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Introduction to 2 Timothy

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the book of 2 Timothy

  1. Paul greets Timothy and encourages him to endure hardship as he serves God (1:1–2:13).
  2. Paul gives general instructions to Timothy (2:14–26).
  3. Paul warns Timothy about future events and instructs him about how to carry out his service to God (3:1–4:8).
  4. Paul makes personal remarks (4:9–22).

Who wrote the book of 2 Timothy?

Paul wrote 2 Timothy. He was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.

This book is the second letter Paul wrote to Timothy. Timothy was his disciple and close friend. Paul wrote this letter while in prison in Rome. Paul would die soon after writing this letter.

What is the book of 2 Timothy about?

Paul had left Timothy in the city of Ephesus to help the believers there. Paul wrote this letter to instruct Timothy about various matters. The topics he addressed include warnings about false teachers and advice about enduring difficult situations. This letter also shows how Paul was training Timothy to be a leader among the churches.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “2 Timothy” or “Second Timothy.” Or they may choose a different title, such as “Paul’s Second Letter to Timothy” or “The Second Letter to Timothy.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What is the soldier imagery in 2 Timothy?

As Paul waited in prison, knowing he would die soon, he spoke of being a soldier of Jesus Christ. Soldiers have to obey to their leaders. In the same way, Christians have to obey Jesus. As “soldiers” of Christ, believers are to obey his commands, even if they die as a result.

What does it mean that God inspired Scripture?

God is the true author of Scripture. He inspired the human authors who wrote the books. That means God in some way caused the people to write what they wrote. This is why the Bible is also referred to as God’s word. This implies several things about it. First, everything that the Bible teaches is free from error and can be trusted. Second, God will always preserve his Scripture for every generation of people. Third, God’s word should be translated into all the world’s languages.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Singular and plural “you”

In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. Here the word “you” is almost always singular and refers to Timothy. The exception to this is 4:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

Inclusive and exclusive “we” and “us”

In this book, “we” and “us” include the writer, Paul, the recipient, Timothy, and all believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

What did Paul mean by the expressions “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?

Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union between Christ and the believers. Please see the introduction to the book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.

What are the major textual issues in the text of the book of 2 Timothy?

For the following verses, the oldest Greek manuscripts differ from later Greek manuscripts. Modern translations may also differ depending on the Greek manuscript that they translate from. The ULT text translates the Greek from the oldest manuscripts, and puts the differences from later manuscripts in a footnote. If a translation of the Bible already exists in the general region, translators should consider following the decision in that translation. If not, translators are advised to follow the oldest Greek manuscripts as reflected in the ULT text.

  • “Because of this, I was appointed a preacher, an apostle, and a teacher” (1:11). Some later manuscripts read, “Because of this, I was appointed a preacher, an apostle, and a teacher to the Gentiles.”
  • “Warn them before God” (2:14). Some later manuscripts read, “Warn them before the Lord.”

(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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2 Timothy 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Paul formally introduces this letter in verses 1–2. Writers often began letters in this way in the ancient Near East.

Special concepts in this chapter

Spiritual children

Paul discipled Timothy as a Christian and a church leader. Paul may also have led him to believe in Christ. Therefore, Paul calls Timothy “beloved child.” So even though Paul was not Timothy’s father, Paul speaks of his relationship with Timothy as that of a father and son in a spiritual sense. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Persecution

Paul was in prison when he wrote this letter. Paul encourages Timothy to be willing to suffer for the gospel.

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translate-names

Παῦλος

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Paul

Paul is the name of a man, the author of the letter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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ha4l

Παῦλος

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Paul

This letter follows the normal custom of the time by beginning with the name and identity of the author, then mentioning the recipient (in verse 2). Your language may have a particular way of introducing the author of a letter. If so, you could use it in your translation. Alternate translation: “I, Paul, am writing this letter”

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διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ

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through the will of God

Paul became an apostle because God wanted him to be an apostle. Alternate translation: “because of God’s will” or “because God wanted it to be so”

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κατ’

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according to

This could mean: (1) God appointed Paul to tell others about the promise of life in Jesus. Alternate translation: “for the purpose of announcing” (2) Paul became an apostle because he himself received the promise of life in Jesus. Alternate translation: “as a result of receiving”

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1

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figs-metaphor

ζωῆς τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

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of life that is in Christ Jesus

Paul speaks of life as if it were an object inside of Jesus. This refers to the life people receive as a result of belonging to Christ Jesus. Alternate translation: “of the life that we receive as a result of belonging to Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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translate-names

Τιμοθέῳ

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to Timothy

Timothy is the name of a man, the person to whom this letter is written. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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Τιμοθέῳ

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to Timothy

Your language may have a particular way of introducing the person who receives a letter. If so, you could use it in your translation. Alternate translation: “This letter is for you, Timothy”

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figs-metaphor

ἀγαπητῷ τέκνῳ

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my beloved child

Paul was not Timothy’s father, but he uses the term child to express his love and approval of Timothy. It is also likely that Paul introduced Timothy to Christ, and so Paul considered him his child in a spiritual sense. Alternate translation: “who is like a beloved son to me” or “you are like a dear child to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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translate-blessing

χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ

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Grace, mercy, and peace from

After stating the name of the author and the person who is receiving it (Timothy), Paul adds a blessing to Timothy. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “may you experience kindness, mercy, and peace within you from” or “I pray that you will have grace, mercy, and peace from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

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figs-abstractnouns

χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη

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Grace, mercy, and peace

Paul’s blessing to Timothy includes the three abstract nouns Grace, mercy, and peace. Your language may have a particular way of expressing these concepts, such as with verbs. If so, you could use them in your translation. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Θεοῦ Πατρὸς

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God the Father

Father is an important title for God. Here, Father could refer to: (1) the Father of Christ. (2) the Father of believers. Alternate translation: “God, who is the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

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our

In this book, unless otherwise noted, the words we, us, and our refer to Paul (the writer of this letter), Timothy (the one to whom this letter is written), and, by extension, all believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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figs-abstractnouns

χάριν ἔχω τῷ Θεῷ

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I have gratitude to God

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun gratitude with a verb or an adjective. Alternate translation: “I thank God” or “I am thankful to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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tvb7

figs-idiom

ᾧ λατρεύω ἀπὸ προγόνων

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whom I serve from my ancestors

This is an idiom that means that Paul’s family has been serving God for many generations. Alternate translation: “whom my ancestors served and I serve, as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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figs-metaphor

ἐν καθαρᾷ συνειδήσει

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with a clean conscience

Paul speaks of his conscience as if it could be physically clean. A person with a clean conscience does not feel guilty because he has always tried to do what was right. Alternate translation: “knowing I have tried my hardest to do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-abstractnouns

ὡς ἀδιάλειπτον ἔχω τὴν περὶ σοῦ μνείαν

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as I have constant remembrance of you

Paul speaks of the action of remembering by using the abstract noun remembrance. Your language may have a particular way of expressing this concept, such as with a verb. If so, you could use it in your translation. Alternate translation: “as I think about you constantly in my prayers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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σοῦ

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you

The word you is singular here and throughout the book, since Paul is addressing Timothy. A note will discuss the one exception in 4:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

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figs-merism

νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας

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night and day

Here, night and day are used together to refer to all the time included in the night and the day. This means that Paul prays to God often, no matter what time it is. It does not mean that he prays all night and all day without ever stopping. Alternate translation: “at all times” Alternate translation: “always” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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figs-explicit

μεμνημένος σου τῶν δακρύων

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remembering your tears

It is implied that Paul is referring here to the time when Paul was leaving Timothy. If this is unclear, you could include this information. Alternate translation: “remembering how you cried when I left you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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figs-metonymy

σου τῶν δακρύων

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your tears

Here, your tears refers to the act of Timothy’s crying or being very sad. Alternate translation: “that you cried” or “your sadness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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figs-metaphor

χαρᾶς πληρωθῶ

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I may be filled with joy

Paul speaks of himself as if he were a container that could be filled. Alternate translation: “I may be very joyful” or “I may rejoice a lot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-activepassive

χαρᾶς πληρωθῶ

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I may be filled with joy

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “joy may fill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-idiom

ὑπόμνησιν λαβὼν

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having received remembrance

This is an idiom that simply means, “remembering.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ἐν σοὶ ἀνυποκρίτου πίστεως

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of the genuine faith in you

Paul refers to Timothy’s faith with an abstract noun. Your language may have a particular way of expressing this concept, such as with a verb. If so, you could use it in your translation. Alternate translation: “that you genuinely believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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figs-metaphor

τῆς ἐν σοὶ ἀνυποκρίτου πίστεως

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of the genuine faith in you

Paul speaks of faith as if it were an object inside of Timothy. Paul is referring to Timothy’s faith in God here, not to anyone’s faith in Timothy. Alternate translation: “your genuine faith” or “your faith that is genuine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-personification

ἐν σοὶ ἀνυποκρίτου πίστεως, ἥτις ἐνῴκησεν πρῶτον ἐν τῇ μάμμῃ σου, Λωΐδι, καὶ τῇ μητρί σου, Εὐνίκῃ; πέπεισμαι δὲ ὅτι καὶ ἐν σοί

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of … faith in you, which dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice, and I am convinced that it is also in you

Paul is speaking of their faith as if it were something that was alive and lived in each of them. Alternate translation: “of the genuine faith that you have. Lois, your grandmother, and then Eunice, your mother, had this faith in God, and now I am confident that you have this same genuine faith as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

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Λωΐδι

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Lois

Lois is the name of a woman, Timothy’s grandmother, who is probably his mother’s mother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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translate-names

Εὐνίκῃ

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Eunice

Eunice is the name of a woman, Timothy’s mother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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j58k

δι’ ἣν αἰτίαν

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for which reason

Paul writes that the reason for asking Timothy to rekindle his gift is that he is confident of Timothy’s faith in Jesus. Alternate translation: “for this reason” or “because of your faith in Jesus”

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figs-metaphor

ἀναζωπυρεῖν τὸ χάρισμα

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to rekindle the gift

Paul speaks about Timothy’s need to start using his gift again as if he were restarting a fire. Alternate translation: “be eager once more to use the gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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translate-symaction

τὸ χάρισμα τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὅ ἐστιν ἐν σοὶ διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν μου

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the gift of God that is in you through the laying on of my hands

Paul placed his hands on Timothy and prayed that God would give him power from God’s Spirit to enable him to do the work that God had called him to do. Then Timothy received the gift from the Holy Spirit. See how you translated this in 1 Tim 4:14. Alternate translation: “the gift of God that you received when I prayed for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

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p010

figs-metaphor

τὸ χάρισμα τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὅ ἐστιν ἐν σοὶ διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν μου

1

the gift of God that is in you through the laying on of my hands

Paul speaks of the gift as an object inside of Timothy. If the words that is in you do not clearly communicate in your language that Timothy received the gift, you could translate it with a verb that expressing the idea of giving or receiving. Alternate translation: “the gift of God that you received when I laid my hands on you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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s6vb

figs-explicit

τὸ χάρισμα τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὅ ἐστιν ἐν σοὶ διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν μου

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the gift of God that is in you through the laying on of my hands

It is implied that this is a spiritual gift that enables Timothy to do the work of ministry that God has called him to do, and that Paul also prayed for Timothy as he laid his hands on him. If these things are not clear, you may want to include this information in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

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For

Here, For indicates that this verse provides another reason for Paul’s instruction in the previous verse that Timothy should use his spiritual gift. If it would be helpful in your language, you could replace For with this information here. Alternate translation: “Another reason why I want you to start using again the gift God that gave you is that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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h1z3

οὐ…ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν ὁ Θεὸς πνεῦμα δειλίας, ἀλλὰ δυνάμεως, καὶ ἀγάπης, καὶ σωφρονισμοῦ

1

God did not give us a spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of discipline

Here, spirit could refer to: (1) the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “God’s Holy Spirit does not cause us to be afraid. He causes us to have power and love and discipline” (2) the character of a human being. Alternate translation: “God does not cause us to be afraid but to have power and love and discipline”

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p011

figs-abstractnouns

δυνάμεως, καὶ ἀγάπης, καὶ σωφρονισμοῦ

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of power, and of love, and of discipline

Paul uses abstract nouns to refer to three things that Timothy should be able to do. Your language may have a particular way of expressing these concepts, such as with verbs. If so, you could use them in your translation. Alternate translation: “one that makes us able to obey, to love, and to control ourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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k6g7

σωφρονισμοῦ

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of discipline

Here, discipline could refer to: (1) self-control. Alternate translation: “of the ability to control ourselves” (2) the power to correct or even to control others. Alternate translation: “of the ability to correct others”

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fk9z

figs-metonymy

τὸ μαρτύριον

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the testimony

Paul may be using the word testimony to refer to the activity of telling others about the Lord and not to the message itself. Alternate translation: “of testifying” or “of telling others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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blk9

τὸν δέσμιον αὐτοῦ

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his prisoner

Paul is not being held prisoner by the Lord. He is a prisoner because he has testified about the Lord. Alternate translation: “a prisoner for his sake” or “a prisoner for the Lord”

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ry82

συνκακοπάθησον τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

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suffer together for the gospel

The term together could mean: (1) Timothy should suffer together with Paul. (2) Timothy should suffer together with all Christians who suffer.

