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Introduction to 2 Corinthians

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Book of 2 Corinthians

  1. Paul thanks God for the Corinthian Christians (1:1-11)
  2. Paul explains his conduct and his ministry (1:12-7:16)
  3. Paul speaks about contributing money for the Jerusalem church (8:1-9:15)
  4. Paul defends his authority as an apostle (10:1-13:10)
  5. Paul gives final greetings and encouragement (13:11-14)

Who wrote the Book of 2 Corinthians?

Paul was the author. He was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.

Paul started the church in Corinth. He was staying in the city of Ephesus when he wrote this letter.

What is the Book of 2 Corinthians about?

In 2 Corinthians, Paul continued to write about the conflicts among the Christians in the city of Corinth. It is clear in this letter that the Corinthians had obeyed his previous instructions to them. In 2 Corinthians, Paul encouraged them to live in a way that would please God.

Paul also wrote to assure them that Jesus Christ sent him as an apostle to preach the Gospel. Paul wanted them to understand this, because a group of Jewish Christians opposed what he was doing. They claimed Paul was not sent by God and he was teaching a false message. This group of Jewish Christians wanted Gentile Christians to obey the law of Moses.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Second Corinthians.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Second Letter to the Church in Corinth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What was the city of Corinth like?

Corinth was a major city located in ancient Greece. Because it was near the Mediterranean Sea, many travelers and traders came to buy and sell goods there. This resulted in the city having people from many different cultures. The city was famous for having people who lived in immoral ways. The people worshipped Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love. As part of the ceremonies honoring Aphrodite, her worshipers had sexual intercourse with temple prostitutes.

What did Paul mean by “false apostles” (11:13)?

These were Jewish Christians. They taught that Gentile Christians had to obey the law of Moses in order to follow Christ. Christian leaders had met in Jerusalem and decided on the matter (See: Acts 15). However, it is clear that there were still some groups that disagreed with what the leaders in Jerusalem decided.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Singular and plural “you”

In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. Also, the word “you” is almost always plural and refers to the believers in Corinth. There are two exceptions to this: 6:2 and 12:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

How are the ideas of “holy” and “sanctify” represented in 2 Corinthians in the ULT?

The scriptures use such words to indicate any one of various ideas. For this reason, it is often difficult for translators to represent them well in their versions. In translating into English, the ULT uses the following principles:

  • Sometimes the meaning in a passage implies moral holiness. Especially important for understanding the gospel is the fact that God considers Christians to be sinless because they are united to Jesus Christ. Another related fact is that God is perfect and faultless. A third fact is that Christians are to conduct themselves in a blameless, faultless manner in life. In these cases, the ULT uses “holy,” “holy God,” “holy ones,” or “holy people.”
  • The meaning in most passages in 2 Corinthians is a simple reference to Christians without implying any particular role filled by them. In these cases, the ULT uses “believer” or “believers.” (See: 1:1; 8:4; 9:1, 12; 13:13)
  • Sometimes the meaning in the passage implies the idea of someone or something set apart for God alone. In these cases, the ULT uses “set apart,” “dedicated to,” “reserved for,” or “sanctified.”

The UST will often be helpful as translators think about how to represent these ideas in their own versions.

What did Paul mean by expressions like “in Christ” and “in the Lord”?

This kind of expression occurs in 1:19, 20; 2:12, 17; 3:14; 5:17, 19, 21; 10:17; 12:2, 19; and 13:4. Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. At the same time, he often intended other meanings as well. See, for example, “A door was opened for me in the Lord,” (2:12) where Paul specifically meant that a door was opened for Paul by the Lord.

Please see the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.

What does it mean to be a “new creation” in Christ (5:17)?

Paul’s message was that God makes Christians part of a “new world” when a person believes in Christ. God gives a new world of holiness, peace, and joy. In this new world, believers have a new nature that has been given them by the Holy Spirit. Translators should try to express this idea.

What are the major issues in the text of the Book of 2 Corinthians?

  • “and in your love for us” (8:7). Many versions, including the ULT and UST, read this way. However, many other versions read, “and in our love for you.” There is strong evidence that each reading is original. Translators should probably follow the reading preferred by other versions in their region.

(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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2 Corinthians 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The first paragraph reflects a common way to begin a letter in the ancient Near East.

Special Concepts

Paul’s integrity

People were criticizing Paul and saying he was not sincere. He refutes them by explaining his motives for what he was doing.

Comfort

Comfort is a major theme of this chapter. The Holy Spirit comforts Christians. The Corinthians probably were afflicted and needed to be comforted.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical question

Paul uses two rhetorical questions to defend himself against a charge of not being sincere. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

We

Paul uses the pronoun “we”. This likely represents at least Timothy and himself. It may also include other people.

Guarantee

Paul says the Holy Spirit is the guarantee, which means pledge or down-payment, of a Christian’s eternal life. Christians are securely saved. But they will not experience all of God’s given promises until after they die. The Holy Spirit is a personal guarantee that this will happen. This idea comes from a business term. A person gives some valuable item to another person as a “guarantee” that they will repay money. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

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General Information:

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Παῦλος…τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ

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Paul … to the church of God that is in Corinth

Your language may have a particular way of introducing the author of a letter and its intended audience. Alternate translation: “I, Paul … wrote this letter to you, the church of God that is in Corinth”

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Τιμόθεος ὁ ἀδελφὸς

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Timothy our brother

The word our indicates that both Paul and the Corinthians knew Timothy and considered him to be their spiritual brother.

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translate-names

Ἀχαΐᾳ

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Achaia

Achaia is the name of a Roman province in the southern part of modern-day Greece. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη

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May grace be to you and peace

This is a common greeting that Paul uses in his letters.

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figs-activepassive

εὐλογητὸς ὁ Θεὸς καὶ Πατὴρ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

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May the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ be praised

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “May we always praise the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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ὁ Θεὸς καὶ Πατὴρ

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the God and Father

Alternate translation: “God, who is the Father”

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figs-parallelism

ὁ Πατὴρ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν καὶ Θεὸς πάσης παρακλήσεως

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the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort

These two phrases express the same idea in two different ways. Both phrases refer to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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ὁ Πατὴρ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν καὶ Θεὸς πάσης παρακλήσεως

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the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort

This could mean: (1) the words mercies and all comfort describe the character of Father and God. (2) the words Father and God refer to one who is the source of mercies and all comfort.

