unfoldingWord® Translation Notes https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn/
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
en_tn/en_tn_54-2TH.tsv

86 KiB

1BookChapterVerseIDSupportReferenceOrigQuoteOccurrenceGLQuoteOccurrenceNote
2

2TH

front

intro

krd6

0

Introduction to 2 Thessalonians

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the book of 2 Thessalonians

  1. Greetings and thanksgiving (1:1–2)
  2. Believers suffer from persecution (1:3–12) * God uses persecution to increase faith, love, and endurance in believers (1:3–4) * God is just: (1:5–12) * God will make believers worthy of his kingdom * God will give relief to believers * God will punish those who persecute believers
  3. Some believers misunderstand about the second coming of Christ (2:1–12)
    • Christ’s return has not yet happened (2:1–2)
    • Instruction about the events that will precede the return of Christ (2:3–12)
  4. Paul’s confidence that God will save the Thessalonian believers (2:13–17)
    • Paul calls the Thessalonian believers to “stand firm” (2:13–15)
    • Paul prays that God will comfort them (2:16–17)
  5. Paul requests that the Thessalonian believers pray for him (3:1–5)
  6. Paul give commands about idle believers (3:6–15)
  7. Closing (3:16–17)

Who wrote 2 Thessalonians?

Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians. He was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted believers. After he became a believer, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.

Paul is the author of this letter, but he includes Silvanus and Timothy as senders of the letter. Paul wrote this letter while he, Silvanus, and Timothy were staying in the city of Corinth.

What is the book of 2 Thessalonians about?

Paul wrote this letter to the believers in the city of Thessalonica. He encouraged the believers because they were being persecuted. He told them to continue living in a way that pleased God. He also wanted to teach them again about Christ’s return. He also warned them that they should not be idle but should work as they wait for Christ to return.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “2 Thessalonians” or “Second Thessalonians.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Second Letter to the Church in Thessalonica,” or “The Second Letter to the Christians/believers in Thessalonica.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What is the “second coming” of Jesus?

Paul wrote much in this letter about Jesus’ eventual return to Earth. When Jesus returns, he will judge all mankind. He will also rule over creation. And he will cause there to be peace everywhere. Paul also explained that a “man of lawlessness” will come before Christ’s return. This person will obey Satan and cause many people to oppose God. But Jesus will destroy this person when he returns.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What did Paul mean by the expression “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?

Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union between Christ and the believers. Please see the introduction to the book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.

How are pronouns used in this letter?

In this letter, the words “we” and “us” refer to Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, unless otherwise noted. If your language differentiates between inclusive and exclusive pronouns, use an exclusive pronoun for these. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

In this letter, the words “you” and “your” are plural and refer to the Thessalonian believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

What are the major issues in the text of the book of 2 Thessalonians?

For the following verses, some ancient manuscripts have a different reading than others. The ULT follows the reading that scholars consider to be the most accurate and puts the other reading in a footnote. If a translation of the Bible exists in your area that your people are familiar with, consider using the reading that it follows. If not, translators are advised to follow the reading in the ULT.

  • “and the man of lawlessness is revealed” (2:3). The ULT, UST, and most modern versions read this way. Other versions follow the reading, “and the man of sin is revealed.”
  • “For God chose you as the firstfruits for salvation” (2:13) The ULT, UST, and some other versions read this way. The other reading is, “For God chose you from the first/beginning for salvation.”

(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

3

2TH

1

intro

m987

0

2 Thessalonians 1 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

Verses 1–2 formally introduce this letter. Letters in the ancient Near East commonly had introductions of this type in which the sender identified himself, then the recipient, then gave a greeting.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Paradox

A paradox is a true statement that appears to describe something impossible.

A paradox occurs in verses 4–5 where Paul talks about the Thessalonian believers’ faithfulness through persecution as “evidence of the righteous judgment of God.” People would not normally think that believing in God while being persecuted is a sign of God’s righteous judgment. But the fact that God gave them the ability to persevere in their faith is evidence that God claims them as his own and will judge them as worthy of his kingdom. In verses 5–10, Paul goes on to explain more of God’s righteous judgment, that God will reward those who believe in him and that he will punish those who afflict his people. (2 Thessalonians 1:4–5)

Another paradox occurs in verse 9 where Paul describes the penalty for rejecting God as “eternal destruction.” Normally when something is destroyed it ceases to exist. But in this case, the people who reject God will experience eternal separation from God, as the verse goes on to explain. Being separated from God destroys all that was enjoyable about their lives, and this continuous destruction is what they experience through eternity. (2 Thessalonians 1:9)

4

2TH

1

1

hm3e

translate-names

Σιλουανὸς

1

Silvanus

Silvanus is the Latin form of “Silas.” Silvanus is the name of a man, the same person listed in the book of Acts as Paul’s fellow traveler. If your readers may not know that these two are the same person, you could use the name “Silas” in the text and “Silvanus” in the footnote. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

5

2TH

1

1

ge00

figs-ellipsis

Παῦλος, καὶ Σιλουανὸς, καὶ Τιμόθεος; τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

You may want to fill in the words necessary to make this a complete sentence. Alternate translation: “Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy send this letter to the church” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis)

6

2TH

1

1

l8q8

figs-explicit

Παῦλος, καὶ Σιλουανὸς, καὶ Τιμόθεος

1

Although Paul wrote this letter, he identifies Silvanus and Timothy as also sending it. This means that they were with him and were in agreement with it. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could make that clear, as in the UST. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit)

7

2TH

1

1

eajo

figs-metaphor

ἐν Θεῷ Πατρὶ ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ

1

Here Paul speaks of the believers as though they were occupying space inside of God and Jesus. This metaphor expresses the idea that believers are spiritually united to God and Jesus. If this might be misunderstood in your language, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternative translation: “united to God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” or “sharing life with God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)

8

2TH

1

2

g6rb

translate-blessing

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Grace to you

Many languages have different ways to offer good wishes as they greet. Paul greeted his letter recipients with a blessing. Use a form that would be a good wish or blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “We pray that God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ give you grace and peace” or “I wish you grace and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” or “May the grace and peace of God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ be your portion” or “May God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ show grace and give peace to your hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

9

2TH

1

2

bv9m

figs-abstractnouns

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind Grace and peace, you can express these ideas as verbs or in another way. Alternate translation: “May God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and give rest to your inner being” or “...be favorable to you and make you at ease” or “...be kind to you and set your heart at rest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

10

2TH

1

3

o6v9

checking/headings

0

General Information:

In verses 3–12, Paul gives thanks for the believers in Thessalonica and prays for them. A heading for this section might be, “Thanks and Prayers.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

11

2TH

1

3

m6z5

εὐχαριστεῖν ὀφείλομεν…πάντοτε

1

General Information:

Paul here uses the word ought to express that he has a moral obligation to God to give thanks for the believers in Thessalonica. Use a natural expression for this in your language. Alternate translation: “We are bound always to thank” or “We can do no other than to thank” or “We must give thanks continually to”

12

2TH

1

3

ea59

figs-hyperbole

εὐχαριστεῖν ὀφείλομεν τῷ Θεῷ πάντοτε

1

We ought always to give thanks to God

Paul uses always as a generalization meaning “often” or “regularly.” Alternate translation: “We should often give thanks to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

13

2TH

1

3

o01t

figs-explicit

εὐχαριστεῖν ὀφείλομεν τῷ Θεῷ πάντοτε περὶ ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί

