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Introduction to Titus

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the book of Titus

  1. Paul instructs Titus to appoint godly leaders. (1:1–16)
  2. Paul instructs Titus to train people to live godly lives. (2:1–3:11)
  3. Paul ends by sharing some of his plans and sending greetings to various believers. (3:12–15)

Who wrote the book of Titus?

Paul wrote the book of Titus. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.

What is the book of Titus about?

Paul wrote this letter to Titus, his fellow worker, who was leading the churches on the island of Crete. Paul instructed him about selecting church leaders. Paul also described how the believers should behave towards each other. He also encouraged them all to live in a way that pleases God.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Titus.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Letter to Titus” or “A Letter to Titus.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

In what roles can people serve within the church?

There are some teachings in the book of Titus about whether a woman or divorced man can serve in positions of leadership within the church. Scholars disagree about the meaning of these teachings. Further study on these issues may be necessary before translating this book.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Singular and plural you

In this book, the word I refers to Paul. Also, the word you is almost always singular and refers to Titus. The exception to this is 3:15. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

What is the meaning of God our Savior?

This is a common phrase in this letter. Paul meant to make the readers think about how God forgave them in Christ for sinning against him, and by forgiving them he saved them from being punished when he judges all people. A similar phrase in this letter is our great God and Savior Jesus Christ.

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Titus 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Paul formally introduces this letter in verses 1–4. Writers often began letters in this way in the ancient Near East.

In verses 6–9, Paul lists several qualities that a man must have if he is to be an elder in the church. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns) Paul gives a similar list in 1 Timothy 3.

Special concepts in this chapter

Elders

The church has used different titles for church leaders. Some titles include overseer, elder, pastor, and bishop.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Should, may, must

The ULT uses different words that indicate requirements or obligations. These verbs have different levels of force associated with them. The subtle differences may be difficult to translate. The UST translates these verbs in a more general way.

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figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ πίστιν

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for the faith

The word faith is an abstract noun. Here it refers to believing or trusting in Jesus. If it is more clear in your language, you could translate it with a verb such as these, as in the UST. Alternate translation: “to strengthen the faith” or “to help [God’s chosen people] to trust him more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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figs-abstractnouns

ἐπίγνωσιν

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the knowledge

If it would be helpful in your language, you can translate the abstract noun knowledge with a verb such as “to know,” as in the UST. Paul wants people to know the true message about God and Christ so that they can live in a way that pleases God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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figs-abstractnouns

ἀληθείας

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of the truth

If it would be helpful in your language, you can translate the abstract noun truth with an adjective phrase such as “what is true” or “the true message.” Paul wants people to know the true message about God and Christ so that they can live in a way that pleases God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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figs-abstractnouns

τῆς κατ’ εὐσέβειαν

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that agrees with godliness

Here, godliness is an abstract noun that refers to living in a way that pleases God. Alternate translation: “that is suitable for honoring God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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xyz9

ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι ζωῆς αἰωνίου

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with the certain hope of everlasting life

Alternate translation: “that gives us the certain hope of everlasting life” or “based on our certain hope for everlasting life”

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πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων

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before all the ages of time

Alternate translation: “before time began”

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καιροῖς ἰδίοις

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at the right time

Alternate translation: “at the proper time”

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figs-metaphor

ἐφανέρωσεν…τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ

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he revealed his word

Paul speaks of God’s word as if it were an object that could be visibly shown to people. Alternate translation: “he caused me to understand his message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ἐν κηρύγματι

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by the proclamation

Alternate translation: “through the proclamation of the message”

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figs-activepassive

ὃ ἐπιστεύθην ἐγὼ

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that I was entrusted with

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “he entrusted to me” or “he gave me the responsibility to preach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Θεοῦ

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of God our Savior

Alternate translation: “of God, who saves us”

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figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

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our

Here, our includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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figs-metaphor

γνησίῳ τέκνῳ

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a true son

Though Titus was not Paul’s biological son, they share a common faith in Christ. Paul considers relationship to Christ through faith to be more important than biological relationship. Thus, because of their relative ages and shared faith in Christ, Paul considers Titus as his own son. It may also be that Paul led Titus to faith in Christ, and so Titus is like a son in this spiritual sense. Alternate translation: “you are like a son to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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κοινὴν πίστιν

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our common faith

Paul and Titus both share the same faith in Christ. Alternate translation: “our belief in Christ”

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figs-ellipsis

χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη

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Grace and peace

This was a common greeting Paul used. You can state clearly the understood information. Alternate translation: “May you experience kindness and inner peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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s3yr

Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν

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Christ Jesus our Savior

Alternate translation: “Christ Jesus who is our Savior”

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figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

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our

Here, our includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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ew8h

grammar-connect-logic-goal

τούτου χάριν

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For this purpose

The connecting phrase For this purpose introduces the goal that Paul wanted to accomplish when he left Titus in Crete (to ordain elders in the church). Alternate translation: “This is the reason” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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ἀπέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ

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I left you in Crete

Alternate translation: “I told you to stay in Crete”

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ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ

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that you might set in order things not yet complete

Alternate translation: “so that you would finish arranging things that needed to be done”

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καταστήσῃς…πρεσβυτέρους

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ordain elders

Alternate translation: “appoint elders” or “designate elders”

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πρεσβυτέρους

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elders

In the early Christian churches, Christian elders gave spiritual leadership to the assemblies of believers. This word refers to people who are mature in faith.

