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Introduction to Hebrews

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Book of Hebrews

Hebrews alternates between exposition and exhortation. To put it another way, the author switches between teaching and warning his audience. The following outline identifies which sections are which.

  1. Introduction: God and his Son (1:1–4)
  2. The Son and the angels (1:5–2:18)
    • Teaching: The Son is greater than the angels (1:5–14)
    • Exhortation: Listen to the message! (2:1–4)
    • Teaching: The Son becomes lower than the angels to help his brothers (2:5–18)
  3. Example of the wilderness generation (3:1–4:13)
    • Exhortation: The Son is greater than Moses (3:1–6)
    • Exhortation: Strive to enter the rest! (3:7–4:11)
    • Exhortation: The power of God’s word (4:12–13)
  4. Summary statement (4:14–16)
  5. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Teaching: The Son becomes high priest (5:1–10)
    • Exhortation: Make sure to persevere! (5:11–6:12)
    • Exhortation: God’s promise is certain (6:13–20)
    • Teaching: Melchizedek the priest (7:1–10)
    • Teaching: The Son is high priest in the order of Melchizedek (7:11–28)
    • Teaching: The ministry of the Son (8:1–6)
    • Teaching: The new covenant (8:7–13)
    • Teaching: Old and new ministries (9:1–10:18)
  6. Summary statement (10:19–25)
  7. Faith and endurance (10:26–12:29)
    • Exhortation: Endure in the faith! (10:26–39)
    • Exhortation: Examples of faith (11:1–40)
    • Exhortation: Imitate Jesus in rejecting sin and enduring discipline (12:1–17)
    • Exhortation: Mount Sinai and Mount Zion (12:18–29)
  8. Closing (13:1–25)
    • Final commands and exhortations (13:1–19)
    • Benediction and letter closing (13:20–25)

Who wrote the Book of Hebrews?

Whoever wrote this letter did not include his name, so we cannot be sure who wrote it. People have suggested many different authors, including Paul, Luke, Barnabas, and Apollos. The author uses a masculine word to refer to himself in 11:32, but we cannot even be sure that a female author would not refer to herself with a masculine word. However, because the author uses this masculine word, the notes will also refer to the author with masculine words. Since the author did not include his name, you should not include any name in your title or translation.

When was the Book of Hebrews written?

Again, we cannot be sure when Hebrews was written. Some argue that the author speaks as if temple worship was currently happening and does not mention the destruction of the temple. This would suggest that Hebrews was written before the Romans destroyed the temple in AD 70. On the other hand, others argue that the author does not discuss the temple and is only interested in what the Scriptures say about the Old Testament tabernacle. What is clear is that a letter written around AD 100 quotes from Hebrews, so Hebrews must have been written before then. So, Hebrews was probably written somewhere between AD 50 and 100.

To whom was the Book of Hebrews written?

At one point, most scholars thought that Hebrews was written primarily to Jews who had become Christians and who lived in Jerusalem. They argued for this because the book uses the Old Testament so much and says that Jesus’ work is greater than any Old Testament sacrifices. They suggest that “those from Italy” whom the author mentions in 13:24 are living in Italy. More recently, some scholars have argued that Hebrews was written for an audience of both Jews and non-Jews who had become Christians who possibly lived in Rome. They argue for this because the author does not refer to the current temple and does not attack Judaism. For this argument, “those from Italy” (13:24) are originally from Italy but live somewhere else. Since both of these arguments can explain details about Hebrews, it is best for the translator to avoid picking one option and making decisions based on it.

What is the Book of Hebrews about?

Hebrews is a “word of exhortation” (13:22) that emphasizes the greatness of Jesus and his work and encourages the audience to persevere in trusting him. There are three primary explanations for why the author sent this letter. First, the audience could be experiencing temptation to become Jews (if they were originally Gentiles) or to participate in the sacrificial system again (if they were originally Jews). They might be tempted because they felt guilty and wanted a visible sacrifice to atone for them, or they might be experiencing persecution and desire the safety of being Jewish, which the Romans considered a protected religious status. Second, the audience could be experiencing shame and dishonor from the culture they were living in. Gentiles called Christians “atheists” because they believed in only one God, and Christians were also considered to be dangerous because they did not swear loyalty to Caesar, the “Lord.” In response, they might be tempted to conceal or abandon what they believed. Third, the audience could be experiencing a lack of intensity and interest in what they believed. In other words, as time went on, what they believed became less important to their lives. Whether the author is exhorting his audience not to return to Judaism or not becomes important for some translation decisions, including what to name this book. Given that there are at least three plausible situations that explain what the author was concerned about, it is recommended that you do not base translation decisions on any one specific option. It is better to use general language, just like the author of Hebrews does. In the end, what is clear is that Hebrews explains how Jesus functions as a high priest to save his people, and he is the only priest and savior that matters. The author wants the audience to believe this more and more.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Hebrews” or “The Letter to the Hebrews.” Or they may choose a title that focuses more on the contents of the letter, such as “A Word of Exhortation” (see the notes on 13:22) or “Sermon to Christians” or “Sermon to Jewish Christians.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What does it mean for Jesus to be the “Son” of God?

In 1:2, the author first speaks of Jesus as “Son,” and he continues to use “Son” for Jesus throughout the letter. This is a special title for Jesus that emphasizes his close relationship with his “Father.” The “Father” and the “Son,” together with the “Holy Spirit,” are God. So, the title “Son” indicates that Jesus is God and is closely related to his “Father,” who is God. The author quotes from Old Testament passages that used “son” to indicate the special relationship between the king of Israel and God. Because the author applies these passages to Jesus, “Son” also indicates that Jesus is the king of the world. The author eventually states that those who believe in Jesus become “sons” as well (see 12:5–10), which means they are Jesus’ “brothers” (see 2:11–12). Therefore, “Son” is a very important title for Jesus and should be preserved in translation if at all possible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

What is a “covenant”?

A “covenant” is a solemn agreement between people or groups. Covenants usually included a description of the relationship between the two parties, stipulations or requirements, and blessings for doing what the covenant required and curses for breaking the covenant. God made a “covenant” like this with Abraham, the ancestor of the Israelites, and he renewed this covenant with the people of Israel when he brought them out of Egypt. In the Old Testament, God promised that he would make a “new covenant” (see how 8:8–12 quotes from Jeremiah 31:31–34). The author of Hebrews argues that God made this new covenant through Jesus (see the first mention of “covenant” in 7:22). Believers are now part of this new covenant, and the author exhorts them to be faithful to it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

What is a “high priest”?

A “high priest” was the leader of the priests in Israel. The priests were descended from a man named “Aaron,” and God would appoint one of these priests to be the leader, or “high priest.” This high priest was the only priest allowed to go into the most sacred, inner part of the tabernacle. He entered there once a year to make a special offering to God to take care of sins. The author identifies Jesus as a “high priest” because he is the one who goes to the most sacred place to take care of sins. Consider using a word or phrase that refers to a person who is the greatest or most important priest. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/highpriest]])

What is the “tabernacle”?

The “tabernacle” was a large tent that God had Moses and the Israelites make. It was a sacred place where God revealed himself to his people and came close to them. The tabernacle had a courtyard and a tent structure that included two rooms, a Holy Place and a Most Holy Place. Priests often entered the Holy Place, but the Most Holy Place was where the high priest entered one time only every year. The author gives a brief description of this tabernacle and what was in it in 9:1–7. You can read God’s instructions for the tabernacle in Exodus 25–27, 30, and you can read about how the Israelites made it in Exodus 36–38. This tabernacle was the place where the priests presented sacrifices and worshiped God. Later, the kings of Israel built a temple for God, and they made its structure match the tabernacle. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]])

What is the Day of Atonement?

When the author refers to a high priest “entering,” presenting blood, or doing something “once a year,” he is referring to the “Day of Atonement.” You can read about this yearly ritual in Leviticus 16. On this day, the high priest would slaughter a bull and a goat. He would take the blood from these animals into the Most Holy Place and sprinkle it there before God. Then, he would take another goat, lay his hands on it, and send it out into the wilderness. Finally, someone would burn the carcasses of the slaughtered bull and goat outside the camp area. In this way, the high priest would atone for his own sins and the people’s sins. The author describes what Jesus does as a high priest by comparing it to what the high priest did in the tabernacle.

When and where does Jesus make atonement in Hebrews?

Scholars debate when and where Jesus’ acted as a high priest to make atonement. First, some argue that the author is using symbols to describe Jesus’ death on the cross. In this case, Jesus acted as a high priest when he died on earth. Second, some argue that Jesus functions like the high priest on the Day of Atonement by both slaughtering the sacrifice and then presenting the blood in the sanctuary. In this case, Jesus acted as a high priest when he died on earth and also when he presented his blood in the heavenly sanctuary after he ascended to heaven. Third, some argue that Jesus acts as a high priest only when he presents his blood in the heavenly sanctuary. In this case, when he dies on the cross, he is acting like the bull or goat on the Day of Atonement but not like the high priest. He then acts like the high priest when he presents his blood in the heavenly sanctuary. This is an important issue because it affects word choices. When the author is referring to Jesus’ life on earth, should the translator use words that sound “priestly”? Consider carefully what each verse is saying about Jesus and his work. If possible, your translation should allow all of the above interpretations.

What does the author’s description of heaven mean?

Scholars debate what the author means when he speaks of a throne, tabernacle, and city in heaven. There are three common ways to understand what he means. First, these things could be symbols that the author uses to describe being near God. In this case, the author describes God’s presence in various ways to emphasize various aspects of what God’s presence is like. Second, these things could be metaphors that refer to “heaven,” the place where God dwells. In this case, the author uses these things that people understand to describe something that people cannot fully understand now: what heaven is like. Third, these things could exist within heaven. In other words, the author could be generally describing structures and places within heaven. For all three of these options, the author does describe heaven with language related to throne, tabernacle, and city, so you should preserve the author’s descriptions. If possible, your translation should allow for all three of the above interpretations. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

How should verbs that refer to God speaking Scripture be translated?

Throughout Hebrews, the author quotes the Old Testament many times. In most cases, he says that God “speaks” the words from the Old Testament. He attributes the quotes sometimes to the Father, sometimes to the Son, and sometimes to the Holy Spirit. If it is possible, you should use words that refer to someone “speaking” when you translate the introductions to the quotations. The fact that God “speaks” or “talks” in the Scriptures is an important part of the message of Hebrews.

What does “blood” refer to in Hebrews?

Hebrews refers frequently to “blood.” When the author refers to “blood” from animals that had been sacrificed, he is speaking about how the “blood” would be drained from the animal into a container and then taken into the tabernacle. When he speaks about Jesus’ “blood,” especially when he says that Jesus offered his “blood,” it is less clear exactly what he means. First, he could be referring to the physical blood of Jesus, which he shed on the cross when he died. Second, he could be using the word “blood” to refer in general to Jesus’ suffering and death. In this case, he could offer this death at the moment when he died or when he ascended to heaven. Third, he could be using the word “blood” to refer to Jesus’ resurrected life. In this case, Jesus offered this life when he ascended into heaven. Since “blood” is an important concept in Hebrews, and because it connects Jesus’ work with the sacrifices of the old covenant, you should preserve language that refers to blood. If your language distinguishes between blood in the body and shed blood, it is probably best to refer to shed blood. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/blood]])

How should the different phrases used to describe dealing with sins be translated?

The author uses many different phrases to refer to the forgiveness or removal of sins: “purification for sins” (1:3), sacrifices “for sins” (5:1, 3; 10:12), sacrifices “on behalf of sins” (7:27; 10:18, 26; 13:11), “annulment of sin” (9:26), “to bear sins” (9:28), “to take away sins” (10:4, 11). Each of these phrases refer to how a sacrifice or some other act deals with sins. This suggests that the author does not think that there is one way only that sacrifices deal with sins; rather, each phrase emphasizes a different aspect. You should preserve the different phrases as much as possible instead of harmonizing them.

How should “perfection” and “perfect” be translated?

The author of Hebrews uses “perfection” words frequently, both for believers and for Jesus. Since he describes Jesus as being “perfected” (see 2:10; 5:9), the words cannot refer to becoming sinless or holy, since Jesus was always “without sin” (see 4:15). There are three primary options. First, “perfection” could refer to becoming a priest. In this case, Jesus becomes a priest when he is “perfected,” and believers also become priests or at least like priests. Second, “perfection” could refer to getting close to God, which would include entering heaven and God’s presence. In this case, Jesus is “perfected” when he enters heaven, and believers too will be “perfected” when they enter heaven. Third, “perfection” could refer generally to a person becoming what they were meant to be. So, Jesus is “perfected” when he becomes the priest that God wanted him to be. Believers are “perfected” when they become what God wants them to be, which would include being faithful and holy. The UST generally follows this third option. Consider what words in your language could indicate “perfection” for both Jesus and believers. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/perfect]])

Does the author use words for sacred spaces and buildings consistently?

In 9:1–8, the author refers to the earthly tabernacle and names its parts: there was a “first tent,” called “Holy Place,” and a “second tent,” named “Holy of Holies.” Together, these make up “the earthly holy place.” However, the rest of the letter only refers to the “holy places” and to a “tabernacle.” Most likely, 9:1–8 uses terminology taken from the Old Testament. The rest of the letter uses the author’s own labels. There is a great deal of debate about whether the author thought the heavenly tabernacle had one or two rooms. Most likely, the “holy places” refers to the inner, most sacred room, while the “tabernacle” refers to the whole sanctuary. The “holy places” could be one part of the “tabernacle,” or the “holy places” could make up the entire “tabernacle.” Consider what words or phrases can consistently translate “holy places” and “tabernacle.” However, you may need to use different words or phrases in 9:1–8. See the notes on verses where these terms appear. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]])

What version of the Old Testament does the author quote from?

Most modern Old Testaments are translated from Hebrew, the language that ancient Israelites spoke. However, many years before Jesus came, the Old Testament was translated into Greek, the language that most people in the Roman empire spoke. Many Jews who lived in cities throughout the empire used one of these Greek translations, since they mostly spoke Greek. The author of Hebrews also seems to use one of these Greek translations for his quotations. Because of this, sometimes his quotations from the Old Testament differ from what you might read in a modern translation of the Old Testament passage. Further, sometimes the author does not directly quote a passage but simply summarizes or paraphrases it. In these cases, the words will again be different than what you might read in the Old Testament. Because of all that, whenever the author quotes or summarizes the Old Testament, you should not make your translation match what you might find in a translation of the Old Testament. Instead, you should translate the words that you find without trying to make them match.

How should “we” and “you” be translated?

Throughout the letter, “we” includes the author and the audience unless a note specifies otherwise. Similarly, “you” is always plural unless a note specifies otherwise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

What are the major issues in the text of the Book of Hebrews?

In the following verses, ancient manuscripts do not all have the same words. The ULT uses the words that are found in most of the earliest manuscripts. When you translate these verses, you should compare the ULT with any translations that your readers may be familiar with to see what your readers may expect. Unless there is a good reason to use the alternate words, you should follow the ULT. See the footnotes and notes at each of these verses for more information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

  • “of his kingdom” (1:8). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “of your kingdom.”
  • “with glory and honor” (2:7). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “with glory and honor and you have put him over the works of your hands.”
  • “in his house” (3:2). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “in his whole house.”
  • “not having been joined in faith with the ones having heard” (4:2). Here, “not having been joined” refers to people. Some ancient manuscripts have this: “not having been joined by faith to the ones having heard {it}.” Here, “not having been joined” refers to the “message.”
  • “the good things having come into existence” (9:11). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “the good things about to come into existence.”
  • “your conscience” 9:14. Some ancient manuscripts have this: “our conscience.”
  • “with the prisoners” (10:34). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “with my chains.”
  • “even Sarah herself” (11:11). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “even barren Sarah herself.”
  • “they were sawn in two, they were tried” (11:37). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “they were sawn in two,” omitting “they were tried.”
  • “against themselves” (12:3). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “against himself.”
  • “Grace be with all of you” (13:25). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “Grace be with all of you. Amen.”
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Hebrews 1 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Introduction: God and his Son (1:1–4)
  2. The Son and the angels (1:5–2:18)
    • Teaching: The Son is greater than the angels (1:5–14)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 1:5, 7–13, which are quotations from books of poetry in the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

God speaking scripture

In this chapter, the author quotes the Old Testament seven times. Each time, he says that God is the one who speaks the words, and God speaks them to or about the Son or the angels. The audience would have recognized that these quotations came from the Old Testament, but the author wished to introduce them as words that God himself said and says. He can do this because he believed that God is the author of the entire Old Testament, since he is the one who spoke through the prophets (see 1:1). In your translation, you should express these quotations as words that God says. If your readers would not recognize that God is speaking quotations from the Old Testament, you could identify the quotations for your readers in footnotes or in some other way.

Old Testament quotations

When the author quotes from the Old Testament, he uses a Greek translation that is sometimes different than the original Hebrew version that most modern translations use for the Old Testament. This is particularly obvious in 1:6, which quotes from the Greek version of Deuteronomy 32:43. In other places, the author may paraphrase or loosely quote the Old Testament. Since the author chose to use these forms of the quotations, you should represent the words the author uses, not the words that may be found in an Old Testament with which you are familiar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

The Son and the Father

In this chapter, the author refers to the “Son” and several times speaks of God as a “father.” These are important terms for two persons of the Trinity: God the Father and God the Son. The author uses these terms partly because the Old Testament texts he quotes use them. Also, “Son” and “Father” refer to two people who are closely related but not the same person, so the words provide good language to speak about two persons of the Trinity. If possible, preserve the father and son language in this chapter, but make sure that your translation does not make it sound like the Son did not exist until a certain time or that the Father at some point physically gave birth to the Son. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

Angels

The author mentions “angels” many times in this chapter. In his culture, everyone knew about “angels.” They were spiritual beings who could appear in human form. Some people talked about good and evil angels. The author only speaks about the good angels in this chapter. These angels serve and worship God, and they do whatever God tells them to do. Some scholars think that the author is arguing against people who said that Jesus was an angel. More likely, the author wishes to prove that Jesus the Son is God, and he uses the angels to do that. The author thinks that the angels are between humans and God in power and position. If the Son is above the angels, that means he must be God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/angel]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Rhetorical questions

The author asks rhetorical questions in 1:5, 13–14. He is not asking these questions because he wants the audience to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the audience to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with the author. For ways to translate these questions, look for the notes on each verse that includes these kinds of questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Parallelisms

In the Old Testament, good poetry often included two parallel lines that expressed one idea in two different ways. When the author quotes the Old Testament, he often includes this kind of parallelism. Since both lines contribute to the meaning of the idea, it is best to preserve the parallelism. If your readers would find it confusing, however, you could combine the two parallel lines into one idea. See the notes on each instance of parallel lines for translation options. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

Inheriting

In 1:2, 4, 14, the author uses language related to “inheriting” or being an “heir.” In the author’s culture, children often “inherited” property or money when their parents died. In these verses, the author uses the “inheriting” language metaphorically to refer to receiving something from God. In this chapter, the metaphor does not imply that someone must die for the person to “inherit.” If possible, preserve this metaphor, since it is an important concept in Hebrews. See the notes on each verse for translation options. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Descriptions of the Son in 1:3

In 1:3, the author describes the Son as “the brightness of God’s glory” and the “exact representation of God’s being.” Both of these phrases identify the Son as God and as unique. In other words, these phrases are the author’s way of saying that the Son is God, but God is not just the Son. Carefully consider how you translate these phrases, and be sure that your translation makes it clear that the Son is God, but God is not just the Son. The author uses images and metaphors to express the idea, so consider using similar images and metaphors.

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πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι

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Here, the phrase In many portions shows that God did not speak just once. Rather, he spoke often throughout the time period called long ago. Then, the phrase in many ways shows that God used various means and people to speak to the fathers. The author uses both of these phrases because he wishes to emphasize the variety of times and ways in which God has spoken. If your language does not use repetition for emphasis, and if you cannot represent the author’s two phrases well, you could express the idea using one phrase that emphasizes variety. Alternate translation: “Long ago, with great variety” or “Long ago, using multiple methods in different times,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι, ὁ Θεὸς, λαλήσας τοῖς πατράσιν ἐν τοῖς προφήταις

1

Here, the phrase In many portions and in many ways long ago describes how God “spoke” to {our} fathers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could rearrange the phrases so that In many portions and in many ways long ago does modify having spoken. Alternate translation: “God, having spoken to our fathers through the prophets in many portions and in many ways long ago” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

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figs-idiom

πάλαι

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Here, the phrase long ago refers to past time. It often identifies events that happened in the distant past and about which stories are told. Use a word or phrase that refers to the distant past. Alternate translation: “in the past days” or “in ancient times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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λαλήσας

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Here, the phrase having spoken introduces an action that took place before the actions that take place in the next verse (1:2). Use a form that introduces action that takes place before something else. Alternate translation: “after speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

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τοῖς πατράσιν

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Here, the phrase {our} fathers refers to the Israelites who were alive before Jesus lived on earth. Not all members of the audience were descended from these Israelites. However, the author can still refer to the Israelites as their fathers because he thinks that all Christians have been included in the family of Abraham, the ancestor of the Israelites. If possible, preserve the family language in your translation. Alternate translation: “our forefathers” or “to the Israelite ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

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f3z1

figs-parallelism

ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων, ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν Υἱῷ, ὃν

1

The author uses words and phrases in this clause that make its structure parallel to the previous verse (1:1). He does this to emphasize the contrast between “long ago” and at {the} last of these days. If possible, use the same structures in this clause as you did in the last verse. Alternate translation: “has spoken to us through a Son at the last of these days. This Son is the one whom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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scr8

figs-idiom

ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων

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in these last days

Here, the phrase {the} last of these days refers to the last period in the history of the world, which began when Jesus lived, died, and came alive again. It also means that this last period has been the goal of all the previous events. If your language has a way to refer to the last period in the history of the world, you could use it here. Alternatively, if your language has a way to refer to the end of the world, you could express the idea by stating that the end of the world will happen soon. Alternate translation: “during this time when the end of the world is coming soon” or “in these end times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱῷ

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through a Son

Here, the word Son is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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figs-possession

κληρονόμον πάντων

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to be the heir of all things

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that the heir receives or inherits all things. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase such as “receive” or “inherit.” Alternate translation: “the heir who inherits all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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figs-metaphor

ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων

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Here the author speaks as if Jesus were a child who would receive property passed on by the parent to their child when the parent dies. He speaks in this way to indicate that Jesus is the Son who will “inherit” all things, which means that he will rule over everything that exists. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “he appointed to be the one who will rule over all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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τοὺς αἰῶνας

1

It is through him that God also made the universe

Here, the phrase the ages refers primarily to all the time periods that together make up the history of the world. However, ages can also refer to everything that God created that exists during those time periods. If possible, use a word or phrase that refers to everything that exists during all of time. Alternate translation: “everything that has existed and will exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

15

HEB

1

3

xvin

figs-infostructure

ὃς ὢν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ, φέρων τε τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ, καθαρισμὸν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ποιησάμενος, ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς Μεγαλωσύνης ἐν ὑψηλοῖς

1

Here the author includes a long description of who the “Son” is. The phrases being the brightness of {his} glory and exact representation of his being and upholding all the {things} by the word of his power describe what the “Son” always is and does. The phrase having made cleansing for sins refers more specifically to what the “Son” has done and completed before he sat down at the right hand. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it clearer that the phrase having made purification for sins refers to something that happened before sat down, while the previous phrases all refer to things that the “Son” always is and does. Alternate translation: “who is the brightness of his glory and exact representation of his being and who upholds all the things by the word of his power. After having made purification for sins, he sat down at the right of the Majesty on high” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

16

HEB

1

3

he0e

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind brightness, glory, representation, and being, you could express the ideas by using verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. Alternate translation: “brightly glorious like he is and exactly representing who he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

17

HEB

1

3

hn4q

figs-metaphor

ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ

1

the brightness of God’s glory

Here the author speaks as if the “Son” had the brightness that belongs to God’s glory, which is pictured here as being like a bright light. The author speaks in this way to emphasize that the Son “shines” with the glory that only God has. He means that the “Son” is God and represents God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the reflection of his glory and” or “one who has the glory of God and the” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

18

HEB

1

3

b7jc

translate-unknown

χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ

1

glory, the exact representation of his being

Here, the phrase exact representation refers to something that perfectly shows or matches what something else is like. In this case, the “Son” perfectly shows or matches God’s being, that is, what God is like. The author uses exact representation of his being to show that the “Son” is God along with God the Father but not the same person. You could use a word or phrase that indicates that the “Son” is just like what God the Father is like. Alternate translation: “exactly like what he is like” or “perfectly representing who God is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

19

HEB

1

3

kmza

figs-metaphor

φέρων…τὰ πάντα

1

Here the author speaks as if the Son were standing underneath all the {things} and holding them up so that they did not fall. He speaks in this way to indicate that everything continues to exist only because the Son works to make it continue. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “preserving all the things” or “supporting all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

20

HEB

1

3

ms8z

figs-metonymy

τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ

1

the word of his power

Here, the word word refers to speaking “words” or “messages.” It does not refer to one word that the Son speaks. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to how the Son speaks. Alternate translation: “through his powerful speech” or “by how he speaks with power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

21

HEB

1

3

mk26

figs-abstractnouns

τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind power, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “powerful.” Alternate translation: “by his powerful word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

22

HEB

1

3

l1pg

figs-abstractnouns

καθαρισμὸν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ποιησάμενος

1

After he had made cleansing for sins

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind purification, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “cleanse” or “purify.” Alternate translation: “having cleansed us from our sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

23

HEB

1

3

f729

figs-abstractnouns

τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν

1

he had made cleansing for sins

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind sins, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “sin.” Alternate translation: “for how we have sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

24

HEB

1

3

xij7

translate-symaction

ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ

1

he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high

When someone sits at {the} right of God, it symbolizes that person’s honor, authority, and ability to rule. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea explicitly. Alternate translation: “he sat down to rule at the right” or “he took the place of honor and authority at the right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

25

HEB

1

3

uym0

figs-synecdoche

ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς Μεγαλωσύνης

1

Here, the phrase at {the} right refers to the place next to a person’s right hand, which would be the “right side.” In the author’s culture, this side was associated with honor or authority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the “right side.” Make sure that your readers understand that this side indicates that the Son has honor and authority when he sits there. Alternate translation: “at the right side of the Majesty” or “in the honorable place next to the Majesty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

26

HEB

1

3

ir7x

figs-euphemism

τῆς Μεγαλωσύνης

1

the Majesty on high

In the author’s culture, it was considered reverent to avoid saying God’s name. Here the author uses Majesty instead of God’s name in order to follow this custom and to indicate that God is powerful and glorious. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a reverent way to refer to God in your culture, especially if it emphasizes how God is powerful and glorious. Alternate translation: “of the great deity” or “of the glorious God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

27

HEB

1

3

awjd

translate-unknown

ἐν ὑψηλοῖς

1

Here, the phrase on high identifies the location of {the} right of the Majesty, which is where the Son sat down. This location is in heaven. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that it means that Jesus ascended into heaven, which is where the right side is. Alternate translation: “in heaven” or “on high, in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

28

HEB

1

4

x4bh

γενόμενος

1

He has become

Here, the words having become could introduce: (1) an explanation of what “sitting at God’s right” side (1:3) means. Alternate translation: “thus, he has become” (2) a result that comes from “sitting at God’s right hand” (1:3). Alternate translation: “so, he has become” or “therefore, he has become”

29

HEB

1

4

hnab

τοσούτῳ κρείττων γενόμενος τῶν ἀγγέλων, ὅσῳ διαφορώτερον παρ’ αὐτοὺς, κεκληρονόμηκεν ὄνομα

1

Here the author uses a comparison that indicates that the difference in “superiority” between the Son and the angels is the same as the difference between the Son’s name and the names of the angels. Consider clear ways to indicate such a comparison in your language. Alternate translation: “having become as much superior to the angels as the name that he has inherited is more excellent than theirs”

30

HEB

1

4

bn6t

translate-unknown

τοσούτῳ κρείττων…τῶν ἀγγέλων…διαφορώτερον

1

Here, the phrases far superior and more excellent both refer to how Jesus and Jesus’ name have more authority and honor than the angels and their names. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that express this idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “more honorable than the angels … more honorable” or “far higher than the angels … a higher”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

31

HEB

1

4

fzg3

figs-extrainfo

διαφορώτερον…ὄνομα

1

as the name he has inherited is more excellent than their name

Here the author does not clarify what name this is. It could be the title “Son,” the title “Lord,” the name “Jesus,” or God’s own special name, “Yahweh.” Since the author did not clarify to what name he is referring, it is best to refer to a name or title without stating what it is. Alternate translation: “a more excellent title” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

32

HEB

1

4

qt7q

figs-metaphor

κεκληρονόμηκεν

1

he has inherited

Here the author speaks as if Jesus were a child who would receive property that a parent passes on to their heir when the parent dies. He speaks in this way to indicate that Jesus receives a name from God the Father, although this does not mean that God the Father has died. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “he has received” or “God has given him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

33

HEB

1

4

uu4s

figs-ellipsis

παρ’ αὐτοὺς

1

Here the author omits some words that may be needed in your language to make a complete comparison. He omits these words because he stated them in the first half of the comparison (a name). If your language needs these words to make a complete comparison, you could include them here. Alternate translation: “than their names” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

34

HEB

1

5

d964

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces the support or basis that proves that the Son is “superior to the angels” (1:4). The supporting statements that For introduces can be found in 1:5–14. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces support or basis for a claim. Alternate translation: “Here is the proof for that:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

35

HEB

1

5

ww5h

figs-rquestion

τίνι γὰρ εἶπέν ποτε τῶν ἀγγέλων, Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε? καὶ πάλιν, ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς Πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς Υἱόν?

1

For to which of the angels did God ever say, “You are my son … a son to me”?

The author does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The questions assume that the answer to both is “none of them,” for God said these words to his own Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the ideas with strong negations. Alternate translation: “For God never said to any of the angels ‘You are my son, and I today I have become your father.’ And again, ‘I will be as a father to him, and he will be as a son to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

36

HEB

1

5

pzkc

writing-quotations

τίνι γὰρ εἶπέν ποτε τῶν ἀγγέλων…καὶ πάλιν

1

Here the author quotes the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the quotations as quotations, but instead he introduces them as words that God has spoken to his Son, not to angels. However, the audience would have understood that these were quotations from the Old Testament. The first quotation comes from Psalm 2:7, and the second quotation comes from 2 Samuel 7:14. Since the author introduces these quotations as words that God has said to his Son, not to angels, you should introduce these quotations as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotations are from the Old Testament, you could include footnotes or use some other form to identify the quotations. The phrase And again is a normal form that the author uses to connect a second quotation to a first quotation. Alternate translation: “For to which of the angels did he ever speak … And” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

37

HEB

1

5

wmyy

figs-quotations

εἶπέν ποτε…Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε? καὶ πάλιν, ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς Πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς Υἱόν?

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentences as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “did he ever say that he was his son, that today he had fathered him, and again, that he would be as a father to him, and that he would be as a son to him?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

38

HEB

1

5

fdsv

translate-kinship

Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε…ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς Πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς Υἱόν

1

In their original contexts, these two quotations referred to the king of Israel as one who became God’s son when he began to rule. Thus, God was his father. When the author applies these words not to angels but to Jesus, he identifies the father as God the Father and the son as God the Son. He does not mean that Jesus becomes son at some point or begins to exist at some point. Rather, he means that God the Father declares and reveals Jesus to be God the Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some words or a footnote that clarifies the meaning. Alternate translation: “You are my son, today I have proclaimed that I am your father … I proclaim that I am his father and that he is my son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

39

HEB

1

5

t48e

figs-parallelism

Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε

1

You are my son … I have become your father

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. One statement uses son language, and the other uses “father” language. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “Today I have fathered you, my son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

40

HEB

1

5

wkoz

figs-yousingular

σύ…σε

1

Because the quotation is referring to one son, You and you are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

41

HEB

1

5

jzhs

figs-parallelism

ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς Πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς Υἱόν

1

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. One statement uses father language, and the other uses son language. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “I will be as a father to him, who is my son” or “He will be as a son to me, his father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

42

HEB

1

6

u0km

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ πάλιν

1

Here, the word But introduces a contrast with the previous verse, which talks about what God has not said to angels. In this verse, the author identifies what God has said to angels. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that would introduce this kind of contrast. Alternate translation: “Again, and in contrast,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

43

HEB

1

6

n7ph

writing-quotations

δὲ πάλιν…λέγει

1

he says

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce it as a quotation but instead as words that God has spoken to angels about his Son. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, here from the Greek translation of Deuteronomy 32:43. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that God has said to the angels, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. The phrase But again was a normal way in the author’s culture to introduce another quotation. Alternate translation: “Further … God speaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

44

HEB

1

6

wnl5

figs-pastforfuture

εἰσαγάγῃ…λέγει

1

Here the author uses the present tense to introduce what God says. He may be referring to a past event (if brings refers to the incarnation or the ascension of Jesus) or a future event (if brings refers to the return of Jesus at the end). The author uses the present tense to focus on what God says rather than when he says it. Consider what tense would be appropriate for referring primarily to what a person says. Alternate translation: “he brought … he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

45

HEB

1

6

llcd

figs-infostructure

ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, λέγει

1

Here, the word again could modify: (1) he says. In this case, again tells the audience that the author is quoting an important text again. Alternate translation: “But, when he brings the firstborn into the world, again he says” (2) he brings. In this case, again tells the audience that the firstborn has already been in the world, and God is “bringing” him into it again. The “bringing” would then refer to how Jesus returns to heaven when he ascends or how he comes back again to earth at the end. Alternate translation: “But, when he again brings the firstborn into the world, he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

46

HEB

1

6

b4s2

figs-metaphor

τὸν πρωτότοκον

1

the firstborn

Here, the phrase the firstborn refers to Jesus. The author refers to him as the firstborn to emphasize his importance and authority over everyone else. It does not imply that there was a time before Jesus existed or that God gave birth to him at some point. Rather, it implies that Jesus has adopted siblings; they are everyone who believes in him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “his honored Son” or “his first Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

47

HEB

1

6

lnxs

εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην

1

Here, the phrase the world could refer to: (1) the “world that is coming” (see 2:5), which is heaven or the heavenly world. In this case, the verse refers to Jesus’ ascension into heaven. Alternate translation: “into the coming world” (2) this world as it currently exists. In this case, the verse refers either to Jesus’ incarnation or to his return to earth at the end. Alternate translation: “into our world”

48

HEB

1

6

w5kl

figs-quotations

λέγει, καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι Θεοῦ

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the statement as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “he says that all the angels of God should worship him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

49

HEB

1

6

b6dy

figs-imperative3p

καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι Θεοῦ

1

Here the author of the quotation uses a third person imperative. If you have third person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word or phrase such as “need to” or “must.” Alternate translation: “And all the angels of God need to worship him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

50

HEB

1

7

bwuh

writing-quotations

καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς ἀγγέλους λέγει

1

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament. He does not introduce it as a quotation but instead as words that God has spoken about angels. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, here from the Greek translation of Psalm 104:4. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that God has said about the angels, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. The word And was a normal way in the author’s culture to introduce another quotation. Alternate translation: “On the one hand, with regard to the angels, God speaks,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

51

HEB

1

7

acjd

figs-quotations

λέγει, ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα, καὶ τοὺς λειτουργοὺς αὐτοῦ πυρὸς φλόγα

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “he says that he makes his angels spirits, and his servants flames of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

52

HEB

1

7

urbi

figs-parallelism

ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα, καὶ τοὺς λειτουργοὺς αὐτοῦ πυρὸς φλόγα

1

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “The one who makes his servant angels spirits and flames of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

53

HEB

1

7

wqd8

writing-pronouns

ὁ ποιῶν…αὐτοῦ…αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the words The one and his refer to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the reference explicit. Alternate translation: “God makes his … his” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

54

HEB

1

7

x53n

figs-123person

ὁ ποιῶν…αὐτοῦ…αὐτοῦ

1

Here the author has God speaking about himself in the third person. He uses this form because the quotation uses the third person to speak about God, and the author claims that God speaks the quotation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that God is speaking about himself. Alternate translation: “I am the one who makes his angels spirits and his servants flames of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

55

HEB

1

7

u76p

πνεύματα

1

Here, the word translated spirits could refer to: (1) “winds,” since the word could mean either spirits or “winds” in the author’s culture. Alternate translations: “winds” (2) how God made the angels to be “spiritual” beings. Alternate translation: “spiritual beings”

56

HEB

1

7

isd8

figs-metaphor

ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα, καὶ τοὺς λειτουργοὺς αὐτοῦ πυρὸς φλόγα

1

He is the one who makes his angels spirits, and his servants flames of fire

Here the author of the quotation speaks as if God turned his angels into spirits and into flames of fire. He speaks in this way to identify what the angels are like and to show that God made them like that. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that identifies what God made the angels like. Alternate translation: “The one who makes his angels so that they are like spirits, and his servants so that they are like flames of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

57

HEB

1

7

d9yj

figs-possession

πυρὸς φλόγα

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe flames that are made of fire. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with an adjective such as “fiery.” Alternate translation: “fiery flames” or “flames made of fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

58

HEB

1

8

nk2j

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Here, the phrase But on the other hand introduces a contrast with what God said about the angels in 1:7. The author contrasts the fact that God has created the angels with how the Son rules forever. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces this kind of contrast. Alternate translation: “However, on the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

59

HEB

1

8

yp11

figs-ellipsis

πρὸς…τὸν Υἱόν

1

Here, the author does not include “he says” because he used these words in the last verse (1:7). If it would be helpful in your language, you could include “he says” here. Alternate translation: “with regard to the Son, he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

60

HEB

1

8

p1xx

writing-quotations

πρὸς…τὸν Υἱόν

1

But to the Son he says

Here and in the next verse, the author quotes from the Old Testament. He does not introduce it as a quotation but instead as words that God has spoken about his Son. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, here from Psalm 45:6–7. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that God has said about his Son, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “with regard to the Son, God speaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

61

HEB

1

8

jlql

πρὸς…τὸν Υἱόν

1

Here, the phrase with regard to could indicate that: (1) God is speaking about the Son. Alternate translation: “concerning the Son” (2) God is speaking directly to the Son. Alternate translation: “to the Son”

62

HEB

1

8

b155

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τὸν Υἱόν

1

Son

The word Son is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

63

HEB

1

8

x9uc

figs-quotations

πρὸς…τὸν Υἱόν, ὁ θρόνος σου, ὁ Θεὸς, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος, καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ.

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the following verse as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “to the Son he says that he is God and that his throne is forever and ever, and the scepter of righteousness is the scepter of his kingdom.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

64

HEB

1

8

jqi7

figs-yousingular

σου

1

Since the word Your refers to one person, the Son, it is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

65

HEB

1

8

ewm4

figs-metonymy

ὁ θρόνος σου

1

Your throne, God, is forever and ever

Here, the word throne refers to what the person on the throne does, which is to rule. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by referring to “rule” or “reign.” Alternate translation: “Your reign” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

66

HEB

1

8

qi4x

figs-exclamations

ὁ Θεὸς

1

Here, the word God directly addresses and names who “you” in the quote is. Use a form in your language that indicates direct address. Alternate translation: “O God” or “you who are God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

67

HEB

1

8

eg09

figs-idiom

εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος

1

Here, the phrase forever {and} ever indicates that something lasts forever or does not come to an end. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “lasts forever” or “never ends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

68

HEB

1

8

k4cf

figs-metonymy

ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ

1

The scepter of your kingdom is the scepter of justice

Here, the word scepter refers to how the person who has the scepter rules. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by referring to how the person “rules” or “reigns.” Alternate translation: “with righteousness is how he rules his kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

69

HEB

1

8

iprl

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind righteousness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “righteous.” Alternate translation: “a righteous scepter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

70

HEB

1

8

vl1n

figs-123person

αὐτοῦ

1

Here the author refers to the Son in the third person instead of in the second person. He is still referring to the same person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could continue to use you instead. Alternate translation: “your” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

71

HEB

1

8

b7f0

translate-textvariants

αὐτοῦ

1

Most later manuscripts have “your” here instead of his. However, the earliest manuscripts have his, and later scribes probably changed it to “your” to be consistent with the rest of the quote. Unless there is a good reason not to use his, you should follow the ULT here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

72

HEB

1

9

pl80

figs-quotations

ἠγάπησας δικαιοσύνην καὶ ἐμίσησας ἀνομίαν; διὰ τοῦτο, ἔχρισέν σε ὁ Θεός, ὁ Θεός σου, ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentences as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Make sure that your translation fits with how you expressed the first half of the quote in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “He has loved righteousness and hated lawlessness. Therefore, God, his God, has anointed him with the oil of exultation more than his companions.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

73

HEB

1

9

p5va

figs-yousingular

ἠγάπησας…ἐμίσησας…σε…σου…σου

1

Since the words You, your, and you refer to one person, the Son, all forms of you in this verse are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

74

HEB

1

9

ollt

figs-abstractnouns

δικαιοσύνην…ἀνομίαν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind righteousness and lawlessness, you could express the idea by using an adjective or adverbs. Alternate translation: “what is righteous … what is lawless” or “what people do righteously … what people do lawlessly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

75

HEB

1

9

lu3m

figs-doublet

ἔχρισέν…ὁ Θεός, ὁ Θεός σου

1

Here the quotation repeats the word God in order to emphasize that God is the one who “anoints” and also to identify him as your God, which means that he is the God whom you serve. If the repetition would be confusing in your language, you could express the idea by using God once and emphasizing the phrase in another way. Alternate translation: “the God whom you serve has anointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

76

HEB

1

9

eyqe

figs-123person

ἔχρισέν…ὁ Θεός, ὁ Θεός σου

1

Since God is the one speaking this quotation, he refers to himself in the third person here. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use the first person here to clarify that this is not another God. Alternate translation: “I, who am your God, have anointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

77

HEB

1

9

t9yw

figs-metaphor

ἔχρισέν σε…ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως

1

has anointed you with the oil of joy more than your companions

In the author’s culture, people were often anointed with oil when they received special authority or power, including when a person became king. Here the author applies this “anointing” to the Son. In this situation, it refers to how God has exalted the Son and given him power and authority. The phrase oil of exultation refers to how the “anointing” leads to or results in exultation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “has honored and empowered you so that you exult” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

78

HEB

1

9

w1l1

figs-possession

ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως

1

Here the quotation uses the possessive form to show that the oil leads to exultation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a word or phrase that indicates result. Alternate translation: “with the oil that leads to exultation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

79

HEB

1

9

h3ne

figs-abstractnouns

ἀγαλλιάσεως

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind exultation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “exult” or “rejoice.” Alternate translation: “that makes you rejoice” or “which causes you to exult” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

80

HEB

1

9

akn8

figs-extrainfo

τοὺς μετόχους σου

1

Here the author does not clarify who the companions are. In the context of the quotation, they probably referred to other people in the royal family who did not become king. In the context of Hebrews, they probably refer to those who believe in Jesus. God saves them, but he does not seat them at his right hand like he does with Jesus. However, neither the quotation nor the author of Hebrews state explicitly who the companions are, so you should leave their identify unspecified if possible. Alternate translation: “those who are with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

81

HEB

1

10

nsd4

writing-quotations

καί

1

Here and in the next two verses, the author quotes from the Old Testament. He uses And to indicate that these are more words that God says “with regard to the Son” (see 1:8). The audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, here from Psalm 102:25–27. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that God has said about the Son, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “God says further,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

82

HEB

1

10

pbzo

figs-quotations

καί, σὺ κατ’ ἀρχάς, Κύριε, τὴν γῆν ἐθεμελίωσας, καὶ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρανοί

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the next two verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “And further, according to the beginnings the Lord founded the earth, and the heavens are the works of his hands.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

83

HEB

1

10

html

figs-parallelism

σὺ κατ’ ἀρχάς, Κύριε, τὴν γῆν ἐθεμελίωσας, καὶ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρανοί

1

This part of the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. One statement uses earth language, and the other uses heavens language. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture, and heavens and earth together refer to everything that God made. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “according to the beginnings, O Lord, you founded the earth and the heavens” or “according to the beginnings, O Lord, you made everything, both earth and heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

84

HEB

1

10

yp0w

figs-yousingular

σὺ…ἐθεμελίωσας…σού

1

Since the words you and your refer to one person, the Son, you and your are singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

85

HEB

1

10

tmu5

figs-idiom

κατ’ ἀρχάς

1

In the beginning

Here, the phrase according to {the} beginnings refers to when all created things first came into being. In other words, the beginnings identifies the time when God created the universe. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to when everything first began to exist. Alternate translation: “when everything began to exist” or “at the beginning of the creation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

86

HEB

1

10

klk9

figs-exclamations

Κύριε

1

Here, the word Lord directly addresses and names who you in the quote is. Use a form in your language that indicates direct address. Alternate translation: “O Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

87

HEB

1

10

j64k

figs-metaphor

τὴν γῆν ἐθεμελίωσας

1

you laid the earth’s foundation

Here the quotation refers to the earth as if it were a building that was set on a “foundation.” The Lord is the one who put the earth on its foundation or founded it. The author of the quotations speaks in this way in order to show that the Lord is the one who created and sustains the earth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “perfectly set up the earth” or “made the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

88

HEB

1

10

k199

figs-abstractnouns

ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind works, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “make” or “do.” Alternate translation: “what your hands made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

89

HEB

1

10

r19v

figs-metonymy

τῶν χειρῶν σού

1

The heavens are the work of your hands

Here, the word hands refers to the power and action that a person has by which to do works. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “of your power” or “that you powerfully did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

90

HEB

1

11

zugp

figs-quotations

αὐτοὶ ἀπολοῦνται, σὺ δὲ διαμένεις; καὶ πάντες ὡς ἱμάτιον παλαιωθήσονται,

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the previous and following verses as indirect quotes as well. Alternate translation: “They themselves will perish, but he himself will continue; and they will all wear out like a garment.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

91

HEB

1

11

a6le

writing-pronouns

αὐτοὶ ἀπολοῦνται…πάντες…παλαιωθήσονται

1

They will perish

Here, the words They and they refer to the “earth” and the “heavens” mentioned in 1:10, which together refer to everything that God has made. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify what They and they refer back to. Alternate translation: “Earth and heavens themselves will perish … they will all wear out” or “Every created thing itself will perish … every one of them will wear out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

92

HEB

1

11

fqk2

figs-rpronouns

αὐτοὶ ἀπολοῦνται, σὺ δὲ διαμένεις

1

Here, the words translated themselves and yourself emphasize the contrast between “them” and “you.” Consider using a natural way to emphasize this contrast in your language. Alternate translation: “It is they who will perish, but it is you who will continue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

93

HEB

1

11

g0dt

figs-yousingular

σὺ…διαμένεις

1

Since the phrase you yourself refers to one person, the Son, you yourself is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

94

HEB

1

11

yl85

translate-unknown

σὺ…διαμένεις

1

Here, the word continue is the exact opposite of perish. What continue means it that you, the Son, will never cease to exist or cease to live. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies the Son as one who never stops existing and functioning. Alternate translation: “you yourself will never perish” or “you yourself always exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

95

HEB

1

11

qy4e

figs-simile

πάντες ὡς ἱμάτιον παλαιωθήσονται

1

wear out like a piece of clothing

Here the author of the quotation compares the heavens and earth to a piece of clothing that gets old and eventually becomes useless. By speaking in this way, he illustrates how everything that God has created will eventually fall apart. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a simile or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “they will all fall apart like a worn pair of shoes” or “they will eventually come to nothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

96

HEB

1

12

kl5e

figs-quotations

καὶ ὡσεὶ περιβόλαιον ἑλίξεις αὐτούς, ὡς ἱμάτιον καὶ ἀλλαγήσονται; σὺ δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς εἶ, καὶ τὰ ἔτη σου οὐκ ἐκλείψουσιν.

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the previous two verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “And as a cloak he will roll them up, and as a garment they will be changed. But he himself is the same, and his years will not fail.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

97

HEB

1

12

iar0

figs-yousingular

ἑλίξεις…σὺ …εἶ…σου

1

Since the words you, yourself, and your refer to one person, the Son, all forms of you in this verse are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

98

HEB

1

12

ienx

writing-pronouns

αὐτούς…ἀλλαγήσονται

1

Just as in the previous verse, the words them and they here refer to the “earth” and the “heavens,” which identify everything that God has created. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what them and they refer to explicit. Alternate translation: “the earth and heavens … they will be changed” or “all created things … they will be changed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

99

HEB

1

12

c2n6

figs-parallelism

καὶ ὡσεὶ περιβόλαιον ἑλίξεις αὐτούς, ὡς ἱμάτιον καὶ ἀλλαγήσονται

1

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. One statement uses cloak and “rolling” language, and the other uses garment and “changing” language. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “And as a cloak you will change them” or “And as a garment they will be rolled up and changed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

100

HEB

1

12

n4hl

figs-simile

ὡσεὶ περιβόλαιον ἑλίξεις αὐτούς, ὡς ἱμάτιον καὶ ἀλλαγήσονται

1

roll them up like a cloak

Here the author continues to compare the heavens and earth to clothing, in this case a cloak or a garment. Both of these words refer to outer clothing. Both similes describe what a person would do with a dirty or old piece of clothing. They would “change” out of it, and they would roll it up to wash it or throw it away. The author of the quotation uses this simile to show that God will remove and replace what he has created as easily as a person changes out of an outer garment. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable simile or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “as a worn shoe you will throw them in a corner, and as an old shoe they will be taken off” or “you will remove them, and they will be transformed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

101

HEB

1

12

iv4r

figs-activepassive

ὡς ἱμάτιον καὶ ἀλλαγήσονται

1

they will be changed like a piece of clothing

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on they who are changed rather than the person doing the “changing.” If you must state who does the action, the author implies that “the Lord” does it. Alternate translation: “and as a garment you will change them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

102

HEB

1

12

ncsi

figs-parallelism

σὺ…ὁ αὐτὸς εἶ, καὶ τὰ ἔτη σου οὐκ ἐκλείψουσιν

1

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. One statement refers to how the Lord stays the same, and the other refers to how his years will not fail. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “you stay alive forever” or “you yourself are always the same” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

103

HEB

1

12

vg0t

figs-rpronouns

σὺ…εἶ

1

Here, the word translated yourself emphasizes the contrast between “they” and “you.” Consider using a natural way to emphasize this contrast in your language. Alternate translation: “it is you who are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

104

HEB

1

12

i761

translate-unknown

σὺ…ὁ αὐτὸς εἶ

1

they will be changed

Here, to be the same is the exact opposite of being changed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that describes someone who never changes. Alternate translation: “you yourself never change” or “you yourself stay exactly as you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

105

HEB

1

12

v5mf

figs-idiom

ἔτη σου οὐκ ἐκλείψουσιν

1

your years do not end

Here, the phrase your years will not fail means that a person is alive during every “year.” They will never run out of years, which means that they are always alive. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that indicates that a person never dies or always lives. Alternate translation: “your life will never end” or “you will never run out of years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

106

HEB

1

13

pqs9

writing-quotations

πρὸς τίνα δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων εἴρηκέν ποτε

1

General Information:

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament. He does not introduce it as a quotation but instead as words that God has spoken to his Son, not to angels. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, specifically from Psalm 110:1. Since the author introduces the quotation as words that God has said to his Son, not to angels, you should introduce the quotations as words that someone has or has not said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “But to which of the angels has he ever spoken the words (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

107

HEB

1

13

z0hn

figs-quotations

εἴρηκέν ποτε, κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου, ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the question as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “has he ever said that he should sit as his right hand until he makes his enemies a footstool for his feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

108

HEB

1

13

kz68

figs-rquestion

πρὸς τίνα δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων εἴρηκέν ποτε, κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου, ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου?

1

But to which of the angels has God said at any time … feet”?

The author does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “none of them,” for God only said these words to his own Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a strong negation. See how translated the similar question in 1:5. Alternate translation: “But God has never said to any of the angels, ‘Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

109

HEB

1

13

z0me

writing-pronouns

εἴρηκέν ποτε

1

Here, he refers to God the Father. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what he refers to explicit. Alternate translation: “has God ever said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

110

HEB

1

13

k8j9

figs-yousingular

κάθου…σου…σου

1

Since the words Sit and your refer to one person, the Son, all forms of you in this verse are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

111

HEB

1

13

s6k7

translate-symaction

κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

1

Sit at my right hand

When someone sits at the right hand of God, it symbolizes that person’s honor, authority, and ability to rule. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. See how you translated the similar words in 1:3. Alternate translation: “Sit to rule at my right hand” or “Take the place of honor and authority at my right hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

112

HEB

1

13

ee35

figs-synecdoche

ἐκ δεξιῶν μου

1

Here, the phraseat my right hand refers to the place next to a person’s right hand, which would be the “right side.” In the author’s culture, this side was associated with honor or authority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the “right side.” Make sure that your readers understand that this side indicates that the Son has honor and authority when he sits there. Alternate translation: “at my right side” or “at the honorable place next to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

113

HEB

1

13

ulp5

figs-metaphor

ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου, ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου

1

until I make your enemies a stool for your feet

Here the author of the quotation speaks as if the Son’s enemies could become a footstool on which he puts his feet. In the author’s culture, something that is under feet has been conquered and is powerless and shamed, so this means that God will conquer and shame all the enemies of the Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “until I make your enemies kneel before you” or “until I conquer and shame your enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

114

HEB

1

14

fk5v

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ πάντες εἰσὶν λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα, εἰς διακονίαν ἀποστελλόμενα, διὰ τοὺς μέλλοντας κληρονομεῖν σωτηρίαν?

