believes in him. Alternate translation: “a stone that gives eternal life to others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

156

1PE

2

4

e8sy

figs-activepassive

ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων μὲν ἀποδεδοκιμασμένον

1

having been rejected by men

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “one that men have rejected” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

157

1PE

2

4

euuz

figs-gendernotations

ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων

1

Although the term men is masculine, Peter is using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “by people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

158

1PE

2

4

a438

figs-activepassive

παρὰ δὲ Θεῷ ἐκλεκτὸν

1

but chosen by God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “but that God has chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

159

1PE

2

5

z11h

figs-metaphor

αὐτοὶ ὡς λίθοι ζῶντες οἰκοδομεῖσθε, οἶκος πνευματικὸς

1

you, like living stones, are being built up as a spiritual house

Peter uses stones to refer to his readers, people who believe in Jesus. Just as people in the Old Testament used stones to build the temple that God dwelled in, God is using believers to bring together a group of people in whom he will dwell. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “you, like stones that are put together and built into a house, are living stones that are being brought together into a spiritual community in which God dwells” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

160

1PE

2

5

g33x

figs-simile

αὐτοὶ ὡς λίθοι ζῶντες

1

you, like living stones

Peters uses stones as if they were living. This emphasizes the fact that Peter’s readers have eternal life because they believe in Jesus. In this verse, living cannot mean to give life, because only God can give life. Alternate translation: “like stones that live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

161

1PE

2

5

v3jw

figs-activepassive

οἰκοδομεῖσθε, οἶκος πνευματικὸς

1

living stones, are being built up as a spiritual house

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you … that God is building up as a spiritual house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

162

1PE

2

5

e6dm

figs-explicit

οἰκοδομεῖσθε

1

Here, are being built up could indicate: (1) a factual statement, as in the UST. (2) a command, in which case “coming to him” in the previous verse would also be a command. Alternate translation: “you … be built up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

163

1PE

2

5

i4bn

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἱεράτευμα ἅγιον ἀνενέγκαι πνευματικὰς θυσίας

1

a holy priesthood to offer the spiritual sacrifices

Here Peter speaks of believers as if they were part of a priesthood and as if their good deeds and acts of worship were sacrifices offered to God. Just as the priests in the Old Testament offered sacrifices to God, so should believers do good deeds and worship God. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or with a synonym. Alternate translation: “like the holy priesthood that offered sacrifices to God, so you are made into a group which does good spiritual deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

164

1PE

2

5

ekkp

grammar-collectivenouns

εἰς ἱεράτευμα ἅγιον

1

The word priesthood is a singular noun that refers to a group of priests. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “a group of holy priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

165

1PE

2

5

zf45

figs-explicit

πνευματικὰς θυσίας εὐπροσδέκτους

1

This could mean: (1) the sacrifices are of a spiritual, rather than physical, nature. Alternate translation: “the sacrifices of a spiritual nature that are acceptable” (2) the sacrifices are offered by the power of the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “the sacrifices offered by the power of the Holy Spirit, which are acceptable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

166

1PE

2

6

ibi1

figs-personification

περιέχει ἐν Γραφῇ

1

it stands in scripture

Here the quotation of scripture that occurs next in the verse is spoken of as if it were a person who stands. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “it is written in scripture” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

167

1PE

2

6

k1h0

writing-quotations

περιέχει ἐν Γραφῇ

1

This phrase introduces a quotation of an Old Testament book (Isaiah 28:16). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “what Isaiah wrote in scripture stands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

168

1PE

2

6

wdwx

figs-quotemarks

ἰδοὺ, τίθημι ἐν Σιὼν λίθον, ἀκρογωνιαῖον ἐκλεκτὸν ἔντιμον; καὶ ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ, οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ.

1

This sentence is a quotation from Isaiah 28:16. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

169

1PE

2

6

q7jx

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ

1

Behold

Peter quotes Isaiah using Behold to call his readers to pay attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

170

1PE

2

6

skrt

figs-123person

τίθημι

1

In this quotation from the Old Testament, I refers to God. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “I, God, lay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

171

1PE

2

6

xsx8

figs-metaphor

λίθον, ἀκρογωνιαῖον

1

a cornerstone

Here God refers to the Messiah as if he were not only a stone, but even the most important stone in a building, the cornerstone. If this might confuse your readers, you could use a simile or express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “someone who is like the most important stone in a building” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

172

1PE

2

6

klv2

figs-distinguish

λίθον, ἀκρογωνιαῖον ἐκλεκτὸν ἔντιμον

1

a cornerstone, chosen, precious

Here, chosen and precious show a distinction between this cornerstone and any other cornerstone. If this is not understood in your language, you could make the relationship between these phrases more clear. Alternate translation: “a cornerstone that is chosen and precious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

173

1PE

2

6

lrxm

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ μὴ

1

The phrase certainly not translates two negative words in Greek. God uses them together to emphasize the truth of this statement. If your language can use two negatives together for emphasis without them cancelling each other to create a positive meaning, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

174

1PE

2

7

ze1c

figs-explicit

ἡ τιμὴ

1

Here, the honor refers to the statement in the previous verse that people who believe in Jesus will “certainly not be ashamed.” If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “this honor of never being ashamed is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

175

1PE

2

7

rdhk

figs-explicit

ἡ τιμὴ

1

The phrase translated the honor could also be translated as “precious,” in which case it would refer to the “cornerstone” in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “he is precious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

176

1PE

2

7

sj13

figs-ellipsis

ἀπιστοῦσιν δὲ

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “But to those who do not believe, God says in the scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

177

1PE

2

7

hext

figs-quotemarks

λίθος ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας

1

This sentence is a quotation from Psalm 118:22. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

178

1PE

2

7

uu3j

figs-metaphor

λίθος ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες

1

The stone that was rejected by … has become the head of the corner

The author uses stone to refer to the Messiah, and he uses builders to refer to those who rejected Jesus. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “The Messiah who was rejected just like builders reject a stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

179

1PE

2

7

ql12

figs-metaphor

κεφαλὴν γωνίας

1

the head of the corner

This phrase has the same meaning as “cornerstone” in the previous verse. It refers to the most important stone in a building. Here it refers specifically to the Messiah. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the Messiah, who is like a cornerstone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

180

1PE

2

8

k0dm

writing-quotations

καὶ

1

Here, and introduces a quotation of an Old Testament book (Isaiah 8:14). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “and Isaiah wrote in the scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

181

1PE

2

8

vxhb

figs-quotemarks

λίθος προσκόμματος, καὶ πέτρα σκανδάλου

1

This sentence is a quotation from Isaiah 8:14. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

182

1PE

2

8

i72g

figs-metaphor

λίθος προσκόμματος, καὶ πέτρα σκανδάλου

1

Peter quotes Isaiah speaking of the Messiah as if he were a stone or rock that people tripped over. Peter means that many people would be offended by Jesus’ teachings and reject him. If your readers would not understand this, you could use a simile or express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternative translation: “He is like a stone of stumbling and like a rock of offense” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

183

1PE

2

8

ydkr

figs-possession

λίθος προσκόμματος, καὶ πέτρα σκανδάλου

1

Peter quotes Isaiah using the possessive form twice in this sentence to describe a stone that causes stumbling and a rock that causes offense. If this is not clear in your language, you could use express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “A stone that makes people stumble and a rock that makes people feel offended” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

184

1PE

2

8

ptx5

figs-parallelism

λίθος προσκόμματος, καὶ πέτρα σκανδάλου

1

A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense

These two phrases mean almost the same thing. Isaiah says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize that people will be offended by this stone. If stating the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you could combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “a stone or a rock over which people will surely stumble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

185

1PE

2

8

h7ta

figs-metonymy

τῷ λόγῳ

1

stumble because they disobey the word

Here, the word refers to the gospel message, which includes the command to repent and believe the gospel. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

186

1PE

2

8

d8ii

figs-metaphor

οἳ προσκόπτουσιν

1

Here, stumble could refer to: (1) being offended by the gospel, which is the meaning in the rest of this verse. Alternate translation: “They get offended” (2) being judged for rejecting the gospel. Alternate translation: “They are judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

187

1PE

2

8

h6sb

grammar-connect-logic-result

οἳ προσκόπτουσιν τῷ λόγῳ ἀπειθοῦντες

1

Here, disobeying the word indicates the reason why they stumble. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “They stumble because they disobey the word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

188

1PE

2

8

mh48

figs-explicit

τῷ λόγῳ ἀπειθοῦντες

1

Here, disobeying refers to disobeying the command to repent and believe the gospel, which is part of the gospel message. Therefore, this disobeying means refusing to believe the gospel. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “refusing to believe the word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

189

1PE

2

8

sm6s

figs-activepassive

εἰς ὃ καὶ ἐτέθησαν

1

to which also they were appointed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “to which God also appointed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

190

1PE

2

8

uwg1

figs-explicit

εἰς ὃ

1

Here, which refers back to the previous part of this sentence. Those who do not believe in Jesus were appointed to stumble and disobey the word. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “To this, stumbling and disobeying the word,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

191

1PE

2

9

dc8m

figs-quotemarks

γένος ἐκλεκτόν, βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα, ἔθνος ἅγιον, λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν

1

All four of these phrases are quotations from the Old Testament. The phrase a chosen people is from Isaiah 43:20, a royal priesthood and a holy nation are from Exodus 19:6, and a people for possession is from Isaiah 43:21. It may be helpful for your readers to indicate these quotations with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate quotations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

192

1PE

2

9

zla9

figs-activepassive

γένος ἐκλεκτόν

1

a chosen people

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “a family whom God has chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

193

1PE

2

9

g39z

figs-explicit

βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα

1

a royal priesthood

This could refer to: (1) members of a priesthood who are also members of the king’s family. Alternate translation: “a kingly priesthood” (2) a priesthood which serves the king. Alternate translation: “a priesthood which serves the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

194

1PE

2

9

m1f8

grammar-collectivenouns

βασίλειον ἱεράτευμα

1

The word priesthood is a singular noun that refers to a group of priests. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “a group of royal priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

195

1PE

2

9

qk7f

figs-abstractnouns

λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν

1

a people for possession

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of possession, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “a people for God to possess” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

196

1PE

2

9

ra7z

figs-explicit

τοῦ ἐκ σκότους ὑμᾶς καλέσαντος, εἰς τὸ θαυμαστὸν αὐτοῦ φῶς

1

who called you from

This clause refers to God. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “of God, who called you from darkness into his marvelous light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

197

1PE

2

9

nvf5

figs-metaphor

ἐκ σκότους…εἰς τὸ θαυμαστὸν αὐτοῦ φῶς

1

from darkness into his marvelous light

Here, darkness refers to the condition of people who do not know God and are sinful, and light refers to the condition of people who know God and are righteous. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use similes. Alternate translation: “from a life of sin and ignorance of God to a life of knowing and pleasing him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

198

1PE

2

10

pveb

figs-quotemarks

οὐ λαὸς…λαὸς Θεοῦ…οὐκ ἠλεημένοι…ἐλεηθέντες

1

All four of these phrases are quotations from the Old Testament (Hosea 1:6–10). It may be helpful to your readers to indicate these quotations with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate quotations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

199

1PE

2

11

jnr9

0

General Information:

Peter begins to tell his readers how to live Christian lives.

