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Introduction to 1 Timothy

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Book of 1 Timothy

In this letter, Paul alternates between personal commands to Timothy that empower him to act as his representative and with his authority, and instructions for how followers of Jesus should live in community.

  1. Greetings (1:1–2)
  2. Paul commands Timothy to tell people not to teach false doctrines (1:3–20)
  3. Paul gives instructions about how to re-establish order and decency in the church (2:1–15)
  4. Paul gives instructions about how to ensure that elders and deacons are properly qualified (3:1–13)
  5. Paul commands Timothy regarding his own personal conduct (3:14–5:2)
  6. Paul gives instructions to ensure church support for worthy widows (5:3–16) and elders (5:17–20)
  7. Paul commands Timothy that he must be impartial (5:21–25)
  8. Paul gives instructions to ensure order in master-servant relationships (6:1–2a)
  9. Paul commands Timothy regarding how he should teach and conduct himself (6:2b–16)
  10. Paul gives instructions for how people who are rich should live (6:17–19)
  11. Paul commands Timothy to guard what has been entrusted to his care (6:20–21a)
  12. Closing blessing to the whole church (6:21b)

Who wrote the Book of 1 Timothy?

A man named Paul wrote 1 Timothy. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.

Paul may have written other letters to Timothy, but this is the earliest one that we still have. That is why it is known as 1 Timothy or First Timothy. Timothy was Paul’s disciple and close friend. Paul probably wrote this letter near the end of his life.

What is the Book of 1 Timothy about?

Paul had left Timothy in the city of Ephesus to help the believers there. Paul wrote this letter to instruct Timothy about various matters. The topics he addressed included church worship, qualifications for church leaders, and warnings against false teachers. This letter shows how Paul was training Timothy to be a leader among the churches while Timothy himself trained other leaders.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its customary title, “1 Timothy” or “First Timothy.” Or they may choose a different title, such as “Paul’s First Letter to Timothy.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What is discipleship?

Discipleship is the process of making people to be disciples of Christ. The goal of discipleship is to encourage other Christians to be more like Christ. This letter gives many instructions about how a leader should train a less mature Christian. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/disciple]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What did Paul mean by the expression “in Christ”?

Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. Please see the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.

What are the major textual issues in the text of the book of 1 Timothy?

In 6:5, the oldest Greek manuscripts differ from later Greek manuscripts. Modern translations may also differ depending on the Greek manuscript that they translate from. The ULT text translates the Greek from the oldest manuscripts and puts the differences from later manuscripts in a footnote. If a translation of the Bible exists in the general region, translators should consider following the decision in that translation. If not, translators are advised to follow the oldest Greek manuscripts as reflected in the ULT text. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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1 Timothy 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Paul formally introduces this letter in verses 1–2. Writers often began letters in this way in the ancient Near East.

Special concepts in this chapter

Spiritual children

In this chapter, Paul calls Timothy a “son” and his “child.” Paul discipled Timothy as a Christian and a church leader. Paul may also have led him to believe in Christ. Therefore, Paul called Timothy his “son in the faith.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/disciple]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Metaphor

In this chapter Paul speaks of people who are not fulfilling the purpose of their faith as if they had “missed the mark” that they were aiming at, as if they had “turned away” down a wrong path, and as if they had been “shipwrecked.” He speaks of following Jesus faithfully as “fighting the good fight.”

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Παῦλος

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Paul

In the culture of this time, letter writers would give their own names first. Your language may have a particular way of introducing the author of a letter, and if it would be helpful to your readers, you could use it here. Immediately after introducing the writer, you might also want to indicate to whom the letter was written. Alternate translation: “I, Paul, am the one writing this letter to you, Timothy”

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κατ’ ἐπιταγὴν Θεοῦ

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by the command of God

Alternate translation: “by the authority of God”

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Θεοῦ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν

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God our Savior

Alternate translation: “of God, who saves us”

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figs-metonymy

Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς ἐλπίδος ἡμῶν

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the Lord Jesus Christ our hope

Here, our hope refers to the person in whom we have hope. Alternate translations: “of Christ Jesus, the one in whom we have confidence” or “of Christ Jesus, whom we trust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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γνησίῳ τέκνῳ

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a true son

Paul speaks of his close relationship to Timothy as though they were father and son. This shows Paul’s sincere love and approval of Timothy. It is also likely that Paul personally led Timothy to trust in Christ. That would be another reason why Paul considered him to be like his own child, since Timothy entered his new life as a follower of Jesus because of Paul. Alternate translation: “who is truly like a son to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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χάρις, ἔλεος, εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

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Grace, mercy, peace

In this culture, letter writers would offer a good wish for the recipient before introducing the main business of the letter. Alternate translation: “I hope you are experiencing God’s kindness, mercy, and peace”

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guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

Θεοῦ Πατρὸς

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God the Father

Here, Father is an important title for God. Alternate translation: “God, who is our Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

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Christ Jesus our Lord

Alternate translation: “Christ Jesus, who is our Lord”

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καθὼς παρεκάλεσά σε

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As I urged you

Alternate translation: “As I told you”

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figs-yousingular

σε

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you

In this letter, with one exception, the words you, “your,” and “yourself” refer to Timothy and so are singular. A note will discuss the one exception in 6:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

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προσμεῖναι ἐν Ἐφέσῳ

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remain in Ephesus

Alternate translation: “wait for me there in the city of Ephesus”

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Ἐφέσῳ

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Ephesus

Ephesus is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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τισὶν

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certain ones

Alternate translation: “certain people”

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v4g2

figs-explicit

ἑτεροδιδασκαλεῖν

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teach differently

The implication is that these people were not teaching in a different way, but teaching different things than what Paul and Timothy taught. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “a different doctrine from what we teach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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pw2h

μύθοις

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fables

These myths were fanciful stories of some kind, perhaps about the supposed exploits of various spiritual beings. But since we no longer know exactly what these stories were about, it would probably be best to use a general term for them. Alternate translation: “made-up stories”

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qpv9

figs-hyperbole

γενεαλογίαις ἀπεράντοις

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endless genealogies

Paul uses the term endless as an exaggeration to emphasize that these are very long. Alternate translation: “lists of names that seem as if they will never end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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ft33

γενεαλογίαις

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genealogies

Usually, the term genealogies refers to a record of a person’s ancestors. However, in this case it could also mean a record of the supposed ancestors of spiritual beings. Alternate translation: “lists of names”

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qb9l

αἵτινες ἐκζητήσεις παρέχουσι

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which promote arguments

The people were debating about these stories and lists of names, but no one could know for certain whether they were true. Alternate translation: “these make people disagree angrily”

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eu9f

figs-abstractnouns

οἰκονομίαν Θεοῦ

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the stewardship of God

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this phrasebehind the abstract noun stewardship with a concrete noun such as “plan” or “work.” Alternate translations: “helping us to understand God’s plan to save us” or “helping us to do God’s work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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p2sr

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τὴν ἐν πίστει

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which is by faith

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the word faith with a verb such as “trust” or “believe.” Alternate translations: “which we learn by believing in God” or “which we do by trusting in God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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δὲ

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Now

Paul here uses the word Now to introduce background information that will help Timothy understand the purpose of what he is commanding him. You can translate it with a word or phrase in your language that introduces background information.

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iwnk

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τὸ δὲ τέλος τῆς παραγγελίας ἐστὶν

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Now the goal of this command is

Here Paul is expressing to Timothy the goal or the outcome that he desires from the commands that Paul gave him. Alternate translation: “I am commanding these things in order to get this result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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τῆς παραγγελίας

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command

Here, {this} command refers to the instructions that Paul has given Timothy in 1:3 and 1:4.

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figs-explicit

ἐστὶν ἀγάπη

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is love

That God’s people would show love is the goal of the command. If it is necessary to include the object of “love,” you could state “each other” or “others.” This may also include love for God. Alternate translation: “is that God’s people would love others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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t123

figs-metaphor

ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας

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from a pure heart

Here the heart represents a person’s thoughts and inclinations. Alternate translation: “from a desire for only what is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας

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from a pure heart

Here, pure indicates that the person wants only good things and does not have mixed motives that also include some bad ones. Alternate translation: “from a desire for only what is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς

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a good conscience

Your translation should make it clear that love is the one goal of the command and is followed by three things that lead to this love. This is the second thing, after “a pure heart.” Alternate translation: “and from a conscience that leads a person to choose right instead of wrong”

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πίστεως ἀνυποκρίτου

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a sincere faith

Paul presents a sincere faith as the third thing that leads to love, which is the one goal of the command. It is not a third goal of the command. Alternate translations: “and from faith that is genuine” or “and from faith that is without hypocrisy”

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figs-abstractnouns

πίστεως ἀνυποκρίτου

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a sincere faith

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the phrase a sincere faith by expressing the abstract noun faith with a verb such as “trust” or “believe.” Here, faith could refer to: (1) trust in God. (2) belief in true teaching about God. Alternate translations: “firmly trusting in God” or “sincerely believing the true message about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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τινες ἀστοχήσαντες

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some, having missed the mark

Paul speaks of faith in Christ as if it were a target that people should aim at. Paul means that some people are not fulfilling the purpose of their faith, which is to love, as he has just explained. Alternate translation: “some people, who are not fulfilling the purpose of faith in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metaphor

ἐξετράπησαν εἰς

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have turned away to

Here, turned away means these people have stopped doing what God has commanded. Alternate translation: “are no longer doing what God commands. Instead of that, they just engage in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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νομοδιδάσκαλοι

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teachers of the law

Here, law refers specifically to the law of Moses. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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μὴ νοοῦντες

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not understanding

If the contrast is not clear in your language between what these people want to be (teachers of the law) and their ability to do it, you may want to mark the contrast. Alternate translations: “but not understanding” or “and yet they do not understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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t131

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ…μήτε…μήτε

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not … either … or

Paul uses a triple negative in Greek for emphasis here, “not … neither … nor.” None of these negatives cancel each other to create a positive meaning. Instead, the negative meaning is retained throughout. If your language uses double negatives for emphasis that do not cancel one another, it would be appropriate to use that construction here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

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t132

figs-parallelism

ἃ λέγουσιν, μήτε περὶ τίνων διαβεβαιοῦνται

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what they are saying or about which they make confident affirmations

These two phrases mean similar things. Paul uses the repetition for emphasis. You do not need to put both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “the things that they say so confidently are true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι καλὸς ὁ νόμος

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we know that the law is good

Alternate translations: “we understand that the law is useful” or “we understand that the law is beneficial”

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figs-exclusive

οἴδαμεν

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we know

In this letter, Paul uses the words we, “us,” and “our” to refer either to Timothy and himself, or else to all believers, which would also include the two of them. So generally, these words include the addressee. A note will discuss the one possible exception in 4:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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r86g

ἐάν τις αὐτῷ νομίμως χρῆται

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if one uses it lawfully

Alternate translations: “if a person uses it correctly” or “if a person uses it in the way that God intended”

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εἰδὼς τοῦτο

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knowing this

Alternate translation: “we also know this”

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fq4i

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δικαίῳ νόμος οὐ κεῖται

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the law is not made for the righteous

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God did not make the law for people who are righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-nominaladj

δικαίῳ

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the righteous

Paul is using the adjective righteous as a noun, to refer to a class of people that it describes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this term by translating it with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “for people who are righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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figs-nominaladj

ἀνόμοις δὲ καὶ ἀνυποτάκτοις, ἀσεβέσι καὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς, ἀνοσίοις καὶ βεβήλοις

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the lawless and the rebellious, the ungodly and the sinful, the godless and the profane

Paul is also using these adjectives as nouns to refer to the classes of people that they describe. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase by translating each of these adjectives with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who break the law, people who defy authority, people who do not honor God, people who commit sins, people who live as if God did not matter, people who live as if nothing was sacred” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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t141

πατρολῴαις καὶ μητρολῴαις, ἀνδροφόνοις

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father-killers and mother-killers, man-slayers

In this list Paul uses several compound words to express his meaning concisely and vividly. In each case the first term in the compound, a noun, is the object of the second term in the compound, a verb. Three of these compound words are in this verse, and two more are in the next verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these terms by translating them either with single terms or with phrases. Alternate translations: “patricides and matricides, murders” or “people who kill other people, even their own fathers and mothers”

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t142

figs-gendernotations

ἀνδροφόνοις

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man-slayers

Paul uses the term man here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “murderers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

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figs-nominaladj

πόρνοις

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the immoral

Paul is using the adjective immoral as a noun to refer to a class of people that it describes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this term by translating it with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who have sexual relations outside of marriage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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v1gh

figs-idiom

ἀρσενοκοίταις

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male-liers

The term male-liers is the fourth compound word on the list. The term “lie” means to have sexual relations. Alternate translation: “men who have sexual relations with other males” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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figs-gendernotations

ἀνδραποδισταῖς

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man-stealers

The term man-stealers is the fifth and last compound word on the list. Paul uses the term man here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people who kidnap other people to sell them as slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

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gg42

καὶ εἴ τι ἕτερον τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ ἀντίκειται

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and if anything else is contrary to healthy teaching

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that, in many languages, a sentence would need to be complete. He means that if anything else is contrary to healthy teaching, then the law is made for people who do that, too. Alternate translation: “and for people who do anything else that is against wholesome teaching”

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figs-metonymy

τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ

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healthy teaching

The phrase healthy teaching is a figurative way to say that the teaching is good and reliable in every way and has no defect or corruption. A person with a healthy mind would recognize this teaching as correct. Alternate translation: “correct teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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mg4t

τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς δόξης τοῦ μακαρίου Θεοῦ

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to the gospel of glory of the blessed God