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figs-exclusive

παρακαλῶν ἡμᾶς ἐπὶ πάσῃ τῇ θλίψει ἡμῶν

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comforts us in all our affliction

Here, us and our include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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figs-metaphor

ὅτι καθὼς περισσεύει τὰ παθήματα τοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ἡμᾶς

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For just as the sufferings of Christ abound toward us

Paul speaks of the sufferings of Christ as if they were objects that could increase in number. Alternate translation: “For just as Christ suffered greatly for our sake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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τὰ παθήματα τοῦ Χριστοῦ

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the sufferings of Christ

This could refer to: (1) the sufferings that Paul and Timothy experience because they preach the message about Christ. (2) the sufferings that Christ experienced on their behalf.

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figs-metaphor

περισσεύει…ἡ παράκλησις ἡμῶν

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our comfort abounds

Paul speaks of comfort as if it were an object that could increase in size. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-exclusive

εἴτε δὲ θλιβόμεθα

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But if we are afflicted

Here the word we refers to Paul and Timothy, but not to the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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figs-activepassive

εἴτε δὲ θλιβόμεθα

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If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “But if people afflict us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-activepassive

εἴτε παρακαλούμεθα

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if we are comforted

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if God comforts us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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τῆς ὑμῶν παρακλήσεως, τῆς ἐνεργουμένης

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your comfort that results

Alternate translation: “you experience effective comfort”

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figs-doublenegatives

οὐ…θέλομεν ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν

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we do not want you to be uninformed

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not … uninformed, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “we want you to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

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figs-metaphor

ὅτι καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν ὑπὲρ δύναμιν ἐβαρήθημεν

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We were so completely crushed beyond our strength

Paul and Timothy refer to their emotions of despair being like a heavy weight they have to carry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ὑπερβολὴν…ἐβαρήθημεν

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We were so completely crushed

The word burdened refers to the feeling of despair. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “We were in complete despair” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-metaphor

αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς τὸ ἀπόκριμα τοῦ θανάτου ἐσχήκαμεν

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we had the sentence of death on us

Paul and Timothy are comparing their feeling of despair to that of someone condemned to die. Alternate translation: “we were in despair like someone who is condemned to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-ellipsis

ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ τῷ Θεῷ

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but in God

The words “be putting our trust” are left out of this phrase. Alternate translation: “but instead, be putting our trust in God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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figs-idiom

τῷ ἐγείροντι τοὺς νεκρούς

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who raises the dead

Here to raise is an idiom for causing someone who has died to become alive again. Alternate translation: “who causes the dead to live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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figs-metaphor

θανάτου

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a deadly peril

Paul compares his feeling of despair as a result of the troubles that they experienced to a deadly peril or terrible danger. Alternate translation: “despair” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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καὶ ἔτι ῥύσεται

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he will continue to deliver us

Alternate translation: “he also will continue to rescue us”

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συνυπουργούντων καὶ ὑμῶν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν τῇ δεήσει

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as you also join together … on our behalf

Alternate translation: “God will rescue us from danger as you, the people of the church of Corinth, also help us by praying with us”

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figs-activepassive

τὸ εἰς ἡμᾶς χάρισμα

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the gracious favor given to us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the gracious favor which God has given to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν…ἡμῶν…ἀνεστράφημεν

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General Information:

In these verses Paul uses the words our, we, and ourselves to refer to himself and Timothy and possibly others who served with them. These words do not include the people he was writing to. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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ἡ γὰρ καύχησις ἡμῶν αὕτη ἐστίν

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For our proud confidence is this

The word boasting here is used in the positive sense of feeling great satisfaction and joy in something.

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figs-personification

τὸ μαρτύριον τῆς συνειδήσεως ἡμῶν

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the testimony of our conscience

Paul speaks of not being guilty as if his conscience were a person that could testify. Alternate translation: “we know by our conscience” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

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figs-metonymy

οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ σαρκικῇ, ἀλλ’ ἐν χάριτι Θεοῦ

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not relying on fleshly wisdom but on the grace of God.

Here, fleshly represents human. Alternate translation: “We have not relied on human wisdom but on the grace of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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figs-doublenegatives

οὐ γὰρ ἄλλα γράφομεν ὑμῖν, ἀλλ’ ἢ ἃ ἀναγινώσκετε ἢ καὶ ἐπιγινώσκετε

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For we write no other things to you, but that which you read or also understand

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative no … but, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “you could read and understand everything we write to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

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καύχημα ὑμῶν

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your reason for boasting

The word boasting here is used in the positive sense of feeling great satisfaction and joy in something.

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Connecting Statement:

Paul explains his sincere expectation with pure motives to come see the believers in Corinth after his first letter.

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ταύτῃ τῇ πεποιθήσει

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with this confidence

The word this refers to Paul’s previous comments about the Corinthians.

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δευτέραν χάριν σχῆτε

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you might have a second blessing

Alternate translation: “you might benefit from me visiting you twice”

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ὑφ’ ὑμῶν προπεμφθῆναι εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν

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to be sent on my way to Judea by you

Alternate translation: “to assist me to continue on to Judea”

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figs-rquestion

μήτι ἄρα τῇ ἐλαφρίᾳ ἐχρησάμην?

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I did not then take it lightly, did I?

Paul uses this question to emphasize he was sure about his decision to visit the Corinthians. The expected answer to the question is “no”. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I was not hesitating.” or “I was confident in my decision.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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figs-rquestion

ἢ ἃ βουλεύομαι, κατὰ σάρκα βουλεύομαι, ἵνα ᾖ παρ’ ἐμοὶ τὸ ναὶ, ναὶ, καὶ τὸ οὒ, οὔ?

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Do I plan things according to human standards … at the same time?

Paul uses this question to emphasize that his plans to visit the Corinthians were sincere. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not plan things according to human standards, so that I would say “Yes, yes” and “No, no” at the same time.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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figs-explicit

ἢ ἃ βουλεύομαι, κατὰ σάρκα βουλεύομαι, ἵνα ᾖ παρ’ ἐμοὶ τὸ ναὶ, ναὶ, καὶ τὸ οὒ, οὔ?