1

Are not all angels spirits … inherit salvation?

The author does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, they are.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “What is true is that they are all ministering spirits, being sent for service for the sake of those who are going to inherit salvation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

115

HEB

1

14

dbg8

writing-pronouns

εἰσὶν

1

Here, they refers to the “angels” in 1:13. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the “angels” explicitly. Alternate translation: “Are the angels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

116

HEB

1

14

ds6z

figs-activepassive

ἀποστελλόμενα

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the angels, who are sent, rather focusing on than the person doing the “sending.” If you must state who does the action, the author implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “those whom God sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

117

HEB

1

14

ivy4

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς διακονίαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind service, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “serve.” Alternate translation: “to serve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

118

HEB

1

14

v541

figs-metaphor

κληρονομεῖν σωτηρίαν

1

for those who will inherit salvation

Here the author speaks as if believers were children who would receive property that a parent passes on to their child when the parent dies. He speaks in this way to indicate that believers receive salvation from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to receive salvation from God” or “to be given salvation by God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

119

HEB

1

14

fgs4

τοὺς μέλλοντας

1

Alternate translation: “those who are about” or “those who are destined”

120

HEB

1

14

id6k

figs-abstractnouns

κληρονομεῖν σωτηρίαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind salvation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “save.” In this case, you may need to find another way to express the idea behind inherit. Alternate translation: “to be saved as a gift from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

121

HEB

2

intro

s2gd

0

Hebrews 2 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son and the angels (1:5–2:18)
    • Exhortation: Listen to the message! (2:1–4)
    • Teaching: The Son becomes lower than the angels to help his brothers (2:5–18)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 2:6–8, 12–13, which are quotations from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Angels

In this chapter, the author continues to speak about angels. In 2:2, he refers to a tradition that says that God gave the law to Moses through angels. Then, in 2:5–9, he shows that Jesus, not angels, is the one who rules the “world that is coming.” In fact, Jesus came for the sake of humans, not for angels (2:16). Again, the author is not attacking angels. Instead, he uses angels, whom everyone knows are powerful and important, to show how much more important are Jesus and the salvation he offers. Translate “angels” the way you did in the previous chapter. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/angel]])

Jesus as high priest

In 2:17, the author first refers to Jesus as a “priest,” here specifically a “high priest.” This is an important theme in Hebrews. In much of the rest of the letter, the author argues that Jesus is a high priest who offers a sacrifice in the heavenly sanctuary. The author simply introduces the title “high priest” here, but he will develop the idea later. So, do not include any extra information here, but carefully consider how to translate “high priest” so that it fits with what the author later says about Jesus as a high priest. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/highpriest]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Kinship language

Throughout this chapter, the author uses kinship language to describe those who believe in Jesus. They are God’s “sons” or “children” (2:10, 13–14), Jesus’ “brothers” (2:11–12, 17), and each is a “descendant of Abraham” (2:16). As God’s children, they are Jesus’ brothers and part of the family of Abraham, who is Jesus’ ancestor. The idea that believers are part of God’s family is important in Hebrews and in the Bible in general, so, if possible, preserve this language in your translation. Consider using words that refer to adopted family members. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/son]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/children]], and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/brother]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Who is the “man” in the quotation from Psalm 8?

In 2:6–8, the author quotes from Psalm 8:4–6. The psalm refers to “man” and “son of man.” In the context of the psalm itself, these words use the masculine singular form to refer to humans in general. However, Jesus used the phrase “Son of Man” to refer to himself during his earthly ministry. Some scholars argue that the author of Hebrews quotes “son of man” from Psalm 8 because he is using it to refer to Jesus directly. Others argue that the author uses “son of man” and “man” in the psalm quotation to refer to humans in general but then applies what the psalm says is true about humans to Jesus, who is the only human who is now “crowned with honor and glory” (2:9). Since the author never refers to Jesus as “Son of Man,” this second option is probably correct. Consider how you can translate “man” and “son of man” in the psalm quotation so that they can apply first to humans in general and then to Jesus in particular.

122

HEB

2

1

x7px

grammar-connect-logic-result

διὰ τοῦτο

1

Connecting Statement:

Here the author introduces a result or implication from what he said about the Son and the angels in 1:1–14. Because God now speaks through his Son, who is greater than the angels, the audience needs to give attention. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that draws an inference from the previous chapter. Alternate translation: “Because God is speaking through his Son” or “Because of all that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

123

HEB

2

1

ooqp

δεῖ περισσοτέρως προσέχειν ἡμᾶς

1

Alternate translation: “it is most important for us to give attention” or “we must above all give attention”

124

HEB

2

1

ol8m

figs-infostructure

δεῖ περισσοτέρως προσέχειν ἡμᾶς

1

Here, the phrase far more could modify (1) necessary. See the ULT. (2) give attention. Alternate translation: “it is necessary for us to give far more attention” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

125

HEB

2

1

a2af

δεῖ περισσοτέρως προσέχειν ἡμᾶς

1

Here the author does not specify what he is comparing far more with. He could be: (1) using the comparative far more to emphasize how important it is to give attention. In this case, he is not making a comparison at all. Alternate translation: “it is most necessary for us to give attention” (2) comparing how they should give attention with how those who receive messages from angels give attention. Alternate translation: “it is far more necessary for us than for those who hear angels to give attention” (3) comparing how they should give attention with how they are currently giving attention. Alternate translation: “it is necessary for us to give far more attention that we have been giving”

126

HEB

2

1

wzt9

figs-abstractnouns

προσέχειν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind attention, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “attend” or “focus.” Alternate translation: “to attend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

127

HEB

2

1

e724

figs-activepassive

τοῖς ἀκουσθεῖσιν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is heard rather than focusing on the person doing the “hearing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “we” did it. Alternate translation: “to the things that we heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

128

HEB

2

1

ayd1

figs-metaphor

μήποτε παραρυῶμεν

1

so that we do not drift away from it

Here the author speaks as if the audience were boats that could drift away from where they were moored. In this metaphor, the place where the boats are moored is the good news about Jesus, and “drifting away” from this place refers to slowly failing to believe this good news. The author uses this metaphor to encourage the audience to remain “moored” to the good news by continuing to focus on it and firmly believe it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable figure of speech or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “so that we might not slide from them” or “so that we might not slowly fail to believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

129

HEB

2

2

omsr

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces the reason why “it is far more necessary for us to give attention” to the message (2:1). This reason continues into the next verse (2:3). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a reason or basis. Alternate translation: “You can tell that we need to give attention because,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

130

HEB

2

2

k5kb

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ γὰρ ὁ…λόγος

1

For if the message

Here the author is speaking as if these things were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that they are actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what the author is saying is not certain, then you could express the idea by using a word such as “since” or “because.” Alternate translation: “For since the message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

131

HEB

2

2

gea1

figs-explicit

ὁ δι’ ἀγγέλων λαληθεὶς λόγος

1

In the author’s culture, people believed that God gave his law to Moses through angels. Here, the message spoken through angels refers to this law that Moses received from God with angels as the messengers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the message spoken through angels to Moses” or “Moses’ law, which was spoken through angels,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

132

HEB

2

2

j4fa

figs-activepassive

ὁ δι’ ἀγγέλων λαληθεὶς λόγος

1

For if the message that was spoken through the angels

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what was spoken rather than focusing on the person doing the “speaking.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it by means of angels. Alternate translation: “the message that God spoke through angels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

133

HEB

2

2

u52i

figs-abstractnouns

πᾶσα παράβασις καὶ παρακοὴ

1

every trespass and disobedience receives just punishment

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind transgression and disobedience, you could express the ideas by using a verbs such as “transgress” and “disobey.” Alternate translation: “any person who transgressed and disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

134

HEB

2

2

y2y7

figs-doublet

παράβασις καὶ παρακοὴ

1

trespass and disobedience

Here, the words transgression and disobedience mean almost the same thing. The word transgression refers to when someone breaks a law or command that they know about. The word disobedience refers to when someone hears a law or command and ignores it. The author uses both words to emphasize that any kind of law-breaking was punished. If you do not have words that represent these two ideas, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could express the idea with a single word or phrase. Alternate translation: “misdeed” or “case of law-breaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

135

HEB

2

2

qyo8

figs-abstractnouns

ἔλαβεν ἔνδικον μισθαποδοσίαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind penalty, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “punish” or “penalize.” Alternate translation: “was justly penalized” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

136

HEB

2

3

fv4q

figs-rquestion

πῶς ἡμεῖς ἐκφευξόμεθα τηλικαύτης ἀμελήσαντες σωτηρίας?

1

how then can we escape if we ignore so great a salvation?

The author does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “we will not.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a strong negation. Alternate translation: “we will definitely not escape, having neglected so great a salvation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

137

HEB

2

3

mrsy

figs-explicit

ἡμεῖς ἐκφευξόμεθα

1

Here the author implies that we will not escape what those under the law experienced when they broke that law, a “just penalty” (2:2). So, he does not include what we escape because he stated it in the last verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea explicitly. Alternate translation: “will we escape the penalty” or “will we escape just punishment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

138

HEB

2

3

vond

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἡμεῖς ἐκφευξόμεθα τηλικαύτης ἀμελήσαντες σωτηρίας

1

Here, the phrase having neglected introduces a hypothetical possibility. The author is not claiming that he or his audience have neglected or will “neglect” the salvation. Instead, he is asking the question about what we would happen if he or his audience did “neglect” the salvation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that introduces a possibility. Alternate translation: “will we escape if we neglect so great a salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

139

HEB

2

3

i2zv

translate-unknown

ἀμελήσαντες

1

ignore

Here, the word neglected refers to ignoring or failing to pay attention to something. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that expresses the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “paying no attention to” or “considering unimportant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

140

HEB

2

3

gm6v

figs-abstractnouns

τηλικαύτης…σωτηρίας? ἥτις

1

This is salvation that was first announced by the Lord and confirmed to us by those who heard it

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind salvation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “save.” Alternate translation: “the amazing way in which God saves us? This way in which God saves us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

141

HEB

2

3

dmsh

figs-metonymy

τηλικαύτης…σωτηρίας? ἥτις

1

Here, the word salvation refers to the “message” about salvation. The author makes this clear in the second half of the verse, when he refers to how the salvation is spoken. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by referring to a “message” or “proclamation” about salvation. Alternate translation: “the proclamation about so great a salvation? Which proclamation about salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

142

HEB

2

3

dyn1

figs-activepassive

ἀρχὴν λαβοῦσα, λαλεῖσθαι διὰ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what was chosen and spoken rather than focusing on the person doing the “choosing” and “speaking.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did the “choosing” and the Lord did the “speaking.” Alternate translation: “God having chosen the Lord to speak it first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

143

HEB

2

3

le2l

figs-idiom

ἀρχὴν λαβοῦσα, λαλεῖσθαι

1

Here, the phrase first having been chosen identifies that something was the first or began some process. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies that something begins a process or was the first. Alternate translation: “first spoken” or “which had its beginning when it was spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

144

HEB

2

3

fpvx

figs-activepassive

ὑπὸ τῶν ἀκουσάντων εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐβεβαιώθη

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what was confirmed rather than focusing on the people doing the “confirming.” Alternate translation: “those who heard confirmed to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

145

HEB

2

4

k4j9

figs-abstractnouns

σημείοις…καὶ τέρασιν, καὶ ποικίλαις δυνάμεσιν, καὶ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου μερισμοῖς

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind signs, wonders, miracles, and distributions, you could express the ideas by using verbal phrases. Alternate translation: “by enabling people to do amazing and wonderful things, to act powerfully in various ways, and to be empowered by the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

146

HEB

2

4

li2n

figs-doublet

σημείοις…καὶ τέρασιν, καὶ ποικίλαις δυνάμεσιν

1

Here the author uses three similar words to describe supernatural acts that God empowers his people to do. The word signs emphasizes that these acts reveal something; the word wonders emphasizes that these acts are amazing or unusual; the word miracles emphasizes that these acts are powerful. The author uses these three words to show that God uses lots of things to “testify” to the truth of the message about salvation. If your language does not have different words that emphasize these three aspects of the supernatural acts, you could combine two or all three of these words into one word or phrase and emphasize the variety of testimonies in another way. Alternate translation: “by many and various miracles” or “by many signs and various miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

147

HEB

2

4

ix3o

translate-unknown

Πνεύματος Ἁγίου μερισμοῖς

1

Here, the word distributions refers to specific ways in which the Holy Spirit empowers people. Sometimes these specific ways are referred to as “gifts.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to how people receive specific “gifts” or “empowerings” from the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “gifts from the Holy Spirit” or “specific empowerings of the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

148

HEB

2

4

m2p8

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ τὴν αὐτοῦ θέλησιν

1

according to his will

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind will, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “want” or “chose.” Alternate translation: “in just the way he wanted to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

149

HEB

2

4

jsav

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the word his could refer to: (1) God. Alternate translation: “God’s” (2) the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “the Spirit’s” or “his own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

150

HEB

2

5

i3bh

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

For it was not to the angels that God subjected

Here, the word For primarily introduces a new topic into the discussion. However, it may also indicate that what the author says about this new topic supports or gives a basis for an earlier claim. If this is so, For could introduce support for the claim in 2:1 about the need to “give attention,” or it could introduce support for the arguments in 1:5–14 about how the Son is superior to the angels. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a new section, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

151

HEB

2

5

rqr9

translate-unknown

τὴν οἰκουμένην τὴν μέλλουσαν

1

the world to come

Here, the word world is the same word that is translated “world” in 1:6, and the author probably has the same world in mind here. He specifies that it is coming, which means that humans on earth do not yet experience this world but will experience it some day, when Jesus comes back. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in the same way you did in 1:6 and include the idea that humans will someday experience this world. Alternate translation: “the new world that God will give us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

152

HEB

2

5

bztr

figs-exclusive

λαλοῦμεν

1

Here, the word we refers to the author, who is one who “speaks.” However, the author assumed that the audience was involved in the conversation by “hearing” what he “spoke,” so he uses we. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to just the speaker by using a pronoun such as “I.” Alternate translation: “I am speaking” or “I am telling you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

153

HEB

2

6

jh56

writing-quotations

διεμαρτύρατο…πού τις λέγων

1

General Information:

Here and in the next two verses, the author quotes from the Old Testament. He intentionally uses vague words to introduce the quotation, and he does not identify who wrote the words or where they could be found. The quotation comes from Psalm 8:4–6. Since the author intentionally avoids giving information about where the quotation comes from, you should not include such information in your translation. If your readers would not know where the quote comes from, you could include the reference in a footnote. Alternate translation: “you can read these words in the Scriptures:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

154

HEB

2

6

m30v

figs-quotations

λέγων, τί ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος, ὅτι μιμνῄσκῃ αὐτοῦ, ἢ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου, ὅτι ἐπισκέπτῃ αὐτόν?

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the floowing two verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “asking about what man is that you remember, or a son of man, that you watch over him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

155

HEB

2

6

df5a

figs-rquestion

τί ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος, ὅτι μιμνῄσκῃ αὐτοῦ, ἢ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου, ὅτι ἐπισκέπτῃ αὐτόν?

1

What is man, that you are mindful of him?

The author does not include this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he includes it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “nothing,” for nothing about man or a son of man is significant enough for God to remember or watch over him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a strong negation. Alternate translation: “Man has nothing that should make you remember him, and a son of man has nothing that should make you watch over him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

156

HEB

2

6

mz3y

figs-parallelism

τί ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος, ὅτι μιμνῄσκῃ αὐτοῦ, ἢ υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου, ὅτι ἐπισκέπτῃ αὐτόν

1

Here, the quotation includes two questions that mean almost the same thing. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “What is man, that you care about him” or “What is a son of man that you remember him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

157

HEB

2

6

vj7h

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπος…αὐτοῦ…υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου…αὐτόν

1

The quotation refers to man and son of man, which are both singular and masculine. The author could intend these words primarily to identify: (1) humans in general. While he goes on to identify Jesus as the only human who currently fulfills these words (see 2:9), he intends the words first of all to refer to humans in general. Alternate translation: “a human … him or her … a child of a human … him or her” (2) Jesus, who calls himself a son of man. In this case, you should preserve the singular and masculine language. Alternate translation: “Man … him … the Son of Man … him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

158

HEB

2

6

j50u

figs-yousingular

μιμνῄσκῃ…ἐπισκέπτῃ

1

Since the author of the quotation is speaking to God, the word you in this verse is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

159

HEB

2

6

wkd9

figs-idiom

υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου

1

Or a son of man, that you care for him?

In the culture of the quotation’s author, the phrase son of man was a way to refer to a person who was descended from other humans. In other words, it is another way to say man or “human.” Jesus used this phrase to refer to himself during his earthly life, so it is possible that the author of Hebrews intended son of man to refer to Jesus directly. However, the author never uses son of man to refer to Jesus anywhere else. If it would be helpful in your language, you could: (1) use a word or phrase that refers to humans in general. Alternate translation: “a human being” (2) use the same phrase that Jesus used to refer to himself. Alternate translation: “the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

160

HEB

2

6

e47v

figs-ellipsis

υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου

1

Or a son of man

Here, the author does not include “what is” because he used these words in the first part of the sentence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include these words here. Alternate translation: “what is a son of man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

161

HEB

2

7

pig3

figs-quotations

ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν, βραχύ τι παρ’ ἀγγέλους; δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ ἐστεφάνωσας αὐτόν

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these clauses as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Make sure that your translation fits with how you expressed the first part of the quote in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “You have made him a little lower than the angels; you have crowned him with glory and honor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

162

HEB

2

7

yb4f

figs-yousingular

ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν, βραχύ τι …ἐστεφάνωσας

1

Since the author of the quotation is speaking to God, the word you in this verse is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

163

HEB

2

7

q9rb

figs-gendernotations

αὐτὸν…αὐτόν

1

Just as in 2:6, the word him could primarily refer to: (1) humans in general. Alternate translation: “him or her … him or her” (2) Jesus. Alternate translation: “him … him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

164

HEB

2

7

ka5a

figs-metaphor

ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν, βραχύ τι παρ’ ἀγγέλους

1

a little lower than the angels

Here the quotation refers to how humans are lower than {the} angels. While he may have believed that this was true in terms of spatial placement, since angels live in heaven “above” and humans live on earth “below,” the point is primarily about status and power. Being lower means that humans have less status and power than angels. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or a phrase that describes how humans have less status and power than angels. Alternate translation: “You have given him a little less status than the angels” or “You have made him a little less important than the angels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

165

HEB

2

7

s6dd

figs-idiom

βραχύ τι

1

Here, the phrase a little could refer primarily to place or to time. The author eventually applies the phrase to how Jesus was lower than the angels for a little time (see 2:9). However, the quotation itself suggests that humans have a place that is a little lower. If that is true, then the author later uses a little to refer to time in a play on words. You could express a little so that it refers to: (1) place. Alternate translation: “a little bit” (2) time. Alternate translation: “for a little while” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

166

HEB

2

7

s85x

figs-metaphor

δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ ἐστεφάνωσας αὐτόν

1

you crowned him with glory and honor

Here the quotation refers to the glory and honor that God gave to humans as if, together, they formed a crown to be placed on the head of a king to signify his power and authority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “you gave him great glory and honor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

167

HEB

2

7

tjn6

figs-abstractnouns

δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ

1

made man … crowned him

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind glory and honor, you could express the ideas by using adjectives such as “glorious” and “honorable,” or you could use verbal phrases. Alternate translation: “so that he is glorious and honorable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

168

HEB

2

7

z8ub

figs-doublet

δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ

1

Here, the words glory and honor mean almost the same thing. The quotation uses both words to emphasize how much glory and honor God gave to humans. If you do not have two words that express this particular meaning, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could use one word or phrase here. Alternate translation: “with glory” or “with glorious honor”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

169

HEB

2

7

nee4

translate-textvariants

τιμῇ

1

After the word honor, many ancient manuscripts add the clause “and you have put him over the works of your hands.” This clause is in the psalm that the author quotes from (see Psalm 8:6). However, most likely the author did not include this clause because it was not important to the point he is making. Later, scribes probably added the clause because they knew that it was in the Psalm. If possible, do not include the clause here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

170

HEB

2

8

o9o7

figs-quotations

πάντα ὑπέταξας ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ.

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the clause as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the previous two verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “You have subjected all things under his feet.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

171

HEB

2

8

yn89

figs-yousingular

ὑπέταξας

1

Since the author of the quotation is speaking to God, here the word you is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

172

HEB

2

8

k5j2

figs-metaphor

πάντα ὑπέταξας ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ

1

You put everything in subjection under his feet

Here the author of the quotation speaks as if all {things} could be under the feet of humans. In the author’s culture, something that is under feet has been conquered and is controlled by the person whose feet it is under. The point is that all {things} are conquered and controlled by humans. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “You made him control all things” or “You gave him authority over all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

173

HEB

2

8

ac9f

figs-gendernotations

αὐτοῦ…αὐτῷ…αὐτῷ

1

his feet … to him

Just as in 2:6–7, the words his and him could primarily refer to: (1) humans in general. Alternate translation: “his or her … to him or her … to him or her” (2) Jesus. Alternate translation: “his … to him … to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

174

HEB

2

8

sq9i

writing-quotations

ἐν τῷ γὰρ ὑποτάξαι τὰ πάντα

1

Here, the phrase For in introduces a restatement of part of the quote. The author restates this portion of the quote (subjecting all the things) so that he can comment on it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that makes this clear. Alternate translation: “By using the phrase ‘subjecting all the things’” or “For with the words ‘subjecting all the things’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

175

HEB

2

8

nwci

writing-pronouns

ἀφῆκεν

1

Here, the word he refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God left” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

176

HEB

2

8

rf44

figs-doublenegatives

οὐδὲν ἀφῆκεν αὐτῷ ἀνυπότακτον

1

He did not leave anything not subjected to him

Here, the phrase nothing not means that there are no exceptions to how all things will be subjected to him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that only includes one negative. Alternate translation: “he did not omit anything that could be subjected to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

177

HEB

2

8

xy7c

figs-activepassive

οὐδὲν…ἀνυπότακτον…τὰ πάντα ὑποτεταγμένα

1

we do not yet see everything subjected to him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is subjected rather than focusing on the person doing the “subjecting.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “nothing that God did not subject … God subjecting all the things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

178

HEB

2

9

wlt0

figs-metaphor

τὸν…βραχύ τι παρ’ ἀγγέλους ἠλαττωμένον

1

Here the author refers to how Jesus was lower than the angels. While he may have believed that this was true in terms of spatial placement, since angels live in heaven “above” and Jesus lived on earth “below,” the point is primarily about status and power. Being lower means that Jesus had less status and power than the angels. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that describes how Jesus had less status and power than angels during his incarnate life. See how you translated this clause in 2:7. Alternate translation: “who had a little less status than the angels” or “who was a little less important than the angels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

179

HEB

2

9

ma4j

figs-activepassive

βραχύ τι…ἠλαττωμένον

1

who was made

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Jesus, who was made, rather than focusing on the person doing the “making.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “whom God made a little lower” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

180

HEB

2

9

ck8i

figs-idiom

βραχύ τι

1

Here, the phrase a little could refer primarily to place or to time. Here, it is likely that the author uses the phrase to show that Jesus was lower than the angels for a little time. However, the phrase in the quotation in 2:7 suggested that humans have a place that is a little lower. If that is true, then the author uses the same phrase that referred to place in the quotation, but he uses it to refer to time. You could express a little so that it refers to: (1) time. Alternate translation: “for a little while” (2) place. Alternate translation: “a little bit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

181

HEB

2

9

i4fc

figs-metaphor

δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ ἐστεφανωμένον

1

lower than the angels … crowned with glory and honor

Here the quotation refers to the glory and honor that God gave to Jesus as if, together, they formed a crown to be placed on the head of a king to signify his power and authority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. See how you translated this phrase in 2:7. Alternate translation: “given great glory and honor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

HEB

2

9

uri1

figs-activepassive

ἐστεφανωμένον

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Jesus, who is crowned, rather than focusing on the person doing the “crowning.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “whom God crowned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

183

HEB

2

9

oe0n

figs-abstractnouns

δόξῃ καὶ τιμῇ

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind glory and honor, you could express the ideas by using adjectives such as “glorious” and “honorable,” or you could use verbal phrases. Alternate translation: “so that he is glorious and honorable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

184

HEB

2

9

r53e

figs-possession

διὰ τὸ πάθημα τοῦ θανάτου

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to refer to suffering that is the experience of death. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “because he suffered death” or “because he experienced death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

185

HEB

2

9

ovkx

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ πάθημα τοῦ θανάτου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind death, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “die.” Alternate translation: “the fact that he died” or “his suffering that led to him dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

186

HEB

2

9

bgrc

figs-abstractnouns

χάριτι Θεοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind grace, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “kind” or “gracious.” Alternate translation: “by God’s kind action” or “by how God acts kindly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

187

HEB

2

9

bil4

figs-metaphor

γεύσηται θανάτου

1

he might taste death

Here the author speaks as if death were food that people could taste. He speaks in this way to show that Jesus experienced death as much as a person who eats food truly experiences that food. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “he might experience death” or “he participate in death (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

188

HEB

2

9

yyoa

figs-abstractnouns

γεύσηται θανάτου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind death, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “die.” Alternate translation: “he might taste what dying is like” or “he might die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

189

HEB

2

10

bwa6

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces an explanation of how and why Jesus “tastes of death on behalf of everyone.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that introduces an explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” or “Here is why that happened:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

190

HEB

2

10

wsni

translate-unknown

ἔπρεπεν

1

Here, the phrase it was proper identifies that something is appropriate or correct for a specific situation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to correct or appropriate behavior. Alternate translation: “it was fitting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

191

HEB

2

10

fjmw

writing-pronouns

αὐτῷ

1

Here, the word him refers to God the Father, who is the one who “perfects” the founding leader, who is Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “for God the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

192

HEB

2

10

dp82

figs-infostructure

πολλοὺς υἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα, τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν, διὰ παθημάτων τελειῶσαι.

1

Here, the phrase having brought many sons into glory could refer to: (1) what the founding leader, Jesus, does. Alternate translation: “to perfect through sufferings the one who has brought many sons into glory, who is the founding leader of their salvation” (2) what God the Father does. Alternate translation: “who has brought many sons into glory, to perfect the founding leader of their salvation through sufferings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

193

HEB

2

10

ou87

πολλοὺς υἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα

1

Here, the phrase having brought emphasizes the beginning of the process more than its completion. The point is that the “bringing” of “many sons into glory” has begun. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it clearer that the phrase having brought emphasizes the beginning of the “bringing.” Alternate translation: “having started bringing many sons into glory”

194

HEB

2

10

r899

figs-metaphor

πολλοὺς υἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα

1

bring many sons to glory

Here the author speaks of glory as if it were a place into which the sons could be brought. The author speaks in this way to identify glory as a goal toward which those who believe are aiming. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “having given glory to many sons” or “having oriented many sons toward glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

195

HEB

2

10

l95y

figs-gendernotations

πολλοὺς υἱοὺς

1

many sons

Here, the phrase many sons refers to all those who believe in Jesus, who are many. The phrase includes both males and females, and it does not exclude anyone who believes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies everyone who believes, both male and female. Alternate translation: “the many sons and daughters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

196

HEB

2

10

scid

translate-kinship

πολλοὺς υἱοὺς

1

Here, the word sons refers to everyone who believes. Just as Jesus is a son of God the Father (see 1:2), those who believe in him are also sons of God. While they are not sons eternally, like Jesus is, they are adopted as sons when they believe. This is an important idea in Hebrews, so preserve the language of kinship if possible. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using an analogy. Alternate translation: “having brought believers, who are like God’s sons,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

197

HEB

2

10

nkus

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς δόξαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind glory, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “glorious.” Alternate translation: “into a glorious place” or “into glorious salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

198

HEB

2

10

sw9t

figs-possession

τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν

1

the leader of their salvation

Here the author uses the possessive form to speak of Jesus, the founding leader, who establishes and leads his people to salvation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a verbal phrase that refers to what Jesus does as founding leader. Alternate translation: “the one who leads them to salvation” or “their leader, who establishes their salvation,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

199

HEB

2

10

l321

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν, διὰ παθημάτων

1

complete

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind salvation and sufferings, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “save” and “suffer.” Alternate translation: “who saves them through what he suffered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

200

HEB

2

11

ky9v

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

the one who sanctifies

Here, the word For introduces an explanation of how believers can be called “sons” (see 2:10) and of why Jesus suffered in order to save these “sons.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does introduce an explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Everyone who believes is a son, because” or “He saved them through sufferings because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

201

HEB

2

11

jy9p

figs-explicit

ὅ…ἁγιάζων, καὶ οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι

1

General Information:

Here, the phrase the one who sanctifies refers to Jesus, and the phrase those who are being sanctified refers to believers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “the one who sanctifies, Jesus, and we who are being sanctified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

202

HEB

2

11

jzw3

figs-activepassive

οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι

1

those who are sanctified

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are being sanctified rather than focusing on the person doing the “sanctifying.” If you must state who does the action, the author implies that “Jesus” does it. Alternate translation: “those whom Jesus is sanctifying” or “those whom he is sanctifying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

203

HEB

2

11

bj7i

figs-explicit

ἐξ ἑνὸς πάντες

1

have one source

Here, the word one could refer to: (1) God the Father, who is the source of all humans and also of God the Son. Alternate translation: “all have one source, God himself” or “all have the same Father” (2) type or common origin. Alternate translation: “all have one common origin” or “are all humans together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

204

HEB

2

11

ul23

writing-pronouns

οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται

1

he is not ashamed

Here, the word he refers back to the the one who sanctifies, who is Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus is not ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

205

HEB

2

11

k1q5

figs-litotes

οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται

1

is not ashamed to call them brothers

Here the author uses a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “he is proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

206

HEB

2

11

h8rz

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται…καλεῖν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is ashamed rather than focusing on the person doing the “shaming.” Alternate translation: “he does not feel shame when he calls” or “he does not worry when others shame him for calling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

207

HEB

2

11

a8h9

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοὺς

1

brothers

Although the word brothers is masculine, the author is using it to refer to all believers, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

208

HEB

2

11

gacv

translate-kinship

ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοὺς καλεῖν

1

In 2:10, believers are called sons of God; here believers are called brothers of Jesus. The words sons and brothers both refer to everyone who believes, and the terms identify how believers are part of God’s family. This is an important idea in Hebrews, so preserve the language of kinship if possible. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using an analogy. Alternate translation: “to refer to them as people who are like brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

209

HEB

2

12

y2es

writing-quotations

λέγων

1

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament. He does not introduce it as a quotation but instead as words that Jesus the Son has spoken to God about his brothers. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, here from Psalm 22:22. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that the Son has spoken to God, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “as you can see when he says,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

210

HEB

2

12

dtkn

figs-quotations

λέγων, ἀπαγγελῶ τὸ ὄνομά σου τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου; ἐν μέσῳ ἐκκλησίας ὑμνήσω σε

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “saying that he will proclaim your name to his brothers; he will sing to you in the midst of the assembly.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

211

HEB

2

12

cou1

figs-parallelism

ἀπαγγελῶ τὸ ὄνομά σου τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου; ἐν μέσῳ ἐκκλησίας ὑμνήσω σε

1

Here, the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. The author of Hebrews particularly focuses on the word brothers, so be sure to include that term in your translation. Alternate translation: “I will sing praise to you in the midst of my brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

212

HEB

2

12

kewm

figs-yousingular

σου…σε

1

Since the author of the quotation is speaking to God, here you is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

213

HEB

2

12

e88p

figs-metonymy

τὸ ὄνομά σου

1

I will proclaim your name to my brothers

Here, the word name refers to what the person who has that name is like. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by referring to what a person is like. Alternate translation: “who you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

214

HEB

2

12

yh0b

figs-gendernotations

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου

1

Although the word brothers is masculine, the author of the quotation is using it to refer to all those who worship God, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “to my brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

215

HEB

2

12

bui0

translate-kinship

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου

1

Just as in 2:11, the author refers to believers as brothers of Jesus, which identifies believers as part of God’s family. This is an important idea in Hebrews, so preserve the language of kinship if possible. See how you translated brothers in 2:11. Alternate translation: “to the people who are like my brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

216

HEB

2

12

tn8n

figs-explicit

ἐκκλησίας

1

from inside the assembly

Here, the audience would know that the assembly was a gathering to worship God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this idea explicitly. Alternate translation: “of the gathering to glorify God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

217

HEB

2

12

qz6b

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν μέσῳ ἐκκλησίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind assembly, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “assemble” or “gather together.” Alternate translation: “among the people who assemble together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

218

HEB

2

13

dx1q

writing-quotations

καὶ πάλιν

-1

General Information:

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament. He does not introduce them as quotations but instead as words that Jesus the Son has spoken. However, the audience would have understood that these are quotations from the Old Testament. The first quotation comes from Isaiah 8:17, and the second quotation comes from Isaiah 8:18. Since the author introduces these quotation as words that the Son has spoken, you should introduce the quotations as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotations are from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotations. Alternate translation: “And again he says … And again he says,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

219

HEB

2

13

efbv

figs-quotations

καὶ πάλιν, ἐγὼ ἔσομαι πεποιθὼς ἐπ’ αὐτῷ. καὶ πάλιν, ἰδοὺ, ἐγὼ καὶ τὰ παιδία, ἅ μοι ἔδωκεν ὁ Θεός

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentences as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “And again he says that he will trust him. And again he says that people should behold him and the little children whom God gave him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

220

HEB

2

13

s1fp

writing-pronouns

αὐτῷ

1

And again,

Here, the word him refers to God the Father. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

221

HEB

2

13

y4vb

figs-exclamations

ἰδοὺ, ἐγὼ

1

Here, the word Behold draws attention to I and the little children. It asks the audience to pay special attention to what follows. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that draws attention to what follows. Alternate translation: “Pay attention to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

222

HEB

2

13

xap9

translate-kinship

τὰ παιδία

1

the children

Here, the phrase little children refers to everyone who believes. Just as Jesus is a “son” of God the Father (see 1:2), those who believe in him are also children of God (see also 2:10). Being little children who belong to God means that believers are part of God’s family and siblings of Jesus. This is an important idea in Hebrews, so preserve the language of kinship if possible. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using an analogy. Alternate translation: “the people who are like God’s little children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

223

HEB

2

14

e1ie

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Here the author draws an inference from how Jesus has many “brothers,” who are also God’s little children (see 2:11–13. The word Therefore also introduces a new development in the argument, since the author now begins to talk about what Jesus has done for those who believe. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an inference or a development in the argument. Alternate translation: “In light of that” or “So then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

224

HEB

2

14

qj3d

translate-kinship

τὰ παιδία

1

the children

Here, the phrase little children refers back to the phrase as it appears in the quotation in the previous verse (see 2:13). See how you translated it there. Alternate translation: “the people who are like God’s little children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

225

HEB

2

14

ndv2

figs-idiom

κεκοινώνηκεν…μετέσχεν

1

share in flesh and blood

Here, the words share in and shared in refer to having things in common. The phrases do not mean that all humans and Jesus all have a piece of flesh and blood. Rather, they mean that all humans and Jesus are people who are flesh and blood. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that refer to some characteristic that people have in common. Alternate translation: “have in common … participated in” or “are characterized by … chose to be characterized by” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

226

HEB

2

14

wj5y

figs-hendiadys

αἵματος καὶ σαρκός

1

This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The words flesh and blood together identify what it means to be human, which includes eventually dying. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase that does not use and. Alternate translation: “humanity” or “what it means to be human” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

227

HEB

2

14

fy7a

writing-pronouns

τῶν αὐτῶν

1

he likewise shared in the same

Here, the phrase the same {things} refers back to flesh and blood. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this connection explicit. Alternate translation: “the same flesh and blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

228

HEB

2

14

p878

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τοῦ θανάτου

1

through death

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind death, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “die.” Alternate translation: “when he died,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

229

HEB

2

14

zl92

figs-possession

τὸ κράτος ἔχοντα τοῦ θανάτου

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe power that: (1) is based on death. In other words, the power comes from the fact that people experience death, which can be used to control them. In this case, the power of death partly comes from the “fear of death” (see 2:15). Alternate translation: “who uses death to have power” (2) controls death. In this case, the devil has power over death because he tempts people to sin, which leads to death, or because he controls how people die. Alternate translation: “who has power over death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

230

HEB

2

14

ij54

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ κράτος ἔχοντα τοῦ θανάτου

1

has the power of death

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind power and death, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “control” and “die” or in another natural way. Be sure that your translation fits with the choice you made about how power and death relate (see the previous note). Alternate translation: “who makes use of how people die to act powerfully ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

231

HEB

2

15

w3cr

figs-metaphor

ἀπαλλάξῃ τούτους, ὅσοι φόβῳ θανάτου, διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν, ἔνοχοι ἦσαν δουλείας

1

This was so that he would free all those who through fear of death lived all their lives in slavery

Here the author speaks as if the fear of death were something that could hold people in slavery. Taking away this fear is thus “releasing” those people from slavery. The author speaks in this way to emphasize how controlling and powerful is the fear of death and how Jesus completely takes away the power that this fear can hold. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “might free those people, as many as, in fear of death throughout all their lives, were held tightly” or “might help those people, as many as continually lived in fear of death throughout all their lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

232

HEB

2

15

w0x1

figs-infostructure

ἀπαλλάξῃ τούτους, ὅσοι φόβῳ θανάτου, διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν, ἔνοχοι ἦσαν δουλείας

1

If your readers would misunderstand the order of these clauses, you could arrange them in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “might release as many as were held in slavery to fear of death throughout all their lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

233

HEB

2

15

cp8e

figs-abstractnouns

φόβῳ θανάτου

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind fear and death, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “fear” and “die” or in another natural way. Alternate translation: “by how they fear to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

234

HEB

2

15

lhv7

figs-idiom

διὰ παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν

1

Here, the phrase throughout all {their} lives refers to the entire time period during which a person is alive. Use a natural form in your language to refer to the span of a person’s life. Alternate translation: “during their lifetime” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

235

HEB

2

15

mjxb

figs-activepassive

ἔνοχοι ἦσαν δουλείας

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are held in slavery rather than focusing on the person doing the “holding.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject, or you could state that the “devil” did it. Alternate translation: “someone held in slavery” or “the devil held in slavery” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

236

HEB

2

15

llc1

figs-abstractnouns

ἔνοχοι…δουλείας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind slavery, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “enslaved.” Alternate translation: “enslaved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

237

HEB

2

16

c31g

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces an explanation of why the Son shared in “flesh and blood” and died. He did this because he takes hold of humans, not angels. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “He did those things because”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

238

HEB

2

16

b3b3

figs-idiom

δήπου

1

Here, the phrase of course identifies the claim as something that everyone knows to be true. In other words, the author does not think that the claim needs to be proven. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies a claim that does not need proof. Alternate translation: “obviously” or “it is clear that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

239

HEB

2

16

ewau

figs-infostructure

οὐ…ἀγγέλων ἐπιλαμβάνεται, ἀλλὰ σπέρματος Ἀβραὰμ ἐπιλαμβάνεται

1

If your language would not put the negative statement before the positive statement, you could reverse them. Alternate translation: “he takes hold of the descendant of Abraham. He does not take hold of angels.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

240

HEB

2

16

meaw

translate-unknown

οὐ…ἐπιλαμβάνεται…ἐπιλαμβάνεται.

1

Here, the phrase take hold of could refer to: (1) how someone takes someone by the hand or the shoulder and leads them where they need to go. In other words, someone who takes hold of someone else is helping or taking care of them. Alternate translation: “he does not assist … he assists” (2) how someone takes someone else’s specific nature or kind. In other words, Jesus took the nature of the descendant of Abraham, not the nature of the angels. Alternate translation: “he does not take the nature of … he takes the nature of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

241

HEB

2

16

hasp

grammar-collectivenouns

σπέρματος

1

Here, the word descendant is a singular noun that refers to a group of “descendants.” If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “the descendants” or “the group of descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

242

HEB

2

16

yy68

translate-kinship

σπέρματος Ἀβραὰμ

1

Here, the phrase descendant of Abraham refers to those who are descended from Abraham, which are the Israelites or Jews. However, the author applies a promise made to Abraham to his audience, whether they were Jews or not (see 6:13–20). Because of this, he thinks that each person who believes in Jesus receives the promise and is a descendant of Abraham. In your translation, make it clear that descendant is not just about physical descendants but rather about who belongs in Abraham’s family, whether they were born in that family or not. Alternate translation: “the spiritual descendant of Abraham” or “each one whom God considers a descendant of Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

243

HEB

2

16

mklv

translate-names

Ἀβραὰμ

1

The word Abraham is the name of a man. He was the man from whom all the Israelites and Jews came. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

244

HEB

2

17

b0o3

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅθεν

1

Here, the phrase from which introduces an inference or conclusion based on what the author has argued, particularly what he wrote in 2:16. Because Jesus focuses on “the descendants of Abraham,” he is obligated to become like them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an inference or conclusion. Alternate translation: “so you can see that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

245

HEB

2

17

agw2

translate-unknown

ὤφειλεν

1

it was necessary for him

Here the author does not mean that someone obligated or made Jesus become like {his} brothers. Rather, he means that “becoming like his brothers” was the correct or necessary way to accomplish the goal of making atonement. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a necessity. Alternate translation: “it was necessary for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

246

HEB

2

17

v3pw

figs-gendernotations

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς

1

like his brothers

Although the word brothers is masculine, the author is using it to refer to all those who believe in Jesus, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “his brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

247

HEB

2

17

xja5

translate-kinship

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς

1

Here the author refers to believers as brothers of Jesus, which identifies believers as part of God’s family. This is an important idea in Hebrews, so preserve the language of kinship if possible. See how you translated brothers in 2:11–12. Alternate translation: “the people who are like his brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

248

HEB

2

17

uc7e

translate-unknown

τὰ πρὸς τὸν Θεόν

1

Here, the phrase the {things} pertaining to God identifies Jesus as a high priest who serves God and who acts as a high priest in God’s presence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that makes this idea clear. Alternate translation: “before God” or “concerning God and his presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

249

HEB

2

17

u6ch

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς τὸ ἱλάσκεσθαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας τοῦ λαοῦ

1

he would bring about the pardon of the people’s sins

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind atonement and sins, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “atone” and “sin.” Alternate translation: “in order to atone for how the people sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

250

HEB

2

18

gqfo

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces an explanation of how Jesus functions as “a merciful and faithful high priest.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “He can be merciful and faithful because,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

251

HEB

2

18

jnzj

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὸς

1

Here, the word himself emphasizes Jesus in order to set up the comparison with everyone else who is tempted. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that emphasizes he, that is, Jesus. Alternate translation: “is one who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

252

HEB

2

18

xde4

figs-activepassive

πειρασθείς…πειραζομένοις

1

was tempted

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are tempted rather than focusing on the person or thing doing the “tempting.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject, since many things “tempt” people. Alternate translation: “things having tempted him … whom things tempt” or “having experienced temptation … who experience temptation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

253

HEB

2

18

a3a6

πέπονθεν αὐτὸς, πειρασθείς

1

who are tempted

Here, the phrase having been tempted could identify: (1) the situation in which Jesus suffered. Alternate translation: “he himself had suffered when he was tempted” (2) what resulted from the “suffering.” Alternate translation: “he was tempted when he suffered”

254

HEB

3

intro

mu26

0

Hebrews 3 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Example of the wilderness generation (3:1–4:13)
    • Exhortation: The Son is greater than Moses (3:1–6)
    • Exhortation: Strive to enter the rest! (3:7–4:11)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 3:7b–11, 15, which are quotations from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

“Today”

The quotation from Psalm 95 includes the word “today.” The author mentions “today” again in 3:13, 15. In both of these verses, he refers to how we always call the current day “today.” So, anything that happens during the time we call “today” must happen every day, since every day is “today.” In this way, the author shows that the quotation from Psalm 95 applies to his audience every day. In these verses, translate “today” with a word or phrase that someone would use for the current day. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/biblicaltimeday]])

Rest

The quotation from Psalm 95 includes the word “rest.” In the context of the Psalm, this “rest” probably refers to the land that God promised to give to the Israelites. However, scholars debate what the author of Hebrews means when he uses the word “rest.” This is important because the author speaks much more about “rest” in chapter 4. There are two major options for what “rest” could mean: (1) “rest” could refer to how people rest, that is, to the state or experience of “resting.” (2) “rest” could refer to the place where people rest. For the author of Hebrews, this place of “rest” is either in heaven or on a renewed earth. Before you choose how to translate “rest,” consider reading Hebrews 4:1–11 so that you can decide what the author means when he uses “rest.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/rest]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

The “house” in 3:1–6

In 3:1–6, the author refers to a “house.” In the author’s culture, “house” could refer to a building that people live in, or it could refer to a “household” or a group of related people. In these verses, the author uses both meanings of “house.” In 3:2, 5–6, “house” refers to a group of related people, God’s people. In 3:3–4, “house” refers to a building that people live in. In these verses, the author uses a “house” (the building) as an example to explain more about the “house” (the people). If you do not have a word that could mean both “building” and “people,” you may need to express “house” with two different words. If so, you will need to make sure that your readers know that the author is comparing a building to people, especially in 3:3–4. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/house]])

Rhetorical questions

The author asks several questions in this chapter (see 3:16–18). He is not asking these questions because he wants the audience to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the audience to think about the quotation from Psalm 95. In 3:16–17, the second question in each verse answers the first question. In 3:18, the second half of the question answers the first half of the question. For ways to translate these questions, see the notes on 3:16–18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

The quotation from Psalm 95

David wrote Psalm 95 many years after the events that the psalm refers to. You can read the story about these events in Num 14:1–38 (see also the related story in Exodus 17:1–7). In these stories, the Israelites complain and disobey God, and God punishes them. David refers back to these stories to encourage the Israelites, whom he ruled, to act differently. He wanted them to listen to and obey God. The author of Hebrews quotes what David wrote for a similar reason. He wants to encourage his audience to listen to and obey God, and he shows that what David wrote still applies to his audience. Consider reading the Old Testament stories and Psalm 95 before translating this chapter. See the notes for places where the author refers directly to Psalm 95 or to the Old Testament stories. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

What does “for 40 years” modify?

In 3:10, “for 40 years” tells how long the Israelites saw God’s works. However, in 3:17, it refers to the time during which God “was very angry” with the Israelites. This is not a contradiction, because the author knew that the Israelites saw God’s works and that God was very angry with them during the same period of “40 years.” There is no need to harmonize these two verses.

255

HEB

3

1

m1cv

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅθεν

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word Therefore introduces an inference from what the author has said about Jesus in 2:5–18. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that clearly introduces an inference. Alternate translation: “As a result of all that” or “Because of those things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

256

HEB

3

1

tp7e

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοὶ

1

holy brothers

Although the word brothers is masculine, the author is using it to refer to all believers, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

257

HEB

3

1

af15

figs-possession

κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου, μέτοχοι

1

you share in a heavenly calling

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that believers “share” a heavenly calling. Believers could “share” this calling with: (1) other believers. Alternate translation: “who share together in a heavenly calling” (2) Jesus. Alternate translation: “share with Jesus a heavenly calling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

258

HEB

3

1

cnk1

figs-abstractnouns

κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου, μέτοχοι

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind sharers and calling, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “share” and “call.” Alternate translation: “those who share how God has called us in a heavenly way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

259

HEB

3

1

wb5f

κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου

1

Here, the word heavenly could indicate that the calling (1) comes from “heaven” (see how God’s voice comes from heaven in 12:25–26). Alternate translation: “of a calling from heaven” (2) directs us toward “heaven.” Alternate translation: “of a calling to heaven” or “of a calling to enter heaven”

260

HEB

3

1

zma3

translate-unknown

τὸν ἀπόστολον

1

the apostle and high priest

Here, the word apostle refers to someone who has been sent. In this passage, it does not refer to any of the 12 “apostles.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a descriptive phrase instead of the word you normally use for the 12 “apostles.” Alternate translation: “the sent one” or “the ambassador” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

261

HEB

3

1

hfyc

figs-possession

τὸν ἀπόστολον καὶ ἀρχιερέα τῆς ὁμολογίας ἡμῶν

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to speak about the apostle and the high priest who is the main content of our confession. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the apostle and high priest whom we confess” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

262

HEB

3

1

mnd4

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ὁμολογίας ἡμῶν

1

of our confession

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind confession, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “confess” or “believe.” Alternate translation: “whom we confess” or “in whom we believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

263

HEB

3

2

m4dh

writing-pronouns

τῷ ποιήσαντι

1

Here, the phrase the one who appointed refers to God the Father. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that this phrase refers to God the Father. Alternate translation: “to God, who appointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

264

HEB

3

2

my64

translate-names

Μωϋσῆς

1

The word Moses is the name of a man. God had Moses lead the Israelites when he delivered them from being slaves in the land of Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

265

HEB

3

2

u5qc

figs-extrainfo

ὡς καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ

1

Here the author uses words that are very similar to the Greek translation of Numbers 12:7. It is possible that he is thinking of that verse or directly referencing it. However, he does not introduce the words as a quotation or indicate that he is referring to another text. So, you should not include any quotation information in your translation. If you wish to refer to Numbers 12:7, you could do so with a footnote. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

266

HEB

3

2

eqp7

figs-metaphor

ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ

1

in God’s house

Here, the word house refers to a group of people, in this case the Israelites. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “among God’s tribe” or “in his clan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

267

HEB

3

2

k4u8

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the word his refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God’s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

268

HEB

3

2

wnzn

translate-textvariants

τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ

1

Instead of his house, many ancient manuscripts have the phrase “all his house.” This phrase is in the Old Testament story about Moses (see Numbers 12:7). So, it is possible that scribes added “all” to his house because they knew this passage. Unless there is a good reason to use “all his house,” you should use his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

269

HEB

3

3

os46

translate-versebridge

0

To help your readers understand the author’s main point in this verse and the next one, you could combine both verses into a verse bridge. You could put the general principle about buildings and builders in a first sentence and the application of that general principle in a second sentence. Alternate translation: “For every house is built by someone, and the one building the house has greater honor than the house. According to that much, since God is the one who built all things, this one has been considered worthy of greater glory than Moses.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

270

HEB

3

3

b1zp

writing-pronouns

οὗτος

1

Here, the phrase this one refers to Jesus, the Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus” or “this Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

271

HEB

3

3

py5n

figs-activepassive

οὗτος…ἠξίωται

1

Jesus has been considered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who has been considered worthy rather than focusing on the person doing the “considering.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God has considered this one worthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

272

HEB

3

3

yl7d

figs-abstractnouns

πλείονος…δόξης

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind glory, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “glorious.” Alternate translation: “to be more glorious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

273

HEB

3

3

c7er

translate-names

Μωϋσῆν

1

The word Moses is the name of a man. God had him lead the Israelites when he delivered them from being slaves in the land of Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

274

HEB

3

3

w8v5

figs-abstractnouns

πλείονα τιμὴν ἔχει…ὁ κατασκευάσας αὐτόν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind honor, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “honorable.” Alternate translation: “more honorable the one building the house is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

275

HEB

3

3

i68f

τοῦ οἴκου…αὐτόν

1

Here the author uses the word house plainly to refer to a building or structure. He wants his readers to apply what is true about a house (the building) to the “house” (the people). If you used a different word for “house” in the previous verses, make sure that your readers know that the author is drawing a comparison between people and houses here. Alternate translation: “the structure … than the structure”

276

HEB

3

4

wvw1

figs-activepassive

πᾶς…οἶκος κατασκευάζεται ὑπό τινος

1

every house is built by someone

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the house that is built rather than focusing on the person doing the “building.” Alternate translation: “someone built every house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

277

HEB

3

4

aya1

πᾶς…οἶκος

1

Here, just as in 3:3, the author uses the word house plainly to refer to a building or structure. He wants his readers to apply what is true about a house (the building) to the “house” (the people). If you used a different word for “house” in the previous verses, make sure that your readers know that here the author is drawing a comparison between people and houses. Alternate translation: “every structure”

278

HEB

3

4

f8n8

figs-metaphor

ὁ…πάντα κατασκευάσας

1

the one who built everything

Here the author speaks as if everything that God created were a “house” that God built. He speaks in this way to connect God’s act of creation with the “house” and “building” language. Use the same word or phrase here that you used for built earlier in the verse. If necessary, you could express the idea with an analogy. Alternate translation: “the one who was like a builder when he created all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

279

HEB

3

5

c8wh

figs-extrainfo

Μωϋσῆς μὲν πιστὸς ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ, ὡς θεράπων

1

Here, just as in 3:2, the author uses words that are very similar to the Greek translation of Numbers 12:7. It is possible that he is thinking of that verse or directly referencing it. However, he does not introduce the words as a quotation or indicate that he is referring to another text. So, you should not include any quotation information in your translation. If you wish to refer to Numbers 12:7, you could use a footnote to do so. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

280

HEB

3

5

zjna

translate-names

Μωϋσῆς

1

The word Moses is the name of a man. God had him lead the Israelites when he delivered them from being slaves in the land of Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

281

HEB

3

5

d57q

figs-metaphor

ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ

1

in God’s entire house

Here, the word house refers to a group of people, in this case the Israelites. See how you translated house in Hebrews 3:2. Alternate translation: “among God’s entire tribe” or “in his entire clan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

282

HEB

3

5

uz5d

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the word his refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God’s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

283

HEB

3

5

m4xr

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς μαρτύριον τῶν

1

bearing witness about the things

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind testimony, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “testify” or “proclaim.” Alternate translation: “to testify to the things that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

284

HEB

3

5

u37w

figs-explicit

τῶν λαληθησομένων

1

Here the author does not clarify what exactly is spoken. He may be referring to what God the Father said about the Son in chapter 1, or he could be referring in general to the good news about Jesus. If your readers need to know what is spoken, you could make it more explicit. Alternate translation: “of the good news that would be spoken in the future” or “of the things that would be spoken about Jesus in the future” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

285

HEB

3

5

gt8c

figs-activepassive

λαληθησομένων

1

were to be spoken of in the future

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the words that are spoken rather than focusing on the person doing the “speaking.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God would speak in the future” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

286

HEB

3

6

nsfg

figs-ellipsis

Χριστὸς…ὡς Υἱὸς

1

Here the author omits some words that may be needed in your language to make a complete thought. He omits these words because he stated them in the previous verse (“was faithful”). If your language needs these words to make a complete thought, you could include them here. Alternate translation: “Christ was faithful as a Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

287

HEB

3

6

dgt5

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱὸς

1

Son

The word Son is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. See how you translated this word in 1:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

288

HEB

3

6

pfrj

figs-explicit

ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the phrase over his house contrasts with how Moses was “in his entire house” (see 3:5). The phrase over his house indicates that the Son rules or is in charge of the house. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the implications of over his house explicit. Alternate translation: “in charge of his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

289

HEB

3

6

djm7

figs-metaphor

ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ, οὗ οἶκός ἐσμεν ἡμεῖς

1

in charge of God’s house

Here, the word house refers to a group of people, in this case God’s people. See how you translated house in 3:2. Alternate translation: “over his clan (whose clan we are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

290

HEB

3

6

x89x

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ, οὗ

1

Here, the words *his and whose refer to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronouns refer to God. Alternate translation: “God’s … whose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

291

HEB

3

6

u94p

figs-infostructure

οἶκον…οὗ οἶκός ἐσμεν ἡμεῖς, ἐὰν τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος κατάσχωμεν.