This phrase could mean one of two things. Alternate translations: “the gospel about the glory that belongs to the blessed God” or “the glorious gospel about the blessed God”

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a58d

figs-activepassive

ὃ ἐπιστεύθην ἐγώ

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with which I have been entrusted

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what had been entrusted to Paul with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “for which God made me responsible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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t150

χάριν ἔχω

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I have gratitude to

Alternate translation: “I am thankful”

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πιστόν με ἡγήσατο

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he considered me trustworthy

Alternate translation: “he believed that he could rely on me”

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ff1n

figs-metaphor

θέμενος εἰς διακονίαν

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placing me into service

Paul speaks of the task of serving God as if it were a location that one could be placed in. Alternate translations: “he assigned me to serve him” or “he appointed me as his servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-explicit

ὄντα βλάσφημον

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being a blasphemer

Paul is referring to his character before he believed in Jesus. He is probably referring to how he used to say that Jesus was not the Messiah and that people should not believe in him. Alternate translation: “I was a person who said wrong things about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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gbd4

figs-explicit

διώκτην

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a persecutor

Paul is referring to his character before he believed in Jesus. Alternate translation: “a person who persecuted those who believed in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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k85c

figs-explicit

ὑβριστήν

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an aggressor

Paul is referring to his character before he believed in Jesus. Alternate translations: “a violent person” or “a person who used violence against those who believed in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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rq2m

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἠλεήθην, ὅτι ἀγνοῶν, ἐποίησα ἐν ἀπιστίᾳ

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I was shown mercy because not knowing, I acted in unfaithfulness

If it would be helpful in your language, you could change the order of these phrases since the second phrase, “not knowing,” gives the reason for the action that the first phrase, “I was shown mercy,” describes. Alternate translation: “I did not act the way God would have trusted me to act, but that was because I did not know what I was doing, and so Jesus had mercy on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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nv6k

figs-activepassive

ἠλεήθην

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I was shown mercy

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express who showed mercy to Paul with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “Jesus had mercy on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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t158

δὲ

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Indeed

Paul here uses the word Indeed to introduce an expanded description of the way Jesus treated him mercifully even though he persecuted the followers of Jesus. This description will help Timothy and the other believers in Ephesus to understand how great the mercy of Jesus is. Alternate translation: “in fact”

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c1lg

figs-metaphor

ὑπερεπλεόνασεν…ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

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the grace of our Lord overflowed

Paul speaks of the grace of Jesus as if it were a liquid that fills a container until it flows over the top. Alternate translation: “Jesus showed me unlimited grace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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z5lv

figs-idiom

μετὰ πίστεως καὶ ἀγάπης τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

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with the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus

This could refer to: (1) faith and love that he received from Jesus when he became in him, which would mean “in relationship with” him. Alternate translation: “and enabled me to trust him and love him” (2) faith and love that Jesus himself possesses and could be saying that these were the basis of the mercy that Jesus showed him. Alternate translation: “because he believed in me and loved me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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z48s

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

This word is trustworthy

In this context, the term word refers to an entire statement. Alternate translation: “this statement is dependable”

67

1TI

1

15

rh2r

καὶ πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος

1

and worthy of all acceptance

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state explicitly who does this action. Alternate translations: “and we should believe it without any doubt” or “and we should have full confidence in it”

68

1TI

1

15

t163

figs-quotemarks

Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς ἦλθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἁμαρτωλοὺς σῶσαι

1

Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners

Paul uses this phrase as a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers if you indicate this by setting off the words that follow, “Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners,” with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language may use to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

69

1TI

1

15

t164

ὧν πρῶτός εἰμι ἐγώ

1

of whom I am the first

Here the term first has the sense of the superlative example of a class, in this case a negative class. Alternate translation: “and I am the worst one of all”

70

1TI

1

16

z5kg

figs-activepassive

ἠλεήθην

1

I was shown mercy

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express who showed mercy to Paul with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “Jesus had mercy on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

71

1TI

1

16

epe2

ἵνα ἐν ἐμοὶ πρώτῳ

1

so that in me, the first

Alternate translation: “so that through me, the worst sinner of all”

72

1TI

1

17

k9sc

δὲ

1

Now

Paul here uses the word Now to introduce a change in what he is writing. As a result of what he has been teaching Timothy, he now writes a blessing to and about God. Use a word to indicate this change in your language, such as “so” or “now.”

73

1TI

1

17

ts5z

figs-abstractnouns

τιμὴ καὶ δόξα

1

be honor and glory

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns honor and grace by stating the ideas behind the them with verbs. Alternate translation: “may people honor and glorify” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

74

1TI

1

18

ijn8

figs-metaphor

ταύτην τὴν παραγγελίαν παρατίθεμαί σοι

1

This command I am placing before you

Paul speaks of his instructions as if he could physically put them in front of Timothy. Alternate translations: “I am entrusting you with this command” or “this is what I am commanding you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

75

1TI

1

18

b6uq

figs-metaphor

τέκνον

1

child

Paul speaks of his close relationship to Timothy as though they were father and child. This shows Paul’s sincere love and approval of Timothy. It is also likely that Paul personally led Timothy to trust in Christ, and that would be another reason why Paul considered him to be like his own child. Alternate translation: “you who are like my very own child” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

76

1TI

1

18

y6jg

κατὰ τὰς προαγούσας ἐπὶ σὲ προφητείας

1

in accordance with the earlier prophecies about you

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state explicitly how these prophecies happened and who did this action. Alternate translation: “in agreement with what other believers prophesied about you”

77

1TI

1

18

w2ex

figs-metaphor

στρατεύῃ…τὴν καλὴν στρατείαν

1

fight the good fight

Paul speaks about Timothy doing his best for the Lord as if he were a soldier fighting a battle. Alternate translation: “continue to do your best on behalf of the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

78

1TI

1

19

jj6k

figs-abstractnouns

ἔχων πίστιν

1

holding faith

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun faith with a phrase that uses a verb such as “trust” or “believe.” Here, faith could refer to: (1) a relationship with Jesus. Alternate translation: “continue trusting in Jesus” (2) a belief in the message about Jesus. Alternate translation: “keep believing the true teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

79

1TI

1

19

ly6q

figs-abstractnouns

ἀγαθὴν συνείδησιν

1

a good conscience

See how you translated this phrase in 1:5. Alternate translation: “continuing to choose to do what is right instead of what is wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

80

1TI

1

19

h2wk

figs-metaphor

τινες…περὶ τὴν πίστιν ἐναυάγησαν

1

have shipwrecked regarding the faith

Paul speaks of these people as if they were a ship that had sunk. He means that these people no longer believe in Jesus and no longer live as his followers. You could use this same figure, or a similar one from your culture, if your readers would understand this meaning. Otherwise, you could state as an alternative translation, “no longer belong to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

81

1TI

1

19

dyr6

figs-abstractnouns

περὶ τὴν πίστιν

1

regarding the faith

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun faith. Here, faith could refer to: (1) a relationship with Jesus (or God). Alternate translation: “their relationship with Jesus” (2) the teachings about Jesus. Alternate translation: “the message about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

82

1TI

1

20

pv7f

translate-names

Ὑμέναιος…Ἀλέξανδρος

1

Hymenaeus … Alexander

Hymenaeus and Alexander are names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

83

1TI

1

20

ty7n

figs-metaphor

οὓς παρέδωκα τῷ Σατανᾷ

1

whom I have given over to Satan

Paul speaks as if he physically took hold of these men and handed them to Satan. If this does not make sense in your language, you could state it plainly. Alternate translation: “I have allowed Satan to command them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

84

1TI

1

20

az10

figs-explicit

οὓς παρέδωκα τῷ Σατανᾷ

1

This probably means that Paul expelled them from the community of believers. Since they are no longer a part of the community, Satan has access to them and can harm them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you may want to include this information in a footnote. Alternate translation: “I have allowed Satan to make them suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

85

1TI

1

20

s76c

figs-activepassive

ἵνα παιδευθῶσι

1

so that they may be taught

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “so that God may teach them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

86

1TI

2

intro

c6rf

0

1 Timothy 2 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Peace

Paul encourages Christians to pray for everyone. They should pray for rulers so that Christians can live peacefully, in a godly and dignified way.

Women in the church

Scholars are divided over how to understand this passage in its historical and cultural context. Some scholars believe that God created men and women to serve in distinctly different roles in marriage and the church. Other scholars believe that God wants women to use the gifts He gives them on an equal basis with men. Translators should be careful not to let how they understand this issue affect how they translate this passage.

87

1TI

2

1

yk2z

figs-idiom

πρῶτον πάντων

1

first of all

As in 1:15, the term first means the superlative example of a class. Alternate translation: “most importantly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

88

1TI

2

1

iag7

παρακαλῶ

1

I urge

Alternate translation: “I encourage” or “I exhort”

89

1TI

2

1

ql7a

figs-activepassive

ποιεῖσθαι δεήσεις, προσευχάς, ἐντεύξεις, εὐχαριστίας

1

for requests, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings to be made

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would do the action and who would receive the action. Alternate translation: “I urge all believers to make requests, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

90

1TI

2

1

t183

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων

1

men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

91

1TI

2

2

g4va

figs-doublet

ἤρεμον καὶ ἡσύχιον βίον

1

a peaceful and quiet life

The terms peaceful and quiet mean the same thing. Paul uses them together for emphasis. He wants all believers to be able to live their lives without having trouble with the authorities. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these terms. Alternate translation: “an undisturbed life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

92

1TI

2

2

pb58

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ καὶ σεμνότητι

1

in all godliness and dignity

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns godliness and dignity with phrases that use verbs such as “honor” and “respect.” Alternate translation: “that honors God and that other people will respect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

93

1TI

2

3

t186

figs-doublet

καλὸν καὶ ἀπόδεκτον ἐνώπιον…Θεοῦ

1

good and acceptable before God

The terms good and acceptable mean similar things. Paul may be using them together for emphasis. If you think that having both terms in your translation might be confusing for your readers, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “very pleasing to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

94

1TI

2

4

i3ze

figs-activepassive

ὃς πάντας ἀνθρώπους θέλει σωθῆναι

1

who desires all men to be saved

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translation: “who wants to save everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

95

1TI

2

4

t188

figs-gendernotations

πάντας ἀνθρώπους

1

all men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

96

1TI

2

4

n26m

figs-metaphor

εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας ἐλθεῖν

1

to come to the knowledge of the truth

Paul speaks of learning the truth about God as if it were a place where people could come. Alternate translation: “to know and accept what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

97

1TI

2

5

t666

translate-unknown

εἷς καὶ μεσίτης Θεοῦ καὶ ἀνθρώπων

1

and one mediator of God and of men

A mediator is a person who helps negotiate a peaceful settlement between two parties who disagree with each other. Alternate translation: “and one person who is able to reconcile God and people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

98

1TI

2

5

t191

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων

1

of men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

99

1TI

2

5

t192

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπος Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς

1

the man Christ Jesus

Paul is likely using the term man in a generic sense to refer to the humanity of Jesus. Alternate translation: “Christ Jesus, who is also human” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

100

1TI

2

6

u8r1

δοὺς ἑαυτὸν

1

gave himself

Alternate translation: “sacrificed himself” or “died willingly”

101

1TI

2

6

vz12

ἀντίλυτρον ὑπὲρ πάντων

1

as a ransom for all

Alternate translation: “as the price of freedom for everyone”

102

1TI

2

6

fm1c

figs-explicit

τὸ μαρτύριον

1

the testimony

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could make it explicit that this demonstrated specifically that God wants to save all people. Alternate translation: “as the proof that God wants to save all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

103

1TI

2

6

fq7r

figs-idiom

καιροῖς ἰδίοις

1

in its own times

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “at the time that God had chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

104

1TI

2

7

qxv9

εἰς ὃ

1

for which

Here, which refers back to the testimony about God in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “of this testimony”

105

1TI

2

7

iz4y

figs-activepassive

ἐτέθην ἐγὼ κῆρυξ καὶ ἀπόστολος

1

I was made a herald and an apostle

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “Jesus has made me, Paul, a preacher and a representative for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

106

1TI

2

7

cbn6

translate-unknown

κῆρυξ

1

a herald

A herald is someone who is sent out to announce a message. If your language does not have a similar term and your readers would not know what a herald is, you can use a general expression for this. Alternate translations: “an announcer” or “a messenger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

107

1TI

2

7

qa8d

figs-metaphor

κῆρυξ

1

a herald

Paul compares himself to a herald because God has sent him out to announce the gospel message. Alternate translation: “a preacher” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

108

1TI

2

7

hb97

ἐν Χριστῷ

1

Alternate translation: “as a follower of Christ”

109

1TI

2

7

yllf

ἀλήθειαν λέγω ἐν Χριστῷ, οὐ ψεύδομαι

1

I am speaking the truth in Christ, I am not lying

In order to emphasize what he is saying, Paul says the same thing twice, first positively and then negatively. If this is confusing in your language, you can express this once. Alternate translation: “I am telling you the truth as a follower of Christ”

110

1TI

2

7

h18q

διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀληθείᾳ

1

a teacher of the nations in faith and truth

Here, faith and truth could mean: (1) the content of what Paul teaches. Alternate translation: “I teach the Gentiles the message of faith and truth” (2) Paul’s character as a teacher. Alternate translation: “a true and faithful teacher of the Gentiles”

111

1TI

2

7

t201

figs-hendiadys

διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν ἐν πίστει καὶ ἀληθείᾳ

1

a teacher of the nations in faith and truth

If this phrase has the second meaning that the previous note discusses, Paul may be using the two terms faith and truth together to express one idea. Alternate translation: “I teach the Gentiles about the true faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