1

This means that Paul did not say both that he would visit and that he would not visit at the same time. Alternate translation: “I do not plan things according to fleshly planning, so that I say ‘Yes, I will certainly visit’ and ‘No, I will definitely not visit’ at the same time!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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figs-doublet

ἵνα ᾖ παρ’ ἐμοὶ τὸ ναὶ, ναὶ, καὶ τὸ οὒ, οὔ?

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Do I plan things … so that I say “Yes, yes” and “No, no” at the same time?

The words yes and no are repeated for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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figs-explicit

ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ γὰρ Υἱὸς, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός…οὐκ ἐγένετο ναὶ καὶ οὒ, ἀλλὰ ναὶ ἐν αὐτῷ γέγονεν.

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For the Son of God … is not “Yes” and “No.” Instead, he is always “Yes.”

Jesus says “Yes” concerning the promises of God, which means that he guarantees that they are true. Alternate translation: “For the Son of God, Jesus Christ … does not say ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ concerning God’s promises. Instead, he always says ‘Yes.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ…Υἱὸς

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the Son of God

Son of God is an important title for Jesus that describes his relationship to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

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figs-explicit

ὅσαι…ἐπαγγελίαι Θεοῦ, ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ ναί

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all the promises of God are “Yes” in him

This means that Jesus guarantees all of the promises of God. Alternate translation: “all the promises of God are guaranteed in Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ ναί…δι’ αὐτοῦ

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“Yes” in him … through him we say

Both occurrences of the word him refer to Jesus Christ.

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ὁ δὲ βεβαιῶν ἡμᾶς σὺν ὑμῖν εἰς Χριστὸν καὶ χρίσας ἡμᾶς Θεός

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Now God is the one who establishes us with you

This could mean: (1) Paul is saying that God confirms the relationship of him and his team with each other because they are in Christ. (2) Paul is saying that God confirms the relationship of him and his team, and the Corinthians, with Christ.

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χρίσας ἡμᾶς

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he anointed us

This could mean: (1) he sent us to preach the gospel. (2) he chose us to be his people.

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figs-metaphor

ὁ καὶ σφραγισάμενος ἡμᾶς

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the one who also sealed us

Paul speaks of God showing that we belong to him as if God had put a mark on us as a sign that we belong to him. Alternate translation: “he has put his mark of ownership on us” or “he has shown that we belong to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metonymy

δοὺς τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ Πνεύματος ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν

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he gave us the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts

Here the word hearts refers to the innermost part of a person. Alternate translation: “gave us the Spirit to live within each of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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figs-metaphor

τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ Πνεύματος

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the pledge of the Spirit

The Spirit is spoken of as if he was a partial downpayment toward eternal life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ἐγὼ δὲ μάρτυρα τὸν Θεὸν ἐπικαλοῦμαι ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμὴν ψυχήν

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Now I call God as a witness to my soul

Here, to be a witness refers to a person telling what they have seen or heard in order to settle an argument. Alternate translation: “I ask God to show what I say is true”

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ὅτι φειδόμενος ὑμῶν

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so that I might spare you

Alternate translation: “so that I might not cause you more suffering”

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συνεργοί ἐσμεν τῆς χαρᾶς ὑμῶν

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we are fellow workers with you for your joy

Alternate translation: “we are working with you so that you may have joy”

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figs-idiom

τῇ…πίστει ἑστήκατε

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you stand firm in the faith

Here, stand firm can refer to something that does not change. Alternate translation: “remain firm in your faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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2 Corinthians 2 General Notes

Special Concepts

Harsh writing

In this chapter, Paul refers to a letter he previously wrote to the Corinthians. That letter had a harsh and corrective tone. Paul probably wrote it after the letter known as First Corinthians and before this letter. He implies that the church had to rebuke an erring member. Paul is now encouraging them to be gracious to that person. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/grace]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Aroma

A sweet aroma is a pleasing smell. Scripture often describes things that are pleasing to God as having a pleasing aroma.

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grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

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Connecting Statement:

in 1:23 about the reason why he did not visit Corinth, which was to “spare” them.

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writing-pronouns

τοῦτο

1

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figs-idiom

ἐμαυτῷ

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figs-go

τὸ μὴ…ἐλθεῖν

1

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figs-explicit

πάλιν

1

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figs-abstractnouns

ἐν λύπῃ

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in sorrow

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grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

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grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ…ἐγὼ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς

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2

2

le34

figs-rpronouns

ἐγὼ

1

68

2CO

2

2

nb6x

figs-rquestion

καὶ τίς ὁ εὐφραίνων με, εἰ μὴ ὁ λυπούμενος ἐξ ἐμοῦ?

1

If I caused you pain, who could cheer me up but the very one who was hurt by me?

Paul uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that neither he nor they would benefit if his coming to them would cause them pain. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “If I caused you pain, the only ones who could cheer me up would be the very ones whom I had hurt.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

69

2CO

2

2

mbag

grammar-connect-exceptions

τίς ὁ εὐφραίνων με, εἰ μὴ

1

70

2CO

2

2

x2vr

figs-activepassive

ὁ λυπούμενος ἐξ ἐμοῦ

1

the very one who was hurt by me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the very one whom I had hurt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

71

2CO

2

3

kxu2

figs-explicit

ἔγραψα τοῦτο αὐτὸ

1

I wrote this same thing

Paul is referring to another letter that he had written to the Corinthian Christians, but which no longer exists. Alternate translation: “I wrote as I did in my previous letter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

72

2CO

2

3

v87i

figs-activepassive

μὴ…λύπην σχῶ ἀφ’ ὧν ἔδει με χαίρειν

1

I might not be hurt by those who should have made me rejoice

Paul is speaking about the behavior of certain Corinthian believers who caused him emotional pain. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “those who should have made me rejoice might not hurt me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

73

2CO

2

3

i5r6

ἡ ἐμὴ χαρὰ πάντων ὑμῶν ἐστιν

1

my joy is the same joy you all have

Alternate translation: “what gives me joy is what gives you joy, too”

74

2CO

2

4

uch7

ἐκ γὰρ πολλῆς θλίψεως

1

from great affliction

Here the word affliction refers to emotional pain.