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Connecting Statement:

Having told Titus to ordain elders in every city on the island of Crete, Paul then gives the requirements for elders.

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εἴ τίς ἐστιν ἀνέγκλητος

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if anyone is blameless

This is the beginning of the description of the character of an elder. Titus is to choose men who fit the following description. To be blameless is to be known as a person who does not do bad things. Alternate translation: “an elder must be without blame” or “an elder must not have a bad reputation”

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ab70

figs-doublenegatives

ἀνέγκλητος

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blameless

To be blameless is to be known as a person who does not do bad things. Alternate translation: “without blame” You can state this positively: “a person who has a good reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

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figs-explicit

μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνήρ

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the husband of one wife

This means that he has only one wife; that is, he does not have any other wives or concubines. This also means that he does not commit adultery and may also mean that he has not divorced a previous wife. Alternate translation: “a man who has only one woman” or “a man who is faithful to his wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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τέκνα…πιστά

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faithful children

This could refer to: (1) children who believe in Jesus. (2) children who are trustworthy.

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τὸν ἐπίσκοπον

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the overseer

The word overseer is another name for the same position of spiritual leadership that Paul referred to as elder in 1:5. This term focuses on the function of the elder: he oversees the activities and people of the church.

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g2zf

figs-metaphor

Θεοῦ οἰκονόμον

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the household manager of God

Paul speaks of the church as if it were God’s household, and the overseer as if he were a servant in charge of managing that household. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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μὴ πάροινον

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not addicted to wine

Alternate translation: “not an alcoholic” or “not one who drinks much wine”

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μὴ πλήκτην

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not a brawler

Alternate translation: “not one who is violent” or “not one who likes to fight”

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grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλὰ

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Instead

The connecting word Instead introduces a contrast between the things an elder is not to be (that Paul already stated), and the things an elder is to be (which Paul is about to state). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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φιλάγαθον

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a friend of what is good

Alternate translation: “a person who loves to do good”

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figs-doublet

σώφρονα…ἐγκρατῆ

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sensible … and self-controlled

The terms sensible and self-controlled are very similar in meaning and may be translated by one term if the target language does not have two similar terms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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xy12

figs-doublet

δίκαιον, ὅσιον

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righteous, holy

The terms righteous and holy are very similar in meaning and may be translated by one term if the target language does not have two similar terms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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figs-metaphor

ἀντεχόμενον

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He must hold tightly to

Paul speaks of devotion to the Christian faith as if it were grasping the faith with one’s hands. Alternate translation: “He must be devoted to” or “He should know well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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κατὰ τὴν διδαχὴν

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that is in accordance with the teaching

Alternate translation: “that agrees with the things that we taught him”

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grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

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so that

The connecting words so that introduce a goal or purpose relationship. The purpose for the elder to hold tightly to the trustworthy message is for him to be able to encourage others and rebuke those who oppose him. Use a connector in your language that makes it clear that this is the purpose. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ

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sound teaching

The Greek word rendered at sound normally refers to physical health. Paul speaks of this teaching as if it would cause those who believe it to be spiritually healthy, rather than spiritually sick.

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Connecting Statement:

Because of those that would oppose God’s word, Paul gives Titus reasons to preach God’s word and warns him about false teachers.

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figs-metaphor

ἀνυπότακτοι, ματαιολόγοι

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rebellious, empty talkers

These are rebellious people who do not obey the gospel message. Here, empty is a metaphor for useless, and empty talkers are people who say useless or foolish things. Alternate translation: “who refuse to obey and who say useless things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ga6n

φρεναπάται

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deceivers

The word deceivers describes people who are actively trying to convince people to believe in something other than the true gospel that Paul preaches. Alternate translation: “people who persuade others to believe things that are not true”

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abcd

figs-hendiadys

ματαιολόγοι, καὶ φρεναπάται

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empty talkers and deceivers

Both empty talkers and deceivers refer to the same people. They taught false, worthless things and wanted people to believe them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

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figs-metonymy

οἱ ἐκ τῆς περιτομῆς

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those from the circumcision

This refers to the Jewish Christians who taught that men must be circumcised in order to follow Christ. This teaching is false. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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f4iy

οὓς δεῖ ἐπιστομίζειν

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It is necessary to stop them

Alternate translation: “You must prevent them from spreading their teachings” or “Someone must stop them from influencing others by their words”

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ὅλους οἴκους ἀνατρέπουσιν

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are upsetting whole households

The issue was that they were leading families away from the truth and destroying their faith. Alternate translation: “are ruining entire families”

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διδάσκοντες ἃ μὴ δεῖ

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teaching what they should not

These are things that are not proper to teach regarding Christ and the law because they are not true.