112

1TI

2

7

t202

translate-names

ἐθνῶν

1

the Gentiles

This word Gentiles is the name for people groups that are not Jewish. Alternate translation: “of non-Jewish people groups” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

113

1TI

2

8

a841

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς ἄνδρας ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ

1

the men in every place

Here the word men refers specifically to males. The term is not generic, since Paul addresses women next. Alternate translations: “the males in all places” or “men everywhere” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

114

1TI

2

8

unw6

translate-symaction

ἐπαίροντας ὁσίους χεῖρας

1

to pray, lifting up holy hands

It was the customary posture in this culture for people to raise their hands while praying. You could translate this in a way that would make that clear. Alternate translation: “reverently lifting up their hands in the customary way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

115

1TI

2

8

yzg3

figs-synecdoche

προσεύχεσθαι…ἐπαίροντας ὁσίους χεῖρας

1

to pray, lifting up holy hands

Paul describes one part of the person, the hands, as holy to indicate that the entire person is to be holy. Alternate translation: “to lift up their hands to pray in holiness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

116

1TI

2

8

t206

figs-hendiadys

χωρὶς ὀργῆς καὶ διαλογισμοῦ

1

without anger and argument

Here Paul expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word anger tells what kind of argument the men should avoid. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “without angry arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

117

1TI

2

9

t207

figs-ellipsis

ὡσαύτως

1

likewise

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “in the same way, I also want” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

118

1TI

2

9

sw21

translate-unknown

μὴ ἐν πλέγμασιν

1

not in braided hair

During this time, many Roman women braided their hair lavishly to try to make themselves attractive. If your readers would not be familiar with the practice of braiding hair, you could express this idea in a more general way. Alternate translations: “they should not have fancy hairstyles” or “they should not have elaborate hairstyles that attract attention” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

119

1TI

2

9

t210

figs-synecdoche

μὴ ἐν πλέγμασιν

1

not in braids

Paul mentions braids and gold as ways a woman could give undue attention to her hair. At the time, women would make elaborate braided hairstyles, often weaving in chains of gold. Alternate translations: “not with fancy hairstyles” or “not by means of elaborate hairstyles that attract attention” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

120

1TI

2

9

rf5v

translate-unknown

μαργαρίταις

1

pearls

These pearls are beautiful and valuable mineral balls that people use as jewelry. They are formed inside the shell of a small animal that lives in the ocean. If your readers would not be familiar with pearls, you could express this idea in a more general way. Alternate translation: “decorations made from valuable materials” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

121

1TI

2

10

g35m

ἐπαγγελλομέναις θεοσέβειαν, δι’ ἔργων ἀγαθῶν

1

professing godliness through good works

Alternate translation: “who want to honor God by the good things that they do”

122

1TI

2

11

gb7a

figs-idiom

ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ

1

in quietness

Paul may be saying that he wants the women to listen rather than to speak. Alternate translation: “by listening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

123

1TI

2

11

c7sh

ἐν πάσῃ ὑποταγῇ

1

in all submission

Alternate translation: “and submit to the authority of the teacher”

124

1TI

2

12

t216

εἶναι ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ

1

to be in quietness

As in 2:11, Paul may be saying that he wants the women to listen rather than to speak. Alternate translation: “she should listen quietly”

125

1TI

2

13

iv31

figs-activepassive

Ἀδὰμ…πρῶτος ἐπλάσθη

1

Adam was formed first

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God created Adam first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

126

1TI

2

13

v7v6

figs-ellipsis

εἶτα Εὕα

1

then Eve

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “and then God created Eve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

127

1TI

2

14

wq5k

figs-activepassive

Ἀδὰμ οὐκ ἠπατήθη

1

Adam was not deceived

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “Adam was not the one whom the serpent deceived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

128

1TI

2

14

n6td

figs-activepassive

ἡ δὲ γυνὴ ἐξαπατηθεῖσα, ἐν παραβάσει γέγονεν

1

but the woman, having been deceived, came into transgression

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “but it was the woman who disobeyed God when the serpent deceived her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

129

1TI

2

14

t221

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν παραβάσει γέγονεν

1

came into transgression

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract noun transgression by stating the ideas behind it with a verbal phrase. Alternate translations: “began to sin” or “began to disobey God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

130

1TI

2

15

krx4

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Paul uses the word But to indicate that this sentence provides a contrast to the previous sentence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

131

1TI

2

15

t222

σωθήσεται

1

she will be saved

Here, she likely refers to Eve, mentioned in the preceding verse, and whom Paul describes as “the woman.” Later in the sentence, they refers to women in general. To show how Paul shifts the topic from Eve, a representative woman, to all women, the word she could be translated here as “women.”

132

1TI

2

15

u8iv

σωθήσεται…διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας

1

she will be saved through childbearing

This could mean: (1) people thought that women would be condemned because of Eve’s sin and punished even more than with the pain of childbearing (see Genesis 3:16), or they may have thought that a woman who believed in Jesus was no longer under the punishment that God gave in Genesis 3:16. Since the Greek word translated through can also mean “with” or “while,” Paul may be saying here that women continue to have the punishment of pain in childbirth but will be saved from additional punishment as long as they have faith in Jesus. Alternate translation: “God will save women, although they do have to endure childbirth” (2) the women of the church in Ephesus were being led away from faith in Jesus by the false teachers (see 2 Timothy 3:6), so Paul is recommending that they focus on raising their families rather than listening to (or participating in) the “foolish talk” (1:6). Alternate translation: “God will save women as they attend to their families” (3) a reference to the birth of Jesus as a human child to be the Savior. Alternate translation: “God will save women through Jesus, who was born as a child”

133

1TI

2

15

i0ap

figs-synecdoche

διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας

1

If option number 2 from the previous note is correct, then Paul is referring to all of the aspects of motherhood by mentioning the beginning part of it: childbearing. Alternate translation: “as they attend to their families” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

134

1TI

2

15

n818

figs-activepassive

σωθήσεται

1

she will be saved

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God will save women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

135

1TI

2

15

gh3c

ἐὰν μείνωσιν

1

if they remain

Here, they refers to women. Paul switches from the singular to the plural as he switches from talking about Eve as the representative of women to women in general. Alternate translation: “if women continue living”

136

1TI

2

15

sl57

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πίστει, καὶ ἀγάπῃ, καὶ ἁγιασμῷ

1

in faith and love and holiness

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns faith, love, and holiness by stating the ideas behind them with verbs. Alternate translation: “trusting Jesus, loving others, and living in a holy way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

137

1TI

2

15

dcf3

figs-idiom

μετὰ σωφροσύνης

1

with self-control

Here, with self-control could mean: (1) with good judgment. (2) with modesty. (3) with clear thinking. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

138

1TI

3

intro

d9db

0

1 Timothy 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

3:16 was probably a song, poem, or creed the early church used to express what it understood to be the meaning of who Jesus was and what he did.

Overseers and deacons

The church has used different titles for church leaders. Some titles include elder, pastor, and bishop. The word “overseer” reflects the Greek term in verses 1–2, which means literally an “over-seer.” The word “bishop” is derived directly from the letters of this Greek term. Paul writes about another kind of church leader, a “deacon,” in verses 8 and 12.

Character qualities

This chapter lists several qualities that an overseer or deacon in the church must have. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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1

t227

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

This word is trustworthy

As in 1:15, in this context the term word has a meaning more like “statement” or “message.” Alternate translation: “this statement is dependable”

140

1TI

3

1

t228

figs-quotemarks

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

This word is trustworthy

Paul uses this phrase to introduce a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers if you indicate this by setting off the words that follow in the rest of the verse with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language may use to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

141

1TI

3

1

t229

translate-unknown

ἐπισκοπῆς

1

overseer

The term overseer describes a leader of the early Christian church whose work was to take care of the spiritual needs of believers and make sure that they received accurate biblical teaching. Alternate translation: “spiritual leader” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

142

1TI

3

1

f133

καλοῦ ἔργου

1

a good work

Alternate translations: “an honorable task” or “an honorable role”

143

1TI

3

2

dff6

μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἄνδρα

1

a husband of one wife

Here, of one wife means that he has only one wife, that is, he does not have any other wives or concubines. This also means that he does not commit adultery and may also mean that he has not divorced a previous wife. Alternate translations: “a man who has only one woman” or “a man who is faithful to his wife”

144

1TI

3

2

qnq9

νηφάλιον, σώφρονα, κόσμιον, φιλόξενον

1

must be … sober, self-controlled, orderly, hospitable

Alternate translation: “not do anything to excess, reasonable and behave well, welcoming to strangers”

145

1TI

3

3

c2c7

μὴ πάροινον, μὴ πλήκτην, ἀλλὰ ἐπιεικῆ, ἄμαχον

1

not a drunkard, not a brawler, but gentle, peaceful

Alternate translation: “not drink alcohol to excess, not fight and argue, but instead, gentle and peaceful”

146

1TI

3

3

pc2g

figs-metaphor

ἀφιλάργυρον

1

not money-loving

If the expression loving money would not convey the idea of something inappropriate in your language, it might be helpful to use a term that expresses the idea of “greed.” Alternate translation: “not greedy for money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

147

1TI

3

4

a8gu

προϊστάμενον

1

managing

Alternate translations: “he should lead” or “he should take care of”

148

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3

4

w3un

ἐν ὑποταγῇ, μετὰ πάσης σεμνότητος

1

in obedience with all honor

This could mean: (1) the overseer’s children should obey their father and show respect to him. Alternate translation: “who obey him completely respectfully” (2) the overseer’s children should show respect to everyone. Alternate translation: “who obey him and show respect to everyone” or (3) the overseer should show respect to those in his household as he leads them. Alternate translation: “who obey him as he treats them with respect”

149

1TI

3

5

n5lt

figs-rquestion

εἰ δέ τις τοῦ ἰδίου οἴκου προστῆναι οὐκ οἶδεν, πῶς ἐκκλησίας Θεοῦ ἐπιμελήσεται?

1

for if someone does not know how to manage his own household, how will he take care of the church of God?

Paul is making a statement, not actually asking a question. He does not expect Timothy to explain how a man who could not manage his own household could take care of God’s church. Instead, Paul is using the question form to emphasize how important it is for an overseer to demonstrate faithfulness in his personal life before assuming a leadership role in the church. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate these words as a statement. Alternate translation: “I say this because a man who is not able to manage his own household will certainly not be able to take care of the church of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

150

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3

5

c814

figs-metonymy

ἐκκλησίας Θεοῦ

1

the church of God

Here the term church refers to a local group of God’s people, not to a building. Alternate translations: “a group of God’s people” or “a local gathering of believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

151

1TI

3

6

q7hu

μὴ νεόφυτον

1

not a new convert

Alternate translations: “not still just learning the faith” or “mature from a long, steady growth in the faith”

152

1TI

3

6

t240

figs-explicit

τυφωθεὶς

1

puffed up

Paul is warning that a new convert might become excessively proud if he were given an important leadership position right away. Alternate translation: “becoming proud of himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

153

1TI

3

6

t241

figs-metaphor

τυφωθεὶς

1

puffed up

Paul describes being proud as if it made a person swell in size. Alternate translation: “thinking that he is better than others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

154

1TI

3

6

v6f5

figs-metaphor

ἵνα μὴ…εἰς κρίμα ἐμπέσῃ τοῦ διαβόλου

1

so that he may not fall … into the judgment of the devil

Paul describes the experience of being condemned for having done wrong as like falling into a hole. Alternate translation: “and have God condemn him … as he condemned the devil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

155

1TI

3

7

si1d

figs-metaphor

τῶν ἔξωθεν

1

those outside

Paul speaks of the church as though it were a place and unbelievers were physically outside of it. Alternate translation: “those who are not believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

156

1TI

3

7

qsa6

figs-metaphor

μὴ εἰς ὀνειδισμὸν ἐμπέσῃ

1

so that he may not fall into disgrace

Paul speaks of disgrace as if it were a hole that a person could fall into. Alternate translation: “so that he does not do anything that would make him ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

157

1TI

3

7

t245

figs-metaphor

παγίδα τοῦ διαβόλου

1

the trap of the devil

Paul speaks of the devil tempting someone to sin as if it were a trap that could catch a person. Alternate translation: “so that the devil is not able to tempt him to sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

158

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3

8

nz2w

διακόνους ὡσαύτως

1

Likewise deacons

Alternate translation: “deacons, just like overseers”

159

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8

sxq4

figs-metaphor

μὴ διλόγους

1

not double-talkers

Paul speaks about some people as if they could say two things at once. Alternate translation: “not saying one thing but meaning something else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

160

1TI

3

8

g5qi

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ διλόγους

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind not double-talkers positively. Alternate translation: “honest in what they say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

161

1TI

3

9

c44a

figs-metaphor

ἔχοντας

1

holding

Paul speaks of true teaching about God as if it were an object that a person could hold. Alternate translation: “continuing to believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

162

1TI

3

9

jda1

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ μυστήριον

1

the mystery

Paul uses the abstract noun mystery to refer to a truth that had existed for some time but that God was revealing at that moment. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this term with a verb such as “reveal.” Alternate translation: “what God has now revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

163

1TI

3

9

rfv7

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ μυστήριον τῆς πίστεως

1

the mystery of the faith

Here, faith refers to the content of the mystery, that is, the specific things that God has revealed and that followers of Jesus must believe. Alternate translation: “the teachings that God has revealed to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

164

1TI

3

9

y91f

figs-metaphor

ἐν καθαρᾷ συνειδήσει

1

with a clean conscience

Paul speaks of a person’s sense of right and wrong being clean, which means that it assures that person that he has done nothing wrong. Alternate translation: “knowing that they are not doing anything wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

165

1TI

3

10

hl1p

figs-activepassive

καὶ οὗτοι…δοκιμαζέσθωσαν πρῶτον

1

let them also be tested first

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would the action. Alternate translations: “the leaders should observe and approve of them first” or “they should first prove themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

166

1TI

3

11

xyc9

γυναῖκας

1

the women

This could mean: (1) deacons’ wives. (2) female deacons.