200

1PE

2

11

ve9u

figs-doublet

παροίκους καὶ παρεπιδήμους

1

foreigners and exiles

Here, foreigners and exiles mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize that Christians on this earth are far away from their home in heaven. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “true exiles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

201

1PE

2

11

x8af

figs-metaphor

παροίκους

1

Peter uses foreigners here to refer to his Christian readers. Just like a foreigner is not in his homeland, so are Christians not at home while living on the earth. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “those living away from their home in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

202

1PE

2

11

hjuk

figs-metaphor

παρεπιδήμους

1

foreigners and exiles

See how you translated exiles in 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

203

1PE

2

11

ubn9

figs-metonymy

ἀπέχεσθαι τῶν σαρκικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν

1

to abstain from fleshly desires

Here, fleshly refers to a person’s sinful nature. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “to abstain from satisfying your sinful desires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

204

1PE

2

11

q4zn

figs-personification

στρατεύονται κατὰ τῆς ψυχῆς

1

make war against your soul

Peter speaks of fleshly desires as if they were soldiers trying to destroy the spiritual life of believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “will destroy your spiritual life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

205

1PE

2

11

x3q5

figs-genericnoun

τῆς ψυχῆς

1

your soul

Peter is referring to each individual Christian to whom he is writing this letter, not one particular soul. If this would be misunderstood in your language, use a more natural phrase. Alternate translation: “your souls” or “you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

206

1PE

2

12

uiwd

figs-declarative

τὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἔχοντες καλήν

1

Peter is using a statement to give a command. If this is confusing in your language, you can use a more natural form for command, starting a new sentence. Alternate translation: “Keep your behavior among the Gentiles good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

207

1PE

2

12

b5nv

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἔχοντες καλήν

1

keeping your behavior among the Gentiles good

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of behavior, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “behaving well among the Gentiles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

208

1PE

2

12

nqql

figs-metaphor

ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν

1

Peter uses Gentiles here to refer to people who are not Christians. Just like a Gentile was not a member of the Jewish people, so people who are not Christians are not members of God’s people. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “among those who do not believe in Jesus” or “among those who are not Christians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

209

1PE

2

12

mkt4

ἐν ᾧ καταλαλοῦσιν ὑμῶν ὡς

1

in whatever they speak about you as

Alternate translation: “with regard to what they slander you for as ” or “with respect to the very things that they slander you for as”

210

1PE

2

12

w3yn

figs-abstractnouns

ἐκ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων ἐποπτεύοντες

1

from observing your good works

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of works, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “they may observe the good things that you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

211

1PE

2

12

s2ji

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπισκοπῆς

1

in the day of visitation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of visitation, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “on the day when he visits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

212

1PE

2

12

qspw

figs-idiom

ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπισκοπῆς

1

This phrase is an idiom that refers to the time when God will judge all people. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “on the day when he comes to judge everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

213

1PE

2

13

c484

figs-explicit

διὰ τὸν Κύριον

1

for the sake of the Lord

Here, the Lord refers to Jesus. This phrase could mean: (1) we should do this to follow the example of Jesus, who also obeyed human authorities. Alternate translation: “in order to follow the Lord’s example” (2) we should do this to honor Jesus. Alternate translation: “in order to honor the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

214

1PE

2

13

al6q

βασιλεῖ ὡς ὑπερέχοντι

1

to the king as supreme

Alternate translation: “to the king as the highest human authority” or “to the king, who has supreme human authority”

215

1PE

2

14

t0tc

ἡγεμόσιν ὡς δι’ αὐτοῦ πεμπομένοις

1

Alternate translation: “to governors, who have been sent through him”

216

1PE

2

14

y1l2

figs-activepassive

δι’ αὐτοῦ πεμπομένοις

1

through him having been sent

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “whom the king has sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

217

1PE

2

14

dvmr

writing-pronouns

δι’ αὐτοῦ πεμπομένοις

1

Here, him could refer to: (1) the king mentioned in the previous verse, as in the UST. (2) God, who is the one who installs and removes all governing authorities. Alternate translation: “those being sent by God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

218

1PE

2

14

bxm9

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς ἐκδίκησιν κακοποιῶν, ἔπαινον δὲ ἀγαθοποιῶν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of punishment and praise, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “to punish evildoers and praise those who do good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

219

1PE

2

15

mh6s

figs-infostructure

ἀγαθοποιοῦντας φιμοῦν τὴν τῶν ἀφρόνων ἀνθρώπων ἀγνωσίαν

1

doing good to silence the ignorant talk of foolish people

If it would be more natural in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “to silence the ignorance of foolish people by doing good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

220

1PE

2

15

nzwv

figs-abstractnouns

ἀγαθοποιοῦντας φιμοῦν τὴν τῶν ἀφρόνων ἀνθρώπων ἀγνωσίαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of ignorance, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “doing good to silence the ignorant things that foolish people are saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

221

1PE

2

16

zqe3

figs-ellipsis

ὡς ἐλεύθεροι

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. These words could be: (1) the command to submit to authorities stated in verse 13. Alternate translation: “submit as free people” (2) an implied imperative verb. Alternate translation: “act as free people” or “live as free people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

222

1PE

2

16

y9pg

figs-metaphor

ὡς ἐπικάλυμμα…τῆς κακίας

1

as a covering for wickedness

Here, covering could refer to: (1) something to prevent people from knowing about one’s evil deeds. Alternate translation: “as a way to prevent others from seeing your evil” (2) an excuse or pretext to do evil deeds. Alternate translation: “as an excuse to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

223

1PE

2

17

gwy8

figs-metaphor

τὴν ἀδελφότητα

1

the brotherhood

Here, brotherhood refers to all Christian believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the community of believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

224

1PE

2

18

w2nc

0

General Information:

Peter begins to speak specifically to people who were slaves who worked in people’s houses.

225

1PE

2

18

xgk8

figs-doublet

τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς καὶ ἐπιεικέσιν

1

the good and gentle

The words good and gentle mean similar things. Peter uses this repetition to emphasize that such masters treat their servants very kindly. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “to the very kind ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

226

1PE

2

18

mueb

figs-metaphor

τοῖς σκολιοῖς

1

Here, crooked {ones} is used to refer to people who act dishonestly or unjustly as if their morals were an object that could be bent or twisted. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “to the dishonest ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

227

1PE

2

19

r1h1

figs-explicit

τοῦτο…χάρις

1

this is praiseworthy

Peter assumes that his readers will know that he is referring to finding favor with God, which is what he states in the next verse. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “this is deserving of God’s favor” or “this is pleasing to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

228

1PE

2

19

zm8e

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ συνείδησιν Θεοῦ

1

because of awareness of God

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of consciousness, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “because one is aware of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

229

1PE

2

19

rjyf

figs-possession

διὰ συνείδησιν Θεοῦ

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe consciousness that is about or concerning God. If this is not clear in your language, you could use a different expression. Alternate translation: “because of having consciousness about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

230

1PE

2

19

kje6

figs-explicit

Θεοῦ

1

Here, God refers to who God is and what he requires from his people. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “because of consciousness of who God is and what he requires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

231

1PE

2

20

y5ue

figs-rquestion

ποῖον γὰρ κλέος, εἰ ἁμαρτάνοντες καὶ κολαφιζόμενοι ὑπομενεῖτε?

1

For what kind of credit is there if, sinning and being tormented, you will endure?

Peter is not asking for information, but is using the question form here to emphasize that there is nothing praiseworthy about suffering for doing something wrong. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate this sentence as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “For there is no credit if, sinning and being beaten, you will endure.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

232

1PE

2

20

pr8b

figs-activepassive

κολαφιζόμενοι

1

sinning and being tormented

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “someone beats you” or “your master beats you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

233

1PE

2

20

ly9f

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἀγαθοποιοῦντες καὶ πάσχοντες

1

doing good and suffering, you will endure

This could mean: (1) someone suffers even though that person did what is good. Alternate translation: “suffering despite doing good” (2) someone suffers because that person did what is good. Alternate translation: “suffering because of doing good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

234

1PE

2

20

qii1

τοῦτο χάρις παρὰ Θεῷ

1

See how you translated a similar phrase in the previous verse.

235

1PE

2

21

c1jn

figs-explicit

εἰς τοῦτο

1

Here, this refers back to what Peter stated at the end of the previous verse. Believers are called by God to endure suffering while doing what is good. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “to endure suffering when you have done what is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

236

1PE

2

21

xit1

figs-activepassive

εἰς τοῦτο…ἐκλήθητε

1

to this you were called

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has called you to this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

237

1PE

2

21

si3l

figs-metaphor

ἐπακολουθήσητε τοῖς ἴχνεσιν αὐτοῦ

1

for you so that you might follow in his footsteps

Peter uses follow in his footsteps to refer to following Jesus’ example about enduring suffering. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “you might imitate his behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

238

1PE

2

22

wii5

figs-quotemarks

ὃς ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ ἐποίησεν, οὐδὲ εὑρέθη δόλος ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ

1

This verse is a quotation from Isaiah 53:9. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

239

1PE

2

22

tyz4

figs-activepassive

οὐδὲ εὑρέθη δόλος ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ

1

neither was deceit found in his mouth

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “neither did anyone find deceit in his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

240

1PE

2

22

cjai

figs-metaphor

οὐδὲ εὑρέθη δόλος ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ

1

Peter quotes Isaiah referring to deceit as if it were an object that could be found inside someone’s mouth. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “neither was deceit spoken out of his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

241

1PE

2

22

lw1u

figs-metonymy

οὐδὲ εὑρέθη δόλος ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ

1

neither was deceit found in his mouth

Peter quotes Isaiah describing something the Messiah would say by association with his mouth, which he would use to say something. In this case it is something the Messiah did not say. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “neither did he say something deceitful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

242

1PE

2

23

lj4a

figs-activepassive

ὃς λοιδορούμενος, οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει

1

He, being reviled, did not revile back

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “whom people reviled, did not revile them back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

243

1PE

2

23

gqb5

figs-explicit

παρεδίδου…τῷ κρίνοντι δικαίως

1

Here, the one judging justly refers to God. This means that Jesus trusted God to punish those who reviled him or to prove that he was innocent. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “he entrusted himself to God, who judges justly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

244

1PE

2

24

k632

figs-rpronouns

ὃς τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν

1

He himself

Peter uses the word himself here to emphasize that Jesus alone is the one who bore our sins. Use a way that is natural in your language to indicate this emphasis. Alternate translation: “none other than Jesus bore our sins” or “Jesus, that very person, bore our sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

245

1PE

2

24

w49m

figs-metaphor

τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν…ἀνήνεγκεν ἐν τῷ σώματι αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ ξύλον

1

carried our sins in his body to the tree

Peter uses bore our sins to refer to Jesus being punished for our sins as if sins were an object that he carried on his body. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “suffered the punishment for our sins in his body on the tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