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αἰσχροῦ κέρδους χάριν

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for the sake of shameful profit

This refers to profit that people make by doing things that are not honorable.

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tr1j

τις ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης

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One of them, of their own prophets

Alternate translation: “A Cretan that they themselves consider to be a prophet”

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y3zb

figs-hyperbole

Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται

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Cretans are always liars

This is an exaggeration that means that Cretans had a reputation to be liars. Alternate translation: “Cretans lie all the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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h3jb

figs-metaphor

κακὰ θηρία

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evil beasts

This metaphor compares the Cretans to dangerous wild animals. Alternate translation: “as dangerous as wild animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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xyz1

figs-synecdoche

γαστέρες ἀργαί

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lazy bellies

The part of the body that stores food is used to represent the person who eats all the time. Alternate translation: “lazy gluttons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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δι’ ἣν αἰτίαν ἔλεγχε αὐτοὺς ἀποτόμως

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For this reason, rebuke them severely

Alternate translation: “For that reason, you must use strong language that the Cretans will understand when you correct them”

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abck

grammar-connect-logic-result

δι’ ἣν αἰτίαν

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For this reason

The connecting words For this reason introduce a reason-result relationship. The reason is that what the Cretan prophet said about his people is true (they are liars, evil, and lazy), and the result is that Titus should rebuke them severely. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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je3r

ἵνα ὑγιαίνωσιν ἐν τῇ πίστει

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so that they may be sound in the faith

See note on sound in Titus 1:9. Alternate translation: “so they will have a healthy faith” or “so their faith may be true” or “so that they believe only what is true about God”

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abcl

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

so that

The connecting words so that introduce an action-purpose relationship. The action is the elder rebukes the Cretans severely, and the purpose is the Cretans become sound in the faith. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ πίστει

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in the faith

Here the abstract noun faith represents the things that the people believe about God. Alternate translation: “in what they believe about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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abcm

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

μὴ

1

not

The connecting word not introduces a contrast to being “sound in the faith” in the previous verse. In order to be sound in the faith, the people must not pay any attention to the Jewish myths or the commands of people who do not follow the truth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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Ἰουδαϊκοῖς μύθοις

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to Jewish myths

This refers to the false teaching of the Jews.

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figs-metaphor

ἀποστρεφομένων τὴν ἀλήθειαν

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who turn away from the truth

Paul speaks of the truth as if it were an object that one could turn away from or avoid. Alternate translation: “who reject the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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qtb9

πάντα καθαρὰ τοῖς καθαροῖς

1

All things are pure to those who are pure

Alternate translation: “If people are pure on the inside, everything that they do will be pure” or “When people have only good thoughts, nothing that they do will offend God”

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nx42

τοῖς καθαροῖς

1

to those who are pure

Alternate translation: “to those who are acceptable to God”

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abcn

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

But

The connecting word But introduces a contrast between people who are pure and people who are corrupt and unbelieving. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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figs-metaphor

τοῖς…μεμιαμμένοις καὶ ἀπίστοις, οὐδὲν καθαρόν

2

to those who are corrupt and unbelieving, nothing is pure

Paul speaks of sinners as if they were physically dirty. Alternate translation: “if people are morally defiled and do not believe, they cannot do anything pure” or “when people are full of sin and unbelief, nothing that they do is acceptable to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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abco

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

but

The connecting word but introduces a contrast between what these corrupt people say (they know God) and what their actions show (they do not know God). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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i3l2

τοῖς…ἔργοις ἀρνοῦνται

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they deny him by their actions

Alternate translation: “how they live proves that they do not know him”

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ja47

βδελυκτοὶ ὄντες

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They are detestable

Alternate translation: “They are disgusting”

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Titus 2 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Gender roles

Scholars are divided over how to understand this passage in its historical and cultural context. Some scholars believe men and women are perfectly equal in all things. Other scholars believe God created men and women to serve in distinctly different roles in marriage and the church. Translators should be careful not to let how they understand this issue affect how they translate this passage.

Slavery

Paul does not write in this chapter about whether slavery is good or bad. Paul teaches slaves to faithfully serve their masters. He teaches all believers to be godly and live rightly in every situation.