167

1TI

3

11

q5qx

σεμνάς

1

dignified

Alternate translations: “must be people who act properly” or “must be people who are worthy of respect”

168

1TI

3

11

a12k

μὴ διαβόλους

1

not slanderers

Alternate translation: “not saying malicious things about other people”

169

1TI

3

11

akm5

νηφαλίους

1

sober

See how you translated sober in 3:2. Alternate translation: “not doing anything to excess”

170

1TI

3

12

wji2

μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἄνδρες

1

husbands of one wife

See how you translated this phrase in 3:2. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translations: “not married to more than one woman” or “faithful to their wives”

171

1TI

3

12

dv31

τέκνων καλῶς προϊστάμενοι καὶ τῶν ἰδίων οἴκων

1

managing their own children and households well

Alternate translation: “taking proper care of their children and their personal affairs”

172

1TI

3

13

rfq2

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Paul here uses the word For to introduce what the results will be if people with the qualifications he has just described are chosen as church leaders. Alternate translation: “After all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

173

1TI

3

13

t259

οἱ…καλῶς διακονήσαντες

1

those having served well

This phrase could refer either to deacons, whom Paul has just discussed, or to overseers as well, as a conclusion to Paul’s entire discussion of church leaders. Alternate translations: “deacons who serve well” or “church leaders who serve well”

174

1TI

3

13

cv34

βαθμὸν…καλὸν

1

a good standing

This could mean: (1) an honorable position. (2) a good reputation.

175

1TI

3

13

m684

καὶ πολλὴν παρρησίαν ἐν πίστει τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

much confidence in the faith that is in Christ Jesus

This could mean: (1) they will speak more confidently to other people about believing in Jesus. (2) they will trust in Jesus with even more confidence.

176

1TI

3

14

t262

figs-idiom

ἐν τάχει

1

in quickness

The expression in quickness describes Paul’s haste and urgency. Alternate translation: “as soon as I can” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

177

1TI

3

14

zzzu

figs-go

ἐλθεῖν

1

to come

In some languages it is more natural to say “go” here, rather than come. Alternate translation: “to go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

178

1TI

3

15

z9z8

ἐὰν δὲ βραδύνω

1

but if I delay

This phrase does not imply that Paul might choose to take his time rather than hurrying. Alternate translations: “but in case I cannot get there soon” or “but if something prevents me from getting there soon”

179

1TI

3

15

p9u4

ἵνα εἰδῇς πῶς δεῖ ἐν οἴκῳ Θεοῦ ἀναστρέφεσθαι

1

so that you may know how one ought to behave in the household of God

Paul speaks of the group of believers as a family because God adopts each believer as a son or daughter through Christ. This could refer to: (1) the believers in general. Alternate translation: “so that you all may know how to conduct yourselves as members of God’s family” (2) Timothy’s behavior in the church. Alternate translation: “so that you may know how to conduct yourself as a member of God’s family”

180

1TI

3

15

wzk3

figs-distinguish

οἴκῳ Θεοῦ…ἥτις ἐστὶν ἐκκλησία Θεοῦ ζῶντος

1

the household of God, which is the church of the living God

This phrase gives us further information about {the} household of God. It is not making a distinction between a household of God that is the church and one that is not the church. Alternate translation: “household of God, by which I mean the community of people who believe in the living God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

181

1TI

3

15

cd5r

figs-metaphor

στῦλος καὶ ἑδραίωμα τῆς ἀληθείας

1

a pillar and support of the truth

Paul speaks of the truth as if it were a building and of the community of believers as if they were helping to hold up that building. Alternate translation: “which helps to proclaim God’s truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

1TI

3

15

t267

figs-doublet

στῦλος καὶ ἑδραίωμα

1

a pillar and support

The terms pillar and support mean basically the same thing. They are architectural features that hold up parts of buildings. Paul uses the terms together for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine them into an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “which helps promote” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

183

1TI

3

15

sg64

figs-idiom

Θεοῦ ζῶντος

1

the living God

Alternate translations: “the God who is genuinely alive” or “the true God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

184

1TI

3

16

w473

μέγα ἐστὶν τὸ τῆς εὐσεβείας μυστήριον

1

great is the mystery of godliness

While in most of this letter Paul uses the term godliness to describe godly living, in this instance the term instead seems to describe the reverence for God that would lead a person to live a right life. Alternate translation: “the truth that God has revealed, that leads us to worship him, is great”

185

1TI

3

16

t271

figs-explicit

μέγα ἐστὶν τὸ τῆς εὐσεβείας μυστήριον

1

great is the mystery of godliness

Since Paul follows this statement by quoting a hymn or poem about the life of Jesus, the implication is that he sees Jesus as having made it possible for people to worship God in the most genuine way. Alternate translation: “the truth that God has revealed about why we worship Jesus is great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

186

1TI

3

16

y8sp

writing-poetry

ὃς ἐφανερώθη ἐν σαρκί, ἐδικαιώθη ἐν Πνεύματι, ὤφθη ἀγγέλοις, ἐκηρύχθη ἐν ἔθνεσιν, ἐπιστεύθη ἐν κόσμῳ, ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δόξῃ

1

Who was revealed in flesh, was justified in the Spirit, was seen by angels, was proclaimed among the nations, was believed in the world, was taken up in glory.

This is most likely a song or poem that Paul is quoting. If your language has a way of indicating that this is poetry, such as through line-by-line formatting, you could use that here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])

187

1TI

3

16

m4xi

figs-activepassive

ὃς ἐφανερώθη ἐν σαρκί

1

Who was revealed in flesh

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. (Be sure not to suggest in your translation that Jesus only seemed or appeared to be human.) Alternate translations: “he revealed himself as a human being” or “he came to earth as a human being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

188

1TI

3

16

rqp6

figs-metonymy

ἐν σαρκί

1

in flesh

Paul uses the term flesh here to mean “in a human body.” He is describing the human body by reference to something associated with it, the flesh that envelops it. Alternate translation: “as a true human being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

189

1TI

3

16

gm36

figs-activepassive

ἐδικαιώθη ἐν Πνεύματι

1

was justified in the Spirit

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit confirmed that he was who he said he was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

190

1TI

3

16

fn1k

figs-activepassive

ὤφθη ἀγγέλοις

1

was seen by angels

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translation: “the angels saw him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

191

1TI

3

16

c3wx

figs-activepassive

ἐκηρύχθη ἐν ἔθνεσιν

1

was proclaimed among the nations

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “people in many nations told others about him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

192

1TI

3

16

h9mb

figs-activepassive

ἐπιστεύθη ἐν κόσμῳ

1

was believed in the world

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “people throughout the world believed in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

193

1TI

3

16

jz11

figs-activepassive

ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δόξῃ

1

was taken up in glory

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “God the Father took him up to heaven in glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

194

1TI

3

16

mr3a

figs-abstractnouns

ἀνελήμφθη ἐν δόξῃ

1

was taken up in glory

The abstract noun glory refers to the way Jesus received power from God the Father and is worthy of honor. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this term with an adjective such as “powerful” and a verb such as “admire.” Alternate translation: “God the Father took him up to heaven, making him powerful and making everyone admire him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

195

1TI

4

intro

b39h

0

1 Timothy 4 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Paul speaks in 4:14 of prophecy. A “prophecy” is a message that God communicates to people through someone to whom He has given a special gift of hearing and conveying these messages. The specific prophecy that Paul describes revealed how Timothy would become a gifted leader of the church. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Cultural practices

In verse 14 Paul speaks of church leaders placing their hands on Timothy. That was one way of indicating publicly that a person was being placed in a leadership position in the church.

Variation in names

In this chapter Paul speaks of church leaders called “elders.” They seem to be the same kind of leaders that he calls “overseers” in chapter 3.

196

1TI

4

1

jzr9

δὲ

1

Now

Paul here uses the word Now to introduce background information that will help Timothy and the believers in Ephesus understand the next part of his letter. The false teachings that Timothy must oppose are something that the Spirit has already predicted. You can translate the term with the word or phrase in your language that is most similar in meaning and significance.

197

1TI

4

1

b739

figs-idiom

ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς

1

in later times

This expression refers to the time period when God’s purposes in history are approaching their culmination and so the evil opposition to them increases. Paul is probably referring to the time period between Jesus’ resurrection and his second coming. Alternate translation: “in these days as God’s purposes advance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

198

1TI

4

1

b931

figs-metaphor

ἀποστήσονταί τινες τῆς πίστεως

1

some will leave the faith

Paul speaks of people ceasing to trust in Christ as if they were physically leaving a place. Alternate translation: “some people will stop trusting in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

199

1TI

4

1

hw98

figs-abstractnouns

ἀποστήσονταί τινες τῆς πίστεως

1

some will leave the faith

Here, faith could refer to: (1) the teachings about Jesus. Alternate translation: “some people will stop believing the teachings about Jesus” (2) trust in Jesus. Alternate translation: “some people will stop trusting in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

200

1TI

4

1

q13m

προσέχοντες

1

attending to

Alternate translations: “and turn their attention to” or “because they are paying attention to”

201

1TI

4

1

ae5w

figs-doublet

πνεύμασι πλάνοις καὶ διδασκαλίαις δαιμονίων

1

deceiving spirits and teachings of demons

These two phrases mean similar things. Paul may be using them together for emphasis. If you think having both phrases in your translation might be confusing for your readers, you could combine them into a single expression. Alternate translation: “to the things that evil spirits say to trick people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

202

1TI

4

2

pw29

ἐν ὑποκρίσει ψευδολόγων

1

in false-speaking hypocrisy

If it would be helpful in your language, you could start a separate sentence here. Alternate translation: “The people who teach these things are hypocrites, and they tell lies”

203

1TI

4

2

u2f4

figs-metaphor

κεκαυστηριασμένων τὴν ἰδίαν συνείδησιν

1

their own consciences having been seared

Paul is speaking of these people as if their sense of right and wrong had been ruined like skin that someone had burned with a hot iron. Alternate translation: “they will not have any sense of right and wrong any more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

204

1TI

4

2

t288

figs-activepassive

κεκαυστηριασμένων τὴν ἰδίαν συνείδησιν

1

their own consciences having been seared

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translation: “they will be people who have destroyed their sense of right and wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

205

1TI

4

3

t289

κωλυόντων γαμεῖν

1

forbidding to marry

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could begin a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “These people teach that it is wrong to marry”

206

1TI

4

3

wd2l

figs-explicit

κωλυόντων γαμεῖν

1

forbidding to marry

The implication of this phrase is that these false teachers will forbid believers to marry. Alternate translation: “these people will forbid believers to marry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

207

1TI

4

3

t291

figs-ellipsis

ἀπέχεσθαι βρωμάτων

1

to abstain from foods

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. He does not mean that these false teachers will forbid believers to abstain from certain foods, but that the false teachers will require them to abstain from certain foods. In other words, the meaning of forbidding does not carry forward from the previous clause; rather, the meaning of “requiring” should be supplied. Alternate translation: “they will require believers to abstain from certain foods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

208

1TI

4

3

m1d6

figs-explicit

ἀπέχεσθαι βρωμάτων

1

to abstain from foods

The implication of this phrase is that these false teachers will forbid only certain foods and that they will impose this restriction on believers. Alternate translation: “they will forbid believers to eat certain foods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

209

1TI

4

3

t293

figs-doublet

τοῖς πιστοῖς καὶ ἐπεγνωκόσι τὴν ἀλήθειαν

1

the faithful and the ones knowing the truth

These two expressions mean the same thing. Paul uses them together for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these terms. Alternate translation: “by the genuine believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

210

1TI

4

3

t294

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς πιστοῖς

1

the faithful

Paul is using the adjective faithful as a noun to refer to a class of people that it describes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate it with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “by people who believe in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

211

1TI

4

4

pppf

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

For

The word For communicates that what follows is the reason for what Paul just said. Use a natural way in your language to give a reason. Alternate translation: “that is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

212

1TI

4

4

dv4s

figs-distinguish

πᾶν κτίσμα Θεοῦ καλόν

1

every creature of God is good

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the phrase every creation with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “everything that God created is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

213

1TI

4

4

a15j

figs-activepassive

οὐδὲν ἀπόβλητον μετὰ εὐχαριστίας λαμβανόμενον

1

nothing being received with thanksgiving is vile

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “we are free to eat anything that we can thank God for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

214

1TI

4

5

gwcs

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

The word for communicates that what follows is the reason for the last part of what Paul has just said. In other words, it is the reason why “nothing being received with thanksgiving is vile.” Use a natural way in your language to give a reason. Alternate translation: “because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

215

1TI

4

5

m5mb

figs-activepassive

ἁγιάζεται

1

it is sanctified

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translations: “it becomes holy” or “it is suitable to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

216

1TI

4

5

fhd6

figs-metonymy

διὰ λόγου Θεοῦ

1

by the word of God

In this context, the term word has a specific meaning. It refers to the pronouncement that God made in his word that everything that he created was good. Alternate translation: “because of what God said about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

217

1TI

4

5

t300

figs-explicit

καὶ ἐντεύξεως

1

and prayer

In context, the implication is that this refers to prayers of thanksgiving to God for food. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and because of the thanks that people offer to God for it in prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

218

1TI

4

6

ks5x

figs-metaphor

ταῦτα ὑποτιθέμενος τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς

1

Placing these things before the brothers

Paul speaks of his instructions as if they were objects that could be physically placed in front of the other believers. Alternate translation: “if you help the believers remember these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

219

1TI

4

6

hfx3

ταῦτα

1

these things

This refers to the teaching that began in 3:16.