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xa86

συνκακοπάθησον τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

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suffer together for the gospel

Here, for the gospel means “for the sake of telling other people the good news about Jesus.” Alternate translation: “along with me, accept the suffering that results from telling other people the good news about Jesus”

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hi9a

τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ, κατὰ δύναμιν Θεοῦ

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for the gospel, according to the power of God

Paul is reminding Timothy that God provides people with power when they suffer so that they can endure the suffering. Alternate translation: “for the gospel, allowing God to make you strong”

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ld55

figs-metonymy

καλέσαντος κλήσει ἁγίᾳ

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called us with a holy calling

Here, with a holy calling could refer to: (1) what results from the calling. The call produces holy people or people set apart for God. Alternate translation: “called us with a calling that sets us apart as holy to God” (2) the source of the calling, which is God, who is holy. Alternate translation: “called us by means of his own holy calling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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lmas

οὐ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα ἡμῶν

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not according to our works

It may be helpful to start a new sentence here. If you do start a new sentence, for clarity you may wish to repeat some words from the previous clause. Alternate translation: “He did not save us and call us because of our works”

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kyr5

figs-hendiadys

ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἰδίαν πρόθεσιν καὶ χάριν

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but according to his own purpose and grace

Here the words purpose and grace work together to mean “gracious purpose.” Paul is saying that God’s purpose or plan for us includes showing us grace or kindness through Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “but because of his gracious purpose” or “but because he planned to show us kindness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

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p012

figs-activepassive

καὶ χάριν, τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

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and grace, which was given to us in Christ Jesus

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “and grace, which God gave to us in Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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pq1z

figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

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in Christ Jesus

Paul speaks of God’s purpose and grace or “gracious purpose” as if it were an object inside of Christ Jesus. This refers to God’s plan to save people that Jesus fulfilled. So when people begin a relationship with Jesus, then God saves them. Alternate translation: “through our relationship to Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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zq7m

figs-idiom

πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων

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before eternal times

This is an idiom that indicates that God decided to save through faith in Christ before time and the creation of the world. Alternate translation: “before time began” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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figs-metaphor

φανερωθεῖσαν δὲ νῦν

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and which now has been revealed

Paul speaks of God’s gracious plan to save us as if it were an object that could be uncovered and shown to people through the arrival of Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “and which now people can know” or “and which now people can experience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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p013

figs-activepassive

φανερωθεῖσαν δὲ νῦν

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and which now has been revealed

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “which now God has revealed” or “which now God has allowed people to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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i3wl

figs-metaphor

φωτίσαντος δὲ ζωὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου

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and brought to light life and immortality through the gospel

Paul refers to life and immortality as if they were objects that could be brought from darkness into light so that people could see them. He is speaking of revealing something or making it known to people. Alternate translation: “and revealed life and immortality through the gospel” or “and declared life and immortality through the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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a1n7

figs-hendiadys

ζωὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν

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life and immortality

Here, life and immortality are probably working together to mean “immortal life.” Alternate translation: “eternal life” or “incorruptible life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

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tb9b

figs-activepassive

ἐτέθην ἐγὼ κῆρυξ

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I was appointed a herald

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “God chose me to be a herald” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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translate-unknown

κῆρυξ

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a herald

A herald is someone who is sent out to announce a message. If your language does not have a similar term and your readers would not know what a herald is, you can use a general expression. Alternate translation: “a messenger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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p015

figs-metaphor

κῆρυξ

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a herald

Paul compares himself to a herald because God has sent him out to announce the gospel message. Alternate translation: “a preacher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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j37g

δι’ ἣν αἰτίαν

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for which reason

Paul provides the reason for his suffering by referring back to his status as an apostle. Alternate translation: “because I am an apostle”

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y8l4

figs-explicit

καὶ ταῦτα πάσχω

1

I also suffer also these things

Paul does not mention the specific {things} that he is suffering, but from the context of the letter, the implication is that he is referring to suffering as a prisoner. Alternate translation: “I also suffer as a prisoner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

61

2TI

1

12

td39

πέπεισμαι

1

I am certain

Paul expresses that he is certain that God will make everything right in the end. Alternate translation: “I am sure”

62

2TI

1

12

p6pi

figs-metaphor

τὴν παραθήκην μου φυλάξαι

1

to guard my deposit

Paul is using a metaphor of a person leaving something with another person who is supposed to protect it until he gives it back to the first person. The two people involved are Jesus and Paul, but it is not clear which one is holding the deposit. This could mean: (1) Paul is trusting Jesus to keep something safe that Paul has entrusted to Jesus. This could be Paul’s own life, or, more specifically, that Paul would remain faithful to Jesus all of his life. Alternate translation: “to keep me faithful to him” (2) Paul is trusting Jesus to preserve the good news that Jesus has deposited with Paul for Paul to preach. Alternate translation: “to help me keep preaching his message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

63

2TI

1

12

hhu5

figs-possession

τὴν παραθήκην μου

1

my deposit

The term my here conveys the idea that this deposit is associated with Paul in some way. The particular association depends on what we consider the deposit to be. This could mean: (1) the deposit is associated with Paul because it is Paul’s own life or Paul’s faith in Jesus. Alternate translation: “my faithfulness to him” (2) the deposit is associated with Paul because it is the gospel message that Paul preaches. Alternate translation: “the gospel message that he has entrusted to me to preach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

64

2TI

1

12

qcu3

figs-explicit

ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν

1

that day

This refers to the day when Jesus returns for judgment. Alternate translation: “the day of judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

65

2TI

1

13

h1qd

figs-metonymy

ὑγιαινόντων λόγων

1

of the healthy words

Paul wants Timothy to teach the things that he taught and thereby to follow his example. The expression healthy words means “the correct message” by association, since a healthy mind would recognize that the correct message was reasonable. Alternate translation: “of the correct message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

66

2TI

1

13

p016

figs-metonymy

λόγων

1

of … words

Paul uses the term words to describe the expression in words of what Christians believe. Alternate translation: “of … message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

67

2TI

1

13

p017

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀγάπῃ τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus

Paul uses two abstract nouns, faith and love, to refer to actions that Timothy should do. Your language may have a particular way of expressing these concepts, such as with verbs. If so, you could use them in your translation. Alternate translation: “trusting in Christ Jesus and loving others because you belong to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

68

2TI

1

13

b2ld

ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀγάπῃ τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus

Here, love could refer to: (1) the love that Timothy should show others. Alternate translation: “trusting in Christ Jesus and loving others because you belong to him” (2) the love that Timothy should show to God. Alternate translation: “trusting in Christ Jesus and loving him”

69

2TI

1

13

ix6w

figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

in Christ Jesus

Paul speaks of faith and love as if they were objects inside of Christ Jesus. This refers to the faith and love that Jesus enables us to have when we belong to him. See how you translated this phrase in 1:9. Alternate translation: “ours through our relationship to Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

70

2TI

1

14

i5g5

figs-explicit

τὴν καλὴν παραθήκην

1

the good deposit

Here, the good deposit refers to the gospel message that God has entrusted to Timothy to share with his people. Alternate translation: “the good message entrusted to you for God’s people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

71

2TI

1

14

cb5q

figs-explicit

τὴν καλὴν παραθήκην φύλαξον

1

Guard the good deposit

Timothy needs to be alert to protect the gospel message because people will oppose him and try to distort what he says and teaches, turning it into a different message. Alternate translation: “Protect the good deposit against those who will try to distort it” or “Because people will try to distort the gospel message, guard it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

72

2TI

1

14

a3v2

διὰ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου

1

through the Holy Spirit

Here, through means “by means of” or “by the power of.” Alternate translation: “by means of the Holy Spirit” or “with the help of the Holy Spirit”

73

2TI

1

15

p018

figs-hyperbole

πάντες οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ

1

all who are in Asia

The word all could mean: (1) “many, but not all” in the strict sense, since Timothy and Onesiphorus did not turn away from him. So this would be an example of hyperbole. (2) the men who came to Rome with him from Asia Minor. Alternate translation: “all who came with me from Asia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

74

2TI

1

15

p019

translate-names

Ἀσίᾳ

1

Asia

Asia here refers to a Roman province, Asia Minor, which had its capital at Ephesus, which is where Timothy was living at the time of this letter. It is now a region in modern-day Turkey. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

75

2TI

1

15

p6f4

figs-metaphor

ἀπεστράφησάν με

1

turned away from me

This is a metaphor that means they left Paul and stopped helping him. Alternate translation: “have deserted me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

76

2TI

1

15

p020

figs-explicit

ἀπεστράφησάν με

1

turned away from me

Paul assumes that Timothy would know that the reason that the believers from Asia had abandoned him was because the authorities had put him in prison. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “have deserted me because I am in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

77

2TI

1

15

x6cc

translate-names

Φύγελος…Ἑρμογένης

1

Phygelus

Phygelus and Hermogenes are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

78

2TI

1

16

izk9

translate-blessing

δῴη ἔλεος ὁ Κύριος τῷ Ὀνησιφόρου οἴκῳ

1

May the Lord grant mercy to the household of Onesiphorus

Paul is asking God to bless the family of Onesiphorus. You can express this as either a blessing or a prayer, in whichever way is more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I pray that the Lord will be kind to the family of Onesiphorus” or “May the Lord bless the family of Onesiphorus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

79

2TI

1

16

e6hl

translate-names

Ὀνησιφόρου

1

of Onesiphorus

Onesiphorus is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

80

2TI

1

16

zz44

figs-metonymy

τῷ Ὀνησιφόρου οἴκῳ

1

to the household of Onesiphorus

The word household refers to Onesiphorus and to all the people in his family, possibly even his servants. Alternate translation: “to Onesiphorus and everyone who lives with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

81

2TI

1

16

td1q

figs-metonymy

τὴν ἅλυσίν μου οὐκ ἐπησχύνθη

1

was not ashamed of my chain

The word chain refers to being in prison. Onesiphorus was not ashamed that Paul was in prison but came to visit him frequently. Alternate translation: “was not ashamed of my imprisonment” or “was not ashamed of my being in prison” or “was not ashamed of me, even though I was in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

82

2TI

1

17

xfg1

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλὰ

1

but

Here, but indicates a contrast between the previous verse and this verse. Instead of being ashamed that Paul was in prison, Onesiphorus searched for Paul and found him there. Use whatever form is most natural in your language to show this contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

83

2TI

1

17

p022

translate-names

Ῥώμῃ

1

Rome

Rome is the name of a city, the capital of the Roman Empire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

84

2TI

1

18

p3di

translate-blessing

δῴη αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος, εὑρεῖν ἔλεος παρὰ Κυρίου

1

May the Lord grant to him to find mercy from the Lord

Paul is again asking for the Lord to grant mercy to Onesiphorus. You can express this as either a blessing or a prayer, in whichever way is more natural in your language. See how you translated this in 1:16. Alternate translation: “I pray that the Lord will be merciful to Onesiphorus” or “May the Lord have mercy on Onesiphorus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

85

2TI

1

18

x0eo

grammar-connect-logic-result

(δῴη αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος, εὑρεῖν ἔλεος παρὰ Κυρίου ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ), καὶ ὅσα ἐν Ἐφέσῳ διηκόνησεν, βέλτιον σὺ γινώσκεις

1

May the Lord grant to him to find mercy from the Lord in that day. And how much he served in Ephesus, you know very well