246

1PE

2

24

zl8e

figs-metonymy

τὸ ξύλον

1

the tree

Peter uses tree to refer to the cross on which Jesus died, which was made of wood. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

247

1PE

2

24

x7ni

figs-metaphor

ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἀπογενόμενοι

1

Here, having died to sins is a metaphor that means to no longer be controlled by sin. Like a dead person is free from sinning because they are no longer alive, so believers are free to stop sinning because Jesus bore the punishment for their sins. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “being no longer controlled by sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

248

1PE

2

24

fxej

grammar-connect-time-sequential

ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ἀπογενόμενοι

1

This clause refers to an event that occurs before the event in the next clause. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “after having died to sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

249

1PE

2

24

jaka

figs-exclusive

τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ ζήσωμεν

1

When Peter says we, he is speaking of himself and other believers in Christ, so we would be inclusive. Your language may require you to mark this form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

250

1PE

2

24

w69k

figs-quotemarks

οὗ τῷ μώλωπι ἰάθητε

1

This clause is a quotation from Isaiah 53:5. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

251

1PE

2

24

ep4s

figs-activepassive

οὗ τῷ μώλωπι ἰάθητε

1

of whose wounds you were healed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has healed you by means of his wounds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

252

1PE

2

24

lx3n

figs-synecdoche

οὗ τῷ μώλωπι

1

Here, wounds refers to all the suffering Jesus endured when he was beaten and killed on the cross. If our readers would misunderstand this, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “by whose suffering and death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

253

1PE

2

24

n0l5

figs-metaphor

ἰάθητε

1

Here, healed could mean: (1) being freed from the penalty and power of sin, which could include physical healing. Alternate translation: “you were freed from the effects of sin” (2) being forgiven for their sins and having a restored relationship with God. Alternate translation: “you were forgiven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

254

1PE

2

25

sgt9

figs-simile

ἦτε…ὡς πρόβατα πλανώμενοι

1

you as sheep are being led astray

Peter speaks about his readers before they believed in Christ as if they had been similar to lost sheep that were wandering around aimlessly. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “you were living aimlessly without knowing God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

255

1PE

2

25

jkfu

figs-activepassive

ἐπεστράφητε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has turned you back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

256

1PE

2

25

i5lu

figs-metaphor

τὸν ποιμένα καὶ ἐπίσκοπον τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν

1

the shepherd and guardian of your souls

Peter uses shepherd and overseer to refer to Jesus. Just as a shepherd protects his sheep and an overseer takes care of his workers, Jesus protects and takes care of those who trust in him. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the one who protects and takes care of your souls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

257

1PE

2

25

z6q2

figs-synecdoche

τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν

1

See how you translated souls in 1:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

258

1PE

3

intro

cqf4

0

1 Peter 3 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. How believers should act toward other people (2:11–3:12)
  2. How believers should endure suffering (3:13–4:6)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in verses 10–12.

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

“the spirits in prison”

Verse 19 states that Jesus went and proclaimed to “the spirits in prison,” but does not mention what Jesus proclaimed or who those spirits are. Verse 20 states that these spirits disobeyed God during the time of Noah. Many scholars think that this means one of the following three meanings, each of which will be discussed in the notes for verses 19 and 20: (1) The spirits are demons who were imprisoned by God because they did something evil during Noah’s time (see 2 Peter 2:4–5; Jude 6–7; Genesis 6:1–4). Verse 19 then means that Jesus went to the place where they are imprisoned and proclaimed his victory to them at some time between his death on the cross and his return to heaven. (2) The spirits are sinful human beings who died during the flood in Noah’s time, and the prison is the realm of the dead. Verse 19 then means that Jesus went to hell and proclaimed his victory to those dead people there at some time between his death and resurrection. (3) The spirits are sinful human beings who died during the flood in Noah’s time, but verse 19 refers to the pre-incarnate form of Jesus indirectly preaching the gospel to them through the preaching of Noah.

“Baptism now saves you”

In verse 20 Peter refers to the story of God rescuing Noah and his family from the flood “through water.” Then in verse 21 he states that the water is an “antitype” for baptism, which is a Christian ritual by which a person publicly identifies as a Christian. Then Peter makes the statement that baptism “now saves you.” Since the New Testament authors repeatedly state that God alone saves people and that no one can do any work to be saved, Peter’s statement cannot mean that a person can be saved by being baptized. Rather, Peter uses the word “baptism” to refer to the faith in Jesus that a person publicly confesses when that person is baptized. Peter indicates later in verse 21 that he is not referring to water baptism, which he describes as “the removal of dirt from the flesh.” Peter further states that the baptism he is referring to saves “through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,” which means that a person is saved by faith in Jesus, because Jesus rose from the dead.

259

1PE

3

1

p454

0

General Information:

In verses 1–6 Peter gives instructions specifically to women who are wives.

260

1PE

3

1

wp5p

figs-metonymy

τινες ἀπειθοῦσιν τῷ λόγῳ

1

some are disobedient to the word

Here, being disobedient to the word could refer to: (1) refusing to believe the gospel message, as in 2:8. Alternate translation: “some do not believe the message about Jesus” (2) disobeying the commands God gave in his word. Alternate translation: “some do not obey what God commands in his word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

261

1PE

3

1

kbis

figs-activepassive

κερδηθήσονται

1

they will be won

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you will win them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

262

1PE

3

1

bs56

figs-idiom

κερδηθήσονται

1

they will be won

Here, won is an idiom that means that the unbelieving husbands will become believers in Jesus. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “they will be persuaded to believe in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

263

1PE

3

1

qp4q

figs-ellipsis

ἄνευ λόγου

1

without a word

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “without you saying a word.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

264

1PE

3

1

b56u

figs-metonymy

ἄνευ λόγου

1

Here, word refers to anything the wives might say to their husbands about the gospel message. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “without a word about the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

265

1PE

3

2

rzrl

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐποπτεύσαντες

1

This phrase indicates the reason why the unbelieving husbands would become believers in Jesus. These husbands became believers because they observed how their wives behaved. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “because they observed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

266

1PE

3

2

zft4

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἐν φόβῳ ἁγνὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν

1

having seen your pure behavior with respect

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of behavior, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “you behave purely and with fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

267

1PE

3

2

ng3s

figs-explicit

τὴν…ἁγνὴν ἀναστροφὴν ὑμῶν

1

your pure behavior with respect

This could refer to: (1) the wives’ sincere and honest behavior. Alternate translation: “your sincere behavior” (2) the wives’ sexually chaste behavior. Alternate translation: “your sexually chaste behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

268

1PE

3

3

p1bg

writing-pronouns

ὧν

1

Here, whose refers to the Christian wives to whom Peter is speaking. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “your” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

269

1PE

3

3

ysvn

figs-abstractnouns

ὧν…κόσμος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of adornment, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “they way you adorn yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

270

1PE

3

4

oav8

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλ’ ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπος

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could begin this verse as a new sentence. If you do so, then you will need to repeat the subject and verb from the previous verse. Alternate translation: “Rather, let your adornment be the inner man of the heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

271

1PE

3

4

m2n3

figs-metonymy

ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπος

1

Here, hidden man and heart both refer to a person’s thoughts or emotions. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the inner thoughts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

272

1PE

3

4

l2yq

figs-possession

ὁ κρυπτὸς τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπος

1

the inner person of the heart

Peter is using the possessive form to indicate that the hidden man is the same thing as the heart. If this is not clear in your language, you could use express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the hidden man, which is the heart” or “the hidden man, namely, the heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

273

1PE

3

4

l1js

figs-possession

ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ τοῦ πραέως καὶ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος

1

Peter is using the possessive form to indicate that the imperishable {thing} is the same thing as a gentle and quiet spirit. If this is not clear in your language, you could use express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “in the imperishable thing, which is a gentle and quiet spirit” or “in the imperishable thing, namely, a gentle and quiet spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

274

1PE

3

4

spi6

figs-metonymy

τοῦ πραέως καὶ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος

1

Here,quiet means “peaceful” or “calm.” It does not mean the opposite of loud. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “of a gentle and peaceful spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

275

1PE

3

4

gbw9

figs-metonymy

τοῦ πραέως καὶ ἡσυχίου πνεύματος

1

of a gentle and quiet spirit

Here, spirit refers to a person’s attitude or temperament. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “of a gentle and quiet attitude.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

276

1PE

3

4

j5bu

figs-metaphor

ὅ ἐστιν ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ πολυτελές

1

which is precious before God

Peter refers to God’s opinion as if it were a person standing directly in front of him. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “which God considers to be very precious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

277

1PE

3

5

dq60

figs-metaphor

ἐκόσμουν ἑαυτάς

1

Peter speaks of the attitude of the holy women as if it were something with which they adorned themselves. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternative translation: “made themselves beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

278

1PE

3

5

jbuf

ὑποτασσόμεναι τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀνδράσιν

1

See how you translated the similar clause in verse 1.

279

1PE

3

6

kpnl

translate-names

Σάρρα…τῷ Ἀβραάμ

1

Sarah is the name of a woman and Abraham is the name of her husband. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

280

1PE

3

6

t3xl

figs-idiom

ἧς ἐγενήθητε τέκνα

1

whose children you have become

Peter uses a Hebrew idiom here in which people are said to be the children of someone who has qualities similar to theirs. Women who believe and who act like Sarah acted are thought of as if they were her actual children. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “who resemble her as if you were her children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

281

1PE

3

6

v2so

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ φοβούμεναι μηδεμίαν πτόησιν

1

The phrase not being afraid of any translates two negative words in Greek. Peter uses them together to emphasize that believing women should not fear anything at all. If your language can use two negatives together for emphasis without them cancelling each other to create a positive meaning, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

282

1PE

3

7

lbc2

0

General Information:

In this verse Peter gives instructions specifically to men who are husbands.

283

1PE

3

7

uddn

figs-genericnoun

συνοικοῦντες…τῷ γυναικείῳ

1

Here, the female refers to the wives of the men to whom Peter is writing, not to one particular woman. If this would be misunderstood in your language, use a more natural phrase. Alternate translation: “live with the women whom you have married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

284

1PE

3

7

lulz

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ γνῶσιν

1

live with your wife according to understanding, as with a weaker container

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of knowledge, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “in a knowledgeable way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

285

1PE

3

7

eq1z

figs-metaphor

ὡς ἀσθενεστέρῳ σκεύει

1

as with a weaker container

Here Peter refers to women as if they were weaker containers. The word container is a term used to refer to both men and women in the Bible (Acts 9:15). Just as clay pots can break easily, so are human beings weak. Here Peter specifically refers to women as weaker containers because woman are usually physically weaker than men. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “as with someone who is weaker than you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

286

1PE

3

7

a88w

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπονέμοντες τιμήν ὡς καὶ συνκληρονόμοις χάριτος ζωῆς

1

assigning her honor as also fellow heirs of the grace of life

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of honor and heirs, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “honor them as also those who will inherit with you the grace of life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

287

1PE

3

7

n4rf

figs-metaphor

συνκληρονόμοις χάριτος ζωῆς

1

fellow heirs of the grace of life

Peter speaks of {the} grace of life as if it were something that people inherit. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “those who will experience the grace of life together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

288

1PE

3

7

quba

figs-possession

χάριτος ζωῆς

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe grace that is life. The word grace refers to a gracious gift and life refers to eternal life. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “of the gracious gift, namely, eternal life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

289

1PE

3

7

dwm6

figs-activepassive

εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐνκόπτεσθαι τὰς προσευχὰς ὑμῶν

1

so that your prayers will not be hindered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “so that nothing will hinder your prayers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

290

1PE

3

8

nk97

0

General Information:

In verses 8–12 Peter writes instructions to all believers.