220

1TI

4

6

h6qr

figs-gendernotations

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς

1

before the brothers

Paul is using the term brothers in a generic sense that includes men and women. Alternate translation: “the brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

221

1TI

4

6

uyeb

figs-metaphor

τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς

1

the brothers

The term the brothers means fellow believers in Jesus. Alternative translation: “your fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

222

1TI

4

6

t304

figs-activepassive

ἐντρεφόμενος τοῖς λόγοις τῆς πίστεως, καὶ τῆς καλῆς διδασκαλίας ᾗ παρηκολούθηκας

1

being nourished by the words of the faith and of the good teaching that you have followed

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state what is doing the action. Alternate translation: “the statements of what we believe, expessed in proper teaching, are causing you to trust more strongly in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

223

1TI

4

6

f8vs

figs-metaphor

ἐντρεφόμενος τοῖς λόγοις τῆς πίστεως, καὶ τῆς καλῆς διδασκαλίας ᾗ παρηκολούθηκας

1

being nourished by the words of the faith and of the good teaching that you have followed

Paul speaks of these statements and teachings as if they could physically feed Timothy and make him strong. Alternate translation: “the statements of what we believe, expressed in proper teaching, are causing you to trust more strongly in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

224

1TI

4

6

ny78

figs-metonymy

τοῖς λόγοις τῆς πίστεως, καὶ τῆς καλῆς διδασκαλίας

1

by the words of the faith and of the good teaching

Paul uses the term words to describe the statements of belief and the teachings that explain them, both expressed in words. Alternate translation: “the statements of what we believe, expressed in proper teaching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

225

1TI

4

7

th4i

τοὺς…βεβήλους καὶ γραώδεις μύθους

1

the profane and old-womanish myths

See how you translated myths in 1:4 and profane in 1:9. Alternate translation: “foolish, made-up stories in which nothing is sacred”

226

1TI

4

7

elk7

figs-idiom

γραώδεις μύθους

1

old-womanish myths

The term old-womanish is an idiom that means “silly” or “foolish.” Paul tells Timothy in 5:2 that he should respect older women as mothers, so Paul’s expression here should be recognized as idiomatic rather than disrespectful. Your language may have a similar expression. Alternate translation: “old wives’ tales” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

227

1TI

4

7

sea5

figs-metaphor

γύμναζε…σεαυτὸν πρὸς εὐσέβειαν

1

train yourself for godliness

Paul tells Timothy to work to develop godly character as if he were an athlete improving his physical conditioning. Alternate translation: “diligently practice acting in ways that please God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

228

1TI

4

8

t311

figs-quotemarks

γὰρ

1

for

What follows after the word for is a direct quotation of a saying that Paul uses for teaching. It may be helpful to your readers if you indicate this by setting off the words that follow in the rest of the verse with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language may use to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

229

1TI

4

8

i6rh

σωματικὴ γυμνασία

1

bodily training

Alternate translation: “physical exercise”

230

1TI

4

8

t313

πρὸς ὀλίγον ἐστὶν ὠφέλιμος

1

is valuable for a little

This could mean: (1) it has some small value. (2) it has value for a little while. (3) it does not have very much value.

231

1TI

4

8

df19

ἐπαγγελίαν ἔχουσα

1

having promise for

Alternate translation: “will bring benefits”

232

1TI

4

9

t315

πιστὸς ὁ λόγος

1

That word is trustworthy

As in 1:15 and 3:1, in this context, the term word means “statement” or “saying.” (Paul is referring to the entire saying that he quoted in the previous verse.) Alternate translation: “this statement is dependable”

233

1TI

4

9

hc1t

καὶ πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος

1

and worthy of all acceptance

See how you translated this phrase in 1:15. Alternate translations: “and we should believe it without any doubt” or “and we should have full confidence in it”

234

1TI

4

10

l2yl

grammar-connect-logic-result

εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ

1

for unto this

The term this refers to “godliness,” which Paul mentions in the previous two verses. Paul is giving a reason why Timothy should believe the saying about the value of godliness. He and his other fellow workers are striving very hard to become godly, so it must be valuable. Alternate translation: “after all, it is for godliness that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

235

1TI

4

10

c9db

figs-doublet

κοπιῶμεν καὶ ἀγωνιζόμεθα

1

we toil and struggle

The terms toil and struggle mean basically the same thing. Paul uses them together to emphasize the intensity with which he and his fellow workers are serving God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these terms. Alternate translation: “we work so hard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

236

1TI

4

10

t320

figs-exclusive

κοπιῶμεν καὶ ἀγωνιζόμεθα

1

we toil and struggle

This could be the one place where we does not include the addressee. Paul has just told Timothy to make godliness his priority rather than physical exercise, and he may be offering himself and his other fellow workers as an example of that for Timothy to follow. So if your language makes that distinction, you may wish to use the exclusive form in this phrase. However, we in the next phrase would include Timothy, since Paul is encouraging Timothy to join him and his fellow workers in making godliness his priority as someone who, like them, has hoped in the living God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

237

1TI

4

10

qmj6

figs-idiom

Θεῷ ζῶντι

1

the living God

See how you translated this phrase in 3:15. Alternate translations: “the God who is genuinely alive” or “the true God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

238

1TI

4

10

t322

figs-gendernotations

πάντων ἀνθρώπων

1

men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “of all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

239

1TI

4

12

qi8l

μηδείς σου τῆς νεότητος καταφρονείτω

1

Let no one despise your youth

The term despise here does not mean “hate,” but “think little of” or “scorn.” Alternate translation: “Do not let anyone disrespect you just because you are young”

240

1TI

4

12

t325

ἐν λόγῳ

1

in word

In this context, the term word means “what you say.” Alternate translation: “in your speech”

241

1TI

4

13

t326

figs-explicit

πρόσεχε τῇ ἀναγνώσει, τῇ παρακλήσει, τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ

1

to the reading, to the exhortation, to the teaching

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state explicitly what Timothy is to read and to whom, and whom he is to exhort and teach. Alternate translation: “continue reading the Scriptures to the people in the church there, exhorting them, and teaching them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

242

1TI

4

13

kky7

figs-abstractnouns

πρόσεχε τῇ ἀναγνώσει, τῇ παρακλήσει, τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ

1

attend to the reading, to the exhortation, to the teaching

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns reading, exhortation, and teaching by translating them with verbal phrases. Alternate translation: “continue reading the Scriptures to the people in your meeting there, exhorting them, and teaching them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

243

1TI

4

14

i1ka

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ ἀμέλει

1

You can translate this phrase in a positive way if that is more natural for your language. Alternate translations: “continue to use” or “make sure you develop” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

244

1TI

4

14

t22x

figs-metaphor

μὴ ἀμέλει τοῦ ἐν σοὶ χαρίσματος

1

Do not neglect the gift in you

Paul speaks of Timothy as if he were a container that could hold God’s gift. Alternate translation: “do not neglect the ability that God has given you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

245

1TI

4

14

hdd9

figs-explicit

μὴ ἀμέλει τοῦ ἐν σοὶ χαρίσματος

1

Do not neglect the gift in you

The implication is that this gift is the ability that God has given Timothy for ministry. Alternate translation: “do not neglect the ability that God has given you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

246

1TI

4

14

xp1k

figs-activepassive

ὃ ἐδόθη σοι διὰ προφητείας

1

which was given to you through prophecy

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “which you received when leaders of the church prophesied about you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

247

1TI

4

14

rr8f

translate-symaction

ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν τοῦ πρεσβυτερίου

1

with the imposition of the hands of the elders

Paul is speaking of a ceremony during which the church leaders put their hands on Timothy and prayed that God would enable him to do the work he had commanded him to do. Alternate translation: “when the elders all laid their hands on you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

248

1TI

4

15

sbcg

figs-explicit

ταῦτα

1

these things

If it is helpful in your language, you may want to make explicit what these {things} are. Alternate translation: “these things that I am telling you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

249

1TI

4

15

m65m

figs-metaphor

ἐν τούτοις ἴσθι

1

Study these things, be in them

Paul is speaking as if Timothy could physically be inside the instructions he has just given him. Alternate translation: “and follow them consistently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

250

1TI

4

15

merc

figs-explicit

σου ἡ προκοπὴ

1

your progress

If it is helpful in your language, you may want to make explicit in what way Timothy is to make progress. Alternate translation: “your increasing ability to live the way that Jesus wants you to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

251

1TI

4

16

uq6c

ἔπεχε σεαυτῷ καὶ τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ

1

Pay attention to yourself and to the teaching

Alternate translation: “Pay attention to how you live and to what you teach”

252

1TI

4

16

zxe7

ἐπίμενε αὐτοῖς

1

Continue in these things

Alternate translation: “Continue to do these things”

253

1TI

4

16

u7ez

καὶ σεαυτὸν σώσεις καὶ τοὺς ἀκούοντάς σου

1

you will save both yourself and your listeners

This could mean: (1) Timothy will save himself and those who hear him from God’s judgment (2) Timothy will protect himself and those who hear him from the influence of false teachers. Perhaps Paul means both things since, if Timothy can persuade the people of the church in Ephesus not to listen to the false teachers, then he will also spare them from God’s judgment for the wrong things they would have done if they had listened to those teachers. Alternate translation: “you will keep both yourself and your listeners from believing and doing the wrong things”

254

1TI

5

intro

jx4e

0

1 Timothy 5 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Honor and respect

Paul encourages younger Christians to honor and respect older Christians. Cultures honor and respect older people in different ways.

Widows

In the ancient Near East, it was important to care for widows because they could not provide for themselves.

Variation in names

In this chapter, as in chapter 4, Paul speaks of church leaders called “elders.” Here, as well, they seem to be the same kind of leaders that he calls “overseers” in chapter 3.

255

1TI

5

1

wt5y

figs-you

0

General Information:

Paul was giving these commands to one person, Timothy. Languages that have different forms of “you” or different forms for commands would use the singular form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

256

1TI

5

1

l4w5

πρεσβυτέρῳ μὴ ἐπιπλήξῃς

1

Do not rebuke an older man

Alternate translation: “Do not reprimand an older man”

257

1TI

5

1

dnf2

ἀλλὰ παρακάλει

1

but exhort him

Alternate translation: “instead, encourage him”

258

1TI

5

1

enp9

figs-simile

ὡς πατέρα, νεωτέρους ὡς ἀδελφούς

1

as a father, younger men as brothers

Paul uses these two similes to tell Timothy that he should treat fellow believers with the same sincere love and respect that he would show to family members. Alternate translation: “as if he were your own father, and encourage younger men as if they were your own brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

259

1TI

5

2

t1pv

figs-simile

ὡς μητέρας, νεωτέρας ὡς ἀδελφὰς

1

as mothers, younger women as sisters

Paul uses these two similes to tell Timothy that he should treat fellow believers with sincere love and respect, just as he would treat family members. Alternate translation: “encourage each of them as if they were your own mother, and encourage younger women as if they were your own sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

260

1TI

5

2

ivl7

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πάσῃ ἁγνίᾳ

1

in all purity

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun purity by translating it with an adjective such as “pure.” Alternate translation: “making sure that your thoughts and actions are pure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

261

1TI

5

3

smp5

figs-idiom

χήρας τίμα

1

Honor widows

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “Provide for widows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

262

1TI

5

3

qc6s

τὰς ὄντως χήρας

1

real widows

Alternate translation: “widows who have no one else to provide for them”

263

1TI

5

4

vv64

τέκνα ἢ ἔκγονα

1

children or grandchildren

Here these children and grandchildren are adults who are able to care for others, not young children.

264

1TI

5

4

w38h

πρῶτον

1

first

This could mean one of two things, or possibly both: (1) of all of their religious duties, taking care of their family is the most important one and the one that they should learn to do before anything else. Alternate translation: “as the most basic part of belonging to God’s people” (2) these children and grandchildren should be the first ones to take care of their family members, before the rest of the congregation. Alternate translation: “before the church offers any support”

265

1TI

5

4

fnab

μανθανέτωσαν…εὐσεβεῖν

1

let them learn to honor

Here, learn means to practice, that is, to learn by doing. Alternate translation: “let them become proficient in honoring”

266

1TI

5

4

t344

figs-parallelism

μανθανέτωσαν…τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον εὐσεβεῖν, καὶ ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς προγόνοις

1

let them learn to honor their own household and to make repayment to their forebears

These two phrases may: (1) mean similar things and you could combine them if that would be helpful to your readers. If honor is an idiom for “provide” here, as in the previous verse, then Paul may be using repetition for emphasis. Alternate translation: “let them provide the support that their widowed mother or grandmother needs and deserves” (2) have a slight difference in meaning, and you could also choose to bring that out in your translation. Paul may actually be giving two reasons why people should support their widowed mothers or grandmothers. Alternate translation: “this is a respectful thing to do for widowed family members, and it will repay them for supporting their children and grandchildren as they were growing up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

267

1TI

5

4

g5mu

figs-metonymy

τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον

1

their own household

Paul uses this phrase to refer to family members, by association to the way they live in the same house. Alternate translations: “their own family members” or “those living in their homes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

268

1TI

5

4

q5c8

ἀμοιβὰς ἀποδιδόναι τοῖς προγόνοις

1

make repayment to their forebears

Alternate translation: “let them do good to their mother or grandmother in return for the good things their parents and grandparents gave them”

269

1TI

5

4

t347

grammar-connect-logic-result

γάρ

1

for

Paul uses the term for to introduce an additional reason why family members should support their widowed mothers or grandmothers. Alternate translation: “also” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

270

1TI

5

4

t348

figs-metaphor

τοῦτο…ἐστιν ἀπόδεκτον ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

this is pleasing before God

Paul uses the expression before God, which means “in front of God,” to mean “where God can see.” Alternate translations: “this is pleasing in God’s view” or “this pleases God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

271

1TI

5

5

xp1u

figs-hendiadys

ἡ…ὄντως χήρα καὶ μεμονωμένη

1

the genuine and left-alone widow

The two words genuine and left-alone work together to describe one condition, and they may be combined if that would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “a widow who is genuinely alone” Or it may be that left-alone further defines genuine. Alternate translation: “a real widow, that is, one who has no family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

272

1TI

5

5

ggk0

ἡ…χήρα

1

the … widow

Here, the … widow does not refer to any specific widow, but to all widows who meet this description. Alternate translations: “any … widow” or “all … widows”

273

1TI

5

5

u1lj

figs-ellipsis

προσμένει ταῖς δεήσεσιν καὶ ταῖς προσευχαῖς

1

continues in requests and prayers

Paul leaves a verb unexpressed here that your language might need to express. Alternate translations: “continues in making requests and prayers” or “continues to make requests and to offer prayers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

274

1TI

5

5

rwp4

figs-hendiadys

ταῖς δεήσεσιν καὶ ταῖς προσευχαῖς

1

in requests and prayers

The phrase requests and prayers expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word requests tells what kind of prayers Paul is talking about here. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase by stating the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translations: “making requests to God in prayer” or “praying to God for what she needs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]]).