If it would be helpful in your language, you could reverse the order of these sentences, since the second sentence gives the reason for the action that the first sentence describes. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

86

2TI

1

18

r54t

writing-pronouns

δῴη αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος, εὑρεῖν ἔλεος παρὰ Κυρίου

1

May the Lord grant to him to find mercy from the Lord

If it would be helpful in your language, you could use the name “Onesiphorus” instead of the pronoun him to make it clear who is receiving mercy. Alternate translation: “May Onesiphorus receive mercy from the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

87

2TI

1

18

x2dk

figs-metaphor

εὑρεῖν ἔλεος παρὰ Κυρίου

1

to find mercy from the Lord

Paul speaks of mercy as if it were an object that could be found. Paul is expressing his desire that God show mercy to Onesiphorus on the day of judgment. Alternate translation: “to receive mercy from the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

88

2TI

1

18

f3ep

figs-explicit

ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ

1

in that day

The expression that day refers to the day when God will judge all people; at that time they will receive mercy from the Lord, as Paul mentions, or wrath. Alternate translation: “on the day of judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

89

2TI

1

18

p024

translate-names

Ἐφέσῳ

1

Ephesus

Ephesus is the name of a city, the place where Timothy, the recipient of the letter, is located. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

90

2TI

1

18

p025

figs-explicit

ὅσα ἐν Ἐφέσῳ διηκόνησεν, βέλτιον σὺ γινώσκεις

1

how much he served in Ephesus, you know very well

Paul is reminding Timothy that Onesiphorus helped him earlier, in Ephesus. So, Paul is asking the Lord to bless Onesiphorus because he helped Paul several times. Alternate translation: “you know well how much he also helped me earlier when I was in Ephesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

91

2TI

2

intro

k3zn

0

2 Timothy 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In verses 11b–13, Paul may be quoting a poem or hymn. To show the reader that this may be a quotation, in your translation you may choose to set these verses farther to the right than the other verses in the chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

We will reign with him

Faithful Christians will reign with Christ in the future. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faithful]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Analogies

In this chapter, Paul makes several analogies to teach about living as a Christian. He uses analogies of soldiers, athletes, and farmers. Later in the chapter, he uses the analogy of different kinds of containers in a house.

92

2TI

2

1

bll5

figs-metaphor

τέκνον μου

1

my child

Here, child is a term of great love and approval. Timothy is not Paul’s biological child. It is also likely that Paul introduced Timothy to Christ, and so this is why Paul considered him like his own child. Alternate translation: “who are like my child” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

93

2TI

2

1

p026

figs-activepassive

ἐνδυναμοῦ

1

be strengthened

You could express this with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “let God make you strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

94

2TI

2

1

e6ex

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ χάριτι τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

in the grace that is in Christ Jesus

Paul wants Timothy to experience the strength that God provides through his grace or kindness. Believers experience God’s grace through knowing Jesus Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun grace with an adjective. Alternate translation: “as you allow Christ Jesus to kindly empower you through your relationship to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

95

2TI

2

2

ig9v

figs-explicit

διὰ πολλῶν μαρτύρων

1

along with many witnesses

Paul is referring to teaching in a public setting with others present. The implication is that those others could testify as to what he taught. Alternate translation: “in the presence of people who can testify to what I said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

96

2TI

2

2

kv1m

figs-metaphor

ταῦτα παράθου

1

entrust these things to faithful men

Paul speaks of his instructions to Timothy as if they were objects that Timothy could give to other people and trust them to use correctly. Alternate translation: “commit them” or “teach them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

97

2TI

2

2

p027

figs-gendernotations

πιστοῖς ἀνθρώποις

1

to faithful men

Here the term men has a generic sense that may include women. Alternate translation: “to faithful people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

98

2TI

2

3

yc1j

figs-explicit

συνκακοπάθησον

1

Suffer together

Here, together could mean: (1) Timothy should suffer together with Paul. Alternate translation: “Suffer together with me” (2) Timothy should suffer together with all Christians who suffer. Alternate translation: “Suffer together with all believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

99

2TI

2

3

juu2

figs-metaphor

ὡς καλὸς στρατιώτης Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

as a good soldier of Jesus Christ

Paul compares suffering for Christ Jesus to the suffering that a good soldier endures. Alternate translation: “as if you were a soldier and Jesus Christ were your commander” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

100

2TI

2

4

a4x7

figs-metaphor

οὐδεὶς στρατευόμενος ἐμπλέκεται ταῖς τοῦ βίου πραγματίαις

1

No one serving as a soldier gets entangled in the affairs of life

To help Timothy understand something important about following Jesus, Paul introduces the metaphor of a soldier who has to decide between pleasing his leader or pleasing those outside the army. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this. Alternate translation: “Consider that no dedicated soldier allows the affairs of life to distract him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

101

2TI

2

4

p7n5

figs-metaphor

ἐμπλέκεται ταῖς τοῦ βίου πραγματίαις

1

gets entangled in the affairs of life

Paul speaks of being involved in other matters as if they were a net that trapped people and kept them from being able to move freely. Alternate translation: “allows the affairs of life to distract him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

102

2TI

2

4

p028

figs-activepassive

ἐμπλέκεται ταῖς τοῦ βίου πραγματίαις

1

gets entangled in the affairs of life

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “allows the affairs of life to distract him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

103

2TI

2

4

p029

figs-explicit

τοῦ βίου

1

of life

By life, Paul means, in the context of this metaphor, “civilian life.” The implication is that Timothy and all believers should not allow competing concerns to keep them from serving Christ. Alternate translation: “of everyday life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

104

2TI

2

4

d2lg

τῷ στρατολογήσαντι

1

the one who enlisted him

Alternate translation: “his leader” or “the one who commands him”

105

2TI

2

5

d483

figs-metaphor

ἐὰν…ἀθλῇ τις, οὐ στεφανοῦται, ἐὰν μὴ νομίμως ἀθλήσῃ

1

if anyone competes, he is not crowned if he has not competed lawfully

To help Timothy understand something important about following Jesus, Paul introduces the metaphor of an athlete who has to decide between competing lawfully or not lawfully. The athlete will only receive the crown given to the winner if he competes lawfully. By making this comparison with an athlete competing in games, Paul is implicitly telling Timothy that Christ will not reward him unless he serves him lawfully, that is, unless he obeys him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this directly. Alternate translation: “consider that the officials only crown an athlete as the winner if he competes according to the rules” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

106

2TI

2

5

p031

figs-hypo

ἐὰν…ἀθλῇ τις, οὐ στεφανοῦται, ἐὰν μὴ νομίμως ἀθλήσῃ

1

if anyone competes, he is not crowned if he has not competed lawfully

Paul is also using a hypothetical situation to teach Timothy. Alternate translation: “suppose an athlete did not compete by the rules. Then he would not be crowned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

107

2TI

2

5

p032

ἐὰν…ἀθλῇ τις

1

if anyone competes

Here, competes refers to competing in an athletic event. Alternate translation: “if an athlete competes in an event”

108

2TI

2

5

xbn6

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ στεφανοῦται, ἐὰν μὴ νομίμως ἀθλήσῃ

1

he is not crowned if he has not competed lawfully

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this double negative by translating it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “the officials will only crown him if he competes by the rules” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

109

2TI

2

5

p033

figs-activepassive

οὐ στεφανοῦται

1

he is not crowned

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “the officials will not crown him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

110

2TI

2

5

p034

figs-explicit

οὐ στεφανοῦται

1

he is not crowned

Paul assumes that Timothy will know that in this culture crowning indicated the winner of a competition. Alternate translation: “the officials will not crown him as the winner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

111

2TI

2

5

lea8

translate-unknown

οὐ στεφανοῦται

1

he is not crowned

In Paul’s time, when athletes won competitions, they were crowned with wreaths made from the leaves of plants. You can express this idea in your translation by referring to the comparable custom in your own culture, or by using a general expression. Alternate translation: “the officials will not give him an award” or “the officials will not declare him to be the winner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

112

2TI

2

5

reg6

figs-explicit

μὴ νομίμως ἀθλήσῃ

1

he has competed lawfully

Paul is referring to the rules that governed a competition. The athletes had to obey the rules or they would be removed from the competition and not have an opportunity to win. If it would be helpful in your language, you could mention these rules. Alternate translation: “he does not compete according to the rules” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

113

2TI

2

6

wz35

figs-metaphor

τὸν κοπιῶντα γεωργὸν δεῖ πρῶτον τῶν καρπῶν μεταλαμβάνειν

1

The hardworking farmer ought to be first to receive of the crops

To help Timothy understand something important about following Jesus, Paul introduces the metaphor of a farmer who has to decide between working hard or not working hard. The farmer will receive a share of the harvest if he is working hard. By making this comparison, Paul is encouraging Timothy to work hard in his service to Christ so that God will reward him. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this directly. Alternate translation: “Consider that a farmer who works hard should receive a share of the crops before anyone else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

114

2TI

2

6

p035

figs-explicit

πρῶτον τῶν καρπῶν μεταλαμβάνειν

1

first to receive of the crops

In this illustration, it seems that the hardworking farmer is working with other farmers who will all receive a part of the crop after the harvest. But since this farmer works harder than the others, he should receive before the others. It is implied that receiving first is best, possibly because the quality of the crop is better. Alternate translation: “receive the best share of the crops” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

115

2TI

2

7

bdk9

figs-explicit

νόει ὃ λέγω, δώσει γάρ σοι ὁ Κύριος σύνεσιν

1

Think about what I am saying, for the Lord will give you understanding

Paul gave Timothy three metaphors in verses 3–6, but he did not completely explain their implications. He expected Timothy to figure out, with God’s help, the lesson of these metaphors for Christ’s servants. For that reason, if you want to include an explanation of the meaning of the metaphors, we recommend that you state the meaning in a footnote rather than in the Bible text. Alternate translation: “you will have to think carefully about what I have just told you to understand it completely, but you can depend on God to help you to do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

116

2TI

2

7

p036

figs-metonymy

ὃ λέγω

1

what I am saying

Paul refers to what he has just written in his letter with the verb saying to express the idea of communicating. Alternate translation: “what I have just told you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

117

2TI

2

7

a22q

figs-explicit

ἐν πᾶσιν

1

in everything

Here, in everything refers to everything related to the three metaphors that Paul has written just before this. Alternate translation: “about everything that I have just said” or “about all that I said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

118

2TI

2

8

mh1k

figs-metaphor

ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυείδ

1

from the seed of David

The phrase from {the} seed of refers to Jesus being descended from King David. Alternate translation: “who is a descendant of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

119

2TI

2

8

p037

translate-names

Δαυείδ

1

of David

David is the name of a man, a great king of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

120

2TI

2

8

wt31

figs-idiom

ἐγηγερμένον ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

raised from the dead

The expression raised from {the} dead is an idiom for causing someone who has died to become alive again. Alternate translation: “whom God caused to live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

121

2TI

2

8

p038

figs-activepassive

ἐγηγερμένον ἐκ νεκρῶν

1

raised from the dead

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “whom God raised from the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

122

2TI

2

8

s4vh

figs-possession

κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου

1

according to my gospel

The term my conveys the idea that it is the gospel associated with Paul because he preaches it. Alternate translation: “according to the gospel message that I preach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

123

2TI

2

9

t2ax

figs-metonymy

μέχρι δεσμῶν

1

unto chains

Paul uses the expression unto chains to express how far his suffering has gone: from being beaten, to being arrested, to being in chains in prison. Alternate translation: “to the point of being imprisoned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

124

2TI

2

9

p039

figs-simile

ὡς κακοῦργος

1

like a criminal

Paul compares his situation to the shameful one that a person would be in who had actually committed a crime. Alternate translation: “as if I were a criminal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

125

2TI

2

9

pc6t

figs-metaphor

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ οὐ δέδεται

1

the word of God is not bound

Here, bound means being held in chains as a prisoner, referring to Paul’s condition. Paul contrasts himself, an actual prisoner, with God’s message, which can never be held prisoner. Alternate translation: “nothing is holding back the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

126

2TI

2

9

p040

figs-activepassive

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ οὐ δέδεται

1

the word of God is not bound

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this idea. Alternate translation: “nothing is holding back the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