291

1PE

3

8

f5y7

ὁμόφρονες

1

be likeminded

Alternate translation: “have the same opinion and be” or “have the same attitude and be”

292

1PE

3

8

tzgc

figs-gendernotations

φιλάδελφοι

1

Although brothers is masculine, Peter is using the phrase loving as brothers in a generic sense to refer to the kind of love that all believers should have for other believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “loving as fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

293

1PE

3

9

z5u3

figs-metaphor

μὴ ἀποδιδόντες κακὸν ἀντὶ κακοῦ, ἢ λοιδορίαν ἀντὶ λοιδορίας

1

Do not pay back evil in exchange for evil or insult in exchange for insult

Peter uses paying back to refer to responding to the actions of another person as if one was returning money to that person for those actions. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “not doing evil to someone who does evil to you or insulting someone who insults you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

294

1PE

3

9

t6il

figs-ellipsis

εὐλογοῦντες

1

blessing

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “blessing those who do evil to you or insult you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

295

1PE

3

9

w5df

figs-activepassive

εἰς τοῦτο ἐκλήθητε

1

to this you were called

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God called you to this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

296

1PE

3

9

wx2r

figs-explicit

εἰς τοῦτο ἐκλήθητε, ἵνα

1

Here, this could refer to: (1) blessing earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “you were called to bless so that” (2) inherit a blessing later in the verse “to this you were called so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

297

1PE

3

9

n3xc

figs-metaphor

ἵνα εὐλογίαν κληρονομήσητε

1

so that you might inherit a blessing

Peter speaks of experiencing God’s blessing as if one is receiving an inheritance. If this might confuse your readers, you could express it plainly. Alternate translation: “so that you might experience God’s blessing as your permanent possession” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

298

1PE

3

10

dpf2

writing-quotations

γὰρ

1

For here introduces a quotation from the Old Testament (Psalm 34:12–16). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “It is as David wrote in the scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

299

1PE

3

10

tce3

figs-quotemarks

ὁ…θέλων ζωὴν ἀγαπᾶν, καὶ ἰδεῖν ἡμέρας ἀγαθὰς, παυσάτω

1

From this clause through to the end of verse 12, Peter quotes from Psalm 34:12–16. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

300

1PE

3

10

p9bl

figs-parallelism

ὁ…θέλων ζωὴν ἀγαπᾶν, καὶ ἰδεῖν ἡμέρας ἀγαθὰς

1

to love life and to see good days

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize the desire to have a good life. If stating the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you could combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “the one truly wanting to have a good life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

301

1PE

3

10

btkp

figs-metaphor

ἰδεῖν ἡμέρας ἀγαθὰς

1

to see good days

Peter quotes David speaking of experiencing a good lifetime as to see good days. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “to experience a good lifetime” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

302

1PE

3

10

rqa9

figs-synecdoche

τὴν γλῶσσαν ἀπὸ κακοῦ, καὶ χείλη τοῦ μὴ λαλῆσαι δόλον

1

his tongue … his lips

Peter quotes David using the words tongue and lips to refer to the person who is speaking. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternate translation: “himself from speaking evil and from speaking deceit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

303

1PE

3

10

y4kd

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν γλῶσσαν ἀπὸ κακοῦ, καὶ χείλη τοῦ μὴ λαλῆσαι δόλον

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of evil and deceit, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “his tongue from saying evil things and his lips from speaking deceitful things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

304

1PE

3

11

n5sr

figs-metaphor

ἐκκλινάτω…ἀπὸ κακοῦ

1

let him turn away from evil

Here, turn away from is a metaphor that means to avoid doing something. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “let him avoid doing evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

305

1PE

3

11

fu8e

figs-doublet

ζητησάτω εἰρήνην καὶ διωξάτω αὐτήν

1

The phrases seek peace and pursue it mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize the importance of living peacefully with other people. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Let him earnestly pursue peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

306

1PE

3

11

qhyg

figs-explicit

ζητησάτω εἰρήνην

1

Here, peace refers to peaceful relationships between people. If it might be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Let him seek to live peacefully with others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

307

1PE

3

12

yn5l

figs-idiom

ὀφθαλμοὶ Κυρίου ἐπὶ δικαίους

1

the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous

Here, eyes being on someone is an idiom that refers to God acting favorably toward someone by taking care of that person. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a similar idiom in your language. Alternate translation: “The Lord lovingly takes care of the righteous ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

308

1PE

3

12

r5xf

figs-idiom

ὦτα αὐτοῦ εἰς δέησιν αὐτῶν

1

his ears are upon their requests

Here, ears being toward someone’s request is an idiom that refers to God listening to that person’s request. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a similar idiom in your language. Alternate translation: “the Lord listens to their request” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

309

1PE

3

12

tytz

figs-explicit

ὦτα αὐτοῦ εἰς δέησιν αὐτῶν

1

his ears are upon their requests

The idea that the Lord listens to the requests of righteous people also implies that he responds to those requests. If this might be helpful to your readers, you could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “he listens to and grants their request” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

310

1PE

3

12

p2vi

figs-genericnoun

δέησιν αὐτῶν

1

his ears are upon their requests

Here, request refers to requests in general, not to one particular request. If this would be misunderstood in your language, use a more natural phrase. Alternate translation: “their requests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

311

1PE

3

12

es9n

figs-synecdoche

πρόσωπον δὲ Κυρίου ἐπὶ

1

But the face of the Lord is against

Here, face refers to the Lord himself. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “But the Lord is against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

312

1PE

3

12

t22b

figs-idiom

πρόσωπον δὲ Κυρίου ἐπὶ

1

But the face of the Lord is against

Here, {the} face being against someone is an idiom that refers to one person opposing another person. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a similar idiom in your language. Alternate translation: “but the Lord opposes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

313

1PE

3

12

gw7w

figs-quotemarks

ποιοῦντας κακά

1

After this phrase, Peter also ends his quotation from the book of Psalms. If you decided in verse 10 to mark this as a quotation, indicate that ending here with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

314

1PE

3

13

wkw4

0

Connecting Statement:

In verses 13–22 Peter teaches the believers how to behave when unbelievers persecute them.

315

1PE

3

13

e1ma

figs-rquestion

τίς ὁ κακώσων ὑμᾶς, ἐὰν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ζηλωταὶ γένησθε?

1

who is the one who will harm you if you are a zealot of what is good?

Peter is not asking for information, but is using the question form here to emphasize that it is unlikely that someone would harm them if they did good things. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “no one will harm you if you become zealous ones of the good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

316

1PE

3

13

e8li

figs-possession

τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ζηλωταὶ

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe people who are zealous about doing good deeds. If this is not clear in your language, you could use a different expression. Alternate translation: “ones zealous to do good deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

317

1PE

3

14

f6ch

figs-abstractnouns

πάσχοιτε διὰ δικαιοσύνην

1

you suffer because of righteousness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of righteousness, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “you might suffer because you do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

318

1PE

3

14

xg3m

figs-activepassive

μακάριοι

1

you are blessed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will cause you to be blessed ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

319

1PE

3

14

j8ds

figs-quotemarks

τὸν δὲ φόβον αὐτῶν, μὴ φοβηθῆτε μηδὲ ταραχθῆτε

1

This sentence is a quotation from Isaiah 8:12. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

320

1PE

3

14

f9u8

figs-parallelism

τὸν δὲ φόβον αὐτῶν, μὴ φοβηθῆτε μηδὲ ταραχθῆτε

1

But do not fear their fear, nor be troubled

These two phrases mean the same thing. Peter states the same idea twice in order to emphasize that believers should not be afraid of people who persecute them. If stating the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you could combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “But you should not fear at all what people might do to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

321

1PE

3

14

yz6y

figs-possession

τὸν…φόβον αὐτῶν, μὴ φοβηθῆτε

1

their fear

This could refer to: (1) the fear that unbelievers have. Alternate translation: “you should not fear what they fear” or “you should not fear the same things that they fear” (2) the fear that righteous people have for unbelievers. Alternate translation: “you should not fear them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

322

1PE

3

15

vgv7

figs-metaphor

Κύριον…τὸν Χριστὸν ἁγιάσατε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν

1

sanctify the Lord Christ in your hearts

Peter uses sanctify {the} Lord Christ to refer to acknowledging Christ’s holiness. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “acknowledge in your hearts that the Lord Christ is holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

323

1PE

3

15

qjg3

figs-metonymy

ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν

1

in your hearts

Here, hearts refers to the thoughts or emotions of Peter’s readers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “in your minds” or “within yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

324

1PE

3

15

d69e

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸς ἀπολογίαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of defense, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “to defend your faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

325

1PE

3

15

q8i1

figs-metonymy

τῷ αἰτοῦντι ὑμᾶς λόγον

1

Peter uses word to refer to an answer or explanation spoken by using words. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “who asks you for a statement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

326

1PE

3

15

w3xw

figs-metaphor

περὶ τῆς ἐν ὑμῖν ἐλπίδος

1

Peter speaks of hope as if it were something that could be inside a person. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “concerning your hope” or “concerning the hope that you have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

327

1PE

3

16

hzya

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ πραΰτητος καὶ φόβου

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of meekness and fear, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “by being meek and fearful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

328

1PE

3

16

ctk3

figs-abstractnouns

συνείδησιν ἔχοντες ἀγαθήν

1

This phrase implies not doing anything sinful that would cause a person to not have a good conscience. If this might confuse your readers, you could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “doing nothing wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

329

1PE

3

16

wrk5

figs-infostructure

ἵνα ἐν ᾧ καταλαλεῖσθε, καταισχυνθῶσιν, οἱ ἐπηρεάζοντες ὑμῶν τὴν ἀγαθὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστροφήν

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these clauses. Alternate translation: “so that the ones who are reviling your good behavior in Christ may be ashamed about why you are being slandered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

330

1PE

3

16

s7mb

figs-activepassive

καταλαλεῖσθε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people are slandering you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

331

1PE

3

16

qflw

figs-explicit

ὑμῶν τὴν ἀγαθὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστροφήν

1

Here, in Christ refers to being a Christian. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “your good behavior as a Christian” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

332

1PE

3

16

dvwr

figs-activepassive

καταισχυνθῶσιν, οἱ ἐπηρεάζοντες ὑμῶν τὴν ἀγαθὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἀναστροφήν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God may shame the ones who are reviling your good behavior in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