1

This sentence transitions from what the author has said about God’s house, Jesus, and Moses to an exhortation to continue to hold fast. The ULT has connected the sentence to the preceding information but put it in parentheses to indicate that it is slightly disconnected. Consider a natural way to include a transition sentence in your language. Alternate translation: “house. We are his house if we hold fast to the confidence and the boasting of our hope.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

292

HEB

3

6

tlak

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν

1

Here the author uses the conditional form to show that “holding fast” leads to being God’s house. If the conditional form does not indicate a cause and effect relationship like this in your language, you could express the if statement in a way that does show the relationship. Alternate translation: “given that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

293

HEB

3

6

v817

translate-unknown

κατάσχωμεν

1

Here, the phrase hold fast refers to continuing to firmly believe or trust something, particularly something that one has been told. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to continuing to believe or trust. Alternate translation: “we tightly grasp” or “we remain in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

294

HEB

3

6

kp9y

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος κατάσχωμεν

1

if we hold fast to our courage and the hope of which we boast

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind confidence, boasting, and hope, you could express those ideas by using verbs and adjectives or in another natural way. Alternate translation: “we keep being confident and proud about what we hope for” or “we continue to boldly await and speak joyfully about the things that we expect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

295

HEB

3

6

br2z

figs-possession

τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe confidence and boasting about or concerning {our} hope. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a more natural construction. Alternate translation: “the confidence and the boasting concerning our hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

296

HEB

3

7

qry7

grammar-connect-logic-result

διό

1

Here, the word Therefore introduces an exhortation that is based on the claim from the previous verse that we are his “house” as long as “we hold fast” (see 3:6). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an exhortation that is based on a previous statement. Alternate translation: “So then”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

297

HEB

3

7

c4sl

writing-quotations

καθὼς λέγει τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον

1

General Information:

Here and in the next four verses, the author quotes from the Old Testament. The audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, here from Psalm 95:7b–11, which refers to a story that can be found in Numbers 14:1–38. See the chapter introduction for more information about this story. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that the Holy Spirit says, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “as says the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

298

HEB

3

7

vcio

figs-quotations

καθὼς λέγει τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the clause as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the next four verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “you should do just what the Holy Spirit says: that today, if you hear his voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

299

HEB

3

7

ntzk

translate-unknown

σήμερον

1

Here, the word Today refers to the period of time between when the sun rises and when it rises again. Even more specifically, it identifies that this period of time is the current one. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers clearly to that current time period. Alternate translation: “Right now” or “At this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

300

HEB

3

7

u66q

grammar-connect-condition-fact

ἐὰν

1

if you hear his voice

Here the author is speaking as if “hearing his voice” were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what the author is saying is not certain, then you could express the idea by using a word such as “when.” Alternate translation: “whenever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

301

HEB

3

7

vjjn

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the word his refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God’s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

302

HEB

3

8

i2je

figs-quotations

μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, ὡς ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ, κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ,

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate this verse as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the surrounding verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “you should not harden your hearts as in the provocation, during the day of testing in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

303

HEB

3

8

gl2k

figs-idiom

μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν

1

do not harden your hearts

When someone “hardens their heart,” it means that they become stubborn and refuse to listen or respond to someone else. If you have a figurative or idiomatic way to refer to this behavior, you could use it here. If you do not have a figurative way to refer to this behavior, you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “do not be stubborn” or “do not be headstrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

304

HEB

3

8

uu0d

figs-explicit

ὡς ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ, κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

1

While the quotation primarily refers to the story about how the Israelites did not enter the land that God promised them (see Numbers 14:1–38), there is another story that the author of the quotation may be referring to. In Exodus 17:1–7, the Israelites are thirsty while they are in the wilderness, and they “provoke” and “test” God by complaining. God provides water for them, and Moses names one of the places where they were testing” (see Exodus 17:7). It is quite possible that the author of the quotation is thinking about this story. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some extra information or use a footnote to refer to the stories. Alternate translation: “as when the Israelite ancestors provoked God during the day in which they tested him in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

305

HEB

3

8

lik3

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ

1

as in the rebellion, in the time of testing in the wilderness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind provocation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “provoke.” Alternate translation: “when God was provoked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

306

HEB

3

8

kddy

figs-possession

τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to identify a day on which testing occurred. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the day when they tested God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

307

HEB

3

9

e6n7

figs-quotations

οὗ ἐπείρασαν οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν ἐν δοκιμασίᾳ, καὶ εἶδον τὰ ἔργα μου,

1

General Information:

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate this verse as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the surrounding verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “where your fathers tested him by examination, and they saw his works” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

308

HEB

3

9

i3wb

translate-kinship

οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν

1

your ancestors

Here, the phrase your fathers refers to the Israelites who were alive before Jesus lived on earth. The audience of the original quotation were Israelites who descended from these people. Use a word or phrase that refers to ancestors. Alternate translation: “your forefathers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

309

HEB

3

9

bbzv

figs-gendernotations

οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν

1

Although the word fathers is masculine, it refers to any ancestors, both male and female. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “your fathers and mothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

310

HEB

3

9

uj2z

figs-123person

οὗ ἐπείρασαν οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν…μου

1

Beginning in this verse, God speaks directly, using first-person pronouns. In the previous two verses, the author of the quotation refers to God in the third person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use the same person for the pronouns throughout the quotation, or you could indicate that God is speaking directly here. Alternate translation: “where, as God says, your fathers tested me … my” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

311

HEB

3

9

td5w

figs-doublet

ἐπείρασαν…ἐν δοκιμασίᾳ

1

Here, the words tested and examination refer to basically the same thing. The word tested refers to the act of “testing,” while examination refers to the “test” itself. The author of the quotation uses both words to emphasize how the fathers “examined” God. If the repetition would be confusing, and if using both words is not emphatic in your language, you could express the idea with one word or phrase. Alternate translation: “examined me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

312

HEB

3

9

q7c2

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν δοκιμασίᾳ

1

by testing me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind examination, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “examine.” Alternate translation: “by examining me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

313

HEB

3

9

k3kf

figs-abstractnouns

τὰ ἔργα μου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind works, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “perform” or “do.” Alternate translation: “what I performed” or “what I did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

314

HEB

3

9

fg7n

figs-explicit

καὶ εἶδον τὰ ἔργα μου

1

Here, the clause they saw my works could refer to: (1) how the fathers tested God even though they saw the amazing works that God did to rescue them and bring them through the wilderness. Alternate translation: “even though they saw my powerful deeds” (2) how God acted to punish the fathers for how they tested him. Alternate translation: “and they saw how I punished them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

315

HEB

3

10

cgs9

figs-quotations

τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη. διὸ προσώχθισα τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ, καὶ εἶπον, ἀεὶ πλανῶνται τῇ καρδίᾳ; αὐτοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τὰς ὁδούς μου

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate this verse as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in the surrounding verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “for 40 years. Therefore, he was very angry with that generation, and he said, ‘They are always going astray in their hearts, and they have not known my ways.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

316

HEB

3

10

qap2

figs-infostructure

τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη

1

Here, the phrase for 40 years goes with the end of the previous verse and tells how long “they saw my works”(3:9). You could include these words at the end of verse 9, or you could include them here in verse 10 and show with punctuation that they belong with the previous sentence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

317

HEB

3

10

upb8

translate-unknown

προσώχθισα

1

I was displeased

Here, the phrase I was very angry indicates that God was properly angry or displeased with the Israelites. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to proper or appropriate anger and displeasure. Alternate translation: “I was displeased” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

318

HEB

3

10

ohlh

figs-123person

διὸ προσώχθισα…εἶπον

1

Just as in 3:9, God speaks directly using first person pronouns. However, in 3:7–8, the author of the quotation refers to God in the third person. Use the same translation strategy that you used in 3:9. Alternate translation: “Therefore, as God says, I was very angry … I said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

319

HEB

3

10

bfu5

figs-quotesinquotes

εἶπον, ἀεὶ πλανῶνται τῇ καρδίᾳ; αὐτοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τὰς ὁδούς μου;

1

If a direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “I said that they are always going astray in their hearts, and they have not known my ways.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

320

HEB

3

10

lz7n

figs-parallelism

ἀεὶ πλανῶνται τῇ καρδίᾳ; αὐτοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τὰς ὁδούς μου

1

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “They are always going astray from my ways in their hearts” or “Their hearts have never know my ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

321

HEB

3

10

kh4v

figs-metaphor

ἀεὶ πλανῶνται

1

They have always gone astray in their hearts

Here the author of the quotation speaks as if the Israelites were traveling down the wrong road. He speaks in this way to indicate that they were not following God properly. Someone who is going astray does not want to do what is right. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “They are not following me” or “They are happy to disobey me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

322

HEB

3

10

rmqh

figs-metonymy

τῇ καρδίᾳ

1

In the author’s culture, the word hearts refers to the places where humans think and plan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer part of the human body where your culture believes that humans think and plan, or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “in their minds” or “in what they plan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

323

HEB

3

10

l5t7

figs-metaphor

τὰς ὁδούς μου

1

They have not known my ways

Here, God speaks as if he has ways or paths on which he walks. When the audience does not know these ways, that means that they do not know what God wants or values. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “how I want them to conduct their lives” or “what I value” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

324

HEB

3

11

mu48

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ὡς

1

Here, the word As could introduce: (1) a result from what the ancestors did. Alternate translation: “So” or “Therefore,” (2) a reason why the people will not enter into my rest. If you choose this option, you may need to include some implied information about how the ancestors did not enter the rest. Alternate translation: “They did not enter the land that I had promised, just as” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

325

HEB

3

11

ipk1

figs-quotations

ὡς ὤμοσα ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου, εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου.

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate this verse as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to express the rest of the quote in previous verses as an indirect quote as well. Alternate translation: “for 40 years. Therefore, he was very angry with that generation, and he said, ‘They are always going astray in their hearts, and they have not known my ways.’” “As he swore in his wrath, ‘If they will enter into my rest …!’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

326

HEB

3

11

yyhz

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind wrath, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “wrathful” or “angry.” Alternate translation: “as I was wrathful” or “angrily” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

327

HEB

3

11

kl9e

figs-quotesinquotes

ὤμοσα ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου, εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου.

1

If the direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “I swore in my wrath that they would never enter into my rest …!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

328

HEB

3

11

h967

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου

1

Here God uses the word If to introduce a statement that he knows will not be true. What the form means is that they will definitely not enter into my rest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a strong negation. Alternate translation: “They will never enter into my rest!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

329

HEB

3

11

tz3l

figs-explicit

εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου

1

They will never enter my rest

Here, the word rest could refer to: (1) the state of “resting.” Alternate translation: “they will participate in the way that I rest” or “they will rest with me” (2) the place where people rest, particularly the land that God promised to give to his people. Alternate translation: “they will enter into my resting place” or “they will enter into the land of rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

330

HEB

3

11

tsov

figs-abstractnouns

κατάπαυσίν μου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind rest, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “rest.” Make sure that your translation fits with the option you chose in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “the way that I rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

331

HEB

3

12

m9tf

βλέπετε

1

Alternate translation: “Be careful”

332

HEB

3

12

gv84

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Although the word brothers is masculine, the author is using it to refer to all believers, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

333

HEB

3

12

lma5

figs-metonymy

ἔν τινι ὑμῶν καρδία πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας

1

there will not be anyone with an evil heart of unbelief, a heart that turns away from the living God

In the author’s culture, the word heart refers to the place within themselves where humans think and plan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the place where humans think in your culture or express the idea plainly. See how you translated “hearts” in 3:10. Alternate translation: “in any of you a wicked mind of unbelief” or “wicked thinking of unbelief in any of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

334

HEB

3

12

gua2

figs-possession

καρδία πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a heart that is characterized by unbelief. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “a wicked heart that does not believe” or “a wicked and unbelieving heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

335

HEB

3

12

d5ny

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπιστίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind unbelief, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “disbelieve” or an adjective such as “unbelieving.” Alternate translation: “that disbelieves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

336

HEB

3

12

msir

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ἐν τῷ ἀποστῆναι

1

Here, the phrase in the falling away refers to something that happens at the same time as having a wicked heart of unbelief. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that introduces simultaneous action. Alternate translation: “while you fall away” or “which falls away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

337

HEB

3

12

d2j6

figs-metaphor

ἐν τῷ ἀποστῆναι ἀπὸ

1

Here the author speaks of rejecting or failing to follow God as if the person “fell away” from where God is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “in the turning away from” or “in rejecting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

338

HEB

3

12

kjm7

figs-idiom

Θεοῦ ζῶντος

1

the living God

Here, the phrase the living God identifies God as the one who “lives” and possibly as the one who gives “life.” The primary point is that God actually “lives,” unlike idols and other things that people call “god.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that emphasizes that God really “lives.” Alternate translation: “the God who lives” or “the true God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

339

HEB

3

13

d3k2

writing-quotations

ἄχρις οὗ, τὸ σήμερον, καλεῖται

1

as long as it is called “today,”

Here the author refers to today in such a way that the audience would know that he was referring to how the quotation used the word today (see 3:7). Use a form in your language that shows that the author is referring back to the quotation. Alternate translation: “as long as it is called ‘today,’ as the psalmist wrote,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

340

HEB

3

13

jn9s

figs-idiom

ἄχρις οὗ, τὸ σήμερον, καλεῖται

1

Here the author speaks about a time that we call today. We call every day today, so this phrase means that we should exhort one another all the time. However, since the author of Hebrews uses today because the author of the quotation used it, make sure that you use the same words that you used to translate today in 3:7. Alternate translation: “as long as we live in the time that we call ‘this day’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

341

HEB

3

13

m1e7

figs-activepassive

μὴ σκληρυνθῇ τις ἐξ ὑμῶν ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρτίας

1

no one among you will be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are hardened rather than focusing on what does the “hardening.” Alternate translation: “the deceitfulness of sin hardens no one among you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

342

HEB

3

13

b198

figs-metaphor

σκληρυνθῇ…ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρτίας

1

no one among you will be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin

Here the author speaks of becoming stubborn or unwilling to obey or trust in God as if the person were hardened. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “becomes stubborn because of the deceitfulness of sin” or “stops trusting God because of the deceitfulness of sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

343

HEB

3

13

enjy

figs-possession

ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρτίας

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to characterize sin as something that has deceitfulness. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more naturally. Alternate translation: “by sin deceiving you” or “by the way that sin deceives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

344

HEB

3

13

sye2

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρτίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind deceitfulness, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “deceive” or an adjective such as “deceitful.” Alternate translation: “by how sin deceives” or “by deceitful sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

345

HEB

3

14

znu5

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

General Information:

Here, the word For introduces a reason why the audience should “exhort one another”(see 3:13). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a reason for an exhortation. Alternate translation: “You should do that because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

346

HEB

3

14

f52j

figs-possession

μέτοχοι…τοῦ Χριστοῦ γεγόναμεν

1

For we have become

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that believers “share” Christ. See how you translated sharers in 3:1. More specifically, sharers of Christ could mean that believers: (1) “share” the promise and the blessings together with Christ. Alternate translation: “we have with Christ shared the blessings” (2) “share” or participate in Christ himself. Alternate translation: “we have shared in Christ” or “we have participated in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

347

HEB

3

14

e753

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐάνπερ

1

if we firmly hold to our confidence in him

Here the author uses the conditional form to show that “holding firm” leads to being sharers of Christ. If the conditional form does not indicate a cause and effect relationship like this in your language, you could express the if statement in a way that does show the relationship. Alternate translation: “given that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

348

HEB

3

14

zskg

translate-unknown

βεβαίαν κατάσχωμεν

1

Here, the phrase hold firm refers to continuing to firmly believe or trust something, particularly something that one has been told. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to continuing to believe or trust. See how you expressed the similar idea in 3:6. Alternate translation: “we tightly grasp” or “we remain in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

349

HEB

3

14

j3aq

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ὑποστάσεως

1

from the beginning

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind beginning and confidence, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “began” and “trust.” Alternate translation: “from the time when we first believed in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

350

HEB

3

14

l9en

figs-euphemism

μέχρι τέλους

1

to the end

Here, the phrase the end could: (1) be a polite way of referring to when a person dies. Alternate translation: “until our lives end” (2) refer to the end of the world, when Jesus comes back. Alternate translation: “until Jesus comes back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

351

HEB

3

15

yxn7

figs-infostructure

ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι

1

This verse could: (1) conclude the exhortations in 3:12–14 by stating when the audience should follow these exhortations. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “Do these things while it is said” (2) introduce what will be discussed in 3:16–19. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “Hear again what is said:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

352

HEB

3

15

bym1

figs-activepassive

λέγεσθαι

1

it has been said

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is said rather than focusing on the person doing the “saying.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that the “Holy Spirit” did it (see 3:7. Alternate translation: “during the time when the Holy Spirit speaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

353

HEB

3

15

wa11

writing-quotations

ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι

1

if you hear his voice

Here the author uses the phrase it is said to requote a part of the quotation that he introduced earlier (see especially 3:7b–8a). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that has already been quoted. Alternate translation: “while the words I have already quoted are said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

354

HEB

3

15

j8dh

figs-quotations

ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι, σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε, μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, ὡς ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ.

1

as in the rebellion

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the clause as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “while it is said that today, if you hear his voice, you should not harden your hearts as in the rebellion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

355

HEB

3

15

zn0d

σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε, μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, ὡς ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ

1

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 3:7b–8a, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in those verses.

356

HEB

3

16

inhs

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces 3:16–19, which further explain the quotation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “In the quotation,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

357

HEB

3

16

b4jy

figs-rquestion

τίνες…ἀκούσαντες παρεπίκραναν? ἀλλ’ οὐ πάντες οἱ ἐξελθόντες ἐξ Αἰγύπτου διὰ Μωϋσέως?

1

The author does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The second question gives the answer to the first question: “it was those who came out from Egypt through Moses.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using a form that identifies those who heard and provoked with all those who came out from Egypt through Moses. Alternate translation: “you know who they are who heard and provoked him. It was all those who came out from Egypt through Moses.” or “which ones who heard provoked him? It was all those who came out from Egypt through Moses.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

358

HEB

3

16

pwl2

figs-distinguish

ἀκούσαντες…ἐξελθόντες

1

Who was it who heard God and rebelled? Was it not all those who came out of Egypt through Moses?

Here, the phrases who heard and who came out introduce phrases that distinguish or identify the people that the author is speaking about. Use a form in your language which identifies, not one that simply describes. Alternate translation: “that heard … that came out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

359

HEB

3

16

ldi4

ἀκούσαντες παρεπίκραναν

1

The author uses the words heard and provoked to refer back to the words that the quotation used. See how you translated “hear his voice” in 3:7 and “provocation” in 3:8. Alternate translation: “who heard his voice participated in the provocation”

360

HEB

3

16

yfdd

figs-go

οἱ ἐξελθόντες

1

Here, the phrase came out refers to leaving a country or area. Use a word for this kind of movement in your language. Alternate translation: “those who went out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

361

HEB

3

16

j14d

translate-names

ἐξ Αἰγύπτου

1

The word Egypt is the name of a country in northern Africa. The Israelites were slaves in this country until they came out from it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

362

HEB

3

16

djja

translate-names

διὰ Μωϋσέως

1

The word Moses is the name of a man. God had him lead the Israelites when he delivered them from being slaves in the land of Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

363

HEB

3

17

swy4

figs-rquestion

τίσιν…προσώχθισεν τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη? οὐχὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτήσασιν, ὧν τὰ κῶλα ἔπεσεν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ?

1

With whom was he angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose dead bodies fell in the wilderness?

The author does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The second question gives the answer to the first question: “It was those who sinned, whose corpses fell in the wilderness.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using a form that identifies those with whom he was very angry with those who sinned. Alternate translation: “you know who they are with whom he was very angry for 40 years. It was those who sinned, whose corpses fell in the wilderness.” or “with whom was he very angry for 40 years? It was with those who sinned, whose corpses fell in the wilderness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

364

HEB

3

17

goid

προσώχθισεν τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη

1

The author uses the phrases was he very angry and for 40 years to refer back to the words that the quotation used. See how you translated “I was very angry” and “for 40 years” in 3:10. Alternate translation: “was he displeased for those 40 years”

365

HEB

3

17

uhga

figs-idiom

ὧν τὰ κῶλα ἔπεσεν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ

1

The author uses these words because he found them in Numbers 14:29, where God tells Moses what is going to happen to those who sinned. The phrase corpses fell refers to people dying. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a word or phrase that refers to people dying. Alternate translation: “who fell down dead in the wilderness” or “who were buried in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

366

HEB

3

18

l1gc

figs-rquestion

τίσιν…ὤμοσεν μὴ εἰσελεύσεσθαι εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ, εἰ μὴ τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν?

1

To whom did he swear that they would not enter his rest, if it was not to those who disobeyed him?

The author does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The second half of the question gives the answer to the first half: “it was those who disobeyed.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using a form that identifies those who disobeyed with “those to whom he swore.” Alternate translation: “you know who they are to whom he swore that they would not enter into his rest. It was to those who disobeyed.” or “to whom did he swear that they would not enter into his rest? It was to those who disobeyed.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

367

HEB

3

18

q16u

ὤμοσεν μὴ εἰσελεύσεσθαι εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ

1

they would not enter his rest

The author uses the clause they would not enter into his rest to refer back to the words that the quotation used. See how you translated “If they will enter into my rest” in 3:11. Alternate translation: “did he swear, ‘they will never enter into my rest,’”

368

HEB

3

19

impp

grammar-connect-words-phrases

καὶ

1

Here, the word And introduces a summary or conclusion for the argument, especially for what the author has said in 3:16–18. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a summary or conclusion. Alternate translation: “Therefore,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

369

HEB

3

19

henz

figs-infostructure

βλέπομεν ὅτι οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν εἰσελθεῖν δι’ ἀπιστίαν

1

If your language would naturally put the reason before the result, you could rearrange the sentence. The author puts because of unbelief last in order to emphasize it, so use a form that emphasizes this phrase. Alternate translation: “we see that it was because of unbelief that they were not able to enter”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

370

HEB

3

19

u2mo

figs-metaphor

βλέπομεν

1

Here the author uses the phrase we see to refer to knowing or understanding something. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “we learn” or “we know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

371

HEB

3

19

evf1

figs-explicit

εἰσελθεῖν

1

Here the author uses the word enter to refer back to the words that the quotation used. Translate enter the same way that you did in 3:11. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the reference back to the quotation more explicit. Alternate translation: “to enter into God’s rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

372

HEB

3

19

x18z

figs-abstractnouns

δι’ ἀπιστίαν

1

because of unbelief

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind unbelief, you could express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “did not believe” or an adjective such as “unbelieving.” Alternate translation: “because they were unbelieving” or “because they refused to believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

373

HEB

4

intro

u72n

0

Hebrews 4 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Example of the wilderness generation (3:1–4:13)
    • Exhortation: Strive to enter the rest! (3:7–4:11)
    • Exhortation: The power of God’s word (4:12–13)
  2. Summary statement (4:14–16)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 4:3–5, 7, which are words from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

God’s rest

The author continues to refer to “rest” in this chapter. This time, he also includes how God “rested” after he created everything. Continue to translate “rest” the way you did in chapter 3. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/rest]])

“Today”

The quotation from Psalm 95 includes the word “today.” Much like in the previous chapter, the author references “today” several times (see 4:7–8). In 4:7, he refers to how we always call the current day “today.” This means that the “rest” is available “today,” or right now. In 4:8, the author refers to “another day” that happens after Joshua led the Israelites into the promised land. This refers again to “today” from the psalm quotation. In these verses, translate “today” with a word or phrase that someone would use for the current day or time, and translate “day” so that it is clear that it refers to “today.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/biblicaltimeday]])

Joshua, David, and the audience

In 4:7–9, the author makes an argument that is based on sequence in time. First, Joshua led the Israelites into the promised land. Many years later, God spoke through David that people could enter the rest “today.” Finally, the author quotes these words to his audience after Jesus died and rose again. The author’s point is that what Joshua led the Israelites into could not count as “rest,” because David was still speaking about entering the “rest” many years later. The author argues that this means that the words about entering the rest still apply when he himself is writing this letter. When you translate these verses, make sure that your readers understand that the author is making an argument based on sequence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

Jesus the high priest

In 4:14–15, much like in 2:17, the author refers to Jesus as a “priest,” here specifically a “high priest.” This is an important theme in Hebrews. In much of the rest of the letter, the author argues that Jesus is a high priest who offers a sacrifice in the heavenly sanctuary. Here the author begins to develop that theme by showing that Jesus is a sympathetic and merciful high priest. Translate “high priest” like you did in 2:17. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/highpriest]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

The word of God as a sword

In 4:12, the author says that God’s word is “sharper than any two-edged sword,” and it can “pierce” and “divide” people’s joints and marrow and their souls and spirits. The author makes this comparison because he wants to show that God uses his “word” to discern and judge everything, even things that are very hard to know or understand. Just like a sharp sword can cut anything apart, even things that are securely fastened together, so God uses his “word” to get to the core of what every person is and thinks. If possible, preserve the comparison between God’s word and a sharp blade, since this is an important metaphor that appears in other biblical books. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Who “speaks” the quotations?

In 4:3–5, 7, the author refers to the person who “speaks” the quotations as “he.” Since the author identified the Holy Spirit as the one who “speaks” Psalm 95, it is likely that he is referring to the Holy Spirit again as the speaker of these quotations. However, it is also possible that the author means that God, considered as a whole, speaks these quotations, or perhaps the author is avoiding identifying the speaker. If possible, preserve the ambiguity by referring simply to “he” or an unnamed person. If necessary, you could make it more explicit that the “Holy Spirit” or “God” speaks these words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

The logic of 4:3–7

In 4:3–7, the author uses Genesis 2:2 to comment on Psalm 95:11. This is a complicated argument, and it is likely that the author is making several points.

First (1), he could be identifying the “rest” as the result of God’s “works.” In other words, the “rest” is something that God finished and then enjoyed on the seventh day. The author uses Genesis 2:2 to show that the “rest” has been completed since God created the world. This means that the “rest” to which Psalm 95:11 refers has been available since then. This explains why the author says that the “rest” remains for some to enter (see 4:6).

Second (2), he could be using what Genesis 2:2 says about “rest” to define what “rest” means in Psalm 95:11. In the Psalm, the “rest” would have originally referred primarily to the promised land. However, the author uses how God “rested” on the seventh day to define the “rest” primarily as something that people do with God rather than as a place to which they go. This explains why the author defines “entering the rest” as “resting from works” (see 4:10).

Since the author does not include much explanation and instead quotes the two verses together, you should also put the two verses together without including much explanation. See the notes for specific translation decisions. The author gives some conclusions in 4:6–10, so focus on translating these verses clearly.

374

HEB

4

1

ay25

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Therefore

Here, the word Therefore introduces an exhortation that is based on everything that the author has said about the Israelite ancestors in 3:7–19. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an exhortation that is based on what has been said. Alternate translation: “Because what I have just said is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

375

HEB

4

1

n98m

figs-doublenegatives

φοβηθῶμεν…μήποτε καταλειπομένης

1

Connecting Statement:

If how the author puts two negative words together would be confusing in your language, you could express be afraid lest with a positive statement. The author uses this construction for emphasis, so use an emphatic form in your language. Alternate translation: “let us be careful so that while there remains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

376

HEB

4

1

ti1x

figs-idiom

μήποτε καταλειπομένης ἐπαγγελίας εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ

1

When a promise remains, people can still receive what is promised. In other words, the promise is still valid or true. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “lest while a promise to enter into his rest is still valid” or “lest while God still offers a promise to enter into his rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

377

HEB

4

1

zta2

figs-abstractnouns

μήποτε καταλειπομένης ἐπαγγελίας εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ

1

none of you might seem to have failed to reach the promise left behind for you to enter God’s rest

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind promise, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “promise.” Alternate translation: “lest while what God has promised about entering into his rest remains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

378

HEB

4

1

gg3v

figs-explicit

εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ

1

Here and throughout this chapter, the word rest could refer to: (1) the state of “resting.” Alternate translation: “to participate in the way that God rests” or “to rest with him” (2) the place where people rest, particularly the land that God promised to give to his people. Alternate translation: “to enter into God’s resting place” or “to enter into the land of rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

379

HEB

4

1

ev85

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ

1

to enter God’s rest

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind rest, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “rest.” Make sure that your translation fits with the option you chose in the previous note for what rest means. Alternate translation: “the way that God rests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

380

HEB

4

1

hxln

δοκῇ…ὑστερηκέναι

1

Here, the phrase seem to have failed could indicate that: (1) a person is showing the outward signs of having failed. Alternate translation: “look like you have failed to attain it” (2) someone might think that he or she has failed. Alternate translation: “might think that you have failed to attain it” (3) God considers them to have failed. Alternate translation: “might be judged to have failed to attain it”

381

HEB

4

2

ioq6

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γάρ

1

Here, the word For introduces a further explanation of why we should “be afraid” (4:1). The author’s point is that they received the promise of rest, but they did not receive rest, because they disobeyed. Since we are in the same situation and have also received the promise of rest, we need to “be afraid” that what happened to them will happen to us. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “That is especially true because” or “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

382

HEB

4

2

m74h

figs-activepassive

καὶ…ἐσμεν εὐηγγελισμένοι καθάπερ κἀκεῖνοι

1

For we were told the good news just as they were

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those to whom the good news is proclaimed rather than focusing on the person doing the “proclaiming.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “we also listened to the good news just as they did” or “someone proclaimed the good news to us also just as to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

383

HEB

4

2

zc7k

figs-ellipsis

καθάπερ κἀκεῖνοι

1

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “just as they also had good news proclaimed to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

384

HEB

4

2

znk9

writing-pronouns

κἀκεῖνοι…ἐκείνους

1

as they were

Here, the word them refers to the Israelites whom God led out of Egypt and who died in the wilderness without entering the rest (see 3:16–19). If your readers would not know to whom them refers, you could make it explicit. Alternate translation: “to the Israelite ancestors also … them” or “to that generation also … them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

385

HEB

4

2

qtgc

figs-possession

ὁ λόγος τῆς ἀκοῆς

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a message that someone, in this case the Israelite ancestors, “heard.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the message that they heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

386

HEB

4

2

zza4

grammar-connect-logic-result

μὴ συνκεκερασμένους

1

But that message did not benefit those who did not unite in faith with those who obeyed

Here, the phrase not having been joined introduces the reason why the message did not benefit them. If your readers not infer this relationship, you could express it more explicitly. Alternate translation: “since it had not been joined” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

387

HEB

4

2

vexi

translate-unknown

μὴ συνκεκερασμένους τῇ πίστει τοῖς ἀκούσασιν

1

Here, the phrase not having been joined refers back to them, who are not joined with those who heard as part of the group of those who believe. In this construction, the word faith can refer to: (1) what those who are joined have in common. Alternate translation: “not having been joined as people with faith to those who heard it” (2) what does the “joining.” Alternate translation: “not having been joined by faith to those who heard it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

388

HEB

4

2

fzjj

translate-textvariants

μὴ συνκεκερασμένους τῇ πίστει τοῖς ἀκούσασιν

1

Most early manuscripts make not having been joined refer back to them. However, a few early manuscripts make not having been joined refer back to the message. In this case, the clause would refer to how those who heard the message did not join faith to it when they heard it. In other words, they did not believe what they heard. However, the option that the ULT follows has the most support, so it is best to make not having been joined refer back to them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

389

HEB

4

2

zwpf

figs-activepassive

μὴ συνκεκερασμένους

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are joined rather than focusing on the person doing the “joining.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” or they themselves did it. Alternate translation: “not having joined themselves” or “God not having joined them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

390

HEB

4

2

uinq

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ πίστει

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind faith, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “trust” or “believe.” Alternate translation: “in trusting it” or “in believing it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

391

HEB

4

3

n6dw

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces how one does “benefit” from hearing the “good news” (4:2). It is those who “believe” who are able to enter into rest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further explanation. Alternate translation: “In fact,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

392

HEB

4

3

w6t4

figs-explicit

εἰσερχόμεθα…εἰς κατάπαυσιν, οἱ πιστεύσαντες

1

we who have believed enter that rest

Here, the word rest could refer to: (1) the state of “resting.” Alternate translation: “we who have believed participate in the way that God rests” or “we who have believed rest” (2) the place where people rest, particularly the land that God promised to give to his people. Alternate translation: “we who have believed enter into the resting place” or “we who have believed enter into the land of rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

393

HEB

4

3

egfo

figs-explicit

καθὼς εἴρηκεν

1

Here, the phrase just as indicates that the quotation will support the claim that we who have believed enter into rest. However, the quotation is a negative statement about how the Israelite ancestors will not enter into rest. The quotation could support the claim by: (1) proving the opposite point. Since the Israelite ancestors did not enter because they did not believe (see 3:19), that means that those who believe can enter. Alternate translation: “which you know because he said this about those who did not believe:” (2) proving that the rest is still available. In other words, because the Israelite ancestors did not enter, someone still can enter. Alternate translation: “which you can tell is still available because he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

394

HEB

4

3

x2kq

writing-quotations

καθὼς εἴρηκεν

1

just as he said

Here the author uses the phrase just as he said to requote a part of the quotation that he introduced earlier (see especially 3:11). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that has already been quoted. Alternate translation: “just as he said in what I already quoted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

395

HEB

4

3

lncz

writing-pronouns

εἴρηκεν

1

Here, the word he could refer back to: (1) the Holy Spirit, whom the author identifies as the speaker of the quotation (see 3:7). Alternate translation: “God’s Spirit said” (2) God considered as a unity. Alternate translation: “God said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

396

HEB

4

3

v4q4

figs-quotations

εἴρηκεν, ὡς ὤμοσα ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου, εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “he said, as he swore in his wrath, that they would never enter into his rest,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

397

HEB

4

3

qfs8

ὡς ὤμοσα ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου, εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου

1

As I swore in my wrath

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 3:11, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in that verse.

398

HEB

4

3

k1ld

figs-explicit

καίτοι τῶν ἔργων

1

They will never enter my rest

Here, the word although introduces something that is unexpected. God swore that the Israelite ancestors would not enter into my rest, but (unexpectedly) that rest has been available since {the} foundation of {the} world, since God’s works were finished then. The author’s point is that God’s oath about how the Israelite ancestors would never enter does not mean that the rest is not available or not yet available. Instead, the rest has been available since God created everything. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “but despite that, his works” or “although the rest is available even now, for his works” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

399

HEB

4

3

x8zv

figs-activepassive

τῶν ἔργων…γενηθέντων

1

his works were finished

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the works that were finished rather than focusing on the person doing the “finishing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God finished his works” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

400

HEB

4

3

af1l

figs-abstractnouns

τῶν ἔργων…γενηθέντων

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind works, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “work” or “do.” Alternate translation: “the things that he did were finished” or “what he worked was finished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

401

HEB

4

3

ypr4

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind foundation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “establish” or “build.” Alternate translation: “from when he established the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

402

HEB

4

3

vym3

figs-metaphor

ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

1

from the foundation of the world

The author speaks of how God created the world as if he set the world on a foundation or solid base. In the author’s culture, this was a common way to refer to how God created everything. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to how God created everything. Alternate translation: “from the beginning of the world” or “from the time when the world was created” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

403

HEB

4

4

q2n3

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γάρ

1

Here, the word For introduces the proof for what the author has claimed about how God’s “works were finished from the foundation of the world” (see 4:3). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces proof or support. Alternate translation: “In fact,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

404

HEB

4

4

fzgj

writing-pronouns

εἴρηκεν…που

1

Here, just as in 4:3, the word he could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit, whom the author identifies as the speaker of the Psalms quotation (see 3:7). Alternate translation: “God’s Spirit has somewhere spoken” (2) God considered as a unity. Alternate translation: “God has somewhere spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

405

HEB

4

4

hsuj

writing-quotations

εἴρηκεν…που περὶ τῆς ἑβδόμης οὕτως

1

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament. He does not introduce it as a quotation but instead as words that someone (probably the Holy Spirit) has spoken. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, specifically from Genesis 2:2. This passage tells the story of how God created everything in six days and then rested on the seventh day. Since the author introduces the quotation as words that someone has spoken, you should do the same. The word somewhere shows that the words come from Scriptures without stating exactly where. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “in another place he has said thus about the seventh day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

406

HEB

4

4

a7ij

figs-quotations

περὶ τῆς ἑβδόμης…καὶ κατέπαυσεν ὁ Θεὸς ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ;

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “about the seventh day that God rested on that day from all his works.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

407

HEB

4

4

hbm5

translate-ordinal

τῆς ἑβδόμης…τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἑβδόμῃ

1

the seventh day

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use cardinal numbers here. Alternate translation: “day seven … day seven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

408

HEB

4

4

jojq

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind works, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “work” or “do.” Alternate translation: “from the things that he was doing” or “from what he was working” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

409

HEB

4

4

ghxk

figs-explicit

πάντων τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the phrase all his works refers specifically to the works of creation. The quotation does not mean that God stopped doing everything. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea explicit. Alternate translation: “all his works of creating” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

410

HEB

4

5

zq16

writing-quotations

καὶ ἐν τούτῳ πάλιν

1

it still remains that some will enter his rest

Here the author uses the phrase And again in this {passage} to requote a part of the quotation that he introduced earlier (see especially 3:11; 4:3). The phrase this {passage} refers to the quotation from Psalm 95, which is the primary passage that the author is discussing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that has already been quoted. Alternate translation: “And when we consider again the passage we are discussing, it says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

411

HEB

4

5

zwlk

figs-quotations

ἐν τούτῳ…εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “in this passage it says that they will never enter into his rest.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

412

HEB

4

5

qfjr

εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου

1

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 3:11, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in that verse.

413

HEB

4

6

hptv

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Here, the word Therefore introduces the conclusion to what the author has argued in 4:2–5. Use a word or phrase that introduces this kind of conclusion. Alternate translation: “Because of all that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

414

HEB

4

6

twwv

figs-idiom

ἀπολείπεται τινὰς εἰσελθεῖν

1

When something remains, people can still access or make use of it. In other words, the ability to enter is still valid or available. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. See how you translated the similar words in 4:1. Alternate translation: “there is still the possibility of entering” or “God still allows some to enter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

415

HEB

4

6

f3pz

figs-explicit

εἰσελθεῖν εἰς αὐτήν…οὐκ εἰσῆλθον

1

Here, just as in 4:1, the rest which people enter could refer to: (1) the state of “resting.” Alternate translation: “to participate in it … did not participate” or “to rest with God … did not rest with God” (2) the place where people rest, particularly the land that God promised to give to his people. Alternate translation: “to enter into the place … did not enter it” or “to enter into the land … did not enter it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

416

HEB

4

6

uyfr

figs-explicit

οἱ πρότερον εὐαγγελισθέντες

1

Here, those who had the good news proclaimed to them are the same people the author mentions as “them” in 4:2: the Israelite ancestors whom God led out of Egypt and who did not enter the Promised Land. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make who these people are more explicit. Alternate translation: “the Israelite ancestors who previously had the gospel proclaimed to them” or “the people of that generation who previously had the gospel proclaimed to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

417

HEB

4

6

z0pz

figs-abstractnouns

οὐκ εἰσῆλθον δι’ ἀπείθειαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind disobedience, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “disobey” or an adjective such as “disobedient.” Alternate translation: “did not enter, because they disobeyed” or “did not enter, because they were disobedient” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

418

HEB

4

7

s964

writing-pronouns

πάλιν…ὁρίζει

1

Here, just as in 4:3–4, the word he could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit, whom the author identifies as the speaker of the Psalms quotation (see 3:7). Alternate translation: “God’s Spirit again sets” (2) God considered as a unity. Alternate translation: “God again sets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

419

HEB

4

7

w90d

πάλιν

1

Here, the word again indicates that the Holy Spirit had already “set” a day and now does it for a second time. The first time was when God promised the “rest” to the Israelite ancestors. The second time (again) was when the Spirit spoke the quote from Psalm 95 through David. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to doing something “once more” or “for a second time.” Alternate translation: “for a second time”

420

HEB

4

7

z7bj

figs-idiom

σήμερον

1

Here the author speaks about a time that we call Today. We call every day Today, so this phrase means that the rest is available right now. However, since the author uses Today because the author of the quotation uses it, make sure that you use the same words that you used to translate Today in 3:7. Alternate translation: “calling it ‘This day’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

421

HEB

4

7

y2tm

ἐν Δαυεὶδ λέγων

1

General Information:

The Holy Spirit calls the certain day “Today” when he was speaking through David. The author knows that David wrote the psalm that he is quoting, but he also knows that David was inspired by the Holy Spirit. Use a form in your language that refers to how someone speaks through or by means of someone else. Alternate translation: “using David to speak”

422

HEB

4

7

gkqr

figs-explicit

μετὰ τοσοῦτον χρόνον

1

Here the author notes that David wrote the psalm a long time after what the psalm narrates about the Israelite ancestors occurred. David still applies the psalm to his audience, however. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a long period of time. Alternate translation: “after so many years” or “many years later” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

423

HEB

4

7

lsp6

writing-quotations

καθὼς προείρηται

1

do not harden your hearts

Here the author uses the phrase just as it has already been said to requote a part of the quotation that he introduced earlier (see especially 3:7b–8a; 3:15). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that has already been quoted. Alternate translation: “just as we read in the passage we are discussing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

424

HEB

4

7

yojd

figs-activepassive

προείρηται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the words that have been said rather than focusing on the person doing the “saying.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that he himself did it. Alternate translation: “I have already said” or “I have already quoted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

425

HEB

4

7

bp6u

figs-quotations

προείρηται, σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε, μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν

1

if you hear his voice

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “it has already been said that today, if you hear his voice, you should not harden your hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

426

HEB

4

7

pktz

σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε, μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν

1

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 3:7b–8a, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in those verses.

427

HEB

4

8

s78r

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces further explanation about the day called “Today.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces explanation, or you could leave it untranslated. Alternate translation: “Further,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

428

HEB

4

8

st4l

translate-names

Ἰησοῦς

1

The word Joshua is the name of a man. God chose him to lead the Israelites when they entered the land that God had promised to give them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

429

HEB

4

8

fp52

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ…αὐτοὺς Ἰησοῦς κατέπαυσεν

1

Here the author is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He knows that Joshua did not give the Israelite ancestors the kind of rest he is discussing. He proves that the conditional statement is not true by showing that it would contradict what is true: the Holy Spirit did actually speak about another day, as the previous verse shows. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “if Joshua had actually given them rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

430

HEB

4

8

mdq9

figs-metaphor

αὐτοὺς Ἰησοῦς κατέπαυσεν

1

if Joshua had given them rest

Here the author speaks as if Joshua were the one who could have “given” rest to the Israelite ancestors. This expression means that what Joshua did could have enabled the Israelite ancestors to receive rest from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it clearer that the rest comes from God, who worked through Joshua. Alternate translation: “God had used Joshua to give them rest” or “Joshua had helped them rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

431

HEB

4

8

kskn

figs-explicit

αὐτοὺς…κατέπαυσεν

1

See how you translated the word rest in 4:1. Alternate translation: “enabled them to rest with God” or “enabled them to enter into God’s resting place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

432

HEB

4

8

o9qb

figs-abstractnouns

αὐτοὺς…κατέπαυσεν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind rest, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “rest.” Make sure that your translation fits with the option you chose in the previous note for what rest means. Alternate translation: “helped them rest the way that God rests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

433

HEB

4

8

wl6l

writing-pronouns

οὐκ ἂν…ἐλάλει

1

Here, just as in 4:7, the word he could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit, whom the author identifies as the speaker of the Psalms quotation (see 3:7). Alternate translation: “God’s Spirit would not have spoken” (2) God considered as a unity. Alternate translation: “God would not have spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

434

HEB

4

8

gnxj

ἡμέρας

1

Here the author refers to a day because the quotation he is discussing refers to “today.” If possible, use a word or phrase here that is related to how you translated “today” in the quotation (see 4:7). The author does not mean that there is only one period of 24 hours during which people can “enter the rest.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a specific point in time. Alternate translation: “time” or “moment in time”

435

HEB

4

8

jjkr

figs-explicit

μετὰ ταῦτα

1

Here, the phrase these {things} refers to what happened when Joshua was leading the Israelite ancestors. He guided them into the land that God had promised to give them, and he led them as they fought their enemies and then settled in that land. The author’s point is that, since David speaks about entering the rest much later than this, the events related to Joshua must not count as getting rest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “after Joshua led the people into the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

436

HEB

4

9

ob3p

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἄρα

1

Here, the word Therefore introduces the conclusion to the argument in 4:3–8. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a conclusion. Alternate translation: “So then” or “In conclusion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

437

HEB

4

9

vhx9

figs-idiom

ἀπολείπεται σαββατισμὸς

1

there is still a Sabbath rest reserved for God’s people

When something remains, people can still access or make use of it. In other words, the Sabbath rest is still valid or available. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. See how you translated the similar words in 4:1, 6. Alternate translation: “there is still a Sabbath rest” or “God still provides a Sabbath rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

438

HEB

4

9

qe6x

translate-unknown

σαββατισμὸς

1

a Sabbath rest

Here, the word translated a Sabbath rest is a very rare word that is closely related to the word for Sabbath, which refers to the seventh day of the week on which the Israelites rested, as God commanded them to do. The Sabbath rest could refer to: (1) keeping the Sabbath by “resting.” Alternate translation: “rest as on the Sabbath day” (2) celebrating the special day that is the Sabbath. Alternate translation: “a Sabbath celebration” or “a celebration as on the day of rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

439

HEB

4

10

nyix

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces further explanation of rest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces an explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

440

HEB

4

10

i6eh

figs-pastforfuture

ὁ…εἰσελθὼν…καὶ αὐτὸς κατέπαυσεν

1

Here the author uses the past tense to speak about something that is true in general. Use whatever tense you would naturally use in your language to speak about something that is generally true. Alternate translation: “the one who will enter … will himself also rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

441

HEB

4

10

ej9y

figs-explicit

ὁ…εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ

1

he who enters into God’s rest

See how you translated “entering the rest” in 4:1. Alternate translation: “the one who rests with God” or “the one who enters into God’s resting place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

442

HEB

4

10

dg2d

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the word his refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God’s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

443

HEB

4

10

xmgn

figs-gendernotations

αὐτὸς…αὐτοῦ

1

Although the words himself and his are masculine, they refer to anyone, both male and female. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use non-gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “himself or herself … his or her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

444

HEB

4

10

rdm0

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὸς

1

Here, the word translated himself emphasizes the comparison between the one who has entered and God. Consider using a natural way to emphasize this comparison in your language. Alternate translation: “in fact” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

445

HEB

4

10

r3jy

figs-abstractnouns

τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῦ…τῶν ἰδίων

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind works, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “work” or “do.” Alternate translation: “the things he did … the things he did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

446

HEB

4

10

sj1t

figs-explicit

ὥσπερ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰδίων ὁ Θεός

1

Here the author refers back to what he already said in 4:4 about how God “rested on the seventh day” after he created everything. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “just as God rested after he created the world” or “just as God did from his own works on the seventh day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

447

HEB

4

11

fem2

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Here, the word Therefore introduces an exhortation that is based on what the author has argued in 3:7–4:10. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces how readers should respond to what the author has argued. Alternate translation: “So then” or “In light of what I have said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

448

HEB

4

11

vyo4

translate-unknown

σπουδάσωμεν

1

Here, the phrase let us be eager refers to focusing on and working hard to accomplish some specific goal. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that expresses this idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “let us strive” or “let us be diligent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

449

HEB

4

11

bmg5

figs-explicit

εἰσελθεῖν εἰς ἐκείνην τὴν κατάπαυσιν

1

let us be eager to enter that rest

See how you translated the phrase “entering the rest” in 4:1. Alternate translation: “to rest with God” or “to enter into God’s resting place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

450

HEB

4

11

rtj7

figs-metaphor

ἐν…πέσῃ

1

will fall into the kind of disobedience that they did

Here the author speaks as if disobedience were a hole that a person could physically fall into. This “falling into” the hole of disobedience keeps a person from reaching their goal or arriving at their destination. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “might fail by following” or “might follow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

451

HEB

4

11

eoso

figs-possession

τῷ αὐτῷ…ὑποδείγματι…τῆς ἀπειθείας

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to show that the example is the disobedience. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. The idea is that the Israelite ancestors provided the example of disobedience that we should not follow. Alternate translation: “the same thing, which is disobedience” or “disobedience that is like that of the Israelite ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

452

HEB

4

11

uznd

figs-abstractnouns

τῷ αὐτῷ…ὑποδείγματι…τῆς ἀπειθείας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind disobedience, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “disobey.” Alternate translation: “disobeying in the same way that they did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

453

HEB

4

12

iwtk

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces a further reason for why we need to “be eager” (4:11). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces the basis for an exhortation. Alternate translation: “We should do that because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

454

HEB

4

12

h5d2

figs-metonymy

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God is living

Here, the word word refers to what someone says in words. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the message of God” or “what God says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

455

HEB

4

12

hnc2

figs-possession

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a word that: (1) God speaks. Alternate translation: “the word that God speaks” (2) is God. Alternate translation: “the divine Word” or “God the Word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

456

HEB

4

12

j9qy

figs-personification

ζῶν…καὶ ἐνεργὴς…διϊκνούμενος…καὶ κριτικὸς

1

living and active

In these phrases, the author describes the word of God as if it were a person that was living and active and that could “pierce” and judge other people. He speaks in this way to show that God accomplishes these things through his word, that is, when he speaks. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by making God the subject of these actions or by using analogy form. Alternate translation: “is from the living and active God … God uses it to pierce … and God uses it to judge” or “is like a living and active person … piercing like a person pierces … and able, like a person, to judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

457

HEB

4

12

g4tc

figs-metaphor

τομώτερος, ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν δίστομον, καὶ διϊκνούμενος ἄχρι μερισμοῦ