275

1TI

5

5

rb9f

figs-merism

νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας

1

night and day

The words night and day are used together to mean that she prays to God often, no matter what time it is. It does not mean that she prays all night and all day without ever stopping. Alternate translation: “at all times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

276

1TI

5

6

qy5h

figs-metaphor

ζῶσα τέθνηκεν

1

living, has died

Paul speaks about people who do not seek to please God as if they were dead. Alternate translation: “has died in her spirit, even though she is still alive physically” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

277

1TI

5

7

qw6m

καὶ ταῦτα παράγγελλε, ἵνα ἀνεπίλημπτοι ὦσιν

1

Also command these things, so that they may be irreproachable

This statement seems to refer back to 4:11, “Command and teach these things,” which Paul tells Timothy after telling him in 4:6 to “place these things before the brothers.” So they seems to refer to all the believers in this situation, including the widows, their families, and the local church that is supposed to organize the list of widows and make sure that the widows are cared for well. Alternate translation: “also give these instructions to the believers, so that no one will be able to accuse them of doing anything wrong”

278

1TI

5

8

p7h2

figs-idiom

τις τῶν ἰδίων καὶ μάλιστα οἰκείων οὐ προνοεῖ

1

someone does not provide for his own, and especially for household members

Here, his own is an idiom that means “his own relatives.” Alternate translation: “a person does not help with his relatives’ needs, and especially those of the family members living in his home” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

279

1TI

5

8

y645

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν πίστιν ἤρνηται

1

he has denied the faith

Here, the faith refers to believing in Jesus and obeying him. Paul explains that this action would be equivalent to denying all of this. Alternate translations: “by doing that, he denies that he belongs to Jesus” or “he has shown that he does not follow the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

280

1TI

5

8

evm7

figs-explicit

ἔστιν ἀπίστου χείρων

1

is worse than an unbeliever

The implication is that this person is worse than an unbeliever because even unbelievers take care of their own relatives. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “is worse than those who do not believe in Jesus, because they do take care of their relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

281

1TI

5

9

s8ql

figs-activepassive

χήρα καταλεγέσθω

1

Let a widow be enrolled

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “Have the church put a widow on the register” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

282

1TI

5

9

khe1

figs-explicit

χήρα καταλεγέσθω

1

There seems to have been a list of widows who had no family to help them. The church members met these women’s needs for food, clothing, and shelter, and these women then devoted their lives to serving the Christian community. If it would be helpful in your language, you could state this phrase explicitly. Alternate translation: “Have the church put a woman on the list of widows who truly need help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

283

1TI

5

9

i27x

figs-litotes

μὴ ἔλαττον ἐτῶν ἑξήκοντα γεγονυῖα

1

being not less than sixty years old

Paul is using the figure of speech not less than here that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “if she is at least sixty years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

284

1TI

5

9

q9dj

figs-idiom

ἑνὸς ἀνδρὸς γυνή

1

a wife of one husband

Like the similar expression in 3:2, this could mean: (1) she has only one husband. Alternate translation: “she was always faithful to her husband” (2) she was only married once. If it means this second possibility, it is not clear whether Paul means to exclude women who were married more than once and widowed each time, or more specifically women who divorced their husbands and married other men. Alternate translation: “she had one husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

285

1TI

5

10

l8nm

figs-activepassive

ἐν ἔργοις καλοῖς μαρτυρουμένη

1

attested in good works

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “people must be able to attest to her good deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

286

1TI

5

10

mik7

ἐξενοδόχησεν

1

has received strangers

Alternate translations: “has welcomed strangers into her home” or “has practiced hospitality”

287

1TI

5

10

ygl3

translate-symaction

ἁγίων πόδας ἔνιψεν

1

has washed the feet of the saints

In this culture, people walked barefoot or in sandals on roads that were dusty or muddy, so washing their feet once they entered a home was a way of helping them be comfortable and clean. If the people of your culture would not be familiar with this practice, you could use a general expression instead. Alternate translation: “she has cared for believers who visited her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

288

1TI

5

10

t366

figs-synecdoche

ἁγίων πόδας ἔνιψεν

1

has washed the feet of the saints

Paul may be using one type of humble service to represent humble service in general. Alternate translation: “has done humble things to help other believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

289

1TI

5

10

bw4h

figs-idiom

ἁγίων

1

the saints

The term saints refers to believers in Jesus as people who are “holy” or “set apart” for God. Alternate translations: “the believers” or “God’s holy people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

290

1TI

5

10

ey6i

figs-nominaladj

θλιβομένοις ἐπήρκεσεν

1

she has relieved the afflicted

Paul is using the adjective afflicted as a noun to refer to a class of people that it describes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this term by translating it with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “she has helped people who were suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

291

1TI

5

10

h96j

figs-hyperbole

παντὶ ἔργῳ ἀγαθῷ ἐπηκολούθησεν

1

she has pursued every good work

Paul uses the word every here as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “she has done many good deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

292

1TI

5

11

rv5h

νεωτέρας δὲ χήρας παραιτοῦ

1

But refuse younger widows

Alternate translation: “But do not add the names of widows who are younger than 60 years old to the list of widows”

293

1TI

5

11

vqq9

figs-explicit

ὅταν…καταστρηνιάσωσιν τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

when they become wanton against Christ

The implication of this phrase is that when a widow accepted a place on the register, she promised to remain unmarried and devote herself to serving other believers. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this explicitly. Alternate translation: “when they feel bodily desires that are contrary to their pledge of chastity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

294

1TI

5

12

t372

ἔχουσαι κρίμα

1

having judgment

Alternate translation: “and so they incur God’s judgment”

295

1TI

5

12

nha7

τὴν πρώτην πίστιν ἠθέτησαν

1

they have broken their first pledge

The term pledge here refers to a commitment that the widows made, as the last note to 5:11 explains, that they would serve the Christian community for the rest of their lives and not remarry if the community would supply their needs. Alternate translations: “they have not kept their prior commitment” or “they have not done what they had previously promised to do”

296

1TI

5

13

t4iv

καὶ ἀργαὶ μανθάνουσιν

1

they learn to be lazy ones

Alternate translation: “they also get into the habit of doing nothing”

297

1TI

5

13

t375

figs-nominaladj

ἀργαὶ

1

lazy

Paul is using the adjective lazy as a noun to refer to a class of people that it describes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this term by translating it with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are lazy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

298

1TI

5

13

t376

περιερχόμεναι τὰς οἰκίας

1

going around houses

Alternate translation: “going from house to house”

299

1TI

5

13

nll4

figs-doublet

φλύαροι καὶ περίεργοι, λαλοῦσαι τὰ μὴ δέοντα

1

babblers and busybodies, saying what they should not

These three phrases may be ways of speaking about the same activity. Paul may be using repetition to emphasize that these women should not be looking into the private lives of people and telling about them to others who would be no better off after hearing this gossip. If you think it would be helpful to your readers, you could combine these phrases into a single one. Alternate translation: “people who interfere openly in other people’s business” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]]) (A doublet can consist of more than two terms.)

300

1TI

5

13

cym5

φλύαροι

1

babblers

Alternate translation: “people who talk nonsense”

301

1TI

5

14

u94k

τῷ ἀντικειμένῳ

1

the one opposing

This expression could refer by implication to: (1) This could refer to: (1) Satan. This is the reading of UST. Alternate translation: “the devil” (2) unbelievers who are opposing the followers of Jesus. Alternate translation: “unbelievers who are opposing you”

302

1TI

5

15

fy54

figs-metaphor

ἐξετράπησαν ὀπίσω τοῦ Σατανᾶ

1

having … turned aside after Satan

Paul speaks of living in faithfulness to Christ as if it were a path that one can either follow or turn aside from. He means that some younger widows have stopped obeying Jesus and have started to do what Satan would want them to do instead. Alternate translation: “have stopped living in obedience to Jesus and have decided to obey Satan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

303

1TI

5

16

mf4s

figs-explicit

ἔχει χήρας

1

has widows

The implication is that she has widows within her extended family. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state that explicitly. Alternate translation: “has relatives who are widows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

304

1TI

5

16

y6hf

figs-metaphor

καὶ μὴ βαρείσθω ἡ ἐκκλησία

1

let the church not be weighed down

Paul speaks of the community having to help more people than it is able to help as if it were carrying too much weight on its back. Alternate translations: “so that the church will not have more work than it can do” or “so that the Christian community will not have to support widows whose families could provide for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

305

1TI

5

16

t384

figs-activepassive

καὶ μὴ βαρείσθω ἡ ἐκκλησία

1

let the church not be weighed down

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translations: “so that the church will not have more work than it can do” or “so that the Christian community will not have to support widows whose families could provide for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

306

1TI

5

16

d35m

ὄντως χήραις

1

genuine widows

Alternate translation: “widows who have no one else to provide for them”

307

1TI

5

17

u93q

figs-activepassive

οἱ καλῶς προεστῶτες πρεσβύτεροι…ἀξιούσθωσαν

1

The elders having ruled well, let them be considered worthy

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “All believers should consider elders who are good leaders to be deserving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

308

1TI

5

17

wp9d

figs-abstractnouns

διπλῆς τιμῆς

1

of double honor

Here, double honor could mean: (1) the congregation should honor the elders in two ways. Alternate translation: “of both respect and payment for their work” (2) they should honor them twice as much as others. Since Paul quotes two Scriptures in the next verse that support the idea of church leaders being paid for their work, the first possibility is more likely. Alternate translation: “of more respect than others receive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

309

1TI

5

17

t389

figs-hendiadys

ἐν λόγῳ καὶ διδασκαλίᾳ

1

in the word and in teaching

This phrase may be expressing a single idea by using two phrases (which are actually just two words in Greek) connected with and. The phrase in {the} word would be identifying the content of the teaching. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection by stating the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “at teaching from the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

310

1TI

5

17

t390

figs-metonymy

λόγῳ

1

the word

Paul may be using the term word here to describe the Scriptures, which God inspired people to put into words. Alternate translation: “the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

311

1TI

5

18

kh55

figs-personification

λέγει γὰρ ἡ Γραφή

1

For the Scripture says

Paul describes Scripture as if it could speak for itself. Alternate translations: “for it is written in the Scriptures” or “for we read in the Scriptures that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

312

1TI

5

18

t392

figs-declarative

βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις

1

You will not muzzle a threshing ox

Here the Scriptures use a statement in order to give a command. Alternate translation: “You must not muzzle an ox while it is treading on grain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

313

1TI

5

18

vw3a

figs-metaphor

βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις

1

You will not muzzle a threshing ox

Paul is quoting this passage. He is using it to indicate that, just as God wanted oxen to be able to eat some of the grain that they were working to separate from its husks, so church leaders deserve to receive payment from the Christian community that they are serving. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

314

1TI

5

18

g985

translate-unknown

βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις

1

you will not muzzle

A muzzle is a sleeve that goes over an animal’s snout to prevent it from opening its jaws and eating while it is doing work. If your readers would not be familiar with this object, you could use a more general expression instead. Alternate translations: “Do not keep an ox’s mouth shut” or “You must not prevent an ox from eating” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

315

1TI

5

18

t6kp

translate-unknown

βοῦν ἀλοῶντα

1

a threshing ox

An ox in this culture would “thresh” grain by walking on it or pulling a heavy object over it to separate the grain from the husks. Alternate translation: “an ox that is separating grain from husks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

316

1TI

5

18

kys1

ἄξιος ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

The worthy is worthy of his wages

Alternate translations: “A worker has a right to be paid” or “A worker should receive his wages”

317

1TI

5

19

af68

grammar-connect-exceptions

κατηγορίαν μὴ παραδέχου, ἐκτὸς εἰ

1

do not receive an accusation, except if

If, in your language, it would appear that Paul was making a statement and then contradicting it, you could reword this statement to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “only believe that an accusation is true if” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

318

1TI

5

19

t399

figs-ellipsis

ἐπὶ δύο ἢ τριῶν μαρτύρων

1

on two or three witnesses

Here, on stands for the concept of “relying on.” You may need to use a more complete phrase in your language. Alternate translations: “you are relying on the testimony of two or three people” or “at least two people give evidence for it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