127

2TI

2

9

p041

figs-metonymy

ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the word of God

Paul uses the term word to describe the message from God that he and others are communicating with words. Alternate translation: “the message from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

128

2TI

2

10

p042

figs-hyperbole

πάντα ὑπομένω

1

I endure all things

Here the term all is a generalization that likely refers to the sufferings that Paul describes in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “I endure all of these sufferings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

129

2TI

2

10

aa1x

figs-nominaladj

διὰ τοὺς ἐκλεκτούς

1

for the chosen

The term chosen is an adjective that functions as a noun here and refers to a group of people. If your language would not use an adjective in that way, you could translate this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “for the people whom God has chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

130

2TI

2

10

j2bk

καὶ αὐτοὶ σωτηρίας τύχωσιν τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

they also may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus

The phrase obtain salvation could also be expressed with Christ Jesus, who grants salvation, as the subject. Alternate translation: “Christ Jesus may grant them salvation”

131

2TI

2

10

p043

figs-abstractnouns

καὶ αὐτοὶ σωτηρίας τύχωσιν τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

they also may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun salvation with a verb. Alternate translation: “Christ Jesus may save them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

132

2TI

2

10

el68

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ δόξης αἰωνίου

1

with eternal glory

The abstract noun glory refers to the wonderful condition that people will experience when they are in the presence of God. It comes from God himself and he shares it with those who are saved by Jesus Christ, and this condition is eternal. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun glory with an adjective. Alternate translation: “and know how glorious it is to be with God forever” or “and experience God’s wonderful presence forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

133

2TI

2

11

nr7u

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

This word is trustworthy

In this context, the term word refers to the statement of doctrine that follows. See how you translated this phrase in 1 Timothy 1:15 Alternate translation: “This statement is dependable”

134

2TI

2

11

p044

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

This word is trustworthy

You could represent the meaning of the adjective trustworthy with an active verb, if that would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “you could trust this statement”

135

2TI

2

11

p045

figs-quotemarks

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

This word is trustworthy

Paul uses this phrase to introduce a direct quotation. The words that follow in the rest of this verse and in 2:12 and 2:13 are a poem or hymn that expresses the message that Paul says is trustworthy. It may be helpful to your readers if you indicate this by marking these words as a direct quotation or by setting them farther to the right, as the General Notes at the beginning of this chapter suggest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

136

2TI

2

11

g6e4

writing-poetry

εἰ γὰρ συναπεθάνομεν, καὶ συνζήσομεν

1

For if we died with him, we will also live with him

This is the beginning of a poem or hymn that Paul is probably quoting. If your language has a way of indicating that this is poetry, such as by setting individual phrases on separate lines, you could use it here and in 2:12 and 2:13. If not, you could translate this material as regular prose rather than as poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])

137

2TI

2

11

in38

figs-metaphor

εἰ…συναπεθάνομεν

1

if we died with him

Paul is speaking since he and Timothy and other believers who should trust this statement have not actually died. This could refer to: (1) the way that believers accept Jesus’ death for their sins when they trust him for salvation. This means that they have “died” to their old life of sin. Alternate translation: “if we have ended our old way of life by accepting Jesus’ death for us” (2) the way that people who believe in Jesus may suffer for him, possibly to the point of dying for him. Alternate translation: “if we are prepared to die for Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

138

2TI

2

11

p046

καὶ συνζήσομεν

1

we will also live with him

Although Paul is referring to dying with Christ in a figurative sense, live is probably not figurative, but could refer to: (1) life after physical death. This seems most likely given Paul’s mention of “eternal glory” in the previous verse and “we will reign with him” in the next. Alternate translation: “then God will raise us from the dead to live with Jesus” (2) how believers will act in this life before physical death. Alternate translation: “we will not pursue our own desires, instead we will do what Jesus wants us to do”

139

2TI

2

12

p048

εἰ ἀρνησόμεθα

1

if we deny him

Paul uses the term deny to refer to the action of believers saying that they do not know Jesus Christ during this present life. It is presented as the opposite of endure, so it refers to someone who gives in to persecution and denies being a follower of Jesus. Alternate translation: “if we say now that we do not know him”

140

2TI

2

12

p049

κἀκεῖνος ἀρνήσεται ἡμᾶς

1

he also will deny us

In this second usage of the word deny, Paul is referring to the action of Jesus Christ on the day of final judgment. On that day, Jesus will either receive a faithful believer or reject those who are not true followers. Those who deny that they are followers of Jesus while on earth are not true followers. Alternate translation: “he will reject us on the day of judgment”

141

2TI

2

13

ke4w

εἰ ἀπιστοῦμεν

1

if we are unfaithful

Paul uses the word unfaithful to express the condition of believers who do not continue to obey Jesus, but rather disobey him. Alternate translation: “if we disobey Jesus” or “if we do not do what Jesus wants us to do”

142

2TI

2

13

p050

figs-explicit

ἐκεῖνος πιστὸς μένει

1

he remains faithful

This could mean : (1) he remains faithful to them. (2) he remains true to himself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

143

2TI

2

13

ihd4

ἀρνήσασθαι…ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται

1

he is not able to deny himself

Paul states that Jesus is not able to deny himself, meaning that Jesus is not able to go against his character and will remain true to what he said he would do. Paul may have one or both of the following ideas in mind. (1) Jesus’ character includes being the Savior who can forgive our unfaithfulness when we repent of it, as Peter experienced (John 21:15–19). This favors the interpretation of the previous phrase as “he remains faithful to us.” (2) Jesus’ character also includes being the holy God who judges people for their sin when they do not repent. This favors the interpretation of the previous phrase as “he remains true to himself.” Alternate translation: “he must always act according to his character”

144

2TI

2

14

u661

ὑπομίμνῃσκε

1

Remind them

The word {them}, which is implicit in the Greek verb, probably refers to the people that Timothy has responsibility over. Alternate translation: “Remind the people there”

145

2TI

2

14

p051

figs-metaphor

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

before God

Paul uses the expression before God, which means “in front of God,” to mean “where God can see.” Seeing, in turn, means attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “as God is watching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

146

2TI

2

14

r5lq

figs-explicit

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

before God

The implication is that Paul is telling Timothy to tell the believers, when he gives them this command, that God will be watching what they do. Alternate translation: “with God as their witness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

147

2TI

2

14

g6p7

figs-metaphor

μὴ λογομαχεῖν

1

not to battle about words

Paul uses the term battle to describe arguments. This could mean: (1) the believers are not to argue about unimportant things such as the words that someone uses to present the gospel message. That only distracts people from talking about important things, such as the gospel message itself. Alternate translation: “not to fight about small things like words” (2) the believers are not to argue about what words mean. Again, this causes disunity among the believers for no good reason. Alternate translation: “not to fight about the meanings of words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

148

2TI

2

14

rke6

ἐπ’ οὐδὲν χρήσιμον

1

it is useful for nothing

Paul adds that battling about words has no benefit for those involved. Alternate translation: “it does not benefit anyone”

149

2TI

2

14

ywty

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπὶ καταστροφῇ τῶν ἀκουόντων

1

to the destruction of those who hear

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun destruction with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “it destroys those who hear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

150

2TI

2

14

x7gx

figs-metonymy

ἐπὶ καταστροφῇ τῶν ἀκουόντων

1

to the destruction of those who hear

Here, destruction refers not to physical harm, but to the spiritual harm that is done to believers who hear their teachers foolishly arguing about unimportant things. This teaches the believers that being seen as right about small things is more important than love and unity, and can cause them to have wrong ideas about the faith or to stop following Jesus altogether. Alternate translation: “and can make those who hear it want to stop following Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

151

2TI

2

15

m3vy

σπούδασον σεαυτὸν, δόκιμον παραστῆσαι τῷ Θεῷ

1

Strive to present yourself approved to God

Alternate translation: “Do your best to please God”

152

2TI

2

15

rj6y

figs-metaphor

ἐργάτην

1

a worker

Paul says that Timothy will be a skilled workman if he correctly teaches God’s word. Alternate translation: “like a craftsman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

153

2TI

2

15

xgz9

figs-metaphor

ὀρθοτομοῦντα τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας

1

cutting the word of truth straight

Paul refers to the word of truth as if it were a path that someone was cutting through difficult terrain. When such a path is straight, travelers can follow it directly to their destination. By contrast, the useless discussions that Paul describes in 2:14 and 2:16 would be needless detours in terms of this same metaphor. Alternate translation: “show people how to follow the Scriptures directly” or “teach the Scriptures correctly so that people can follow them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

154

2TI

2

15

p052

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας

1

the word of truth

Paul uses the term word to refer to something that is expressed in words. This could refer to: (1) the message that Timothy is to teach. Alternate translation: “the true message” (2) the Scriptures. Alternate translation: “the true things that God has said in the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

155

2TI

2

15

p053

figs-abstractnouns

τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας

1

the word of truth

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun truth with an adjective. Alternate translation: “the true message” or “the true things that God has said in the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

156

2TI

2

16

e27q

figs-metaphor

ἐπὶ πλεῖον…προκόψουσιν ἀσεβείας

1

they will advance into greater ungodliness

Paul speaks of these discussions as if they could physically progress in a certain direction, and he speaks of ungodliness as that direction. Paul is describing the effect that these discussions have on people. Alternate translation: “they cause people to become more and more ungodly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

157

2TI

2

17

i73t

figs-simile

ὁ λόγος αὐτῶν ὡς γάγγραινα νομὴν ἕξει

1

their word will have a spreading like gangrene

This is a simile. It means that something will spread from person to person and harm the faith of all those who hear it. The thing that will spread could refer to: (1) the habit of having useless and godless discussions. (2) the things that the people were saying in these empty discussions, or both. Alternate translation: “these empty discussions will spread quickly and cause destruction like an infectious disease” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

158

2TI

2

17

p054

figs-metonymy

ὁ λόγος αὐτῶν

1

their word

Paul uses the term word to refer to something that is expressed in words. Alternate translation: “these discussions” or “what people who take part in these discussions say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

159

2TI

2

17

p055

translate-unknown

ὡς γάγγραινα

1

like gangrene

“Gangrene” is type of tissue death caused by infection or lack of blood circulation. It quickly spreads in a person’s body and can lead to death. If your readers would not know what gangrene is, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “like an infectious disease” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

160

2TI

2

17

p056

writing-pronouns

ὧν ἐστιν Ὑμέναιος, καὶ Φίλητος

1

among whom are Hymenaeus and Philetus

Paul gives Timothy the names of Hymenaeus and Philetus examples of ungodliness and foolish talk. To make the relationship between these names and the preceding their word clear in your language, you may have to make this explicit. Alternate translation: “Hymeneus and Philetus are such people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

161

2TI

2

17

x2k6

translate-names

Ὑμέναιος, καὶ Φίλητος

1

Hymenaeus and Philetus

Hymenaeus and Philetus are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

162

2TI

2

18

fi9z

figs-metaphor

οἵτινες περὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἠστόχησαν

1

who have missed the mark regarding the truth

Paul uses this expression to speak of faith in Christ as if it were a target at which people should aim. Those who have missed the mark do not believe or teach what is true. Alternate translation: “who are teaching things that are not true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

163

2TI

2

18

p057

figs-abstractnouns

οἵτινες περὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἠστόχησαν

1

who have missed the mark regarding the truth

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun truth with an adjective. Alternate translation: “who teach things that are not true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

164

2TI

2

18

pu22

figs-abstractnouns

ἀνάστασιν ἤδη γεγονέναι

1

the resurrection has already happened

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun resurrection with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “God has already raised the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

165

2TI

2

18

ura5

figs-metaphor

ἀνατρέπουσιν τήν τινων πίστιν

1

who are destroying the faith of some

Paul refers to faith as though it were an object that could be destroyed. Alternate translation: “they are causing some people to stop believing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

166

2TI

2

19

ir1z

figs-metaphor

ὁ…στερεὸς θεμέλιος τοῦ Θεοῦ ἕστηκεν

1

the firm foundation of God stands

Paul uses the image of the foundation of a building to explain that even though a false and destructive message has been destroying the faith of some people, God has nevertheless given people who want to continue to follow him a true message, which provides for them a safe and secure “place to stand.” Alternate translation: “God has provided a secure basis for people to continue to believe in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