333

1PE

3

17

bt09

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἀγαθοποιοῦντας…κακοποιοῦντας

1

These two phrases indicate two different reasons for suffering. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because of doing good … because of doing evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

334

1PE

3

17

x8qu

figs-metonymy

εἰ θέλοι τὸ θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Peter uses the will of God to refer to God himself. If your readers would not understand this, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “if God wills” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

335

1PE

3

18

me4u

figs-explicit

περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν

1

Here, sins implies the sins of people other than Jesus, because Jesus never sinned. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “for the sake of the sins of others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

336

1PE

3

18

q9fa

figs-activepassive

θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ

1

having been put to death in the flesh

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people having indeed killed him in the flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

337

1PE

3

18

j5lh

figs-metonymy

θανατωθεὶς μὲν σαρκὶ

1

having been put to death in the flesh

Here, flesh refers to Christ’s body, which was made of flesh. Peter is saying that the body of Christ was killed. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “having indeed been killed physically” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

338

1PE

3

18

h6v4

figs-activepassive

ζῳοποιηθεὶς…πνεύματι

1

having been made alive in the spirit

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God’s spirit having made him alive” or “God having made him alive in the spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

339

1PE

3

18

n7nh

figs-explicit

ζῳοποιηθεὶς…πνεύματι

1

in the spirit

Here, spirit could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit, in which case this phrase would indicate the means by which Jesus was made alive. Alternate translation: “having been made him alive by the Spirit” (2) Jesus’ spiritual existence, in which case this phrase would be referring to the spiritual realm that is in contrast to the physical realm referred to with the phrase “in the flesh.” Alternate translation: “having been made alive spiritually” or “having been made alive in the spiritual realm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

340

1PE

3

19

hp82

figs-explicit

ἐν ᾧ

1

in which

Here, which refers to “spirit” in the previous verse. As in the previous verse, this could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “by means of the Spirit” (2) Jesus’ spiritual existence. Alternate translation: “in the spiritual realm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

341

1PE

3

19

ewuu

figs-ellipsis

ἐκήρυξεν

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. This phrase could mean: (1) Jesus proclaimed God’s victory over sin and death, which he accomplished through his death and resurrection. Alternate translation: “he proclaimed God’s victory” (2) Jesus preached the gospel to wicked people indirectly through the preaching of Noah during the time before the great flood. This interpretation is less likely to be correct, because it would mean that Noah was actually the one preaching and Peter does not mention Noah preaching or Jesus’ pre-incarnate existence anywhere in this letter. Alternate translation: “he preached the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

342

1PE

3

19

ez3d

figs-explicit

τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν

1

to the spirits in prison

Here, spirits could refer to: (1) evil spirits whom God imprisoned because of what they did before the flood that occurred in Noah’s time (see 2 Peter 2:4–5; Jude 6–7; Genesis 6:1–4), as in the UST. (2) the spirits of people who died during the flood that occurred in Noah’s time. This interpretation is a less likely to be correct because Peter never refers to people as spirits, but rather “souls,” as in the next verse. Alternate translation: “to those people who had died and were in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

343

1PE

3

19

zpyr

figs-metaphor

ἐν φυλακῇ

1

Here Peter uses prison as a metaphor. It could refer to: (1) a place where God imprisoned certain evil spirits whom he will judge when he judges the whole world (see 2 Peter 2:4–5; Jude 6–7). Alternate translation: “whom God had imprisoned to await judgment” (2) the place where sinful people go when they die. Alternate translation: “in hell” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

344

1PE

3

20

qxah

figs-ellipsis

ἀπειθήσασίν

1

when the patience of God was waiting

Peter is leaving out a word that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply the word from the context. Alternate translation: “having disobeyed God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

345

1PE

3

20

s7qm

figs-metonymy

ἡ τοῦ Θεοῦ μακροθυμία

1

the patience of God

Peter uses patience of God to refer to God himself. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “God himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

346

1PE

3

20

yyth

figs-metonymy

ἐν ἡμέραις Νῶε

1

Here Peter uses days of Noah to refer to the time period when Noah was alive. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “in the time of Noah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

347

1PE

3

20

c6mi

figs-activepassive

κατασκευαζομένης κιβωτοῦ

1

in the days of Noah, while an ark was being constructed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when Noah was constructing an ark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

348

1PE

3

21

dqjy

writing-pronouns

1

Here, which refers back to the “water” mentioned at the end of the last verse. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

349

1PE

3

21

vxoh

figs-infostructure

ὃ καὶ ὑμᾶς ἀντίτυπον νῦν σῴζει βάπτισμα

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “which, being an antitype for baptism, now saves you also” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

350

1PE

3

21

tz6l

figs-explicit

ὃ καὶ ὑμᾶς ἀντίτυπον νῦν σῴζει βάπτισμα

1

Here, antitype refers to one thing that is an analogy for another thing. In this context the “water” from the previous verse is an analogy for baptism. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “which is a symbol for baptism, now saves you also” or “which is analogous to baptism, now saves you also” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

351

1PE

3

21

ium3

figs-metonymy

βάπτισμα

1

Here Peter uses baptism to refer to the faith in Jesus that believers profess when they are baptized. The Bible clearly states that God saves people by grace through faith, not by any work like baptism (Ephesians 2:8–9). See the discussion in the General Notes for this chapter. If this might confuse your readers, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the faith in Jesus demonstrated by baptism” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

352

1PE

3

21

owi3

figs-abstractnouns

οὐ σαρκὸς ἀπόθεσις ῥύπου, ἀλλὰ συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς, ἐπερώτημα εἰς Θεόν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of removal and appeal, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “it does not remove dirt from the flesh, but appeals to God for a good conscience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

353

1PE

3

21

hmp9

figs-metonymy

σαρκὸς

1

Here, Peter uses flesh to refer to a person’s physical body that is made of flesh. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “from the body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

354

1PE

3

21

uz0u

figs-explicit

συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς, ἐπερώτημα εἰς Θεόν

1

Here the phrase a good conscience means Peter’s readers do not feel guilty because they know that God has forgiven their sins. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “an appeal to God to know that your sins have been forgiven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

355

1PE

3

21

jti3

figs-infostructure

καὶ ὑμᾶς…νῦν σῴζει βάπτισμα, οὐ σαρκὸς ἀπόθεσις ῥύπου, ἀλλὰ συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς, ἐπερώτημα εἰς Θεόν δι’ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

1

through the resurrection of Jesus Christ

Here, through {the} resurrection of Jesus Christ indicates the means by which the faith demonstrated by baptism saves. If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases to make that meaning clear. Alternate translation: “baptism now saves you also through the resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is not a removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

356

1PE

3

21

rixf

figs-abstractnouns

δι’ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of resurrection, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “through God raising Jesus Christ from the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

357

1PE

3

22

p5ij

figs-infostructure

ὅς ἐστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ Θεοῦ, πορευθεὶς εἰς οὐρανὸν, ὑποταγέντων αὐτῷ ἀγγέλων, καὶ ἐξουσιῶν, καὶ δυνάμεων

1

The phrases having gone and having been subjected indicate that those two clauses describe events that occurred before the event in the first clause in this verse. If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases so that they appear in chronological order. Alternate translation: “after having gone into heaven, with angels and authorities and powers having been subjected to him, he is at the right hand of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

358

1PE

3

22

g4qh

figs-metonymy

ὅς ἐστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ Θεοῦ

1

who is at the right hand of God

Here, Peter uses right hand to refer to the place located at the right side of God in heaven. If this would confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “who is at God’s right side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

359

1PE

3

22

ldrw

figs-explicit

ὅς ἐστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ Θεοῦ

1

In this culture, the place at the right side of a ruler was a position of honor. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that explicitly. Alternate translation: “who is at the place of honor next to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

360

1PE

3

22

q72i

figs-doublet

ὑποταγέντων αὐτῷ ἀγγέλων, καὶ ἐξουσιῶν, καὶ δυνάμεων

1

The words angels, authorities, and powers are all terms for the ranks of supernatural beings, both angelic and demonic. If your language does not have three different terms for rulers or authorities, you can combine them. Alternate translation: “all types of supernatural beings having been subjected to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

361

1PE

3

22

f6jq

figs-activepassive

ὑποταγέντων αὐτῷ ἀγγέλων, καὶ ἐξουσιῶν, καὶ δυνάμεων

1

after … had been subjected to him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God having subjected angels and authorities and powers to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

362

1PE

4

intro

zh5n

0

1 Peter 4 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. How believers should endure suffering (3:13–4:6)
  2. How believers should act because the end is near (4:7–11)
  3. How believers should respond to trials (4:12–19)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry that is quoted from the Old Testament in verse 18.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Ungodly Gentiles

Although the term “Gentiles” usually refers to people who are not Jewish, in verse 3 Peter uses “Gentiles” to refer to all ungodly people who are not Jews. It does not include Gentiles who have become Christians. Actions like “licentiousness, lusts, drunkenness, carousing, drinking parties, and lawless idolatry” were typical of ungodly Gentiles. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

“Let him” and “Let those”

In verses 16–19 Peter uses these phrases to tell his readers what he wants them to do. Although they are commands that he wants his readers to obey, it is as if he were telling one person what he wants other people to do. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate these as commands, like the UST does.

363

1PE

4

1

b8d4

grammar-connect-words-phrases

οὖν

1

Therefore here refers back to what Peter has said about Jesus’ suffering in 3:18. If it might help your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Considering what I have written about Christ’s suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

364

1PE

4

1

ess6

figs-metonymy

σαρκὶ…σαρκὶ

1

in the flesh

Here, flesh refers to the human body, which is made of flesh. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “in the body … in the body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

365

1PE

4

1

p2rv

figs-metaphor

ὑμεῖς τὴν αὐτὴν ἔννοιαν ὁπλίσασθε

1

arm yourselves with the same intention

Here Peter uses arm yourselves to refer to preparing one’s mind for something. As soldiers get their weapons ready for battle, so should Christians be mentally prepared to suffer for their faith. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “prepare your minds with the same way of thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

366

1PE

4

1

yxs5

figs-explicit

τὴν αὐτὴν ἔννοιαν

1

Here Peter uses the same way of thinking to refer to Jesus’ way of thinking when he suffered. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “with the same way of thinking about suffering that Christ had when he suffered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

367

1PE

4

1

d66g

figs-explicit

πέπαυται ἁμαρτίας

1

has ceased from sin

Here, ceased from sin means “no longer living with a sinful mindset.” The idea is that suffering because of one’s faith indicates that a person is not living sinfully. Christians are often persecuted by unbelievers because they refuse to act sinfully. This phrase does not mean that Christians who suffer never sin. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “has stopped living sinfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

368

1PE

4

2

tjdq

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς

1

Here, in order to introduces a purpose clause. This could mean: (1) this verse states the purpose for ceasing from sin mentioned at the end of the previous verse. Alternate translation (without a comma preceding): “so that he will” (2) this verse states the purpose for the command to “arm yourselves” in the previous verse. Alternate translation (starting a new sentence): “Arm yourselves in order to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