1

If your readers might think that Paul is expressing an obligation only and that he does not actually pray for the Thessalonians, you could express the reality explicitly. Alternate translation: “We always thank God for you, brothers, as we ought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

14

2TH

1

3

h6t9

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Here, brothers means fellow Christians, including both men and women. If your readers understand that it is addressed only to men, you may need to use both the masculine and the feminine forms of that word in your language. If you use a nonfigurative word such as “believers”, see that both the genders are addressed. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

15

2TH

1

3

ezaf

writing-pronouns

καθὼς ἄξιόν ἐστιν

1

If it is difficult to express just as it is fitting in your language or if it is unclear what it refers to, consider starting a new sentence here to state it clearly. Alternate translation: “When we give thanks for you we are doing the right thing” or “Giving thanks for you is right for us to be doing” or “…is the right thing to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

16

2TH

1

3

emu9

figs-abstractnouns

ὑπεραυξάνει ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind faith, you can express this idea as a verb. Alternate translation: “you believe in Christ more and more” or “you increasingly trust in Christ” or “you rely on Christ more each day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

17

2TH

1

3

xy7k

figs-abstractnouns

πλεονάζει ἡ ἀγάπη ἑνὸς ἑκάστου, πάντων ὑμῶν, εἰς ἀλλήλους

1

the love of each one of you all for one another is increasing

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind love, you can express this idea as a verb. Alternate translation: “each of you sincerely loves one another more and more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

18

2TH

1

3

bmn6

figs-rpronouns

ἀλλήλους

1

one another

Here, one another means fellow believers. Alternate translation: “each other” or “each believer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

19

2TH

1

4

kx1n

figs-rpronouns

αὐτοὺς ἡμᾶς

1

we ourselves

Here, ourselves is added to we to emphasize that even the apostle Paul and his associates are boasting about the Thessalonian believers. Alternate translation: “even we” or “we are the ones who” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns)

20

2TH

1

4

gcth

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ὑπομονῆς ὑμῶν, καὶ πίστεως

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of endurance and faith or if it is unclear how these two terms relate, you can express these same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “how you patiently continue to trust in Jesus” or “how you persevere in believing in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

21

2TH

1

4

qlo9

figs-doublet

ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς διωγμοῖς ὑμῶν, καὶ ταῖς θλίψεσιν

1

The two words persecutions and afflictions are saying very similar things. The repetition is used to emphasize how difficult life has been for the Thessalonian believers. If two words are difficult to find in your language or if your language does not use repetition in this way, you can use one word with this meaning and make the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “as you have been going through all these very difficult times” or “as people make you suffer in all the ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

22

2TH

1

4

md0d

figs-explicit

πίστεως ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς διωγμοῖς ὑμῶν

1

Here, faith in all your persecutions does not mean to believe in or trust in persecutions. If your readers might be confused by that, you could express it more clearly. Alternate translation: “faith in Jesus Christ during all the times you are persecuted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

23

2TH

1

5

rs3b

figs-explicit

ἔνδειγμα τῆς δικαίας κρίσεως τοῦ Θεοῦ, εἰς τὸ καταξιωθῆναι ὑμᾶς

1

The evidence that Paul is referring to here is the faithful endurance of the Thessalonian believers while suffering persecution, which he mentioned in verse 4. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. It may also be helpful to start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Your endurance while suffering is a clear indication of God’s righteous judgment, that he considers you worthy” or “Your faithfulness through persecution shows that God is just and right to consider you worthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

24

2TH

1

5

dad9

figs-activepassive

εἰς τὸ καταξιωθῆναι ὑμᾶς τῆς Βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

for you to be considered worthy of the kingdom of God

You can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “that God will consider you worthy to be part of his kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

25

2TH

1

5

xm2g

figs-explicit

ὑπὲρ ἧς καὶ πάσχετε

1

Here, also could mean: (1) the Thessalonian believers are suffering for the kingdom of God as well as being counted worthy of it. Alternate translation: “being a part of which is also the reason that you are suffering” (2) the Thessalonian believers are suffering along with other believers. Alternate translation: “which is why you are going through sufferings along with many others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

26

2TH

1

6

cxx1

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἴπερ δίκαιον παρὰ Θεῷ

1

if indeed it is righteous for God

Paul is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “Since you know that God is just” or “for God is certainly right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

27

2TH

1

6

id3i

figs-metaphor

παρὰ Θεῷ, ἀνταποδοῦναι τοῖς θλίβουσιν ὑμᾶς θλῖψιν

1

for God to return affliction to those who are afflicting you

Here, to return means to cause someone to experience the same thing that they did to someone else as though the same action were bouncing back onto the people who did that action. Use a natural expression for this kind of reciprocal action. Alternate translation: “for God to afflict those who are afflicting you” or “for God to pay back those who are afflicting you” “for God to do the same to those who are afflicting you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

28

2TH

1

6

zemk

figs-abstractnouns

ἀνταποδοῦναι τοῖς θλίβουσιν ὑμᾶς θλῖψιν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of affliction, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “to afflict those who are afflicting you” or “to trouble those who are troubling you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

29

2TH

1

7

hxy2

figs-ellipsis

καὶ ὑμῖν…ἄνεσιν

1

and relief to you

The words and relief to you continue the description of what God is right “to return” to people (verse 6). If this would not be understood in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “and it is righteous for God to give relief to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

30

2TH

1

7

l3ht

writing-pronouns

καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς θλιβομένοις, ἄνεσιν μεθ’ ἡμῶν

1

Here, you who are being afflicted refers to the Thessalonian believers, and us refers to Paul and his associates. Other people are afflicting both groups because of their faith in Jesus. Alternate translation: “and relief to you who are being afflicted just as we are being afflicted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

31

2TH

1

7

knbb

figs-abstractnouns

ὑμῖν…ἄνεσιν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind relief, you can express this idea with a verb or in another way. Alternate translation: “to relieve you” or “to rescue you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

32

2TH

1

7

bcxy

figs-activepassive

τοῖς θλιβομένοις

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “whom other people are afflicting” or “from the affliction that others are causing you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

33

2TH

1

7

fh5g

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ

1

Here, at the revealing is an indication of the time when the suffering believers will have relief from their suffering. Alternate translation: “at the time when the Lord Jesus is revealed” or “when everyone sees the Lord Jesus coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

34

2TH

1

8

p1ie

figs-abstractnouns

διδόντος ἐκδίκησιν τοῖς

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind vengeance, you can express this idea in another way. Since this is part of God’s justice, do not use a word that implies that God is doing something illegal or inappropriate. Alternate translation: “punishing the people” or “judging the ones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

35

2TH

1

8

ynt4

figs-explicit

τοῖς μὴ εἰδόσι Θεὸν

1

Here, the ones not having known God refers to those who have refused the relationship with God that he had offered to them. Alternate translation: “on those who did not want to know God” or “on those who have rejected God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

36

2TH

1

8

gv0v

figs-explicit

καὶ τοῖς μὴ ὑπακούουσιν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

1

The phrase, not obeying the gospel could refer to: (1) the same people as those not having known God. Alternate translation: “and who are not obeying the gospel” (2) a separate group. Alternate translation: “and also on those who are not obeying the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