1

sharper than any two-edged sword

Here the author compares the word of God to a sword that has two edges. God’s word is even sharper than that kind of sword, which means it is even better at piercing. The author uses this figure of speech to show how good the word of God is at discerning and judging humans. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “is like a very sharp two-edged sword that pierces to the dividing” or “able to distinguish what is wrong from what is right, including even the dividing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

458

HEB

4

12

lv6y

translate-unknown

μάχαιραν δίστομον

1

two-edged sword

The phrase two-edged sword describes a weapon or tool with two sharp edges. This kind of sword can “pierce” something better than a sword with only one sharp edge can. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable term or a descriptive phrase. Alternate translation: “blade with two sharp edges” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

459

HEB

4

12

e7kv

translate-unknown

καὶ διϊκνούμενος ἄχρι μερισμοῦ ψυχῆς καὶ πνεύματος, ἁρμῶν τε καὶ μυελῶν

1

It pierces even to the dividing of soul and spirit, of joints and marrow

Here the author describes how the word, like a sword, can “pierce” to the dividing of things. These words refer to how a sword can cut something into two pieces. The author refers to things that are hard to divide: joints and marrow are difficult to separate, as are soul and spirit. The point is that the word can separate things that are hard to separate, just like a very sharp sword can. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that refer to cutting things into pieces. Alternate translation: “and slicing apart soul and spirit, joints and marrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

460

HEB

4

12

m6f2

translate-unknown

ψυχῆς καὶ πνεύματος

1

soul and spirit

Here, the words soul and spirit refer to two distinguishable aspects of the nonphysical part of a human. It is possible that soul refers primarily to life and personality, while spirit refers to how people relate to others and express themselves. However, the author is not primarily interested in what parts of the person to which these two words refer. Rather, he is focused on how soul and spirit always go together, and it is difficult to “divide” them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words that refer to closely related aspects of the nonphysical parts of a person. Alternate translation: “of mind and spirit” or “of personality and mind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

461

HEB

4

12

sc3m

translate-unknown

ἁρμῶν τε καὶ μυελῶν

1

joints and marrow

The the word joints refers to the places where bones connect. The word marrow refers to the center part of bones. The author is primarily interested in how the joints and the marrow are closely connected together, and it requires cutting a bone into pieces to separate them from each other. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to body parts that are very difficult to separate. Alternate translation: “of both tendons and muscles” or “of both ligaments and bones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

462

HEB

4

12

n6n5

figs-abstractnouns

ἐνθυμήσεων καὶ ἐννοιῶν καρδίας

1

is able to discern

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind thoughts and intentions, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “think” and “plan.” Alternate translation: “what the heart ponders and devises” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

463

HEB

4

12

xdu4

figs-metonymy

καρδίας

1

the thoughts and intentions of the heart

In the author’s culture, the word heart refers to the place within us where humans think and plan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the place where humans think in your culture or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “of the mind” or “that people think” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

464

HEB

4

12

r6rn

figs-genericnoun

καρδίας

1

Here the author is speaking of “hearts” in general, not of one particular heart. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that refers to “hearts” in general. Alternate translation: “of hearts” or “of human hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

465

HEB

4

13

kyok

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ…αὐτοῦ, πρὸς ὃν

1

Here, the words him and whom could refer to: (1) God, who spoke the “word” that is referred to in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “God … of him to whom” (2) the “word” that is referred to in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “this word … of it to which” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

466

HEB

4

13

nx6n

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἔστιν κτίσις ἀφανὴς

1

Nothing created is hidden before God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus what is hidden rather than focusing what does the “hiding.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague subject or have the “creature” trying to hide itself. Alternate translation: “no creature can hide” or “no creature can hide itself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

467

HEB

4

13

f3h1

figs-metaphor

πάντα…γυμνὰ καὶ τετραχηλισμένα

1

everything is bare and open

Here the author speaks about all {things} as if they were a naked person whose body was bare for all to see. He also speaks of all {things} as if someone had pulled another person’s head back to “lay open” his or her neck. Both of these expressions indicate that God sees and knows everything about all {things}. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use comparable metaphors or express the ideas plainly. Alternate translation: “all things are visible and revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

468

HEB

4

13

yk64

figs-doublet

γυμνὰ καὶ τετραχηλισμένα

1

bare and open

These two terms mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize that God sees and knows everything. If your language does not use repetition to do this or if you do not have two words for these ideas, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “are visible” or “are revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

469

HEB

4

13

sltw

figs-activepassive

τετραχηλισμένα

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Since the author is describing a characteristic of all {things}, avoid stating a subject here. It may be best to translate laid open with an adjective that has a similar meaning. Alternate translation: “open” or “visible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

470

HEB

4

13

i9hh

figs-metonymy

τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς αὐτοῦ

1

to the eyes of the one to whom we must give account

Here, the word eyes refers to sight or knowledge. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in plain language. Alternate translation: “to the sight of him” or “for him to know, who is the one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

471

HEB

4

13

k8k0

figs-idiom

πρὸς ὃν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος

1

This phrase could mean: (1) that God is the one whom the author is speaking about to his audience. The word here would refer to the “words” that the author is speaking to his audience. Alternate translation: “about whom we are speaking” (2) that God is one to whom the audience must relate. Alternate translation: “with whom we have to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

472

HEB

4

14

iv8x

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Here, the word Therefore refers back to what the author already said about how Jesus is a high priest (see 2:17–3:1). It may refer especially to 3:1, where the author stated that Jesus is “the high priest of our confession.” So, Therefore introduces how the author wants his audience to act, given that Jesus is a great high priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that resumes a previous topic, or you could use a word or phrase that introduces the result or consequence of a previous statement. Alternate translation: “So then” or “Because of all that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

473

HEB

4

14

spfu

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἔχοντες

1

Here, the word having introduces a reason for the exhortation to firmly hold. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this connection explicit. Alternate translation: “since we have” or “because we have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

474

HEB

4

14

a51p

figs-go

διεληλυθότα τοὺς οὐρανούς

1

who has passed through the heavens

Here, the phrase passed through refers to travel or movement within a specific area, here the heavens. It does not necessarily mean that Jesus traveled through and then left the heavens. Use a word that you would use for traveling in a specific direction through an area. Alternate translation: “who has gone through the heavens” or “who has traveled through the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

475

HEB

4

14

ejwy

figs-explicit

τοὺς οὐρανούς

1

Many people in the author’s culture believed that the space that they called “heaven” contained multiple layers or spheres of individual heavens. Paul speaks this way in 2 Corinthians 12:2. Here, the author uses this language without clarifying how many heavens there are. The main point is that Jesus passed through these heavens to where God dwells. Often, this place where God dwells is in the highest of the heavens. Since the author does not include details about the heavens, translate heavens with a word or phrase that refers to all of heavenly space, including the idea of multiple heavens if possible. Alternate translation: “the heavenly realm” or “the heavenly spaces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

476

HEB

4

14

ph6z

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Son of God

The phrase Son of God is an important title for Jesus. See how you translated Son in 1:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

477

HEB

4

14

vt4v

figs-metaphor

κρατῶμεν τῆς ὁμολογίας

1

let us firmly hold to our beliefs

Here, the phrase firmly hold refers to continuing to consistently believe or trust something, particularly something that one has been told. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to continuing to believe or trust. Alternate translation: “let us tightly grasp our confession” or “let us continue to trust our confession” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

478

HEB

4

14

xfmw

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ὁμολογίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind confession, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “confess” or “believe.” Alternate translation: “to what we confess” or “to what we believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

479

HEB

4

15

z0bq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces further explanation of how Jesus is a high priest. This information supports the author’s exhortation to “firmly hold” to the “confession” (see 4:15). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces support for an exhortation, or you could leave it untranslated. Alternate translation: “We should do that because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

480

HEB

4

15

i2fw

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ…ἔχομεν ἀρχιερέα μὴ δυνάμενον συνπαθῆσαι ταῖς ἀσθενείαις ἡμῶν, πεπειρασμένον δὲ

1

we do not have a high priest who cannot feel sympathy … Instead, we have

Here the author uses two negative words to emphasize how much Jesus is able to sympathize with us as high priest. If the two negatives would be confusing, and if it would not be emphatic in your language, you could express the idea with a positive statement and emphasize it in another way. If you do this, you will need to translate but as a connection instead of a contrast. Alternate translation: “we indeed have a high priest who is able to sympathize with our weaknesses, one having been tempted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

481

HEB

4

15

zupr

figs-abstractnouns

ταῖς ἀσθενείαις ἡμῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind weaknesses, you could express the idea by using a an adjective such as “weak.” Alternate translation: “with the ways that we are weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

482

HEB

4

15

m56m

figs-ellipsis

πεπειρασμένον δὲ

1

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “but we have one who has been tempted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

483

HEB

4

15

d26h

figs-activepassive

πεπειρασμένον

1

who has in all ways been tempted as we are

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Jesus, who was tempted rather than focusing on the person or thing doing the “tempting.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject, since many things can “tempt.” Alternate translation: “one whom things tempted” or “one having experienced temptation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

484

HEB

4

15

s5gv

figs-idiom

κατὰ πάντα καθ’ ὁμοιότητα

1

Both phrases that use according to give more information about how Jesus was tempted. The first, according to all {things}, shows that Jesus experienced many different kinds of temptations. The second, according to {our} likeness, shows that Jesus experienced these temptations in the same ways that all other humans do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these two phrases more naturally in your language. Alternate translation: “in every way, just like we are tempted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

485

HEB

4

15

jp4n

figs-abstractnouns

ὁμοιότητα

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind likeness, you could express the idea by using a word such as “like” or “similar.” Alternate translation: “what we are like” or “the ways that all humans are similar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

486

HEB

4

15

fve3

χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας

1

he is without sin

Alternate translation: “but who did not sin”

487

HEB

4

16

ujt6

grammar-connect-logic-result

προσερχώμεθα οὖν

1

Here, the word then introduces an exhortation that is based 4:14–15. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an exhortation. Alternate translation: “Therefore, let us approach” or “Because of that, let us approach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

488

HEB

4

16

sy6y

figs-go

προσερχώμεθα οὖν μετὰ παρρησίας τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος

1

Here, the word approach refers to getting close to something but not necessarily being right next to it. Here, the author wants believers to approach God’s throne in heaven. This means that they enter into God’s presence. It does not mean that they enter into heaven to be right next to the throne. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to being in someone’s presence. Alternate translation: “Let us then with confidence go before the throne of grace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

489

HEB

4

16

h49r

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ παρρησίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind confidence, you could express the idea by using an adverb such as “boldly” or “confidently.” Alternate translation: “confidently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

490

HEB

4

16

aj1p

figs-metonymy

τῷ θρόνῳ

1

to the throne of grace

Here, the word throne refers to the one sitting on the throne: God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the word throne refers to God on his throne. Alternate translation: “to God on his throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

491

HEB

4

16

s6vp

figs-possession

τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe how grace comes from God on the throne. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “to throne from which grace comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

492

HEB

4

16

e6nb

figs-abstractnouns

τῷ θρόνῳ τῆς χάριτος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind grace, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “gracious” or an adverb such as “graciously.” Alternate translation: “to the gracious throne” or “to throne where God rules graciously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

493

HEB

4

16

py6d

figs-abstractnouns

λάβωμεν ἔλεος, καὶ χάριν εὕρωμεν, εἰς εὔκαιρον βοήθειαν

1

we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind mercy, grace, and help, you could express the idea by using verbs or in some other natural way. Alternate translation: “God may be merciful and gracious to us to help us when we need it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

494

HEB

4

16

x3hv

figs-doublet

λάβωμεν ἔλεος, καὶ χάριν εὕρωμεν

1

The two phrases receive mercy and find grace mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize how God will act kindly and lovingly toward those who believe in Jesus. If your language does not use repetition to do this, or if you do not have two words for these attributes, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “we may receive grace” or “we may receive favor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

495

HEB

4

16

f149

figs-idiom

χάριν εὕρωμεν

1

Here, the phrase find grace refers to receiving grace from someone. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a natural way in your language. Alternate translation: “grace” or “experience grace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

496

HEB

4

16

n654

translate-unknown

εὔκαιρον βοήθειαν

1

Here, the word timely refers to something that happens at just the right time. Here, it means that the help happens just when someone needs that help. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase. Alternate translation: “help at the right time” or “well-timed help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

497

HEB

5

intro

b67j

0

Hebrews 5 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Teaching: The Son becomes high priest (5:1–10)
    • Exhortation: Make sure to persevere! (5:11–6:12)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 5:5–6, which are words from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

High priest

In 5:1–4, the author explains what it means to be a high priest: (1) he must offer things to God, (2) he must be sympathetic to others because he also experiences weakness, and (3) he must be appointed by God. The author then applies these qualifications and duties to Jesus (5:5–10): (1) he was appointed by God, (2) he suffered like all humans do, and (3) he himself is the offering that brings eternal salvation. Make that your translation clearly draws connections between what high priests experience and do and what Jesus has experienced and done. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/highpriest]])

Melchizedek

In the entire Old Testament, only two passages mention Melchizedek: Psalm 110:4 and Genesis 14:18–20. In this chapter, the author quotes from the psalm, and in chapter 7 he will refer to Genesis. Melchizedek was a king and priest in the city of Salem. Abraham, the ancestor of the Israelites, met him and gave him a gift. Much later, the author of Psalm 110:4 writes how God appointed the king of Israel (David) to be a priest like Melchizedek. Since the author simply introduces Melchizedek here and saves his explanation for chapter 7, you also should simply refer to him here. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/melchizedek]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Metaphor with “milk” and “solid food”

In 5:12–14, the author uses “milk” to refer figuratively to basic teachings about God and about what is right and wrong. He uses “solid food” to refer figuratively to the more complex teachings. Since “infants” are the ones who drink “milk” in the author’s culture, he refers to those who only know the basic teachings as “infants.” Those who know complex teachings are “mature” adults who eat “solid food.” If your readers would misunderstand this metaphor, if possible use a figure of speech that contrasts between adults and little children. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Jesus “learning obedience” and “being made perfect”

In 5:8–9, the author states that Jesus “learned obedience” and was “made perfect.” These statements do not mean that Jesus failed to obey and sometimes sinned before this time. Instead, “learning obedience” refers to fully understanding or experiencing what obedience means, and being “made perfect” refers to “perfect” qualifications for a position or office. So, Jesus fully experienced what it means to obey God, and God made him a “perfect” fit for the office of high priest. Translate these phrases in such a way that your readers will not think that Jesus went from being disobedient and sinful to obedient and perfect.

498

HEB

5

1

dn18

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word For indicates that the author is going to explain more about high priests and about how Jesus is a high priest. It also signals that the author is beginning a new section. Use a word or phrase that indicates that a new section is beginning, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

499

HEB

5

1

whq1

figs-activepassive

λαμβανόμενος

1

chosen from among people

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are taken rather than focusing on the person doing the “taking.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God taking him” or “whom God takes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

500

HEB

5

1

u4gd

figs-gendernotations

ἐξ ἀνθρώπων…ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων

1

Although the word men is masculine, the author is using it to refer to all the people in a group, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “from among humans on the behalf of humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

501

HEB

5

1

ndz7

figs-activepassive

καθίσταται

1

is appointed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are appointed rather than focusing on the person doing the “appointing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God appointed” or “is one whom God appointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

502

HEB

5

1

mzd9

translate-unknown

τὰ πρὸς τὸν Θεόν

1

to act on the behalf of people

Here the phrase {in} the {things} related to God identifies every high priest as a person who serves God and who acts as a priest in God’s presence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that makes this clear. See how you translated the similar phrase in 2:17. Alternate translation: “before God” or “to be in God’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

503

HEB

5

1

oe4p

figs-gendernotations

προσφέρῃ

1

Here, the word he refers to the high priest that the author is discussing. In Israelite and Jewish culture, only men could be high priests, so he does refer to a man. However, the author is not emphasizing that the high priest is male, so you can use a non-gendered word if it is clearer. Alternate translation: “this person may offer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

504

HEB

5

1

efen

figs-doublet

δῶρά καὶ θυσίας

1

Here, the words gifts and sacrifices function together to refer to anything that an Israelite would have offered to God. It is probable that sacrifices refers to animals that would be killed and offered to God, while gifts identifies anything else that a person would give to God. If you do not have two words for these categories, you could use a single word or phrase to refer to what an Israelite would offer to God. Alternate translation: “sacrifices” or “things presented to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

505

HEB

5

1

ip99

figs-idiom

ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτιῶν

1

Here, the phrase for sins indicates that the gifts and sacrifices were intended to take away sins. In other words, the gifts and sacrifices were a part of how an Israelite would ask God to forgive them for the sins they had committed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that makes this idea clear. Alternate translation: “for the forgiveness of sins” or “so that God would forgive sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

506

HEB

5

2

f2hn

translate-unknown

μετριοπαθεῖν

1

Here, the phrase to deal gently refers to how a person restrains their emotions when they respond to somebody else. In other words, the high priests do not get angry or upset quickly, and instead they deal gently with people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to restraining emotions. Alternate translation: “to act compassionately” or “to deal calmly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

507

HEB

5

2

gt9j

figs-activepassive

πλανωμένοις

1

those … who have been deceived

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are deceived rather than focusing on the person or thing doing the “deceiving.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject, since many things “deceive” people. Alternate translation: “whom others have deceived” or “who believe what is false” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

508

HEB

5

2

ny8u

figs-gendernotations

αὐτὸς

1

is subject to weakness

Here, just as in 5:1 and in the following verses, the word he refers to the high priest that the author is discussing. In Israelite and Jewish culture, only men could be high priests, so he does refer to a man. However, the author is not emphasizing that the high priest is male, so you can use a non-gendered word if it is clearer. Alternate translation: “the high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

509

HEB

5

2

ihs9

figs-idiom

περίκειται ἀσθένειαν

1

weakness

Here, the phrase subject to weakness indicates that the high priest cannot avoid being “weak” sometimes. This means both that he sins and that he makes mistakes or errors. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to the sins and mistakes that humans tend to make. Alternate translation: “is often fallible” or “cannot escape making mistakes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

510

HEB

5

2

f781

figs-abstractnouns

περίκειται ἀσθένειαν

1

who have been deceived

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind weakness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “weak.” Alternate translation: “is weak sometimes” or “sometimes fails” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

511

HEB

5

3

e806

writing-pronouns

αὐτὴν

1

Here, the word this refers back to “weakness” in 5:2. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that this refers to weakness. Alternate translation: “this weakness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

512

HEB

5

3

q5xi

figs-activepassive

ὀφείλει

1

he also is required

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the priest, who is obligated, rather than focusing on the person doing the “obligating.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God commands him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

513

HEB

5

3

sogb

figs-infostructure

ὀφείλει, καθὼς περὶ τοῦ λαοῦ οὕτως καὶ περὶ αὑτοῦ, προσφέρειν περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν

1

If the structure of this sentence would confuse your readers, you could rearrange the elements so that they come in a more natural order. The author is emphasizing the comparison between the people and the priest, so use a form that emphasizes those elements. Alternate translation: “he is obligated to offer sacrifices for sins, just as for the people, so also for himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

514

HEB

5

3

qlq6

figs-idiom

προσφέρειν περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν

1

Here, the phrase {sacrifices} for sins refers to a specific category of sacrifice that dealt with people’s sins. You can read more about this kind of sacrifice in Leviticus 16. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers clearly to sacrifices that are meant to deal with sins. Alternate translation: “to offer sin offerings” or “to offer sacrifices to deal with sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

515

HEB

5

4

n2e1

figs-metonymy

λαμβάνει τὴν τιμήν

1

takes this honor

Here, the word honor refers to the position that gives the person honor. This position is that of high priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by referring to the position of high priest, if possible including the idea that this is an “honored” position. Alternate translation: “takes the honor of being a high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

516

HEB

5

4

rvnj

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν τιμήν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind honorable, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “honorable.” Alternate translation: “becoming honorable in this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

517

HEB

5

4

lswf

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ

1

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “but he receives this honor only by” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

518

HEB

5

4

cj9l

grammar-connect-logic-result

καλούμενος

1

Here, the phrase being called introduces something that could: (1) give the real reason why a person becomes a high priest. Alternate translation: “because he is called” (2) give the situation in which a person actually becomes a high priest. Alternate translation: “when he is called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

519

HEB

5

4

p6hc

figs-activepassive

ἀλλὰ καλούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ, καθώσπερ καὶ Ἀαρών

1

he is called by God, just as Aaron was

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” Alternate translation: “but only those whom God calls, just as he called Aaron” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

520

HEB

5

4

uz3k

figs-ellipsis

καθώσπερ καὶ Ἀαρών

1

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “just as also Aaron was called by God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

521

HEB

5

4

m937

translate-names

Ἀαρών

1

The word Aaron is the name of a man. He was the first person whom God chose to a be a high priest for his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

522

HEB

5

5

gu9w

οὐχ ἑαυτὸν ἐδόξασεν γενηθῆναι ἀρχιερέα

1

Alternate translation: “did not make himself great by choosing to be a high priest”

523

HEB

5

5

y2wk

writing-quotations

ὁ λαλήσας πρὸς αὐτόν

1

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as words that God has spoken to Christ. However, the audience would have understood that these were quotations from the Old Testament, specifically from Psalm 2:7. Since the author introduces the quotation as words that God has said to Christ, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. Alternate translation: “the one who said these words to him declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

524

HEB

5

5

c45n

figs-quotations

ὁ λαλήσας πρὸς αὐτόν, Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “the one having spoken to him said that he was his son; today he had fathered him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

525

HEB

5

5

pr3f

figs-ellipsis

ὁ λαλήσας πρὸς αὐτόν

1

the one speaking to him said

This clause leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “the one who spoke to him glorified him to become a high priest, saying” or “he was glorified to become a high priest by the one who spoke to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

526

HEB

5

5

i694

Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε

1

You are my Son; today I have become your Father

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 1:5, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in that verse.

527

HEB

5

6

bce6

writing-quotations

καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει

1

General Information:

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as words that God has spoken to Christ. However, the audience would have understood that these were quotations from the Old Testament, specifically from Psalm 110:4. Since the author introduces the quotation as words that God has said to Christ, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. The phrase in another {place} shows that the words come from a different part of the Old Testament, here a different psalm. Alternate translation: “he also declared, as it is recorded in another place in the Scriptures,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

528

HEB

5

6

ds6v

writing-pronouns

καὶ…λέγει

1

he also says

Here, the word he refers to God the Father, who speaks these words to his Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that he refers to God. Alternate translation: “God also says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

529

HEB

5

6

k5uw

figs-quotations

ἐν ἑτέρῳ…σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ

1

in another place

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “in another place that he is a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

530

HEB

5

6

pb9k

figs-yousingular

σὺ

1

Because the quotation is referring to one person (Christ), you is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

531

HEB

5

6

ede5

translate-unknown

κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ

1

after the manner of Melchizedek

Here, the word order refers to requirements and duties that go along with a specific office or position. If someone serves according to the order of someone else, that means that he or she meets the same requirements and performs the same duties which that person did. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “in the same way that Melchizedek was a priest” or “with a priesthood just like Melchizedek’s priesthood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

532

HEB

5

6

a4sl

translate-names

Μελχισέδεκ

1

The word Melchizedek is the name of a man. He is mentioned in the Scriptures only in Hebrews and in Genesis 14:18–20. The author will give many more details about Melchizedek in chapter 7, so leave any explanation for that chapter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

533

HEB

5

7

alje

writing-pronouns

ὃς

1

Here, the word He refers back to Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that He refers to Christ. Alternate translation: “Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

534

HEB

5

7

mv2c

figs-metonymy

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ

1

During the days of his flesh

Here, the words the days refer to an undefined period of time, and the word flesh refers to Jesus’ earthly life. The phrase as a whole refers to the time during which Jesus had a human body that could die, in contrast to how he now has a human body that is glorious and can never die. Alternate translation: “when he lived on earth” or “during the time when he was mortal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

535

HEB

5

7

iel9

figs-doublet

δεήσεις τε καὶ ἱκετηρίας

1

prayers and requests

These two terms mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize how much Jesus prayed to God. If your language does not use repetition to do this or if you do not have two words for these prayers, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “many prayers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

536

HEB

5

7

n9sg

figs-abstractnouns

δεήσεις τε καὶ ἱκετηρίας

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind prayers and requests, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “pray” and “request.” Alternate translation: “what he both prayed and requested” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

537

HEB

5

7

bkfz

translate-unknown

μετὰ κραυγῆς ἰσχυρᾶς καὶ δακρύων

1

Here, the phrase loud cries refers to speech at a high volume. Usually, loud cries are used when a person feels very strongly about something. The word tears refers to how a person weeps when they feel strong emotions, particularly sad ones. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words that show that Jesus felt very strongly about the prayers and requests, including experiencing sadness and concern. Alternate translation: “as he wept and shouted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

538

HEB

5

7

ga35

writing-pronouns

τὸν δυνάμενον

1

Here, the phrase the one refers to God the Father, to whom Jesus prayed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the one refers to God. Alternate translation: “God, who is able” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

539

HEB

5

7

p6zm

figs-explicit

σῴζειν αὐτὸν ἐκ θανάτου

1

the one able to save him from death

The phrase save him from death could mean that: (1) God could make Jesus alive again after he died. In support of this view is the fact that Jesus was heard, which implies that God did what Jesus asked. Of course, Jesus did indeed die, so this phrase must refer to his resurrection. Alternate translation: “to save him after he died” (2) God could prevent Jesus from dying. In support of this view is the fact that God could indeed have kept Jesus from dying. Alternate translation: “to keep him from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

540

HEB

5

7

j6mo

figs-abstractnouns

ἐκ θανάτου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind death, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “die.” Alternate translation: “from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

541

HEB

5

7

e75a

figs-activepassive

εἰσακουσθεὶς

1

he was heard

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the one who was heard rather than focusing on the person doing the “hearing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God heard him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

542

HEB

5

7

s2fg

figs-explicit

εἰσακουσθεὶς

1

Here, the phrase was heard could mean that: (1) God both heard Jesus and did what he asked. Alternate translation: “he was heard and answered” (2) God only heard or listened to what Jesus asked. Alternate translation: “he was listened to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

543

HEB

5

7

iku4

translate-unknown

ἀπὸ τῆς εὐλαβείας

1

Here, the phrase godly life refers to attitude and actions that honor and respect God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that makes the meaning clearer. Alternate translation: “because he respected God” or “because he acted in a way that pleased God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

544

HEB

5

8

mk8z

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

υἱός

1

a son

Here, the word son is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. Alternate translation: “the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

545

HEB

5

8

dqsn

figs-explicit

ἔμαθεν…τὴν ὑπακοήν

1

Here, the clause he learned obedience means that the Son gained new knowledge and experience about obedience. It does not mean that the Son had never “obeyed” before or had to become better at obeying God. The Son has always “obeyed,” but this verse shows that he learned new things about obedience when he suffered. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a clause that makes the meaning clear. Alternate translation: “he learned what it takes to be obedient” or “he learned more about obedience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

546

HEB

5

8

xm1n

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ὑπακοήν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind obedience, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “obedient” or a verb such as “obey.” Alternate translation: “to be obedient” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

547

HEB

5

8

usns

figs-extrainfo

ἀφ’ ὧν ἔπαθεν

1

Here the author does not clarify exactly what {the things} which he suffered are. These things probably include everything that Jesus suffered during his life up to and including his death. If possible, use a general phrase that could refer to all the “suffering” that Jesus experienced. Alternate translation: “from all the suffering that he experienced” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

548

HEB

5

9

iv42

grammar-connect-time-sequential

τελειωθεὶς

1

Here, the phrase having been made perfect introduces something that happens before the phrase he became. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this connection explicit. Alternate translation: “after having been made perfect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

549

HEB

5

9

n5qt

translate-unknown

τελειωθεὶς

1

made perfect

Here, the word perfect identifies someone who has all the qualifications or ability needed to fulfill a task. The phrase does not mean that Jesus sinned at one point and now does not. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies a person who is “fit” or “ready” for a position or task. Alternate translation: “having been made ready” or “having been qualified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

550

HEB

5

9

i29c

figs-activepassive

τελειωθεὶς

1

He was made perfect

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is made perfect rather than focusing on the person doing the “perfecting.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God having made him perfect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

551

HEB

5

9

z2bv

figs-infostructure

ἐγένετο πᾶσιν τοῖς ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ αἴτιος σωτηρίας αἰωνίου

1

Connecting Statement:

If the order of information here would confuse your readers, you could rearrange the sentence so that it is in a more natural order. Alternate translation: “he became the source of eternal salvation for all those who obey him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

552

HEB

5

9

p9ug

figs-abstractnouns

αἴτιος σωτηρίας αἰωνίου

1

became, for everyone who obeys him, the cause of eternal salvation

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind source and salvation, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “provide” and “save.” Alternate translation: “the one who provides eternal rescuing” or “the one who causes them to be saved forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

553

HEB

5

10

unmy

grammar-connect-time-background

προσαγορευθεὶς

1

Here, the phrase having been designated introduces action that could have taken place: (1) before Jesus “became the source of eternal salvation” (see 5:9). Alternate translation: “after having been designated” (2) at the same time as when Jesus “became the source of eternal salvation” (see 5:9). Alternate translation: “at the time when he was designated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

554

HEB

5

10

b9su

figs-activepassive

προσαγορευθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

He was designated by God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the one who is designated rather than focusing on the person doing the “designating.” Alternate translation: “God having designated him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

555

HEB

5

10

hd47

κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ

1

after the manner of Melchizedek

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted at the end of 5:6, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in that verse.

556

HEB

5

11

l4uj

writing-pronouns

περὶ οὗ

1

Here, the word whom could refer to: (1) Melchizedek, whom the author mentioned at the end of the previous verse. Alternate translation: “about whom” (2) the topic that the author is discussing, which is the priesthoods of Melchizedek and Jesus. Alternate translation: “concerning which topic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

557

HEB

5

11

cm78

figs-idiom

περὶ οὗ πολὺς ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος

1

We have much to say

Here, the author indicates that he and his audience have a lot of information about Melchizedek and Jesus to address. The word us refers to both the author and the audience, and the word message identifies the words that the author will speak about Melchizedek and Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or phrase that identifies the topic and states that there is much to say about it. Alternate translation: “about whom we have much to discuss” or “concerning whom I have many words to speak to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

558

HEB

5

11

q45w

translate-unknown

δυσερμήνευτος λέγειν

1

Here, the phrase hard to speak {about} describes a topic that the speaker and the audience find difficult. Here, the author specifically focuses on how the audience will find the topic difficult. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that makes the idea clearer. Alternate translation: “difficult to discuss” or “hard to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

559

HEB

5

11

r2u2

figs-metaphor

νωθροὶ γεγόνατε ταῖς ἀκοαῖς

1

you have become dull in hearing

Here the author speaks as if hearing could become dull, just as if it were a sharp tool that became dull and no longer cut things well. He speaks in this way to describe their hearing as ineffective and slow. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “you have become slow in your hearing” or “your hearing does not work as it should” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

560

HEB

5

11

jkpj

figs-abstractnouns

ταῖς ἀκοαῖς

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind hearing, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “hear” or “listen.” Alternate translation: “when you listen” or “whenever you hear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

561

HEB

5

12

idsj

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces explanation about how the audience has “become dull” in their “hearing” (5:11). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

562

HEB

5

12

dnzj

figs-idiom

διὰ τὸν χρόνον

1

Here, the phrase by this time refers to a period of time that is long enough for a person to become good at something. In other words, the author reminds the audience that they have been Christians for enough time that they should be able to teach others. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies a period of time that is long enough to become a teacher. Alternate translation: “you have had enough time that” or “after this many years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

563

HEB

5

12

tcg0

figs-abstractnouns

πάλιν χρείαν ἔχετε τοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind need, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “need.” Alternate translation: “you again need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

564

HEB

5

12

rt4n

figs-abstractnouns

τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς τῶν λογίων τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind principles and oracles, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “the elementary parts of what God has declared” or “the first things that you learned about God’s message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

565

HEB

5

12

lw1a

translate-unknown

τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς

1

basic principles

Here, the phrase the elementary principles identifies the basic or foundational elements of what Christians believe. These principles were what the audience first learned when they became Christians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to the first, most basic teachings that a Christian learns. Alternate translation: “the basic truths” or “the first lessons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

566

HEB

5

12

oii0

translate-unknown

τῶν λογίων τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here, the phrase the oracles of God refers to the words and messages that God has revealed to humans. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “of what God has revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

567

HEB

5

12

wy2h

figs-abstractnouns

χρείαν ἔχοντες γάλακτος

1

You need milk

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind need, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “need.” Alternate translation: “those needing milk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

568

HEB

5

12

yk1q

figs-exmetaphor

γάλακτος, οὐ στερεᾶς τροφῆς

1

milk, not solid food

Here the author begins speaking about milk and solid food, words he uses again in the next two verses (see 5:13–14). The word milk refers to the simple, basic teaching about God (the elementary principles). The phrase solid food refers to more complex teaching about God that mature Christians learn. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Make sure you use words and phrases that you can use in the next two verses. Alternate translation: “to crawl, not to run” or “of simple things, not of complex things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

569

HEB

5

13

nwvi

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces further development of the metaphor about milk and solid food (see 5:12). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces development, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

570

HEB

5

13

nhx3

figs-exmetaphor

ὁ μετέχων γάλακτος ἄπειρος λόγου δικαιοσύνης, νήπιος γάρ ἐστιν

1

takes milk

Here the author further explains the metaphor about milk that he introduced in the previous verse (see 5:12). He identifies the one who partakes of milk as a person who is inexperienced and thus an infant. The point is that the people who fit this description are those who only know very little about God and are unable or unwilling to learn more, just like an infant is unable to feed on anything besides milk. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Make sure that your translation fits with how you translated the previous verse. Alternate translation: “who crawls is inexperienced with the message of righteousness, because he is like an infant” or “who knows only simple things is inexperienced with the message of righteousness, because he is a person who knows very little” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

571

HEB

5

13

z2dz

translate-unknown

ἄπειρος

1

Here, the word inexperienced refers to someone who is not good at doing something or does not know very much about something. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that makes that meaning clear. Alternate translation: “is ignorant about” or “does not know much about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

572

HEB

5

13

tdur

figs-possession

λόγου δικαιοσύνης

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a message that is about righteousness. In other words, the person he is describing is inexperienced about what counts as righteousness, and by implication, what counts as “wickedness.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that expresses the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “matters of righteousness” or “what counts as righteousness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

573

HEB

5

13

kund

figs-abstractnouns

λόγου δικαιοσύνης

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind righteousness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “righteous” or “right.” Alternate translation: “the} message about what is righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

574

HEB

5

13

vl7k

figs-gendernotations

ἐστιν

1

because he is still a little child

Although the word he is masculine, it refers to anyone, either male or female. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “he or she is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

575

HEB

5

14

k2j1

figs-exmetaphor

τελείων…ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή

1

Here the author further explains the metaphor about solid food that he introduced in 5:12. He identifies the one who eats solid food as a person who is mature. The point is that the people who fit this description are those who know much about God and about good and evil. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Make sure that your translation fits with how you translated the previous two verses. Alternate translation: “those who run are mature ones” or “complex things are for the mature ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

576

HEB

5

14

e3yh

figs-idiom

διὰ τὴν ἕξιν

1

who because of their maturity have their understanding trained for distinguishing good from evil

Here, the phrase through habit refers to how a person develops skills or abilities by repeating the same thing over and over again. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to learning by repetition. Alternate translation: “by means of repetition” or “through consistent practice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

577

HEB

5

14

hhzb

figs-metaphor

γεγυμνασμένα

1

Here, the word trained is often used for how athletes practice so that their bodies become stronger and better at their sport. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “educated” or “developed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

578

HEB

5

14

mq0p

translate-unknown

τὰ αἰσθητήρια

1

Here, the word senses identifies all the ways in which people receive information about the world around them, including tasting, touching, and hearing. The author’s point here is that people can learn to tell between what is good and what is evil by using these senses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to the part or parts of the person that experience the world around him or her. Alternate translation: “their faculties” or “themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

579

HEB

6

intro

nz5i

0

Hebrews 6 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Exhortation: Make sure to persevere! (5:11–6:12)
    • Exhortation: God’s promise is certain (6:13–20)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

The promise to Abraham (6:13–15)

In 6:13–14, the author speaks about God’s promise to Abraham. He quotes directly from Genesis 22:17, but he also has in mind other times when God made similar promises to Abraham: Genesis 12:1–3; 15:1–21; 17:1–8. The author’s point is that God “swore by himself,” which means that he himself guaranteed what he promised. Abraham waited for God to fulfill that promise, and God eventually did so when he gave Abraham a son and then numerous descendants. If your readers would need some of this information to understand the passage, you could include it in a footnote.

“Swearing” and the “oath”

In 6:13–18, the author refers to “swearing” and using an “oath.” In this context, “swearing” by someone refers to the action of guaranteeing a promise, while the “oath” refers to the guaranteeing words themselves. When someone makes an “oath,” they “swear by” a person or thing that is more powerful than they are. What they are saying is that the powerful person or thing will punish them if they are lying. If your readers would misunderstand “swearing” and “oath,” you could use language that comes from how people guarantee what they say in your culture. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oath]])

The heavenly sanctuary

In 6:19–20, the author first refers to the heavenly sanctuary. He will discuss this sanctuary more in the following chapters. At this point, he simply refers to how our “hope” figuratively “enters” where Jesus himself “entered”: the area “inside” the “curtain.” In the author’s culture, a sanctuary would have a solid wall or a cloth “curtain” that marked off the most sacred part of the sanctuary from the rest of the structure. This part of the sanctuary is most sacred because it is where God is most strongly present. Use words that would clearly refer to the most sacred part of a sanctuary. Since the author describes the heavenly sanctuary in words that come from how the tabernacle is described in the Old Testament, you should preserve as much of the details as possible (such as a “curtain” instead of a wall). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/curtain]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

The farming metaphor in 6:7–8

In these verses, the author uses land that people use to grow food as an analogy for how people respond to God’s gifts and his message about salvation. In 6:7, the author describes farmland that grows helpful crops when rain falls on it. This good farmland is like people who hear the good news, believe it, and then obey God. In 6:8, the author describes farmland that grows plants that are not useful and that can hurt people. A farmer will set these plants on fire to destroy them. This bad farmland is like people who hear the good news and receive gifts from God but fail to firmly believe the good news and obey God. God will punish them, much like the farmer burns the bad plants. If your readers would misunderstand this analogy, you could make the comparison more explicit in the text.

Hope as an anchor

In 6:19, the author states that “hope” has the qualities of an “anchor.” An anchor is a heavy piece of metal attached to the end of a rope. The other end of the rope is tied to a boat, and the anchor is dropped over the edge so that its weight keeps the boat from moving around or drifting away. The author’s point is that hope functions like an anchor for believers: it keeps them focused on Jesus and what God has promised, and they do not “drift away” from what they believe (see the warning in 2:1). If your readers would not know what an “anchor” is, you could compare hope to some other thing in your culture that holds things in place.

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

The “foundational” teachings in 6:1–2

In these verses, the author lists six things that are “foundational” or “elementary” teachings. These are not the only “foundational” teachings, but the author uses them as examples. The structure of the list can be understood in several ways:

(1)

  • the foundation * of repentance from dead works and * of faith in God,
  • teaching * about baptisms and * laying on of hands and * resurrection of the dead and * eternal judgment.

(2)

  • the foundation * of repentance from dead works and * of faith in God, * {of} teaching * about baptisms and * laying on of hands and * resurrection of the dead and * eternal judgment.

(3)

  • the foundation * of repentance from dead works and * of faith in God, * {of} teaching about baptisms and * {of} laying on of hands and * {of} resurrection of the dead and * {of} eternal judgment.

See the note at the beginning of 6:2 for translation suggestions for each of these options.

Are those who “fall away” in 6:4–6 truly believers?

In 6:4–5, the author gives a list of things that a person can experience but then still “fall away” (6:6). Scholars debate whether this list describes people who truly believe in Jesus and then stop believing or if it describes people who came close to believing in Jesus but then did not truly believe. Since the author focuses on how these people have experienced good things from God but then still reject Jesus, he does not clearly express whether these people are truly believers are not. If possible, focus your translation on what the people experience rather than on whether they have truly believed.

580

HEB

6

1

f1nk

grammar-connect-logic-result

διὸ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the phrase So then introduces what the author wants his audience to do in response to the warning he gave in 5:11–14. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an application or inference. Alternate translation: “Because of that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

581

HEB

6

1

i4xr

figs-metaphor

ἀφέντες τὸν τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ λόγον, ἐπὶ τὴν τελειότητα φερώμεθα

1

let us leave the beginning of the message of Christ and move forward to maturity

Here the author speaks as if the beginning of the message of Christ were the starting point for a journey and as if maturity were the destination. He speaks in this way to encourage his audience to focus more time and energy on the destination (maturity) than on where they started out (the beginning of the message). He does not want them to replace the beginning of the message with what is related to maturity. Rather, he is exhorting them about what to focus their time and energy on. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “putting to the side the beginning of the message of Christ, let us take up maturity” or “focusing less on the beginning of the message of Christ, let us focus more on maturity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

582

HEB

6

1

gsvd

figs-abstractnouns

τὸν τῆς ἀρχῆς…λόγον

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind beginning, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “basic” or “elementary.” Alternate translation: “the elementary message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

583

HEB

6

1

ryfa

figs-possession

τὸν τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ λόγον

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to identify the parts of the message about Christ with which a person would “begin.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a form that is more natural. Alternate translation: “what you first learned about Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

584

HEB

6

1

ydpy

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπὶ τὴν τελειότητα

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind maturity, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “mature.” The idea of maturity could relate primarily to: (1) the audience and how they are becoming “mature.” Alternate translation: “to becoming mature people” (2) the message or teachings that the “mature” learn. Alternate translation: “to teachings for mature people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

585

HEB

6

1

thw8

figs-metaphor

μὴ πάλιν θεμέλιον καταβαλλόμενοι

1

Let us not lay again the foundation … of faith in God

Here the author speaks about teaching basic things as if it were laying a foundation. He speaks in this way because the foundation is the first thing that a builder “lays,” and the builder soon begins to build on top of that foundation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “not rehearsing again the simple teachings” or “not learning again the basics” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

586

HEB

6

1

y7ki

figs-abstractnouns

μετανοίας ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἔργων, καὶ πίστεως

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind repentance, works, and faith, you could express the ideas in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “about repenting from doing what is dead and about believing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

587

HEB

6

1

d5q3

figs-personification

νεκρῶν ἔργων

1

dead works

Here the author describes the works as if they were a dead person or animal. The author could describe the works as dead because: (1) they cannot accomplish anything, just like a dead person cannot do anything. Alternate translation: “works that accomplish nothing” (2) they lead to physical and spiritual death for the person who does them. Alternate translation: “works that lead to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

588

HEB

6

2

s1cv

figs-infostructure

βαπτισμῶν διδαχὴν, ἐπιθέσεώς τε χειρῶν, ἀναστάσεώς τε νεκρῶν, καὶ κρίματος αἰωνίου

1

nor the foundation of teaching … eternal judgment

Here, the teaching (see the chapter introduction) could: (1) redefine the “foundation” in the previous verse (6:2) and go with all four topics in this verse. Alternate translation: “that is, teaching concerning baptisms and concerning laying on of hands and concerning resurrection of the dead and concerning eternal judgment” (2) identify the third part of the “foundation,” along with “repentance from dead works” and “faith in God” (see 6:2). In this case, it goes with the four topics in this verse. Alternate translation: “and of teaching about baptisms and about laying on of hands and about resurrection of the dead and about eternal judgment” (3) identify the third part of the “foundation,” and the rest of the topics in this verse also identify parts of the “foundation.” Alternate translation: “and of teaching about baptisms and of laying on of hands and of resurrection of the dead and of eternal judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

589

HEB

6

2

fe8e

figs-abstractnouns

βαπτισμῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind baptisms, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “baptize.” Alternate translation: “about baptizing people” or “about what baptizing someone means” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

590

HEB

6

2

rd3q

figs-explicit

βαπτισμῶν

1

Here, the word baptisms is plural. It could refer to: (1) different kinds of baptisms that people knew about. See the discussion about “John’s baptism” in Acts 19:1–7 for an example of different kinds of baptisms. Alternate translation: “about various baptisms” or “different kinds of baptisms” (2) many different kinds of washing rituals. Alternate translation: “about washings” or “about kinds of washing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

591

HEB

6

2

srvc

figs-explicit

ἐπιθέσεώς…χειρῶν

1

Here, the phrase laying on of hands refers to how believers would put their hands on a fellow believer when they were commissioning him or her, praying for him or her, asking God to heal him or her, or helping him or her receive the Holy Spirit. For examples, see Acts 8:14–17; Acts 13:2–3; Acts 28:8; 1 Timothy 4:14. In all of these situations, God uses the laying on of hands to help a fellow believer. If possible, express the idea in such a way that your readers understand the physical action and also that the action helps other believers. If it is necessary, you could include some short extra information in your translation or more information in a footnote. Alternate translation: “laying on of hands through which God works” or “placing hands on believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

592

HEB

6

2

xww5

figs-possession

ἐπιθέσεώς…χειρῶν ἀναστάσεώς τε νεκρῶν

1

laying on of hands

Here the author uses the possessive form to speak about how a person “lays” their hands on someone else and about how the dead will “resurrect.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a more natural form. Alternate translation: “laying hands on others and the dead resurrecting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

593

HEB

6

2

qdfn

figs-abstractnouns

ἀναστάσεώς…νεκρῶν, καὶ κρίματος αἰωνίου

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind resurrection and judgment, you could express the idea by using verbs such as “resurrect” and “judge.” Alternate translation: “the dead resurrecting and God eternally judging” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

594

HEB

6

2

tfu3

figs-nominaladj

νεκρῶν

1

The author is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to refer to all people who are dead. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “of the dead people” or “of the corpses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

595

HEB

6

2

g1ke

figs-explicit

κρίματος αἰωνίου

1

Here, the phrase eternal judgment could identify a judgment that: (1) has eternal validity or consequences. In other words, what God decides in this judgment will never change. Alternate translation: “judgment that leads to eternal destiny” (2) happens at the end of this time and at the beginning of the eternal time. In other words, the eternal judgment is God’s last judgment when he renews the creation. Alternate translation: “final judgment” or “God’s last judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

596

HEB

6

3

xut9

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο ποιήσομεν

1

Here, the word this refers back to 6:1, where the author exhorted his audience: “let us go forward to maturity.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what this refers to explicit by repeating words from 6:1. Alternate translation: “we will go forward to maturity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

597

HEB

6

3

yo9q

figs-idiom

ἐάνπερ ἐπιτρέπῃ ὁ Θεός

1

Here, the phrase if God permits is the proper way to indicate that God is in control of what will happen. The phrase implies that it is likely that God will “permit” what the author wants to do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable expression that acknowledges that God is in control. Alternate translation: “God willing” or “as long as that is what God wants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

598

HEB

6

4

land

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces a reason why the audience needs to “go forward” (see 6:1). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces a basis for an exhortation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “We need to go forward, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

599

HEB

6

4

r14x

figs-infostructure

ἀδύνατον γὰρ τοὺς

1

Here, the word impossible goes with the phrase “to restore {them} again” in 6:6. If it would be helpful in your language, you could move {it is} impossible to verse 6. If you do this, make sure that you also follow the infostructure note on verse 6. Alternate translation: “For consider the ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

600

HEB

6

4

e7px

figs-metaphor

τοὺς ἅπαξ φωτισθέντας

1

those who were once enlightened

Here the author speaks of receiving and understanding the good news as if it were light shining on a person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable figure of speech or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “for those who once understood the message about the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

601

HEB

6

4

e2e6

figs-activepassive

τοὺς ἅπαξ φωτισθέντας, γευσαμένους τε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who were enlightened rather than focusing on the person doing the “enlightening.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “for those whom God has once enlightened, and who tasted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

602

HEB

6

4

l5mc

figs-metaphor

γευσαμένους…τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς ἐπουρανίου

1

who tasted the heavenly gift

Here the author speaks as if the heavenly gift were food that people could “taste.” He speaks in this way to show that these people experienced the heavenly gift as much as a person who eats food truly experiences that food. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “had experience of the heavenly gift” or “participated in the heavenly gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

603

HEB

6

4

ysas

figs-explicit

τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς ἐπουρανίου

1

Here, the phrase the heavenly gift identifies what God gives to those who believe in Jesus. This includes new life and forgiveness of sins. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “of God’s gift of new life” or “of God’s gifts from heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

604

HEB

6

4

d2lp

figs-possession

μετόχους γενηθέντας Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

who were sharers of the Holy Spirit

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that these people “share” the Holy Spirit. This form means that the people whom the author is speaking about were among the group of people who received the Holy Spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that makes meaning clearer. Alternate translation: “received the Holy Spirit along with other believers” or “participated in the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

605

HEB

6

5

vp46

figs-metaphor

γευσαμένους

1

who tasted God’s good word

Here the author again uses the word tasted figuratively. Express the meaning the same way you did in the previous verse (6:4). Alternate translation: “who had experience of” or “who participated in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

606

HEB

6

5

vf2t

figs-possession

δυνάμεις…μέλλοντος αἰῶνος

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that the powers will be fully experienced in the age to come. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that makes the idea clear. Alternate translation: “the powers that belong to the age to come” or “the powers that will be experienced in the age to come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

607

HEB

6

5

tw1u

figs-abstractnouns

δυνάμεις…μέλλοντος αἰῶνος

1

the powers of the age to come

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind powers, you could express the idea in another way. The powers could refer to: (1) what God will do, sometimes through other people, for those who believe. Alternate translation: “what God will do powerfully in the age to come” (2) how people can do “powerful” things. Alternate translation: “the powerful things that people will do in the age to come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

608

HEB

6

5

virg

figs-idiom

μέλλοντος αἰῶνος

1

Here, the phrase the age to come refers to the time during and after which God will make people alive again and renew everything that he created. This age begins when Jesus comes back. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that makes that meaning clear. Alternate translation: “of the time when Jesus comes back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

609

HEB

6

6

fcrq

figs-infostructure

καὶ παραπεσόντας, πάλιν ἀνακαινίζειν

1

If you decided to move “{it is} impossible” from 6:4 here, you will need to consider a natural way to include it. If you used the alternate translation from the note in verse 4, the following alternate translation will work here. Alternate translation: “but who fell away. It is impossible to restore these people again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

610

HEB

6

6

y24v

figs-metaphor

παραπεσόντας

1

Here the author speaks of how people reject how they used to believe in Jesus as if they were walking on a path and then fell away from it. He speaks in this way to emphasize how significant it is when a person stops believing in Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “who deserted Christ” or “who stopped believing the good news” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

611

HEB

6

6

l8nx

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς μετάνοιαν

1

it is impossible to restore them again to repentance

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind repentance, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “repent.” Alternate translation: “so that they repent” or “so that they return” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

612

HEB

6

6

dj3g

figs-metaphor

ἀνασταυροῦντας

1

they crucify the Son of God for themselves again

Here the author speaks as if those who have fallen away are crucifying Jesus. He speaks in this way to indicate how bad “falling away” really is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an analogy or some other comparable form. Alternate translation: “since it is as if they are crucifying again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

613

HEB

6

6

up5c

translate-unknown

ἀνασταυροῦντας

1

Here, the word translated they are crucifying again could refer to: (1) causing the Son to undergo crucifixion a second time. Alternate translation: “since they are re-crucifying” (2) nailing the Son “up” on the cross. Alternate translation: “since they are nailing up on the cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

614

HEB

6

6

jkue

figs-explicit

ἀνασταυροῦντας ἑαυτοῖς

1

Here, the phrase for themselves could mean that: (1) they are acting to benefit themselves only. Alternate translation: “since they are crucifying again for their own benefit” (2) they do these things themselves. Alternate translation: “since they themselves are crucifying again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

615

HEB

6

6

y47b

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Son of God

The phrase Son of God is an important title for Jesus that describes his relationship to God the Father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

616

HEB

6

6

ldgx

translate-unknown

παραδειγματίζοντας

1

Here, the word translated exposing {him} to public shame refers to punishing someone in public so that the person experiences shame and so that other people look down on the person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase. Alternate translation: “shaming him publicly” or “insulting him in front of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

617

HEB

6

7

wz7w

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces an example that uses farming language to illustrate two ways in which a person could respond to the good news. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an example, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “For example,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

618

HEB

6

7

p4tf

figs-personification

γῆ…ἡ πιοῦσα τὸν ἐπ’ αὐτῆς ἐρχόμενον πολλάκις ὑετόν, καὶ τίκτουσα βοτάνην εὔθετον, ἐκείνοις δι’ οὓς καὶ γεωργεῖται, μεταλαμβάνει εὐλογίας ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the land that drinks in the rain

Throughout this verse, the author speaks of land as if it could “drink,” “produce,” and “share.” This was a natural way to express how land relates to crops and rain in the author’s culture. Use a natural way in your language to refer to how land is involved in the farming process. Alternate translation: “a land that absorbs the rain that often falls on it and on which grows useful vegetation for those for whom it is also cultivated receives a blessing from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