167

2TI

2

19

p058

figs-metonymy

ἔχων τὴν σφραγῖδα ταύτην

1

having this seal

Paul speaks of the inscription on this foundation as if it were a seal, since seals on the outside of documents often bore inscriptions describing their contents. Alternate translation: “having this inscription” or “which can be described in this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

168

2TI

2

19

p059

figs-quotemarks

ἔχων τὴν σφραγῖδα ταύτην

1

having this seal

Paul uses this phrase to introduce two direct quotations. The statements that follow in the rest of this verse describe two aspects of the basis that God has provided for people to continue to believe in him. It may be helpful to your readers if you indicate this by marking these statements as quotations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

169

2TI

2

19

nd7t

figs-idiom

ὁ ὀνομάζων τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου

1

who names the name of the Lord

The expression names the name of {the} Lord is an idiom that refers to saying the name of the Lord in order to declare that one belongs to him. Alternate translation: “who says he believes in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

170

2TI

2

19

y3bc

figs-abstractnouns

ἀποστήτω ἀπὸ ἀδικίας

1

must abstain from unrighteousness

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun unrighteousness with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “must stop doing evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

171

2TI

2

20

p060

figs-metaphor

ἐν μεγάλῃ δὲ οἰκίᾳ, οὐκ ἔστιν μόνον σκεύη χρυσᾶ καὶ ἀργυρᾶ, ἀλλὰ καὶ ξύλινα καὶ ὀστράκινα

1

Now in a great house, there are not only gold and silver containers, but also wood and clay

To help Timothy understand something important about following Jesus, Paul introduces the metaphor that compares the containers that are in the home of a wealthy person with people in the church. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate that this is a metaphor or illustration. Alternate translation: “Consider this illustration: in the home of a wealthy person, there are containers made of gold and silver, and there are also containers made of wood and clay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

172

2TI

2

20

p061

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ καὶ ξύλινα καὶ ὀστράκινα

1

but also wood and clay

Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “and there are also containers made of wood and clay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

173

2TI

2

20

j75l

σκεύη

1

containers

The word container is a general term for items used to hold other things, such as grain, food, drink, or refuse. If your language does not have a general word, you can use a specific word such as “bowl” or “pot.”

174

2TI

2

20

mt5e

figs-abstractnouns

ἃ μὲν εἰς τιμὴν, ἃ δὲ εἰς ἀτιμίαν

1

both some for honor and some for dishonor

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns honor and dishonor by stating the ideas behind them with equivalent phrases. Alternate translation: “he uses the former at events to honor people and he uses the latter to do things that no one wants to see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

175

2TI

2

21

jm3p

figs-metaphor

ἐκκαθάρῃ ἑαυτὸν ἀπὸ τούτων

1

has cleansed himself from these

Here Paul continues the metaphor that compares people in the church to containers in a great house that have different uses. Paul speaks of a person washing himself clean as though he had been a pot full of something bad. By this he means that the person has given up certain associations or activities. Here, these could refer to: (1) the false teachers who are destroying the faith of some people. Alternate translation: “has disassociated himself from these false teachers” (2) the activities of quarreling and false teaching that Paul has warned Timothy about. Alternate translation: “has stopped doing these ungodly actions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

176

2TI

2

21

g79f

figs-metaphor

ἔσται σκεῦος εἰς τιμήν

1

he will be a container for honor

Paul speaks of a person who has given up these associations or activities as if he were a particular kind of container. Alternate translation: “he will be like a dish for special occasions” or “he will be like a dish that is used to honor people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

177

2TI

2

21

p062

figs-explicit

ἔσται σκεῦος εἰς τιμήν

1

he will be a container for honor

The implication is that God will be able to give important assignments to a person who is free from wrong associations or activities. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “he will be someone to whom God can give important assignments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

178

2TI

2

21

mh63

ἔσται σκεῦος εἰς τιμήν, ἡγιασμένον εὔχρηστον τῷ Δεσπότῃ, εἰς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἡτοιμασμένον

1

he will be a container for honor, having been sanctified, useful to the Master, having been prepared for every good work

These four phrases could mean: (1) the ones beginning with having been give the reason for the phrase before them. Alternate translation: “he will be a container for honor because he has been sanctified, and he will be useful to the Master because he has been prepared for every good work” (2) all four phrases could simply be describing the person. Alternate translation: “he will be a container for honor, someone who is sanctified, useful to the Master, and ready for every good work”

179

2TI

2

21

p063

figs-activepassive

ἡγιασμένον

1

having been sanctified

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea, and you can state who did the action. Alternate translation: “whom God has set apart for himself” or “whom God has set apart for a special purpose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

180

2TI

2

21

nl5d

figs-metaphor

ἡγιασμένον

1

having been sanctified

If this phrase is continuing the metaphor of objects in a house, then Paul is referring to a person who is free from wrong associations or activities as if he were a precious object whose owner keeps it in a special place. Whether this phrase is continuing the metaphor or not, it still expresses the idea of being “dedicated” for a special purpose. Alternate translation: “whom God has set apart for a special purpose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

181

2TI

2

21

p064

figs-metaphor

εὔχρηστον τῷ Δεσπότῃ

1

useful to the Master

In the context of the metaphor of the house, Paul speaks of God as the head of the household. Alternate translation: “useful to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

2TI

2

21

p065

figs-activepassive

εἰς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἡτοιμασμένον

1

having been prepared for every good work

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “who has gotten himself ready to do any good work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

183

2TI

2

22

h9p6

figs-metaphor

τὰς…νεωτερικὰς ἐπιθυμίας φεῦγε

1

flee youthful lusts

Paul speaks about youthful desires as if they were a dangerous person or animal that Timothy should run away from. Alternate translation: “control your youthful desires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

184

2TI

2

22

p066

figs-metonymy

τὰς…νεωτερικὰς ἐπιθυμίας φεῦγε

1

flee youthful lusts

Paul speaks of immoral activities by association with the desires that lead a person to engage in them. Alternate translation: “refuse to do the wrong things that young people want to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

185

2TI

2

22

srb7

figs-metaphor

δίωκε δὲ δικαιοσύνην, πίστιν, ἀγάπην, εἰρήνην

1

and pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace

Paul is using the verb pursue in contrast to flee. He speaks of these positive things as if Timothy should run towards them because they will do him good. Alternate translation: “be eager to do what is right, to believe in God, to love God and others, and to live in peace with people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

186

2TI

2

22

p067

figs-abstractnouns

δικαιοσύνην, πίστιν, ἀγάπην, εἰρήνην

1

righteousness, faith, love, and peace

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns righteousness, faith, love, and peace by stating the ideas behind them with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “do what is right, believe in God, love other people, and live peacefully with other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

187

2TI

2

22

hg99

μετὰ τῶν ἐπικαλουμένων τὸν Κύριον ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας

1

with those who call on the Lord from a clean heart

This likely means that Paul wants Timothy to pursue these positive things together with others who are sincere in their faith. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could put this phrase at the beginning of Paul’s command to Timothy, as in the UST, before pursue. Alternate translation: “together with those who worship the Lord with sincere intentions”

188

2TI

2

22

gl3q

figs-idiom

τῶν ἐπικαλουμένων τὸν Κύριον

1

those who call on the Lord

The expression calling on the Lord is an idiom that means to trust and worship the Lord. Alternate translation: “those who worship the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

189

2TI

2

22

p068

figs-metonymy

ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας

1

from a clean heart

Paul uses a physical part of the body, the heart, to represent the intentions and desires of a person. Alternate translation: “with sincere intentions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

190

2TI

2

22

b2ti

figs-metaphor

ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας

1

from a clean heart

Paul uses the word clean to describe the intentions or thoughts of a person as though they were an object that could be made clean. Alternate translation: “with sincere intentions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

191

2TI

2

23

tmf7

figs-metonymy

τὰς…μωρὰς καὶ ἀπαιδεύτους ζητήσεις παραιτοῦ

1

avoid foolish and ignorant questions

Paul refers to certain kinds of discussions by association with the kind of questions that people might ask that would lead to these discussions or by association with the kind of people that would ask these questions. Alternate translation: “do not become involved in foolish and ignorant discussions” or “do not allow people to involve you in discussions that they start because they are foolish and ignorant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

192

2TI

2

23

p069

figs-doublet

μωρὰς καὶ ἀπαιδεύτους ζητήσεις

1

foolish and ignorant questions

Paul may be using the words foolish and ignorant together to emphasize a single idea. Alternate translation: “very stupid questions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

193

2TI

2

23

kh6p

figs-metaphor

γεννῶσι μάχας

1

they give birth to battles

Paul speaks of the questions as if they were women giving birth to children (the battles). Alternate translation: “they cause arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

194

2TI

2

23

p070

figs-metaphor

μάχας

1

battles

Paul uses the term battles to describe arguments. Alternate translation: “they cause arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

195

2TI

2

24

p071

figs-metaphor

δοῦλον…Κυρίου

1

the slave of the Lord

Paul is using the expression slave of {the} Lord to refer to leaders in the church, including Timothy, who do what God tells them to do. This includes teaching the believers and interacting with the quarrelsome teachers who challenge their authority and the truth. Alternate translation: “a leader in the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

196

2TI

2

24

p072

figs-metaphor

οὐ δεῖ μάχεσθαι

1

must not battle

Paul uses the term battle to describe arguments. Alternate translation: “must not argue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

197

2TI

2

25

un9l

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πραΰτητι

1

in meekness

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun meekness in this expression with an adverb. Alternate translation: “meekly” or “gently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

198

2TI

2

25

u6rp

παιδεύοντα

1

educating

Paul presents educating as the godly response to quarrels. This term can mean “teach” or “correct.” Alternate translation: “teaching” or “correcting”

199

2TI

2

25

jt1r

figs-metaphor

μήποτε δώῃ αὐτοῖς ὁ Θεὸς μετάνοιαν

1

God may perhaps give them repentance

Paul speaks of repentance as if it were an object that God could give people. Alternate translation: “God may cause them to repent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

200

2TI

2

25

u8dy

εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας

1

for the knowledge of the truth

Paul speaks of the result of repentance as knowing the truth. Alternate translation: “so that they will know the truth”

201

2TI

2

26

p073

figs-ellipsis

ἀνανήψωσιν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ διαβόλου παγίδος

1

they may become sober again from the trap of the devil

As Paul moves from one metaphor into another, he leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “they may become sober again and escape from the trap of the devil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

202

2TI

2

26

ef3q

figs-metaphor

ἀνανήψωσιν

1

they may become sober again

Paul speaks of sinners learning to think correctly about God as if they were drunk people becoming sober again. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

203

2TI

2

26

mql8

figs-metaphor

ἐκ τῆς τοῦ διαβόλου παγίδος

1

from the trap of the devil

Paul refers to the deception of the devil as a physical trap that sinners are captured in. Alternate translation: “and escape from the devil’s deception” or “and reject the devil’s deception” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

204

2TI

2

26

p074

figs-activepassive

ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα

1

having been captured by him for his will

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “after the devil has captured them and made them do what he wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

205

2TI

2

26

dj4j

figs-metaphor

ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα

1

having been captured by him for his will

Paul speaks of the devil’s deception as if the devil had physically captured them and made them do what he wanted. Alternate translation: “after the devil has deceived them and made them do what he wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

206

2TI

3

intro

k2cr

0

2 Timothy 3 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Many scholars understand the last days to mean the entire time from when Jesus first came to when he will return, which includes Paul’s time. If so, then what Paul teaches in this chapter about being persecuted applies to all believers. But some scholars understand the last days to mean a time in the future just before Jesus returns. If that is the meaning, then Paul is prophesying in verses 1–9 and 13 about those days. If possible, translators should be careful not to let how they understand this issue affect how they translate these verses. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lastday]])

207

2TI

3

1

g65r

figs-idiom

ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις

1

in the last days

Paul is using the term days to refer to a particular time. Alternate translation: “during the period of time before the end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

208

2TI

3

1

n7gs

figs-explicit

ἐνστήσονται καιροὶ χαλεποί

1

there will be difficult times

The implication from what Paul goes on to say about people becoming ungodly and violent is that it will be difficult for believers in this time period. Alternate translation: “believers will face difficult situations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

209

2TI

3

2

p075

figs-gendernotations

οἱ ἄνθρωποι

1

men

Here Paul is using the term men in a generic sense that includes all people. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