37

2TH

1

8

m37v

figs-idiom

ὑπακούουσιν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

1

The phrase, obeying the gospel is an idiom that means to live according to everything that God tells us in the gospel message. Alternate translation: “living according to the message of the gospel” or “heeding the admonitions that are part of the gospel message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

38

2TH

1

8

dkkx

figs-possession

τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ

1

Here, Paul is using the general possessive form of our Lord Jesus to describe the gospel. The specific meaning here is that the gospel is about Jesus. Alternate translation: “the gospel that is about our Lord Jesus” or “the gospel message that tells us about our Lord Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

39

2TH

1

9

plw5

writing-pronouns

οἵτινες δίκην τίσουσιν

1

who will pay the penalty—eternal destruction

Here, who refers to the people who are not obeying the gospel, not to the Lord Jesus. You may prefer to start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “Those people will pay the penalty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

40

2TH

1

9

peog

figs-abstractnouns

οἵτινες δίκην τίσουσιν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of the word penalty, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “who will be punished by God” or “whom God will punish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

41

2TH

1

9

ebf1

figs-idiom

δίκην τίσουσιν

1

Here, the phrase pay {the} penalty is an idiom meaning to suffer the consequences of doing something bad. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “will suffer the consequences” or “will undergo the retribution” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

42

2TH

1

9

yruv

figs-abstractnouns

ὄλεθρον αἰώνιον

1

Here, eternal destruction further describes the penalty that people will experience if they refuse to “obey the gospel.” The destruction that these people will experience is eternal, that is, it never ends. Therefore, do not translate with the meaning that these people will cease to exist. They will continue to exist, but continually experience the ruin of their lives. If necessary, put this information in a footnote. Alternate translation: “God will punish them eternally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

43

2TH

1

9

qhta

figs-idiom

ἀπὸ προσώπου τοῦ Κυρίου

1

Here, {the} face of the Lord is an idiom meaning the presence of the Lord. Alternate translation: “away from our Lord Jesus” or “separated from the presence of the Lord Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

44

2TH

1

9

htqg

figs-possession

τῆς δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ

1

Here, the possessive form is describing power that has glory. If this is not clear in your language, you could use the adjective “glorious” to describe the power. Alternate translation: “his glorious power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

45

2TH

1

9

wmdm

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς δόξης τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the ideas of glory and power, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “experiencing how magnificent and powerful he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

46

2TH

1

10

ugk9

figs-explicit

ὅταν ἔλθῃ…ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ

1

when he comes on that day

Here, that day is the day when Jesus will return to the world. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. Alternate translation: “on the day when Jesus returns to the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

47

2TH

1

10

bi2u

figs-activepassive

ἐνδοξασθῆναι ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ, καὶ θαυμασθῆναι ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς πιστεύσασιν

1

to be glorified by his saints and to be marveled at by all those who have believed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “as his saints glorify him and all those who have believed marvel at him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

48

2TH

1

10

wsvb

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐνδοξασθῆναι ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ, καὶ θαυμασθῆναι

1

Here, the two verbs to be glorifiedand to be marveled at indicate the result of Jesus’ coming, not the purpose. Use a connector here that indicates result. Alternate translation: “as his saints glorify him and all those who have believed marvel at him” or “with the result that his saints will glorify him and all those who have believed will marvel at him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

49

2TH

1

10

z1hg

ἐνδοξασθῆναι ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις αὐτοῦ, καὶ θαυμασθῆναι ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς πιστεύσασιν

1

The saints and the ones having believed are one group of people, not two. If your readers might be confused by this, you could combine these into one phrase. Alternate translation: “with the result that all of his saints, that is, the believers, will glorify him and marvel at him” or “as all of his people glorify him and marvel at him”

50

2TH

1

10

e56p

figs-activepassive

ἐπιστεύθη τὸ μαρτύριον ἡμῶν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you have believed our witness when we shared it with you” or “when we testified about the saving power of Jesus Christ, you believed what we said” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive)

51

2TH

1

11

zy14

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς ὃ

1

Here, For this connects verse 11 to verse 10, so that verse 11 gives the means or method (prayer for the Thessalonian believers) for reaching the purpose that verse 10 has just described (for Jesus to “be glorified…and marveled at”). Use a natural way in your language for introducing this relationship. Alternate translation: “This is why” or “To this end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

52

2TH

1

11

ik19

figs-hyperbole

καὶ προσευχόμεθα πάντοτε περὶ ὑμῶν

1

we also pray always for you

Paul is using always as an exaggeration in order to emphasize how often he prays for them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language. Alternate translation: “we also pray regularly for you” or “we continue to pray for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

53

2TH

1

11

hiv9

figs-explicit

τῆς κλήσεως

1

of your calling

Here, calling refers to God appointing or choosing people to belong to him and to proclaim his message of salvation through Jesus. Alternate translation: “to appoint you to belong to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

54

2TH

1

11

r8gk

figs-abstractnouns

πληρώσῃ πᾶσαν εὐδοκίαν ἀγαθωσύνης, καὶ ἔργον πίστεως ἐν δυνάμει

1

he may fulfill every desire of goodness

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind desire, goodness, faith, and power, you can express these ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “he may make you able to do all of the good things that you want to do because you trust in Jesus and because God is powerful” or “he may empower you to act on what you believe in order to do good things in every way that you desire, because God is powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

55

2TH

1

11

c7o6

figs-ellipsis

καὶ πληρώσῃ

1

Here, and he may fulfill adds another reason why Paul and his associates pray always for the Thessalonian believers. This part of the sentence assumes some of the words from earlier in the sentence. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could supply these words from the earlier part of the sentence. Alternate translation: “and we also pray so that he may fulfill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

56

2TH

1

12

nvth

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ὅπως

1

Here, so that introduces the purpose for which Paul and his associates pray all of the things mentioned in verse 11. It is a repetition of the same purpose that was given in verse 10, using similar words. Alternate translation: “and we also pray so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

57

2TH

1

12

c6ec

figs-metonymy

τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ

1

Here, the name of our Lord Jesus stands for the person of the Lord Jesus. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the reputation of our Lord Jesus” or “our Lord Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

58

2TH

1

12

q994

figs-activepassive

ὅπως ἐνδοξασθῇ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ, ἐν ὑμῖν

1

so that the name of our Lord Jesus might be glorified in you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) the Thessalonian believers will glorify Jesus. Alternate translation: “so that you would glorify the name of our Lord Jesus” (2) others will glorify Jesus because of what he has done for the Thessalonian believers. Alternate translation: “so that people would glorify the name of our Lord Jesus because of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

59

2TH

1

12

pg2i

figs-activepassive

καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐν αὐτῷ

1

and you in him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “and Jesus might glorify you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

60

2TH

1

12

l4l1

figs-ellipsis

καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐν αὐτῷ

1

The phrase and you in him leaves out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could make a complete sentence by supplying these words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “and so that you might be glorified in him” or “and so that he might glorify you” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis)

61

2TH

1

12

z8k9

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν

1

according to the grace of our God

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of grace, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “according to how exceedingly kind our God and the Lord Jesus Christ are to you” or “as our God and the Lord Jesus Christ continue to abundantly bless you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

62

2TH

1

12

z1my

τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

The phrase translated as our God and {the} Lord Jesus Christ could refer to: (1) two persons of the Trinity, God the Father and Jesus the Son. (2) one person, Jesus, who is both God and Lord. Alternate translation: “of our God and Lord, Jesus Christ”

