unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
en_tn/en_tn_58-PHM.tsv

33 KiB

1BookChapterVerseIDSupportReferenceOrigQuoteOccurrenceGLQuoteOccurrenceNote
2

PHM

front

intro

sz2w

0

Introduction to Philemon

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Book of Philemon

  1. Paul greets Philemon (1:1–3)
  2. Paul makes requests of Philemon about Onesimus (1:4–21)
  3. Conclusion (1:22–25)

Who wrote the Book of Philemon?

Paul wrote Philemon. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Saul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.

Paul was in a prison when he wrote this letter.

What is the Book of Philemon about?

Paul wrote this letter to a man named Philemon. Philemon was a believer in Jesus who lived in the city of Colossae. He owned a slave named Onesimus. Onesimus had run away from Philemon and possibly stole something from him as well. Onesimus went to Rome and visited Paul in prison there, where Paul brought Onesimus to Jesus.

Paul told Philemon that he was sending Onesimus back to him. Philemon had the right to execute Onesimus according to Roman law. But Paul said that Philemon should accept Onesimus back as a Christian brother. He even suggested that Philemon should allow Onesimus to come back to Paul and help him in prison.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Philemon.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Letter to Philemon” or “The Letter Paul wrote to Philemon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

Does this letter approve the practice of slavery?

Paul sent Onesimus back to his former master. But that did not mean that Paul thought that slavery was an acceptable practice. Instead, Paul was more concerned with people being reconciled to each other and that they serve God in whatever situation they were in. It is important to note that in the culture of the time, people became slaves for various reasons and it was not considered a permanent state.

What does Paul mean by the expression “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?

Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. See the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Singular and plural “you”

In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. The word “you” is almost always singular and refers to Philemon. The two exceptions to this are 1:22 and 1:25. There “you” refers to Philemon and the believers that met at his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

Three times Paul identifies himself as the author of this letter (in verses 1, 9, and 19). Evidently Timothy was with him and may have written down the words as Paul said them. All instances of “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to Paul. Philemon is the main person to whom this letter is written. All instances of “you” and “your” refer to him and are singular unless otherwise noted. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

3

PHM

1

1

ne8k

figs-123person

Παῦλος

1

Your language may have a particular way of introducing the author of a letter. Use that here. Alternate translations: “From me, Paul” or “I, Paul” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person)

4

PHM

1

1

cgs4

δέσμιος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

a prisoner of Christ Jesus

Paul was in prison because people in authority did not want him to preach about Jesus. They put him there in order to stop him and to punish him. This does not mean that Jesus had put Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “a prisoner for the sake of Christ Jesus”

5

PHM

1

1

sv3p

ὁ ἀδελφὸς

1

our brother

Paul is using the term brother to mean someone who shares the same faith. Alternate translation: “our fellow Christian” or “our companion in the faith” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

6

PHM

1

1

y9zu

figs-exclusive

ὁ ἀδελφὸς

1

Here, the word {our} is not in the original, but was necessary for English, which requires that a relationship word indicate who the person is related to. In this case, {our} would be inclusive, relating Timothy to Paul and the readers as a brother in Christ. If your language requires this, you could do the same. If not, you could follow the original wording, which says, “the brother.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

7

PHM

1

1

gvmy

translate-names

Φιλήμονι

1

Philemon is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

8

PHM

1

1

q84z

figs-explicit

Φιλήμονι

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could include the information that this is a letter in which Paul is speaking directly to Philemon, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

9

PHM

1

1

r3l9

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

our

The word our here refers to Paul and those with him, but not to the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

10

PHM

1

1

ww3l

καὶ συνεργῷ ἡμῶν

1

and our fellow worker

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state explicitly how Philemon worked with Paul. Alternate translation: “who, like us, works to spread the gospel” or “who works as we do to serve Jesus”