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lfu1

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Connecting Statement:

Paul continues giving Titus reasons to preach God’s word, and explains how the older men, older women, young men, and slaves or servants should live as believers.

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tpi2

figs-explicit

σὺ δὲ

1

But you

Here, you is singular and refers to Titus. If it is helpful, you could include the name “Titus” here, as in the UST. ([[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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ph2j

τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ

1

with sound teaching

See the note about sound teaching on Titus 1:9. Alternate translation: “with sound doctrine” or “with correct teachings”

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xyz3

figs-ellipsis

πρεσβύτας…εἶναι

1

Older men are to be

The Greek does not have are, but only “Older men to be.” We could supply a verb here, drawing from the idea of speak in the previous verse, such as teach or exhort. Alternate translation: “Teach older men to be” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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xy13

figs-doublet

νηφαλίους…σεμνούς, σώφρονας

1

temperate, dignified, sensible

These three words are very close in meaning and may be combined into one or two terms if the target language does not have three separate terms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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xc6t

νηφαλίους

1

temperate

Alternate translation: “sober-minded” or “self-controlled”

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y3j2

σώφρονας

1

to be … sensible

Alternate translation: “in control of their desires”

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abc1

ὑγιαίνοντας τῇ πίστει

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sound in faith

Here the word sound means to be firm and unwavering. See the note about sound on Titus 1:9 and the note about sound in faith on Titus 1:13.

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m14y

figs-abstractnouns

ὑγιαίνοντας τῇ πίστει

1

sound in faith

You can state the abstract noun faith as a verb if that is more clear in your language. Alternate translation: “firmly believe the true teachings about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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z14y

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ἀγάπῃ

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in love

You can state the abstract noun love as a verb if that is more clear in your language. Alternate translation: “truly love others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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a14y

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ὑπομονῇ

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and in perseverance

You can state the abstract noun perseverance as a verb if that is more clear in your language. Alternate translation: “and continually serve God even when things are difficult” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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gl8e

figs-ellipsis

πρεσβύτιδας ὡσαύτως

1

Older women likewise are to be

The Greek does not have are to be, but only “older women likewise.” We could continue the verbal idea from the previous two verses and apply that here, as well, such as teach or exhort. Alternate translation: “In the same way, teach older women to be” or “Also teach older women to be” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

84

TIT

2

3

v9cp

διαβόλους

1

slanderers

The word slanderers refers to people who say bad things about other people whether they are true or not.

85

TIT

2

3

g9re

figs-metaphor

οἴνῳ πολλῷ δεδουλωμένας

1

enslaved to much wine

People who cannot control themselves and drink too much wine are spoken of as if they were a slave to the wine. Alternate translation: “controlled by their desire for wine” or “addicted to wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

86

TIT

2

3

xyz4

figs-activepassive

οἴνῳ πολλῷ δεδουλωμένας

1

enslaved to much wine

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “drinking too much wine” or “addicted to wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

87

TIT

2

3

abc4

καλοδιδασκάλους

1

but to be teachers of what is good

The Greek word used here means “a teacher of what is good.” The phrase but to be has been added in the English to contrast this good quality with the two preceding bad qualities. Consider if you need to use a similar word to make a contrast between the good and bad qualities.

88

TIT

2

4

abc5

φιλάνδρους

1

lovers of their husbands

Alternate translation: “lovers of their own husbands”

89

TIT

2

4

abca

φιλοτέκνους

1

and lovers of their children

Alternate translation: “and lovers of their own children”

90

TIT

2

5

abcb

ὑποτασσομένας τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀνδράσιν

1

and subject to their own husbands

Alternate translation: “and to obey their own husbands”

91

TIT

2

5

t5v6

figs-metonymy

ἵνα μὴ ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ βλασφημῆται

1

so that the word of God may not be insulted

Here, word is a metonym for “message.” which in turn is a metonym for God himself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

92

TIT

2

5

abcq

figs-activepassive

ἵνα μὴ ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ βλασφημῆται

1

so that the word of God may not be insulted

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “so that no one insults the word of God” or “so that no one insults God by saying bad things about his message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

93

TIT

2

6

i3hv

ὡσαύτως

1

In the same way

Titus was to train the younger men just as he was to train the older people.

94

TIT

2

7

x73u

σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος

1

present yourself

Alternate translation: “show yourself to be” or “you yourself must serve”

95

TIT

2

7

ym6x

τύπον καλῶν ἔργων

1

as an example of good works

Alternate translation: “as an example of one who does right and proper things”

96

TIT

2

8

xy14

ὑγιῆ

1

sound

This word sound has the same basic meaning as “uncorrupted” in 2:7. In 2:7, Paul states the meaning negatively: “uncorrupted,” meaning, “without error,” and in 2:8 he states the meaning positively: sound, meaning “correct.” Both terms refer to Titus’ teaching. Use either positive or negative terms in the target language, or use one term with this meaning in both places if it is difficult to use two terms.