63

2TH

2

intro

jq9r

0

2 Thessalonians 2 General Notes

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Man of lawlessness

This person is also called “the son of destruction” and “the lawless one” in this chapter. He is not Satan, but he is empowered by Satan and is the leader of those who do Satan’s evil work in the world in the last days. He is certainly one of the “antichrists” mentioned by John (1 John 2:18) and may be the final one, described as a beast in Revelation 13. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/antichrist]])

Sits in the temple of God

Paul could be referring to the Jerusalem temple that the Romans destroyed several years after he wrote this letter. Or he could be referring to a future physical temple, or to the church as the spiritual temple of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

64

2TH

2

1

r36t

checking/headings

0

General Information:

In verses 1–12, Paul exhorts believers not to be deceived about the day Jesus will come back and warns them about the coming man of lawlessness. A heading for this section might be, “The Man of Lawlessness” or “The Deception before Jesus Returns.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

65

2TH

2

1

q1uq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Now

The word translated Now marks a change in topic. You can use a natural way in your language to show that this is a new section with a different topic than the previous section. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

66

2TH

2

1

uy4z

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ὑπὲρ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ ἡμῶν ἐπισυναγωγῆς ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

The coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering to him are two actions that happen at the same time. You can make this clear in your translation with an appropriate connecting word or phrase. Alternate translation: “regarding the time of our Lord Jesus coming when we will be gathered together unto him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

67

2TH

2

1

sx2f

figs-activepassive

ὑπὲρ τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ ἡμῶν ἐπισυναγωγῆς ἐπ’ αὐτόν

1

If it is more natural in your language, you could use active verbs for the events of coming and gathering. Alternate translation: “about the time when our Lord Jesus will come and gather us to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

68

2TH

2

1

cvg5

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Here, brothers means fellow Christians, including both men and women. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

69

2TH

2

2

b8b2

figs-doublenegatives

εἰς τὸ μὴ ταχέως σαλευθῆναι ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ νοὸς

1

for you not to be quickly shaken in your mind nor to be troubled

The phrase shaken in {your} mind refers to a person’s thoughts being unsettled. You could also express this positively. Alternate translation: “for you to remain firm in your thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

70

2TH

2

2

fj52

figs-doublenegatives

μηδὲ θροεῖσθαι

1

The phrase to be troubled refers to a person’s emotions being unsettled. You could also express this positively. Alternate translation: “and remain peaceful when a message comes” or “and keep calm when you hear something” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

71

2TH

2

2

d334

figs-ellipsis

μήτε διὰ πνεύματος, μήτε διὰ λόγου, μήτε δι’ ἐπιστολῆς, ὡς δι’ ἡμῶν

1

by a spirit, nor by a word, nor by a letter as if from us

Paul is leaving out some words here that might be necessary in your language. If it is helpful, you could supply these words. Alternate translation: “when you receive a message either by means of a spirit or by means of a spoken word or by means of a written letter that pretends to be coming from us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

72

2TH

2

2

ll80

figs-ellipsis

ὡς δι’ ἡμῶν

1

Paul is leaving out some words here that might be necessary in your language. If it is helpful, you could supply these words. Alternate translation: “that claims to have come from us” or “trying to deceive you that it is from us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

73

2TH

2

2

k4dk

figs-ellipsis

ὡς ὅτι

1

as if that

Paul is leaving out some words here that might be necessary in your language. If it is helpful, you could supply these words. Alternate translation: “that talks as if” or “that falsely claims that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

74

2TH

2

2

ib6m

ἡ ἡμέρα τοῦ Κυρίου

1

the day of the Lord

Here, the day of the Lord refers to the time when Jesus will come back to the earth for all believers.

75

2TH

2

3

l9c5

μή τις ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατήσῃ κατὰ μηδένα τρόπον

1

General Information:

Alternate translation: “Do not permit anyone to fool you” or “Do not believe at all the wrong words that people are telling you about this”

76

2TH

2

3

ej66

figs-ellipsis

ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ ἔλθῃ ἡ ἀποστασία πρῶτον

1

it may not come

Here, Paul is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the previous verse. Alternate translation: “for the day of the Lord will not come unless the apostacy comes first” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

77

2TH

2

3

y7ch

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ ἀποστασία

1

the apostacy

Here, the apostacy refers to a future time when many people will turn away from God. If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express it in another way. Alternate translation: “the time when many people will rebel against God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

78

2TH

2

3

e86v

figs-activepassive

ἀποκαλυφθῇ ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἀνομίας

1

the man of lawlessness may be revealed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the man of lawlessness arrives” or “the man of lawlessness makes himself known” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

79

2TH

2

3

jsyj

figs-possession

ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἀνομίας

1

Paul is using the possessive form to describe a man who is characterized by lawlessness. By this Paul means that this man will oppose all of God’s commandments and instructions. If this is not clear in your language, you could express this another way. Alternate translation: “the lawless man” or “the man who opposes God’s rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

80

2TH

2

3

tkg9

figs-idiom

ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας

1

the son of destruction

Here, son of destruction is an idiom meaning a person who is destined for destruction. Alternate translation: “the one who will be destroyed” or “the one whom God will destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

81

2TH

2

3

x6p0

figs-events

ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας

1

God will destroy this person some time after the events of verse 4. If it would be clearer in your language, consider moving this phrase to the end of verse 4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

82

2TH

2

4

t485

figs-activepassive

πάντα λεγόμενον θεὸν ἢ σέβασμα

1

everything being called god or an object of worship

You can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “everything that people call God or whatever they worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

83

2TH

2

4

sk8t

figs-pastforfuture

αὐτὸν…καθίσαι

1

Here, he himself sits is part of a description of the kinds of things that this person does. If it is confusing in your language to use the present tense for this, you could use the future tense, since this will happen in the future. Alternate translation: “he himself will sit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

84

2TH

2

4

wj33

ἀποδεικνύντα ἑαυτὸν ὅτι ἔστιν Θεός

1

showing that he himself is God

Here, showing that he himself is God does not mean that this man is God, but only that he is displaying himself to the world as though he were God. Alternate translation: “showing himself as God” or “attempting to demonstrate to people that he himself is God”

85

2TH

2

5

rsz1

figs-rquestion

οὐ μνημονεύετε ὅτι, ἔτι ὢν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ταῦτα ἔλεγον ὑμῖν

1

Do you not remember … these things?