369

1PE

4

2

d49a

figs-metonymy

τὸν ἐπίλοιπον ἐν σαρκὶ…χρόνον

1

Peter uses time in {the} flesh to refer to a person’s lifetime. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the remaining time of your life” or “the rest of your life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

370

1PE

4

2

fsvk

figs-explicit

ἀνθρώπων ἐπιθυμίαις

1

Here, desires refers specifically to sinful desires. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “for the sinful desires of men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

371

1PE

4

2

gbb6

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων ἐπιθυμίαις

1

for the desires of men

Although the term men is masculine, Peter is using the word here in a generic sense to refer to humans in general. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “for human desires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

372

1PE

4

3

anhj

ἀρκετὸς…ὁ παρεληλυθὼς χρόνος

1

Alternate translation: “enough time has passed”

373

1PE

4

3

efte

figs-metaphor

τὸ βούλημα τῶν ἐθνῶν

1

Here Peter uses Gentiles to refer to sinful people who do not know God. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. See the discussion of this term in the General Notes for this chapter. Alternate translation: “the will of those people who do not know God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

374

1PE

4

3

rp5p

figs-metaphor

πεπορευμένους ἐν ἀσελγείαις, ἐπιθυμίαις, οἰνοφλυγίαις, κώμοις, πότοις, καὶ ἀθεμίτοις εἰδωλολατρίαις

1

Peter speaks of these different sins as if they were places that his readers had formerly lived in. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “having practiced licentiousness, lusts, drunkenness, carousing, drinking parties, and lawless idolatry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

375

1PE

4

3

lm35

figs-abstractnouns

πεπορευμένους ἐν ἀσελγείαις, ἐπιθυμίαις, οἰνοφλυγίαις, κώμοις, πότοις, καὶ ἀθεμίτοις εἰδωλολατρίαις

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of licentiousness, lusts, drunkenness, carousing, and idolatry, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “having lived licentious and lustful lives, getting drunk, attending immoral parties and drinking parties, and worshiping prohibited idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

376

1PE

4

4

c4ma

figs-metaphor

μὴ συντρεχόντων ὑμῶν εἰς τὴν αὐτὴν τῆς ἀσωτίας ἀνάχυσιν

1

Peter uses running into to refer to being eager to participate in sinful acts with unbelievers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “you are not eagerly joining them to participate in the same outpouring of recklessness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

377

1PE

4

4

q6k6

figs-metaphor

τῆς ἀσωτίας ἀνάχυσιν

1

outpouring of their reckless behavior

Peter uses outpouring to refer to acting sinfully to such a high degree that it is as if sin were pouring out of the person like a flood. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “abundant acts of recklessness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

378

1PE

4

4

w1d8

figs-explicit

τῆς ἀσωτίας

1

of their reckless behavior

The word recklessness refers to dangerous behavior that shows that a person does not care about the consequences of his actions. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “of careless sinning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

379

1PE

4

5

datm

figs-metaphor

οἳ ἀποδώσουσιν λόγον

1

Here Peter uses give to refer to speaking something. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “they will speak a word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

380

1PE

4

5

r288

figs-metonymy

οἳ ἀποδώσουσιν λόγον

1

Here Peter uses word to refer to an explanation that they would speak using words. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “they will give an account” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

381

1PE

4

5

xw39

figs-explicit

τῷ ἑτοίμως ἔχοντι κρῖναι

1

to the one who is ready to judge

Here, the one being ready to judge could refer to: (1) God. Alternate translation: “to God, who is ready to judge” (2) Christ. Alternate translation: “to Christ, who is ready to judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

382

1PE

4

5

dx7v

figs-merism

ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς

1

the living and the dead

The phrase living and dead ones refers to all people, whether they are still alive or have died. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

383

1PE

4

6

u54m

figs-explicit

καὶ νεκροῖς εὐηγγελίσθη

1

the gospel was preached also to the dead

Here, dead ones refers to people who heard the gospel while they were alive but had died by the time Peter wrote this letter. Some people believe that this clause means that Jesus went to hell and preached the gospel to people who had died before Jesus himself died on the cross. However, that idea would contradict the statement in Hebrews 9:27 that “men are appointed to die once, and after that, the judgment.” The Bible does not state that God gave anyone a second chance to believe in Jesus after they had already died. If this use of dead ones might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the gospel was preached also to those who have since died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

384

1PE

4

6

ql11

figs-activepassive

εὐηγγελίσθη

1

the gospel was preached

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) people preached the gospel. Alternate translation: “people preached the gospel” (2) Christ preached the gospel. Alternate translation: “Christ preached the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

385

1PE

4

6

hsg6

figs-activepassive

κριθῶσι μὲν κατὰ ἀνθρώπους σαρκὶ

1

they were judged in the flesh according to men

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) men judged and persecuted them during their lives according to human standards. Alternate translation: “men judged them in the flesh by human standards” (2) God judged them as humans during their lives. Alternate translation: “God indeed judged them in the flesh as humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

386

1PE

4

6

gm1m

figs-gendernotations

κατὰ ἀνθρώπους

1

Although the term men is masculine, Peter is using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “according to people” or “as people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

387

1PE

4

6

s72f

figs-metonymy

σαρκὶ

1

they were judged in the flesh according to men

Here Peter uses in {the} flesh to refer to a person’s lifetime. See how you translated this expression in verse 2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

388

1PE

4

6

encm

figs-explicit

ζῶσι

1

Here, live refers to experiencing eternal life. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “they might experience eternal life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

389

1PE

4

6

h154

figs-explicit

ζῶσι…πνεύματι

1

Here, {the} spirit could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit, in which case this phrase would indicate the means by which the people received eternal life. Alternate translation: “they might live by the Spirit” (2) their spiritual existence, in which case this phrase would be referring to the spiritual realm that is contrasted with the physical realm mentioned earlier in the verse with the phrase “in the flesh.” Alternate translation: “they might live spiritually” or “they might live in the spiritual realm” See how you translated the same expression in 3:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

390

1PE

4

7

e445

figs-explicit

πάντων…τὸ τέλος

1

the end of all things

Here, the end of all {things} refers to the end of the world, when Jesus returns and judges everyone. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the end of the world, when Jesus returns,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

391

1PE

4

7

qs1t

figs-metaphor

ἤγγικεν

1

has come near

Peter uses has come near to refer to something that will happen soon. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “will soon happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

392

1PE

4

7

ubd4

figs-doublet

σωφρονήσατε…καὶ νήψατε

1

be of sound mind, and be sober

The words translated as sound mind and sober mean basically the same thing. Peter uses them to emphasize the need to think clearly since the end of the world is near. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “be completely clearheaded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

393

1PE

4

7

k5hh

figs-metaphor

νήψατε

1

be sober

See how you translated sober in 1:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

394

1PE

4

7

qb4j

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς προσευχάς

1

Here, for introduces a purpose clause. Peter is stating a purpose for his readers to think clearly. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a purpose clause. Alternate translation: “for the purpose of praying prayers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

395

1PE

4

8

f1lr

figs-metaphor

ὅτι ἀγάπη καλύψει πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν

1

for love covers a multitude of sins

Peter describes love as if it were a person who could cover something up, and he describes sins as if they were objects that could be covered up. This clause, covers up, means that people who love others will forgive them for the sins that they commit against them. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use similes. Alternate translation: “for those who love forgive the many sins committed against them by others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

396

1PE

4

9

g3vw

figs-explicit

φιλόξενοι

1

hospitable

The word hospitable refers to showing kindness to and providing for the needs of guests and travelers. This was especially important in Peter’s time because inns were dangerous places where people did many immoral activities, so Christians could not stay in them. If it might be helpful to your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “be those who provide food and a sleeping place” or “be those who provide room and board” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

397

1PE

4

9

rzbi

figs-litotes

ἄνευ γογγυσμοῦ

1

Here Peter uses a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “with cheerfulness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

398

1PE

4

10

xvj3

figs-explicit

ἕκαστος καθὼς ἔλαβεν χάρισμα

1

Just as each one has received a gift

Here, gift refers to special spiritual abilities that God gives to believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “just as each one has received a special spiritual ability from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

399

1PE

4

10

a30t

figs-metaphor

ὡς καλοὶ οἰκονόμοι ποικίλης χάριτος Θεοῦ

1

Peter uses stewards to refer to Christians using spiritual abilities from God to serve other believers as if they were managing resources for a boss. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “as those managing well the diverse grace of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

400

1PE

4

10

smyw

figs-possession

ποικίλης χάριτος Θεοῦ

1

Peter is using the possessive form to describe grace that is given by God. The word grace refers to the various spiritual gifts that God graciously gives believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “of the diverse, gracious gifts from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

401

1PE

4

11

b81x

figs-ellipsis

εἴ τις λαλεῖ, ὡς λόγια Θεοῦ

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “if anyone speaks, let him speak as if he is speaking the words of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

402

1PE

4

11

vs2d

figs-ellipsis

εἴ τις διακονεῖ, ὡς ἐξ ἰσχύος ἧς χορηγεῖ ὁ Θεός

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “if anyone serves others, let him serve others as if he were serving them with the strength that God supplies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

403

1PE

4

11

ir6x

figs-activepassive

δοξάζηται ὁ Θεὸς

1

so that in all God may be glorified

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you might glorify God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

404

1PE

4

11

wq9e

figs-abstractnouns

ᾧ ἐστιν ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος

1

may be glorified

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of glory and power, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “may he be recognized as glorious and powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

405

1PE

4

12

vw9s

figs-metaphor

τῇ ἐν ὑμῖν πυρώσει

1

the fiery trial among you that is happening for a testing to you

Peter refers to suffering Christians as if they were gold being refined by being passed through a fire. In the same way that fire refines gold, trials test and strengthen a Christian’s faith. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or with a simile. Alternate translation: “the trial you are experiencing that is refining you like gold is refined in fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

406

1PE

4

13

mhj1

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ

1

at the revealing of his glory

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of revelation and glory, you can express the same ideas in another way. This phrase could mean: (1) Christ will reveal his own glory. Alternate translation: “when he reveals how glorious he is” (2) God will reveal Christ’s glory. Alternate translation: “when God reveals how glorious Christ is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

407

1PE

4

13

b63p

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the revelation of his glory refers to the time in the future when Jesus returns to earth and judges everyone. If this might be helpful to your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “at the revelation of his glory when he returns to earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

408

1PE

4

13

rgb5

figs-doublet

χαρῆτε ἀγαλλιώμενοι

1

you may rejoice, being full of joy

The words rejoice and glad mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize the intensity of joy. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “you may rejoice even more” or “you may be exceedingly glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

409

1PE

4

14

kswc

figs-activepassive

εἰ ὀνειδίζεσθε

1

If you are reviled for the name of Christ

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “If people revile you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

410

1PE

4

14

i6ul

figs-metonymy

ἐν ὀνόματι Χριστοῦ

1

If you are reviled for the name of Christ

Here,name refers to Christ himself. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “for Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