619

HEB

6

7

r32n

figs-idiom

τὸν ἐπ’ αὐτῆς ἐρχόμενον πολλάκις ὑετόν

1

that gives birth to the plants

Here the author refers to how rain falls from clouds onto the land. Use a phrase that refers to this process naturally in your language. Alternate translation: “the rain that often falls from the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

620

HEB

6

7

h5iq

translate-unknown

βοτάνην εὔθετον

1

Here, the phrase useful vegetation refers to plants that grow on the land and that benefit people. They could be plants that people eat, or they could be plants that people use for other purposes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to plants that people use. Alternate translation: “helpful crops” or “edible plants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

621

HEB

6

7

da68

figs-activepassive

καὶ γεωργεῖται

1

the land that receives a blessing from God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the land that is cultivated rather than focusing on the people doing the “cultivating.” If you must state who did the action, you could refer to farmers or people in general. Alternate translation: “farmers cultivate it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

622

HEB

6

7

qq1x

figs-abstractnouns

μεταλαμβάνει εὐλογίας ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

a blessing from God

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind blessing, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “bless.” Alternate translation: “is blessed by God” or “is one that God blesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

623

HEB

6

8

pyps

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐκφέρουσα

1

Here, the word producing introduces what must be true about the land for it to be close to a curse and eventually “burned.” In many languages, this idea can be expressed with a conditional form. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that indicates that the word producing introduces the condition or situation in which the rest of the sentence would be true. Alternate translation: “if it produces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

624

HEB

6

8

m2jv

figs-doublet

ἀκάνθας καὶ τριβόλους

1

Here, the words thorns and thistles mean almost the same thing. The quotation uses both words to emphasize that the field grows only plants that have no use and may hurt people. If the repetition would be confusing, or if you do not have two words that express this particular meaning, you could use one word or phrase here. Alternate translation: “weeds only” or “only plants with thorns” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

625

HEB

6

8

pp48

figs-idiom

κατάρας ἐγγύς

1

is near to a curse

Here, the phrase close to a curse is a short way to express the idea that: (1) the land will receive a curse soon. Alternate translation: “about to be cursed” (2) the land may possibly receive a curse. Alternate translation: “in danger of being cursed” or “may be cursed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

626

HEB

6

8

sgzj

figs-abstractnouns

κατάρας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind curse, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “curse.” If you need to state who does the “cursing,” the author implies that God does it, just like he performed the “blessing” in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “being cursed by God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

627

HEB

6

8

a2bk

figs-idiom

ἧς τὸ τέλος εἰς καῦσιν

1

Its end is in burning

Here, the phrase the end of which {is} for burning indicates what will finally happen to the land. Use a phrase that refers to the final destiny of something. Alternate translation: “its final destiny is to be burned” or “and eventually it will be burned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

628

HEB

6

8

eb6p

writing-pronouns

ἧς

1

Here, the word which could refer to: (1) the “land,” which the author mentioned in 6:7. Alternate translation: “of which land” (2) the curse. This would mean that the final result of the curse is that the land is “burned.” Alternate translation: “of which curse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

629

HEB

6

8

vkus

figs-explicit

εἰς καῦσιν

1

In the author’s culture, people would “burn” a field to destroy the plants that were growing on it. That way, they could start fresh with a field that did not have any weeds or other bad plants growing on it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what burning refers to explicit. Alternate translation: “is for burning all its vegetation” or “is for someone to burn everything on it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

630

HEB

6

9

sb4a

figs-exclusive

πεπείσμεθα…λαλοῦμεν

1

we are convinced

Here the author uses the first person plural (we), but he is referring only to himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that more naturally refers to the author. Alternate translation: “I myself am convinced … I speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

631

HEB

6

9

nwh7

figs-activepassive

πεπείσμεθα

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on himself, who is convinced, rather than focusing on what has convinced him. Alternate translation: “we are confident” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

632

HEB

6

9

jt3k

figs-explicit

τὰ κρείσσονα καὶ

1

about better things concerning you

Here the author does not clarify what he is comparing the audience to when he says that he is convinced of things {that are} better. He implies they are doing better than the people he mentioned in 6:4–6, the people who have stopped believing in the gospel and have “fallen away.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the comparison explicit. Alternate translation: “of things that are better than those who have fallen away and that” or “that you are doing better than the people in my warning, and that you have all things that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

633

HEB

6

9

bs61

figs-idiom

ἐχόμενα σωτηρίας

1

Here, the things that are accompanying salvation are everything that a person has and experiences when God saves them. These include having the Holy Spirit, growing in faith and knowledge, and experiencing God’s blessing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to everything that goes with being saved. Alternate translation: “have to do with salvation” or “that go along with salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

634

HEB

6

9

npu2

figs-abstractnouns

ἐχόμενα σωτηρίας

1

things that concern salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind salvation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “save” or “rescue.” Alternate translation: “that come when God saves you” or “are experienced when God rescues someone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

635

HEB

6

9

vq5g

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

εἰ καὶ οὕτως λαλοῦμεν

1

Here, the phrase even if we speak thus contrasts what the author has said in this verse with the warning he has given in 5:11–6:8. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that clearly indicates such a contrast. Alternate translation: “despite the fact that we speak thus” or “notwithstanding how we have spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

636

HEB

6

9

jou5

writing-pronouns

οὕτως

1

Here, the word thus refers back to the warnings that the author has given in 5:11–6:8. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what thus refers to explicit. Alternate translation: “with words of warning” or “such warnings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

637

HEB

6

10

ouxh

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces more explanation about why the author is “convinced of things that are better” concerning his audience (6:9). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “I am convinced of this, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

638

HEB

6

10

t2hb

figs-litotes

οὐ…ἄδικος ὁ Θεὸς, ἐπιλαθέσθαι

1

For God is not so unjust that he would forget

The phrase not unjust is a negative understatement that emphasizes how “just” God is. If this is confusing in your language, you could express the meaning positively. If you do, you may need to negate forget. Alternate translation: “God is very just, to remember” or “God is just, to remember” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

639

HEB

6

10

puu1

figs-explicit

ἐπιλαθέσθαι

1

Here, the word forget does not mean simply that a person does not remember something. It also includes how a person will not consider or include something that they have “forgotten.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to how a person “overlooks” or “fails to include” something. Alternate translation: “to ignore” or “to pass over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

640

HEB

6

10

gzvj

figs-abstractnouns

τοῦ ἔργου ὑμῶν, καὶ τῆς ἀγάπης ἧς

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind work and love, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “do” and “love.” Alternate translation: “what you do and the way that you love, which” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

641

HEB

6

10

vljf

translate-unknown

ἐνεδείξασθε

1

Here, people who have demonstrated something prove or show that it is true. The author tells his audience that they have “proved” or “shown” that they have love. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that makes the idea clearer. Alternate translation: “you have shown” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

642

HEB

6

10

r9xx

figs-metonymy

εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ

1

for his name

Here, the word name refers to a person’s reputation or honor. In other words, “serving the saints” is something that is “toward God’s name,” which means that it brings him honor. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “with regard to his honor” or “that glorifies God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

643

HEB

6

10

szt0

figs-explicit

διακονήσαντες τοῖς ἁγίοις καὶ διακονοῦντες

1

Here, the ones who serve are the audience. The author’s point is that they served the saints in the past, and they are still serving the saints in the present. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make these ideas more explicit. Alternate translation: “since you have served the saints in the past and even now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

644

HEB

6

11

j7f5

figs-exclusive

ἐπιθυμοῦμεν

1

We greatly desire

Here the author uses the first person plural (we), but he is referring only to himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that more naturally refers to the author. Alternate translation: “I long for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

645

HEB

6

11

k4si

translate-unknown

ἐνδείκνυσθαι

1

diligence

Here, just as in 6:10, people who demonstrate something prove or show that it is true. The author wants his audience to “prove” or “show” that they have diligence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that makes the idea clearer. Alternate translation: “to show” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

646

HEB

6

11

abfz

figs-explicit

τὴν αὐτὴν…σπουδὴν

1

Here the author could want the audience to have diligence that is the same as: (1) the diligence that they have shown in the past. Alternate translation: “consistent diligence” (2) how they have “demonstrated” love (see 6:10). Alternate translation: “diligence, just as you demonstrate love,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

647

HEB

6

11

i2yc

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν αὐτὴν…σπουδὴν, πρὸς τὴν πληροφορίαν τῆς ἐλπίδος

1

in order to make your hope certain

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind diligence, assurance, and hope, you could express the ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “that you strive diligently to be fully assured of what you hope for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

648

HEB

6

11

uwj3

figs-possession

πρὸς τὴν πληροφορίαν τῆς ἐλπίδος

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to speak about full assurance that concerns hope. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “toward becoming fully assured of your hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

649

HEB

6

11

xfy1

figs-explicit

ἄχρι τέλους

1

to the end

Here, the phrase the end could refer to: (1) the end of the audience’s lives. Alternate translation: “until your lives end” (2) the end of the current time period, which would be when Jesus comes back. Alternate translation: “until the end of the age” or “until Jesus comes back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

650

HEB

6

12

zjgw

figs-metaphor

μὴ νωθροὶ γένησθε

1

Here the author speaks as if the audience could become dull, just as if they were sharp tools that become dull and no longer cut things well. He speaks in this way to exhort them not to become ineffective and slow in their behavior. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. See how you translated the similar phrase in 5:11. Alternate translation: “you might not become slow” or “you might not become people who avoid doing what you should” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

651

HEB

6

12

x9zn

figs-ellipsis

μιμηταὶ δὲ

1

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “but so that you might become imitators” or “but become imitators” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

652

HEB

6

12

yrh2

figs-abstractnouns

τῶν διὰ πίστεως καὶ μακροθυμίας, κληρονομούντων

1

imitators

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind faith and patience, you could express the idea by using verbs or adverbs. Alternate translation: “of those who, by means of how they believed and were patient, are inheriting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

653

HEB

6

12

q8ry

figs-metaphor

τῶν διὰ πίστεως καὶ μακροθυμίας, κληρονομούντων τὰς ἐπαγγελίας

1

inherit the promises

Here the author speaks as if believers were children who would receive property that a parent passes on to their child when the parent dies. He speaks in this way to indicate that believers receive the promises from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “of those to whom, because of their faith and patience, God is giving the promises” or “of those who by faith and patience are obtaining the promises” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

654

HEB

6

12

mrbc

figs-metonymy

τὰς ἐπαγγελίας

1

Here, the word promises refers to the contents of the promises, or what God has “promised” to give. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is referring to the contents of these promises. Alternate translation: “the things from God’s promises” or “the things that God has promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

655

HEB

6

12

eydr

figs-abstractnouns

τὰς ἐπαγγελίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind promises, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “promise” or “pledge.” Alternate translation: “what God has pledged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

656

HEB

6

13

afl4

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces more explanation about the “promises” that the author mentioned in the previous verse (6:21). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “In fact,” or “Now I will tell you more about these promises:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

657

HEB

6

13

qicr

figs-extrainfo

ἐπαγγειλάμενος

1

Here the author does not clarify what God promised to Abraham because he quotes the promise itself in the following verse (6:14). If possible, leave what God promised vague or unclear in this verse. Alternate translation: “having made a promise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

658

HEB

6

13

c8ip

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ἐπαγγειλάμενος

1

Here, the words having promised refer to something that takes place at the same time as when God swore by himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the relationship between these two actions more explicit. Alternate translation: “at the time when he promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

659

HEB

6

13

dcy9

translate-names

τῷ…Ἀβραὰμ

1

The word Abraham is the name of a man. He is the man from whom all the Israelites and Jews are descended. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

660

HEB

6

13

e3mt

writing-pronouns

εἶχεν

1

Here, the word he refers back to God, not to Abraham. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God had” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

661

HEB

6

13

p1sg

figs-explicit

ἐπεὶ κατ’ οὐδενὸς εἶχεν μείζονος ὀμόσαι, ὤμοσεν καθ’ ἑαυτοῦ

1

In the author’s culture, people often swore by someone else. The other person needed to be someone important and powerful enough to guarantee or enforce what the person who swore promised to do. Often people would swear by God, since he always is important and powerful enough to guarantee or enforce what was sworn. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the practice of “swearing by” someone more explicit. Alternate translation: “since he wanted to guarantee that promise by swearing by someone greater, swore by himself (since there is no one greater than him)” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

662

HEB

6

13

i5or

figs-explicit

μείζονος

1

Here, the word greater specifically identifies someone who has more power or authority than another person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “with greater power” or “with more authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

663

HEB

6

14

ymh2

writing-quotations

λέγων

1

He said

Here the author quotes what God said to Abraham. These words are recorded in Genesis 22:17. Since the author introduces this quotation as words that God said to Abraham, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify the quotation. Alternate translation: “promising” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

664

HEB

6

14

wd6t

figs-quotations

λέγων, εἰ μὴν εὐλογῶν, εὐλογήσω σε, καὶ πληθύνων, πληθυνῶ σε

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “saying that he would most certainly bless Abraham and multiply him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

665

HEB

6

14

ccpr

εἰ μὴν

1

Here God uses emphatic language to show that he will most certainly do what he is promising to do. Use a form in your language that emphasizes God’s promise to bless and multiply Abraham. Alternate translation: “surely” or “without doubt”

666

HEB

6

14

fauw

figs-yousingular

σε

-1

Because God is speaking to one person (Abraham), you is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

667

HEB

6

14

n47a

figs-idiom

πληθύνων, πληθυνῶ σε

1

I will greatly increase you

Here God speaks as if he would multiply Abraham to make many other “Abrahams.” This phrase refers to how God will cause Abraham to have many children, grandchildren, and so on. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to having many descendants. Alternate translation: “give you many offspring” or “make you the ancestor of many people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

668

HEB

6

15

f3cs

figs-explicit

οὕτως

1

Here, the phrase in this way could refer back to: (1) how God guaranteed what he promised (see 6:13–14). Alternate translation: “as God promised” (2) how Abraham had “faith and patience” (see 6:12). Alternate translation: “as one who had faith and patience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

669

HEB

6

15

li7e

figs-explicit

μακροθυμήσας

1

Here the author refers to how Abraham was 75 years old when God first made the promise to him (see Genesis 12:1–4), and he was 100 years old when Sarah gave birth to his son Isaac (see Genesis 21:1–5. So, Abraham patiently waited for 25 years before God gave him what he had promised. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a footnote to give this background information, or you could include some short extra information in your translation. Alternation translation: “having patiently waited for 25 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

670

HEB

6

15

aefm

translate-unknown

ἐπέτυχεν

1

Here, the phrase he obtained refers to how he received the promise. It does not mean that he took the promise for himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate this phrase like you translated “inheriting the promises” in 6:12. Alternate translation: “he received” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

671

HEB

6

15

pw9h

figs-metonymy

τῆς ἐπαγγελίας

1

Here, the word promise refers to the contents of the promise, or what God has “promised” to give. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is referring to the contents of this promise. Alternate translation: “the things from God’s promise” or “the things that God promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

672

HEB

6

15

ky28

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ἐπαγγελίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind promise, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “promise” or “pledge.” Alternate translation: “what God pledged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

673

HEB

6

16

ib90

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces further explanation of how “swearing” by someone works (see 6:13 especially). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a comparable word or phrase. Alternate translation: “About swearing,” or “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

674

HEB

6

16

vri2

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωποι

1

Although men is masculine, the author is using it to all people, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “men and women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

675

HEB

6

16

oftr

figs-explicit

κατὰ τοῦ μείζονος ὀμνύουσιν

1

Here, just as in 6:13, the author refers to how people often “swore by” someone else. The other person needed to be someone important and powerful enough to guarantee or enforce what the person who swore promised to do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the practice more explicit. Alternate translation: “swear by one who is greater, who will guarantee what they say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

676

HEB

6

16

k4tz

figs-explicit

τοῦ μείζονος

1

Here, the word greater specifically identifies someone who has more power or authority than another person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what greater identifies more explicit. Alternate translation: “one with greater power” or “one with more authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

677

HEB

6

16

mxrh

figs-idiom

πάσης αὐτοῖς ἀντιλογίας πέρας, εἰς βεβαίωσιν ὁ ὅρκος

1

Here the author uses technical language related to disputes and the law courts. The word end refers to a final decision end point, while the word confirmation refers to how something is backed up and proved to be true by evidence or, here, an oath. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use comparable words or express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the conclusion of all their disputes is the oath that closes the issue” or “the oath confirms that a dispute has ended” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

678

HEB

6

16

pqcw

figs-abstractnouns

πάσης αὐτοῖς ἀντιλογίας πέρας, εἰς βεβαίωσιν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind end, disputes, and confirmation, you could express the ideas in more natural ways. Alternate translation: “what confirms that people have stopped disputing” or “what certainly finishes anything that people are arguing about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

679

HEB

6

17

jq1k

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ἐν ᾧ

1

Here, the word which refers back to how humans “swear” with an oath (see 6:16). The phrase in which means that what the author speaks about in this verse happens in that same context or way. In other words, God used an oath, just like humans do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that happens according to a previously stated pattern. Alternate translation: “in which same way” or “in which pattern” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

680

HEB

6

17

dw5n

figs-infostructure

περισσότερον…ἐπιδεῖξαι

1

Here, the phrase even more modifies to show. If it would be helpful in your language, you could rearrange the elements in this sentence to make clearer what even more modifies. Alternate translation: “to show even more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

681

HEB

6

17

rpv9

figs-metaphor

τοῖς κληρονόμοις τῆς ἐπαγγελίας

1

to the heirs of the promise

Here the author speaks as if believers were children who would receive property that a parent passes on to their child when the parent dies. He speaks in this way to indicate that believers receive the promise from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to those who were to receive the promise” or “to the recipients of the promise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

682

HEB

6

17

wlbg

figs-metonymy

τῆς ἐπαγγελίας

1

Here, the word promise refers to the contents of the promise, or what God has “promised” to give. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is referring to the contents of this promise. Alternate translation: “of the things from the promise” or “of the things that God promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

683

HEB

6

17

zz5f

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ἐπαγγελίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind promise, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “promise.” Alternate translation: “of what God promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

684

HEB

6

17

ug6j

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ ἀμετάθετον τῆς βουλῆς αὐτοῦ

1

the unchangeable quality of his purpose

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind quality and purpose, you could express the ideas by using verbs or in another natural way. Alternate translation: “that what he purposes is unchangeable” or “how unchangeable is what he plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

685

HEB

6

17

rezy

figs-idiom

ἐμεσίτευσεν ὅρκῳ

1

Here, the author refers to God making a promise with an oath as “mediating” that promise. He speaks in this way because the oath is between God and his people and guarantees that what God promises will happen, just like a “mediator” stands between two parties and guarantees what those parties decide. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies how an oath functions when a person makes a promise. Alternate translation: “used an oath to do so” or “made it certain by using an oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

686

HEB

6

18

hohu

figs-explicit

διὰ δύο πραγμάτων ἀμεταθέτων

1

Here, the phrase two unchangeable things refers to God’s “promise” and his “oath” (see 6:17). Both “promise” and “oath” contain binding words that no one can change. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “by an unchangeable oath and promise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

687

HEB

6

18

hy89

ἐν οἷς ἀδύνατον ψεύσασθαι τὸν Θεόν

1

Alternate translation: “concerning which God could never lie”

688

HEB

6

18

gjw3

figs-metaphor

οἱ καταφυγόντες

1

we, who have fled for refuge

Here the author speaks of believers who trust in God to save and protect them as if they were running to a safe place. He speaks in this way to emphasize the need for refuge and the fact God provides it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “who have found salvation” or “who have sought protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

689

HEB

6

18

bkgy

figs-explicit

οἱ καταφυγόντες

1

Here the author does not specify from what we have fled or who provides the refuge. He implies that God provides the refuge, but from what we have fled is not clear. Most likely, the author implies any trouble or problems that humans encounter, including sin, suffering, persecution, or anything else that is bad or painful. If it would be helpful in your language, you include some of this implied information here. Alternate translation: “who have fled to God for refuge from our sins and struggles” or “who have fled to God’s refuge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

690

HEB

6

18

bmq6

figs-abstractnouns

ἰσχυρὰν παράκλησιν ἔχωμεν, οἱ καταφυγόντες

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind refuge and encouragement, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “protect” and “encourage.” Alternate translation: “who have fled to be protected might be strongly encouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

691

HEB

6

18

gk6n

figs-metaphor

κρατῆσαι τῆς…ἐλπίδος

1

will have a strong encouragement to hold firmly to the hope set before us

Here, the phrase hold firmly refers to continuing to consistently believe or trust something, particularly something that one has been told. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to continuing to believe or expect something. Alternate translation: “to tightly grasp the hope” or “to continue to expect the hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

692

HEB

6

18

vjvm

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς…ἐλπίδος

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind hope, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “hope” or “expect.” The author could primarily be focusing on: (1) the act of “hoping.” Alternate translation: “to how we hope for what God has” (2) what it is that we hope for. Alternate translation: “to what we hope for that is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

693

HEB

6

18

hs84

figs-activepassive

προκειμένης

1

set before us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is set before rather than focusing on the person doing the “setting before.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “that God has set before us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

694

HEB

6

19

w66k

writing-pronouns

ἣν

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word which refers back to “the hope” that the author mentioned in the previous verse (see 6:18). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that which refers “the hope.” Alternate translation: “which hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

695

HEB

6

19

ng9i

figs-metaphor

ὡς ἄγκυραν…τῆς ψυχῆς, ἀσφαλῆ τε καὶ βεβαίαν

1

as a secure and reliable anchor for the soul

Here the author states that “hope” functions as an anchor for the soul. Just like an anchor holds a ship in one place so that it does not drift away (see the chapter introduction), so “hope,” which is both reliable and confirmed, holds the soul in one place so that the person persists in trusting God and hoping for what he has promised. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to something else that holds things in place, or you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “like a weight that holds the soul in place, both reliable and confirmed” or “as something that keeps the soul close to God in a reliable and confirmed way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

696

HEB

6

19

xaxt

translate-unknown

ἄγκυραν

1

An anchor is a heavy piece of metal attached to the end of a rope. The other end of the rope is tied to a boat, and in this way the anchor keeps the boat from moving around or drifting away. If your readers would not know what an anchor is, you could explain it or refer to a different object that keeps something in place. Alternate translation: “a foundation stone” or “a pillar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

697

HEB

6

19

vdt3

figs-doublet

ἀσφαλῆ τε καὶ βεβαίαν

1

a secure and reliable anchor

These two terms mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize how secure the “hope” is. If your language does not use repetition to do this or if you do not have two words for these attributes, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “extremely reliable” or “very much confirmed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

698

HEB

6

19

d223

figs-personification

εἰσερχομένην εἰς τὸ ἐσώτερον τοῦ καταπετάσματος

1

hope that enters into the inner place behind the curtain

Here the author speaks as if the “hope” can “enter” into the inside of the curtain. He speaks in this way to indicate that “hope” penetrates into a place we cannot experience right now: the inside of the heavenly sanctuary. In other words, while we cannot “enter” that place, we can confidently expect to receive and experience what is in that place. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “already accessing what is inside the curtain” or “penetrating into the inside of the curtain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

699

HEB

6

19

lm8e

figs-go

εἰσερχομένην εἰς

1

Here, the phrase entering into refers to movement from outside a structure to the interior of the structure. Use a word or phrase in your language that refers to this kind of movement. Alternate translation: “going into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

700

HEB

6

19

aj2m

figs-idiom

τὸ ἐσώτερον τοῦ καταπετάσματος

1

the inner place

Here, the phrase the inside of the curtain refers to the inner, most holy area of the sanctuary. See the similar phrases in Exodus 26:33 and Leviticus 16:2. The curtain blocks this area off from the rest of the sanctuary. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that more clearly refers to this area and the curtain that marks it off. Alternate translation: “the most holy place behind the dividing curtain” or “the most sacred place that the curtain marks off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

701

HEB

6

20

c59s

figs-go

εἰσῆλθεν

1

Here, the word entered refers to movement from outside a structure into the structure. Use a word or phrase in your language that refers to this kind of movement. See how you translated “entering into” in 6:19. Alternate translation: “has gone in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

702

HEB

6

20

onb9

translate-unknown

πρόδρομος

1

Here, the word forerunner refers to a person who “runs” in front of everyone else. The author is identifying Jesus as the first person to go to a specific place, and the implication is that he opens the way or leads others to enter that same place. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a person who leads others to a place. Alternate translation: “as the one who leads others” or “as one who blazes a trail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

703

HEB

6

20

a16c

figs-infostructure

πρόδρομος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν εἰσῆλθεν

1

Here, the phrase on our behalf could modify: (1) entered. In this case, Jesus has entered for our sake, or to help us. Alternate translation: “has entered for our sake as a forerunner” (2) forerunner. In this case, Jesus opened the way on our behalf. Alternate translation: “has entered as a forerunner who leads us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

704

HEB

6

20

q9tt

grammar-connect-time-sequential

γενόμενος

1

Here, the phrase having become introduces action that could happen: (1) before Jesus entered. In this case, God makes him a high priest, and then he enters the heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “already having become” (2) at the same time as Jesus entered. In this case, the “entering” and the “becoming” describe the same thing or happen at the same time. Alternate translation: “when he became” or “at the same time as he became” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

705

HEB

6

20

zgj6

κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ

1

after the order of Melchizedek

Here the author uses the same words he used in 5:6, 10. You should translate this phrase in exactly the same way as you did in those verses.

706

HEB

7

intro

y8j3

0

Hebrews 7 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Teaching: Melchizedek the priest (7:1–10)
    • Teaching: The Son is high priest in the order of Melchizedek (7:11–28)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 7:17, 21, which are words from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

High priests

In this chapter, the author frequently discusses high priests. He speaks about their “order,” which refers to the requirements, system, and service that go along with being a priest in that “order.” He focuses on two “orders.” First is the order of Aaron, made up of priests who are descended from Levi. These priests are required by Moses’ law and must offer sacrifices for themselves as well as for the rest of the people since they also sin. Also, each priest eventually dies and must be replaced by another. Second is the order of Melchizedek, made up of priests who have an “indestructible life.” This order only includes Melchizedek and Jesus. Jesus only offers sacrifices for the sins of other people, since he does not sin. Also, he never dies, so he can be a priest forever. Consider how to refer to these two different kinds of priests in this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/priest]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/highpriest]])

Melchizedek

In this chapter, the author refers to Melchizedek as he is described in Genesis 14:18–20, including how the story does not mention his father, mother, birth, or death. Scholars debate whether the author thought that Melchizedek was a supernatural being such as an angel, or whether the author simply describes the character Melchizedek without referring to the historical person named Melchizedek. What is clear is that the author thinks that Melchizedek was “made like” Jesus, not the other way around (see 7:3). In other words, the author speaks about Melchizedek because the description of him in Genesis is a helpful way to think about Jesus. Since Melchizedek was greater than Abraham, Jesus, whom Melchizedek is like, is greater than Abraham’s descendants who became priests. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/melchizedek]])

Tithes

In 7:1–10, the author refers multiple times to giving and collecting “tithes” or “a tenth.” These words refer to the practice of separating out one tenth of what a person earned or grew and giving it to someone else. In the law that God gave through Moses, the Israelites were required to give a “tenth” or “tithe” to priests. This enabled the priests to perform their service without having to do other work. The author uses the “tithes” language to show that Abraham, Levi’s great-grandfather, paid a “tithe” to Melchizedek. That means that the descendants of Abraham who received “tithes” actually paid “tithes” through Abraham to Melchizedek. In the author’s argument, this shows that Melchizedek and his priesthood are greater than Levi and his priesthood. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/tenth]])

“Swearing” and the “oath”

Just as in chapter 6, the author refers multiple times to “swearing” and using an “oath.” In this context, “swearing” refers to the action of guaranteeing a promise, while the “oath” refers to the guaranteeing words themselves. The author implies that words spoken with an “oath” have more significance or indicate something greater than words without an “oath.” If your readers would misunderstand “swearing” and “oath,” you could use language that comes from how people guarantee what they say in your culture. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oath]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

The “loin” of Abraham

In 7:5, 10, the author refers to the “loin” of Abraham. This word is a polite way to refer to the male sexual organ. In 7:5, the author’s point is that all the Israelites are descended from Abraham, since they all come from his “loin.” In 7:10, the author’s point is that Levi, the great-grandson of Abraham, could be considered to be inside Abraham’s “loin” before Abraham and Sarah had their son, Isaac. In the author’s culture, one could speak of the descendants of a man as if they were inside the man’s sexual organ. Consider natural ways to express these ideas in your language, and see the notes on these two verses.

707

HEB

7

1

mwy8

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word For signals that the author will now go on to explain who “Melchizedek” is and why he is important. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

708

HEB

7

1

smhy

figs-idiom

οὗτος…ὁ Μελχισέδεκ

1

Here, the phrase this Melchizedek identifies this Melchizedek as the same one whom the author was speaking about in the previous verse (see 6:20). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that clearly identifies that this is the same Melchizedek. Alternate translation: “Melchizedek, the one whom I just mentioned,” or “this man Melchizedek” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

709

HEB

7

1

rfc9

translate-names

Σαλήμ

1

Salem

The word Salem is the name of a city that existed somewhere in the middle of what is now Israel. Some scholars think that it is another name for the city of Shechem, while other scholars think it is another name for the city of Jerusalem. Since our author is referring directly to Genesis 14:18, you should preserve this name as much as possible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

710

HEB

7

1

h4n1

translate-names

τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ Ὑψίστου

1

The phrase Most High God refers to God and describes him as the most powerful and greatest being. The author uses this phrase since it appears in Genesis 14:18. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a title that describes God as powerful and great. Alternate translation: “of God, who is more powerful than anything else” or “of the Most Exalted God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

711

HEB

7

1

ucr1

translate-names

Ἀβραὰμ

1

The word Abraham is the name of a man. He is the man from whom all the Israelites and Jews are descended. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

712

HEB

7

1

ji3f

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ὑποστρέφοντι

1

Here, the word returning refers to action that happened at the same time as when Melchizedek met Abraham. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this connection more explicit. Alternate translation: “when he was returning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

713

HEB

7

1

rx36

figs-explicit

Ἀβραὰμ ὑποστρέφοντι ἀπὸ τῆς κοπῆς τῶν βασιλέων

1

Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings

The phrase the slaughter of the kings refers to a story in Genesis 14:1–16. Four kings conquered a city in which Abraham’s nephew was living, and they captured his nephew. Abraham took the fighting men that he had, and he conquered and “slaughtered” the armies of these four kings. He recovered all the valuable things that these kings had taken, including his nephew. When he was going back home after defeating the kings, he met Melchizedek. If your readers would need to know more about this background than the author states explicitly, you could include some extra information in your translation, or you could use a footnote to explain the story. Alternate translation: “Abraham, who was returning from the battle in which he defeated the four kings who had kidnapped his nephew,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

714

HEB

7

1

np7o

figs-synecdoche

τῶν βασιλέων

1

Here, the word kings refers to both the kings and their armies. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer explicitly to their armies. Alternate translation: “of the kings and their fighting men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

715

HEB

7

2

q87x

writing-pronouns

1

It was to him

Here, the word whom refers back to Melchizedek. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Melchizedek. Alternate translation: “to whom—that is, Melchizedek—” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

716

HEB

7

2

dplz

translate-unknown

δεκάτην…ἐμέρισεν

1

Here, the word apportioned refers to how a person might divide a group of things into “portions” and give each portion to a person. Here, Abraham divides up what he has into ten portions, and he gives Melchizedek one of those portions. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “gifted one tenth” or “presented one part out of ten” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

717

HEB

7

2

pw9x

figs-explicit

ἀπὸ πάντων

1

Here, the phrase all {things} refers to the things that Abraham took from the kings that he had defeated. This would have included what the kings took from their enemies and things that they themselves had. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit what **all {things} refers to. Alternate translation: “from all that he had plundered from the kings” or “from everything that he took after defeating the kings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

718

HEB

7

2

x3bd

figs-explicit

πρῶτον μὲν ἑρμηνευόμενος

1

Here the author does not state what is translated. The word first implies that it is the first name for this person: “Melchizedek.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is translating the name “Melchizedek.” Alternate translation: “his name first being translated as” or “first indeed the name ‘Melchizedek’ being translated as” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

719

HEB

7

2

trz1

translate-names

πρῶτον μὲν ἑρμηνευόμενος βασιλεὺς δικαιοσύνης, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ βασιλεὺς Σαλήμ, ὅ ἐστιν, βασιλεὺς εἰρήνης

1

Here the author provides translations of Melchizedek’s name (“Melchizedek”) and his title (king of Salem) from Hebrew, the language that Abraham spoke. The name “Melchizedek” means king of righteousness, and the name Salem sounds like the Hebrew word for peace. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form in your language that gives the meaning of names. Alternate translation: “first indeed his name means ‘king of righteousness,’ and then also ‘Salem’ means ‘peace,’ so ‘king of Salem’ means ‘king of peace,’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

720

HEB

7

2

kfsz

figs-activepassive

πρῶτον μὲν ἑρμηνευόμενος

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author wishes to emphasize what the words mean in a different language rather than focusing on the person doing the translating. Alternate translation: “first whose name we translate as” or “first indeed meaning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

721

HEB

7

2

abh4

figs-possession

βασιλεὺς δικαιοσύνης…βασιλεὺς εἰρήνης

1

king of righteousness … king of peace

Here the author uses the possessive form to speak about a king who is characterized by righteousness and peace. This means that he rules in a “righteous” and “peaceful” way and that what he does leads to righteousness and peace in his kingdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “king who rules righteously … king who rules peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

722

HEB

7

2

yaa0

figs-abstractnouns

δικαιοσύνης… εἰρήνης

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind righteousness and peace, you could express the ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “who does what is righteous … who does what is peaceful” or “who makes things righteous … who makes things peaceful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

723

HEB

7

2

bm11

translate-names

Σαλήμ

1

The word Salem refers to the same city that the author mentioned in 7:1. Translate it the same way you did there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

724

HEB

7

3

q4eh

figs-explicit

ἀπάτωρ, ἀμήτωρ, ἀγενεαλόγητος, μήτε ἀρχὴν ἡμερῶν, μήτε ζωῆς τέλος ἔχων

1

He is without father, without mother, without ancestors, with neither beginning of days nor end of life

Here the author is describing the character “Melchizedek” as he appears in Genesis 14:18–20. The author of that story does not mention anything about Melchizedek’s parents, how old he was, when he was born, or when he died. This is unusual, especially since priests usually needed to be the children of priests. The author of Hebrews probably did not think that Melchizedek was a supernatural being. Instead, he uses the character “Melchizedek” from the Old Testament story to help his audience understand Jesus better. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit that the author is referring to what the Old Testament tells us about Melchizedek. Alternate translation: “concerning whom there is no record of his father, mother, or genealogy, and no record of the beginning of his days or the end of his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

725

HEB

7

3

hodw

translate-unknown

ἀγενεαλόγητος

1

The word genealogy refers to a list of ancestors. In the author’s culture, this list primarily included one’s father, one’s grandfather, one’s great-grandfather, and so on. If your readers would not know what a genealogy is, you could use a comparable word or a descriptive phrase. Alternate translation: “without a list of ancestors” or “without known ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

726

HEB

7

3

ro3u

figs-idiom

μήτε ἀρχὴν ἡμερῶν, μήτε ζωῆς τέλος ἔχων

1

Here, the phrase beginning of days refers to when a person is born. The phrase end of life refers to when a person dies. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use comparable expressions. Alternate translation: “having neither a day of birth nor a day of death” or “having no birth or death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

727

HEB

7

3

wx4m

figs-activepassive

ἀφωμοιωμένος

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Melchizedek, who is made like, rather than focusing on the person doing the “making.” If you must state who did the action, you could refer to Moses, who described Melchizedek in this way in Genesis, or you could refer to God, who inspired Moses to write this way. Alternate translation: “God having made him like” or “Moses having made him like” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

728

HEB

7

3

e959

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τῷ Υἱῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The phrase Son of God is an important title for Jesus that describes his relationship to God the Father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

729

HEB

7

3

ajrw

translate-unknown

μένει ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸ διηνεκές

1

Here, the word perpetually indicates that Melchizedek never stops being a priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that expresses the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “he never stops being a priest” or “he remains a priest forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

730

HEB

7

4

h2bg

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word But introduces the next thing that the author wants to say about Melchizedek. It does not introduce a contrast with the previous verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further development, or you could leave But untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

731

HEB

7

4

iyvq

θεωρεῖτε

1

Alternate translation: “observe” or “see”

732

HEB

7

4

qdtp

figs-explicit

πηλίκος

1

Here the author does not specify in what way Melchizedek was great. The audience would have inferred that he was great in importance and rank. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify what about Melchizedek was great. Alternate translation: “how great in rank” or “how significant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

733

HEB

7

4

w2gg

writing-pronouns

οὗτος

1

this man was

The phrase this one refers to Melchizedek. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the phrase refers to Melchizedek. Alternate translation: “this Melchizedek was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

734

HEB

7

4

usbu

figs-explicit

ᾧ δεκάτην Ἀβραὰμ, ἔδωκεν ἐκ τῶν ἀκροθινίων, ὁ πατριάρχης

1

Here the audience would have agreed that the person who is “greater” would receive the tenth from the person who is not as great. If your readers would not make this inference or agree that this is true, you may need to make the reasoning explicit. Alternate translation: “to whom the patriarch Abraham gave a tenth from the best plunder, which is what people do for a greater person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

735

HEB

7

4

kwpe

translate-unknown

ἐκ τῶν ἀκροθινίων

1

Here, the phrase the best plunder refers to the most valuable objects that Abraham took from the “kings” (see 7:1) when he defeated them. The author means that the tenth that Abraham gave to Melchizedek only included the most valuable objects. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies the most valuable things that Abraham took from his enemies. Alternate translation: “from the best things that he took from his enemies” or “of the most expensive items that he plundered from the four kings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

736

HEB

7

5

l29w

grammar-connect-words-phrases

καὶ οἱ μὲν

1

Here, the word indeed indicates that the author is introducing the first half of a contrast (the second half of the contrast is in 7:6). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces the first half of a contrast, or you could leave Indeed untranslated. Alternate translation: “And on the one hand, those” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

737

HEB

7

5

j5c3

ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν Λευεὶ

1

Here, the phrase from the sons of Levi could refer to: (1) how only some of the sons of Levi became priests. Alternate translation: “out of the sons of Levi” (2) how every one of the sons of Levi is a priest. Alternate translation: “who are sons of Levi and”

738

HEB

7

5

ffl4

translate-kinship

τῶν υἱῶν Λευεὶ

1

In the author’s culture, the word sons could refer to all the descendants of an important person. Here, sons of Levi identifies everyone who is descended from Levi, one of the grandsons of Abraham. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to descendants. Only men could receive the priesthood, so you could use a masculine form here. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Levi” or “Levi’s tribe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

739

HEB

7

5

xbci

translate-names

Λευεὶ

1

The word Levi is the name of a man. He was one of the twelve sons of Jacob, the son of Abraham. All Israelites are descended from these twelve sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

740

HEB

7

5

l9zq

figs-distinguish

Λευεὶ τὴν ἱερατείαν λαμβάνοντες

1

The sons of Levi who receive the priesthood

Here, the phrase who receive the priesthood identifies the specific sons of Levi that the author is speaking about. Use a form which in your language identifies, not one that simply describes. Alternate translation: “of Levi, specifically those who receive the priesthood,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

741

HEB

7

5

pjj8

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἱερατείαν λαμβάνοντες

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind priesthood, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “who are called to be priests” or “who act as priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

742

HEB

7

5

wash

figs-explicit

ἐντολὴν ἔχουσιν…κατὰ τὸν νόμον

1

Here the author refers specifically to the law that God gave through Moses. He probably is thinking about the command about Levites and tithes in Numbers 18:21–24. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it more explicit that the author is referring to a specific part of Moses’ law. Alternate translation: “are commanded in Moses’ law” or “are told by God in the law of Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

743

HEB

7

5

hn3k

figs-abstractnouns

ἀποδεκατοῦν

1

from the people

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind tithe, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “tenth” or in some other natural way. Alternate translation: “to receive one out of ten portions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

744

HEB

7

5

ri2y

translate-kinship

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτῶν

1

from their brothers

Here, the word brothers refers to anyone who is descended from Abraham and Jacob, which would be all Israelites. It does not refer just to male children of one’s parents. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to everyone from one tribe or nation. Alternate translation: “from their fellow Israelites” or “from the others in their nation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

745

HEB

7

5

busq

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτῶν

1

Although the word brothers is masculine, it refers to any relative, both male and female. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “from their relatives” or “from their brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

746

HEB

7

5

rx2f

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

καίπερ

1

Here, the phrase even though introduces something that is unexpected, given what the author has already said. In other words, it is surprising that the sons of Levi receive tithes from their brothers when they have all come from the loin of Abraham. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that is contrary to what is expected. Alternate translation: “although” or “despite how” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

747

HEB

7

5

x4za

figs-idiom

ἐξεληλυθότας ἐκ τῆς ὀσφύος Ἀβραάμ

1

they, too, have come from Abraham’s body

The phrase from the loin of Abraham identifies everyone who has come from that loin as descendants of Abraham. The word loin refers to the male sexual organ, so anyone who has come from someone’s loin is descended from that person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that identifies people who have descended from one ancestor. Alternate translation: “they have Abraham as a common ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

748

HEB

7

5

m23m

translate-names

Ἀβραάμ

1

The word Abraham is the name of a man. He is the man from whom all the Israelites and Jews are descended. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

749

HEB

7

6

bg0k

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, the word But introduces the second half of the contrast. The first half is in the previous verse (7:5). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces the second half of a contrast, or you could leave But untranslated. Alternate translation: “And on the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

750

HEB

7

6

e0ic

writing-pronouns

1

Here, the phrase {this} one refers to Melchizedek. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the phrase refers to Melchizedek. Alternate translation: “Melchizedek,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

751

HEB

7

6

r2rs

translate-unknown

μὴ γενεαλογούμενος ἐξ αὐτῶν

1

whose descent was not traced from them

The word genealogy refers to a list of ancestors. In the author’s culture, this list primarily included one’s father, one’s grandfather, one’s great-grandfather, and so on. If your readers would not know what a genealogy is, you could use a comparable word or a descriptive phrase. Alternate translation: “not belonging in their list of ancestors” or “not being descended from their ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

752

HEB

7

6

uwoz

figs-abstractnouns

δεδεκάτωκεν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind tithe, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “tenth” or in some other natural way. See how you translated the identical phrase in 7:5. Alternate translation: “has received one out of ten portions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

753

HEB

7

6

tseb

translate-names

Ἀβραάμ

1

The word Abraham is the name of a man. He is the man from whom all the Israelites and Jews are descended. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

754

HEB

7

6

d2hq

figs-explicit

τὸν ἔχοντα τὰς ἐπαγγελίας

1

the one who had the promises

Here, the phrase the one having the promises refers to Abraham again. It does not refer to another person. Express the idea in such a way that your readers know that the one having the promises is Abraham. Alternate translation: “him, the one having the promises” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

755

HEB

7

6

odvp

figs-idiom

τὸν ἔχοντα τὰς ἐπαγγελίας

1

Here, the phrase the one having the promises identifies Abraham as the one to whom God made these promises. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use another comparable phrase that identifies Abraham as the recipient of God’s promises. Alternate translation: “the one to whom God made the promises” or “the recipient of the promises” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

756

HEB

7

6

kh73

figs-abstractnouns

τὰς ἐπαγγελίας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind promises, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “promise” or “pledge.” Alternate translation: “what God pledged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

757

HEB

7

7

xhcq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, the word But introduces a further development concerning how Melchizedek blessed Abraham. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further development, or you could leave But untranslated. Alternate translation: “Concerning blessings,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

758

HEB

7

7

wdtx

figs-idiom

χωρὶς…πάσης ἀντιλογίας

1

The phrase without any dispute identifies the statement as something that most people would agree with. In other words, the author does not think he needs to prove this statement. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies a commonly held belief that does not need to be proved. Alternate translation: “as everyone knows” or “as we all know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

759

HEB

7

7

ddwg

figs-explicit

τὸ ἔλαττον ὑπὸ τοῦ κρείττονος εὐλογεῖται

1

The author assumes that his audience would apply this general principle to what he has said about Melchizedek blessing Abraham. If your readers would not naturally make this application, you could make it explicit. Alternate translation: “the lesser, in this case Abraham, is blessed by the greater, in this case Melchizedek” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

760

HEB

7

7

k6pc

figs-activepassive

τὸ ἔλαττον ὑπὸ τοῦ κρείττονος εὐλογεῖται

1

the lesser person is blessed by the greater person

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the greater blesses the lesser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

761

HEB

7

7

hper

figs-nominaladj

τὸ ἔλαττον…τοῦ κρείττονος

1

The author is using the adjectives lesser and greater as nouns in order to refer to people who are lesser and greater. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate these with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “a lesser person … a greater person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

762

HEB

7

8

sf79

figs-infostructure

ὧδε μὲν…ἐκεῖ δὲ

1

In this case … in that case

The phrase indeed here introduces the first situation: that of the priests descended from Levi. The phrase but there introduces the second situation: that of Melchizedek the priest. The author compares how they both receive tithes (implicitly with Melchizedek) and contrasts how the priests descended from Levi die but Melchizedek lives on. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use phrases that introduce two situations that the author wishes to compare and contrast. Alternate translation: “in the case of the Levites … but in the case of Melchizedek,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

763

HEB

7

8

negg

figs-explicit

ἀποθνῄσκοντες ἄνθρωποι

1

Here, the phrase mortal men refers specifically to the priests descended from Levi. The author is emphasizing that all these priests die. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make clearer to whom mortal men refers . Alternate translation: “priests who will die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

764

HEB

7

8

iymo

figs-abstractnouns

δεκάτας

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind tithes, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “tenth” or in some other natural way. Alternate translation: “one out of ten portions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

765

HEB

7

8

seiq

writing-pronouns

μαρτυρούμενος ὅτι ζῇ

1

Here, the word he refers to Melchizedek. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make clear to whom he refers. Alternate translation: “Melchizedek is testified about that he lives on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

766

HEB

7

8

n9nb

figs-explicit

μαρτυρούμενος ὅτι ζῇ

1

The author explicitly contrasts mortal men and he lives on. He does not explicitly restate the fact that Melchizedek too receives tithes, but he does imply it. If your readers would not make this inference, and if they would be confused about why the author does not mention tithes with Melchizedek, you could make the idea explicit. Alternate translation: “he is testified about that he received a tithe and that he lives on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

767

HEB

7

8

d1yr

figs-activepassive

μαρτυρούμενος

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Melchizedek, who is testified about, rather than focusing on the person doing the “testifying.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that God did it when he spoke through Moses in Genesis 14:18–20. Alternate translation: “God testifies about him” or “Moses testifies about him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

768

HEB

7

8

c9zz

figs-explicit

μαρτυρούμενος ὅτι ζῇ

1

is testified that he lives on

Here, just as in 7:3, the author is describing the character “Melchizedek” as he appears in Genesis 14:18–20. The author of that story does not mention anything about Melchizedek’s death. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit that the author is referring to what the Old Testament tells us about Melchizedek. Alternate translation: “he is testified about that he lives on, since there is no record of his death in the Scriptures” or “the lack of any record of his death testifies that he lives on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

769

HEB

7

9

v1kt

figs-idiom

ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν

1

The phrase so to speak identifies what follows as something that the author considers to be imprecise or that claims more than he might wish to claim in the end. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an argument to which the author does not want to fully commit. Alternate translation: “as one might say” or “in a manner of speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

770

HEB

7

9

zvd3

translate-names

Ἀβραὰμ…Λευεὶς

1

The word Levi is the name of a man. He was one of the twelve sons of Jacob, the son of Abraham. The word Abraham is also the name of a man. He was the ancestor of all the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

771

HEB

7

9

e9gc

figs-metonymy

Λευεὶς, ὁ δεκάτας λαμβάνων

1

Here, the name Levi refers to the descendants of Levi who were priests and collected tithes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit that Levi stands for the descendants of Levi. Alternate translation: “Levi’s descendants, the ones collecting tithes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

772

HEB

7

9

v1yu

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ…ὁ δεκάτας λαμβάνων, δεδεκάτωται

2

Levi, who received tithes, also paid tithes through Abraham

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the idea behind tithe and tithes, you could express the ideas by using an adjective such as “tenth” or in some other natural way. Alternate translation: “the one collecting one out of ten portions, also had paid one out of ten portions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

773

HEB

7

9

odg8

figs-explicit

δι’ Ἀβραὰμ…δεδεκάτωται

1

Here the author refers to how Abraham paid a tithe to Melchizedek, an event the author has already mentioned (see 7:4). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make more explicit that the author is referring to that event. Alternate translation: “had paid a tithe to Melchizedek through Abraham after Abraham defeated his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

774

HEB

7

10

g26s

figs-idiom

ἔτι…ἐν τῇ ὀσφύϊ τοῦ πατρὸς ἦν

1

Levi was in the body of his ancestor

The phrase the loin of {his} father refers to the male sexual organ. In the author’s culture, one way to speak about children was to refer to them as the product of the father’s semen. So, Abraham’s descendants can be referred to as if they were semen that was still inside Abraham. The author uses this figure of speech to make two points. First, Levi and the priests descended from him had not yet been born and thus could be considered semen that was still inside Abraham. Second, because they were inside Abraham, they participated in whatever Abraham did. This included giving a tithe to Melchizedek. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that closely identifies Levi and Abraham, while showing that Levi was not yet born. Alternate translation: “he was not yet born, and Abraham represented him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

775

HEB

7

10

bd2l

translate-kinship

τοῦ πατρὸς

1

Here the author uses the word father to refer in general to a male ancestor. Abraham was more specifically Levi’s great-grandfather on his father’s side. Use an appropriate word for this relationship in your culture. Alternate translation: “of his ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

776

HEB

7

10

p0zd

translate-names

Μελχισέδεκ

1

The word Melchizedek is the name of a man, the same man that the author has been discussing in this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

777

HEB

7

10

l5dd

writing-pronouns

αὐτῷ

1

Here, the word him refers to Abraham. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Abraham. Alternate translation: “Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

778

HEB

7

11

kdb8

grammar-connect-words-phrases

μὲν οὖν

1

Now

Here, the word then shows the audience that the author is continuing the argument about Melchizedek and the priests descended from Levi. The word indeed signals the first part of a contrast. The second part is the question in the second half of this verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that introduce a development in the argument that takes the form of a contrast. Alternate translation: “therefore” or “then on the one hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

779

HEB

7

11

ruvi

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ μὲν οὖν τελείωσις διὰ τῆς Λευειτικῆς ἱερωσύνης ἦν

1

Here the author is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He knows that perfection did not happen through the Levitical priesthood. He proves that the conditional statement is not true by reminding the audience that God did indeed appoint another priest who is according to the order of Melchizedek. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “If indeed then, perfection had actually been through the Levitical priesthood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

780

HEB

7

11

yvxw

figs-abstractnouns

τελείωσις…ἦν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind perfection, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “perfect.” Alternate translation: “people could become perfect” or “what is perfect was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

781

HEB

7

11

nw53

translate-unknown

τῆς Λευειτικῆς ἱερωσύνης

1

Here, the phrase the Levitical priesthood refers to the people, the system, and the practices that were connected with how the descendants of Levi served as priests to God for the rest of the Israelites. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to all these components. Alternate translation: “the way that the descendants of Levi served as priests” or “the priesthood that the descendants of Levi practiced” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

782

HEB

7

11

eyek

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς Λευειτικῆς ἱερωσύνης

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind priesthood, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “how the Levites served as priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

783

HEB

7

11

t3pe

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word for introduces a clarification or explanation of what the author just said. In other words, he speaks about perfection and the Levitical priesthood because this priesthood was the basis for the whole law. He wishes his audience to know that what he says about perfection and priesthood applies to the whole law. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a clarification or explanation. Alternate translation: “now” or “in fact,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

784

HEB

7

11

etid

figs-infostructure

εἰ μὲν οὖν τελείωσις διὰ τῆς Λευειτικῆς ἱερωσύνης ἦν, ὁ λαὸς γὰρ ἐπ’ αὐτῆς νενομοθέτηται,

1

Here the author provides a clarification after he makes his claim. If your readers would find this order confusing, you could put the clarification before the claim. Alternate translation: “Now on the basis of the Levitical priesthood, the people had been given the law. If indeed then, perfection was through the Levitical priesthood,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

785

HEB

7

11

ui2m

figs-explicit

ὁ λαὸς…νενομοθέτηται

1

Here the author refers to the law that God gave through Moses to the people of Israel. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit to which law and which people the author is referring. Alternate translation: “the Israelite people had been given Moses’ law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

786

HEB

7

11

a17s

figs-activepassive

ὁ λαὸς…νενομοθέτηται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the people who were given {the} law, rather than focusing on the person doing the “giving.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God had given the law to the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

787

HEB

7

11

wgp5

figs-rquestion

τίς ἔτι χρεία κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ, ἕτερον ἀνίστασθαι ἱερέα, καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρὼν λέγεσθαι?