11

PHM

1

2

b37l

translate-names

Ἀπφίᾳ

1

Apphia is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

12

PHM

1

2

bb1s

figs-exclusive

τῇ ἀδελφῇ

1

Here, the word {our} is not in the original, but was necessary for English, which requires that a relationship word indicate who the person is related to. In this case, {our} would be inclusive, relating Apphia to Paul and the readers as a sister in Christ. If your language requires this, you could do the same. If not, you could do the same as the original, which says, “the sister.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

13

PHM

1

2

hhpc

figs-metaphor

τῇ ἀδελφῇ

1

Paul is using the term sister to mean a woman who shares the same faith. Alternate translation: “our fellow Christian” or “our spiritual sister” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

14

PHM

1

2

e8su

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

our

The word our here refers to Paul and those with him, but not to the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

15

PHM

1

2

kyzo

Ἀπφίᾳ…Ἀρχίππῳ…τῇ…ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

The letter is predominantly addressed to Philemon. It could be misleading to suggest Paul is writing to Apphia, Archippus, and the church in Philemon’s house, on the same level as he is writing to Philemon.

16

PHM

1

2

sq44

translate-names

Ἀρχίππῳ

1

Archippus

Archippus is the name of a man in the church with Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

17

PHM

1

2

mnn5

figs-metaphor

τῷ συνστρατιώτῃ ἡμῶν

1

our fellow soldier

Paul speaks here of Archippus as if he and Archippus were both soldiers in an army. He means that Archippus works hard, as Paul himself works hard, to spread the gospel. Alternate translation: “our fellow spiritual warrior” or “who also fights the spiritual battle with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

18

PHM

1

2

uof9

καὶ τῇ κατ’ οἶκόν σου ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

Apphia and Archippus were probably also members of the church that met at Philemon’s house. If mentioning them separately would imply that they were not part of the church, you could include a word like “other.” Alternate translation: “to the other members of the church in your house”

19

PHM

1

3

r4nq

translate-blessing

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ

After introducing the senders and recipients of the letter, Paul gives a blessing. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “May God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ give you grace and peace.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

20

PHM

1

3

iv7e

figs-abstractnouns

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns Grace and peace with adjectives such as “gracious” and “peaceful.” Alternate translation: “May God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and make you peaceful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

21

PHM

1

3

e5z8

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν…ἡμῶν

1

our

The word our here is inclusive, referring to Paul, those with him, and the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

22

PHM

1

3

qglx

figs-yousingular

ὑμῖν

1

Here, you is plural, referring to all of the recipients named in verses 1–2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

23

PHM

1

3

lh8a

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Πατρὸς

1

Father

Father is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

24

PHM

1

4

puh8

figs-yousingular

σου

1

Here, the word you is singular and refers to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

25

PHM

1

5

l3i2

figs-abstractnouns

ἀκούων σου τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους

1

figs-abstractnouns

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns love and faith by stating the ideas behind them with verbs instead. Alternate translation: “hearing how much you love and believe in the Lord Jesus and all the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

26

PHM

1

5

ojcu

writing-poetry

ἀκούων σου τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους

1

writing-poetry

Paul is using a poetic structure here in which the first and last parts relate and the second and third parts relate. Therefore, the meaning is: “hearing of the faith that you have in the Lord Jesus and of your love for all the saints.”Paul said exactly that in Colossians 1:4 without the poetic structure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])

27

PHM

1

5

pf1y

figs-yousingular

σου…ἔχεις

1

Here, the words your and you are singular and refer to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

28

PHM

1

6

mfrp

figs-explicit

ὅπως

1

Here, that introduces the content of the prayer that Paul mentions in verse 4. If it would be helpful in your language, you could repeat the idea of prayer here. Alternate translation: “I pray that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

29

PHM

1

6

t54l

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ κοινωνία τῆς πίστεώς σου

1

the fellowship of your faith

The word translated fellowship means a sharing or a partnership in something. Paul probably intends both meanings, but if you must choose, it could mean: (1) that Philemon shares the same faith in Christ as Paul and others. Alternate translation: “the faith that you share with us” (2) that Philemon is a partner with Paul and others in working for Christ. Alternate translation: “your working together with us as believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

30

PHM

1

6

hcwp

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ κοινωνία τῆς πίστεώς σου, ἐνεργὴς γένηται ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ τοῦ ἐν ἡμῖν εἰς Χριστόν.