75

2CO

2

4

vs7m

figs-metonymy

συνοχῆς καρδίας

1

with anguish of heart

Here the word heart refers to the location of the emotions. Alternate translation: “with extreme sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

76

2CO

2

4

d5vf

διὰ πολλῶν δακρύων

1

with many tears

Alternate translation: “with much crying”

77

2CO

2

6

iy4r

figs-activepassive

ἱκανὸν τῷ τοιούτῳ ἡ ἐπιτιμία αὕτη, ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν πλειόνων

1

This punishment of that person by the majority is enough

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The punishment that the majority gave that person is sufficient” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

78

2CO

2

6

wr3k

figs-abstractnouns

ἱκανὸν τῷ τοιούτῳ ἡ ἐπιτιμία αὕτη, ἡ ὑπὸ τῶν πλειόνων

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word ** punishment**, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “The way that the majority has punished that person is enough” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

79

2CO

2

6

a7c4

ἱκανὸν

1

is enough

Alternate translation: “is sufficient”

80

2CO

2

7

vpx1

figs-activepassive

μή πως τῇ περισσοτέρᾳ λύπῃ, καταποθῇ ὁ τοιοῦτος

1

he is not overwhelmed by too much sorrow

This means to have a strong emotional response of too much sorrow. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “We do not want too much sorrow to overwhelm him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

81

2CO

2

8

r916

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul encourages the church in Corinth to show love and to forgive the person they have punished. He writes that he, also, has forgiven him.

82

2CO

2

8

yi2z

κυρῶσαι εἰς αὐτὸν ἀγάπην

1

publicly affirm your love for him

This means that they are to confirm their love for this man in the presence of all of the believers.

83

2CO

2

9

xw5t

figs-explicit

εἰς πάντα ὑπήκοοί ἐστε

1

you are obedient in everything

This could mean: (1) the Corinthians are obedient to God in everything. (2) the Corinthians are obedient in everything that Paul has taught them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

84

2CO

2

10

cbm6

δι’ ὑμᾶς

1

forgiven for your sake

This could mean: (1) they are forgiven out of Paul’s love for them. (2) they are forgiven for their benefit.

85

2CO

2

11

m46t

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὰ νοήματα ἀγνοοῦμεν

1

For we are not ignorant of his plans

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not ignorant, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “For we know his plans well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

86

2CO

2

12

l6vd

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul encourages the believers in Corinth by telling them of the opportunities he has had to preach the gospel in Troas and Macedonia.

87

2CO

2

12

a1ti

figs-metaphor

εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ θύρας μοι ἀνεῳγμένης ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

a door for the gospel of Christ was opened to me in the Lord

Paul speaks of his opportunity to preach the gospel as if it were a door through which he was allowed to walk. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

88

2CO

2

12

n9cr

figs-activepassive

εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ θύρας μοι ἀνεῳγμένης ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The Lord indeed opened a door to me to preach the gospel of Christ” or “The Lord gave me the opportunity to preach the gospel of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

89

2CO

2

13

rjy9

οὐκ ἔσχηκα ἄνεσιν τῷ πνεύματί μου

1

I had no relief in my spirit

Alternate translation: “My mind was troubled” or “I was worried”

90

2CO

2

13

xd5h

Τίτον τὸν ἀδελφόν μου

1

my brother Titus

Paul speaks of Titus as his spiritual brother.

91

2CO

2

13

wq6j

ἀλλὰ ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς

1

So I left them

Alternate translation: “So I left the people of Troas”

92

2CO

2

14

gpd2

figs-metaphor

τῷ…Θεῷ…τῷ πάντοτε θριαμβεύοντι ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ

1

God, who in Christ always leads us in triumph

Paul speaks of God as if he were a victorious general leading a victory parade and of himself and his coworkers as those who take part in that parade. This could mean: (1) God, who in Christ always causes us to share in his triumph. (2) God, who in Christ always leads us in triumph as those over whom he as gained victory. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

93

2CO

2

14

l1nr

figs-metaphor

τὴν ὀσμὴν τῆς γνώσεως αὐτοῦ, φανεροῦντι δι’ ἡμῶν ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ

1

Through us he spreads the sweet aroma of the knowledge of him everywhere

Paul speaks of the knowledge of Christ as if it were incense that has a pleasing smell. Alternate translation: “He causes the knowledge of Christ to spread to everyone who hears us, just as the sweet smell of burning incense spreads to everyone near it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

94

2CO

2

14

eq21

φανεροῦντι…ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ

1

he spreads … everywhere

Alternate translation: “he spreads … everywhere we go”

95

2CO

2

15

x6nn

figs-metaphor

Χριστοῦ εὐωδία ἐσμὲν τῷ Θεῷ

1

we are to God the sweet aroma of Christ

Paul speaks of his ministry as if it were the pleasing smell of a burnt offering that someone offers to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

96

2CO

2

15

b1k1

Χριστοῦ εὐωδία ἐσμὲν τῷ Θεῷ

1

the sweet aroma of Christ

This could refer to: (1) the sweet aroma which is the knowledge of Christ. (2) the sweet aroma that Christ offers.

97

2CO

2

15

itc8

figs-activepassive

τοῖς σῳζομένοις

1

those who are saved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “those whom God is saving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

98

2CO

2

16

dwk6

figs-metaphor

ὀσμὴ

1

an aroma

This refers back to 2 Corinthians 2:14, where Paul speaks of the knowledge of Christ as if it were incense that has a pleasing smell. Alternate translation: “the knowledge of Christ is an aroma” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

99

2CO

2

16

ud2u

figs-doublet

ὀσμὴ ἐκ θανάτου εἰς θάνατον

1

an aroma from death to death

This could mean: (1) the word death is repeated for emphasis and the phrase means “an aroma that causes death.” (2) this refers to an aroma of death that causes people to die. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

100

2CO

2

16

v2n3

figs-activepassive

οἷς

1

to the other

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “to the ones whom God is saving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

101

2CO

2

16

cdr3

figs-doublet

ὀσμὴ ἐκ ζωῆς εἰς ζωήν

1

a fragrance from life to life

This could mean: (1) the word life is repeated for emphasis and the phrase means “an aroma that gives life.” (2) this refers to an aroma of life that gives people life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

102

2CO

2

16

be6x

figs-rquestion

πρὸς ταῦτα τίς ἱκανός?