97

TIT

2

8

xt6v

figs-hypo

ἵνα ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας ἐντραπῇ

1

so that the opponent may be ashamed

This presents a hypothetical situation in which someone opposes Titus and then becomes ashamed for having done so. Alternate translation: “so that if anyone opposes you, he may be ashamed” or “so that when people oppose you, they may be ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

98

TIT

2

8

xy15

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

us

Here, us includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

99

TIT

2

9

xyz5

figs-ellipsis

δούλους ἰδίοις δεσπόταις ὑποτάσσεσθαι

1

Slaves are to be subject to their own masters

The Greek does not have are, but only “slaves to be subject to their masters.” We could apply the verbal idea from verse 6 to here, which is “urge” or “exhort.” Alternate translation: “Exhort slaves to be subject to their masters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

100

TIT

2

9

abcc

ὑποτάσσεσθαι

1

are to be subject

Alternate translation: “must obey”

101

TIT

2

9

if6v

ἐν πᾶσιν

1

in everything

Alternate translation: “in every situation” or “always”

102

TIT

2

9

id15

εὐαρέστους εἶναι

1

to be pleasing

Alternate translation: “to please their masters” or “to satisfy their masters”

103

TIT

2

10

abc6

μὴ νοσφιζομένους

1

not to steal

Alternate translation: “not to steal from their masters”

104

TIT

2

10

t87j

πᾶσαν πίστιν ἐνδεικνυμένους ἀγαθήν

1

to demonstrate all good faith

Alternate translation: “to show that they are worthy of their masters’ trust”

105

TIT

2

10

h2n6

ἐν πᾶσιν

1

in every way

Alternate translation: “in everything they do”

106

TIT

2

10

f8jy

τὴν διδασκαλίαν τὴν τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Θεοῦ, κοσμῶσιν

1

they may bring credit to the teaching that is about God our Savior

Alternate translation: “they may make the teaching about God our Savior attractive” or “they may cause people to understand that the teaching about God our Savior is good”

107

TIT

2

10

pn93

Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Θεοῦ

1

God our Savior

Alternate translation: “our God who saves us”

108

TIT

2

10

xy16

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

our

Here, our is inclusive of Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

109

TIT

2

11

y44u

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul encourages Titus to look for Jesus’ coming and remember his authority through Jesus.

110

TIT

2

11

gp2z

figs-personification

ἐπεφάνη…ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the grace of God has appeared

Paul speaks of the grace of God as if it were a person who has arrived. See the UST for other ways to express this. Alternate translation: “God is now offering his grace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

111

TIT

2

12

qy8k

figs-personification

παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς

1

training us

Paul speaks of the grace of God (2:11) as if it were a person who trains other people how to live holy lives. Alternate translation: “by which God trains us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

112

TIT

2

12

abce

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

us

Here, us includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

113

TIT

2

12

lxb3

τὴν ἀσέβειαν

1

godlessness

Alternate translation: “things that dishonor God”

114

TIT

2

12

n3k5

τὰς κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας

1

worldly passions

Alternate translation: “strong desires for the things of this world” or “strong desires for sinful pleasures”

115

TIT

2

12

xy19

ἀσέβειαν…εὐσεβῶς

1

godlessness … godly way

These terms are direct opposites, meaning “God-dishonoring” and “God-honoring,” respectively.

116

TIT

2

12

fk8j

ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι

1

in the present age

Alternate translation: “while we live in this world” or “during this time”

117

TIT

2

13

rz93

προσδεχόμενοι

1

while we look forward to receiving

Alternate translation: “while we wait to welcome”

118

TIT

2

13

xyz6

figs-metonymy

τὴν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα

1

the blessed hope

Here, what is blessed is that for which we hope, which is the return of Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “the wonderful thing for which we hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

119

TIT

2

13

pss7

figs-metonymy

καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης τοῦ μεγάλου Θεοῦ καὶ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ

Here, glory represents Jesus himself who will appear gloriously. Alternate translation: “that is, the glorious appearance of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

120

TIT

2

13

abcf

figs-hendiadys

τὴν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα, καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης

1

the blessed hope and appearing of the glory

Both blessed hope and appearing of the glory refer to the same event. This can be shown clearly. Alternate translation: “what we are longing for, the blessed and glorious appearing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

121

TIT

2

13

xyz7

figs-hendiadys

τοῦ μεγάλου Θεοῦ καὶ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ

Both our great God and Savior refer to the one person, Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “of Jesus Christ, our great God and Savior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