319

1TI

5

19

kmy5

δύο ἢ τριῶν

1

two or three

Alternate translations: “at least two” or “two or more”

320

1TI

5

20

db63

figs-metaphor

ἐνώπιον…πάντων

1

before all

Paul uses the expression before to mean “in front of.” Alternate translations: “where everyone can see” or “in public” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

321

1TI

5

20

ql4m

figs-explicit

ἵνα καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ φόβον ἔχωσιν

1

so that the rest also may have fear

If it would be helpful to your readers, you could state what, by implication, people will be afraid of doing. Alternate translation: “so that other people will be afraid to sin themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

322

1TI

5

20

t404

figs-idiom

φόβον ἔχωσιν

1

may have fear

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “will be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

323

1TI

5

21

x0zp

διαμαρτύρομαι ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, καὶ τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν ἀγγέλων

1

I adjure you, before God and Christ Jesus and the chosen angels

By calling on God and Christ Jesus and the chosen angels as witnesses to what Paul is saying, Paul is making Timothy responsible to God to do what he says. If this is not clear, then put this into the form that your language uses for an oath. Alternate translation: “as God and Christ Jesus and the chosen angels are my witnesses, I put you under oath”

324

1TI

5

21

t405

figs-metaphor

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

before God and Christ Jesus

Paul uses the expression before, meaning “in front of,” to indicate “where they can see.” Seeing, in turn, means attention and judgment. Alternate translation: “as God and Christ Jesus and the chosen angels are watching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

325

1TI

5

21

t7jq

figs-idiom

τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν ἀγγέλων

1

the chosen angels

This phrase refers to the angels whom God has chosen to serve him in a special way. Alternate translation: “the angels who are God’s special servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

326

1TI

5

21

dph6

ταῦτα φυλάξῃς

1

keep these things

Alternate translation: “you follow these instructions”

327

1TI

5

21

t409

ταῦτα

1

these things

Grammatically, this could refer either to the instructions Paul has just given Timothy about elders or to the instructions he is about to give Timothy regarding his own personal conduct. But since Paul tells Timothy to follow these instructions without favoring one person over another, it is most likely that this refers to the instructions about elders. Alternate translation: “these things that I have just told you”

328

1TI

5

21

t408

figs-doublet

χωρὶς προκρίματος, μηδὲν ποιῶν κατὰ πρόσκλισιν

1

without partiality, doing nothing out of favoritism

The terms partiality and favoritism mean similar things. Paul may be using repetition to emphasize that Timothy must judge honestly and be fair to everyone. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these terms. Alternate translation: “being completely fair to everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

329

1TI

5

22

qb71

translate-symaction

χεῖρας ταχέως μηδενὶ ἐπιτίθει

1

Place hands hastily on no one

The “placing of hands” was a ceremony in which one or more church leaders would put their hands on people and pray that God would enable them to serve the church in a way that would please God. Timothy was to wait until a person had shown good character for a long time before officially and publicly setting that person apart in this way to serve the Christian community. Alternate translation: “Do not appoint a person to church leadership until he has consistently demonstrated good character” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

330

1TI

5

22

t411

figs-litotes

χεῖρας ταχέως μηδενὶ ἐπιτίθει, μηδὲ

1

Place hands hastily on no one

Paul is using a figure of speech here that expresses a positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. Alternate translation: “Wait until a person has consistently demonstrated good character before appointing that person to church leadership, and do not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

331

1TI

5

22

pyl8

figs-explicit

μηδὲ κοινώνει ἁμαρτίαις ἀλλοτρίαις

1

nor share in the sins of others

The implication in context may be that if Timothy appoints a person to leadership before they are ready or without ensuring that their character is exemplary, then Timothy will bear some responsibility for that person’s ultimate failure as a leader, or he will appear to have approved of the person’s sins, once they are uncovered. Alternate translation: “so that you do not become responsible for the moral and leadership failures of others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

332

1TI

5

23

xl32

figs-explicit

οἴνῳ ὀλίγῳ χρῶ

1

use a little wine

Paul is telling Timothy to use wine specifically as medicine. The water in that area was impure and often caused sickness. Alternate translation: “in addition, you should drink some wine from time to time as medicine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

333

1TI

5

24

uk56

figs-gendernotations

τινῶν ἀνθρώπων

1

of some men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “of some people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

334

1TI

5

24

ug1z

figs-personification

πρόδηλοί εἰσιν, προάγουσαι εἰς κρίσιν

1

are evident, going ahead into judgment

Paul speaks of sins as if they could move on their own ahead of a person to the place where that person will be judged for committing them. Here, judgment could refer to: (1) the judgment when the sinner stands before God on the last day. Alternate translation: “are so obvious that everyone knows they are guilty long before God declares them guilty” (2) judgment before the church. Alternate translation: “are clear to everyone, even before the church leaders confront them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

335

1TI

5

24

i1c6

figs-personification

τισὶν δὲ καὶ ἐπακολουθοῦσιν

1

but they also follow after some

Paul speaks once again of sins as if they could move on their own. As in the previous clause, this could refer to: (1) judgment by God. Alternate translation: “but the sins of other people do not become evident until God judges them” (2) judgment by the church. Alternate translation: “but the sins of some people remain hidden for a long time” This latter alternative also allows the possibility that Paul is referring to judgment by God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

336

1TI

5

25

pd8v

figs-explicit

καὶ τὰ ἔργα τὰ καλὰ πρόδηλα

1

good works are also evident

Implicitly, here Paul does not mean all good works, since in the rest of the sentence he speaks of some good works that are not evident. Alternate translation: “most good works are also obvious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

337

1TI

5

25

qlu5

figs-explicit

τὰ ἔργα τὰ καλὰ

1

good works

The implication of good works is that these works are considered good because they are consistent with God’s character, purposes, and will. Alternate translation: “actions that God approves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

338

1TI

5

25

bl51

figs-metaphor

καὶ τὰ ἄλλως ἔχοντα, κρυβῆναι οὐ δύναταί

1

and the ones having otherwise are not able to be hidden

Paul speaks of good works as if they were objects that someone could hide. Alternate translation: “and people will find out later about even those good deeds that are not obvious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

339

1TI

5

25

t420

figs-activepassive

καὶ τὰ ἄλλως ἔχοντα, κρυβῆναι οὐ δύναταί

1

and the ones having otherwise are not able to be hidden

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who will do the action. Alternate translation: “and people who secretly do good works will not be able to hide them forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

340

1TI

5

25

bb2t

figs-doublenegatives

κρυβῆναι οὐ δύναταί

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state the double-negative not … hidden in a positive way. Alternate translation: “people will learn about them later” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

341

1TI

6

intro

rks4

0

1 Timothy 6 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Slavery

In this chapter Paul teaches slaves about honoring, respecting, and diligently serving their masters. This does not mean that he is endorsing slavery as a good thing or as something that God approves of. Instead, Paul is encouraging believers to be godly and content in every situation that they are in. This does not mean that they cannot also work to change those situations.

342

1TI

6

1

nm4n

figs-metaphor

ὅσοι εἰσὶν ὑπὸ ζυγὸν δοῦλοι

1

As many slaves as are under the yoke

Paul speaks of people who work as slaves as though they were oxen plowing or pulling with a yoke around their necks. Alternate translation: “Concerning people who are working as slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

343

1TI

6

1

ep1l

figs-explicit

ὅσοι εἰσὶν…δοῦλοι

1

as many … as are

The implication in context is that Paul is speaking about believers who are slaves. Alternate translation: “All the believers who are working as slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

344

1TI

6

1

he2n

figs-activepassive

ἵνα μὴ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἡ διδασκαλία βλασφημῆται

1

so that the name of God and the teaching may not be blasphemed

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who would do the action. Alternate translation: “so that unbelievers will not insult God’s character or what we believe and teach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

345

1TI

6

1

e3ce

ἵνα μὴ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ ἡ διδασκαλία βλασφημῆται

1

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state this negative phrase in a positive way. Alternate translation: “so that unbelievers will always speak respectfully about God’s character and about the things that we teach”

346

1TI

6

1

xb92

figs-metonymy

τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the name of God

Here, name is a figurative way of referring to the fame or reputation of a person. Alternate translations: “God’s character” or “God’s reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

347

1TI

6

1

f5pc

figs-explicit

ἡ διδασκαλία

1

the teaching

Implicitly Paul means the teaching about Jesus and about how his followers should live. Alternate translation: “our teaching about how believers should live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

348

1TI

6

2

fvv7

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί εἰσιν

1

they are brothers

Here, brothers means fellow believers in Jesus, whether male or female. Alternate translation: “they are fellow believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

349

1TI

6

2

nmh9

καὶ ἀγαπητοὶ

1

beloved

This could have either, or both, meanings: (1) God loves these people. Alternate translation: “whom God loves” (2) other believers love these people. Alternate translation: “and so their believing slaves should love them”

350

1TI

6

3

t430

figs-metonymy

ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις

1

to the healthy words

See how you translated the term healthy in 1:10. Here, as well, it is a figurative way to say that the teaching is good and reliable in every way and has no defect or corruption. A person with a healthy mind would recognize this teaching as correct. Alternate translations: “to the correct words” or “to the true expression of our faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

351

1TI

6

3

t431

figs-metonymy

ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις

1

to the healthy words

Paul uses the term words to describe the verbal expression of what followers of Jesus genuinely believe. Alternate translation: “to the true expression of our faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

352

1TI

6

3

sshf

τοῖς τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Here, the ones could refer to: (1) the message about the Lord Jesus. (2) words spoken by the Lord Jesus.

353

1TI

6

4

pn8n

figs-metaphor

τετύφωται

1

he is puffed up

Paul speaks of a person who is excessively proud as if they were inflated with air. See how you translated this phrase in 3:6. Alternate translation: “he is excessively proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

354

1TI

6

4

t433

figs-activepassive

τετύφωται

1

he is puffed up

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the phrase puffed up with an active form. Alternate translation: “he is excessively proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

355

1TI

6

4

t434

figs-gendernotations

τετύφωται

1

he is puffed up

Here, he refers to anyone in general who teaches what is not correct. Alternate translation: “that person is excessively proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

356

1TI

6

4

z2rb

figs-hyperbole

μηδὲν ἐπιστάμενος

1

understanding nothing

Paul uses the term nothing here as a generalization for emphasis. It is specifically God’s true message that the person does not understand. Alternate translation: “he understands nothing about God’s truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

357

1TI

6

4

qu86

figs-metaphor

νοσῶν περὶ ζητήσεις

1

ailing about controversies and word-battles

Paul speaks of people who feel compelled to engage in useless arguments as if they were ill. Such people greatly desire to argue, and they do not really want to find a way to agree. Alternate translation: “morbidly craves arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

358

1TI

6

4

i3lk

figs-doublet

ζητήσεις καὶ λογομαχίας

1

controversies and word-battles

These two terms mean basically the same thing, although the second term refers more specifically to arguments about the meaning of words. Paul uses these terms together for emphasis. If these are not separate ideas in your language, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

359

1TI

6

4

xt1z

λογομαχίας

1

word-battles

Alternate translation: “fights about the meaning of words”

360

1TI

6

4

y3mx

βλασφημίαι

1

blasphemies

While the term blasphemies often refers to untrue or disrespectful things that people say about God, in this context it refers to people falsely saying bad things about each other. Alternate translation: “insults”

361

1TI

6

4

kn69

ὑπόνοιαι πονηραί

1

evil suspicions

Alternate translation: “thinking incorrectly that others want to harm them”

362

1TI

6

5

x93f

figs-metaphor

διαπαρατριβαὶ

1

friction

Here, friction is the last item in the list that began in the previous verse, a litany of bad things that result from “controversies and word-battles.” This is a metaphor. It compares two results: the heat and damage which occur when two objects rub together and the irritation and anger that can occur when people interact badly. Alternate translation: “and constant conflict” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

363

1TI

6

5

z2d8

figs-activepassive

διεφθαρμένων ἀνθρώπων τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀπεστερημένων τῆς ἀληθείας

1

men having been corrupted as to the mind and having been deprived of the truth

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translation: “between people whose minds are corrupt and who no longer believe the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

364

1TI

6

5

tyf7

figs-parallelism

διεφθαρμένων ἀνθρώπων τὸν νοῦν καὶ ἀπεστερημένων τῆς ἀληθείας

1

men having been corrupted as to the mind and having been deprived of the truth

These two phrases mean basically the same thin; Paul uses the repetition for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “people who are no longer able to recognize the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

365

1TI

6

5

t443

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων

1

between men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “between people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

366

1TI

6

6

q5sq

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

But

Paul uses the word But to introduce a contrast between what the false teachers believe about godliness and what is really true about godliness. Alternate translation: “instead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

367

1TI

6

6

ya9z

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ εὐσέβεια μετὰ αὐταρκείας

1

godliness with contentment

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the abstract nouns godliness and contentment by stating the ideas behind them with verbal phrases. Alternate translation: “doing what is godly along with being content with what a person has” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

368

1TI

6

6

o6j4

figs-abstractnouns

ἔστιν…πορισμὸς μέγας

1

is great gain

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun gain with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “makes a person very well off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

369

1TI

6

7

t446

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Paul uses the word For to introduce the reason for what he said in the previous sentence. Alternate translation: “After all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

370

1TI

6

7

j6qv

figs-explicit

οὐδὲν…εἰσηνέγκαμεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον

1

we brought nothing into the world

The implication of this phrase is that Paul is speaking about when a person is born. Alternate translation: “brought nothing into the world when we were born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

371

1TI

6

7

t448

figs-ellipsis

ὅτι

1

that

Here Paul leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “and so it is also clear that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