1

what further need would there have been for another priest to arise after the manner of Melchizedek, and not be considered to be after the manner of Aaron?

The author does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The question implies that the answer is “there was no further need.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using a strong negation. Alternate translation: “there was no further at all for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek and not be said to be according to the order of Aaron.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

788

HEB

7

11

jt8l

figs-abstractnouns

τίς ἔτι χρεία

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind need, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “need” or an adjective such as “necessary.” Alternate translation: “why was it still necessary” or “why was it needed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

789

HEB

7

11

kmfw

figs-explicit

κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ, ἕτερον ἀνίστασθαι ἱερέα, καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρὼν λέγεσθαι?

1

Here the author is referring back to the words that he quoted in 5:6 from Psalm 110:4: “You are a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek.” It is these words that “say” that Jesus is a priest *according to the order of Melchizedek and not according to the order of Aaron. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it more explicit that the author is referring to the quotation. Alternate translation: “for another to arise who, according to the psalm, serves according to the order of Melchizedek and is not said to serve according to the order of Aaron” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

790

HEB

7

11

hi4e

figs-metaphor

ἀνίστασθαι

1

to arise

Here, the word arise refers to someone taking a position as if they were standing up to do something. The author speaks in this way to show that another priest has “stood up” to do his task as priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to appear” or “to begin serving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

791

HEB

7

11

cc5f

translate-unknown

κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ…κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρὼν

1

after the manner of Melchizedek

Here, the word order refers to requirements and duties that go along with a specific office or position. If someone serves according to the order of someone else, that means that he or she meets the same requirements and performs the same duties which that person did. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “in the same way that Melchizedek was a priest … in the same way that Aaron was a priest” or “with a priesthood just like Melchizedek’s priesthood … having a priesthood just like Aaron’s priesthood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

792

HEB

7

11

b4n2

translate-names

Μελχισέδεκ…Ἀαρὼν

1

Here, the word Melchizedek is the name of a man, the same one about whom the author has been speaking. The word Aaron is also the name of a man. He was the first descendant of “Levi” who served as a priest, and the rest of the priests are descended from him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

793

HEB

7

11

kt3a

figs-activepassive

οὐ…λέγεσθαι

1

not be considered to be after the manner of Aaron

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the one who is not said rather than focusing on what does not do the “saying.” If you must state who does not “say,” the author implies that “God” did not say this when he spoke in Psalm 110:4. Alternate translation: “for the psalm not to identify him to be” or “for God to say that he is not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

794

HEB

7

12

wawz

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces further explanation and support for the idea that the “basis” of the law is the priesthood (see 7:11). The author’s point is that, because a change of the law occurs whenever the priesthood is changed, that means that the priesthood must be the basis for the law. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further support for a previous claim. Alternate translation: “You can tell that the priesthood is the basis of the law, because” or “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

795

HEB

7

12

c7f1

figs-activepassive

μετατιθεμένης…τῆς ἱερωσύνης

1

For when the priesthood is changed, the law must also be changed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is changed rather than focusing on the person doing the “changing.” If you must state who does the action, the author implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “when God changes the priesthood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

796

HEB

7

12

lipz

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ἱερωσύνης

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind priesthood, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “how people act as priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

797

HEB

7

12

s8qi

figs-idiom

ἐξ ἀνάγκης

1

Here, the phrase from necessity indicates that what follows “must” or “has to” happen. The phrase does not clarify why what follows is a necessity. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that indicates obligation or certainty. Alternate translation: “it is required that” or “it follows that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

798

HEB

7

12

e8av

figs-abstractnouns

ἐξ ἀνάγκης καὶ νόμου μετάθεσις γίνεται

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind necessity, change, or place, you could express the ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “the law also needs to be changed” or “it is required that the law also changes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

799

HEB

7

13

mwx4

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces support for what the author has implied: there has indeed been a change in the priesthood (see 7:11–12). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces support for a claim. Alternate translation: “Now the priesthood has been changed, since” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

800

HEB

7

13

k9zi

writing-pronouns

ἐφ’ ὃν…λέγεται ταῦτα…μετέσχηκεν

1

For the one

Here, the words he and whom both refer to Jesus, to whom the author has applied the words of Psalm 110:4. The author does not refer to Jesus by name here, because he uses “the Lord” in the next verse and because he emphatically uses Jesus’ name in 7:22. If possible, refer to Jesus here as indirectly as the author does. If you must clarify to whom he and whom refer, you could use a word or phrase that directly identifies Jesus. Alternate translation: “the Lord about whom these things are said belongs to” or “Jesus, about whom these things are said, belongs to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

801

HEB

7

13

m9mm

figs-activepassive

ἐφ’ ὃν…λέγεται ταῦτα

1

about whom these things are said

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is said rather than focusing on the person doing the “saying.” If you must state who did the “saying,” the author implies that “God” did it in the words of Psalm 110:4. Alternate translation: “about whom God said these things” or “about whom we read these things in the psalm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

802

HEB

7

13

nmdl

figs-extrainfo

φυλῆς ἑτέρας

1

Here, the phrase tribe refers to all those people who are descended from one of Jacob’s twelve sons. The author refers to another tribe to show that Jesus is not from the tribe of Levi. He will state which tribe Jesus is from in the next verse, so do not identify of whose tribe the author speaks until the next verse. Alternate translation: “one of the other tribes” or “a tribe that is not connected with Levi” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

803

HEB

7

13

n3hs

figs-idiom

προσέσχηκεν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ

1

Here, the phrase officiated at the altar is another way to say that someone has served or functioned as a priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to acting as a priest. Alternate translation: “has functioned as priest” or “has done priestly work at God’s altar” See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

804

HEB

7

14

t3dm

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Now

Here, the word For introduces further, more specific explanation of what the author claimed in the previous verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces more specific information. Alternate translation: “More specifically,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

805

HEB

7

14

mxj1

πρόδηλον

1

Here, the phrase {it is} obvious indicates that what follows is common knowledge, that is, information that the author assumes his audience already knows. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that introduces common knowledge. Alternate translation: “everyone knows” or “it is commonly known”

806

HEB

7

14

qsk5

figs-metaphor

ἐξ Ἰούδα ἀνατέταλκεν

1

it is from Judah that our Lord was born

Here the author describes Jesus’ birth as if he were the sun that “sprang up” above the horizon at sunrise. He speaks in this way to refer to Jesus’ birth as a descendant of Judah but also to indicate that Jesus’ birth was not completely normal. Since Jesus was born by the power of the Holy Spirit without a human father, the author uses a less common phrase to refer to the person from whom he is descended. If possible, use a comparable phrase in your language that refers to human descent but that also indicates that Jesus’ birth was not totally normal. Alternate translation: “has come from Judah” or “has sprouted from Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

807

HEB

7

14

ln94

translate-names

ἐξ Ἰούδα…Μωϋσῆς

1

from Judah

Here, the word Judah is the name of a man. He was one of the great-grandsons of Abraham. Here, the author uses the name Judah to refer to the tribe of people who are descended from Judah. The word Moses is the name of a man. God used him to give the law to the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

808

HEB

7

14

fh67

figs-explicit

οὐδὲν Μωϋσῆς ἐλάλησεν

1

Here the author refers to the law that Moses received from God and gave to the people of Israel. This law contained instructions about who would serve as priests, and the only instructions that Moses received were about how people from the tribe of Levi would serve as priests. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “Moses wrote nothing in the law” or “God gave Moses nothing to say in the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

809

HEB

7

14

onns

figs-explicit

περὶ ἱερέων οὐδὲν

1

Here, the phrase nothing concerning priests indicates that the law of Moses contains no instructions or indications about people from the tribe of Judah serving as priests. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “nothing about some of them acting as priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

810

HEB

7

15

uf6c

writing-pronouns

ἐστιν

1

Here, the word this could refer to: (1) the author’s claim that God changed the priesthood. Alternate translation: “the change in priesthood is” or “the fact that God has changed the priesthood is” (2) more generally to what the author is arguing about Jesus and the priests who are descended from Levi. Alternate translation: “what I am arguing is” or “what I have said is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

811

HEB

7

15

jn1p

καὶ περισσότερον ἔτι κατάδηλόν ἐστιν

1

What we say is clearer yet

Here, the phrase still even more obvious is a stronger form of the phrase “{it is} obvious” in 7:14. The author’s point is that everyone must acknowledge that this (see the previous note) is true, given that the following if statement is also true. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that everyone must agree with. Alternate translation: “And everyone must agree that this is true” or “And everyone knows that this is surely correct”

812

HEB

7

15

md9i

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ…ἀνίσταται ἱερεὺς ἕτερος

1

if another priest arises

Here the author is speaking as if another priest “emerging” were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what the author is saying is not certain, then you could express the idea by using a word such as “because” or “since.” Alternate translation: “now that another priest has emerged” or “because another priest has emerged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

813

HEB

7

15

i17g

figs-explicit

ἱερεὺς ἕτερος

1

General Information:

Here, the phrase another priest refers to Jesus, who is a different kind of priest than the priests who are descended from Levi. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the phrase refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who is a different priest,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

814

HEB

7

15

chxb

figs-metaphor

ἀνίσταται

1

Here the author speaks of how Jesus has become a priest as if he were a person “emerging” from underneath a covering or screen. He speaks in this way to indicate that Jesus became a priest at a specific point in time. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to becoming a priest. Alternate translation: “takes office” or “begins to serve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

815

HEB

7

15

z1yl

translate-unknown

κατὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα Μελχισέδεκ

1

in the likeness of Melchizedek

Here, the phrase according to the likeness of means something very similar to “according to the order of.” See how you translated that phrase in 7:11. If possible, use similar but not identical words here. The word likeness emphasizes similar behavior and identity, while “order” emphasizes similar requirements and duties. Alternate translation: “much like how Melchizedek was a priest” or “with a priesthood much like Melchizedek’s priesthood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

816

HEB

7

15

afqi

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα Μελχισέδεκ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind likeness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “like” or “similar.” Alternate translation: “who is like Melchizedek” or “who is similar to Melchizedek” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

817

HEB

7

16

nt6b

writing-pronouns

ὃς…γέγονεν

1

Here, the word who refers back to the phrase “another priest” in the previous verse (7:15). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to “another priest.” If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “That priest has become one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

818

HEB

7

16

fr4a

figs-infostructure

οὐ κατὰ νόμον ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης…ἀλλὰ κατὰ δύναμιν ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου

1

It was not based on the law

If your language would not put the negative statement before the positive statement, you could reverse them. Alternate translation: “according to the power of an indestructible life, not according to a law of a fleshly command” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

819

HEB

7

16

erq7

figs-possession

νόμον ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης

1

the law of fleshly descent

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that a law includes a fleshly command. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “according to a fleshly command in the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

820

HEB

7

16

el4j

figs-explicit

ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης

1

Here, the phrase fleshly command refers to a command that could: (1) deal with what is fleshly, specifically how humans have children. In other words, the command relates to how priests need to be descended from Levi. Alternate translation: “of a command about physical descent” (2) apply to people who are fleshly, that is, those who are alive now and who do not have resurrected bodies. Alternate translation: “of command that deals with this life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

821

HEB

7

16

l4mg

figs-abstractnouns

ἐντολῆς σαρκίνης

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind command, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “command.” Alternate translation: “that commands what is fleshly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

822

HEB

7

16

kw1a

figs-possession

κατὰ δύναμιν ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου

1

Here the author uses the possessive form to indicate that power comes from or is based in the indestructible life. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “according to the power that comes from an indestructible life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

823

HEB

7

16

oiwa

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ δύναμιν ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind power and life, you could express the ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “according to how powerful he is because he never stops living” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

824

HEB

7

16

m4kl

figs-explicit

ζωῆς ἀκαταλύτου

1

Here, the phrase indestructible life refers to how Jesus died but then resurrected and is alive again. The phrase also explains what being a priest “forever” (see Psalm 110:4) means. The author will cite this psalm again in the following verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what indestructible life refers to more explicit. Alternate translation: “of a life that death could not destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

825

HEB

7

17

xmj8

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For scripture witnesses about him

Here, the word For introduces the evidence or proof that Jesus has become a priest “according to the power of an indestructible life” (see 7:16). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces evidence or proof. Alternate translation: “You know that is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

826

HEB

7

17

gqya

figs-activepassive

μαρτυρεῖται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is testified rather than focusing on who or what does the “testifying.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it when he spoke Psalm 110:4. Alternate translation: “God is testifying” or “the psalm is testifying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

827

HEB

7

17

t8nv

writing-quotations

μαρτυρεῖται

1

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as something that has been testified. However, the audience would have understood that these were words from the Old Testament, specifically from Psalm 110:4. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. Alternate translation: “it is being testified in the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

828

HEB

7

17

oo1b

figs-quotations

μαρτυρεῖται…ὅτι σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ

1

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “it is being testified that he is a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

829

HEB

7

17

g6zd

σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισέδεκ

1

according to the order of Melchizedek

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 5:6, you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in that verse.

830

HEB

7

18

bzht

grammar-connect-words-phrases

μὲν γὰρ

1

Here, the word For introduces an explanation of what the quote in the previous verse means. The phrase on the one hand signals to the audience that this explanation has two parts. The second part begins with “on the other hand” in 7:19b. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words that introduce a two-part explanation. If you use the following alternate translation, you will need to follow something like the alternate translation for “on the other hand” in 7:19b. Alternate translation: “First then” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

831

HEB

7

18

dm50

figs-abstractnouns

ἀθέτησις…γίνεται προαγούσης ἐντολῆς

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind annulment and commandment, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “annul” and “command.” Alternate translation: “what was formerly commanded is annulled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

832

HEB

7

18

x8tw

figs-explicit

προαγούσης ἐντολῆς

1

Here, the phrase the former commandment identifies what God commanded Moses to tell the people about how the descendants of Levi would serve as priests and what they would do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “of the former commandment about the Levitical priesthood” or “of the former commandment concerning priests in Moses’ law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

833

HEB

7

18

ez4i

figs-doublet

ἀσθενὲς, καὶ ἀνωφελές

1

These two terms mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize how ineffective the “former commandment” was. If your language does not use repetition to do this, or if you do not have two words for these attributes, you could use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “is very weak” or “cannot accomplish anything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

834

HEB

7

19

t5w7

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word for introduces support for how the “former commandment” is “weak and useless” (see 7:18). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces support for a claim. Alternate translation: “indeed,” or “that is because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

835

HEB

7

19

ia8j

figs-personification

οὐδὲν…ἐτελείωσεν ὁ νόμος

1

the law made nothing perfect

Here the author speaks of the law as if it were a person who was ineffective and could “perfect” nothing. He speaks in this way to indicate that the system of laws that God gave through Moses, particularly the laws about priests, did not lead to people or things becoming “perfect.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “the law was not something that people could follow to become perfect” or “nothing was perfected through Moses’ law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

836

HEB

7

19

otzd

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, the phrase on the other hand introduces the second part of the author’s explanation. Make sure you translate this phrase so that it works well with how you translated “on the one hand” in 7:18. Alternate translation: “and second, there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

837

HEB

7

19

stc2

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπεισαγωγὴ…κρείττονος ἐλπίδος

1

a better hope is introduced

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind introduction and hope, you could express the idea by using verbs such as “introduce” and “hope.” Alternate translation: “God introduces something better for which we hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

838

HEB

7

19

xp1h

figs-metonymy

κρείττονος ἐλπίδος

1

a better hope is introduced

Here, the word hope refers to the contents of the hope, or what believers confidently expect. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is referring to the contents of this hope. Alternate translation: “of the better things that we hope for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

839

HEB

7

19

c9tz

figs-go

ἐγγίζομεν τῷ Θεῷ

1

through which we come near to God

Here, the phrase come near refers to getting close to something but not necessarily being right next to it. Here, the author wants believers to approach God in heaven. This means that they enter into God’s presence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to being in someone’s presence. Alternate translation: “we go before God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

840

HEB

7

20

e97r

translate-versebridge

0

General Information:

To help your readers understand the author’s main point in this verse and the next one, you could combine both verses into a verse bridge. You could put in a first sentence the background information about how the Israelite priests were not appointed with an oath while Jesus was appointed with an oath. Then, you could put the comparison between how Jesus was appointed with an oath and how he is the guarantor of a better covenant in a second sentence. Alternate translation: “For indeed they, without swearing an oath, are become priests, but he with an oath-taking, through God saying to him, “The Lord swore and will not change his mind: ‘You are a priest forever.’” So, by as much as not without swearing an oath,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-versebridge]])

841

HEB

7

20

f3cd

grammar-connect-words-phrases

καθ’ ὅσον

1

General Information:

Here, the phrase by as much as introduces the first half a comparison that the author will complete in 7:22. The point is that, just as swearing an oath is more guaranteed than not using an oath, so Jesus’ priesthood and covenant are better than the priesthood of the descendants of Levi. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that introduces a comparison between two situations or concepts. Alternate translation: “just as it was” or “in the same way that it was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

842

HEB

7

20

ziqe

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας

1

The phrase not without swearing an oath uses two negative words to emphasize that there was definitely an oath involved. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning with positive words, emphasizing the importance of swearing an oath. Alternate translation: “with swearing an oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

843

HEB

7

20

vf69

figs-explicit

οὐ χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here the author again refers to Psalm 110:4, which states that the Lord “swears” that “you are a priest forever.” The author quotes this psalm again in the following verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the content of the oath explicit. Alternate translation: “not without swearing an oath about the priesthood of the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

844

HEB

7

20

v343

figs-infostructure

ὁρκωμοσίας, οἱ μὲν γὰρ χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας εἰσὶν ἱερεῖς γεγονότες,

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here the author begins a comment about the oath and priests. This comment continues to the end of 7:21. The ULT has used em-dashes to make it clear that these words are extra information that explain not without swearing an oath. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that indicates that the author is about to give extra explanatory information. If you do, make sure that you properly signal the end of this extra information at the end of 7:22. Alternate translation: “swearing an oath—by the way, they indeed without swearing an oath are become priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

845

HEB

7

20

atus

grammar-connect-words-phrases

μὲν γὰρ

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here, the word for introduces an explanation of about why it is important that there was an oath. The word indeed signals to the audience that this explanation has two parts. The second part begins with “but” in 7:21a. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words that introduce a two-part explanation. Alternate translation: “now on the one hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

846

HEB

7

20

jrue

writing-pronouns

οἱ

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here, the word they refers to the priests who are descended from Levi, about whom God gave laws through Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Levitical priests. Alternate translation: “the Levitical priests” or “the Levites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

847

HEB

7

20

n5bi

figs-explicit

χωρὶς ὁρκωμοσίας εἰσὶν ἱερεῖς γεγονότες

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here the author points out that God did not “swear” an oath when he appointed the descendants of Levi to be priests. Instead, he gave laws and regulations through Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what the author is claiming more explicit. Alternate translation: “are appointed priests by God without him swearing an oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

848

HEB

7

21

q1vm

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here, the word but introduces the second part of the author’s explanation. Make sure you translate this word so that it works well with how you translated “indeed” in 7:20. Alternate translation: “but on the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

849

HEB

7

21

y3uo

figs-ellipsis

ὁ…μετὰ

1

And it was not without an oath!

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the end of the previous verse (7:20). Alternate translation: “he became a priest with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

850

HEB

7

21

hook

writing-pronouns

ὁ…μετὰ ὁρκωμοσίας διὰ τοῦ λέγοντος πρὸς αὐτόν

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here, the words he and him refer to Jesus the Son. The phrase the one saying refers to God the Father. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronouns refer to Jesus. Alternate translation: “the Son with an oath-taking, through God the Father saying to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

851

HEB

7

21

ythb

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ ὁρκωμοσίας διὰ τοῦ λέγοντος πρὸς αὐτόν

1

And it was not without an oath!

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind oath-taking, you could express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “taking an oath.” Alternate translation: “through God taking an oath when he said to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

852

HEB

7

21

fzr9

writing-quotations

διὰ τοῦ λέγοντος πρὸς αὐτόν

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as words that God has spoken to Christ. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, specifically from Psalm 110:4. Since the author introduces the quotation as words that God has said to Christ, you should introduce the quotation as words that someone has said. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. Alternate translation: “through the one speaking to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

853

HEB

7

21

o4wg

figs-quotations

πρὸς αὐτόν, ὤμοσεν Κύριος, καὶ οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται, σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα;

1

And it was not without an oath!

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the quotation as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “to him that the Lord swore and will not change his mind, saying that he is a priest forever—” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

854

HEB

7

21

zw04

figs-123person

ὤμοσεν Κύριος, καὶ οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here, God speaks the quotation, but the Lord in the quotation is God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use the first person instead. Alternate translation: “I, the Lord, swore and will not change my mind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

855

HEB

7

21

xbtg

figs-idiom

οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται

1

And it was not without an oath!

Here, the phrase change his mind refers to how somebody first decides to do one thing but then later decides to do something different. The quotation indicates that the Lord will not decide to do something different. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable expression. Alternate translation: “will not revoke what he has said” or “will not decide to do something different” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

856

HEB

7

21

qtfs

figs-quotesinquotes

οὐ μεταμεληθήσεται, σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

1

And it was not without an oath!

If a direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “will not change his mind, swearing that you are a priest forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

857

HEB

7

21

e5v1

σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

1

And it was not without an oath!

Since the author repeats here the same words that he quoted in 7:17 (although he does not include the phrase “according to the order of Melchizedek”), you should translate these words in exactly the same way as you did in that verse.

858

HEB

7

22

h462

grammar-connect-words-phrases

κατὰ τοσοῦτο

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the phrase according to so much more introduces the second half of the comparison that the author began in the first part of 7:20. The comparison indicates that the difference in greatness between a priesthood with an oath and a priesthood without an oath is comparable to the difference in greatness between the covenants of which these priesthoods are a part. In other words, the covenant that Jesus “guarantees” is greater than the covenant that God gave through Moses, just like his priesthood that is guaranteed by an oath is greater than the priesthood that God gave to the descendants of Levi. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that expresses a comparison between two situations or concepts. Alternate translation: “by that much” or “by so much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

859

HEB

7

22

e23d

translate-unknown

γέγονεν ἔγγυος

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

Here, the word guarantor refers to a person who makes sure that people do what they promised or agreed to do. In other words, Jesus is the one who ensures that the better covenant be carried out. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase. Alternate translation: “ensures the fulfillment” or “makes certain the accomplishment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

860

HEB

7

22

qn5c

figs-explicit

κρείττονος διαθήκης

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

Here the audience would have inferred that the covenant is better than the “old covenant,” the one that God gave through Moses to the Israelites. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “of a covenant that is better than the covenant that God gave through Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

861

HEB

7

23

cdsy

grammar-connect-words-phrases

καὶ οἱ μὲν…γεγονότες

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

Here, the word And indicates that the author is adding a new point or topic to what he is discussing. The phrase on the one hand signals to the reader that this new point occurs in two contrasting parts. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that more clearly introduce a new point in two contrasting parts. Make sure that you express the second half of the contrast in 7:24 so that it fits with what you do here. Alternate translation: “Now on the one hand, the ones having become” or “First, the ones having become” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

862

HEB

7

23

ygc6

figs-explicit

πλείονές

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

Here the author is primarily interested in how there were many priests serving one after the other. He is not speaking about how many priests served at one time. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is referring to the long sequence of priests who served one after the other. Alternate translation: “many in a row” or “many throughout time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

863

HEB

7

23

yeb6

figs-activepassive

θανάτῳ κωλύεσθαι παραμένειν

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are prevented rather than focusing on what does the “preventing.” Alternate translation: “death prevents them from continuing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

864

HEB

7

23

vn5m

figs-abstractnouns

θανάτῳ

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind death, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “die.” Alternate translation: “by how they die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

865

HEB

7

23

tfba

figs-explicit

παραμένειν

1

has given the guarantee of a better covenant

Here the author implies that they are prevented {from} continuing to be priests. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “from continuing to be priests” or “from continuing to act as priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

866

HEB

7

24

ywjc

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ὁ δὲ

1

he has a permanent priesthood

Here, the words but and on the other hand introduce the second part of the contrast that the author began in 7:23. Make sure you express the idea here in a way that matches how you introduced the first half of the contrast in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “and on the other hand, he” or “but second, he” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

867

HEB

7

24

y2uu

writing-pronouns

1

he has a permanent priesthood

Here, the word he refers to Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “the Son” or “Jesus the Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

868

HEB

7

24

z20u

figs-explicit

μένειν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

1

he has a permanent priesthood

Here, the phrase he remains forever means something similar to the phrase “indestructible life” in 7:16: Jesus lives forever, that is, he will never die. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “remains alive forever” or “lives without end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

869

HEB

7

24

u941

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπαράβατον ἔχει τὴν ἱερωσύνην

1

he has a permanent priesthood

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind priesthood, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “imitate.” Alternate translation: “is permanently a priest” or “permanently acts as a priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

870

HEB

7

25

a4gg

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅθεν

1

Therefore he

Here, the phrase because of which introduces a conclusion based on the fact that Jesus has “the permanent priesthood” (7:24). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a natural form that introduces a conclusion. Alternate translation: “as a result of which” or “so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

871

HEB

7

25

sn4h

figs-explicit

σῴζειν εἰς τὸ παντελὲς

1

Therefore he

Here, the word completely identifies the way that Jesus “saves” people as something that he himself does totally and finally. In other words, he does not need someone else to assist him in “saving” his people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “to save entirely” or “to save all the way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

872

HEB

7

25

b182

figs-go

τοὺς προσερχομένους…τῷ Θεῷ

1

those who approach God through him

Here, the word approaching refers to getting close to something but not necessarily being right next to it. Here, the author speaks of people approaching God. This means that they enter into God’s presence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to being in someone’s presence. Alternate translation: “the ones going before God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

873

HEB

7

25

l29k

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

πάντοτε ζῶν

1

those who approach God through him

Here, the phrase always living could introduce: (1) another reason why he is able to save completely. Alternate translation: “because he always lives” (2) something that happens as part of or during his “saving” of those approaching God through him. Alternate translation: “as one who always lives” or “part of which is how he always lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

874

HEB

7

26

x23q

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

has become higher than the heavens

Here, the word For introduces further explanation of the way in which Jesus serves as a priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces more explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

875

HEB

7

26

p677

writing-pronouns

τοιοῦτος…ἀρχιερεύς

1

has become higher than the heavens

Here, the word such could refer: (1) back to what the author said in the previous verses about how Jesus has a “permanent priesthood” and can “save completely” (see 7:24–25). Alternate translation: “that kind of high priest” (2) ahead to what the author will say in this and the following verses about the kind of high priest that Jesus is. Alternate translation: “the kind of high priest I am about to describe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

876

HEB

7

26

gl1y

translate-unknown

καὶ ἔπρεπεν

1

has become higher than the heavens

Here, the word suitable identifies something or someone that is appropriate to a specific situation or task. The author’s point is that Jesus is the appropriate high priest to “save completely” everyone who believes in him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies this high priest as “appropriate” or “fitting.” Alternate translation: “was indeed fitting” or “was indeed the right one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

877

HEB

7

26

t182

figs-doublet

ὅσιος, ἄκακος, ἀμίαντος

1

has become higher than the heavens

The three words holy, innocent, and pure mean very similar things and emphasize that Jesus did not sin or do anything wrong. The word holy emphasizes how Jesus honored and pleased God. The word innocent identifies Jesus as a person who did not think about or plan evil deeds. The word pure indicates that Jesus did not do anything that would defile him or make him repulsive to God. If your language does not have words that fit with these three distinct ideas, you could express these three words with one or two words or with a phrase. Alternate translation: “sinless and perfect” or “without sin or evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

878

HEB

7

26

xxf1

κεχωρισμένος ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν

1

has become higher than the heavens

Here, the phrase separated from the sinners could refer to: (1) how Jesus is distinct from or different than the sinners. Alternate translation: “not one of the sinners” or “distinct from the sinners” (2) how Jesus does not come into contact with sinners because he is now higher than the heavens. Alternate translation: “dwelling far away from sinners” or “not coming into contact with the sinners”

879

HEB

7

26

cmq1

figs-explicit

ὑψηλότερος τῶν οὐρανῶν γενόμενος

1

has become higher than the heavens

Many people in the author’s culture believed that the space that they called “heaven” contained multiple layers or spheres of individual heavens. The author has already used the plural heavens in 4:14. Here, the author uses this language without clarifying how many heavens there are. The main point is that Jesus is higher than the heavens. This could mean that: (1) Jesus is in the highest heaven, higher than all the other heavens. Alternate translation: “having come to the highest place in the heavens” (2) Jesus has gone beyond all the heavens. This could be a metaphor for how greatly God has honored him, or it could mean that Jesus has left the creation. Alternate translation: “having become more exalted than the heavens” or “having gone beyond the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

880

HEB

7

27

yc7r

figs-abstractnouns

οὐκ ἔχει καθ’ ἡμέραν ἀνάγκην

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind need, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “need.” Alternate translation: “does not need each day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

881

HEB

7

27

nfh7

figs-infostructure

καθ’ ἡμέραν ἀνάγκην, ὥσπερ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς, πρότερον ὑπὲρ τῶν ἰδίων ἁμαρτιῶν θυσίας ἀναφέρειν, ἔπειτα τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ

1

If your readers would find the order in which the author presents information confusing, you could rearrange the elements so that they appear in more natural order. Alternate translation: “a need each day to offer up sacrifices, first on behalf of his own sins and then on behalf of the those of the people, even as the high priests do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

882

HEB

7

27

lxug

figs-explicit

ὥσπερ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς

1

Here, the phrase high priests refers to other high priests besides Jesus, more specifically those who are descended from Levi and Aaron. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it more explicit which high priests these are. Alternate translation: “even as the other high priests” or “even as the Levitical high priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

883

HEB

7

27

jdb8

πρότερον ὑπὲρ τῶν ἰδίων ἁμαρτιῶν θυσίας ἀναφέρειν, ἔπειτα τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ

1

Here the author uses words and ideas that are very similar to what he used in 5:3. They are not the same words, but the main idea is very similar. Consider referring to that verse when you translate these words.

884

HEB

7

27

qnj1

grammar-connect-time-sequential

πρότερον…ἔπειτα

1

Here, the words first and then indicate sequence in time. In other words, only after making an offering on behalf of his own sins does the high priest do so {on behalf of} {those} of the people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that introduce two actions in a sequence. Alternate translation: “in the first place … and in the second place” or “first … and second” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

885

HEB

7

27

ubdv

figs-idiom

ὑπὲρ τῶν ἰδίων ἁμαρτιῶν…τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ

1

Here, the phrase on behalf of someone’s sins means that the sacrifices are intended to deal with those sins. It does not mean that the sacrifices allow the sins or encourage the sins. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “to deal with his own sins … to deal with those of the people” or “for the forgiveness of his own sins … for the forgiveness of those of the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

886

HEB

7

27

b6nv

writing-pronouns

τῶν ἰδίων…ἐποίησεν…ἑαυτὸν

1

Here, the phrase his own refers to any one of the high priests. The words he and himself refer to Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make to whom these words refer more explicit. Alternate translation: “the high priest’s own … Jesus did … himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

887

HEB

7

27

nqlp

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, the word for introduces the reason why Jesus did not have each day a need to do what the high priests did. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a reason. Alternate translation: “because” or “since” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

888

HEB

7

27

ciag

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο…ἐποίησεν

1

Here, the word this refers to the result of the sacrifices that the author mentioned earlier in the verse. He means that Jesus successfully dealt with or removed sins, which is what those sacrifices were meant to do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what this refers to more explicit. Alternate translation: “he successfully took away sins” or “he did what these priests were supposed to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

889

HEB

7

27

uoky

translate-unknown

ἐφάπαξ

1

Here, the phrase once and never again indicates that something occurred one time and will not or does not need to occur again. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to one, definitive moment. Alternate translation: “only one time” or “once only” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

890

HEB

7

28

e8a6

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

the law appoints as high priests men who have weaknesses

Here, the word For introduces a summary statement for what the author has argued in 7:18–27. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces a summary statement. Alternate translation: “As you can see,” or “So,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

891

HEB

7

28

n693

figs-personification

ὁ νόμος…καθίστησιν

1

the law appoints as high priests men who have weaknesses

Here the author speaks of the law as if it were a person who could “appoint” people as high priests. He speaks in this way to indicate that these high priests fulfill what is written in the law about high priests. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the one who gave the law as the one who appoints, or you could express the idea in another natural way. Alternate translation: “in the law it is written that someone should appoint” or “according to the law, one must appoint” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

892

HEB

7

28

il92

figs-explicit

ὁ νόμος…ὁ λόγος…τῆς ὁρκωμοσίας, τῆς μετὰ τὸν νόμον

1

the law appoints as high priests men who have weaknesses

Here, the phrase the law refers to the law that God gave to Israel through Moses. The phrase the word of the swearing of an oath refers to what God had the author of Psalm 110:4 write down. The psalm was written after the law, which means that it can overrule what the law required. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit to which law and oath the author is referring. Alternate translation: “the law of Moses … but the psalm that records the swearing of an oath, which was written after the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

893

HEB

7

28

esfp

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπους

1

the law appoints as high priests men who have weaknesses

In Israelite and Jewish culture, only men could be high priests, so the author is referring to men here. However, he is not emphasizing that the high priests were male, so you can use a non-gendered word if it is clearer. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

894

HEB

7

28

u5ny

figs-abstractnouns

ἀνθρώπους…ἔχοντας ἀσθένειαν

1

men who have weaknesses

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind weakness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “weak.” Alternate translation: “men who are weak” or “men who fail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

895

HEB

7

28

lboj

figs-personification

ὁ λόγος…τῆς ὁρκωμοσίας, τῆς μετὰ τὸν νόμον, Υἱόν

1

men who have weaknesses

Just as with law, the author speaks of the word of the swearing of an oath as if it were a person who could “appoint” someone. He speaks in this way to indicate that the Son fulfill what God “swore” in Psalm 110:4. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the one who swore the oath as the one who {appoints}, or you could express the idea in another natural way. Alternate translation: “in the word of the swearing of an oath, which came after the law, it is written that God appoints a Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

896

HEB

7

28

gzm1

figs-possession

ὁ λόγος…τῆς ὁρκωμοσίας

1

the word of the oath, which came after the law, appointed a Son

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a word that records how God “swore” an oath. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the word that records how God swore an oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

897

HEB

7

28

yez2

figs-metonymy

ὁ λόγος…τῆς ὁρκωμοσίας

1

the word of the oath, which came after the law, appointed a Son

Here, the word word refers to what someone says in words. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the message concerning the swearing of an oath” or “what God said about the swearing of an oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

898

HEB

7

28

msa4

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Υἱόν

1

Son

The word Son is an important title for Jesus, the Son of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

899

HEB

7

28

r5lc

εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τετελειωμένον

1

who has been made perfect

Here, the phrase having been made perfect forever could refer to: (1) who the Son is. Alternate translation: “who has been made perfect forever” (2) something that happened before the Son became a high priest. Alternate translation: “after he was made perfect forever”

900

HEB

7

28

fkl3

figs-activepassive

τετελειωμένον

1

who has been made perfect

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the one who is made perfect rather than focusing on the person doing the “perfecting.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God having made him perfect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

901

HEB

8

intro

ks94

0

Hebrews 8 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Teaching: The ministry of the Son (8:1–6)
    • Teaching: The new covenant (8:7–13)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 8:8–12, which are words from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

New covenant

In 8:6–13, the author refers to a “second,” “better,” or “new” covenant. All these phrases refer to the same covenant, the one that God promised in the words that the author quotes from Jeremiah 31:31–34. This new covenant is “mediated” through Jesus the Son (8:6), and when God initiates this covenant, the “first covenant” (the one God made with the Israelites through Moses) becomes “old” or “obsolete” (8:13). In your translation, use words or phrases that refer to an agreement or formal contract between people or groups. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

The heavenly sanctuary

In 8:1–2, the author refers to how Jesus has sat down at the right side of God’s throne and is a “servant of the holy place and the true tabernacle.” Most likely, the author considers the throne where Jesus sat down to be inside this heavenly sanctuary. Scholars debate whether “holy place” and “true tabernacle” are two different names for the same thing or whether the “holy place” is the most sacred area inside the “true tabernacle.” Either way, these names refer to the sanctuary in heaven where Jesus acts as a high priest. You should refer to the heavenly sanctuary with the same words that you use to refer to the earthly sanctuary. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

The “house” of Israel or Judah

In 8:8, 10, the quotation refers to the “house” of Israel or of Judah. In this context, “house” refers figuratively to groups of people who are connected because they are all descended from the same person or because they are all ruled by the same leader. In this case, both are true: the “house” refers to the people who are descended from Abraham and are ruled by a king. In 10, the “house of Israel” refers to all the Israelites. In 8:8, the “house of Israel” and the “house of Judah” refer to the two different kingdoms that the original kingdom of Israel split into. In both cases, the quotation is referring to all the Israelites. Consider using a natural way to refer to a group of people who go together. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/house]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Was Jesus a priest when he lived and died on earth?

In 8:4, the author argues that Jesus would not be a priest if he were on earth. His basis for this claim seems to be that God has already appointed priests to offer sacrifices on earth. Scholars frequently debate whether the author of Hebrews claims that Jesus served as a priest when he obeyed during his earthly life and when he died on the cross, or whether he only served as a priest after he came back to life and ascended to heaven. Either way, the author’s point in this verse is that Jesus would not be a priest if he were on earth right now. See the notes on this verse for ways to translate the contrary-to-fact condition.

What is the “fault” in the first covenant?

In 8:7, the author implies that the “first covenant” was not “faultless.” However, in 8:8, he claims that God finds “fault” with “them,” that is, the Israelites who received that covenant. Most likely, the the “fault” in the first covenant was that it did not enable the Israelites to keep the covenant, and so they failed. This contrasts with the “new covenant,” in which God will put his laws in the minds and hearts of his people. Since the people are the “fault” in the new covenant, there is no need to harmonize these two verses.

902

HEB

8

1

tw7l

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Now

Here, the word Now introduces a new section in the author’s argument. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a new section, or you could leave Now untranslated. Alternate translation: “Next,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

903

HEB

8

1

nb8q

translate-unknown

κεφάλαιον…ἐπὶ τοῖς λεγομένοις

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word point refers to the main or most significant idea in a speech or argument. The author could be referring to the most significant idea in: (1) everything he is writing, including what follows. Alternate translation: “the most significant thing in what is being said is this” (2) what he has already said, not including what follows. Alternate translation: “the most significant thing in what has been said is this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

904

HEB

8

1

noty

figs-activepassive

τοῖς λεγομένοις

1

Connecting Statement:

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is being said rather than focusing on the person doing the “saying.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that he himself did it. Alternate translation: “the things that I have said is this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

905

HEB

8

1

m2b4

writing-pronouns

τοιοῦτον…ἀρχιερέα

1

We have a high priest

Here, the word such refers back to what the author has already said about how Jesus is a priest, particularly to the words in 7:26–28. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what such refers to more explicit. Alternate translation: “the kind of high priest I have described, one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

906

HEB

8

1

b8qy

translate-symaction

ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ

1

sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty

When someone sits at the right hand of God (the Majesty), it symbolizes that person’s honor, authority, and ability to rule. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea explicitly. Alternate translation: “he sat down to rule at the right hand” or “he took the place of honor and authority at the right hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

907

HEB

8

1

kqzi

figs-metonymy

ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θρόνου

1

sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty

Here, the phrase at the right hand refers to the place next to a person’s right hand, which would be the “right side.” In the author’s culture, this side was associated with honor or authority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the “right side.” Make sure that your readers understand that this side indicates that Jesus has honor and authority when he sits there. Alternate translation: “at the right side of the throne” or “in the honorable place next to the throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

908

HEB

8

1

u9kw

figs-euphemism

τῆς Μεγαλωσύνης

1

sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty

In the author’s culture, it was considered reverent to avoid saying God’s name. Here the author uses Majesty instead of God’s name in order to follow this custom and to indicate that God is powerful and glorious. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a reverent way to refer to God in your culture, especially if it emphasizes how God is powerful and glorious. Alternate translation: “of the great deity” or “of the glorious God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

909

HEB

8

1

hoom

figs-explicit

ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty

Many people in the author’s culture believed that the space that they called “heaven” contained multiple layers or spheres of individual heavens. Here, the author refers to how God’s throne can be found in the heavens. Since the author does not include details about the heavens, translate heavens with a word or phrase that refers to all of heavenly space, including the idea of multiple heavens if possible. Alternate translation: “in the heavenly realm” or “in the heavenly spaces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

910

HEB

8

2

utqk

figs-possession

τῶν ἁγίων λειτουργὸς καὶ τῆς σκηνῆς τῆς ἀληθινῆς

1

the true tabernacle that the Lord, not a man, set up

Here the author uses the possessive form to refer to a servant who serves in the holy {place} and the true tabernacle. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “a servant who belongs to the holy place and the true tabernacle” or “a servant in the holy place and the true tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

911

HEB

8

2

c3y7

figs-explicit

τῶν ἁγίων…καὶ τῆς σκηνῆς τῆς ἀληθινῆς

1

the true tabernacle that the Lord, not a man, set up

Here, the phrases holy {place} and true tabernacle could describe: (1) the inner room of the sanctuary (holy {place}) and the entire sanctuary (true tabernacle). Alternate translation: “of the holy place in the true tabernacle” (2) the whole sanctuary from two different perspectives. Alternate translation: “of the holy place, that is, the true tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

912

HEB

8

2

lrb7

figs-explicit

τῆς σκηνῆς τῆς ἀληθινῆς

1

the true tabernacle that the Lord, not a man, set up

Here, the word true contrasts this tabernacle with the tabernacle that God had Moses build. The author does not mean that Moses’ tabernacle was “false” or wrong. Rather, he means that this (heavenly) tabernacle is more real and effective than Moses’ tabernacle. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies the tabernacle as most real or effective. Alternate translation: “most effective tabernacle” or “the tabernacle that is closest to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

913

HEB

8

2

m3nx

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπος

1

the true tabernacle that the Lord, not a man, set up

Although the word man is masculine, the author is using it to refer to any human, whether male or female. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “a man or woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

914

HEB

8

3

p6ol

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

For every high priest is appointed

Here, the word For introduces an explanation of what the author has said in 8:1–2 about how Christ is a high priest. This explanation continues in the following verses and compares and contrasts Christ with the Levitical priests. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Further,” or “Now I will say more about high priests:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

915

HEB

8

3

gk0w

figs-explicit

πᾶς…ἀρχιερεὺς

1

For every high priest is appointed

Here, the phrase every high priest refers to all the descendants of Levi and Aaron who served as high priests. It does not refer to every high priest in every culture. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “every Israelite high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

916

HEB

8

3

su9j

figs-activepassive

πᾶς…ἀρχιερεὺς…καθίσταται

1

For every high priest is appointed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on those who are appointed rather than focusing on the person doing the “appointing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God appoints every high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

917

HEB

8

3

gauz

figs-doublet

δῶρά τε καὶ θυσίας

1

For every high priest is appointed

Here, the words gifts and sacrifices function together to refer to anything that an Israelite would have offered to God. It is probable that sacrifices refers to animals that would be killed and offered to God, while gifts identifies anything else that a person would give to God. If you do not have two words for these categories, you could use a single word or phrase to refer to what an Israelite would offer to God. See you how you translated the same phrase in 5:1. Alternate translation: “sacrifices” or “things presented to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

918

HEB

8

3

qqnm

ἀναγκαῖον ἔχειν…καὶ τοῦτον

1

For every high priest is appointed

Alternate translation: “this one also must have” or “God requires this one also to have”

919

HEB

8

3

jcmr

writing-pronouns

τοῦτον

1

For every high priest is appointed

Here, the phrase this one refers back to Jesus, whom the author described in 8:1–2. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “this high priest” or “Jesus, our high priest,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

920

HEB

8

4

p2v6

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Now

Here, the word Now introduces an inference based on the claim that priests offer gifts and sacrifices (8:3). The author’s points is that God already set up a priesthood on earth which offers the necessary gifts. Because Jesus does not belong to that priesthood (since he is not descended from Levi), he is not a priest on earth but only in heaven. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an inference or a development. Alternate translation: “As you can see,” or “Therefore,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

921

HEB

8

4

no6j

writing-pronouns

ἦν…οὐδ’ ἂν ἦν ἱερεύς

1

Now

Here, the word he refers to Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make that the pronoun refers to Jesus. Alternate translation: “Jesus were … he would not be a priest at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

922

HEB

8

4

t6kt

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ μὲν…ἦν ἐπὶ γῆς

1

Now

Here the author is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He knows that Jesus is not really on earth right now. He uses the statement that he knows is not true to show that Jesus can only be a high priest in heaven and not on earth. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “if indeed he were actually on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

923

HEB

8

4

yutw

figs-explicit

ἦν ἐπὶ γῆς

1

Now

Here the author does not mean that Jesus was never on earth or will never be on earth. Rather, he means that Jesus is not on earth right now, because he ascended into heaven (see 8:1). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “he were currently on earth” or “he were now on earth instead of in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

924

HEB

8

4

lw35

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων κατὰ νόμον τὰ δῶρα

1

Now

Here, the phrase {since} there are introduces the reason why Jesus would not be a priest at all if he were on earth right now. The author’s point is that God already appointed priests who serve on earth, and Jesus is not one of them. So, he is not a priest on earth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it clearer that the phrase {since} there are the ones offering gives the reason for the author’s claim. Alternate translation: “because the ones offering the gifts according to the law already exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

925

HEB

8

4

gfz1

figs-explicit

ὄντων τῶν προσφερόντων κατὰ νόμον τὰ δῶρα

1

according to the law

Here the author is referring to the priests who are descended from Levi who offer gifts and “sacrifices” as God commanded them to do through Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the ideas more explicit. Alternate translation: “since the Levitical priests offer the gifts according to Moses’ law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

926

HEB

8

5

t3i8

translate-unknown

ὑποδείγματι καὶ σκιᾷ…τῶν ἐπουρανίων

1

They serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things

Here, the words example and shadow describe something that is similar to and based on something else. The original thing is more real than the example and shadow, which is based on it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words that refer to something that is based on or made to be like something else. Alternate translation: “something that is based on and similar to the heavenly things” or “a copy and imitation of the heavenly things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

927

HEB

8

5

m067

figs-doublet

ὑποδείγματι καὶ σκιᾷ

1

Here, the words example and shadow function together to describe something that is based on something else. It is probable that example emphasizes the way that the “copy” illustrates what the “original is like,” while shadow emphasizes how the “copy” is not as real or good as the “original.” If you do not have two words for these categories, you could use a single word or phrase to refer to something that is based on something else. Alternate translation: “a copy” or “an imperfect version” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

928

HEB

8

5

zbl4

figs-explicit

τῶν ἐπουρανίων

1

Here, the phrase heavenly things refers specifically to the heavenly sanctuary, “the true tabernacle” that the author referred to in 8:2.If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea explicit. Alternate translation: “of the heavenly tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

929

HEB

8

5

k5r1

figs-activepassive

κεχρημάτισται Μωϋσῆς, μέλλων

1

It is just as Moses was warned by God when he was

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Moses, who was warned rather than focusing on the person doing the “warning.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God warned Moses when he was about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

930

HEB

8

5

ja1v

translate-unknown

κεχρημάτισται

1

It is just as Moses was warned by God when he was

Here, the word warned refers to receiving a message from God. This message could be a warning, an instruction, or a revelation. The main point is that the message requires a response. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to receiving a message from God. Alternate translation: “had been instructed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

931

HEB

8

5

agjf

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

μέλλων

1

It is just as Moses was warned by God when he was

Here, the phrase being about introduces something that happened at the same time as Moses was warned. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this relationship clearer. Alternate translation: “at the time when he was about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

932

HEB

8

5

qb7g

figs-explicit

μέλλων ἐπιτελεῖν τὴν σκηνήν

1

was about to construct the tabernacle

Here the author refers to how God revealed to Moses what the tabernacle, the sanctuary that the Israelites used when they were in the desert, should be like. Moses then told the Israelites how to complete the tabernacle. You can read the instructions that God gave to Moses about the tabernacle and its service in Exodus 25–30. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “when he and the Israelites were going to construct the tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

933

HEB

8

5

vbkq

writing-quotations

γάρ φησίν

1

was about to construct the tabernacle

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as something that God said to Moses. However, the audience would have understood that these were words from the Old Testament, specifically from Exodus 25:40. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. Alternate translation: “as God says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

934

HEB

8

5

on9c

figs-quotations

ὅρα, γάρ φησίν, ποιήσεις πάντα κατὰ τὸν τύπον τὸν δειχθέντα σοι ἐν τῷ ὄρει;

1

was about to construct the tabernacle

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “for he says that Moses should see that he makes everything according to the type that was shown to him on the mountain.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

935

HEB

8

5

jk6i

figs-yousingular

ὅρα…ποιήσεις…σοι

1

See that

Because God is speaking to one person (Moses), you is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

936

HEB

8

5

iym5

figs-idiom

ὅρα

1

See that

Here, the phrase See that calls attention to or emphasizes the command that follows. It does not mean that Moses was supposed to See with his eyes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that draws attention to the command. Alternate translation: “Be sure that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

937

HEB

8

5

kkcu

figs-explicit

πάντα

1

See that

Here, the word everything identifies all the features of the tabernacle. It does not refer to everything that exists or everything that Moses did. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it clear that the word everything refers to everything about the tabernacle. Alternate translation: “the whole tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

938

HEB

8

5

wf1p

translate-unknown

κατὰ τὸν τύπον

1

to the pattern

Here, the word type refers to the original version of something on which a copy is based. When everything is according to the type, that means that all the details of the copy match the details or the original. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to similarity to an original. Alternate translation: “just like the original” or “to match the initial version” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

939

HEB

8

5

s9xe

figs-activepassive

τὸν δειχθέντα

1

that was shown to you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the type that was shown rather than focusing on the person doing the “showing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “that I showed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

940

HEB

8

5

j3tz

figs-explicit

ἐν τῷ ὄρει

1

on the mountain

Here, the word mountain refers to Mount Sinai. Moses climbed up this mountain to meet God and receive God’s promises and commands for the Israelites. You can read about Moses climbing up Mount Sinai in Exodus 19; 24. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “on Mount Sinai” or “when I spoke to you on Mount Sinai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

941

HEB

8

6

qdj6

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

νυνὶ δὲ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the phrase But now introduces what is true, in contrast to the hypothetical situation the author offered in 8:4. The word now does not refer to time here. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces reality in contrast to a hypothetical situation. Alternate translation: “In reality, though,” or “As it really is,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

942

HEB

8

6

rt2a

translate-unknown

τέτυχεν

1

Christ has received

Here, the word obtained refers to how Jesus received the ministry from God. It does not mean that Jesus took it from God without God knowing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to receiving an office or beginning to act in a specific position. Alternate translation: “he has received” or “he has performed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

943

HEB

8

6

u8wv

figs-abstractnouns

διαφορωτέρας…λειτουργίας

1

Christ has received

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind ministry, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “minister” or “serve.” Alternate translation: “how he ministers in a way far superior way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

944

HEB

8

6

in57

figs-explicit

διαφορωτέρας…λειτουργίας…κρείττονός…διαθήκης…κρείττοσιν ἐπαγγελίαις

1

mediator of a better covenant

Here the audience would have inferred that the ministry, covenant, and promises are superior or better than the “old” ministry, covenant, and promises, the ones that God gave through Moses to the Israelites. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “a ministry far superior to the ministry of the Levites … of a covenant that is better than the one God made with the Israelites … promises that are better than those that God made through Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

945

HEB

8

6

sn6a

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ὅσῳ καὶ κρείττονός ἐστιν διαθήκης μεσίτης

1

Christ has received

Here, the phrase in as much as indicates that the difference between Jesus’ far superior ministry and the ministry of the Levitical priests is the same as the different between the better covenant and the covenant that God made with Israel. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a comparison. Alternate translation: “as far superior as the covenant of which he is the mediator is better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

946

HEB

8

6

spy1

figs-possession

κρείττονός…διαθήκης μεσίτης

1

mediator of a better covenant

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe how Jesus functions as the *mediator for the better covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the one who mediates a better covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

947

HEB

8

6

aw58

figs-activepassive

ἥτις…νενομοθέτηται

1

covenant, which is based on better promises

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the covenant, which has been legislated, rather than focusing on the person doing the “legislating.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “which God has legislated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

948

HEB

8

6

dz0z

translate-unknown

νενομοθέτηται

1

covenant, which is based on better promises

Here, the word legislated refers to enacting or creating something based on laws or principles. In other words, the “old covenant” that God made with Israel was legislated on the laws and promises that God gave through Moses. This better covenant is legislated or based on better promises. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to the legal basis for an agreement. Alternate translation: “has been based” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

949

HEB

8

6

ntwl

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπὶ κρείττοσιν ἐπαγγελίαις

1

covenant, which is based on better promises

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind promises, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “promise” or “pledge.” Alternate translation: “on the better things that God has pledged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

950

HEB

8

7

obo7

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

first covenant … second covenant

Here, the word For introduces support for what the author has claimed about how the covenant that Jesus mediates is “better” (see 8:6). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces support for a claim. Alternate translation: “You can tell that the second covenant is greater, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

951

HEB

8

7

tqku

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ…ἡ πρώτη ἐκείνη ἦν ἄμεμπτος

1

first covenant … second covenant

Here the author is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He knows that the first {covenant} was not faultless. He proves that the conditional statement is not true by pointing out that God set up a second covenant. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “if that first covenant had really been faultless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

952

HEB

8

7

wb9d

translate-ordinal

ἡ πρώτη…δευτέρας

1

first covenant … second covenant

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use cardinal numbers here. Alternate translation: “covenant one … for a covenant two” or “earlier covenant … for a later covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

953

HEB

8

7

gig6

figs-explicit

ἡ πρώτη ἐκείνη…δευτέρας

1

had been faultless

Here, the words first and second refer to two covenants that God made. The first covenant is the one that God made with the Israelites through Moses, and it was made before the second covenant, which is the one that God makes with his people through Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the covenant that God made with his people at first … for another, later covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

954

HEB

8

7

np7l

figs-idiom

οὐκ ἂν δευτέρας ἐζητεῖτο τόπος

1

had been faultless

Here, the phrase no place would have been sought refers to how God would not have made another covenant if the first one had been faultless. The word place refers to a situation in which another covenant would exist. The idiom avoids referring to who is doing the “seeking.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an expression that refers to an “opportunity” or “situation” in which another covenant is made. Alternate translation: “there would not have been a situation in which another covenant was made” or “there would have been no need for a second one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

955

HEB

8

7

pktf

figs-activepassive

οὐκ…ἐζητεῖτο τόπος

1

had been faultless

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the place that is sought rather than focusing on the person doing the “seeking.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “no one would have sought a place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

956

HEB

8

8

ya4n

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

General Information:

Here, the word For introduces support for what the author has claimed about how the first covenant was not “faultless” (see 8:7). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces support for a claim. Alternate translation: “We know that the first first covenant was not faultless, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

957

HEB

8

8

sqb4

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῖς

1

with the people

Here, the word them refers to the people with whom God made the “first covenant”: the people of Israel. The author may be referring specifically to the people whom God led out of Egypt, or he may be referring to all the people who lived under the “first covenant.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify to whom them refers. Alternate translation: “with the Israelite ancestors” or “with the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

958

HEB

8

8

jd18

writing-quotations

λέγει

1

with the people

Here and in the following four verses, the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as words that God has spoken. However, the audience would have understood that this was a quotation from the Old Testament, specifically from Jeremiah 31:31–34. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. Alternate translation: “God spoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

959

HEB

8

8

ncqt

figs-quotations

λέγει, ἰδοὺ, ἡμέραι ἔρχονται, λέγει Κύριος, καὶ συντελέσω, ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰσραὴλ, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰούδα, διαθήκην καινήν;

1

with the people

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these words as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you translate these words as an indirect quote, you also need to translate the words in the following four verses as indirect quotes. Alternate translation: “he says that you should behold, as days are coming, so he says, when he will complete a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

960

HEB

8

8

xhp8

figs-metaphor

ἰδοὺ, ἡμέραι

1

See

The Lord is using the term Behold to focus the audience’s attention on what he is about to say. Your language may have a comparable expression that you can use in your translation. Alternate translation: “Listen! Days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

961

HEB

8

8

qzx8

figs-idiom

ἡμέραι ἔρχονται

1

See

Here, the clause days are coming indicates that some event is going to happen soon. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that anticipates that something is about to happen. Alternate translation: “the time will soon be here” or “it is almost the moment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

962

HEB

8

8

nzgz

figs-123person

λέγει Κύριος

1

See

Here the author has God speaking about himself in the third person. He uses this form because the quotation uses the third person to speak about God, and the author claims that God speaks the quotation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that God is speaking about himself. Alternate translation: “I the Lord say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

963

HEB

8

8

c6zm

figs-metaphor

τὸν οἶκον Ἰσραὴλ, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰούδα

1

the house of Israel and with the house of Judah

Here, the word house refers to a group of people. The house of Israel refers to the group of people who lived in the country of Israel, and the house of Judah refers to the group of people who lived in the country of Judah. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel and with the people of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

964

HEB

8

8

mlop

figs-explicit

τὸν οἶκον Ἰσραὴλ, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον Ἰούδα

1

the house of Israel and with the house of Judah

Here God refers to the two kingdoms that the Israelites lived in. The northern area was called Israel, and the southern area was called Judah. When David and Solomon ruled as kings, these two areas together made up one kingdom. After Solomon died, the northern area rebelled and created its own kingdom. God refers to both kingdoms because he wants the audience to know that he is making this new covenant with all of his people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the houses of both Israel and Judah” or “with all my people, including the house of Israel and the house of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

965

HEB

8

9

r0ap

figs-quotations

οὐ κατὰ τὴν διαθήκην ἣν ἐποίησα τοῖς πατράσιν αὐτῶν, ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπιλαβομένου μου τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν, ἐξαγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου; ὅτι αὐτοὶ οὐκ ἐνέμειναν ἐν τῇ διαθήκῃ μου, κἀγὼ ἠμέλησα αὐτῶν, λέγει Κύριος.