210

2TI

3

2

jb27

φίλαυτοι

1

self-loving

Here, self-loving refers to loving oneself more than loving family or friends with a natural human love. This is not the kind of love that comes from God. Alternate translation: “self-centered”

211

2TI

3

3

u3n7

ἄστοργοι

1

unloving

The term unloving means that they will not love other people whom they should love. Alternate translation: “they will not love their own families”

212

2TI

3

3

r2uv

ἄσπονδοι

1

irreconcilable

The term irreconcilable means they will not agree to make peace with others and will insist on living in a state of conflict in order to have their own way. Alternate translation: “they will not agree with anyone” or “they will not live in peace with anyone”

213

2TI

3

3

ks9y

ἀφιλάγαθοι

1

not good-loving

The phrase not good-loving could be translated by removing the negative not and replacing loving with the opposite term “hating.” Alternate translation: “They will hate what is good”

214

2TI

3

4

dw5z

προπετεῖς

1

reckless

The adjective reckless conveys the idea of doing things without thinking about the negative things that could happen as a result. Alternate translation: “heedless of consequences”

215

2TI

3

4

d6ng

figs-metaphor

τετυφωμένοι

1

puffed up

The expression puffed up is a metaphor for being proud and considering oneself better than others. Alternate translation: “haughty” or “conceited” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

216

2TI

3

4

p076

figs-activepassive

τετυφωμένοι

1

puffed up

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “haughty” or “conceited” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

217

2TI

3

5

k5dc

figs-idiom

ἔχοντες μόρφωσιν εὐσεβείας

1

having a form of godliness

The expression a form of indicates that their godliness is not genuine or true. Alternate translation: “appearing to have godliness” or “appearing to honor God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

218

2TI

3

5

p077

grammar-connect-logic-result

καὶ

1

And

Paul uses the word And to introduce the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “So” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

219

2TI

3

5

p078

figs-nominaladj

τούτους ἀποτρέπου

1

turn away from these

The term these is a demonstrative adjective that refers to the people who show the ungodly qualities that Paul lists in the previous verses. Paul is using the term as a noun. If your language does not use adjectives in that way, you can add the word “people” in your translation. Alternate translation: “avoid these people” or “avoid such people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

220

2TI

3

5

xm1c

figs-metaphor

τούτους ἀποτρέπου

1

turn away from these

The expression turn away is a metaphor for avoiding someone. Alternate translation: “avoid these people” or “avoid such people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

221

2TI

3

6

gu4b

figs-metaphor

αἰχμαλωτίζοντες

1

captivating

Here Paul uses the term captivating to mean greatly influencing someone by the use of deception. Alternate translation: “manipulating” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

222

2TI

3

6

u9m5

γυναικάρια

1

foolish women

The term foolish women refers to women who are spiritually weak and immature. They allow these men into their homes and listen to them because they are weak, idle, and have many sins. Alternate translation: “women who are spiritually weak”

223

2TI

3

6

e9ex

figs-metaphor

σεσωρευμένα ἁμαρτίαις

1

who are loaded with sins

Paul speaks of these sins as if they were heaped up on the backs of these women. Paul is explaining why these men can easily influence these women. This could mean: (1) these women sin often or even continually. Alternate translation: “who sin often” (2) these women feel terrible guilt because they sin. Alternate translation: “who feel terrible guilt for their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

224

2TI

3

6

p079

figs-activepassive

σεσωρευμένα ἁμαρτίαις

1

who are loaded with sins

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “who sin often” or “who feel terrible guilt for their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

225

2TI

3

6

p080

figs-activepassive

ἀγόμενα ἐπιθυμίαις ποικίλαις

1

led away by various desires

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “various desires lead them away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

226

2TI

3

6

izz9

figs-personification

ἀγόμενα ἐπιθυμίαις ποικίλαις

1

led away by various desires

Paul speaks about these various desires as if they could physically lead a person away. He means that the women decide to do evil things in order to satisfy their desires. Alternate translation: “they decide to sin in various ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

227

2TI

3

7

p082

figs-metaphor

μηδέποτε εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας ἐλθεῖν δυνάμενα

1

never able to come to the knowledge of the truth

Paul speaks of the knowledge of the truth as if it were a destination at which people could arrive. Alternate translation: “never able to understand the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

228

2TI

3

8

p083

ὃν τρόπον δὲ

1

And what way

Alternate translation: “Just as”

229

2TI

3

8

b8el

translate-names

Ἰάννης καὶ Ἰαμβρῆς

1

Jannes and Jambres

Jannes and Jambres are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

230

2TI

3

8

p084

figs-explicit

Ἰάννης καὶ Ἰαμβρῆς

1

Jannes and Jambres

Paul assumes that Timothy will know that he is referring here to the magicians in Pharaoh’s court who tried to duplicate the miracles that Moses was doing. The Bible does not record their names, but according to Jewish tradition their names were Jannes and Jambres. These men wanted to show that Pharaoh did not have to listen to Moses or obey Yahweh. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could identify them more explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jannes and Jambres, Pharaoh’s magicians,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

231

2TI

3

8

p085

figs-nominaladj

οὗτοι

1

these

As in 3:5, the term these is a demonstrative adjective that refers to the people who show the ungodly qualities that Paul has described. Paul is using the term as a noun. If your language does not use adjectives in that way, you can add the word “people” in your translation. Alternate translation: “these people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

232

2TI

3

8

p086

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ἀληθείᾳ

1

the truth

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun truth with an adjective. Alternate translation: “what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

233

2TI

3

8

g4kk

figs-metonymy

ἄνθρωποι κατεφθαρμένοι τὸν νοῦν

1

men whose mind is corrupted

Paul uses the word mind to refer to the way these evil men think. Alternate translation: “men who cannot think rightly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

234

2TI

3

8

p087

figs-activepassive

ἄνθρωποι κατεφθαρμένοι τὸν νοῦν

1

men whose mind is corrupted

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “men who cannot think rightly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

235

2TI

3

8

pfh1

ἀδόκιμοι περὶ τὴν πίστιν

1

unapproved regarding the faith

Paul uses the adjective unapproved to convey the idea that these men have been tested regarding how well they trust in Christ and obey him, and they have failed the test because their faith is not real. Alternate translation: “without sincere faith” or “whose faith is not genuine”

236

2TI

3

8

sppy

figs-explicit

ἀδόκιμοι περὶ τὴν πίστιν

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could start a new sentence here and say who does not approve of these men. Alternate translation: “God does approve of these men because they do not have a genuine faith in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

237

2TI

3

9

x9kx

figs-explicit

ἀλλ’

1

But

The word But indicates a contrast between this verse and the previous idea from 3:06 that these men were able to sneak into homes and persuade people to believe wrong things. If you need to make this contrast clear, you could remind your readers of the previous idea here. Alternate translation: “But even though they have persuaded some people to believe wrong things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

238

2TI

3

9

c6xx

figs-metaphor

οὐ προκόψουσιν ἐπὶ πλεῖον

1

they will not advance unto more

Paul uses an expression about physical movement to mean that the false teachers will not continue to have much success among the believers. Alternate translation: “they will not be able to continue teaching falsely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

239

2TI

3

9

mv4j

figs-hyperbole

ἡ…ἄνοια αὐτῶν ἔκδηλος ἔσται πᾶσιν

1

their foolishness will be obvious to all

The word all is a generalization. Paul has just said that these men will have a little success in deceiving some people. But ultimately their foolishness will become widely apparent, as happened to Jannes and Jambres, who were publicly discredited when they were not able to equal the powerful miracles of Moses. Alternate translation: “their foolishness will become widely apparent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

240

2TI

3

9

z4fu

figs-nominaladj

ἐκείνων

1

of those

The term those is a demonstrative adjective that refers to Jannes and Jambres. Paul is using the term as a noun. If your language does not use adjectives in that way, you can supply the names of the two men. Alternate translation: “of Jannes and Jambres” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

241

2TI

3

10

vw42

figs-metaphor

σὺ…παρηκολούθησάς

1

you have followed

Paul speaks of giving close attention to the things he lists in this verse as if one were physically following them as they moved. The idea is that Timothy is giving close attention to these things and imitating them. Alternate translation: “you have observed” or “you have paid close attention to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

242

2TI

3

10

wma6

figs-abstractnouns

μου τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ

1

my teaching

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun teaching with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “what I have taught others to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

243

2TI

3

10

lq3v

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ἀγωγῇ

1

conduct

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun conduct with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “how I live my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

244

2TI

3

10

p088

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ προθέσει

1

purpose

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun purpose with a verbal clause. Alternate translation: “what I try to do with my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

245

2TI

3

10

p089

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ πίστει

1

faith

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun faith with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “what I believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

246

2TI

3

10

p091

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ μακροθυμίᾳ

1

patience

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun patience with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “how I am patient with others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

247

2TI

3

10

p090

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ἀγάπῃ

1

love

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun love with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “how I love others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

248

2TI

3

10

l4pp

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ὑπομονῇ

1

longsuffering

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun endurance with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “how I endure when I suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

249

2TI

3

11

p092

translate-names

ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ, ἐν Ἰκονίῳ, ἐν Λύστροις

1

in Antioch, in Iconium, in Lystra

Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra are the names of three cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

250

2TI

3

11

p093

οἵους διωγμοὺς ὑπήνεγκα

1

what kind of persecutions I endured

Paul is reminding Timothy that he knows of the various ways in which Paul suffered and how he endured until God rescued him. Alternate translation: “how I endured various persecutions”

251

2TI

3

11

r9vk

figs-metaphor

ἐκ πάντων, με ἐρρύσατο ὁ Κύριος

1

the Lord rescued me from them all

Paul speaks as if God had physically removed him from a situation of danger. Alternate translation: “the Lord preserved me through them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

252

2TI

3

12

ke7f

ζῆν εὐσεβῶς

1

to live piously

The term piously means in an obedient way that honors God. Alternate translation: “to live in a godly way”

253

2TI

3

12

xm9l

figs-activepassive

διωχθήσονται

1

will be persecuted

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “people will persecute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

254

2TI

3

13

p094

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωποι

1

men

Here Paul is using the term men in a generic sense that can include both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

255

2TI

3

13

xo4q

figs-hendiadys

πονηροὶ…ἄνθρωποι καὶ γόητες

1

evil men and impostors

This is probably a hendiadys, and the evil men and impostors are not two groups of people, but one group of people. Alternate translation: “evil people who only pretend to follow Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

256

2TI

3

13

s7f2

γόητες

1

impostors

The term impostors refers here to a person who wants other people to think he is a true Christian when he is not. Alternate translation: “people who are pretending to be believers”

257

2TI

3

13

imc8

figs-metaphor

προκόψουσιν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον

1

will advance unto the worse

Paul speaks of evil people and their character as something that moves forward physically, making gradual progress in a direction. Alternate translation: “will become worse and worse” or “will become even more evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

258

2TI

3

13

p095

figs-idiom

ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον

1

unto the worse

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “worse and worse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

259

2TI

3

13

eyx5

figs-metaphor

πλανῶντες καὶ πλανώμενοι

1

leading astray and being led astray

The expression leading astray uses the image of physically taking a person to a place that he didn’t think he was going to. This is a figurative reference to persuading someone to believe something that is not true. Alternate translation: “teaching lies and believing lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

260

2TI

3

13

p096

figs-activepassive

πλανῶντες καὶ πλανώμενοι

1

leading astray and being led astray

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “teaching lies and believing lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

261

2TI

3

14

ytg9

figs-metaphor

μένε ἐν οἷς ἔμαθες

1

remain in the things you have learned

Paul speaks of biblical instruction as if it were a place in which Timothy could stay. Alternate translation: “continue doing what you have learned” or “continue believing what you have learned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

262

2TI

3

14

p097

figs-activepassive

ἐπιστώθης

1

become convinced of

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “are confident about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

263

2TI

3

15

w9l5

figs-personification

τὰ δυνάμενά σε σοφίσαι

1

which are able to make you wise

Paul speaks of the Scriptures as if they were a teacher who could instruct people and help them become wise. It may be convenient in your translation to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “By studying them you can become wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

264

2TI

3

15

p098

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς σωτηρίαν διὰ πίστεως τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

for salvation through the faith that is in Christ Jesus

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun salvation with a verb such as “save.” Alternate translation: “so that you will know enough to trust Christ Jesus to save you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