411

1PE

4

14

wbm3

figs-activepassive

μακάριοι

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you are people whom God has blessed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

412

1PE

4

14

i1kq

figs-explicit

τὸ τῆς δόξης καὶ τὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ Πνεῦμα

1

the Spirit of glory and of God

Here, of glory and of God both refer to the Holy Spirit. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God” or “the glorious Holy Spirit of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

413

1PE

4

14

nx6p

figs-idiom

ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἀναπαύεται

1

is resting on you

Here, rests on you is an idiom that refers to the Holy Spirit continually dwelling within Christians. Peter borrowed this language from Isaiah 11:2 where it originally referred to the Holy Spirit dwelling in the Messiah. The Holy Spirit dwells in the Messiah as well as in those who believe in the Messiah (John 1:33; 14:16–17). The Holy Spirit who dwells within believers provides strength and comfort when believers are persecuted for their faith. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “is staying with you” or “remains within you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

414

1PE

4

15

qzlb

figs-abstractnouns

ὡς φονεὺς, ἢ κλέπτης, ἢ κακοποιὸς, ἢ ὡς ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of murderer, thief, evildoer, and meddler, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “as someone who murders, steals, does evil, or as someone who meddles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

415

1PE

4

15

nr6n

translate-unknown

ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος

1

a meddler

Here, meddler refers to a person who gets involved with the affairs of others without having a right to do so. Alternate translation: “someone who needlessly meddles in the affairs of other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

416

1PE

4

16

xb0e

figs-123person

μὴ αἰσχυνέσθω, δοξαζέτω δὲ τὸν Θεὸν

1

Peter is addressing his readers indirectly by using the third person. If this might be confusing in your language, you could use the second person, as the previous verse does. See the discussion of this in the General Notes for this chapter. Alternate translation: “do not be ashamed, but glorify God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

417

1PE

4

16

xm8z

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ

1

in this name

Here, this name refers to the title “Christian” mentioned earlier in the verse. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he bears the name ‘Christian’” or “because people have recognized him as a Christian” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

418

1PE

4

17

nawr

figs-abstractnouns

ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of judgment, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “it is time for God to begin judging the household of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

419

1PE

4

17

x9np

figs-metaphor

τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the household of God

Here Peter uses household to refer to all believers as if they were a family that belongs to God. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “those who belong to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

420

1PE

4

17

v74q

figs-ellipsis

εἰ δὲ πρῶτον ἀφ’ ἡμῶν

1

the household of God

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the the previous clause. Alternate translation: “but if it is time for judgment to begin first with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

421

1PE

4

17

phx3

figs-exclusive

ἀφ’ ἡμῶν

1

the household of God

When Peter says us, he is speaking of himself and his readers, so us would be inclusive. Your language may require you to mark these forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

422

1PE

4

17

c8ke

figs-rquestion

τί τὸ τέλος τῶν ἀπειθούντων τῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ εὐαγγελίῳ?

1

but if first with us, what will be the end of those disobeying the gospel of God?

Peter is not asking for information, but is using the question form here to emphasize that God’s judgment will be more severe for people who reject the gospel than for those who believe it. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “how terrible will be the end of the ones disobeying the gospel of God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

423

1PE

4

17

e5fn

figs-explicit

τὸ τέλος

1

but if first with us, what will be the end of those disobeying the gospel of God?

Here, end refers to the final result of the lives of people who do not believe in Jesus. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “the final result” or “the outcome” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

424

1PE

4

17

z9zc

figs-explicit

τῶν ἀπειθούντων

1

what will be the end of those disobeying

Here, disobeying refers to disobeying the command to repent and believe the gospel, which is part of the gospel message. See how you translated a similar phrase in 2:8. Alternate translation: “of the ones refusing to believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

425

1PE

4

17

l3db

figs-possession

τῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ εὐαγγελίῳ

1

of those disobeying the gospel of God

Here, the gospel of God could refer to: (1) the gospel that came from God. Alternate translation: “the gospel from God” (2) the gospel that is about God. Alternate translation: “the gospel about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

426

1PE

4

18

re8y

writing-quotations

καὶ

1

If with difficulty the righteous are being saved

And here introduces a quotation from an Old Testament book (Proverbs 11:31). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “And Solomon wrote in the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

427

1PE

4

18

f7kx

figs-quotemarks

εἰ ὁ δίκαιος μόλις σῴζεται, ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς ποῦ φανεῖται?

1

If with difficulty the righteous are being saved

This sentence is a quotation from Proverbs 11:31. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

428

1PE

4

18

t762

figs-activepassive

εἰ ὁ δίκαιος μόλις σῴζεται

1

If with difficulty the righteous are being saved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “If with difficulty God is saving the righteous one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

429

1PE

4

18

i6nz

figs-genericnoun

ὁ δίκαιος…ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς

1

If with difficulty the righteous are being saved

Peter is speaking of these types of people in general, and not of specific, individual people. If this would be misunderstood in your language, use a more natural phrase. Alternate translation: “righteous ones … ungodly and sinful ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

430

1PE

4

18

w8ke

figs-rquestion

ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς ποῦ φανεῖται?

1

where will the ungodly and the sinner appear?

Peter is not asking for information, but is using the question form here to emphasize that ungodly people will suffer much more than believers do. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “the ungodly and sinner will surely not appear!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

431

1PE

4

18

ms54

figs-idiom

ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς ποῦ φανεῖται

1

where will the ungodly and the sinner appear

Here, the combination of where will and appear is an idiom meaning “what will happen.” If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “what will happen to the ungodly and the sinner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

432

1PE

4

18

wb4v

figs-doublet

ὁ ἀσεβὴς καὶ ἁμαρτωλὸς

1

The words ungodly and sinner mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize the wickedness of these people. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “the ungodly sinners” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

433

1PE

4

19

qm3u

figs-synecdoche

τὰς ψυχὰς

1

See how you translated souls in 1:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

434

1PE

4

19

g1r6

ἐν ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ

1

Alternate translation: “while doing good” or “while continuing to do good deeds”

435

1PE

5

intro

a6d9

0

1 Peter 5 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. How believers should interact with one another (5:1–11)
  2. Conclusion (5:12–14)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Lion

Other animals are usually afraid of lions because they are fast and strong, and they eat almost every other kind of animal. They also eat people. Satan wants to make God’s people afraid, so Peter uses the simile of a lion to teach his readers that Satan can harm their bodies, but if they trust in God and obey him, they will always be God’s people, and God will care for them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

Babylon

Babylon was the evil nation that had destroyed Jerusalem, taken the Jews away from their homes, and ruled over them. In other places in Scripture, the authors use Babylon as a metaphor for the enemies of God’s people. In verse 13 Peter uses Babylon as a metaphor for the nation that was persecuting the Christians to whom he was writing. Most scholars believe that here Peter is referring to Rome because the Romans were severely persecuting Christians there at that time. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

436

1PE

5

1

s8fr

0

General Information:

In verses 1–4 Peter speaks directly to men who are leaders in the churches.

437

1PE

5

1

m4xr

figs-explicit

πρεσβυτέρους…ὁ συνπρεσβύτερος

1

In verses 1–5 the words elder and elders refer specifically to church leaders, who were often older men. Here these words do not refer to old men in general. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the fellow church leader … the church leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

438

1PE

5

1

n3em

figs-abstractnouns

μάρτυς τῶν τοῦ Χριστοῦ παθημάτων

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of witness and sufferings, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “one who has witnessed Christ suffer in many ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

439

1PE

5

1

a6ve

figs-activepassive

τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης

1

of the glory that is about to be revealed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “in the glory that God is about to reveal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

440

1PE

5

1

wead

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς…δόξης

1

of the glory that is about to be revealed

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of glory, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “in the glorious nature of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

441

1PE

5

1

yb3l

figs-explicit

τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης

1

of the glory that is about to be revealed

The phrase the glory being about to be revealed refers to Christ’s glorious return to earth in the future. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “in the glory that is about to be revealed when Christ returns” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

442

1PE

5

2

f63v

figs-metaphor

ποιμάνατε τὸ…ποίμνιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Shepherd the flock of God

Here Peter uses Shepherd to refer to leading and taking care of believers, and he uses flock to refer to those believers. Elders who lead assemblies of believers should take care of those believers like shepherds take care of their sheep. Since the shepherd and sheep metaphors are important metaphors in the Bible, you should keep the metaphors in your translation or use similes. Alternate translation: “Take care of God’s people as if they were a flock of sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

443

1PE

5

2

dvai

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπισκοποῦντες μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of oversight and compulsion, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “supervising—not because you must do so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

444

1PE

5

2

zfei

figs-ellipsis

ἐπισκοποῦντες μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “exercising oversight over them—not doing this under compulsion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

445

1PE

5

2

k4dk

figs-doublet

μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς, ἀλλὰ ἑκουσίως

1

The phrases not under compulsion and willingly mean the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize that Peter wants church leaders to voluntarily take care of believers. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “with complete willingness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

446

1PE

5

2

cp7u

figs-explicit

κατὰ Θεόν

1

This phrase refers to acting according to God’s will or requirements. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “according to God’s will” or “as God wants you to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

447

1PE

5

2

c6qf

figs-doublet

μηδὲ αἰσχροκερδῶς, ἀλλὰ προθύμως

1

The phrases not greedily and eagerly mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize that Peter wants church leaders to eagerly take care of believers. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “with complete eagerness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

448

1PE

5

3

lta9

figs-metaphor

ὡς κατακυριεύοντες

1

And not as lording it over those who are allotted to you, but be examples

Here Peter uses lording it over to refer to acting toward people in a harsh and controlling manner, as if someone were a harsh master who abuses his servants. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly or use a simile. Alternate translation: “harshly controlling” or “acting like harsh masters over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

449

1PE

5

3

xwr3

figs-abstractnouns

τῶν κλήρων

1

those who are allotted to you

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of portion, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “those who are assigned to you” or “those whom God has apportioned to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

450

1PE

5

3

n485

figs-possession

τύποι γινόμενοι τοῦ ποιμνίου

1

those who are allotted to you

Peter is using the possessive form to describe examples that are for the flock. If this is not clear in your language, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “being examples for the flock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

451

1PE

5

3

vg31

figs-metaphor

τοῦ ποιμνίου

1

See how you translated flock in the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

452

1PE

5

4

oz14

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

when the Chief Shepherd has been revealed

And here indicates that what follows is the result of obeying the commands that Peter gave in verses 2–3. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a result clause. Alternate translation: “As a result of doing these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

453

1PE

5

4

pfjr

figs-explicit

τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος

1

when the Chief Shepherd has been revealed

Chief Shepherd is a title for Jesus. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, the Chief Shepherd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

454

1PE

5

4

td11

figs-metaphor

τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος

1

when the Chief Shepherd has been revealed

Here Peter speaks of Jesus as if he were a Shepherd who has authority over all the leaders of the assemblies of believers. Peter told those leaders to shepherd their flocks in verse 2. Since Chief Shepherd is an important title for Jesus that connects to some prophecies about the Messiah in the Old Testament, you should keep the metaphor in your translation or use a simile. Alternate translation: “the one who is like a lead shepherd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

455

1PE

5

4

qlek

figs-activepassive

φανερωθέντος τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος

1

when the Chief Shepherd has been revealed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when the Chief Shepherd appears” or “when God reveals the Chief Shepherd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

456

1PE

5

4

ll4r

figs-metaphor

τὸν ἀμαράντινον τῆς δόξης στέφανον

1

the unfading crown of glory

Here,crown refers to a symbol of victory. It does not refer to the type of crown that kings wear. In ancient times an athlete would receive this crown as a reward for winning a competition. Those crowns were often made of leaves or flowers that would fade. Unlike those victory crowns, the reward that God gives will be unfading, which means that it will last forever. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “a glorious reward that will last forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

457

1PE

5

4

c6h3

figs-possession

τῆς δόξης στέφανον

1

crown of glory

This could refer to: (1) a crown that is characterized by glory. Alternate translation: “glorious crown” (2) a crown that is the glory referred to in verse 1. Alternate translation: “crown, that is, glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

458

1PE

5

5

qm2h

0

General Information:

In this verse Peter first instructs younger men specifically and then continues to instruct all of the believers.