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun faith with a verb such as “trust” or “believe,” and behind knowledge with a verb such as “know” or “learn.” Alternate translation: “as you trust in the Messiah along with us, you may become increasingly better at serving the Messiah, as you learn about all of the good things that he has given us to use for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

31

PHM

1

6

pxw1

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ

1

may be effective for the knowledge of everything good

This could mean: (1) “and will result in you knowing every good thing” (2) “so that those you share your faith with will know every good thing” Alternate translation: “by knowing everything good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

32

PHM

1

6

n25e

figs-explicit

εἰς Χριστόν

1

in Christ

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state explicitly how “everything good” is for Christ. Alternate translation: “for the sake of Christ” or “for the benefit of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

33

PHM

1

7

vyc7

figs-abstractnouns

χαρὰν γὰρ πολλὴν ἔσχον καὶ παράκλησιν

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns joy and comfort with adjectives. Alternate translation: “For you made me very joyful and comforted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

34

PHM

1

7

xlp6

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπὶ τῇ ἀγάπῃ σου

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun love with a verb. Alternate translation: “because you love people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

35

PHM

1

7

shpv

figs-activepassive

τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων ἀναπέπαυται διὰ σοῦ

1

the inward parts of the saints are being refreshed by you

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “you have refreshed the inward parts of the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

36

PHM

1

7

aq4g

figs-metonymy

τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων

1

the inward parts of the saints

Here, inward parts refers to a person’s emotions or inner being. Use the figure that is normal in your language for this, such as “hearts” or “livers,” or give the plain meaning. Alternate translation: “the thoughts and feelings of the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

37

PHM

1

7

z0ne

figs-metaphor

τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων ἀναπέπαυται διὰ σοῦ

1

Here, being refreshed refers to the feeling of encouragement or relief. Alternate translation: “you have encouraged the saints” or “you have helped the believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

38

PHM

1

7

m5ip

figs-metaphor

σοῦ, ἀδελφέ

1

you, brother

Paul called Philemon brother because they were both believers, and he wanted to emphasize their friendship. Alternate translation: “you, dear brother” or “you, dear friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

39

PHM

1

8

ayy1

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul begins his plea and the reason for his letter.

40

PHM

1

8

fd84

πολλὴν ἐν Χριστῷ παρρησίαν

1

all boldness in Christ

This could mean: (1) “all authority because of Christ” (2) “all courage because of Christ.”

41

PHM

1

8

x3nc

grammar-connect-logic-result

διό

1

The word Therefore signals that what Paul has just said in verses 4–7 is the reason for what he is about to say. Use a connecting word or another way that your language uses to signal this relationship. Alternate translation: “Because of this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

42

PHM

1

9

l9fh

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τὴν ἀγάπην

1

because of love

Paul does not say for whom this love is. If you need to use a verb here and say who loves whom, this could refer to: (1) the mutual love between him and Philemon. See the UST. (2) Paul’s love for Philemon. Alternate translation: “because I love you” (3) Philemon’s love for his fellow believers. Alternate translation: “because I know that you love God’s people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

43

PHM

1

9

sb31

δέσμιος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

Paul was in prison because people in authority did not want him to preach about Jesus. They put him there in order to stop him and to punish him. This does not mean that Jesus had put Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “a prisoner for the sake of Christ Jesus”

44

PHM

1

10

lsr6

translate-names

Ὀνήσιμον

1

Onesimus is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

45

PHM

1

10

hnhz

figs-explicit

Ὀνήσιμον

1

The name Onesimus means “profitable” or “useful.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could include this information in the text or in a footnote. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