265

2TI

3

16

s274

figs-metaphor

πᾶσα Γραφὴ θεόπνευστος καὶ

1

All Scripture is God-breathed

The term God-breathed uses the image of breathing to indicate that the Scriptures come directly from God through his Spirit. Characteristically in the Bible, the breath of God represents the Spirit of God. Alternate translation: “God produced all Scripture as his Spirit directed people what to write, and it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

266

2TI

3

16

hvr1

πᾶσα Γραφὴ θεόπνευστος

1

All Scripture is God-breathed

By All Scripture, Paul is referring to every part of Scripture, which, at that time, was what we know as the Old Testament. If it is confusing to refer to all of the books of the Old Testament with the singular word Scripture, you could change it to a plural word as in the UST and make the verbs plural. Alternate translation: “All of the Holy Writings are God-breathed”

267

2TI

3

16

uv35

ὠφέλιμος

1

is profitable

Paul refers to the Scripture as profitable to convey the idea that Timothy and all believers will benefit when they use the Scripture to teach, reprove, correct, and train. Alternate translation: “you will benefit from it as you use it” or “it benefits everyone when we use it”

268

2TI

3

16

vl2n

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸς ἐλεγμόν

1

for reproof

Paul instructs Timothy to use the Scriptures as the standard for knowing what is right and wrong and showing people that they are wrong. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun reproof with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “for showing people that they are wrong” or “for helping us to know when we are wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

269

2TI

3

16

e5h9

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸς ἐπανόρθωσιν

1

for correction

Paul instructs Timothy to use the Scriptures as the standard for showing people how to make something right. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun correction with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “for showing people how to make things right” or “for showing us how to fix errors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

270

2TI

3

16

y1hf

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸς παιδείαν τὴν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ

1

and for the training that is in righteousness

Paul instructs Timothy to use the Scriptures as the standard for training people how to live lives that are right with God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun righteousness with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “and for training people how to do what is right” or “and for training us to do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

271

2TI

3

17

nb12

figs-gendernotations

ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἄνθρωπος

1

the man of God

Paul is using the word man here in a generic sense that includes all believers in God, whether male or female. Of course, Paul also intends for Timothy to apply this to himself. Alternate translation: “the person who serves God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

272

2TI

3

17

uu7i

ἄρτιος

1

proficient

Alternate translation: “fully capable”

273

2TI

3

17

p099

figs-activepassive

ἐξηρτισμένος

1

equipped

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “and have everything he needs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

274

2TI

4

intro

k2xa

0

2 Timothy 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

  1. Paul gives a solemn charge to Timothy (4:1–8)
  2. Paul tells Timothy how he is doing (4:9–18)
  3. Paul sends personal greetings (4:19–22)

Special concepts in this chapter

“I adjure you”

With these words Paul challenges Timothy in the most serious way possible to do what he is telling him to do. It is a way of commanding Timothy, not by Paul’s own authority, but by the authority that he then refers to, that of God and Jesus Christ. In other words, Paul is saying that God and Jesus Christ are commanding Timothy through Paul.

Crown

Scripture uses the image of a crown to represent different things. In this chapter, Paul describes Christ as awarding a crown to believers as a metaphor for the reward that Christ will give them for having lived rightly on this earth.

275

2TI

4

1

eh3x

διαμαρτύρομαι

1

I adjure you

The word translated adjure is used to place someone under a serious and binding obligation. Think about the words that you use to do this in your language. This could refer to: (1) placing someone under an oath to do something. Alternate translation: “I place you under an oath” or “I hereby obligate you” (2) solemnly commanding someone with great authority. Alternate translation: “I solemnly urge you”

276

2TI

4

1

cb15

figs-explicit

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

before God and Christ Jesus

Here the word before means “in front of,” that is, “in the presence of.” The implication is that God and Christ Jesus will witness and approve this command or oath. Alternate translation: “in the presence of God and Christ Jesus” or “with God and Christ Jesus as the witnesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

277

2TI

4

1

u32g

figs-merism

ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς

1

the living and the dead

Paul refers to {the} living and {the} dead together to mean all people, whether they are alive at the time of judgment or have died. Alternate translation: “those who are still alive and those who have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

278

2TI

4

1

p100

figs-nominaladj

ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς

1

the living and the dead

The terms living and dead are adjectives that Paul is using as nouns to refer to groups of people. If your language does not use adjectives in that way, you can translate these terms with equivalent phrases. Alternate translation: “those who are still alive and those who have died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

279

2TI

4

1

lwt2

figs-metonymy

καὶ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ

1

and by his appearing and his kingdom

Paul refers to Christ’s return by association to the fact that he will appear once again to people on earth when he returns, and he refers to Christ’s rule as king by association to the kingdom that he will rule. It may be helpful to begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “and on Christ’s return and on his rule as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

280

2TI

4

1

anqh

καὶ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ

1

and by his appearing and his kingdom

This can be understood in two different ways, depending on if Paul is placing Timothy under an oath or giving Timothy a command. (1) If Paul is placing Timothy under an oath, then he is saying that these are the things that Timothy would be denying if he fails to fulfill the oath. Alternate translation: “with an oath as strong as your desire for Christ’s return and for his rule as king” (2) If Paul is introducing a command in this verse, then Paul is appealing to these things to strengthen his command. Alternate translation: “and as surely as Christ will return and rule as king”

281

2TI

4

2

j2z7

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον

1

the word

Paul is using the term word to refer to the whole message about Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “the Gospel message” or “the Good News” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

282

2TI

4

2

zzh4

figs-merism

εὐκαίρως, ἀκαίρως

1

opportunely, inopportunely

Paul uses the opposite words opportunely andinopportunely to say that Timothy should be ready to preach about Jesus when it seems like a good time to do so and also when it does not seem like a good time. He is using the two types of occasions together to indicate all occasions. Alternate translation: “when it is convenient and when it is not convenient” or “at all times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

283

2TI

4

2

g7ax

figs-explicit

ἔλεγξον

1

reprove

The command to reprove implies that the action is directed toward people who have done something wrong and are in need of correction. Alternate translation: “correct those who have sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

284

2TI

4

2

p101

ἐπιτίμησον

1

rebuke

The word rebuke involves telling someone that they have done something wrong and warning them not to do it again. Alternate translation: “tell them not to sin”

285

2TI

4

2

p102

figs-hendiadys

ἐν πάσῃ μακροθυμίᾳ καὶ διδαχῇ

1

with all patience and teaching

Here, patience and teaching is a hendiadys, with patience modifying teaching. Alternate translation: “do these things by teaching very patiently” or “always do these things by teaching patiently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

286

2TI

4

2

g5r0

figs-explicit

ἐν πάσῃ μακροθυμίᾳ καὶ διδαχῇ

1

with all patience and teaching

The implication is that this is how Timothy should preach, reprove, rebuke, and exhort. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “do these things by teaching very patiently” or “always do these things by teaching patiently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

287

2TI

4

2

p103

figs-hyperbole

ἐν πάσῃ μακροθυμίᾳ καὶ διδαχῇ

1

with all patience and teaching

Here, all could mean: (1) Timothy should always be patient when he teaches. Alternate translation: “always teaching patiently” (2) a generalization for emphasis, meaning that Timothy should be very patient. Alternate translation: “by teaching very patiently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

288

2TI

4

3

jv7a

ἔσται…καιρὸς ὅτε

1

there will be a time when

Alternate translation: “the time will come when”

289

2TI

4

3

u2cc

οὐκ ἀνέξονται

1

they will not endure

Alternate translation: “they will no longer listen patiently to”

290

2TI

4

3

ilx7

figs-explicit

οὐκ ἀνέξονται

1

they will not endure

The context indicates that they means people who are a part of the community of believers. Alternate translation: “some believers will no longer listen patiently to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

291

2TI

4

3

fyl3

figs-metonymy

τῆς ὑγιαινούσης διδασκαλίας

1

healthy teaching

The expression healthy teaching means “correct teaching” by association, since a healthy mind would recognize that correct teaching was reasonable. Alternate translation: “correct teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

292

2TI

4

3

e5t2

figs-metaphor

κατὰ τὰς ἰδίας ἐπιθυμίας, ἑαυτοῖς ἐπισωρεύσουσιν διδασκάλους

1

they will heap up for themselves teachers according to their own desires

Paul speaks of how people will obtain many teachers as if they were putting them into a heap or pile. They will want many teachers, but not value these teachers for how they live godly lives or how accurately they teach. Alternate translation: “they will gather many teachers for themselves who will teach what they want” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

293

2TI

4

3

s375

figs-idiom

κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν

1

their ear itching

Paul speaks of people badly wanting to hear something as if their ears itched and could only be relieved if they found many teachers who would tell them what they wanted to hear. Alternate translation: “because they want to hear it so badly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

294

2TI

4

3

p104

figs-metonymy

κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν

1

their ear itching

Paul uses the ear to mean hearing. Alternate translation: “because they want to hear it so badly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

295

2TI

4

4

rh2i

figs-metaphor

ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ἀληθείας τὴν ἀκοὴν ἀποστρέψουσιν

1

will both turn their ear away from the truth

Paul speaks about people no longer paying attention as if they were physically turning their ears away so that they could not hear. Alternate translation: “will no longer pay attention to the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

296

2TI

4

4

p105

figs-metonymy

ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ἀληθείας τὴν ἀκοὴν ἀποστρέψουσιν

1

will both turn their ear away from the truth

Paul uses the ear to mean listening. Listening, in turn, means paying attention. Alternate translation: “will no longer pay attention to the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

297

2TI

4

4

xrv7

figs-metaphor

ἐπὶ…τοὺς μύθους ἐκτραπήσονται

1

be turned aside to myths

Paul speaks about people starting to pay attention to myths as if someone were getting them to wander off in the wrong direction. Alternate translation: “these teachers will get them to pay attention to stories that are not true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

298

2TI

4

4

p106

figs-activepassive

ἐπὶ…τοὺς μύθους ἐκτραπήσονται

1

be turned aside to myths

If your language does not use this passive form, you can express this with an active form, and you can state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “these teachers will get them to pay attention to stories that are not true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

299

2TI

4

5

ehz7

figs-metaphor

νῆφε

1

be sober

Paul wants his readers to think correctly about everything, and so he speaks as if he wanted them to be sober rather than drunk. Alternate translation: “think clearly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

300

2TI

4

5

tv3k

εὐαγγελιστοῦ

1

of an evangelist

Alternate translation: “of a person who proclaims the good news about Jesus”

301

2TI

4

6

p107

ἐγὼ…ἤδη σπένδομαι

1

I am already being poured out

While Paul speaks of his death as already happening, he means that it is an event that will happen soon. Alternate translation: “I will soon be poured out”

302

2TI

4

6

sh23

figs-metaphor

ἐγὼ…ἤδη σπένδομαι

1

I am already being poured out

Paul speaks of himself as if he were wine in a cup that was being poured out as a sacrifice to God. Alternate translation: “the sacrifice of my life to God will soon be complete” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

303

2TI

4

6

p108

figs-activepassive

ἐγὼ…ἤδη σπένδομαι

1

I am already being poured out

If your language does not use this passive form, you can express this with an active form. Alternate translation: “My life will soon end as a sacrifice to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

304

2TI

4

6

fb7l

figs-euphemism

ὁ καιρὸς τῆς ἀναλύσεώς μου ἐφέστηκεν

1

the time of my departure is here

Paul refers to his death as a departure. This is a polite way of referring to something unpleasant. Alternate translation: “soon I will die and leave this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

305

2TI

4

7

d9ts

figs-metaphor

τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα ἠγώνισμαι

1

I have fought the good fight

Paul speaks of himself as if he has been competing in an athletic contest. Here, good could mean: (1) the kind of effort Paul has made. Alternate translation: “I have done my best” (2) Paul has pursued a worthwhile endeavor. Alternate translation: “I have worked hard for what really matters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

306

2TI

4

7

kq83

figs-metaphor

τὸν δρόμον τετέλεκα

1

I have finished the race

Paul speaks of his life of service to God as if he had been running a race on foot. Alternate translation: “I have completed what I needed to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