459

1PE

5

5

z13n

figs-activepassive

ὑποτάγητε

1

all of you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “subject yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

460

1PE

5

5

bjt6

figs-explicit

πρεσβυτέροις

1

all of you

See how you translated elders in verse 1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

461

1PE

5

5

uh4n

figs-explicit

πάντες

1

all of you

Here, everyone refers to all the believers to whom Peter is writing this letter, and not to all people. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “every one of you believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

462

1PE

5

5

r6s6

figs-metaphor

τὴν ταπεινοφροσύνην ἐγκομβώσασθε

1

clothe yourselves with humility

Peter speaks of humility as if it were a piece of clothing that a person could put on. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “act with humility” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

463

1PE

5

5

jr8h

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ταπεινοφροσύνην

1

clothe yourselves with humility

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of humility, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “with humble actions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

464

1PE

5

5

v49g

writing-quotations

ὅτι

1

clothe yourselves with humility

Here, for introduces a quotation from the Old Testament (Proverbs 3:34). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Peter is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “for it is as Solomon wrote in the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

465

1PE

5

5

r4gv

figs-quotemarks

ὁ Θεὸς ὑπερηφάνοις ἀντιτάσσεται, ταπεινοῖς δὲ δίδωσιν χάριν

1

clothe yourselves with humility

This sentence is a quotation from Proverbs 3:34. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

466

1PE

5

5

xgeg

figs-abstractnouns

δίδωσιν χάριν

1

clothe yourselves with humility

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of grace, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “acts graciously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

467

1PE

5

6

bie6

figs-metonymy

ὑπὸ τὴν κραταιὰν χεῖρα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

under the mighty hand of God

Peter uses hand to refer to God’s power to save humble people and punish proud people. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “under God’s great power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

468

1PE

5

6

qwn9

figs-metaphor

ὑμᾶς ὑψώσῃ

1

under the mighty hand of God

Peter is using a spatial metaphor to describe God honoring someone as if God would lift that person up. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “God may show honor to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

469

1PE

5

7

c1uu

figs-metaphor

πᾶσαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμῶν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

having cast all your anxiety on him

Here Peter speaks of anxiety as if it were a heavy burden that a person can take off of his back and cast onto God. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “trusting him with everything that worries you” or “letting him take care of all the things that trouble you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

470

1PE

5

8

wbb5

figs-doublet

νήψατε, γρηγορήσατε

1

Be sober

The words translated as sober and watchful mean basically the same thing. Peter uses them to emphasize that believers need to be alert since the devil wants to destroy them. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Be completely alert” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

471

1PE

5

8

k9nt

figs-metaphor

νήψατε

1

Be sober

See how you translated sober in 1:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

472

1PE

5

8

tl7i

figs-simile

ὡς λέων ὠρυόμενος περιπατεῖ, ζητῶν τινα καταπιεῖν

1

the devil, is walking around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour

Peter speaks of {the} devil as if he were a roaring lion who wants to devour people. Just as a hungry lion devours its prey, the devil is seeking to destroy the faith of believers. See the discussion of this in the General Notes for this chapter. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “is trying to find ways to destroy the faith of believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

473

1PE

5

9

v4t5

figs-ellipsis

στερεοὶ τῇ πίστει

1

Peter is leaving out some of the words that a clause would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “being firm in the faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

474

1PE

5

9

vwtc

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ πίστει

1

Here, the faith could refer to: (1) a person’s trust in Jesus. Alternate translation: “in the faith that you have” (2) the Christian faith in general. Alternate translation: “in the Christian faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

475

1PE

5

9

tusy

figs-abstractnouns

τὰ αὐτὰ τῶν παθημάτων…ἐπιτελεῖσθαι

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of sufferings, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “that people are suffering in the same ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

476

1PE

5

9

uk06

figs-activepassive

τὰ αὐτὰ τῶν παθημάτων…ἐπιτελεῖσθαι

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the same kind of sufferings are occurring” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

477

1PE

5

9

v451

figs-metaphor

ὑμῶν ἀδελφότητι

1

your brotherhhood

See how you translated brotherhood in 2:17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

478

1PE

5

9

i4ur

ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ

1

in the world

Alternate translation: “in various places throughout the world”

479

1PE

5

10

fxfg

figs-infostructure

ὁ δὲ Θεὸς πάσης χάριτος, ὁ καλέσας ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον αὐτοῦ δόξαν ἐν Χριστῷ, ὀλίγον παθόντας

1

the God of all grace

If it would be more natural in your language, you could change the order of these clauses so that they appear in chronological order. Alternate translation: “But after having suffered for a little while, the God of all grace, the one who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

480

1PE

5

10

p648

figs-possession

ὁ…Θεὸς πάσης χάριτος

1

the God of all grace

God of all grace could mean: (1) God is always gracious. Alternate translation: “the God who is always gracious” (2) God always give gracious gifts, as mentioned in 4:10. Alternate translation: “the God who gives all gracious gifts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

481

1PE

5

10

wpzj

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον αὐτοῦ δόξαν

1

the God of all grace

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of glory, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “to his glorious presence forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

482

1PE

5

10

ns1v

figs-explicit

ἐν Χριστῷ

1

the God of all grace

Here, in Christ refers to being united with Christ through faith in him. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in union with Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

483

1PE

5

10

suu9

ὀλίγον

1

for a little while

Alternate translation: “for a short time”

484

1PE

5

10

gnvs

figs-doublet

αὐτὸς καταρτίσει, στηρίξει, σθενώσει, θεμελιώσει

1

for a little while

Here, confirm, strengthen, and establish all mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize that God will fully strengthen people who suffer because they trust in Jesus. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “will himself restore and thoroughly strengthen in every way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

485

1PE

5

11

u6h1

figs-abstractnouns

αὐτῷ τὸ κράτος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of power, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “May he rule powerfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

486

1PE

5

12

an6q

figs-explicit

διὰ Σιλουανοῦ, ὑμῖν τοῦ πιστοῦ ἀδελφοῦ (ὡς λογίζομαι), δι’ ὀλίγων ἔγραψα

1

Through Silvanus … I wrote to you briefly

Through Silvanus means that Silvanus wrote down the words that Peter told him to write in this letter. In ancient times it was common for people to use scribes to write down letters for them. If this might confuse your readers, you could express it explicitly. Alternate translation: “I wrote to you briefly by means of Silvanus, the faithful brother, as I regard him, who wrote down what I told him to write” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

487

1PE

5

12

dhvh

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοῦ

1

Through Silvanus … I wrote to you briefly

Although brother is masculine and Silvanus is a man, here Peter is using brother in a generic sense to refer to another believer. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “fellow Christian” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

488

1PE

5

12

ca38

writing-pronouns

ταύτην

1

this is the true grace of God

Here, this refers back to what Peter has written in this letter, especially the gospel message that the letter contains. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what I have written to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

489

1PE

5

12

g1t6

figs-metonymy

ταύτην εἶναι ἀληθῆ χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

this is the true grace of God

Here the word grace refers to the gospel message, which tells of the kind things that God has done for believers. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “this letter I have written contains God’s true and gracious message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

490

1PE

5

12

cssm

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἣν στῆτε

1

Stand in it

Peter uses Stand to refer to being strongly committed to something as if someone is standing firmly in one place and refusing to move. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “Remain strongly committed to it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

491

1PE

5

12

nm72

writing-pronouns

εἰς ἣν στῆτε

1

Stand in it

Here, it refers to the true grace of God mentioned earlier in the verse. If this might confuse your readers, you could express this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Stand in this true grace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

492

1PE

5

13

muq7

writing-symlanguage

ἡ ἐν Βαβυλῶνι συνεκλεκτὴ

1

She who is in Babylon

She and fellow-elect one here both refer to the group of believers who were with Peter when he wrote this letter. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “This group of believers in Babylon, who are fellow-elect ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

493

1PE

5

13

pzpw

writing-symlanguage

ἐν Βαβυλῶνι

1

Here, Babylon could mean: (1) the city of Rome. Alternate translation: “in Rome, which is like Babylon” (2) the city of Babylon, as it appears in the ULT. See the discussion of this in the General Notes to this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

494

1PE

5

13

rpf5

figs-activepassive

συνεκλεκτὴ

1

chosen together with you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “one whom God has elected” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

495

1PE

5

13

kc8s

ἀσπάζεται

1

chosen together with you

As was customary in this culture, Peter concludes the letter by extending greetings from people who are with him and who know the people to whom he is writing. Your language may have a particular way of sharing greetings in a letter. If so, you could use that form here. Alternate translation: “asks to be remembered by” or “says hello to”

496

1PE

5

13

ws2x

figs-metaphor

ὁ υἱός μου

1

my son

Peter refers to Mark as if he were his son, because he taught him about Christianity and loved him like a son. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “the one who is like my son” or “my spiritual son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

497

1PE

5

13

d9hx

translate-names

Μᾶρκος

1

Mark is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

498

1PE

5

14

jqd8

figs-imperative

ἀσπάσασθε

1

Greet here is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. Alternate translation: “Make it your habit to greet” or “Make it your practice to greet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

499

1PE

5

14

fc7b

translate-symaction

ἐν φιλήματι ἀγάπης

1

a kiss of love

A kiss was an action that expressed Christian affection in this culture. It showed the unity of those who belong to Christ. If there is a gesture with similar meaning in your culture, you could consider using it here in your translation. Alternate translation: “with a loving kiss” or “a kiss to show your love for each other” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

500

1PE

5

14

i08w

translate-blessing

εἰρήνη ὑμῖν πᾶσιν, τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ

1

As was customary in his culture, Peter closes his letter with a blessing for his readers. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “May all you who are in Christ experience peace within yourselves” or “I pray that you all who are in Christ will have peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

501

1PE

5

14

u70z

figs-explicit

ἐν Χριστῷ

1

a kiss of love

See how you translated in Christ in verse 10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])