122

TIT

2

14

niu4

figs-explicit

ὃς ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν

1

gave himself for us

This refers to Jesus dying willingly. Alternate translation: “gave himself to die for us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

123

TIT

2

14

xy20

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

us

Here, us includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

124

TIT

2

14

gxe7

figs-metaphor

λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἀνομίας

1

to redeem us from all lawlessness

Paul speaks of Jesus as if he were setting slaves free from their evil master. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

125

TIT

2

14

xy21

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

us

Here, us includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

126

TIT

2

14

fjy1

λαὸν περιούσιον

1

a special people

Alternate translation: “a group of people that he treasures”

127

TIT

2

14

ii18

ζηλωτὴν καλῶν ἔργων

1

zealous for good works

Alternate translation: “who are eager to do good deeds”

128

TIT

2

15

abc7

παρακάλει

1

exhort

Alternate translation: “encourage them to do these things”

129

TIT

2

15

b94z

figs-explicit

ἔλεγχε, μετὰ πάσης ἐπιταγῆς

1

rebuke with all authority

If it is helpful, the people whom Titus should rebuke can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “correct with all authority those people who do not do these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

130

TIT

2

15

h15y

μηδείς σου περιφρονείτω

1

Let no one disregard you

Alternate translation: “Do not allow anyone to ignore you”

131

TIT

2

15

xy22

figs-doublenegatives

μηδείς σου περιφρονείτω

1

Let no one disregard you

You can state this positively: “Make sure that everyone listens to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

132

TIT

2

15

jbu1

figs-explicit

σου περιφρονείτω

1

Let … disregard you

The way that people would disregard Titus can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Let … refuse to listen to your words” or “Let … refuse to respect you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

133

TIT

3

intro

zh6x

0

Titus 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Paul gives Titus personal instructions in this chapter.

Verse 15 formally concludes this letter. This is a common way of ending a letter in the ancient Near East.

Special concepts in this chapter

Genealogies

Genealogies (verse 9) are lists that record a person’s ancestors or descendants, and show from what tribe and family a person came. For example, priests came from the tribe of Levi and the family of Aaron. Some of these lists included stories of ancestors and even of spiritual beings. These lists and stories were used to argue about where things came from and about how important various people were.

134

TIT

3

1

y9tr

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul continues giving Titus instructions on how to teach the elders and people under his care in Crete.

135

TIT

3

1

j2sa

ὑπομίμνῃσκε αὐτοὺς…ὑποτάσσεσθαι

1

Remind them to submit

Alternate translation: “Tell our people again what they already know, to submit” or “Keep reminding them to submit”

136

TIT

3

1

w3fy

ἀρχαῖς, ἐξουσίαις, ὑποτάσσεσθαι, πειθαρχεῖν

1

to submit to rulers and authorities, to obey them

Alternate translation: “to do as the political rulers and government authorities say by obeying them”

137

TIT

3

1

wa9x

figs-doublet

ἀρχαῖς, ἐξουσίαις

1

to rulers and authorities

The words rulers and authorities have similar meanings and both refer to anyone who holds authority in the government. If the target language has only one term for this, then just use that term. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

138

TIT

3

1

xy25

figs-doublet

ὑποτάσσεσθαι, πειθαρχεῖν

1

to submit … to obey them

The words submit and obey have similar meanings and both refer to doing what someone tells you to do. If the target language has only one term for this, then just use that term. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

139

TIT

3

1

in7u

πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἑτοίμους εἶναι

1

be ready for every good work

Alternate translation: “to be ready to do good whenever there is opportunity”

140

TIT

3

2

lug7

βλασφημεῖν

1

to revile

Alternate translation: “to speak evil of”

141

TIT

3

2

abcx

figs-doublenegatives

ἀμάχους εἶναι

1

to be uncontentious

You can state this positively: “to be peaceful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

142

TIT

3

3

m9zd

ἦμεν γάρ ποτε καὶ ἡμεῖς

1

For once we also were

Alternate translation: “This is because we ourselves were once”

143

TIT

3

3

me7b

ποτε

1

once

Alternate translation: “formerly” or “at some time” or “previously”

144

TIT

3

3

bl8e

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

1

we

Here, we includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians, referring to the time before they trusted in Christ. Alternate translation: “even we” or “we ourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

145

TIT

3

3

rrx9

ἦμεν…ἀνόητοι

1

were foolish

Alternate translation: “were thoughtless” or “were unwise”

146

TIT

3

3

qt8f

figs-personification

πλανώμενοι, δουλεύοντες ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ ἡδοναῖς ποικίλαις

1

We were led astray and enslaved by various passions and pleasures

Here, passions and pleasures are spoken of as if they were masters over people and had made those people into slaves by lying to them. Alternate translation: “We had allowed ourselves to believe the lie that various passions and pleasures could make us happy, and then we were unable to control our feelings or stop doing things we thought would give us pleasure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