1

who is worthy of these things?

Paul uses this question to emphasize that no one is worthy to do the ministry that God has called them to do. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one is worthy of these things!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

103

2CO

2

17

a5sa

figs-metonymy

καπηλεύοντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

who sell the word of God

Here, word is a metonym for “message.” Alternate translation: “who sell God’s message to make money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

104

2CO

2

17

x86y

εἰλικρινείας

1

sincerity

Alternate translation: “pure motives”

105

2CO

2

17

u2zb

κατέναντι Θεοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ λαλοῦμεν

1

we speak in Christ

Alternate translation: “we speak as people who are joined to Christ” or “we speak with the authority of Christ”

106

2CO

2

17

q4dc

figs-ellipsis

κατέναντι Θεοῦ

1

before God

Paul and his coworkers preach the gospel with the awareness that God is watching them. Alternate translation: “we speak in the presence of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

107

2CO

3

intro

f7rh

0

2 Corinthians 3 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Paul continues his defense. Paul views the Corinthian Christians as the proof of his work.

Special concepts in this chapter

Law of Moses

Paul alludes to God giving the Ten Commandments on stone tablets. This represents the law of Moses. The law was good because it came from God. But God punished the Israelites because they disobeyed it. This chapter may be difficult for translators to understand if the Old Testament has not yet been translated. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reveal]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Paul uses many metaphors used in this chapter to explain complex spiritual truths. It is unclear whether this makes Paul’s teachings easier or more difficult to understand. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“This is a covenant not of the letter but of the Spirit.”

Paul contrasts the old and new covenants. The new covenant is not a system of rules and regulations. Here, Spirit probably refers to the Holy Spirit. It may also refer to the new covenant being “spiritual” in nature. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]])

108

2CO

3

1

um8x

figs-rquestion

ἀρχόμεθα πάλιν ἑαυτοὺς συνιστάνειν?

1

Are we beginning to praise ourselves again?

Paul uses this question to emphasize that they are not bragging about themselves. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We are not beginning to praise ourselves again!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

109

2CO

3

1

y8yc

figs-rquestion

ἢ μὴ χρῄζομεν, ὥς τινες, συστατικῶν ἐπιστολῶν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἢ ἐξ ὑμῶν?

1

We do not need letters of recommendation to you or from you, like some people, do we?

Paul used this question to express that the Corinthians already know about Paul and Timothy’s good reputation. The question prompts a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We certainly do not need letters of recommendation to you or from you, like some people do!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

110

2CO

3

1

ad1u

συστατικῶν ἐπιστολῶν

1

letters of recommendation

This refers to letters that people write to introduce and give their approval of someone else.

111

2CO

3

2

ty59

figs-metaphor

ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ἡμῶν ὑμεῖς ἐστε

1

You yourselves are our letter of recommendation

Paul speaks of the Corinthians as if they are a letter of recommendation. That they have become believers serves to validate Paul’s ministry to others. Alternate translation: “You yourselves are like our letter of recommendation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

112

2CO

3

2

v2e7

figs-metonymy

ἐνγεγραμμένη ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν

1

written on our hearts

Here the word hearts refers to their thoughts and emotions. This could mean: (1) Paul and his coworkers are sure about the Corinthians being their letter of recommendation. (2) Paul and his coworkers care very deeply for the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

113

2CO

3

2

bu1u

figs-activepassive

ἐνγεγραμμένη ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν

1

written on our hearts

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form with “Christ” as the implied subject, or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “which Christ has written on our hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

114

2CO

3

2

dr5k

figs-activepassive

γινωσκομένη καὶ ἀναγινωσκομένη ὑπὸ πάντων ἀνθρώπων

1

known and read by all people

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that all people can know and read” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

115

2CO

3

3

s717

figs-explicit

ἐστὲ ἐπιστολὴ Χριστοῦ

1

you are a letter from Christ

Paul clarifies that Christ is the one who has written the letter. Alternate translation: “you are a letter that Christ has written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

116

2CO

3

3

wrk4

διακονηθεῖσα ὑφ’ ἡμῶν

1

cared for by us

Alternate translation: “brought by us”

117

2CO

3

3

q96q

ἐνγεγραμμένη οὐ μέλανι, ἀλλὰ Πνεύματι Θεοῦ ζῶντος, οὐκ ἐν πλαξὶν λιθίναις, ἀλλ’ ἐν πλαξὶν καρδίαις σαρκίναις

1

It was written not with ink … on tablets of human hearts

Paul clarifies that the Corinthians are like a spiritual letter, not like a letter that humans write with physical objects.

118

2CO

3

3

vyuh

figs-ellipsis

ἐνγεγραμμένη οὐ μέλανι, ἀλλὰ Πνεύματι Θεοῦ ζῶντος

1

The verb “written” is implied in the second phrase. Alternate translation: “not written with ink, but written with the Spirit of the living God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

119

2CO

3

3

qt5g

figs-activepassive

ἐνγεγραμμένη οὐ μέλανι, ἀλλὰ Πνεύματι Θεοῦ ζῶντος

1

It was written not with ink but by the Spirit of the living God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “not a letter that people wrote with ink but a letter that the Spirit of the living God wrote” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

120

2CO

3

3

t5ah

figs-ellipsis

οὐκ ἐν πλαξὶν λιθίναις, ἀλλ’ ἐν πλαξὶν καρδίαις σαρκίναις

1

not on tablets of stone, but on tablets of human hearts

The verb “written” is implied from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “not a letter that was written on stone tablets, but a letter that was written on tablets of human hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

121

2CO

3

3

ih89

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἐν πλαξὶν λιθίναις, ἀλλ’ ἐν πλαξὶν καρδίαις σαρκίναις

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “not a letter that people engraved on stone tablets but a letter that the Spirit of the living God wrote on tablets of human hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

122

2CO

3

3

u959

figs-metaphor

πλαξὶν καρδίαις σαρκίναις

1

tablets of human hearts

Paul speaks of their hearts as if they are flat pieces of stone or clay upon which people engraved letters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

123

2CO

3

4

z7qx

πεποίθησιν δὲ τοιαύτην ἔχομεν

1

such confidence

This refers to what Paul has just said. His confidence comes from knowing that the Corinthians are the validation of his ministry before God.