Paul is not asking for information here, but is using the question form to remind the Thessalonians of what he taught when he was with them previously. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

86

2TH

2

5

lkk7

writing-pronouns

ταῦτα

1

these things

Here, these {things} refers to the topics that Paul mentioned in verses 3 and 4, including the rebellion against God, the man of lawlessness, and the return of Jesus on the day of the Lord. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

87

2TH

2

6

hph0

καὶ νῦν τὸ κατέχον οἴδατε

1

There are two possibilities for understanding the function of the word now here. (1) It goes with the one restraining {him}. Alternate translation: “And you know what is restraining him now” or (2) it goes with you know. Alternate translation: “And now you know what is restraining him”

88

2TH

2

6

ask4

figs-activepassive

τὸ ἀποκαλυφθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ καιρῷ

1

he is revealed in his time

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the proper time, when God will allow him to reveal himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

89

2TH

2

7

faa5

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

γὰρ

1

Here, the word translated For serves to connect this sentence as a contrast to what Paul has said about lawlessness, starting in verse 3. Until here, Paul was talking about lawlessness in the future, but now he wants to clarify that people are already being lawless.Use a natural way in your language for introducing this contrast. Alternate translation: “Now” or “Actually,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

90

2TH

2

7

si9i

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ…μυστήριον ἤδη ἐνεργεῖται τῆς ἀνομίας

1

mystery of lawlessness

Here, lawlessness is characterized as a mystery because we cannot understand why people rebel against God’s wise instructions unless we understand the spiritual forces at work, which Paul explains here. If your language does not use abstract nouns for these ideas, you can express them in another way. Alternate translation: “people are already mysteriously rebelling against God” or “Satan is already secretly leading people to reject God’s laws, as this man will do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

91

2TH

2

7

fcu7

ὁ κατέχων

1

the one who restrains him

To restrain someone is to hold him back or to keep him from doing what he wants to do. Alternate translation: “the one who has been holding him back”

92

2TH

2

7

bijc

writing-pronouns

γένηται

1

Here, he refers to the one who is restraining the man of lawlessness. If this is not clear to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the one who restrains the man of lawlessness moves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

93

2TH

2

7

tt88

figs-metaphor

ἐκ μέσου γένηται

1

Here Paul speaks of the person who is restraining the man of lawlessness as though he were standing in front of him and blocking his path. If this does not make sense in your language, you could use an equivalent metaphor or you could express the meaning in a nonfigurative way. Alternative translation: “he stops restraining him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

94

2TH

2

8

hn67

figs-activepassive

καὶ τότε ἀποκαλυφθήσεται ὁ ἄνομος

1

and then the lawless one will be revealed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “and then God will allow the lawless one to show himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

95

2TH

2

8

vay9

figs-metonymy

τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ

1

with the breath of his mouth

In this figure of speech, breath represents the power of God and mouth represents the spoken word of Jesus. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “by the power of his spoken word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

96

2TH

2

8

hy3y

figs-parallelism

ἀνελεῖ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶ καταργήσει τῇ ἐπιφανείᾳ τῆς παρουσίας αὐτοῦ

1

and will bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming

These two phrases describe the same event. Paul says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize how much more powerful Jesus is than the man of lawlessness. If it is confusing for your readers to talk about killing someone and then bringing him to nothing, you could reverse the order of the phrases, as in the UST, or you can combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “will destroy by his glorious appearance and with the breath of his mouth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

97

2TH

2

9

sp9v

figs-possession

οὗ ἐστιν ἡ παρουσία, κατ’ ἐνέργειαν τοῦ Σατανᾶ

1

with all power, and signs, and false wonders

Here, Paul is using the possessive form to describe work that Satan does. If this is not clear in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Satan will bring this man and will work through him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

98

2TH

2

9

rikg

οὗ

1

with all power, and signs, and false wonders

Here, whom refers back to the man of lawlessness. Alternate translation: “of the man of lawlessness”

99

2TH

2

9

bd5m

figs-hyperbole

ἐν πάσῃ δυνάμει, καὶ σημείοις, καὶ τέρασιν ψεύδους

1

with all power, and signs, and false wonders

Here, all is hyperbole. It can apply to: (1) only power, with the meaning “much” or “great.” Alternate translation: “with great power to do signs and false wonders” or (2) power, signs, and wonders, with the meaning “many kinds of.” Alternate translation: “with many kinds of power, signs, and false wonders” or (3) a combination of the two. Alternate translation: “with much power to do all kinds of signs and false wonders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

100

2TH

2

9

kcaw

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πάσῃ δυνάμει, καὶ σημείοις, καὶ τέρασιν ψεύδους

1

with all power, and signs, and false wonders

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of power, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “with very powerful signs and false wonders” or “who made him very powerful to do signs and false wonders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

101

2TH

2

9

fjfn

figs-doublet

καὶ σημείοις, καὶ τέρασιν ψεύδους

1

with all power, and signs, and false wonders

The words signs and wonders often occur together and mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize how amazing they are. If your language does not have two words for this or does not use repetition to do this, you can use one word and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “and amazing false miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

102

2TH

2

10

tf75

figs-hyperbole

πάσῃ

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

Here, all is hyperbole and could mean: (1) “a high degree of” or (2) “many kinds of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

103

2TH

2

10

ippb

figs-possession

ἐν πάσῃ ἀπάτῃ ἀδικίας

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe deceit that results from unrighteousness. If the relationship of the words is not clear in your language, you could express it more explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he is so unrighteous, he will be very deceptive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

104

2TH

2

10

b55e

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πάσῃ ἀπάτῃ ἀδικίας, τοῖς ἀπολλυμένοις

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of deceit and unrighteousness, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “because he is so unrighteous, he will completely deceive those who are perishing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

105

2TH

2

10

e8hi

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἀνθ’ ὧν

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

What follows this phrase is the reason that the people are perishing. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a reason. You may want to start a new sentence here and end what came before it with a period. Alternate translation: “They are perishing because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

106

2TH

2

10

rtua

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν ἀγάπην τῆς ἀληθείας οὐκ ἐδέξαντο

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of love and truth, you can express the same ideas in another way. Also, your language might prefer an expression other than love for something as impersonal as truth. Alternate translation: “they did not want to consider the true message about Jesus to be important” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

107

2TH

2

10

sl5b

grammar-connect-logic-result

εἰς τὸ σωθῆναι αὐτούς

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

This phrase could express: (1) the result of receiving the love of the truth. Alternate translation: “and thus be saved” or (2) the purpose of loving the truth. Alternate translation: “so that they could be saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

108

2TH

2

10

xst1

figs-activepassive

εἰς τὸ σωθῆναι αὐτούς

1

in all deceit of unrighteousness

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who does the action, that would be God. Alternate translation: “for God to save them” or “so that God would save them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

109

2TH

2

11

sj1v

grammar-connect-logic-result

διὰ τοῦτο

1

because of this

What follows because of this is the result of the action of the people who “did not receive the love of the truth” in verse 10. Use a connector that shows that what the people did in verse 10 is the reason for what follows in this verse. Alternate translation: “for this reason” or “because the people did not receive the love of the truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

110

2TH

2

11

en8e

figs-metaphor

πέμπει αὐτοῖς ὁ Θεὸς ἐνέργειαν πλάνης, εἰς τὸ πιστεῦσαι αὐτοὺς τῷ ψεύδει

1

God is sending them a working of error for them to believe the lie

Paul is speaking of God allowing something to happen to people as if he is sending something to them. Alternate translation: “God is allowing them to think wrongly so that they believe the lies of the man of lawlessness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

111

2TH

2

11

u7a0

figs-possession

ἐνέργειαν πλάνης

1

God is sending them a working of error for them to believe the lie

Paul is using the possessive form to describe a working that is characterized by error. This means something that works to produce error in them. Alternate translation: “the ability to think in a wrong way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

112

2TH

2

11

nass

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς τὸ πιστεῦσαι αὐτοὺς

1

God is sending them a working of error for them to believe the lie

Here, for introduces a purpose clause. Paul is stating the purpose for which God sends the working of error. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a purpose clause. Alternate translation: “so that they may believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

113

2TH

2

11

bkpm

writing-pronouns

εἰς τὸ πιστεῦσαι αὐτοὺς

1

God is sending them a working of error for them to believe the lie

Here, them refers to the people who “did not receive the love of the truth” in verse 10. If this might confuse your readers, you could express the meaning explicitly. Alternate translation: “so that these people may believe” or “in order that the people who did not receive the love of the truth may believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