46

PHM

1

10

mui3

figs-metaphor

ὃν ἐγέννησα

1

whom I have fathered in my chains

Here, fathered is a metaphor that means that Onesimus became a believer as Paul taught him about Christ. Alternate translation: “who received new life and became my spiritual son when I taught him about Christ” or “who became a spiritual son to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

47

PHM

1

10

nx1p

figs-metonymy

ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς

1

in my chains

Prisoners were often bound in chains. Paul was in prison when he taught Onesimus and was still in prison when he wrote this letter. Alternate translation: “here in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

48

PHM

1

12

t1kp

ὃν ἀνέπεμψά σοι

1

I sent him back to you

Paul was probably sending Onesimus with another believer who carried this letter.

49

PHM

1

12

fdwn

figs-metaphor

τοῦτ’ ἔστιν τὰ ἐμὰ σπλάγχνα

1

my inward parts

The phrase {this} one is my inward parts is a metaphor for deep feelings about someone. Paul was saying this about Onesimus. Alternate translation: “this is a person whom I love dearly” or “this person is very special to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

50

PHM

1

12

yn1d

figs-metonymy

τὰ ἐμὰ σπλάγχνα

1

Here, ** inward parts** is figurative for the place of a person’s emotions. If your language has a similar figure, then use that. If not, use plain language. Alternate translation: “my heart” or “my liver” or “my deepest feelings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

51

PHM

1

13

t4xl

ἵνα ὑπὲρ σοῦ μοι διακονῇ

1

so that he might serve me on behalf of you

Paul knows that Philemon wants to help him, and so he suggests that a way to do that would be to allow Onesimus to serve Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “so that, since you could not be here, he might help me” or “so that he could help me in your place”

52

PHM

1

13

bb3t

figs-metonymy

ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς

1

in the chains

Prisoners were often bound in chains. Paul was in prison when he told Onesimus about the Messiah, and he was still in prison when he wrote this letter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

53

PHM

1

13

vver

figs-explicit

ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς τοῦ εὐαγγελίου

1

Paul was in prison because he preached the gospel publicly. You can state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in the chains that they put on me because I preach the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

54

PHM

1

14

ngg8

figs-abstractnouns

ἵνα μὴ ὡς κατὰ ἀνάγκην τὸ ἀγαθόν σου ᾖ

1

but according to good will

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun compulsion with a verb. Alternate translation: “for I did not want you to do this good deed because I commanded you to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

55

PHM

1

14

fg6l

figs-abstractnouns

ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἑκούσιον.

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun will with a verb. Alternate translation: “but because you wanted to do it” or “but because you freely chose to do the right thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

56

PHM

1

15

tcrd

figs-activepassive

τάχα γὰρ διὰ τοῦτο, ἐχωρίσθη πρὸς ὥραν, ἵνα

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “For perhaps the reason that God took Onesimus away from you for a time was so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

57

PHM

1

15

bx4q

figs-idiom

πρὸς ὥραν

1

Here, the phrase for an hour is an idiom meaning “for a short time.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “for this short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

58

PHM

1

16

l3e4

ὑπὲρ δοῦλον

1

better than a slave

Alternate translation: “more valuable than a slave” or “more dear than a slave”

59

PHM

1

16

dg1w

οὐκέτι ὡς δοῦλον

1

This does not mean that Onesimus will no longer be a slave to Philemon. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a word such as “just” or “only.” Alternate translation: “no longer only as a slave”

60

PHM

1

16

bynb

ὑπὲρ δοῦλον

1

Alternate translation: “more valuable than a slave”

61

PHM

1

16

f8tz

figs-metaphor

ἀδελφὸν ἀγαπητόν

1

a beloved brother

Here, brother is a metaphor for a fellow believer. Alternative translation, “a beloved spiritual brother” or “a brother whom we love in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