124

2CO

3

5

qye9

ἀφ’ ἑαυτῶν ἱκανοί

1

competent in ourselves

Alternate translation: “qualified in ourselves” or “sufficient in ourselves”

125

2CO

3

5

e5e7

figs-explicit

λογίσασθαί τι ὡς ἐξ ἑαυτῶν

1

to consider anything as coming from us

Here the word anything refers to anything pertaining to Paul’s apostolic ministry. Alternate translation: “to claim that anything we have done in ministry comes from our own efforts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

126

2CO

3

5

wi1t

ἡ ἱκανότης ἡμῶν ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

our competence is from God

Alternate translation: “God gives us our sufficiency”

127

2CO

3

6

dp6i

figs-synecdoche

καινῆς διαθήκης, οὐ γράμματος

1

a new covenant, not of the letter

Here the word letter means letters of the alphabet and refers to words that people write down. Alternate translation: “a covenant not based on commands that men have written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

128

2CO

3

6

gbsc

figs-explicit

οὐ γράμματος

1

The phrase the letter alludes to the Old Testament law. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

129

2CO

3

6

tc4u

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ Πνεύματος

1

but of the Spirit

The Holy Spirit is the one who establishes God’s covenant with people. Alternate translation: “but a covenant based on what the Spirit does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

130

2CO

3

6

q4at

figs-personification

τὸ…γράμμα ἀποκτέννει

1

the letter kills

Paul speaks of the Old Testament law as a person who kills. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

131

2CO

3

6

one5

figs-explicit

τὸ…γράμμα ἀποκτέννει

1

Following that law leads to spiritual death. Alternate translation: “the written law leads to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

132

2CO

3

7

lyf7

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul contrasts the fading glory of the old covenant with the superiority and freedom of the new covenant. He contrasts the veil of Moses with the clarity of present revelation. The time of Moses was a less clear picture of what is now revealed.

133

2CO

3

7

ut6r

figs-irony

εἰ δὲ ἡ διακονία τοῦ θανάτου…ἐγενήθη ἐν δόξῃ, ὥστε

1

Now if the ministry that produced death … came in such glory

Paul emphasizes that although the law leads to death, it was still very glorious. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

134

2CO

3

7

du65

figs-explicit

ἡ διακονία τοῦ θανάτου

1

the ministry that produced death

Here, the ministry of death refers to the Old Testament law that God gave through Moses. Alternate translation: “the ministry that causes death because it is based on the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

135

2CO

3

7

j1hp

figs-activepassive

ἐν γράμμασιν ἐντετυπωμένη λίθοις

1

engraved in letters on stones

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that God carved into stone with letters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

136

2CO

3

7

r5p5

ἐν δόξῃ, ὥστε

1

in such glory

Alternate translation: “in so much glory that”

137

2CO

3

8

xxn6

figs-rquestion

πῶς οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἡ διακονία τοῦ Πνεύματος ἔσται ἐν δόξῃ?

1

Will the ministry of the Spirit not be with much more glory?

Paul uses this question to emphasize that the ministry of the Spirit does must be more glorious than “the ministry of death” because it leads to life. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “So the service that the Spirit does must be even more glorious!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

138

2CO

3

8

wq1v

figs-explicit

ἡ διακονία τοῦ Πνεύματος

1

the ministry of the Spirit

Here, the ministry of the Spirit refers to the new covenant, of which Paul is a minister. Alternate translation: “the ministry that gives life because it is based on the Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

139

2CO

3

9

k779

figs-explicit

τῇ διακονίᾳ τῆς κατακρίσεως

1

the ministry of condemnation

Here, the ministry of condemnation refers to the Old Testament law. Alternate translation: “the ministry that condemns people because it is based on the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

140

2CO

3

9

if33

figs-exclamations

πολλῷ μᾶλλον περισσεύει ἡ διακονία τῆς δικαιοσύνης δόξῃ

1

how much more does the ministry of righteousness abound in glory!

Here the phrase much more marks this phrase as an exclamation, not as a question. Alternate translation: “then the service of righteousness must abound in so much more glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

141

2CO

3

9

e5zz

figs-metaphor

πολλῷ μᾶλλον περισσεύει ἡ διακονία τῆς δικαιοσύνης δόξῃ.

1

the ministry of righteousness abound in glory

Paul speaks of the ministry of righteousness as if it were an object that could produce or multiply another object. He means that this ministry is far more glorious than the law, which also had glory. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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3

9

ufq6

figs-explicit

ἡ διακονία τῆς δικαιοσύνης

1

the ministry of righteousness

Here, the ministry of righteousness refers to the new covenant, of which Paul is a minister. Alternate translation: “the ministry that makes people righteous because it is based on the Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

143

2CO

3

10

n4pe

καὶ γὰρ οὐ δεδόξασται, τὸ δεδοξασμένον…εἵνεκεν τῆς ὑπερβαλλούσης δόξης

1

that which was once made glorious is no longer glorious … because of the glory that exceeds it

The Old Testament law no longer appears glorious when compared with the new covenant, which is much more glorious.

144

2CO

3

10

t2dq

figs-activepassive

τὸ δεδοξασμένον

1

that which was once made glorious

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the law which God once made glorious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

145

2CO

3

10

d7k5

ἐν τούτῳ τῷ μέρει

1

in this respect

Alternate translation: “in this way”

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2CO

3

11

zwb2

figs-metaphor

τὸ καταργούμενον

1

that which was fading away

This refers to “the ministry of condemnation,” which Paul speaks of as if it were an object capable of disappearing. Alternate translation: “that which was becoming useless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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3

12

tnc1

ἔχοντες οὖν τοιαύτην ἐλπίδα

1

Since we have such a hope

The word Therefore refers to what Paul has just said. His hope comes from knowing that the new covenant has an eternal glory.