114

2TH

2

12

x33k

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

they might all be judged

This phrase introduces a purpose clause. This follows the purpose clause of verse 11, so you may want to link them together. Alternate translation: “and furthermore, so that” or “and therefore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

115

2TH

2

12

d63e

figs-activepassive

κριθῶσιν πάντες

1

they might all be judged

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who did the action, that would be God. Alternate translation: “God may judge all of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

116

2TH

2

12

pkw8

writing-pronouns

οἱ

1

those who have not believed the truth, but have taken pleasure in unrighteousness

Here, the ones refers back to the people that Paul has described with similar terms in verse 10. These are the same people who “did not receive the love of the truth” and instead accepted the “deceit of unrighteousness.” You may want to start a new sentence here and end what came before with a period. Alternate translation: “Those are the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

117

2TH

2

12

m1cl

figs-abstractnouns

οἱ μὴ πιστεύσαντες τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, ἀλλὰ εὐδοκήσαντες τῇ ἀδικίᾳ

1

those who have not believed the truth, but have taken pleasure in unrighteousness

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of truth and unrighteousness, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “those who have not believed the true message but have enjoyed doing sinful things” or “those people who have rejected the true message about the Lord and instead have chosen to do what is wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

118

2TH

2

13

w83a

checking/headings

0

General Information:

Paul now changes topics. If you are using section headings, you could put one here before verse 13. Suggested heading: “Paul gives thanks to God for the believers and encourages them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

119

2TH

2

13

b3hh

δὲ

1

Now

The word translated Now marks a change in topic. You can use a natural way in your language to indicate/show that this is a new section with a different topic than the previous section.

120

2TH

2

13

dze5

figs-hyperbole

ἡμεῖς…ὀφείλομεν εὐχαριστεῖν…πάντοτε

1

we ought always to give thanks

The word always is a generalization. This is used to emphasize the importance of the action. If this is not natural in your language, you could use the alternative renderings given. Alternate translation: “we should continually give thanks” or “we must thank God at all times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

121

2TH

2

13

m418

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς…ὀφείλομεν

1

we ought

Here, we refers to three men, Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy. If you have exclusive and inclusive first-person pronouns in your language, this should be an exclusive pronoun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

122

2TH

2

13

ia4x

figs-activepassive

ἀδελφοὶ ἠγαπημένοι ὑπὸ Κυρίου

1

brothers having been loved by the Lord

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “for the Lord loves you, brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

123

2TH

2

13

v15j

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοὶ

1

brothers

Here, brothers means fellow Christians, including both men and women. If your readers understand that it is addressed only to men, you may need to use both the masculine and the feminine forms of that word in your language. If you use a nonfigurative word such as “believers”, see that both the genders are addressed. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

124

2TH

2

13

l7a8

figs-metaphor

ἀπαρχὴν εἰς σωτηρίαν

1

as firstfruits for salvation in sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth

Being among the first people to be saved is spoken of as if the Thessalonian believers were firstfruits. Alternate translation: “to be among the first people who believe” or “to be some of the first people whom God was saving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

125

2TH

2

13

bpqn

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπαρχὴν εἰς σωτηρίαν ἐν ἁγιασμῷ Πνεύματος καὶ πίστει ἀληθείας

1

as firstfruits for salvation in sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth

If it would be clearer in your language, you could change the abstract nouns salvation, sanctification, belief, and truth into verbal forms. Alternate translation: “to be among the first people who believe what is true, and whom God has saved and set apart for himself by his Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

126

2TH

2

14

e0gy

figs-ellipsis

διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ἡμῶν

1

Here, the phrase through our gospel does not mean that the gospel belongs to Paul and his companions. It refers to the gospel about Jesus that Paul and his companions preached. Alternate translation: “through the gospel that we preached to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

127

2TH

2

14

thmh

figs-explicit

εἰς περιποίησιν δόξης τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

The phrase to {the} acquiring of {the} glory of our Lord Jesus Christ does not mean that we will take over or divide up the glory of Jesus Christ. It means that the believers will share in Christ’s glory. Alternate translation: “so that you might share in the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ” or “in order that you might receive glory like our Lord Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

128

2TH

2

14

pke7

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς περιποίησιν δόξης τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of glory, you can express the same idea with a different form. Alternate translation: “so that you might become glorious like our Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

129

2TH

2

15

holv

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἄρα οὖν

1

The words So then connect this verse with verses 13 and 14 as their logical conclusion. Because God did the wonderful things in those verses, the Thessalonians should do what verse 15 says. Use a natural way to introduce a conclusion in your language. Alternate translation: “Therefore” or “Because God did all of that for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

130

2TH

2

15

pa9j

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

Here, brothers means fellow believers in Jesus, including both men and women. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

131

2TH

2

15

u9ss

figs-metaphor

στήκετε

1

So then, brothers, stand firm

Here, the phrase stand firm is used to mean to not change one’s beliefs but, rather, to remain steadfast in what one believes. If this would be unclear in your language, consider using an equivalent expression, or use plain language. Alternate translation: “continue to believe the truth” or “do not give up your faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

132

2TH

2

15

l4vr

figs-metaphor

κρατεῖτε τὰς παραδόσεις

1

hold tight to the traditions

Here, traditions refers to the truths about Christ that Paul and the other apostles taught. Paul speaks of them as if his readers could hold on to them with their hands. Alternate translation: “do not give up believing those truths” or “continue to believe the true teachings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

133

2TH

2

15

cpdo

figs-doublet

στήκετε καὶ κρατεῖτε

1

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used to emphasize the importance of doing this. If your language does not use repetition to do this, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “keep on firmly believing” or “do not allow anyone to change your mind in any way about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

134

2TH

2

15

whp8

figs-activepassive

ἐδιδάχθητε

1

you were taught

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “we have taught you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

135

2TH

2

15

z2vs

figs-synecdoche

διὰ λόγου

1

whether by word or by our letter

Here, by word is an expression that means that Paul had been present with them and taught them personally. Alternate translation: “by what we said to you in person” or “when we were talking to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

136

2TH

2

15

jrg4

figs-explicit

δι’ ἐπιστολῆς ἡμῶν

1

whether by word or by our letter

You can make clear the implicit information that by our letter refers to what Paul taught to the Thessalonians in an earlier letter (probably 1 Thessalonians). Alternate translation: “by what we wrote to you in a letter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

137

2TH

2

16

g8m1

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Now

The word translated Now marks a change in topic. You can use a natural way in your language to show that this is a new section with a different topic than the previous section. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

138

2TH

2

16

njk1

translate-blessing

αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Κύριος ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς, καὶ ὁ Θεὸς ὁ Πατὴρ ἡμῶν

1

Connecting Statement:

Paul ends this section with a blessing. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “Now may our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God our Father” or “We pray that our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God our Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

139

2TH

2

16

yge9

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν…ἡμῶν…ἡμᾶς

1

our Lord … who loved us and gave us

The words our and us refer to all believers including the writers. If you have exclusive and inclusive first-person plural pronouns in your language, these should be inclusive pronouns. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

140

2TH

2

16

cm54

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὸς…Κύριος ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς

1

our Lord Jesus Christ himself

Here, himself gives additional emphasis to the phrase Lord Jesus Christ. Use a way that is natural in your language to indicate this emphasis. Alternate translation: “our Lord Jesus Christ, the very one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

141

2TH

2

16

h3gk

figs-abstractnouns

δοὺς παράκλησιν αἰωνίαν, καὶ ἐλπίδα ἀγαθὴν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas of comfort and hope, you can express the same ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “always comforts us and has given us good things to hope for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

142

2TH

2

16

iirq

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν χάριτι

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of grace, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “because of how gracious he is to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

143

2TH

2

17

x3rr

figs-metonymy

παρακαλέσαι ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας, καὶ στηρίξαι

1

may he comfort and strengthen your hearts

Here, the word hearts represents both the emotion and will of a person. If hearts does not mean this in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “may he give comfort and strength to your livers” or “may he comfort you and strengthen you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

144

2TH

2

17

yw5f

figs-synecdoche

ἐν παντὶ ἔργῳ καὶ λόγῳ ἀγαθῷ

1

every good work and word

If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the phrase work and word with verbs. Alternative translation: “in every good thing that you do and say” or “so that you could do and say everything that is good.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

145

2TH

3

intro

b8hk

0

2 Thessalonians 3 General Notes

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Idle and lazy persons

In Thessalonica, there apparently was a problem with people in the church who were able to work but refused to do so. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

What should you do if your brother sins?

In this chapter, Paul teaches that Christians need to live in a way that honors God. Christians should also encourage one another and hold each other accountable for what they do. The church is also responsible for encouraging believers to repent if they sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

146

2TH

3

1

k33i

checking/headings

0

General Information:

In verses 1–5, Paul asks the believers to pray for him and his companions and encourages them. A heading for this section might be, “Pray for Us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

147

2TH

3

1

jy75

grammar-connect-words-phrases

τὸ λοιπὸν

1

Finally

Here, the word Finally marks a change in topic. To pray is not the final instruction that Paul gives but it is how Paul opens the last section of his letter where he will discuss a few remaining matters. Alternate translation: “One more thing” or “So, continuing on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

148

2TH

3

1

m1s5

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Here, brothers means fellow Christians, including both men and women. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

149

2TH

3

1

v8k2

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

The pronoun us refers to Paul and his companions. If you have exclusive and inclusive first person pronouns in your language, this should be an exclusive pronoun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

150

2TH

3

1

r54v

figs-metaphor

τρέχῃ

1

so that the word of the Lord might run and might be glorified, just as also with you

Paul speaks of God’s word spreading as if it were running from place to place. He is comparing the rapid spread of God’s word to a person who takes good news to others. Alternate translation: “might spread rapidly” or “might be heard by many people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

151

2TH

3

1

yvkm

figs-activepassive

καὶ δοξάζηται

1

so that the word of the Lord might run and might be glorified, just as also with you

You can state this in active form, if the passive construction is not natural in your language. Alternate translation: “and that many people would honor it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

152

2TH

3

1

egho

figs-ellipsis

καθὼς καὶ πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

This phrase leaves out some words that many languages might need to be complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “just as also happened with you” or “which is exactly what you did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

153

2TH

3

2

xg2h

figs-activepassive

ῥυσθῶμεν

1

we might be rescued

You can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “God may save us” or “God may rescue us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

154

2TH

3

2

h11p

figs-doublet

ἀτόπων καὶ πονηρῶν

1

The two terms perverse and evil mean basically the same thing and are used together to emphasize the amount of evil. If your language does not use repetition to do this or if you do not have two words for these attributes, you can use one phrase and provide emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “very wicked men” or “many wicked men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

155

2TH

3

2

p1ct

figs-litotes

οὐ γὰρ πάντων ἡ πίστις

1

for not everyone has faith

The phrase not everyone is a negative understatement that emphasizes how rare faith is. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “for only some people believe in the Lord” or “for people who believe in Jesus are few” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

156

2TH

3

2

appf

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ πίστις

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of faith, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “believes in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

157

2TH

3

3

yx9g

figs-explicit

ὃς στηρίξει

1

who will strengthen

The word strengthen here refers to spiritual strength, not physical strength. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this clear in your translation. Alternate translation: “who will strengthen you spiritually” or “who will make you inwardly strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

158

2TH

3

3

p91k

τοῦ πονηροῦ

1

the evil one

This could mean: (1) the evil being Satan. Alternate translation: “Satan” or (2) evil in general. Alternate translation: “evil”

159

2TH

3

4

xk85

figs-nominaladj

πεποίθαμεν δὲ

1

we are confident

The phrase We are also confident may be confusing in some languages. If that is the case in your language, you could translate this as a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “We also have faith” or “We also trust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

160

2TH

3

4

w79e

figs-metaphor

πεποίθαμεν δὲ ἐν Κυρίῳ ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς

1

This could mean: (1) Paul has confidence in the Thessalonian believers because of the close relationship that they have with the Lord Jesus. In this case, Paul is speaking of this relationship as if they were inside the Lord Jesus. Alternative translation: “Because you are united to the Lord, we are also confident” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]) (2) Paul has confidence in the Lord Jesus, that he will cause them to do what is right. Alternative translation: “Because we trust in the Lord Jesus to enable you, we are also confident”

161

2TH

3

5

giz4

figs-metonymy

ὁ…Κύριος κατευθύναι ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ εἰς τὴν ὑπομονὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

may the Lord direct your hearts

Here, hearts stands for a person’s thoughts or mind. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “may the Lord cause you to understand the love of God and the endurance of Christ” or “may the Lord help you to know the love of God and the endurance of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

162

2TH

3

5

wre3

figs-metaphor

εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ εἰς τὴν ὑπομονὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

to the love of God and to the endurance of Christ

Paul speaks of God’s love and Christ’s endurance as if they were destinations on a path. If your readers would not understand this figure of speech, you could express the meaning in a nonfigurative way. Alternate translation: “to know how much God loves you and the endurance that Christ supplies you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

163

2TH

3

5

dzbn

figs-possession

εἰς τὴν ἀγάπην τοῦ Θεοῦ, καὶ εἰς τὴν ὑπομονὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Here, love of God can mean (1) the love that comes from God. Alternate translation: “to know how much God loves you” or (2) the love that people give to God. Alternate translation: “to love God more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

164

2TH

3

5

ia7x

figs-possession

εἰς τὴν ὑπομονὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Here, endurance of Christ can mean (1) the endurance that Christ gives to his people. Alternate translation: “to experience the endurance that Christ gives you” or (2) the endurance that Christ had through his suffering. Alternate translation: “to know how much Christ has endured for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

165

2TH

3

6

mst3

checking/headings

0

General Information:

In verses 6–15, Paul gives the believers some final instructions about working and not being idle. A heading for this section might be, “Believers Must Work.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

166

2TH

3

6

v33v

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Now

The word translated Now marks a change in topic. You can use a natural way in your language to show that this is a new section with a different topic than the previous section. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

167

2TH

3

6

x9l8

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί…ἀδελφοῦ

1

brothers

Here, the words brothers and brother refer to fellow Christians, including both men and women. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters … brother or sister” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

168

2TH

3

6

y4a9

figs-metonymy

ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ

Here, name stands for the person of Jesus Christ. It can also mean “with the authority of.” If using this term is not clear in your language, you could express it directly. Alternate translation: “as if our Lord Jesus Christ himself were speaking” or “with the authority that our Lord Jesus Christ has given us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