147

TIT

3

3

xy27

figs-activepassive

πλανώμενοι, δουλεύοντες ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ ἡδοναῖς ποικίλαις

1

We were led astray and enslaved by various passions and pleasures

You can translate this in active form. Alternate translation: “Various passions and pleasures had lied to us and so led us astray” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

148

TIT

3

3

tl5n

ἐπιθυμίαις

1

passions

Alternate translation: “lusts” or “desires”

149

TIT

3

3

dec4

ἐν κακίᾳ καὶ φθόνῳ διάγοντες

1

We lived in evil and envy

Here, evil and envy describe sin. The word evil is general and envy is a specific kind of sin. Alternate translation: “We were always doing evil things and wanting what others have”

150

TIT

3

3

y5lp

στυγητοί

1

detestable

Alternate translation: “causing others to hate us”

151

TIT

3

4

xy28

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

But

But is used here to mark the important contrast here between the evil way that people are (verses 1–3) and the goodness of God (verses 4–7) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

152

TIT

3

4

ba5a

figs-personification

ὅτε…ἡ χρηστότης καὶ ἡ φιλανθρωπία ἐπεφάνη τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Θεοῦ

1

when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared

Paul speaks of God’s kindness and love as if they were people that came into our sight. Alternate translation: “when God our Savior showed us his kindness and love for people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

153

TIT

3

4

abcg

figs-abstractnouns

ὅτε…ἡ χρηστότης καὶ ἡ φιλανθρωπία ἐπεφάνη τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν, Θεοῦ

1

when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared

You can state the abstract nouns kindness and love as adjectives. Alternate translation: “when God, who saves us, showed how kind and loving he would be to mankind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

154

TIT

3

4

abch

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

our

Here, our includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

155

TIT

3

5

n4ug

κατὰ τὸ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος

1

by his mercy

Alternate translation: “because he had mercy on us”

156

TIT

3

5

k1a6

figs-metaphor

λουτροῦ παλινγενεσίας

1

the washing of new birth

Paul combines two metaphors here. He is speaking of God’s forgiveness for sinners as if he were physically washing them clean from their sin. He is also speaking of sinners who become responsive to God as if they had been born again. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

157

TIT

3

6

fby9

figs-metaphor

οὗ ἐξέχεεν ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς πλουσίως

1

whom God richly poured on us

It is common for New Testament writers to speak of the Holy Spirit as a liquid that God can pour out in large amounts. Alternate translation: “whom God gave to us generously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

158

TIT

3

6

xy24

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

us

Here, us includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

159

TIT

3

6

q9ze

διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, τοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν

1

through our Savior Jesus Christ

Alternate translation: “when Jesus Christ saved us”

160

TIT

3

6

xy23

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

our

Here, our includes Paul, Titus, and all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

161

TIT

3

7

di3g

figs-activepassive

δικαιωθέντες

1

having been justified

If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “since God has declared us to be without sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

162

TIT

3

7

q1cm

figs-metaphor

κληρονόμοι γενηθῶμεν, κατ’ ἐλπίδα ζωῆς αἰωνίου

1

we might become heirs according to the certain hope of everlasting life

The people to whom God has made promises are spoken of as if they were to inherit the things promised, just as a person inherits property or possessions from a family member. Alternate translation: “we might expect to receive the eternal life that God has promised us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

163

TIT

3

8

j8md

ὁ λόγος

1

This message

This message is the one just expressed in verses 4–7, that God freely gives the Holy Spirit and eternal life to believers through Jesus.

164

TIT

3

8

xy29

τούτων

1

these things

Here, {these} things refers to the teachings that Paul has talked about in verses 1–7. Alternate translation: “these teachings that I have just talked about”

165

TIT

3

8

kqm6

φροντίζωσιν καλῶν ἔργων, προΐστασθαι

1

may be careful to engage themselves in good works

Alternate translation: “may seek to do good works”

166

TIT

3

9

tzh9

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul explains what Titus should avoid and how to treat those who cause contention among the believers.

167

TIT

3

9

j1hf

δὲ…περιΐστασο

1

But avoid

Alternate translation: “So avoid” or “Therefore, avoid”

168

TIT

3

9

xnf9

μωρὰς…ζητήσεις

1

foolish debates

Alternate translation: “arguments concerning unimportant matters”

169

TIT

3

9

qk66

γενεαλογίας

1

genealogies

The word genealogies refers to the study of family kinship relationships. See the Introduction to Titus.