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3

12

u5qa

τοιαύτην ἐλπίδα

1

such a hope

Alternate translation: “such confidence”

149

2CO

3

13

p5u2

figs-explicit

τὸ τέλος τοῦ καταργουμένου

1

the end of that which was fading away

The refers to the glory that shined on Moses’ face. Alternate translation: “the glory on Moses’ face as it faded away completely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

150

2CO

3

14

zvf5

figs-metaphor

ἀλλὰ ἐπωρώθη τὰ νοήματα αὐτῶν

1

But their minds were hardened

Paul speaks of the minds of the Israelite people as objects that could be closed or made hard. This expression means that they were unable to understand what they saw. Alternate translation: “But the Israelites could not understand what they saw” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

151

2CO

3

14

zm7j

ἄχρι γὰρ τῆς σήμερον ἡμέρας

1

For until this present day

Here, the present day refers to the time at which Paul was writing to the Corinthians.

152

2CO

3

14

w68p

figs-metaphor

τὸ αὐτὸ κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τῇ ἀναγνώσει τῆς παλαιᾶς διαθήκης μένει

1

when they read the old covenant, that same veil remains

Just as the Israelites could not see the glory on Moses’ face because he covered his face with a veil, there is a spiritual veil that prevents people from understanding when they read the old covenant. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

153

2CO

3

14

gg2d

ἐπὶ τῇ ἀναγνώσει τῆς παλαιᾶς διαθήκης

1

when they read the old covenant

Alternate translation: “when they hear someone read the old covenant”

154

2CO

3

14

gl8l

figs-activepassive

μὴ ἀνακαλυπτόμενον, ὅτι ἐν Χριστῷ καταργεῖται

1

It has not been removed, because only in Christ is it taken away

Here, it refers to “the same veil.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one removes the veil, because only in Christ does God remove it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

155

2CO

3

15

rjh5

ἀλλ’ ἕως σήμερον

1

But even today

Here the word today refers to the time at which Paul was writing to the Corinthians.

156

2CO

3

15

t3dl

figs-metonymy

ἡνίκα ἂν ἀναγινώσκηται Μωϋσῆς

1

whenever Moses is read

Here the word Moses refers to the Old Testament law that Moses wrote down. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

157

2CO

3

15

ip29

figs-activepassive

ἡνίκα ἂν ἀναγινώσκηται Μωϋσῆς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “whenever someone reads the Mosaic law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

158

2CO

3

15

gwp9

figs-metonymy

κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτῶν κεῖται

1

a veil lies over their heart

Here the word heart represents what people think. Alternate translation: “a veil prevents them from understanding” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

159

2CO

3

15

bb5u

figs-metaphor

κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτῶν κεῖται

1

Here the people being unable to understand the old covenant is spoken of as if they have a veil that covers their heart the way a physical veil would cover their eyes. Alternate translation: “they are unable to understand what they are hearing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

160

2CO

3

16

k2dr

figs-metaphor

ἡνίκα…ἐὰν ἐπιστρέψῃ πρὸς Κύριον

1

whenever a person turns to the Lord

Here, turn to is a metaphor that means to become loyal to someone. Alternate translation: “when a person starts to worship the Lord” or “when a person starts to trust in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

161

2CO

3

16

w1y2

figs-activepassive

περιαιρεῖται τὸ κάλυμμα

1

the veil is taken away

God gives them the ability to understand. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God lifts the veil away” or “God gives them the ability to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

162

2CO

3

18

r6rx

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες

1

Now we all

Here the word we refers to all believers, including Paul and the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

163

2CO

3

18

l3xw

figs-metaphor

ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳ, τὴν δόξαν Κυρίου κατοπτριζόμενοι

1

with unveiled faces, see as a reflection the glory of the Lord

Unlike the Israelites who could not see God’s glory reflected on Moses’ face because he had covered it with a veil, there is nothing to prevent believers from seeing and understanding God’s glory. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

164

2CO

3

18

rc9x

figs-activepassive

τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα

1

are being transformed into the same image

The Spirit is changing believers to be glorious like Jesus. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The Lord is transforming us into his same glorious likeness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

165

2CO

3

18

bx5b

ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν

1

from glory to glory

This means that the Spirit is constantly increasing the glory of believers. Alternate translation: “from one amount of glory to another amount of glory”

166

2CO

3

18

mw3v

καθάπερ ἀπὸ Κυρίου

1

just as from the Lord

Alternate translation: “just as this comes from the Lord”

167

2CO

4

intro

rx1c

0

2 Corinthians 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins with the word “therefore.” This connects it to what the previous chapter teaches. How these chapters are divided may be confusing to the reader.

Special concepts in this chapter

Ministry

Paul ministers to people by telling them about Christ. He does not try to trick people into believing. If they do not understand the gospel, it is because the problem is ultimately spiritual. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Light and darkness

The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Life and death

Paul does not refer here to physical life and death. Life represents the new life a Christian has in Jesus. Death represents the old way of living before believing in Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/life]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/death]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Hope

Paul uses a repeated pattern in a purposeful way. He makes a statement. Then he denies a seemingly opposite or contradictory statement or gives an exception. Together these give the reader hope in difficult circumstances. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/hope]])

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4

1

lyi4

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul writes that he is honest in his ministry by preaching Christ, not praising himself. He shows the death and the life of Jesus in how he lives so that life can work in the Corinthian believers.

169

2CO

4

1

ix7n

figs-exclusive

ἠλεήθημεν, οὐκ ἐνκακοῦμεν

1

having this ministry

Both occurrences of the word we refers to Paul and his coworker, but not to the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

170

2CO

4

1

h1ud

figs-explicit

καθὼς ἠλεήθημεν

1

and just as we have received mercy

This phrase explains how Paul and his coworkers have “this ministry.” It is a gift that God has given to them through his mercy. Alternate translation: “because God has shown us mercy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

171

2CO

4

2

yp4g

ἀπειπάμεθα τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης

1

we have rejected the shameful hidden things

This means that Paul and his coworkers refused to do secret and shameful things. It does not mean that they had done these things in the past.