307

2TI

4

7

vk2p

figs-metaphor

τὴν πίστιν τετήρηκα

1

I have kept the faith

Paul speaks of the faith, by which he means his trust in Christ and his obedience to God, as if they were valuable objects that he has kept safe in his possession. This could mean: (1) Paul was faithful to do what God told him to do. Alternate translation: “I have remained faithful in doing my ministry” (2) Paul was faithful to teach the truth. Alternate translation: “I have preserved the teachings from any error” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

308

2TI

4

8

ujg5

figs-activepassive

ἀπόκειταί μοι ὁ τῆς δικαιοσύνης στέφανος

1

the crown of righteousness has been reserved for me

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “God has reserved the crown of righteousness for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

309

2TI

4

8

hg8i

figs-metaphor

τῆς δικαιοσύνης στέφανος

1

the crown of righteousness

Here, the crown could: (1) represent the reward that God gives to people who have lived the right way. Alternate translation: “the reward for the righteous” (2) represent righteousness itself. Just as the judge of a race gives a crown to the winner, when Paul finishes his life, God will declare that Paul is righteous. Alternate translation: “the reward that is righteousness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

310

2TI

4

8

dwn6

translate-unknown

στέφανος

1

crown

See how you translated crown in 2:5. The crown that Paul is using as an illustration of the future award from God was a wreath made of laurel tree leaves that was given to winners of athletic contests. You can use a word in your language that would refer to a prize for winning a contest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

311

2TI

4

8

n3k8

figs-explicit

ἐν, ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ

1

on that day

As in 1:12, this refers to the day when Jesus returns to judge people. Alternate translation: “on the day of judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

312

2TI

4

8

uh88

πᾶσιν τοῖς ἠγαπηκόσι τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ

1

those who have loved his appearing

Alternate translation: “to all those who are looking forward to his return”

313

2TI

4

8

p109

figs-metonymy

τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ

1

his appearing

See how you translated his appearing in 4:1. Paul is referring to Christ’s return by association with the fact that he will appear once again to people on earth when he returns. Alternate translation: “his return” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

314

2TI

4

9

t8b7

σπούδασον ἐλθεῖν…ταχέως

1

come … quickly

Alternate translation: “Come … as soon as possible”

315

2TI

4

10

e4xx

translate-names

Δημᾶς…Κρήσκης…Τίτος

1

Demas … Crescens … Titus

Demas, Crescens, and Titus are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

316

2TI

4

10

ji2l

figs-metonymy

τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα

1

the present age

The expression the present age refers to worldly things as opposed to the things of God. Paul refers to these worldly things by association with the present time when people generally desire them, as opposed to the future time when the things of God will be established throughout the earth. Alternate translation: “the temporary comforts of this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

317

2TI

4

10

u2qb

figs-ellipsis

Κρήσκης εἰς Γαλατίαν, Τίτος εἰς Δαλματίαν

1

Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. He means that like Demas, Crescens and Titus have left him. However, he is probably not saying that they did this because they also “loved this present age” like Demas. It is more likely that they are traveling to help the churches. Alternate translation: “Crescens has left me and gone to Galatia, and Titus has left me and gone to Dalmatia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

318

2TI

4

10

gs61

translate-names

Γαλατίαν…Δαλματίαν

1

Galatia … Dalmatia

This are the names of parts of the Roman empire. Galatia is an official Roman province and Dalmatia is an area in the southern part of the province of Illyricum. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

319

2TI

4

11

p110

translate-names

Λουκᾶς…Μᾶρκον

1

Luke … Mark

Luke and Mark are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

320

2TI

4

11

w21u

μοι εὔχρηστος εἰς διακονίαν

1

he is useful to me for service

This could mean: (1) Mark is useful in helping Paul to take care of his personal needs. Alternate translation: “he can help take care of my needs” (2) Mark is useful in helping Paul minister to others, especially by preaching and teaching. Alternate translation: “he is helpful to me in my ministry”

321

2TI

4

12

p111

translate-names

Τυχικὸν

1

Tychicus

Tychicus is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

322

2TI

4

12

y60r

ἀπέστειλα

1

I sent

Timothy is at Ephesus when he receives this letter. It may be that Tychicus is the one who carried this letter to Timothy at Ephesus. If so, then Paul is writing from Timothy’s perspective, who would view Paul’s sending of Tychicus as a past event. If this is confusing in your language and you want to include this possibility, you may need to change the tense of the verb to future. Alternate translation: “soon I will be sending”

323

2TI

4

12

p112

translate-names

Ἔφεσον

1

Ephesus

Ephesus is the name of a city. This is the city where Timothy is as he receives this letter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

324

2TI

4

13

d5rw

translate-unknown

φελόνην

1

cloak

The term cloak refers to a heavy garment worn over clothes. Alternate translation: “coat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

325

2TI

4

13

x1jb

translate-names

Τρῳάδι

1

Troas is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

326

2TI

4

13

v9b6

translate-names

Κάρπῳ

1

Carpus

Carpus is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

327

2TI

4

13

k6tj

translate-unknown

τὰ βιβλία

1

the books

The term books refers to scrolls. A scroll was a type of book made of a long sheet of papyrus or leather. After writing on a scroll or reading it, people would roll it up using rods on the ends. Alternate translation: “the scrolls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

328

2TI

4

13

e395

translate-unknown

μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας

1

especially the parchments

The term parchments may refer to a specific type of scroll. Alternate translation: “especially those made from animal skins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

329

2TI

4

14

un4v

translate-unknown

Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ χαλκεὺς

1

Alexander the coppersmith

The term coppersmith refers to a person who worked with things made of copper and other metals. Alternate translation: “Alexander, who works with metal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

330

2TI

4

14

kv94

translate-names

Ἀλέξανδρος

1

Alexander

Alexander is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

331

2TI

4

14

wbx4

figs-metaphor

ἀποδώσει αὐτῷ ὁ Κύριος κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ

1

The Lord will repay him according to his deeds

Paul speaks of punishment as if it were repayment. Alternate translation: “the Lord will give him the right punishment for what he has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

332

2TI

4

15

i4aj

figs-metonymy

ἀντέστη τοῖς ἡμετέροις λόγοις

1

he … opposed our words

The term words refers to the message that Paul and Timothy and their co-workers teach. Alternate translation: “he … opposed the message that we teach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

333

2TI

4

16

v847

ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ μου ἀπολογίᾳ

1

At my first defense

Paul is referring to the opening session of his trial. By writing first, he is likely indicating that he will have to appear in court again. Alternate translation: “At the opening session of my trial” or “When I first appeared in court and explained my actions”

334

2TI

4

16

f2c3

οὐδείς μοι παρεγένετο

1

no one appeared with me

Paul explains to Timothy that he had to go to court alone, without any supporters. Alternate translation: “no one testified on my behalf”

335

2TI

4

16

rm2t

figs-activepassive

μὴ αὐτοῖς λογισθείη

1

May it not be counted against them

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “May God not hold it against them” or “I pray that God does not punish those believers for deserting me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

336

2TI

4

17

t1fw

figs-metaphor

ὁ…Κύριός μοι παρέστη

1

the Lord stood with me

Paul is speaking as if the Lord had physically stood with him. Alternate translation: “the Lord helped me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

337

2TI

4

17

y69m

figs-activepassive

ἵνα δι’ ἐμοῦ τὸ κήρυγμα πληροφορηθῇ

1

so that through me, the proclamation might be fully carried out

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. This could mean: (1) at his trial, Paul was able to explain the entire message God had given him to proclaim. Alternate translation: “so that I was able to proclaim all of the Lord’s message” (2) Paul was able to continue proclaiming God’s message right through to this time when he expected to lose his life. Alternate translation: “so that I was able to continue proclaiming the Lord’s message right to the end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

338

2TI

4

17

p113

figs-hyperbole

καὶ ἀκούσωσιν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη

1

and all the Gentiles might hear

Here, all could be: (1) a figurative generalization. Alternate translation: “so that as many Gentiles as possible could hear it” (2) a reference to all the Gentiles in the court. Alternate translation: “so that all the Gentiles who were there might hear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

339

2TI

4

17

gsr8

figs-metaphor

ἐρύσθην ἐκ στόματος λέοντος

1

I was rescued out of the mouth of the lion

Paul speaks as if he had been in danger of being killed by a lion at his court appearance. He could mean the physical danger of being sentenced to execution, or the spiritual danger of being tempted not to speak boldly for Jesus, or both. It would probably be best to leave both possibilities open in your translation. Alternate translation: “I was rescued from great danger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

340

2TI

4

17

p114

figs-activepassive

ἐρύσθην ἐκ στόματος λέοντος

1

I was rescued out of the mouth of the lion

If your language does not use passive verbal forms, you can use an active form to express this same idea. Alternate translation: “God rescued me from great danger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

341

2TI

4

18

p115

figs-idiom

εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων

1

to the ages of the ages

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “forever and ever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

342

2TI

4

19

p116

translate-names

Πρίσκαν

1

Priscilla

Priscilla is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

343

2TI

4

19

p117

translate-names

Ἀκύλαν

1

Aquila

Aquila is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

344

2TI

4

19

n4zc

figs-metonymy

τὸν Ὀνησιφόρου οἶκον

1

the household of Onesiphorus

See how you translated this phrase in 1:16. The word household refers to Onesiphorus and all the people in his family, possibly even his servants. Alternate translation: “Onesiphorus and everyone who lives with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

345

2TI

4

19

mef8

translate-names

Ὀνησιφόρου

1

of Onesiphorus

Onesiphorus is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in 1:16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

346

2TI

4

20

p118

translate-names

Κορίνθῳ

1

Corinth

Corinth is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

347

2TI

4

20

lie9

translate-names

Ἔραστος…Τρόφιμον

1

Erastus … Trophimus

Erastus and Trophimus are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

348

2TI

4

20

wp9h

translate-names

Μιλήτῳ

1

Miletus

Miletus is the name of a city to the south of Ephesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

349

2TI

4

21

cvc7

σπούδασον…ἐλθεῖν

1

Hasten to come

Alternate translation: “Do your best to come” or “Try as hard as you can to come”

350

2TI

4

21

eh95

figs-explicit

πρὸ χειμῶνος

1

before winter

The implication is that Timothy should try to come to Paul before the cold weather arrives and makes travel difficult or even impossible. If winter is the warm season in your area and summer is the cold season, or if your area does not have a cold season but a rainy season, you could use a more general expression. Alternate translation: “before the cold weather makes travel difficult” or “before the weather changes and makes travel difficult” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

351

2TI

4

21

z1j9

figs-ellipsis

ἀσπάζεταί σε Εὔβουλος, καὶ Πούδης, καὶ Λίνος, καὶ Κλαυδία, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ

1

Eubulus greets you, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and the brothers

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages in order to be complete. To make sure that the meaning is clear, you could supply these words. The people listed after Eubulus are also greeting Timothy. Eubulus is not greeting them. Alternate translation: “Eubulus greets you, and so do Pudens, Linus, Claudia, and all the believers here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

352

2TI

4

21

p7px

translate-names

Εὔβουλος…Πούδης…Λίνος

1

Eubulus … Pudens … Linus

Eubulus, Pudens, and Linus are the names of three men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

353

2TI

4

21

er77

translate-names

Κλαυδία

1

Claudia

Claudia is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

354

2TI

4

21

mk26

figs-gendernotations

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ

1

the brothers

The word brothers means all believers, whether male or female. Alternate translation: “all the believers here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

355

2TI

4

22

tx26

figs-you

ὁ Κύριος μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου

1

The Lord be with your spirit

Paul ends his letter with a blessing for Timothy. Here, you is singular and refers to Timothy. Alternate translation: “I pray that the Lord makes your spirit strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

356

2TI

4

22

p119

figs-synecdoche

ὁ Κύριος μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου

1

The Lord be with your spirit

Paul describes Timothy as a whole person by reference to his spirit, perhaps because he is wishing particularly for Timothy to receive spiritual strengthening. Alternate translation: “I pray that the Lord makes you strong” or “I pray that the Lord will strengthen you spiritually” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

357

2TI

4

22

k85y

figs-you

ἡ χάρις μεθ’ ὑμῶν

1

Grace be with you

Paul ends his letter with a second blessing. The you here is plural and refers to all of the believers who are with Timothy. Alternate translation: “May grace be with all of you there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

358

2TI

4

22

p120

ἡ χάρις μεθ’ ὑμῶν

1

Grace be with you

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state explicitly who Paul wishes will make this happen. Alternate translation: “May God give grace to all of you”