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these words as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you translate these words as an indirect quote, you also need to translate the words in the previous verse and the following three verses as indirect quotes. Alternate translation: “not according to the covenant that he made with their fathers on the day when he grasped their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, because they did not continue in his covenant, and he did not care about them, so he says.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

966

HEB

8

9

qses

translate-kinship

τοῖς πατράσιν αὐτῶν

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, the phrase their fathers refers to the Israelites who were alive before Jesus lived on earth. The audience of the original quotation were Israelites who descended from these people. Use a word or phrase that refers to ancestors. Alternate translation: “with their forefathers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

967

HEB

8

9

hm31

figs-idiom

ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐπιλαβομένου μου

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, the phrase on {the} day refers to a specific and important time period. It does not necessarily refer to only one period of 24 hours. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a specific time period. Alternate translation: “during the time when I grasped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

968

HEB

8

9

rol1

figs-explicit

ἐπιλαβομένου μου τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν, ἐξαγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here God refers to how he delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. You can read the story in Exodus 5–14. IIf it would be helpful in your language, you could make this idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “when I grasped their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, where they were enslaved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

969

HEB

8

9

dde5

figs-metaphor

ἐπιλαβομένου μου τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν, ἐξαγαγεῖν αὐτοὺς

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here God speaks as if he held the hand of all the Israelites and “led them” out of Egypt. The author speaks in this way to emphasize how God took care of the Israelites, just like a parent leads a child by the hand to make sure that the child does not get lost. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “when I picked them up and carried them” or “when I tenderly rescued them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

970

HEB

8

9

s6z7

grammar-collectivenouns

τῆς χειρὸς αὐτῶν

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, the word hand is a singular noun that refers to the “hands” of all the Israelites. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “their hands” or “each of their hands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

971

HEB

8

9

hz9m

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, the word because introduces the reason why the “new covenant” will not be like the old one. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what because supports clearer. Alternate translation: “the reason for which is that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

972

HEB

8

9

y9kx

figs-idiom

αὐτοὶ οὐκ ἐνέμειναν ἐν τῇ διαθήκῃ μου

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, the phrase continue in my covenant refers to doing what the covenant requires. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to keeping the terms of an agreement. Alternate translation: “they did not do what the covenant required” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

973

HEB

8

9

gto8

translate-unknown

κἀγὼ ἠμέλησα αὐτῶν

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, the clause I did not care about them refers to how God stopped taking care of the Israelite ancestors. The point is that he did not help or assist them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “and I stopped helping them” or “I ignored them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

974

HEB

8

9

a9r8

figs-123person

λέγει Κύριος

1

I took them by their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt

Here, just as in 8:8, the author has God speaking about himself in the third person. He uses this form because the quotation uses the third person to speak about God, and the author claims that God speaks the quotation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that God is speaking about himself. Alternate translation: “I the Lord say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

975

HEB

8

10

guov

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ὅτι

1

the house of Israel

Here, the word For introduces a description of the new covenant in contrast to the old covenant that God described in 8:9. This description of the new covenant continues through 8:11–12. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces a description that contrasts with a previous description. Alternate translation: “But” or “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

976

HEB

8

10

fh1c

figs-quotations

ὅτι αὕτη ἡ διαθήκη, ἣν διαθήσομαι τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰσραὴλ μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας, λέγει Κύριος, διδοὺς νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς; καὶ ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς Θεόν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν.

1

General Information:

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these words as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you translate these words as an indirect quote, you also need to translate the words in the previous two verses and the following two verses as indirect quotes. Alternate translation: “For this is the covenant that he will covenant with the house of Israel after those days, so he says, putting his laws into their mind, and he will write them on their hearts, and he will be to them as God, and they will be to him as a people.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

977

HEB

8

10

z7wf

διαθήσομαι

1

General Information:

Alternate translation: “I will set up”

978

HEB

8

10

k2ew

figs-metaphor

τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰσραὴλ

1

the house of Israel

Here, the word house refers to a group of people. The phrase the house of Israel thus refers to everyone whom God considers to be part of the people of Israel. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “with the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

979

HEB

8

10

q78u

figs-idiom

μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας

1

after those days

Here, the phrase after those days identifies something happens after a certain period of time. That period of time could be long or short, not necessarily just several days. Here, God’s point is that he will make this new covenant in the future. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to action that will happen at some point in the future. Alternate translation: “in the future” or “after that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

980

HEB

8

10

du3y

figs-123person

λέγει Κύριος

1

after those days

Here, just as in 8:8–9, the author has God speaking about himself in the third person. He uses this form because the quotation uses the third person to speak about God, and the author claims that God speaks the quotation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that God is speaking about himself. Alternate translation: “I the Lord say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

981

HEB

8

10

axqs

figs-parallelism

διδοὺς νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς

1

after those days

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. One statement uses “putting” and mind language, and the other uses “writing” and heart language. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “writing my laws on their hearts” or “putting my laws inside them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

982

HEB

8

10

gbw3

figs-metaphor

διδοὺς νόμους μου εἰς τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν

1

I will put my laws into their minds

Here God speaks as if his laws were objects that could be placed somewhere, in this case the mind pictured as a place. By speaking in this way, God means that he will make his laws part of how people naturally think and act instead of something that they must learn and then struggle to do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor, or you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “helping them fully understand my laws” or “making my laws part of how they think” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

983

HEB

8

10

fhi5

grammar-collectivenouns

τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν

1

I will put my laws into their minds

Here, the word mind is a singular noun that refers to the “minds” of all God’s people. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “their minds” or “each of their minds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

984

HEB

8

10

ojsy

figs-metaphor

ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς

1

Here God speaks as if his laws were words that he could write on something, in this case the people’s hearts. By speaking in this way, God means that he will make keeping his laws something that people naturally desire to do instead of something that they must struggle to do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “I will help them desire to keep them” or “I will make my laws part of who they are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

985

HEB

8

10

e45g

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν

1

I will also write them on their hearts

In the author’s culture, hearts are the places where humans think and plan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer to the place where humans think in your culture or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “on their desires” or “on how people think” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

986

HEB

8

10

hs53

figs-idiom

ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς Θεόν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν

1

I will be their God

Here God uses two clauses that refer to relationships between people or groups. He does not mean that he is not actually God and they are not actually his people. Instead, he means that they will act towards each other as God and his people do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a clearer way. Alternate translation: “I will act as their God, and they will act as my people” or “I will be their God, and they will be my people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

987

HEB

8

11

lsq6

figs-quotations

καὶ οὐ μὴ διδάξωσιν ἕκαστος τὸν πολίτην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἕκαστος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ λέγων, γνῶθι τὸν Κύριον, ὅτι πάντες εἰδήσουσίν με, ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου αὐτῶν.

1

General Information:

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these words as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you translate these words as an indirect quote, you also need to translate the words in the previous three verses and the following verse as indirect quotes. Alternate translation: “And they will certainly not teach each one his fellow citizen, and each one his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they will all know him, from the least of them to the greatest.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

988

HEB

8

11

qma1

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ μὴ

1

General Information:

The words translated certainly not are two negative words. In the author’s culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would think that the two negatives form a positive, so the ULT expresses the idea with one strong negative. If your language can use two negatives as the author’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you could translate with one strong negative, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “by no means” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

989

HEB

8

11

wne2

figs-parallelism

ἕκαστος τὸν πολίτην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἕκαστος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ

1

neighbor … brother

Here the quotation includes two phrases that mean almost the same thing. One phrase refers to a fellow citizen, and the other refers to a brother. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the parallelism would be confusing, you could combine the two phrases. Alternate translation: “each one his brother” or “each one the person closest to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

990

HEB

8

11

v36j

figs-gendernotations

αὐτοῦ…τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ

1

neighbor … brother

Although his and brother are masculine, they refer to anyone, whether male or female. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use non-gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “his or her … his or her sibling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

991

HEB

8

11

jl1h

figs-quotesinquotes

λέγων, γνῶθι τὸν Κύριον

1

They will not teach each one his neighbor and each one his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord.’

If a direct quotation inside a direct quotation would be confusing in your language, you could translate the second direct quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “saying that he should know the Lord,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

992

HEB

8

11

mehi

figs-yousingular

γνῶθι

1

They will not teach each one his neighbor and each one his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord.’

Because each one is speaking to one person, the imperative Know is singular here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

993

HEB

8

11

q5ki

figs-merism

ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου αὐτῶν

1

Know the Lord … will all know me

Here God speaks figuratively, using the least and the greatest in order to include them and every person in between. By speaking in this way, he includes every person who is part of his people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “every single one of them” or “including people of every status” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

994

HEB

8

11

u98k

figs-idiom

ἀπὸ μικροῦ ἕως μεγάλου αὐτῶν

1

Know the Lord … will all know me

Here, the phrases the least and the greatest refer to people who have the least and the most importance and power in a society. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use comparable phrases. Alternate translation: “from the least powerful of them to the most powerful” or “from the littlest ones to the biggest ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

995

HEB

8

11

ne4p

figs-nominaladj

μικροῦ…μεγάλου

1

Know the Lord … will all know me

The author is using the adjectives least and greatest as nouns in order to refer to people who are least and greatest. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate these with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “the least person … the greatest person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

996

HEB

8

12

zksg

figs-quotations

ὅτι ἵλεως ἔσομαι ταῖς ἀδικίαις αὐτῶν, καὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν οὐ μὴ μνησθῶ ἔτι

1

toward their evil deeds

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these words as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. If you translate these words as an indirect quote, you also need to translate the words in the previous four verses as indirect quotes. Alternate translation: “For he will be merciful toward their unrighteousness, and their sins he will certainly not remember any longer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

997

HEB

8

12

oaqt

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

toward their evil deeds

Here, the word For introduces the basis on which God establishes this new covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that introduces the basis for a claim. Alternate translation: “I will make this new covenant because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

998

HEB

8

12

g1jk

figs-parallelism

ἵλεως ἔσομαι ταῖς ἀδικίαις αὐτῶν, καὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν οὐ μὴ μνησθῶ ἔτι

1

toward their evil deeds

Here the quotation includes two statements that mean almost the same thing. This was considered good poetry in the author’s culture. If this would not be good poetry in your culture, and if the parallelism would be confusing, you could combine the two statements. Alternate translation: “I will mercifully forgive their sins and unrighteousness” or “I will never remember their unrighteousness and their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

999

HEB

8

12

w69r

ἵλεως ἔσομαι ταῖς ἀδικίαις αὐτῶν

1

toward their evil deeds

Alternate translation: “I will mercifully deal with their unrighteousness”

1000

HEB

8

12

cu1b

figs-abstractnouns

ταῖς ἀδικίαις αὐτῶν

1

toward their evil deeds

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind unrighteousness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “unrighteous” or an adverb such as “unrighteously.” Alternate translation: “toward the unrighteous things they have done” or “toward how they have acted unrighteously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1001

HEB

8

12

a1xr

figs-idiom

οὐ μὴ μνησθῶ

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Here, the phrase I will certainly not remember refers to how God chooses not to bring up or act on their sins. It does not mean that God forgets or does not know about the sins. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a word or phrase that indicates that God will not bring up or act on their sins. Alternate translation: “I will certainly not act on” or “I will certainly not consider” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1002

HEB

8

12

k1vo

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ μὴ

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

The words translated certainly not are two negative words. In the author’s culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would think that the two negatives form a positive, so the ULT expresses the idea with one strong negative. If your language can use two negatives as the author’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you could translate with one strong negative, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “by no means” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1003

HEB

8

13

pzqj

writing-quotations

ἐν τῷ λέγειν, καινὴν

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Here the author refers back to how the quotation used the word new to describe the “new covenant” (see 8:8). Use a natural form in your language for referring back to a specific word that was quoted. Alternate translation: “By using the word ‘new’ for this new covenant,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

1004

HEB

8

13

ofnl

translate-unknown

πεπαλαίωκεν τὴν πρώτην; τὸ…παλαιούμενον

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Here, to make something obsolete means to provide something newer and better that makes the older version out of date or no longer relevant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to how something is out of date or not relevant. Alternate translation: “he has made the first out of date … what is out of date” or “he has made the first no longer relevant … what is no longer relevant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1005

HEB

8

13

grcm

writing-pronouns

πεπαλαίωκεν τὴν πρώτην

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Here, the word he refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to God. Alternate translation: “God has made the first obsolete” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1006

HEB

8

13

zpho

figs-explicit

τὴν πρώτην

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Here, the phrase the first refers specifically to “the first covenant,” the one that God made with the Israelites through Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit that the author is referring to this “first covenant.” Alternate translation: “the first covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1007

HEB

8

13

ta59

figs-doublet

τὸ…παλαιούμενον καὶ γηράσκον

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Here, the phrases being made obsolete and growing old mean almost the same thing. The author uses both words to emphasize that the first covenant is no longer the current covenant. If you do not have two phrases that express this particular meaning, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could use one phrase here. Alternate translation: “what is becoming obsolete” or “what is old and obsolete” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1008

HEB

8

13

v2tt

ἐγγὺς ἀφανισμοῦ

1

their sins I will not remember any longer

Alternate translation: “is going to disappear soon”

1009

HEB

9

intro

p8vy

0

Hebrews 9 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Teaching: Old and new ministries (9:1–10:18)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

The earthly tabernacle

In 9:1–10, the author describes and evaluates the earthly tabernacle. When the author wrote this letter, there was a temple in Jerusalem, and the tabernacle no longer existed. So, his descriptions are based on the Old Testament only, not on personal experience. The tabernacle was a large tent divided into two parts: the outer “Holy Place” and the inner “Most Holy Place.” This tabernacle contained an “ark,” in which God had the people store important objects. God was specially present where the ark was. The tabernacle also contained a lampstand that burned continually, a table on which the priests laid bread in God’s presence, and an altar for burning incense. Priests frequently went into the “Holy Place,” but only the high priest would enter the “Most Holy Place” on one special day in the year. The author does not describe everything about the tabernacle, and his descriptions do not always perfectly match what you might read in the Old Testament. Make sure to translate what the author actually says. (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]])

The heavenly sanctuary

In 9:11, the author refers again to a “tabernacle” and “holy places.” Scholars debate what these two names identify, much like in 8:1–2. Most likely the “tabernacle” refers to the entire heavenly sanctuary that Jesus passes “through” to enter into the inner section, the “holy places.” However, the two names could each refer to the entire sanctuary from two different perspectives. The author mentions the heavenly sanctuary again in 9:23–24. However, here he refers simply to “the things in the heavens,” “the heavenly things,” and the “true ones.” The meaning of these general terms depend on how you understand the more specific words in 8:1–2; 9:11–12. See the specific verses for translation options. Make sure that you refer to the heavenly sanctuary with the same or similar words that you use to refer to the earthly sanctuary. (See [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

Old covenant offerings and rituals

The author refers to multiple different rituals and offerings that God commanded Moses and the Israelites to perform.

  • In 9:6, he refers generally to “service” that the priests would perform in the first section of the tabernacle.
  • In 9:7, he refers to the Day of Atonement, the special day on which the high priest would enter the inner part of the tabernacle. You can read about the Day of Atonement in Leviticus 16.
  • In 9:13, the author refers to blood of “bulls and goats,” which may be a general statement about animal sacrifices, or it may be another specific reference to the Day of Atonement, which included sacrifices of bulls and goats. Further, he refers to a “heifer,” which identifies a ceremony related to purification. You can read about this ceremony in Numbers 19:1–10.
  • In 9:19–21, the author describes how Moses inaugurated the covenant and the tabernacle. You can read about what he did in Exodus 24:1–8.

Covenant

The author speaks about “covenants” throughout this chapter. The “new” covenant refers to the agreement that God has made with his people through Jesus. The “first” covenant refers to the agreement that God made with the Israelites through Moses. In the author’s culture, the word translated “covenant” could also be used to refer to a “will,” a paper that a person writes to tell others what to do with that person’s belongings when he or she dies. Scholars debate whether the author focuses on this specific meaning of “covenant” in 9:16–17 or not. The UST follows the interpretation that the author uses the specific meaning “will” as an analogy to better understand “covenant.” See the notes on those verses for translation options. (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

Blood

Throughout this chapter, the author refers to “blood.” This blood always comes from someone or something that has died. Scholars debate what blood symbolizes or represents: the death of the sacrifice, the life of the sacrifice, or something else. Either way, the author argues from the Old Testament and the sacrifices that God required that blood is required for both “cleansing” and “forgiveness.” This is true for both the old covenant and the new covenant. In your translation, you should refer to shed blood, since the blood always comes from someone or something that has died. Also, you should refer directly to “blood,” not to what it might symbolize or represent. (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/kt/blood]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

The “parable” in 9:8–9

In these verses, the author explains what meaning the “Spirit” gives to the earthly tabernacle. While the exact details about what the author means by the “first tent” and the “holy places” are not perfectly clear, what is clear is that the first section of the earthly tabernacle, or perhaps the earthly tabernacle as a whole, indicates how people could not go to the “holy places.” Whether the “holy places” refers to the heavenly sanctuary as a whole, to the second section of the earthly tabernacle, or to the inner part of the heavenly sanctuary, it indicates a place where God is specially present. What the author is saying, then, is that the use of the “first tent” signifies lack of access to God. The “parable” in 9:9 further explains that this lack of access applies to “the present time,” which is when sacrifices are offered. The details of these two verses are debated by scholars, so for more details see the notes. If possible, translate these two verses in such a way that they allow the various possible views.

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Where does the altar of incense belong?

In 9:3–4, the author places the “incense altar” inside the Most Holy Place. However, Exodus 30:6 seems to place the incense altar outside the curtain, in the Holy Place. There are many theories about why the author describes the “incense altar” inside the Most Holy Place. However, there is no reason to harmonize your translation with Exodus’ description. If you think your readers would recognized and be confused by the difference, you could include a footnote with some possible solutions. It is possible that the author interpreted Exodus 30:6 to mean that the altar was in the Most Holy Place, and it is possible that he knew a tradition that put the altar there. It is also possible that he places the altar there for the sake of his argument. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/altar]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/incense]])

Cleansing the heavenly things

In 9:23, the author refers to how the “heavenly things” need to be cleansed with “better sacrifices” than those used to cleanse the earthly things. Some scholars think that the heavenly things are perfect and cannot be made impure, so they argue that the “cleansing” refers to inauguration, or they suggest that the “heavenly things” refers to human consciences. Other scholars think that the heavenly sanctuary could be defiled by people’s sin, just like the earthly sanctuary was, so it too needed to be cleansed. This is most likely what the author means. However, no matter what interpretation you choose, you should translate the verse with a word or phrase that refers to the removal of defilement or impurity. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/clean]])

1010

HEB

9

1

av9i

grammar-connect-words-phrases

μὲν οὖν

1

Now

Here, the word Now resumes what the author has been saying about the first {covenant} (see 8:7). The word indeed signals to the audience that this explanation has two parts. The second part begins with “but” in 9:11. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words that introduce a two-part development. Alternate translation: “As for the covenants, on the one hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]]),

1011

HEB

9

1

d3vs

ἡ πρώτη

1

first covenant

See how you translated first covenant in Hebrews 8:7.

1012

HEB

9

1

pw63

figs-abstractnouns

εἶχε…δικαιώματα…λατρείας…τε

1

had regulations

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind regulations and worship, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “regulate” and “worship.” Alternate translation: “regulated how people worshiped and included” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1013

HEB

9

1

af6x

figs-explicit

τό…ἅγιον κοσμικόν

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the phrase earthly holy {place} refers to the entire earthly sanctuary, which the author will define as a “tabernacle” in the following verse (9:2). If it would be helpful in your language, you could more clearly refer to the entire earthly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the earthly holy sanctuary” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1014

HEB

9

2

e3em

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

For

Here, the word for introduces further explanation of “the earthly holy place” (see 9:1). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces further explanation, or you could leave for untranslated. Alternate translation: “for which purpose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1015

HEB

9

2

f6k7

figs-activepassive

σκηνὴ…κατεσκευάσθη

1

a tabernacle was prepared

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the tabernacle, which was prepared, rather than focusing on the person doing the “preparing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “the Israelites” did it. Alternate translation: “the Israelites prepared a tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1016

HEB

9

2

p34j

figs-explicit

ἡ πρώτη

1

a tabernacle was prepared

Here, the phrase the first one identifies which part of the tabernacle the author is speaking about. The tabernacle structure was made up of two rooms or sections. The word first refers to the first part that a person would enter. The author will describe the second part in 9:3–5. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the outer room” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1017

HEB

9

2

uz9h

translate-ordinal

ἡ πρώτη

1

a tabernacle was prepared

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use cardinal numbers here. Alternate translation: “section one” or “room one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1018

HEB

9

2

t13a

translate-unknown

ἥ τε λυχνία καὶ ἡ τράπεζα, καὶ ἡ Πρόθεσις τῶν ἄρτων

1

the lampstand, the table, and the bread of the presence

Here the author refers to some things that God had the Israelites put in the first section of the tabernacle. The loaves were “presented” on the table. You can read God’s instructions about the lampstand, table, and loaves in Exodus 25:23–40. If you have a translation of Exodus, you could use the same words here. If you do not have a translation of Exodus, you could make it clear that these are holy or special items that the priests used when they were serving God. Alternate translation: “both the holy lampstand and the special table with the presentation of God’s loaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1019

HEB

9

2

gw3p

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ ἡ Πρόθεσις τῶν ἄρτων

1

bread of the presence

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind presentation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “present” or “display.” Alternate translation: “on which they displayed the loaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1020

HEB

9

2

vee3

writing-pronouns

ἥτις

1

bread of the presence

Here, the word which refers to the first part of the tabernacle. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to the first part. Alternate translation: “which first part” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1021

HEB

9

2

i46y

figs-activepassive

λέγεται

1

bread of the presence

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “people called” or “they named” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1022

HEB

9

2

k2vg

figs-explicit

Ἅγια

1

bread of the presence

Here the author uses another name for the first part of the tabernacle. He does not use this exact name to refer to first part of the tabernacle again, and it is likely that here he uses the name that he found in his version of the Old Testament. Make sure that your readers know that the author is quoting a name that he knew about. Alternate translation: “by the name ‘Holy Room’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1023

HEB

9

3

j7w3

figs-explicit

μετὰ…τὸ δεύτερον καταπέτασμα σκηνὴ

1

Behind the second curtain

The author has not mentioned a first curtain, but he implies that the first curtain was at the entrance to the first part of the tabernacle. The second curtain separated the outer and inner sections of the tabernacle. The tent here thus must be the second or inner part of the tabernacle, since it is behind the second curtain. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that this is the curtain in front of the second or inner tent. Alternate translation: “behind a curtain was the second tent” or “behind the curtain was the inner part of the tent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1024

HEB

9

3

ssr9

translate-ordinal

δεύτερον καταπέτασμα

1

second

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use cardinal numbers here. Alternate translation: “curtain two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1025

HEB

9

3

jq7h

figs-activepassive

ἡ λεγομένη

1

second

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “which people called” or “which they named” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1026

HEB

9

3

msz6

figs-explicit

Ἅγια Ἁγίων

1

second

Here the author uses another name for the inner part of the tent. He does not use this exact name to refer to the second part of the tent again, and it is likely that here he uses the name that he found in his version of the Old Testament. Make sure that your readers know that the author is quoting a name that he knew about. Alternate translation: “by the name ‘Most Holy Room’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1027

HEB

9

4

zf2k

translate-unknown

χρυσοῦν…θυμιατήριον

1

Inside it

This altar was a small structure on which priests would burn incense, which is a substance that gives off a sweet smell when someone burns it. This altar was coated in “gold.” You can read about the golden incense altar in Exodus 30:1–10. Use a phrase that refers to a structure or object which someone would use to offer things to God. Alternate translation: “a sacred table for burning incense, covered in gold,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1028

HEB

9

4

qsa7

translate-unknown

τὴν κιβωτὸν τῆς διαθήκης, περικεκαλυμμένην πάντοθεν χρυσίῳ

1

Inside it

The ark of the covenant was a box or chest where God was specially present in the tabernacle. This chest was coated in gold and symbolized God’s covenant with Israel. You can read about the design of the ark of the covenant in Exodus 25:10–22. Use a phrase that refers to a chest or box that has special meaning and importance. Alternate translation: “the special covenantal box that was covered completely all around with gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1029

HEB

9

4

zopy

figs-activepassive

περικεκαλυμμένην πάντοθεν χρυσίῳ

1

Inside it

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the ark, which was covered, rather than focusing on the person doing the “covering.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “which someone covered completely all around with gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1030

HEB

9

4

w3ef

figs-doublet

περικεκαλυμμένην πάντοθεν

1

Inside it

Here, the words completely and all around mean almost the same thing. The author uses these words to emphasize that every part of the ark was covered with gold. If you do not have two words that express this particular meaning, and if the repetition would be confusing, you could use one word or phrase here. Alternate translation: “having been covered completely” or “having been covered on every side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1031

HEB

9

4

kt3u

writing-pronouns

ἐν ᾗ

1

Inside it

Here, the word which refers to the ark, not the “tent.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to the ark. Alternate translation: “in which ark was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1032

HEB

9

4

md1f

figs-explicit

στάμνος χρυσῆ ἔχουσα τὸ μάννα

1

that budded

Here the author refers to manna, which is the food that God miraculously provided for his people while they traveled through the wilderness. God told Moses to keep some manna as a reminder of how he provided for them. You can read about Moses and Aaron putting a jar of manna in the ark in Exodus 16:32–34. It is not clear what kind of jar this is, so use a general word if possible. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “a golden vessel containing the manna that God provided for his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1033

HEB

9

4

jj9y

figs-explicit

ἡ ῥάβδος Ἀαρὼν ἡ βλαστήσασα

1

Aaron’s rod that budded

Here the author refers to a story about how some people wanted to be priests instead of Aaron. God had the leaders of each of the twelve tribes put a rod or walking stick in his presence. God made the rod of Aaron “bud” as proof that God had chosen him to be priest. You can read the story about the rod of Aaron in Numbers 17:1–11. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “Aaron’s staff that budded, which proved that God had chosen him as priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1034

HEB

9

4

zh6d

translate-names

Ἀαρὼν

1

Aaron’s rod that budded

The word Aaron is the name of a man. He was the first person whom God chose to a be a high priest for his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1035

HEB

9

4

q9w3

figs-explicit

αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης

1

tablets of the covenant

Here the author refers to two stone tablets on which Moses wrote the most important parts of God’s covenant with the Israelites. You can read about the tablets in Exodus 34:1–28. The words on these tablets were the “Ten Commandments,” which you can find in Exodus 20:1–17. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the stone plaques on which Moses wrote the Ten Commandments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1036

HEB

9

5

uap3

figs-explicit

ὑπεράνω…αὐτῆς

1

tablets of the covenant

Here, the phrase above it places the cherubim on top of the “ark of the covenant.” They were not floating above the ark but were built on top of the ark. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “set on the ark” or “built on top of the ark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1037

HEB

9

5

ue5q

translate-unknown

Χερουβεὶν δόξης κατασκιάζοντα τὸ ἱλαστήριον

1

glorious cherubim overshadowed the atonement lid

Here, the word cherubim refers to figures or statues of winged beings. They are glorious because they show that God is present where they are. The author describes them as overshadowing the atonement lid because God commanded the Israelites to make them so that their wings spread over the top of the ark. You can read about the cherubim and the atonement lid in Exodus 25:17–22. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “statues of glorious cherubim spreading their wings over the lid of the ark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1038

HEB

9

5

vxqn

translate-transliterate

Χερουβεὶν

1

glorious cherubim overshadowed the atonement lid

The word cherubim is a Hebrew word that the author spelled out in Greek letters. It is a plural word referring to more than one “cherub.” In your translation, you can spell it the way it sounds, or you can express what it means: powerful beings with wings. Alternate translation: “winged beings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

1039

HEB

9

5

jfup

figs-possession

Χερουβεὶν δόξης

1

glorious cherubim overshadowed the atonement lid

Here the author uses the possessive form to show that the cherubim are characterized by glory. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “cherubim that are glorious” or “cherubim full of glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1040

HEB

9

5

ixtq

figs-abstractnouns

Χερουβεὶν δόξης

1

glorious cherubim overshadowed the atonement lid

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind glory, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “glorious” or “great.” Alternate translation: “very great cherubim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1041

HEB

9

5

fh6g

figs-idiom

περὶ ὧν οὐκ ἔστιν νῦν λέγειν κατὰ μέρος

1

cherubim

Here the author uses a standard form in his language to indicate that he is not going to speak in detail about each of the objects and structures he has mentioned. The phrase according to each part refers to the details about each thing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form in your language that indicates that a speaker is not going to deal with the details of a certain subject. Alternate translation: “about which things I will not go into detail here” or “which things I will not at the moment cover in their specifics” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1042

HEB

9

5

qw39

writing-pronouns

ὧν

1

cherubim

Here, the phrase which {things} refers to everything about the “tabernacle” that the author has described in 9:2–5. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit what which {things} refers to. Alternate translation: “all of which” or “about which things concerning the tabernacle and its furnishings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1043

HEB

9

6

mra7

figs-activepassive

τούτων…οὕτως κατεσκευασμένων

1

After these things were prepared

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the things that are prepared rather than focusing on the people doing the “preparing.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “when people had thus prepared these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1044

HEB

9

6

zinf

writing-pronouns

τούτων…οὕτως κατεσκευασμένων

1

After these things were prepared

Here, the phrase these things refers to all the objects and structures the author has mentioned in 9:1–5. The word thus refers to what the author has said about how these objects and structures were created and arranged. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what these words refer to more explicit. Alternate translation: “when what I have described had been prepared as I have described it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1045

HEB

9

6

mrj4

figs-idiom

διὰ παντὸς

1

After these things were prepared

Here, the word always indicates that the priests consistently would enter, usually twice a day. It does not mean that some was always entering at every moment. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea with a form that refers to something that happens frequently and consistently. Alternate translation: “all the time” or “very frequently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1046

HEB

9

6

crlt

figs-go

εἰς…εἰσίασιν

1

After these things were prepared

Here, the phrase enter into refers to movement from outside a structure into a structure. Use a word or phrase that identifies this kind of movement in your language. Alternate translation: “move into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1047

HEB

9

6

vh9r

figs-explicit

τὴν πρώτην σκηνὴν

1

After these things were prepared

Here, the phrase first tabernacle refers to the first or outer section of the tabernacle. See how you translated the similar phrase in 9:2. Alternate translation: “the outer room of the tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1048

HEB

9

6

uwy4

translate-ordinal

τὴν πρώτην σκηνὴν

1

After these things were prepared

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “tabernacle one” or “tent one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1049

HEB

9

6

jte8

figs-abstractnouns

τὰς λατρείας ἐπιτελοῦντες

1

After these things were prepared

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind services, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “serve.” Alternate translation: “performing what they do to serve God” or “doing what God requires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1050

HEB

9

7

vgxd

figs-explicit

εἰς…τὴν δευτέραν, ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ μόνος ὁ ἀρχιερεύς, οὐ χωρὶς αἵματος, ὃ προσφέρει ὑπὲρ ἑαυτοῦ καὶ τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ ἀγνοημάτων

1

not without blood

In this verse, the author refers to the festival called the Day of Atonement. On this day, the high priest would enter the most sacred part of the tabernacle and present blood from an animal sacrifice there to atone for the sins of all the Israelites, including himself. You can read about the Day of Atonement in Leviticus 16. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit, or you could use a footnote to give extra information. Alternate translation: “into the second tent, once in the year, only on the Day of Atonement, the high priest enters, and not without blood from a sacrifice that he offers on behalf of himself and of the unintentional sins of the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1051

HEB

9

7

kmhb

figs-explicit

τὴν δευτέραν

1

not without blood

Here, the phrase second {tent} refers to the second or inner section of the tabernacle. See how you translated the similar phrase in 9:3. Alternate translation: “the inner room of the tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1052

HEB

9

7

pqby

translate-ordinal

τὴν δευτέραν

1

not without blood

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “tent two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1053

HEB

9

7

h4tn

figs-idiom

ἅπαξ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ μόνος

1

not without blood

Here, the phrase once {in} the year only identifies an event as something that happens on one day in the year. The event does not occur again until the same day the next year. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that more clearly expresses this idea. Alternate translation: “only one time every year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1054

HEB

9

7

xs9l

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ χωρὶς αἵματος

1

not without blood

The phrase not without blood uses two negative words to emphasize that blood is required. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning with positive words, emphasizing the importance of blood. Alternate translation: “enters, and always with blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1055

HEB

9

7

u1ww

figs-gendernotations

προσφέρει…ἑαυτοῦ

1

not without blood

In Israelite and Jewish culture, only men could be high priests, so the author is referring to a man here. However, he is not emphasizing that the high priests were male, so you can use a non-gendered word if it is clearer. Alternate translation: “the high priest offers … himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1056

HEB

9

7

lui1

figs-idiom

ὑπὲρ ἑαυτοῦ καὶ τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ ἀγνοημάτων

1

not without blood

Here, just as in 7:27, the phrase on behalf of someone or someone’s sins means that the sacrifices are intended to deal with the sins that those people commit. It does not mean that the sacrifices allow the sins or encourage the sins. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “to deal with his own sins and with the unintentional sins of the people” or “for the forgiveness of his own sins and those of the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1057

HEB

9

7

xtk5

translate-unknown

τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ ἀγνοημάτων

1

blood

Here, the phrase unintentional sins refers to wrong things that people have done without intending to do something wrong. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to sins that people have committed without trying to sin. Alternate translation: “of the accidental sins of the people” or “of the sins that the people did not intend to commit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1058

HEB

9

8

b4v7

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο

1

the most holy place

Here, the word this could refer: (1) forward to what the author is about to say about the way of the holy {places}. Alternate translation: “The following is what” (2) back to what the author has said about when and how the priests enter each part of the earthly tabernacle (see 9:6–7). Alternate translation: “All those things are what” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1059

HEB

9

8

btqn

figs-explicit

τοῦτο δηλοῦντος τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ Ἁγίου

1

the most holy place

Here the author’s point is that the Holy Spirit explains or clarifies what it means for the priests to serve in a tabernacle in the way that the author has described in 9:6–7. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a clause that indicates that the Holy Spirit explains the meaning of what the author has discussed. Alternate translation: “From those things, the Holy Spirit signifies this” or “The Holy Spirit shows that those things mean this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1060

HEB

9

8

e8vg

figs-possession

τὴν τῶν ἁγίων ὁδὸν

1

the most holy place

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a way that leads into the holy {places}. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a clearer way. Alternate translation: “that the way into the holy places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1061

HEB

9

8

a26f

figs-explicit

τῶν ἁγίων

1

the most holy place

Here, the phrase the holy {places} could refer to: (1) the inner section of the heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the Most Holy Place in heaven” (2) the entire heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “of the heavenly sanctuary” (3) the inner section of the earthly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “of the earthly Most Holy Place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1062

HEB

9

8

e0ag

figs-activepassive

μήπω πεφανερῶσθαι τὴν τῶν ἁγίων ὁδὸν

1

the most holy place

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the way that is not yet to be revealed rather than focusing on the person who is not “revealing.” If you must state who does not do the action, the author implies that “God” does not do it. Alternate translation: “that God had not yet revealed the way of the holy places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1063

HEB

9

8

jtoc

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ἔτι τῆς πρώτης σκηνῆς ἐχούσης στάσιν

1

the most holy place

Here, the phrase the first tabernacle still having a place identifies something that happens at the same time as the way of the holy {places} is not yet to be revealed. In other words, it is during the time that the first tabernacle has a place that the way is not revealed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the connection clearer. Alternate translation: “as long as the first tabernacle still has a place” or “during the period when the first tabernacle still has a place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

1064

HEB

9

8

e14c

figs-explicit

τῆς πρώτης σκηνῆς

1

the first tabernacle was still standing

Here, the phrase the first tabernacle could refer to: (1) the outer section of the earthly tabernacle. Alternate translation: “the first room of the tabernacle on earth” (2) the entire earthly tabernacle, in contrast to the “second,” heavenly tabernacle. Alternate translation: “the former, earthly tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1065

HEB

9

8

y9hg

translate-ordinal

τῆς πρώτης σκηνῆς

1

the first tabernacle was still standing

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “tabernacle one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1066

HEB

9

8

qujz

figs-metaphor

ἐχούσης στάσιν

1

the first tabernacle was still standing

Here the author refers to how the first tabernacle has a place. By speaking in this way, he could be referring to: (1) how the first tabernacle has legal standing. In other words, when the first tabernacle has a place, that means that people are required to use when they worship God. Alternate translation: “still having cultic standing” or “functioning as part of God’s sanctuary” (2) how the first tabernacle exists in a place. In other words, when the first tabernacle has a place, that means that it still exists. Alternate translation: “continuing to exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1067

HEB

9

9

ojuy

writing-pronouns

ἥτις

1

This was an illustration

Here, the word which could refer to: (1) the “first tabernacle” (9:8). Alternate translation: “which first tabernacle is” (2) everything about the earthly “tabernacle” that the author has discussed. Alternate translation: “all of which is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1068

HEB

9

9

cu76

translate-unknown

ἥτις παραβολὴ

1

This was an illustration

Here, the word parable refers to a figure of speech in which one thing represents another thing. Here the first tabernacle (or the earthly tabernacle as a whole) figuratively represents the present time. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a figure of speech. Alternate translation: “which represents” or “which figuratively stands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1069

HEB

9

9

fl6i

figs-explicit

εἰς τὸν καιρὸν τὸν ἐνεστηκότα

1

for the present time

Here, the phrase the present time could refer to: (1) the period during which the earthly tabernacle functioned as God’s sanctuary on earth. In this case, the parable represents the present time Alternate translation: “for the time during which it functioned” or “for their time” (2) the period between Jesus’ first and second comings. In this case, the parable represents the period up to the present time. Alternate translation: “for the time up to the present” or “for the period of time until Jesus came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1070

HEB

9

9

eqhz

writing-pronouns

καθ’ ἣν

1

for the present time

Here, the word which could refer to: (1) the parable. In this case, the way that the gifts and sacrifices cannot perfect the worshiper is part of the parable. Alternate translation: “according to which parable” (2) the “first tabernacle” in 9:8. In this case, the gifts and sacrifices are offered in a way that matches the nature of the “first tabernacle.” Alternate translation: “according to which tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1071

HEB

9

9

wb9n

figs-doublet

δῶρά τε καὶ θυσίαι

1

for the present time

Here, the words gifts and sacrifices function together to refer to anything that an Israelite would have offered to God. It is probable that sacrifices refers to animals that would be killed and offered to God, while gifts identifies anything else that a person would give to God. If you do not have two words for these categories, you could use a single word or phrase to refer to what an Israelite would offer to God. See you how you translated the same phrase in 8:3. Alternate translation: “sacrifices” or “things presented to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1072

HEB

9

9

g16u

figs-activepassive

δῶρά τε καὶ θυσίαι προσφέρονται

1

that are now being offered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is being offered rather than focusing on the people doing the “offering.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that the Israelites, or more specifically the priests, did it. Alternate translation: “the priests offer both gifts and sacrifices” or “they offer both gifts and sacrifices” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1073

HEB

9

9

qsa1

figs-idiom

κατὰ συνείδησιν

1

are not able to perfect the worshiper’s conscience

Here, the phrase according to {the} conscience indicates that the “perfecting” is related to or in the sphere of the conscience. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a clearer way. Alternate translation: “with reference to the conscience” or “in the conscience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1074

HEB

9

9

c31d

figs-genericnoun

τὸν λατρεύοντα

1

the worshiper’s conscience

Here the author is speaking of “worshipers” in general, not of one particular worshiper. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that refers to “worshipers” in general. Alternate translation: “the worshipers” or “any worshiper” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1075

HEB

9

10

vzim

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

μόνον ἐπὶ

1

until the time of the new order

Here, the phrase only concerning introduces what the old covenant could actually accomplish, since the author claimed in the previous verse that it was not able “according to the conscience to perfect the worshiper” (9:9). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it clearer that the author is introducing a contrast with “perfecting the worshiper according to the conscience.” Alternate translation: “but only having to do with” or “but instead dealing with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1076

HEB

9

10

v7gb

figs-explicit

βρώμασιν, καὶ πόμασιν, καὶ διαφόροις βαπτισμοῖς

1

until the time of the new order

Here, the words foods, drinks, and baptisms refer to some of the topics that the law of Moses covered. There were laws about what foods the Israelites could eat and what drinks they could consume. There were also laws about baptisms, or washing rituals, that accomplished various different goals, all related to cleansing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what the author is referring to more explicit. Alternate translation: “what one could eat or drink and how one should wash oneself in various ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1077

HEB

9

10

lx8j

figs-abstractnouns

διαφόροις βαπτισμοῖς

1

until the time of the new order

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind baptisms, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “baptize.” Alternate translation: “baptizing people in various ways” or “how to baptize in different ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1078

HEB

9

10

ufti

figs-possession

δικαιώματα σαρκὸς

1

until the time of the new order

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe regulations that have to do with the body. In other words, these regulations deal only with “bodily” matters. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a clearer way. Alternate translation: “regulations concerning the body” or “regulations that deal with the body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1079

HEB

9

10

ddl3

figs-abstractnouns

δικαιώματα σαρκὸς

1

until the time of the new order

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind regulations, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “require” or “command.” Alternate translation: “what God required concerning the body” or “things related to the body that they were commanded to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1080

HEB

9

10

i1ke

translate-unknown

ἐπικείμενα

1

until the time of the new order

Here, the word imposed refers to how a person in authority requires someone under their authority to do certain things. The word is not necessarily negative in tone, but it does indicate that what is imposed is definitely required. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that expresses the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “being commanded” or “being laid down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1081

HEB

9

10

voxo

figs-activepassive

ἐπικείμενα

1

until the time of the new order

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the regulations, which are imposed, rather than focusing on the person doing the “imposing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “which God imposed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1082

HEB

9

10

hqs8

figs-explicit

μέχρι καιροῦ διορθώσεως

1

until the time of the new order

Here, the phrase new order refers to the new covenant that God gives his people through Jesus. The words new order imply that this covenant is better than the previous covenant, although they do not imply that the previous covenant was bad. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to the time when God gave the new covenant. Alternate translation: “until the time of the new covenant” or “until God gave his people a new way of doing things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1083

HEB

9

11

bnc6

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word But introduces the second half of the contrast. The first half is in 9:1–10. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word that introduces the second half of a contrast, or you could leave it untranslated. Alternate translation: “On the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1084

HEB

9

11

ez21

figs-go

παραγενόμενος

1

good things

Here, the phrase having come refers most directly to Jesus ascending into heaven. However, the words can also refer more indirectly to someone assuming a specific role or position. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that Christ has come to “heaven,” or you could emphasize the idea of assuming a position. Alternate translation: “having come to heaven as” or “having assumed the position of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1085

HEB

9

11

da2i

figs-extrainfo

τῶν…ἀγαθῶν

1

good things

Here the author does not clarify what the good things are. The phrase probably refers to everything that believers receive through Christ, including rest, redemption, forgiveness, and eternal life. Since the author left the idea vague here, if possible you also should use a general expression without specifying what the things are. Alternate translation: “of the blessings” or “of the good gifts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

1086

HEB

9

11

scqv

translate-textvariants

γενομένων

1

good things

Instead of the phrase that have come into existence, many ancient manuscripts have the phrase “that are coming”. The phrase that the ULT uses identifies the good things as things that believers already have, while the phrase “that are coming” identifies the good things as things that believers are still waiting for. The majority of scholars think that the phrase in the ULT is the correct one, so unless there is a good reason to use “that are coming,” you should use that have come into existence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1087

HEB

9

11

czx6

figs-explicit

τῆς μείζονος καὶ τελειοτέρας σκηνῆς

1

the greater and more perfect tabernacle

Here, the phrase the greater and more perfect tabernacle refers to the heavenly tabernacle that Jesus has entered. The phrase could refer more specifically: (1) to the entire heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the whole greater and more perfect tabernacle” (2) to the first section of the heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the greater and more perfection first section of the tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1088

HEB

9

11

jyqn

figs-doublet

μείζονος καὶ τελειοτέρας

1

the greater and more perfect tabernacle

Here, the words greater and more perfect function together to refer to identify the heavenly tabernacle as superior to the earthly one. It is probable that greater identifies the heavenly tabernacle as more important, while more perfect identifies it as more able to accomplish what it was intended to do. If you do not have two words for these categories, you could use a single word or phrase to refer to identify the heavenly tabernacle as more important and effective than the earthly one. Alternate translation: “better” or “more powerfully effective” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1089

HEB

9

11

h434

figs-explicit

οὐ χειροποιήτου τοῦτ’ ἔστιν, οὐ ταύτης τῆς κτίσεως

1

the greater and more perfect tabernacle

Here, the phrase not made by human hands means that God, not humans, made this tabernacle. The phrase not of this creation means that the tabernacle is not part of the earthly world. Scholars debate whether this means that it belongs to the heavenly world (“another creation”) or whether this means that it is “uncreated.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the ideas more explicit. Alternate translation: “made not by humans but by God, that is, of the heavenly creation” or “not made by people, that is, not created at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1090

HEB

9

11

lxw8

figs-activepassive

οὐ χειροποιήτου τοῦτ’ ἔστιν, οὐ

1

that was not made by human hands

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus the tabernacle, which is not made rather than focusing on the human hands that did not make it. Alternate translation: “that human hands did not make, that is, that is not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1091

HEB

9

11

mtj9

figs-synecdoche

χειροποιήτου

1

human hands

Here, the phrase human hands refers to main part of the body that we use to make things. So, the phrase refers to the whole person who makes things. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that human hands refers to “humans” in general, not just their hands. Alternate translation: “made by humans” or “made by people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1092

HEB

9

12

dp2i

figs-explicit

οὐδὲ δι’ αἵματος τράγων καὶ μόσχων, διὰ δὲ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος

1

most holy place

Here the author refers to how a high priest would “enter” the sanctuary, taking with him blood from a sacrifice. He would present the blood to God and then apply it to various parts of the sanctuary, the altar, and the ark. In this verse, the author contrasts how those priests presented blood from animals with how Jesus presented his own blood. Scholars debate what his own blood represents. It could refer to his resurrected body, his death, or his actual blood. See the book introduction for more information on how Jesus functions as a high priest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “and not by the blood from slaughtered goats and calves, which is what the Levitical priests use, but by his own blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1093

HEB

9

12

ox1p

figs-doublet

τράγων καὶ μόσχων

1

most holy place

Here the author refers to goats and calves as two examples of animals that could be sacrificed so that the Levitical high priest could enter the sanctuary with their blood. These were not the only animals that could be sacrificed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form in your language that refers generally to animals that are sacrificed. Alternate translation: “of sacrificed animals” or “of animals from flock or herd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1094

HEB

9

12

a8oh

figs-go

εἰσῆλθεν…εἰς

1

most holy place

Here, the phrase entered into refers to movement from outside a structure into that structure. Use a word or phrase that identifies this kind of movement in your language. Alternate translation: “he moved into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1095

HEB

9

12

wp9n

figs-explicit

τὰ ἅγια

1

most holy place

Here, much like in 9:8, the phrase the holy {places} could refer to: (1) the inner section of the heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the Most Holy Place in heaven” (2) the entire heavenly sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the heavenly sanctuary” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1096

HEB

9

12

zvqr

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

εὑράμενος

1

most holy place

Here, the phrase having himself obtained could introduce action that: (1) happens at the same as he entered. Alternate translation: “which is when he obtained” (2) happened before he entered. Alternate translation: “after he obtained” (3) happens after he entered. Alternate translation: “with the result that he obtained” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

1097

HEB

9

12

g2wm

figs-metaphor

αἰωνίαν λύτρωσιν εὑράμενος

1

most holy place

Here the author speaks as if Jesus paid a price to “redeem” his people from someone or something that owned or controlled them. He speaks in this way to indicate that Jesus has dealt with his people’s sins and forever kept those sins from controlling them. This is an important biblical metaphor so, if possible, preserve the metaphor or express it as an analogy. The author’s emphasis here is particularly on how Jesus freed his people from sin. Alternate translation: “having himself obtained eternal deliverance” or “having himself bought his people forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1098

HEB

9

12

t65l

figs-abstractnouns

αἰωνίαν λύτρωσιν εὑράμενος

1

most holy place

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind redemption, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “redeem” or “free.” If you do, you may need to clarify that the redemption is for believers. Alternate translation: “having himself completed redeeming his people forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1099

HEB

9

13

tx15

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

sprinkling of a heifer’s ashes on those who have become unclean

Here, the word For introduces a further explanation of what Jesus accomplishes with his blood and how he does it. The explanation is in the form of a comparison between what the Levitical priests did (this verse) and what Jesus does (9:14). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “He can obtain eternal redemption because,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1100

HEB

9

13

ayuh

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ

1

sprinkling of a heifer’s ashes on those who have become unclean

Here the author is speaking as if bloodand sprinkling ashes “sanctifying” people were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what the author is saying is not certain, then you could express the idea by using a word such as “because” or “since.” Alternate translation: “since” or “because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1101

HEB

9

13

hklx

figs-doublet

τράγων, καὶ ταύρων

1

sprinkling of a heifer’s ashes on those who have become unclean

Here the author refers to goats and bulls as two examples of animals that could be sacrificed so that the Levitical high priest could enter the sanctuary with their blood. These were not the only animals that could be sacrificed, and the author is not trying to be exhaustive, which is clear since he refers to “goats and calves” in 9:12 in the same context. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that refers generally to animals that are sacrificed. Alternate translation: “of sacrificed animals” or “of animals from flock or herd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1102

HEB

9

13

ch3c

figs-explicit

σποδὸς δαμάλεως, ῥαντίζουσα τοὺς κεκοινωμένους

1

sprinkling of a heifer’s ashes on those who have become unclean

Here the author refers to a ceremony that was intended to make special water for purifying people who became unclean. The “purifying” and the “uncleanness” are about ritual and approach to God, not about physical dirt. In this ceremony, a priest would offer and burn a heifer, and the priests would mix the ashes with water and sprinkle it on people who were unclean. You can read about this ceremony in Numbers 19:1–10. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “sprinkling water mixed with ashes from a heifer, which had been sacrificed and burned, on the ones who had become defiled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1103

HEB

9

13

jkjw

translate-unknown

δαμάλεως

1

sprinkling of a heifer’s ashes on those who have become unclean

Here, the word heifer refers to a young female cow. Often, a heifer had not yet given birth to any calves. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to a young female cow. Alternate translation: “of a young female cow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1104

HEB

9

13

seb3

figs-possession

πρὸς τὴν τῆς σαρκὸς καθαρότητα

1

for the cleansing of their flesh

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe cleansing that purifies the flesh. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “for cleansing their flesh” or “for cleansing with regard to the flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1105

HEB

9

13

y81p

figs-explicit

τὴν τῆς σαρκὸς καθαρότητα

1

for the cleansing of their flesh

Here, the phrase cleansing of {their} flesh is intended to contrast with “cleansing your conscience” in 6:21. The author’s point is that what the Levitical priests did could effective cleanse people, but only their flesh or outer parts of a person. In contrast, Jesus’ work cleanses the “conscience” or inner parts of a person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to external or partial cleansing. Alternate translation: “for outward cleansing” or “the cleansing of part of a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1106

HEB

9

14

lk5i

figs-exclamations

πόσῳ μᾶλλον τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὃς διὰ Πνεύματος αἰωνίου, ἑαυτὸν προσήνεγκεν ἄμωμον τῷ Θεῷ, καθαριεῖ τὴν συνείδησιν ὑμῶν ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἔργων, εἰς τὸ λατρεύειν Θεῷ ζῶντι!