170

TIT

3

9

xu7f

ἔρεις

1

strife

Alternate translation: “arguments” or “fights”

171

TIT

3

9

ky3n

νομικὰς

1

about the law

Alternate translation: “about the law of Moses”

172

TIT

3

10

x3fh

αἱρετικὸν ἄνθρωπον…παραιτοῦ

1

Reject a divisive person

Alternate translation: “Stay away from a person who causes division”

173

TIT

3

10

xzx1

μετὰ μίαν καὶ δευτέραν νουθεσίαν

1

after one or two warnings

Alternate translation: “after you have warned that person once or twice”

174

TIT

3

11

r7pc

ὁ τοιοῦτος

1

such a person

Alternate translation: “a person like that”

175

TIT

3

11

inh5

figs-metaphor

ἐξέστραπται

1

has turned from the right way

Paul speaks of someone who chooses to do wrong things as if he were leaving the right path to walk in the wrong direction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

176

TIT

3

11

p81k

ὢν αὐτοκατάκριτος

1

being self-condemned

Alternate translation: “bringing judgment on himself”

177

TIT

3

12

z7i4

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul closes the letter by telling Titus what to do after he appoints elders in Crete and by giving greetings from those with him.

178

TIT

3

12

mba6

ὅταν πέμψω

1

When I send

Alternate translation: “After I send”

179

TIT

3

12

c32w

translate-names

Ἀρτεμᾶν…Τυχικόν

1

Artemas … Tychicus

Artemas and Tychicus are men’s names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

180

TIT

3

12

knt1

σπούδασον ἐλθεῖν

1

hurry to come

Alternate translation: “come quickly”

181

TIT

3

12

xy30

σπούδασον

1

hurry

The verb hurry is singular and directed at Titus alone. Artemas or Tychicus would stay in Crete, probably to take Titus’ place.

182

TIT

3

12

gdw9

παραχειμάσαι

1

to spend the winter

Alternate translation: “to stay for the winter”

183

TIT

3

13

a46f

translate-names

Ζηνᾶν…Ἀπολλῶν

1

Zenas … Appollos

Zenos and Apollos are men’s names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

184

TIT

3

13

s757

καὶ Ἀπολλῶν

1

and Apollos

Alternate translation: “and also Apollos”

185

TIT

3

13

j496

σπουδαίως πρόπεμψον

1

Diligently send on their way

Alternate translation: “Do not delay in sending”

186

TIT

3

13

xy31

figs-doublenegatives

ἵνα μηδὲν αὐτοῖς λείπῃ

1

so that they lack nothing

You can state this positively: “so that they have everything that they need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

187

TIT

3

14

v7wg

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul explains that it is important for all believers to provide for those who have needs.

188

TIT

3

14

fw98

οἱ ἡμέτεροι

1

our own

Here, our own refers to the believers in Crete. Alternate translation: “our own people”

189

TIT

3

14

xy33

figs-exclusive

οἱ ἡμέτεροι

1

our own

Here, our includes Paul and Titus. The form should be either dual or inclusive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

190

TIT

3

14

tn24

εἰς τὰς ἀναγκαίας χρείας

1

toward essential needs

Alternate translation: “that enable them to help people who lack necessary things”

191

TIT

3

14

mji4

figs-metaphor

ἵνα μὴ ὦσιν ἄκαρποι

1

in order not to be unfruitful

Paul speaks of people doing good work as if they were trees bearing good fruit. Alternate translation: “so that they will not lead useless lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

192

TIT

3

14

xy32

figs-doublenegatives

ἵνα μὴ ὦσιν ἄκαρποι

1

in order not to be unfruitful

You can state this positively: “in this way they will be fruitful” or “in this way they will be productive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

193

TIT

3

15

j3y2

0

General Information:

Paul ends his letter to Titus.

194

TIT

3

15

abci

ἀσπάζονταί σε

1

greet you

Here, you is singular. This is a personal greeting to Titus.

195

TIT

3

15

k1sa

οἱ μετ’ ἐμοῦ πάντες

1

All those who are with me

Alternate translation: “All the people who are with me” or “All of the believers who are here with me”

196

TIT

3

15

f4vc

τοὺς φιλοῦντας ἡμᾶς ἐν πίστει

1

those who love us in faith

This could refer to: (1) the believers who love us. (2) the believers who love us because we share the same belief.

197

TIT

3

15

xy35

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

us

Here, us is probably exclusive and refers to Paul and the group of Christians with him. Paul is sending greetings from this group to the group of Christians that is with Titus on Crete. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

198

TIT

3

15

kx83

ἡ χάρις μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν

1

Grace be with all of you

This was a common Christian greeting. Alternate translation: “May God’s grace be with you” or “I ask that God will be gracious to all of you”

199

TIT

3

15

xy34

ὑμῶν

1

of you

Here, you is plural. This blessing is for Titus and all of the believers there in Crete.