62

PHM

1

16

qxi0

ἀγαπητόν

1

Alternate translation: “dear” or “precious”

63

PHM

1

16

scj1

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

in the Lord

Alternate translation: “in the fellowship of brotherhood through Jesus” or “in the fellowship of believers in the Lord”

64

PHM

1

17

e1j2

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ…με ἔχεις κοινωνόν

1

if you have me as a partner

Paul is writing in a way that makes it seem as though it is possible that Philemon does not consider that Paul is his partner, but he knows that Philemon does consider Paul to be his partner. This is a way of getting Philemon to agree on one thing (that Paul is a partner) so that he will agree to the other thing (to receive Onesimus). If your language does not state something as uncertain if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “since you have me as a partner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

65

PHM

1

17

e0es

grammar-connect-logic-result

οὖν

1

Therefore means that what came before this word is the reason for what comes after it. It may be that Paul intends for everything that came before to be the reason, because this word also indicates that Paul is now coming to the main point of the letter. Use a natural method in your language to indicate this transition. Alternate translation: “Because of all of these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

66

PHM

1

17

d56r

figs-ellipsis

προσλαβοῦ αὐτὸν ὡς ἐμέ.

1

Paul is leaving out some of the words here that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “receive him just as you would receive me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

67

PHM

1

18

nq4j

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει

1

Onesimus certainly did wrong to Philemon by running away, and he probably also stole some of Philemon’s property. But Paul is stating these things as uncertain in order to be polite. If your language does not use a conditional statement in this way, then use a more natural way to state this. Alternate translation: “But whatever he has taken or whatever wrong he has done to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

68

PHM

1

18

w4ys

εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει

1

These two phrases mean similar things, although wronged you is more general than owes {you}. If it would be more natural in your language, you could put the more general phrase second. Alternate translation: “But if he owes you anything or has wronged you in any way”

69

PHM

1

18

j3ou

τοῦτο ἐμοὶ ἐλλόγα.

1

Alternate translation: “I will take responsibility for repaying you” or “say that I am the one who owes you”

70

PHM

1

19

wb53

ἐγὼ Παῦλος ἔγραψα τῇ ἐμῇ χειρί

1

I, Paul, write this with my own hand

Paul wrote this part with his own hand so that Philemon would know that these words were really from Paul, and that Paul really would pay him. He used the past tense here because the action of writing would be in the past when Philemon read the letter. Use the tense that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I, Paul, write this myself.”

71

PHM

1

19

gn6c

figs-irony

ἵνα μὴ λέγω σοι

1

in order not to say to you

Paul says that he will not say something to Philemon while saying it. This is a polite way of emphasizing the truth of what Paul is telling him. If your language would not use irony like this, then use a more natural expression. Alternate translation: “I do not need to remind you” or “You already know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

72

PHM

1

19

st7e

figs-explicit

καὶ σεαυτόν μοι προσοφείλεις

1

you also owe me your own self

Paul was implying that whatever Onesimus or Paul owed to Philemon was canceled by the larger amount that Philemon owed to Paul, which was Philemon’s own life. The reason that Philemon owed Paul his life can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “you even owe me your own life” or “you owe me much more because I saved your life” or “you owe me your own life because I told you about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

73

PHM

1

20

mw03

figs-metaphor

ἀδελφέ

1

Here, brother is a metaphor for a fellow believer. Alternate translation: “spiritual brother” or “brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

74

PHM

1

20

cqd0

figs-metaphor

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

See how you translated in {the} Lord in verse 16. This metaphor refers to being a believer in Jesus and means the same as in Christ. Alternate translation: “as you serve the Lord” or “because we are fellow believers in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

75

PHM

1

20

xp0b

figs-explicit

ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα ἐν Χριστῷ

1

refresh my inward parts in Christ

How Paul wanted Philemon to refresh him can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “refresh my inward parts in Christ by accepting Onesimus kindly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