1

how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, cleanse our conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

Here the author uses a long exclamation to emphasize how much more the blood of Christ “cleanses” people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea as a strong positive statement. Alternate translation: “certainly much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1107

HEB

9

14

t58w

grammar-connect-words-phrases

πόσῳ μᾶλλον

1

how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, cleanse our conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

Here, the phrase how much more introduces the second half of the comparison that the author began in 9:13. His point is that what the Levitical priests did with blood was partly effective in cleansing people. That means that what Jesus does with his own blood must be much more effective in completely cleansing people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces the second half of a comparison. Alternate translation: “certainly even more” or “to a much greater extent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1108

HEB

9

14

r22p

translate-unknown

διὰ Πνεύματος αἰωνίου

1

the blood of Christ

Here, the phrase the eternal Spirit could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit. In this case, the Holy Spirit, who is so effective because he is eternal, enables or empowers Christ as he cleanses his people. Alternate translation: “through the eternal Holy Spirit” (2) Christ’s own “spirit,” which is eternal. In this case, the author is making a similar to point to what he said in 7:16 about Jesus’ “indestructible life.” Alternate translation: “by means of his spirit that lives forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1109

HEB

9

14

xj6g

figs-explicit

ἑαυτὸν προσήνεγκεν ἄμωμον τῷ Θεῷ

1

without blemish

Here the author refers to what Jesus did to cleanse his people. Scholars debate whether this phrase refers to Jesus’ death or what he did when he ascended into heaven after his resurrection. See the book introduction for more information on how Jesus atones for sins. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit, using information from the book introduction. Alternate translation: “offered himself on the cross without blemish to God” or “offered himself in heaven without blemish to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1110

HEB

9

14

o6jx

figs-metaphor

ἄμωμον

1

without blemish

Here the author refers to Jesus as if he were an animal that was without blemish. By speaking in this way, he identifies Jesus as a person who never sinned or disobeyed God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “without sin or fault” or “without imperfection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1111

HEB

9

14

rkh4

figs-explicit

τὴν συνείδησιν ὑμῶν

1

cleanse our conscience

Here, in contrast to the word “flesh” in 9:13, the word conscience refers to inner part of a person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to internal or total cleansing. Alternate translation: “your inwards parts” or “your whole person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1112

HEB

9

14

dlll

translate-textvariants

ὑμῶν

1

cleanse our conscience

Many early manuscripts have “our” instead of your here. The author does not mean to exclude himself or others, so the meaning is very similar in both cases. Consider using the word that translations that your readers are familiar with use. Otherwise, you could use your like the ULT does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1113

HEB

9

14

hiw0

grammar-collectivenouns

τὴν συνείδησιν ὑμῶν

1

cleanse our conscience

Here, the word conscience is a singular noun that refers to the “consciences” of all the audience members. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “your consciences” or “each of your consciences” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

1114

HEB

9

14

zbj1

figs-metaphor

νεκρῶν ἔργων

1

dead works

Here the author speaks of the works as if they were dead. By speaking in this way, he could mean that: (1) the works do not accomplish anything, just like dead people do not do anything. Alternate translation: “ineffective works” or “useless works” (2) the works eventually cause people to die. Alternate translation: “works that lead to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1115

HEB

9

14

hcst

figs-abstractnouns

νεκρῶν ἔργων

1

dead works

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind works, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “perform” or “do.” Alternate translation: “the dead things that you performed” or “what you did that was dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1116

HEB

9

14

suu7

figs-idiom

Θεῷ ζῶντι

1

cleanse

Here, much like in 3:12, the phrase the living God identifies God as the one who “lives” and possibly as the one who gives “life.” The primary point is that God actually “lives,” unlike idols and other things that people call “god.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that emphasizes that God really “lives.” Alternate translation: “the God who lives” or “the true God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1117

HEB

9

15

x3xr

grammar-connect-logic-result

διὰ τοῦτο, διαθήκης καινῆς μεσίτης ἐστίν, ὅπως

1

For this reason

Here, the phrase for this reason could refer: (1) back to what Christ has accomplished, which the author stated in 9:14. Alternate translation: “since he has done those things, he is a mediator of a new covenant, so that” or “because of that, he is a mediator of a new covenant, so that” (2) forward to the idea that so that introduces. Alternate translation: “he is a mediator of a new covenant for this reason: so that” or “he is a mediator of a new covenant so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1118

HEB

9

15

mxd0

writing-pronouns

ἐστίν

1

For this reason

Here, the word he refers to Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to Christ. Alternate translation: “Christ is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1119

HEB

9

15

p2kg

figs-possession

διαθήκης καινῆς μεσίτης ἐστίν

1

he is the mediator of a new covenant

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe how Jesus functions as the mediator for a new covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “he mediates a new covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1120

HEB

9

15

wioz

figs-infostructure

ὅπως θανάτου γενομένου εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ παραβάσεων, τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν λάβωσιν οἱ κεκλημένοι τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας

1

he is the mediator of a new covenant

Here, the phrase a death having happened introduces something that occurs before the ones called receive the promise. In fact, the death allows or enables them to receive it. If your readers would find the order of information here confusing, you could use a form and structure in your language that identifies a sequential relationship or a cause and effect relationship. Alternate translation: “so that the ones called might receive the promise of the eternal inheritance, for a death has happened for redemption of the transgressions related to the first covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1121

HEB

9

15

mvwg

figs-explicit

θανάτου γενομένου

1

he is the mediator of a new covenant

Here the author is referring to Jesus’ death on the cross. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “Jesus having died on the cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1122

HEB

9

15

z29a

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ παραβάσεων

1

to free those under the first covenant from their sins

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind redemption and transgressions, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “redeem” and “transgress.” Alternate translation: “that redeems how people transgressed against the first covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1123

HEB

9

15

xv09

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν…παραβάσεων

1

to free those under the first covenant from their sins

Here the author speaks as if Jesus paid a price for redemption for his people from someone or something that owned or controlled them. He speaks in this way to indicate that Jesus has dealt with his people’s transgressions and forever kept those sins from controlling them. This is an important biblical metaphor so, if possible, preserve the metaphor or express it as an analogy. The author’s emphasis here is particularly on how Jesus freed his people from transgressions. Alternate translation: “for deliverance from the transgressions” or “that bought his people from the transgressions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1124

HEB

9

15

q3x3

figs-explicit

τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ

1

first covenant

Here, the phrase first covenant refers to the agreement that God made with the Israelites through Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. See how you translated the similar phrase in Hebrews 8:7. Alternate translation: “the covenant that God made with his people at first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1125

HEB

9

15

q0rl

translate-ordinal

τῇ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ

1

first covenant

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “covenant one“ or “the earlier covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1126

HEB

9

15

hgp3

figs-metaphor

οἱ κεκλημένοι

1

first covenant

Here, the phrase the ones called refers to those whom God has chosen to be his people as those whom God has called or spoken to by name. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the ones selected” or “those who belong to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1127

HEB

9

15

ve3v

figs-activepassive

οἱ κεκλημένοι

1

those who are called

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the ones who are called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “the ones whom God called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1128

HEB

9

15

mfzh

λάβωσιν

1

those who are called

Here the author may be indicating that the ones called are able to receive the promise: (1) at least partially right now. Alternate translation: “are receiving” (2) in the future. Alternate translation: “will receive”

1129

HEB

9

15

j3ac

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν…τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας

1

inheritance

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind promise and inheritance, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “promise” and “inherit.” Alternate translation: “imitate me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1130

HEB

9

15

vdpc

figs-metonymy

τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν…τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας

1

inheritance

Here, the word promise refers to the content of the promise. If it would be helpful in your language, you could refer directly to what is promised. Alternate translation: “what is promised concerning the eternal inheritance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1131

HEB

9

15

e1ii

figs-possession

τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν…τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας

1

inheritance

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe a promise whose content is the eternal inheritance. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the promise, that is, the eternal inheritance” or “the promised eternal inheritance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1132

HEB

9

15

xb9f

figs-metaphor

τῆς αἰωνίου κληρονομίας

1

inheritance

Here the author speaks as if believers were children who would “inherit” property that a parent passes on to their child when the parent dies. He speaks in this way to indicate that believers receive what God promised. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “of what God gives his people forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1133

HEB

9

16

lfsq

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the word For introduces a further explanation of what the author said in the previous verse (9:15) about “a death” and “a mediator of a new covenant.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further explanation. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” or “About covenants and deaths,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1134

HEB

9

16

ua79

figs-idiom

ὅπου…διαθήκη

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the word where does not indicate that the covenant is in a specific place. Rather, it indicates that what the author is about to say is about a covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that introduces or highlights the topic. Alternate translation: “concerning a covenant” or “when we consider a covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1135

HEB

9

16

vlxa

figs-explicit

διαθήκη

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the word covenant could refer to: (1) a specific type of agreement in which a person declares or writes what should be done with their possessions when they die. In this case, the author is slightly shifting the meaning of covenant when he uses the word in 9:16–17. Alternate translation: “there is a covenant about what happens after a person dies” or “there is a last testament” (2) the same kind of covenant that he has been speaking about throughout the letter. Alternate translation: “there is any covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1136

HEB

9

16

dzg3

figs-abstractnouns

θάνατον ἀνάγκη φέρεσθαι τοῦ διαθεμένου

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind necessity and death, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “need” and “die.” Alternate translation: “it needs to be proved that the one having covenanted it has died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1137

HEB

9

16

um9a

figs-activepassive

θάνατον…φέρεσθαι τοῦ διαθεμένου

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the death that is proven rather than focusing on the person doing the “proving.” If you must state who did the action, you could use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “someone to prove the death of the one having covenanted it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1138

HEB

9

16

b2bd

translate-unknown

τοῦ διαθεμένου

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the word covenanted refers to the process of creating the covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to setting up or creating a covenant or agreement. Alternate translation: “of the one having created it” or “of the one having made it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1139

HEB

9

16

rsbu

figs-explicit

φέρεσθαι

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

The exact meaning of the word translated to be proven depends on how you understand the word covenant here: (1) if the word covenant refers to a “will,” the author means that the “will” is not valid or effective until everyone knows that the person who made the will is dead. Alternate translation: “to have taken place” or “to be publicly shown” (2) if the word covenant refers to any covenant, the author means that the the covenant is not valid or effective unless the person who made it has sworn or promised that he or she will keep the covenant or “die.” Alternate translation: “to be presented as guarantee” or “to be stated as the consequence of breaking the covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1140

HEB

9

17

dv7r

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the word For introduces a further explanation of what the author said in the previous verse (9:16) about covenants and death. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further explanation, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “As you can see,” or “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1141

HEB

9

17

s5yz

figs-explicit

διαθήκη

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, just as in 9:16, the word covenant could refer to: (1) a specific type of agreement in which a person declares or writes what should be done with their possessions when they die. In this case, the author is slightly shifting the meaning of covenant when he uses the word in 9:16–17. Alternate translation: “a covenant about what happens after a person dies” or “a last testament” (2) the same kind of covenant that he has been speaking about throughout the letter. Alternate translation: “every covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1142

HEB

9

17

euuf

figs-idiom

βεβαία…μήποτε ἰσχύει

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the phrases in force and has force identify that the agreement is binding or will be carried out. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that identify an agreement as binding or required. Alternate translation: “is official … it never is official” or “has power … it never has power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1143

HEB

9

17

vnbp

figs-idiom

ἐπὶ νεκροῖς

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, the phrase over {the} dead indicates the basis or reason for the covenant being in force. The author’s point is not that the covenant only applies to the dead. Rather, his point is that the dead are the reason why the covenant is in force. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies the basis for an agreement being or becoming official. Alternate translation: “on the basis of the dead” or “when people die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1144

HEB

9

17

qb62

figs-nominaladj

νεκροῖς

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

The author is using the adjective dead as a noun in order to refer to people who are dead. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this one with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “the dead people” or “the corpses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1145

HEB

9

17

vq4n

translate-unknown

ὁ διαθέμενος

1

the death of the person who made it must be proven

Here, just as in 9:16, the word covenanting refers to the process of creating the covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to setting up or creating a covenant or agreement. Alternate translation: “the one having created it” or “the one having made it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1146

HEB

9

18

lr2e

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ὅθεν

1

So not even the first covenant was established without blood

Here, the word So introduces the ways in which the first {covenant} fits with what the author has said about covenants and death in 9:16–17. In other words, he uses So to introduce the application of the principle he discussed in those verses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an inference or application. Alternate translation: “Because of that,” or “In much the same way,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1147

HEB

9

18

wpf1

figs-activepassive

οὐδ’ ἡ πρώτη χωρὶς αἵματος ἐνκεκαίνισται

1

So not even the first covenant was established without blood

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the first {covenant}, which was inaugurated, rather than focusing on the person doing the “inaugurating.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that God did it through Moses (see 9:19). Alternate translation: “God did not even inaugurate the first covenant without blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1148

HEB

9

18

m9c3

figs-doublenegatives

οὐδ’ ἡ πρώτη χωρὶς αἵματος ἐνκεκαίνισται

1

The phrases not even and without blood together use two negative words to emphasize that blood is required. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning with positive words, emphasizing the importance of blood. Alternate translation: “also the first covenant had to be inaugurated with blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1149

HEB

9

18

kq87

figs-explicit

πρώτη

1

first covenant

Here, the phrase first {covenant} refers to the agreement that God made with the Israelites through Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. See how you translated the similar phrase in 8:7; 9:15. Alternate translation: “the covenant that God made with his people at first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1150

HEB

9

18

v838

figs-explicit

αἵματος

1

blood

The author assumes that his audience knows that the use of blood also requires the “death” that he has been speaking about. If your readers would not make this inference, you could make it explicit that blood requires someone or something to die. Alternate translation: “blood from sacrificed animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1151

HEB

9

19

uupi

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

Here, the word For introduces an important example of what the author said in the previous verse (9:18) about how the “first covenant” was “inaugurated” with “blood.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces an example. Alternate translation: “For example,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1152

HEB

9

19

zl2n

figs-explicit

λαληθείσης…πάσης ἐντολῆς κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑπὸ Μωϋσέως παντὶ τῷ λαῷ, λαβὼν τὸ αἷμα τῶν μόσχων, καὶ τῶν τράγων, μετὰ ὕδατος, καὶ ἐρίου κοκκίνου, καὶ ὑσσώπου, αὐτό τε τὸ βιβλίον καὶ πάντα τὸν λαὸν, ἐράντισεν

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

Here the author refers to several Old Testament texts. The story about Moses “speaking” the law and then “sprinkling” the people with blood comes from Exodus 24:1–8. In these verses the Israelites agreed to follow the law and keep the covenant. The references to red wool and hyssop could come from the instructions for cleansing a person with a skin disease, which you can find in Leviticus 14:1–7. However, it is more likely that the author is referring to the red wool and hyssop that the priest burned along with a “heifer” to make “ashes” that could be mixed with water and used for cleansing. You can read about this ritual in Numbers 19:1–10, and the author has already mentioned it in 9:13. The author’s point here is that Moses cleansed the people when they agreed to the covenant, and according to the law the cleansing would require blood, water, red wool, and hyssop. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it more explicit that the author is speaking about how Moses cleansed the people when they heard and agreed to the covenant with God. Alternate translation: “every command having been spoken according to the law by Moses to all the people, they agreed to keep them. Then, Moses took the blood of calves and goats that had been sacrificed, and he mixed it with water and red wool and hyssop. Then, he sprinkled both the scroll of the law itself and all the people with the mixture” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1153

HEB

9

19

we5r

figs-activepassive

λαληθείσης…πάσης ἐντολῆς κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑπὸ Μωϋσέως

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on every command that was spoken rather than focusing on the person doing the “speaking.” Alternate translation: “Moses having spoken every command according to the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1154

HEB

9

19

nj2q

figs-abstractnouns

πάσης ἐντολῆς

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind command, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “command.” Alternate translation: “everything that God commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1155

HEB

9

19

bd4k

figs-idiom

λαληθείσης…κατὰ τὸν νόμον

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

Here, the phrase according to the law identifies every command as the ones that God included in the law. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that the author is referring to the specific commands in the law. Alternate translation: “in the law having been spoken” or “that God included in the law having been spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1156

HEB

9

19

g9vv

translate-names

Μωϋσέως

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

The word Moses is the name of a man. God used him to give the law to the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1157

HEB

9

19

ejk4

figs-doublet

τῶν μόσχων, καὶ τῶν τράγων

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

Here the author refers to calves and goats as two examples of animals that could be sacrificed so that a priest could use their blood. These were not the only animals that could be sacrificed, and the story about Moses speaking the commands only mentions bulls. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form in your language that refers generally to animals that are sacrificed. Alternate translation: “of sacrificed animals” or “of animals from flock or herd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1158

HEB

9

19

yfc6

figs-explicit

μετὰ ὕδατος, καὶ ἐρίου κοκκίνου, καὶ ὑσσώπου

1

took the blood … with water … and sprinkled … the scroll … and all the people

Here the author does not state how Moses used the water, red wool, and hyssop. The story in Exodus 24:1–8 mentions that Moses mixed the blood with water, but it does not mention the other two things. The author could imply that: (1) Moses tied stalks of hyssop plant together with the red wool to create a brush that he used to sprinkle the blood and water. That is what hyssop and red wool are used for in Leviticus 14:1–7. Alternate translation: “mixing it with water and dipping hyssop tied with red wool in it” (2) Moses burned the red wool and hyssop and mixed them in with the blood and water. That is what hyssop and red wool are used for in Numbers 19:1–10. Alternate translation: “mixing it with water and ashes from red wool and hyssop” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1159

HEB

9

19

tgc2

translate-unknown

ἐρίου κοκκίνου

1

hyssop

Here, the phrase red wool refers to cloth or string made from the fur of animals, especially sheep, that is dyed red or scarlet. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use words or phrases that make the meaning clearer. Alternate translation: “scarlet cloth” or “fabric colored red” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1160

HEB

9

19

nrn5

translate-unknown

ὑσσώπου

1

hyssop

The word hyssop refers to a woody plant with small leaves that can be used for sprinkling liquids by dipping the leaves in the liquid and then shaking them or brushing them over the target. If this plant is unknown, you could use a descriptive phrase. Alternate translation: “part of a plant with small branches and many leaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1161

HEB

9

19

zl8f

figs-explicit

τὸ βιβλίον

1

hyssop

Here, the word scroll refers to the roll or book on which Moses wrote everything that God had told him. You can read about this scroll in Exodus 24:1–8. These verses do not directly mention Moses sprinkling the scroll, but the author knew more about this than we do, and there is no reason to harmonize what he says with the story in Exodus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “the scroll of God’s words” or “the scroll of the covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1162

HEB

9

19

elh7

figs-rpronouns

αὐτό…τὸ βιβλίον

1

hyssop

Here, the word translated itself emphasizes the scroll. Consider using a natural way to emphasize the scroll in your language. Alternate translation: “that very scroll” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

1163

HEB

9

20

e3lr

writing-quotations

λέγων

1

the blood of the covenant

Here the author quotes from the Old Testament Scriptures. He does not introduce the words as a quotation but instead introduces them as something that Moses said to the people. However, the audience would have understood that these were words from the Old Testament, specifically from Exodus 24:8. If your readers would not know that the quotation is from the Old Testament, you could include a footnote or use some other form to identify it. Alternate translation: “and he spoke to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

1164

HEB

9

20

lskz

figs-quotations

λέγων, τοῦτο τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης, ἧς ἐνετείλατο πρὸς ὑμᾶς ὁ Θεός

1

the blood of the covenant

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate the sentence as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “saying that this is the blood of the covenant that God commanded for you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]]}

1165

HEB

9

20

k7kh

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο

1

the blood of the covenant

Here, the word This refers to the blood that Moses “sprinkled” (see 9:19). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to the blood. Alternate translation: “This blood is” or “What I have sprinkled is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1166

HEB

9

20

j7en

figs-possession

τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης

1

the blood of the covenant

Here the author uses the possessive form to describe how the blood inaugurates or confirms the covenant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea in a more natural way. Alternate translation: “the blood that confirms the covenant” or “the blood that inaugurates the covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1167

HEB

9

20

jaw1

writing-pronouns

ἧς

1

the blood of the covenant

Here, the word that refers to the covenant, not to the blood. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit that the pronoun refers to the covenant. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “the covenant that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1168

HEB

9

20

brhx

ἐνετείλατο πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

the blood of the covenant

Alternate translation: “commanded you to keep”

1169

HEB

9

21

k6dm

figs-explicit

ὁμοίως

1

he sprinkled

Here, the phrase in a similar way refers back to 9:19 and the way in which Moses sprinkled blood on the scroll and the people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “like he did with the scroll and the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1170

HEB

9

21

xa9q

translate-unknown

πάντα τὰ σκεύη τῆς λειτουργίας

1

all the containers used in the service

Here, the phrase containers of the service identifies the objects and tools that the priests used in service of God. These included forks, bowls, incense burners, and many other similar containers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that these are all the tools and objects used for “serving” God. Alternate translation: “all vessels for service” or “all the objects that the priests use when they serve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1171

HEB

9

21

l27v

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς λειτουργίας

1

sprinkled

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind service, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “serve” or “worship.” Alternate translation: “for worshiping God” or “for serving in the tabernacle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1172

HEB

9

22

g3ef

figs-idiom

σχεδὸν…πάντα καθαρίζεται

1

almost everything is cleansed with blood

Here, the phrase almost everything indicates that what the author is speaking about is generally true but not always true. In other words, there are exceptions to what he says, and he wishes to acknowledge that. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to a general truth that has exceptions. Alternate translation: “everything, with some exceptions, is cleansed” or “most things are cleansed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1173

HEB

9

22

hi7m

figs-activepassive

σχεδὸν…πάντα καθαρίζεται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is cleansed rather than focusing on the whoever does the “cleansing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “the priests” did it. Alternate translation: “the priests cleanse almost everything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1174

HEB

9

22

gs2i

χωρὶς αἱματεκχυσίας, οὐ γίνεται ἄφεσις

1

Here the author presents this clause as a statement of what is generally true. Use a form in your language that presents a general truth or something that everyone knows. Alternate translation: “so it is true that there is no forgiveness without shedding of blood”

1175

HEB

9

22

uw4g

figs-doublenegatives

χωρὶς αἱματεκχυσίας, οὐ γίνεται ἄφεσις

1

Here the author uses two negative words (without and no) to emphasize how necessary blood is for forgiveness. If the two negatives would be confusing, and if it would not be emphatic in your language, you could express the idea with a positive statement and emphasize it in another way. Alternate translation: “forgiveness only occurs with shedding of blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1176

HEB

9

22

v8bj

translate-unknown

αἱματεκχυσίας

1

Without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness

Here the author uses a very rare word that refers to “pouring out” blood. The phrase shedding of blood thus refers to the process by which a priest kills an animal, pours its blood into a bowl, and then “pours it out” in a specific location near God’s presence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to the collection and presentation of the blood. Alternate translation: “shedding and presenting blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1177

HEB

9

22

v1tr

figs-abstractnouns

οὐ γίνεται ἄφεσις

1

forgiveness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind forgiveness, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “forgive.” If you need to express who does the “forgiving,” the author implies that it is God. Alternate translation: “no one is forgiven” or “God does not forgive people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1178

HEB

9

23

nh15

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word Therefore introduces a conclusion that is based on what the author has said in 9:18–22 about blood and cleansing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces a conclusion or an inference. Alternate translation: “Because of all that,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1179

HEB

9

23

q79n

figs-activepassive

τὰ…ὑποδείγματα τῶν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς τούτοις καθαρίζεσθαι

1

the copies of the things in heaven should be cleansed with these animal sacrifices

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the examples that are cleansed rather than focusing on the people doing the “cleansing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “the priests” did it. Alternate translation: “the priests to cleanse the examples of the things in the heavens with these” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1180

HEB

9

23

zgbc

translate-unknown

ὑποδείγματα

1

the copies of the things in heaven should be cleansed with these animal sacrifices

Here, the word examples indicates that the earthly tabernacle is a copy or illustration of the heavenly tabernacle. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to something that is based on something else. Alternate translation: “illustrations” or “replicas” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1181

HEB

9

23

fduq

figs-explicit

ὑποδείγματα τῶν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

the copies of the things in heaven should be cleansed with these animal sacrifices

Here, the phrase examples of the {things} in the heavens could refer to: (1) the earthly tabernacle, which is an “example” of the “tabernacle” in the heavens. Alternate translation: “example of the tabernacle in the heavens” (2) the earthly tabernacle, its priesthood, its sacrifices, and all the objects associated with it, which are examples of the same things in the heavens. Alternate translation: “examples of the tabernacle, priesthood, and service in the heavens” or “examples of the heavenly things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1182

HEB

9

23

rqw2

writing-pronouns

τούτοις…ταύτας

1

the copies of the things in heaven should be cleansed with these animal sacrifices

In both places, the word these refers back to the sacrifices and blood that the author has discussed in 9:18–22. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what these refers to more explicit. Alternate translation: “with those sacrifices … those sacrifices” or “with the blood of animals … the blood of animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1183

HEB

9

23

y9b7

figs-ellipsis

αὐτὰ…τὰ ἐπουράνια κρείττοσι θυσίαις παρὰ ταύτας

1

the heavenly things themselves had to be cleansed with much better sacrifices

This clause leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the first half of the verse. Alternate translation: “it is necessary for the heavenly things themselves to be cleansed with better sacrifices than these” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1184

HEB

9

23

eqn8

αὐτὰ…τὰ ἐπουράνια κρείττοσι θυσίαις παρὰ ταύτας

1

the heavenly things themselves had to be cleansed with much better sacrifices

What the author says about how the heavenly things themselves need to be cleansed could mean: (1) that when people sin, they defile or make impure the heavenly sanctuary. Thus, the heavenly sanctuary needs to be cleansed from this impurity. Alternate translation: “the heavenly things themselves need to be cleansed from impurity with better sacrifices than these” (2) that the heavenly sanctuary needs to be “inaugurated” or “consecrated.” In this case, “cleansing” refers primarily to making a place ready to function as a tabernacle, not to purifying sin from it. Alternate translation: “the heavenly things themselves need to be consecrated with better sacrifices than these”

1185

HEB

9

23

u2hm

figs-explicit

αὐτὰ…τὰ ἐπουράνια

1

the heavenly things themselves had to be cleansed with much better sacrifices

Here, the phrase the heavenly things themselves could refer to: (1) the heavenly tabernacle. Alternate translation: “the heavenly tabernacle itself” (2) the heavenly tabernacle, its priesthood, its sacrifices, and all the objects associated with it. Alternate translation: “the heavenly tabernacle, priesthood, and service themselves” or “the things in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1186

HEB

9

23

oup0

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὰ…τὰ ἐπουράνια

1

the heavenly things themselves had to be cleansed with much better sacrifices

Here, the word translated themselves emphasizes the heavenly things. Consider using a natural way to emphasize the heavenly things in your language. Alternate translation: “the very things in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

1187

HEB

9

23

xyys

figs-genericnoun

κρείττοσι θυσίαις

1

the heavenly things themselves had to be cleansed with much better sacrifices

Here the author refers to better sacrifices in general to make a contrast with the earthly sacrifices. However, he knows that Jesus only offered one “sacrifice.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a form that indicates that better sacrifices refers to what is generally true rather than to the details of what Jesus did, or you could use a singular form instead. Alternate translation: “with a better sacrifice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1188

HEB

9

24

drtu

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

the most holy place made with hands, which

Here, the word for introduces a further explanation of what the author said in the previous verse (9:23) about the “heavenly things” and the “better sacrifices.” The explanation continues through 9:25–26. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further explanation. Alternate translation: “which is why” or “and so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1189

HEB

9

24

xo5m

figs-go

οὐ…εἰς…εἰσῆλθεν

1

the most holy place made with hands, which

Here, the phrase did not enter refers to movement from outside a structure into that structure. Use a word or phrase in your language that refers to this kind of movement. Alternate translation: “did not pass into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1190

HEB

9

24

svu2

figs-explicit

χειροποίητα…ἅγια…ἀντίτυπα τῶν ἀληθινῶν

1

the most holy place made with hands, which

Here, the phrases holy {places} and copies refer to the earthly Most Holy Place. The phrase the true ones refers to the heavenly Most Holy Place. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the ideas more explicit. Alternate translation: “a Most Holy Place made with hands—a copy of the true heavenly one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1191

HEB

9

24

cy2x

figs-synecdoche

χειροποίητα

1

the most holy place made with hands, which

Here, the word hands refers to main part of the body that we use to make things. So, the phrase refers to the whole person who makes things. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that hands refers to “humans” in general, not just their hands. Alternate translation: “made by humans” or “made by people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1192

HEB

9

24

akii

figs-activepassive

χειροποίητα

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the holy {places} that are made rather than focusing on the hands, which made them. Alternate translation: “that hands made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1193

HEB

9

24

l1ce

translate-unknown

ἀντίτυπα

1

Here, the word copies identifies the holy {places} made with hands as something that models or is based on the true ones. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that describes something that is based on something else. See you how translated examples in 9:23. Alternate translation: “illustrations” or “replicas” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1194

HEB

9

24

p0y0

figs-explicit

αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν

1

Here, the phrase heaven itself is singular instead of plural, which is what the author has usually used when he speaks about the “heavens” in this letter. It is likely that the author uses the phrase heaven itself to refer to the highest of multiple heavens, which is where the heavenly sanctuary and God’s throne are. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to the highest or most important heaven. Alternate translation: “the heaven that is above all the others” or “the most important heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1195

HEB

9

24

e4l6

figs-explicit

νῦν ἐμφανισθῆναι

1

Here, the phrase to be made visible primarily refers to a person entering the presence of a leader or ruler. The point is that the person is visible to that leader or ruler, not that the person is visible to the audience. The word now indicates that this is what Jesus is currently doing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers to how Jesus is currently in God’s presence. Alternate translation: “to appear currently” or “to dwell during this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1196

HEB

9

24

g5lp

figs-activepassive

ἐμφανισθῆναι

1

of the true one

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author’s point is that Jesus is currently visible to God, so use a form that would express that idea well. Alternate translation: “to appear” or “to show himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1197

HEB

9

24

d4dn

figs-abstractnouns

τῷ προσώπῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

of the true one

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind presence, you could express the idea by using a phrase that refers to being close to God. Alternate translation: “where God dwells” or “near God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1198

HEB

9

25

f17a

figs-ellipsis

οὐδ’

1

He did not go there

This clause leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the previous verse (“enter” in 9:24). Alternate translation: “and he entered not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1199

HEB

9

25

rlua

figs-explicit

ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἰσέρχεται εἰς τὰ ἅγια κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐν αἵματι ἀλλοτρίῳ

1

He did not go there

Here the author refers to how the high priest was required to enter the Most Holy Place every single year to offer blood from sacrifices. You can read about what God required for this Day of Atonement in Leviticus 16. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the high priest enters in the Most Holy Place on the Day of Atonement each year with blood that comes from a sacrificed animal, not from himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1200

HEB

9

25

s0va

figs-go

εἰσέρχεται εἰς

1

He did not go there

Here, the phrase enters into refers to movement from outside a structure into that structure. Use a word or phrase that identifies this kind of movement in your language. Alternate translation: “moves into” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1201

HEB

9

25

hlrs

figs-explicit

τὰ ἅγια

1

He did not go there

Here, the phrase the holy {places} could refer to: (1) the Most Holy Place, the inner part of the earthly sanctuary that the high priest entered once a year. Alternate translation: “the Most Holy Place” (2) the entire earthly sanctuary, which the high priest entered many times in the year but especially on the Day of Atonement. Alternate translation: “the sanctuary” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1202

HEB

9

25

fxtc

figs-idiom

κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν

1

He did not go there

Here, the phrase each year refers to something that happens one year, and then the next year, and so on. One way of expressing this idea is with the phrase “year by year.” The author’s point is that the high priest enters every single year. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to sequential years. Alternate translation: “year by year” or “every single year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1203

HEB

9

25

zpf3

figs-explicit

ἐν αἵματι ἀλλοτρίῳ

1

with the blood of another

Here, the blood is not his his own because it comes from an animal that someone has sacrificed. The author expresses the idea in this way because he is contrasting the high priest with Jesus, who did use his own blood (see 9:12). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea more explicitly. Alternate translation: “with another being’s blood” or “with blood from an animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1204

HEB

9

26

o42h

figs-ellipsis

ἐπεὶ ἔδει

1

If that had been the case

Here the author does not directly state the basis for his inference (since). Instead, he implies that it is a positive version of the negative statement “not in order to offer himself many times” in 9:25. In other words, the point is that Christ could not make an offering many times, since then it would be necessary for him to suffer many times. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some of the implied words to make the idea clearer. Alternate translation: “since he would have offered himself many times, it would have been necessary for” or “since otherwise it would have been necessary for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1205

HEB

9

26

kg1l

writing-pronouns

αὐτὸν

1

If that had been the case

Here, the word him refers to Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make explicit to whom him refers. Alternate translation: “Jesus” or “Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1206

HEB

9

26

rwtt

figs-explicit

παθεῖν

1

If that had been the case

Here the author uses the word suffer to refer to everything bad that Jesus experienced, but he is especially focusing on Jesus’ death on the cross. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea explicitly. Alternate translation: “to suffer and die” or “to be crucified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1207

HEB

9

26

rr3s

figs-idiom

ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

1

If that had been the case

Here, the phrase {the} foundation of {the} world refers to the time when God created everything. When something is from this time, that means that it happens throughout the time between when God created everything and now. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “from when the world was created until now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1208

HEB

9

26

ezjh

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου

1

If that had been the case

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind foundation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “found” or “create.” Alternate translation: “from the founding of the world” or “from when God founded the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1209

HEB

9

26

weec

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

νυνὶ δὲ

1

If that had been the case

Here, the phrase But now could introduce (1) a contrast with the hypothetical situation the author offered in the first half of the verse. In this case, the word now does not refer to time but identifies what is actually true. See the similar construction in 8:6, which contrasts with the hypothetical situation in 8:4. Alternate translation: “In reality, though,” or “As it really is,” (2) a contrast with the hypothetical situation earlier in the verse and between the past (what the priests did) and the present (now). In this case, the word now does refer to time. Alternate translation: “But in the present” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1210

HEB

9

26

aojy

figs-activepassive

πεφανέρωται

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on Jesus, who has been revealed, rather than focusing on the person doing the “revealing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that Jesus himself did it. Alternate translation: “he has revealed himself” or “he has appeared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1211

HEB

9

26

hg2g

figs-explicit

πεφανέρωται

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here, the phrase he has been revealed could refer to: (1) Jesus’ “appearance” in the heavenly sanctuary (see “made visible” in 9:24). Alternate translation: “he has appeared in heaven” (2) Jesus’ “appearance” on earth when he became human and died. Alternate translation: “he has appeared on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1212

HEB

9

26

mfhz

figs-idiom

ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here, the phrase {the} end of the ages refers to the last period in the history of the world, which began when Jesus lived, died, and came alive again. It also means that this last period has been the goal of all the previous events. If your language has a way to refer to the last period in the history of the world, you could use it here. Alternatively, if your language has a way to refer to the end of the world, you could express the idea by stating that the end of the world will happen soon. Alternate translation: “at this time when the end of the world is coming soon” or “during these end times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1213

HEB

9

26

dq7m

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς ἀθέτησιν ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind annulment and sacrifice, you could express the ideas by using verbs such as “annul” and “sacrifice.” Alternate translation: “to annul sins by sacrificing himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1214

HEB

9

26

flt7

translate-unknown

ἀθέτησιν

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here, the word annulment is the same word translated in “annulment” in 7:18. The word refers to abolishing something or keeping it from being effective or powerful. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to removing the power or effectiveness from something. Alternate translation: “the abolition” or “the removal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1215

HEB

9

27

hflz

grammar-connect-words-phrases

καὶ καθ’ ὅσον

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here, the phrase And just as introduces further information (And) that includes a two-part comparison. The first part is introduced here by just as, while the second part is introduced at the beginning of 9:28 by “so also.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces further information and the first part of a comparison. Alternate translation: “Further, in the same way that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1216

HEB

9

27

w2v8

translate-unknown

ἀπόκειται τοῖς ἀνθρώποις…ἀποθανεῖν

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here, the phrase it is appointed refers to something that is certain or sure to happen. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable word or phrase that refers to something that will happen for sure. Alternate translation: “men are destined to die” or “men will certainly die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1217

HEB

9

27

h6rr

figs-activepassive

ἀπόκειται τοῖς ἀνθρώποις…ἀποθανεῖν

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on what is appointed rather than focusing on the person doing the “appointing.” If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God has appointed men to die” or “God has made it so that men die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1218

HEB

9

27

giz9

figs-gendernotations

τοῖς ἀνθρώποις

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Although the word men is masculine, the author is using it to refer to all people, both men and women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “to people” or “to men and women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1219

HEB

9

27

ewjt

figs-extrainfo

μετὰ…τοῦτο

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here the author does not specify how soon judgment comes after people die. If possible, express the idea with a word or phrase that refers to an event that comes later without specifying how much later. Alternate translation: “once that happens” or “some time after that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

1220

HEB

9

27

j084

figs-explicit

κρίσις

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

Here, the word judgment refers to how God will “judge” everyone based on what they have done when Jesus comes back. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea more explicit. Alternate translation: “the final judgment” or “God’s judgment of everyone at the end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1221

HEB

9

27

p6oi

figs-abstractnouns

κρίσις

1

to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind judgment, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “judge.” Alternate translation: “they are judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1222

HEB

9

28

nwwq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

οὕτως καὶ

1

Christ was offered once

Here, the phrase so also introduces what the author will compare with humans dying and being judged (9:27). The comparison between humans and Christ is about two primary things. First, both die once. Second, God’s final decision, either judgment or salvation, follows this death at some point. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces the second part of a comparison. “likewise” or “in much the same way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1223

HEB

9

28

p8b6

figs-activepassive

προσενεχθεὶς

1

Christ was offered once

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, the author implies that “Christ” did it to himself. Alternate translation: “having offered himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1224

HEB

9

28

hv2t

figs-metaphor

εἰς τὸ…ἀνενεγκεῖν ἁμαρτίας

1

to take away the sins

Here the author refers to how Jesus deals with sins as if he were “bearing” or taking them off someone. He speaks in this way to indicate that Jesus eliminates the guilt and the power of these sins over people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to remove the sins” or “to deal with the sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1225

HEB

9

28

p6th

figs-explicit

ὀφθήσεται

1

the sins

Here, the phrase will appear refers to how Jesus will be seen by everyone on earth when comes back to earth from heaven. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to Jesus coming back to earth. Alternate translation: “will come” or “will reveal himself on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1226

HEB

9

28

s9jy

figs-explicit

ἐκ δευτέρου

1

the sins

Here the author refers to a second time because Jesus already “appeared” on earth the “first time,” which is when he became human, lived, and died. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make the idea explicit. Alternate translation: “one more time” or “again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1227

HEB

9

28

scnu

translate-ordinal

δευτέρου

1

the sins

If your language does not use ordinal numbers, you can use a cardinal number here. Alternate translation: “time two” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1228

HEB

9

28

b99a

figs-explicit

χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας

1

the sins

Here, the phrase apart from sin refers to how what Jesus will do is not about sin. The phrase does not refer to how Jesus himself does not have sin, although that is true (see 4:15). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to how Jesus’ second “appearing” does not deal with sin. Alternate translation: “without reference to sin” or “not dealing with sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1229

HEB

9

28

aijj

figs-abstractnouns

τοῖς…εἰς σωτηρίαν

1

the sins

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind salvation, you could express the idea by using a verb such as “save.” Alternate translation: “to save those” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1230

HEB

10

intro

nev1

0

Hebrews 10 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. The Son as high priest (5:1–10:18)
    • Teaching: Old and new ministries (9:1–10:18)
  2. Summary statement (10:19–25)
  3. Faith and endurance (10:26–12:29)
    • Exhortation: Endure in the faith! (10:26–39)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 10:5–7, 16–17, 37–38, which are words from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

The sacrifices that Moses’ law required

In 10:1–11, the author points out several reasons why it is clear that the sacrifices that God required the Israelites to offer did not take away sins on their own. First, he states that these sacrifices are a “shadow” of the coming good things. It is the real thing, not the shadow, that takes away sins. Second, these sacrifices needed to be repeated. If they actually took away sin, the author reasons, they would only need to be done once. Third, he argues from the Scriptures that God replaces these sacrifices with Jesus doing God’s will. In this chapter, the author does not spend much time speaking about what those sacrifices actually did accomplish. He only says that they are a “reminder” of sins (see 10:3). See 9:13 for more information on what the sacrifices actually could accomplish. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/sacrifice]])

“Once” versus “repeatedly”

Throughout this chapter, the author states that Christ offered himself once and that his sacrifice has eternal effects. In contrast, he states that the sacrifices that the earthly priests offered happened repeatedly and had limited effects. In your translation, be sure to use words that emphasize the contrast between a single, effective sacrifice and multiple, ineffective sacrifices.

The “former days”

In 10:32, the author refers to the “former days,” which he then goes on to describe in 10:32–34. This phrase refers to a period of time in the audience’s past, a time when they had just been “enlightened,” which means they had recently believed in Jesus. During this time, they suffered but also persevered and rejoiced in knowing God. The author wishes them to continue to show the endurance and joy they showed during these “former days.” In these verses, use verb tenses and forms that you would normally use for describing what happened in a person’s past.

“The one coming” in 10:37

In 10:37, the “one coming” refers to the Messiah, whom the author knows is Jesus. In this context, the Messiah “coming” refers to Jesus’ second coming, not his incarnation. Use words here that could be understood as a reference to Jesus’ second coming.

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

“Shadow” and “image” in 10:1

In this verse, the law has a “shadow” of the coming good things, which means that the law of Moses gives an outline or vague image of those good things. A “shadow” is not bad, but it is not the thing that casts the shadow. Instead, it just gives a foretaste or a hint of what that thing is. The author uses the word “image” to refer to the thing itself. The author’s point, then, is that the law of Moses provides a hint or foretaste of the coming good things, which are what Christ offers to those who believe in him. That means that the law is good, but if people can have the “image” itself (what Christ gives), they do not need the “shadow” (the law) anymore. See the notes on this verse for translation ideas. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/shadow]])

“The curtain, that is, his flesh” in 10:20

In this verse, the phrase “that is, his flesh” can be understood in three main ways. (1) it could go with “curtain,” in which case the author is stating that Jesus’ “flesh” is somehow like this “curtain.” It could mean that he needed to live his life in the “flesh” before he could enter the heavenly sanctuary, just like a priest needed to pass through the “curtain” before he could enter the Most Holy Place. Or, it could mean that his “flesh” needed to die before he could enter the heavenly sanctuary, just like a priest needed to penetrate through the curtain to enter the Most Holy Place. (2) it could go with the whole clause “which he has inaugurated for us as a fresh and living way.” In this case, the word “through” is implied with “flesh” as well as “curtain,” and the author is saying that Jesus “inaugurated” this way “through” (or “by means of”) his “flesh.” (3) it could go with “way,” in which case the author is stating that Jesus’ “way” was his “flesh.” This would most likely mean that the path or “way” that Jesus took to get to the heavenly sanctuary was his earthly life in the “flesh.” The first option makes the most sense of the way the author wrote the words in the sentence, but some scholars argue that the idea it expresses does not match the rest of what the author says. Consider using a construction that could modify either “curtain” or “way” to preserve the ambiguity.

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

What sins are those for which there is no longer a sacrifice?

In 10:26–31, the author refers to sin which no sacrifice can take away and which God will punish with “fire.” Scholars debate what sin or sins the author is speaking about and whether the people who commit the sin or sins are really Christians or not. What is clear is that this is very serious sin: it involves “trampling” Christ and insulting the Holy Spirit. No one could commit this kind of sin by accident. Further, the word for “sinning” in 10:26 indicates that the author is thinking about more than one individual act. In your translation, make sure that you refer to a pattern or repeated behavior of sinning. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Old Testament quotations

When the author quotes from the Old Testament, he uses a Greek translation that is sometimes different than the original Hebrew version that most modern translations use for the Old Testament. This is particularly obvious in 10:5–7, which quotes from a Greek version of Psalm 40:6–8, and in 10:37–38, which quotes from a Greek version of Habakkuk 2:3–4. Since the author chose to use these forms of the quotations, you should represent the words the author uses, not the words that may be found in an Old Testament you are familiar with. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

1231

HEB

10

1

kwq1

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, the word For introduces a new development in the argument that is based on what the author has said in 9:23–28. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces development, or you could leave For untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1232

HEB

10

1

kj83

figs-metaphor

σκιὰν…ἔχων…τῶν…ἀγαθῶν

1

the law is only a shadow of the good things to come

Here the author speaks as if the law has a shadow that is cast by the good things that are coming. He speaks in this way to indicate that the law is not one of the good things that are coming, but that it does “foreshadow” or give a outline or forecast of what those good things are like. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “foreshadowing the good things” or “only pointing to the good things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1233

HEB

10

1

mz05

figs-extrainfo

τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν

1

the law is only a shadow of the good things to come

Here the author does not clarify exactly what these good things are. What is clear is that God gives them to believers as gifts or blessings. If possible, express the idea without including specifics about what the things are. Alternate translation: “of the good gifts that are coming” or “of the blessings that are coming from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

1234

HEB

10

1

i4ey

figs-personification

μελλόντων

1

the law is only a shadow of the good things to come

Here the author speaks as if the good things were a person who could “come” or arrive at a destination. He means that believers will certainly and quickly receive these good things, as surely as someone who is “coming” will soon arrive. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “that believers will receive soon” or “that we will certainly experience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1235

HEB

10

1

miv9

figs-explicit

μελλόντων

1

the law is only a shadow of the good things to come

Here the author could mean that the good things: (1) are coming for believers, although believers do experience them some now. Alternate translation: “that will come” (2) were coming from the perspective of those who received the law but which believers have now received. Alternate translation: “that were to come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1236

HEB

10

1

r6ly

translate-unknown

οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν πραγμάτων

1

not the real forms of those things themselves

Here, the word image refers to the opposite of the shadow. The image refers to the reality or substance of the things themselves. It does not refer to a copy or reflection. If it would be helpful in your language, you use a word or phrase that refers to the reality or existence of the things. Alternate translation: “not the reality itself of those things” or “not being itself one of those things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1237

HEB

10

1

kcyq

figs-personification

ἔχων ὁ νόμος…οὐδέποτε δύναται…τελειῶσαι

1

not the real forms of those things themselves

Here the author speaks as if the law were a person who could make perfect other people. He speaks in this way to indicate that the regulations and rituals that God required in the law do not enable people to become “perfect.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “keeping the law, which has … cannot ever make perfect” or “doing what the law requires, which law has … never gives perfection to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1238

HEB

10

1

anin

figs-explicit

τοὺς προσερχομένους

1

not the real forms of those things themselves

Here, the phrase those who approach could refer to: (1) the Israelites who brought the sacrifices to God. Alternate translation: “the people who approach” (2) the priests who serve in the sanctuary. Alternate translation: “the priests who approach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1239

HEB

10

1

khk2

figs-idiom

κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν

1

not the real forms of those things themselves

Here, the phrase every year identifies an action that happens often and repeatedly. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that identifies a frequent and repeated action. Alternate translation: “day after day” or “all the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1240

HEB

10

2

mww3

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ἐπεὶ

1

would the sacrifices not have ceased to be offered?

Here, the word Otherwise introduces a hypothetical situation that is contrary to what the author claimed in the previous verse. The author introduces this hypothetical situation to further support his argument. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word or phrase that introduces something that is contrary to fact. Alternate translation: “If that were not the case” or “Were that not so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1241

HEB

10

2

aw6g

figs-rquestion

οὐκ ἂν ἐπαύσαντο προσφερόμεναι, διὰ τὸ μηδεμίαν ἔχειν ἔτι συνείδησιν ἁμαρτιῶν, τοὺς λατρεύοντας ἅπαξ κεκαθαρισμένους?

1

would the sacrifices not have ceased to be offered?

The author does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the audience in what he is arguing. The question implies that the answer is “yes, they would have ceased being offered.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea by using a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “they would certainly have ceased being offered, because the ones serving would no longer have consciousness of sins, having been cleansed once.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1242

HEB

10

2

zk99

figs-infostructure

οὐκ ἂν ἐπαύσαντο προσφερόμεναι, διὰ τὸ μηδεμίαν ἔχειν ἔτι συνείδησιν ἁμαρτιῶν, τοὺς λατρεύοντας ἅπαξ κεκαθαρισμένους?

1

would the sacrifices not have ceased to be offered?

Here the author expresses the conclusion before he gives his reasons. This was a natural order of information in his language. If your readers would find this order confusing, you could express the reasons before the conclusion, or you could use some other natural order. Alternate translation: “since the ones serving, having been cleansed once, would no longer have consciousness of sins, would they not have ceased being offered?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1243

HEB

10

2

xor4

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἂν ἐπαύσαντο προσφερόμεναι

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The author uses the passive form here to focus on the sacrifices, which have not ceased being offered, rather than focusing on the person who would “cease offering” them. If you must state who would do the action, the author implies that the “priests” or the “Israelites” would. Alternate translation: “would the priests not have ceased offering them” or “would the Israelites not have ceased offering them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])