169

2TH

3

6

jvw1

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν

1

of our Lord

Here, our refers to all believers. If you have exclusive and inclusive first-person plural pronouns in your language, this should be an inclusive pronoun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

170

2TH

3

6

x2r8

figs-metaphor

ἀτάκτως περιπατοῦντος

1

Here Paul speaks of people who are not living well as if they walk in a haphazard manner. If your readers would not understand this metaphor, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a nonfigurative way. Alternative translation: “who is living in a bad way” or “who is not living correctly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

171

2TH

3

6

se1g

τὴν παράδοσιν

1

Here, the traditions refers to the teachings that the apostles received from Jesus and are passing along to all believers. Alternate translation: “the teachings” or “the instructions”

172

2TH

3

7

h222

figs-explicit

μιμεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς

1

to imitate us

The phrase to imitate may be a difficult word to translate in your language. In that case, you could make this explicit. Alternate translation: “to act the way that my fellow workers and I act” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

173

2TH

3

7

b1i1

figs-doublenegatives

οὐκ ἠτακτήσαμεν ἐν ὑμῖν

1

we did not behave disorderly among you

Paul uses a double negative to emphasize the positive. If this double negative would be misunderstood in your language, you could translate it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “we lived among you as those who had much discipline” or “we worked diligently when we were with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

174

2TH

3

8

ruh3

translate-unknown

ἄρτον

1

Paul refers to bread here because it was the most common and basic food for them. If your readers would not be familiar with bread or if that is a kind of food that would be considered unusual or extravagant, you could use a general expression for ordinary food. Alternate translation: “food” or “anything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

175

2TH

3

8

d9h1

figs-merism

νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας ἐργαζόμενοι

1

working night and day

Here, night and day forms a merism, which means “all the time.” If it would be helpful in your language to explain that they did not work without taking any rest whatsoever, then you could make the meaning clear. Alternate translation: “working throughout that time with little rest” or “we worked almost continuously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

176

2TH

3

8

w8fq

figs-doublet

ἐν κόπῳ καὶ μόχθῳ

1

in toil and hardship

Here, toil and hardship have very similar meanings. Paul used this repetition to emphasize that they worked very hard. If you do not have two similar words that you can use here or if it would be unnatural for you to use such repetition, you could emphasize this in another way. Alternate translation: “with great effort” or “in very difficult circumstances” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

177

2TH

3

9

sn3k

figs-doublenegatives

οὐχ ὅτι οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν, ἀλλ’

1

not because we do not have authority, but

Paul uses a double negative to emphasize the positive. If this double negative would be misunderstood in your language, you could translate it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “and we certainly have the right to receive food from you, but instead we worked for our food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

178

2TH

3

9

lrjr

figs-abstractnouns

ἑαυτοὺς τύπον δῶμεν ὑμῖν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of example, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “we might show you the right way in order for you” or “we might demonstrate the way to live for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

179

2TH

3

9

z0up

μιμεῖσθαι

1

See how you translated imitate in verse 7.

180

2TH

3

10

c652

figs-doublenegatives

εἴ τις οὐ θέλει ἐργάζεσθαι, μηδὲ ἐσθιέτω

1

If anyone is not willing to work, do not even let him eat

You can state this in positive form, if this form is difficult to understand in your language. Alternate translation: “If a person wants to eat, he must work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

181

2TH

3

11

ey6c

figs-metaphor

τινας περιπατοῦντας…ἀτάκτως

1

some who are walking idly

Here, walking stands for behavior in life. you can use an equivalent metaphor from your culture, if it is available. Otherwise, you could express the meaning in a nonfigurative way. Alternate translation: “some who are living idle lives” or “some who are being lazy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

2TH

3

11

iv1z

translate-unknown

ἀλλὰ περιεργαζομένους

1

but meddling

Meddlers are people who interfere in the affairs of others without being asked to help. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

183

2TH

3

12

bm6z

figs-abstractnouns

μετὰ ἡσυχίας

1

with quietness

Here, with quietness is the opposite of meddling. Paul exhorts the meddlers to stop getting involved in other people’s affairs. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of quietness, you can express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “in a quiet and peaceful manner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

184

2TH

3

13

jx8t

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δέ

1

But

Paul here uses the word But to contrast the lazy believers with the hardworking believers. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a contrast. Alternate translation: “Concerning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

185

2TH

3

13

e59v

figs-you

ὑμεῖς

1

you

The word you refers to all the Thessalonian believers, so it should be in plural form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

186

2TH

3

13

usu9

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Here, brothers means fellow Christians, including both men and women. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

187

2TH

3

14

mzs4

figs-metonymy

τῷ λόγῳ ἡμῶν

1

if anyone does not obey our word

Paul is referring to his command to the Thessalonian believers as a word. If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “our instructions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

188

2TH

3

14

nv3v

figs-idiom

τοῦτον σημειοῦσθε

1

note this one

Paul wants the Thessalonians to notice who this person is. Alternate translation: “point out that person” or “make sure everyone knows who he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

189

2TH

3

14

y552

figs-explicit

ἵνα ἐντραπῇ

1

so that he may be put to shame

Paul instructs believers to avoid lazy believers as a disciplinary action. If necessary, you could make this explicit to make the meaning clear. Alternate translation: “in order that he will know that his laziness is wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

190

2TH

3

15

idj6

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφόν

1

Although the term brother is masculine, Paul is using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “a fellow believer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

191

2TH

3

16

nef4

checking/headings

0

General Information:

In verses 16–18, Paul makes closing remarks to the believers at Thessalonica. A heading for this section might be, “Closing Remarks.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])

192

2TH

3

16

z1zs

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

The word translated Now marks a change in topic. You can use a natural way in your language to show that this is a new section with a different topic than the previous section. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

193

2TH

3

16

whb9

translate-blessing

αὐτὸς…ὁ Κύριος τῆς εἰρήνης, δῴη ὑμῖν

1

may the Lord of peace himself give you

Paul ends the letter with blessings that are also prayers. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing or prayer in your language. Alternate translation: “I pray that the Lord of peace himself may give you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

194

2TH

3

16

zl1s

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὸς…ὁ Κύριος τῆς εἰρήνης

1

the Lord of peace himself

Here, himself emphasizes that the Lord is the source of peace and that he will personally give peace to believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

195

2TH

3

17

c2cb

ὁ ἀσπασμὸς τῇ ἐμῇ χειρὶ, Παύλου, ὅ ἐστιν σημεῖον ἐν πάσῃ ἐπιστολῇ, οὕτως γράφω

1

This greeting is in my own hand—Paul—which is a sign in every letter. In this manner I write

Alternate translation: “I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand, which I do in every letter, as a sign that this letter is truly from me because this is how I write”

196

2TH

3

17

e3sa

figs-idiom

τῇ ἐμῇ χειρὶ

1

Here, the phrase in my own hand is an idiom meaning “in my own handwriting.” If your readers would not understand this, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “I myself am writing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

197

2TH

3

17

wg3f

figs-explicit

οὕτως γράφω

1

In this manner I write

Paul makes it clear that this letter is from him and is not a forgery. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. Alternate translation: “you could know that the letter is from me because this is how I write” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

198

2TH

3

18

h18b

translate-blessing

ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν

1

Paul ends the letter with one more blessing. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “I pray that the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ will be with you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])