76

PHM

1

20

j8lh

figs-metaphor

ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα

1

refresh my inward parts

Here, refresh is a metaphor for comfort or encourage. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

77

PHM

1

20

kmpp

figs-metonymy

ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα

1

refresh my inward parts

Here, inward parts is a metonym for a person’s feelings, thoughts, or inner being. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

78

PHM

1

21

azje

figs-abstractnouns

πεποιθὼς τῇ ὑπακοῇ σου

1

refresh my inward parts

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns confidence and obedience with verbs. Alternate translation: “Because I am confident that you will obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

79

PHM

1

21

lxxi

ἔγραψά σοι

1

refresh my inward parts

Paul used the past tense here because the action of writing would be in the past when Philemon read the letter. Use the tense that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I write to you”

80

PHM

1

22

xpn6

checking/headings

0

Connecting Statement:

Here Paul closes his letter and gives final instruction to Philemon and a blessing on Philemon and on the believers that met for church in Philemon’s house. If you are using section headings, you could put one here before verse 22. Suggested heading: “Final Instruction and Blessing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

81

PHM

1

22

bx62

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ἅμα

1

at the same time

The word translated at the same time indicates that Paul wants Philemon to do something else for him while he does the first thing. You can make this clear in your translation with an appropriate connecting word or phrase. Alternate translation: “while doing that” or “in addition to that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

82

PHM

1

22

ctr4

χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν

1

I will be given back to you

Alternate translation: “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can go to you.”

83

PHM

1

22

mzr0

ἑτοίμαζέ μοι ξενίαν

1

I will be given back to you

The word translated guest room refers to any hospitality that is provided for a guest. So the kind of space is unspecified. Alternate translation: “also prepare a place in your house for me.”

84

PHM

1

22

lnw9

διὰ τῶν προσευχῶν ὑμῶν

1

I will be given back to you

Alternate translation: “God will answer your prayers so”

85

PHM

1

22

p2u0

figs-activepassive

χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν.

1

I will be given back to you

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this explicitly with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bring me back to you” or “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can come to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

86

PHM

1

22

o06s

figs-you

ὑμῶν…ὑμῖν

1

I will be given back to you

The words your and you here are plural, referring to Philemon and all the believers who met in his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

87

PHM

1

23

x2d8

translate-names

Ἐπαφρᾶς

1

Epaphras

Epaphras was the name of a man who was a fellow believer and prisoner with Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

88

PHM

1

23

f0b6

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

Epaphras

fdHere, in Christ Jesus means something similar to the phrases “in the Lord” and “in Christ” in verse 20. See how you translated those there. Alternate translation: “who is here with me because he serves Christ Jesus”

89

PHM

1

24

i5gc

translate-names

Μᾶρκος, Ἀρίσταρχος, Δημᾶς, Λουκᾶς

1

Mark…Aristarchus…Demas…Luke

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

90

PHM

1

24

uc6n

figs-ellipsis

Μᾶρκος, Ἀρίσταρχος, Δημᾶς, Λουκᾶς

1

Mark…Aristarchus…Demas…Luke

Paul is leaving out some of the words here that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “as do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow workers” or “Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow workers, also greet you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

91

PHM

1

24

gf6e

οἱ συνεργοί μου

1

my fellow workers

Alternate translation: “the men who work with me” or “who all work with me.”

92

PHM

1

25

apvl

figs-synecdoche

μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν

1

be with your spirit

The words your spirit are a synecdoche and represent the people themselves. Paul is referring to Philemon and all who met in his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

93

PHM

1

25

e35h

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

be with your spirit

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun grace with an adjective or verb. Alternate translation: “May our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and” or “May our Lord Jesus Christ be kind to you and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

94

PHM

1

25

jou6

figs-you

ὑμῶν

1

be with your spirit

The word your here is plural and refers to Philemon and all who met in his house. Alternate translation: “your spirits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])