372

1TI

6

7

jlv8

figs-explicit

οὐδὲ ἐξενεγκεῖν τι δυνάμεθα

1

neither are we able to take anything out

The implication of this phrase is that Paul is speaking about when a person dies. Alternate translation: “we can take nothing out of the world when we die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

373

1TI

6

8

lbk5

figs-declarative

ἀρκεσθησόμεθα

1

we will be satisfied

Here Paul uses a statement in order to express a moral imperative. Alternate translation: “that should be enough for us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

374

1TI

6

8

t451

figs-activepassive

ἀρκεσθησόμεθα

1

we will be satisfied

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translation: “that should be enough for us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

375

1TI

6

9

ij4j

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Now

Paul uses the word Now to indicate that he is returning to the topic of those who think being godly will make them wealthy. You can translate the term with the word or phrase in your language that is most similar in meaning and significance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

376

1TI

6

9

pl5d

figs-metaphor

ἐμπίπτουσιν εἰς πειρασμὸν, καὶ παγίδα

1

fall into temptation and a trap

Paul speaks about those who let the temptation of money cause them to sin as if they were animals that fall into a hole that a hunter is using as a trap. Alternate translation: “will encounter more temptation than they can resist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

377

1TI

6

9

gfy7

figs-metaphor

καὶ ἐπιθυμίας πολλὰς ἀνοήτους καὶ βλαβεράς

1

and many foolish and harmful desires

This phrase continues the figure of speech from the previous phrase. Paul speaks about these desires if they too were a hole that a hunter was using as a trap. Alternate translation: “and will experience destructive impulses than they cannot overcome” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

378

1TI

6

9

t456

figs-hendiadys

ἐπιθυμίας…ἀνοήτους καὶ βλαβεράς

1

foolish and harmful desires

Here Paul expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word foolish tells why these desires are harmful. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection by stating the meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “destructive impulses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

379

1TI

6

9

nc3i

figs-metaphor

αἵτινες βυθίζουσι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους εἰς ὄλεθρον καὶ ἀπώλειαν

1

whatever plunges men into ruin and destruction

This phrase summarizes the character of the temptations and impulses that Paul has just described. He speaks of them as if they could make people drown in deep water. Alternate translation: “which people cannot escape, and such things destroy them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

380

1TI

6

9

t458

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπους

1

men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

381

1TI

6

9

t459

figs-doublet

ὄλεθρον καὶ ἀπώλειαν

1

ruin and destruction

These two words ruin and destruction mean very similar things. Paul uses them both to emphasize that this is very bad. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use one term with a word that adds emphasis. Alternate translations: “complete destruction” or “total ruin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

382

1TI

6

10

t460

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

For

Paul uses the word For to introduce the reasons for what the previous sentence stated. Alternate translation: “This is because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

383

1TI

6

10

xs9d

figs-metaphor

ῥίζα…πάντων τῶν κακῶν ἐστιν ἡ φιλαργυρία

1

a root of all evils is the love of money

Paul speaks of evil as if it were a plant, and of the love of money as if it were the root from which that plant grew. Alternate translation: “loving money leads a person to do all kinds of wrong things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

384

1TI

6

10

t462

figs-hyperbole

πάντων τῶν κακῶν

1

of all evils

Paul uses the term all here as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “of many kinds of wrong things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

385

1TI

6

10

j5z9

τινες ὀρεγόμενοι

1

which, some desiring

The reference here is to people desiring money, not evil. You could start a new sentence here if that would be helpful to your readers. Alternate translation: “some people who want to become rich”

386

1TI

6

10

b83v

figs-metaphor

ἀπεπλανήθησαν ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως

1

have been led away from the faith

Paul speaks of the desire for money as if it were an evil guide that intentionally leads people down the wrong path. Alternate translation: “have stopped believing in Jesus because of their desire for money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

387

1TI

6

10

t465

figs-activepassive

ἧς τινες ὀρεγόμενοι, ἀπεπλανήθησαν ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως

1

have been led away from the faith

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form. Alternate translations: “which has led some people away from believing in Jesus” or “a love for money that has led some people to stop following Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

388

1TI

6

10

a1fx

figs-metaphor

ἑαυτοὺς περιέπειραν ὀδύναις πολλαῖς

1

have pierced themselves with many sorrows

Paul speaks about grief as if it were a sword that people use to stab themselves. Alternate translation: “have experienced great sorrows in their lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

389

1TI

6

11

tp97

ὦ ἄνθρωπε Θεοῦ

1

O man of God

Alternate translations: “You servant of God” or “You person who belongs to God”

390

1TI

6

11

h9c6

figs-metaphor

ταῦτα φεῦγε

1

flee these things

Paul speaks of these temptations and sins as if they were things a person could physically run away from. Alternate translation: “make sure that you do not do these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

391

1TI

6

11

a88g

ταῦτα

1

these things

This phrase could refer to: (1) everything Paul has been talking about in this section of the letter (false teachings, pride, arguments, and the love of money). (2) what Paul has been talking about most recently (the love of money). If possible, it is best to leave it as a general reference.

392

1TI

6

11

zjl3

figs-metaphor

δίωκε

1

pursue

Paul speaks of righteousness and other good qualities as if they were things that a person could run after and catch. This metaphor is the opposite of “flee from.” It means to try your best to obtain something. Alternate translation: “seek to acquire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

393

1TI

6

12

w21p

figs-metaphor

ἀγωνίζου τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς πίστεως

1

Fight the good fight of the faith

Here, Paul speaks about a person persevering in following Jesus as if he were a warrior fighting at his best, or an athlete doing his best to win an event. Alternate translation: “Do your best to obey Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

394

1TI

6

12

y6m8

figs-metaphor

ἐπιλαβοῦ τῆς αἰωνίου ζωῆς

1

grasp eternal life

Paul speaks about people wanting eternal life so much that they hold onto it firmly in their hands. He may be continuing the metaphor of an athlete who worked hard to win an event and now holds the trophy in his hands. Alternate translations: “eagerly desire to live with God forever” or “do whatever is necessary to pursue life with God forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

395

1TI

6

12

usd1

figs-activepassive

εἰς ἣν ἐκλήθης

1

to which you were called

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who did the action. Alternate translation: “to which God called you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

396

1TI

6

12

qw96

ὡμολόγησας τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν

1

you confessed the good confession

Alternate translation: “you publicly stated your faith in Jesus”

397

1TI

6

12

vm6q

figs-explicit

ἐνώπιον πολλῶν μαρτύρων

1

before many witnesses

The implication is that Timothy’s statement of his faith was binding because these witnesses were present and could testify that he had made it. In your translation, you could use the expression used in your culture for a public, legal commitment. Alternate translation: “while many people were watching” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

398

1TI

6

13

t476

figs-explicit

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

before God

The implication is that Paul is asking God to be his witness that he has given Timothy this command. Alternate translation: “with God as my witness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

399

1TI

6

13

ts65

τοῦ ζῳοποιοῦντος τὰ πάντα

1

the one enlivening all

Alternate translation: “who causes all things to live”

400

1TI

6

13

t477

figs-explicit

καὶ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

1

and Christ Jesus

The implication is that Paul is also asking Jesus to be his witness. Alternate translation: “and with Christ Jesus as my witness as well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

401

1TI

6

13

amy1

figs-explicit

τοῦ μαρτυρήσαντος ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πειλάτου τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν

1

the one having testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate

Paul is offering Jesus to Timothy as an example of someone who publicly affirmed his obedience to God even when others were hostile and threatening. Alternate translation: “who acknowledged God himself when Pontius Pilate put him on trial” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

402

1TI

6

14

p9n9

figs-doublet

ἄσπιλον ἀνεπίλημπτον

1

spotless, irreproachable

The terms spotless and irreproachable mean similar things. Paul may be using them together for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these terms and express the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “completely blameless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

403

1TI

6

14

t480

figs-metaphor

ἄσπιλον

1

spotless

A spot means a moral fault. This could mean: (1) Timothy should live in such a way that Jesus will not find fault with him or blame him for doing wrong. (2) Timothy should live in such a way that other people will not find fault with him or blame him for doing wrong. Alternate translation: “blameless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

404

1TI

6

14

nk52

μέχρι τῆς ἐπιφανείας τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

until the appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ

Alternate translation: “until our Lord Jesus Christ returns”

405

1TI

6

15

t482

figs-idiom

καιροῖς ἰδίοις

1

in its own times

See how you translated this expression in 2:6. Alternate translation: “at the time that God will choose” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

406

1TI

6

15

ac6y

figs-explicit

ὁ μακάριος καὶ μόνος Δυνάστης

1

the blessed and only Sovereign

This expression refers implicitly to God. Alternate translation: “God, the One we praise, who alone rules over the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

407

1TI

6

16

l9i8

ὁ μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν

1

the One having immortality alone

Alternate translation: “the only one who has always existed”

408

1TI

6

16

tsz3

φῶς οἰκῶν ἀπρόσιτον

1

occupying unapproachable ligh

Alternate translation: “who lives in light so bright that no one can come near it”

409

1TI

6

16

t487

figs-gendernotations

οὐδεὶς ἀνθρώπων

1

none of men

Paul uses the term men here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “no human being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

410

1TI

6

17

te3z

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς πλουσίοις

1

the rich

Paul is using the adjective rich as a noun to refer to a class of people that it describes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this term by translating it with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are rich” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

411

1TI

6

17

z4ec

ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι

1

in the present age

The present age is the time period in which we are living, before Jesus returns and establishes God’s rule over all people. Alternate translation: “at this time”

412

1TI

6

17

drj6

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπὶ πλούτου ἀδηλότητι

1

in the uncertainty of riches

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun uncertainty with a verbal phrase. Alternate translations: “in riches, which are so uncertain” or “in wealth, which a person can lose so easily” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

413

1TI

6

17

iq61

figs-ellipsis

πάντα πλουσίως εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν

1

all things richly unto enjoyment

By all, Paul is referring to all of the things that anyone actually has, not to everything that it might be possible to have. If it would be helpful in your language, you may want to include words to make that clear. Alternate translation: “all of the things that we have so that we can enjoy them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

414

1TI

6

18

cii3

figs-metaphor

πλουτεῖν ἐν ἔργοις καλοῖς

1

to be rich in good works

Paul speaks of doing things to help others as a way of becoming wealthy, but it is measured in something other than money. Alternate translation: “to serve and help others in many ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

415

1TI

6

19

zc9d

figs-metaphor

ἀποθησαυρίζοντας ἑαυτοῖς θεμέλιον καλὸν εἰς τὸ μέλλον

1

storing up for themselves a good foundation for what is coming

Paul speaks about the blessings that God will give to those who have served him faithfully as if they were riches that a person was storing in a safe place. Alternate translation: “securing a good start now on their future life in God’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

416

1TI

6

19

t493

figs-metaphor

ἀποθησαυρίζοντας ἑαυτοῖς θεμέλιον καλὸν εἰς τὸ μέλλον

1

storing up for themselves a good foundation for what is coming

Paul also speaks about the blessings that God will give as if they were the foundation of a building. He means that they will give a person a good start on their new life in the presence of God forever. Alternate translation: “securing a good start now on their future life in God’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

417

1TI

6

19

t494

figs-idiom

εἰς τὸ μέλλον

1

for what is coming

In the New Testament, this expression can refer to different things, but in this case it seems to refer to the new life that believers will have in God’s presence after death and the end of history. It is equivalent to the expression “for the coming life” in 4:8. Alternate translation: “for their future life in God’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

418

1TI

6

19

z5ru

figs-metaphor

ἵνα ἐπιλάβωνται τῆς ὄντως ζωῆς

1

so that they may grasp genuine life

Paul is using the same image as in the phrase grasp eternal life in 6:12. He is speaking about people wanting eternal life so much that they hold onto it firmly in their hands. Alternate translation: “so that they can indeed live with God forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

419

1TI

6

20

dd1v

figs-explicit

τὴν παραθήκην φύλαξον

1

guard the entrustment

The implication is that Jesus has entrusted Timothy with the message to proclaim about him. Alternate translation: “protect the message about Jesus that he has put in your care” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

420

1TI

6

20

vgr8

figs-metonymy

ἐκτρεπόμενος τὰς βεβήλους κενοφωνίας

1

avoiding the profane chatter

In order to avoid profane chatter, Timothy must avoid the people who do the chattering. Alternate translation: “do not pay attention to the talk of people for whom nothing is sacred” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

421

1TI

6

20

t498

καὶ ἀντιθέσεις

1

and contradictions

This could mean: (1) the false teachers are saying things that are contrary to true Christian belief. Alternate translations: “and teachings that contradict us” or “and the opposing statements” (2) the false teachers are saying things that cannot all be true at the same time.

422

1TI

6

20

y2u7

figs-activepassive

τῆς ψευδωνύμου γνώσεως

1

of miscalled knowledge

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this passive phrase with an active form, and you could state who is doing the action. Alternate translation: “of what some people falsely call knowledge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

423

1TI

6

21

e6rb

figs-metaphor

περὶ τὴν πίστιν ἠστόχησαν

1

have missed the mark regarding the faith

See how you translated this expression in 1:6. Paul speaks of faith in Christ as if it were a target that people should aim at. Alternate translation: “have not fulfilled the purpose of faith in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

424

1TI

6

21

t501

ἡ χάρις μεθ’ ὑμῶν

1

Grace be with you

If it would be helpful in your language, you could state explicitly who will give this grace and who Paul is thinking will make this happen. Alternate translation: “May God give grace to all of you”

425

1TI

6

21

hix2

figs-you

ἡ χάρις μεθ’ ὑμῶν

1

Grace be with you

The word you is plural and refers to Timothy and all the believers at Ephesus. Alternate translation: “May God give grace to all of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])