172

2CO

4

2

z4c2

figs-hendiadys

τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης

1

the shameful hidden things

The word hidden describes the things that people do secretly. Things that are shameful should cause people who do them to feel ashamed. Alternate translation: “the things that people do secretly because they cause shame” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

173

2CO

4

2

ey75

περιπατοῦντες ἐν πανουργίᾳ

1

walking in craftiness

Alternate translation: “living by deception”

174

2CO

4

2

gp3g

figs-metonymy

μηδὲ δολοῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

not distorting the word of God

Here, word of God is a metonym for the message from God. Alternate translation: “we do not mishandle God’s message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

175

2CO

4

2

lzn0

figs-doublenegatives

μηδὲ δολοῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative nor distorting, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “we use the word of God correctly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

176

2CO

4

2

aj24

συνιστάνοντες ἑαυτοὺς πρὸς πᾶσαν συνείδησιν ἀνθρώπων

1

commending ourselves to every person’s conscience

This means that they provide enough evidence for each person who hears them to decide whether they are right or wrong.

177

2CO

4

2

f6n1

figs-metaphor

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

before God

Here, before God refers to God’s presence. God’s understanding and approval of Paul’s truthfulness is referred to as God being able to see them. Alternate translation: “with God as witness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

178

2CO

4

3

mti5

figs-metaphor

εἰ δὲ καὶ ἔστιν κεκαλυμμένον τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν, ἐν τοῖς ἀπολλυμένοις ἐστὶν κεκαλυμμένον

1

But if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled only to those who are perishing

This refers back to what Paul said starting in 2 Corinthians 3:14. There Paul explained that there is a spiritual veil that prevents people from understanding when they read the old covenant. In the same way, people are not able to understand the gospel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

179

2CO

4

3

hz2f

figs-activepassive

εἰ…ἔστιν κεκαλυμμένον τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν…ἐστὶν κεκαλυμμένον

1

if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if a veil covers our gospel, that veil covers it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

180

2CO

4

3

e5yu

τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν

1

our gospel

Alternate translation: “the gospel that we preach”

181

2CO

4

4

r6pz

figs-metaphor

ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἐτύφλωσεν τὰ νοήματα τῶν ἀπίστων

1

the god of this age has blinded the minds of the unbelieving

Paul speaks of the minds of unbelievers as if they had eyes, and their inability to understand as their minds being unable to see. Alternate translation: “the god of this world has prevented unbelievers from understanding” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

2CO

4

4

tx9h

ὁ θεὸς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

1

the god of this world

This phrase refers to Satan. Alternate translation: “the god who rules this world”

183

2CO

4

4

z4yp

figs-metaphor

μὴ αὐγάσαι τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς δόξης τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

they do not see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ

As the Israelites could not see God’s glory that shined on Moses’ face because he covered it with a veil (2 Corinthians 3:13), unbelievers are not able to see Christ’s glory that shines in the gospel. This means that they are unable to understand “the gospel of the glory of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

184

2CO

4

4

j1vz

τὸν φωτισμὸν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου

1

the light of the gospel

Alternate translation: “the light that comes from the gospel”

185

2CO

4

4

rdj3

τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς δόξης τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the gospel of the glory of Christ

Alternate translation: “the gospel about the Christ’s glory”

186

2CO

4

5

ddw1

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν Κύριον, ἑαυτοὺς δὲ δούλους ὑμῶν

1

but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves as your servants

You can supply the missing verb for these phrases. Alternate translation: “but we proclaim Christ Jesus as Lord, and we proclaim ourselves as your servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

187

2CO

4

5

t8du

διὰ Ἰησοῦν

1

for Jesus’ sake

Alternate translation: “because of Jesus”

188

2CO

4

6

rw5z

ἐκ σκότους φῶς λάμψει

1

Light will shine out of darkness

With this sentence, Paul refers to God creating light, as described in the book of Genesis.

189

2CO

4

6

d5x7

figs-metaphor

ὃς ἔλαμψεν…πρὸς φωτισμὸν τῆς γνώσεως τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

He has shone … to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God

Here, the illumination from the light represents the ability to understand. Just as God created light, he also creates understanding for believers. Alternate translation: “the one who caused light to shine … to enable us to understand the glory of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

190

2CO

4

6

bj1j

figs-metonymy

ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν

1

in our hearts

Here the word hearts refers to the mind and thoughts. Alternate translation: “in our minds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

191

2CO

4

6

mpg9

πρὸς φωτισμὸν τῆς γνώσεως τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the light of the knowledge of the glory of God

Alternate translation: “to show us the knowledge of the glory of God”

192

2CO

4

6

p736

figs-metaphor

τῆς δόξης τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐν προσώπῳ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ

Just as God’s glory shone upon Moses’ face (2 Corinthians 3:7), it also shines upon the face of Jesus. This means that when Paul preaches the gospel, people are able to see and understand the message about God’s glory. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

193

2CO

4

7

xe5i

figs-exclusive

ἔχομεν δὲ

1

But we have

Here the word we refers to Paul and his coworkers, but not to the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

194

2CO

4

7

xx2c

figs-metaphor

ἔχομεν…τὸν θησαυρὸν τοῦτον ἐν ὀστρακίνοις σκεύεσιν

1

we have this treasure in jars of clay

Paul speaks of the gospel as if it were a** treasure** and their bodies as if they were breakable jars made out of clay. This emphasizes that they are of little value compared to the worth of the gospel that they preach. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

195

2CO

4

8

ga9z

figs-activepassive

ἐν παντὶ θλιβόμενοι

1

We are afflicted in every way

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “People afflict us in every way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

196

2CO

4

9

bz8m

figs-activepassive

διωκόμενοι, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐνκαταλειπόμενοι

1

We are persecuted but not forsaken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people persecute us but God does not forsake us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

197

2CO

4

9

uvq1

figs-activepassive

καταβαλλόμενοι, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἀπολλύμενοι

1

We are struck down but not destroyed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people strike us down but do not destroy us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

198

2CO

4

10

zt4b

figs-metaphor

πάντοτε τὴν νέκρωσιν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι περιφέροντες

1

We always carry in our body the death of Jesus

Paul speaks of his sufferings as if they are an experience of the death of Jesus. Alternate translation: “we are often in danger of dying, as Jesus died” or “we always suffer in such a way that we experience the death of Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

199

2CO

4

10

l6f6

καὶ ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι ἡμῶν φανερωθῇ

1

the life of Jesus also may be shown in our bodies

This could mean: (1) our bodies will live again, because Jesus is alive. (2) the spiritual life that Jesus gives also may be shown in our bodies.

200

2CO

4

10

w3jc

figs-activepassive

καὶ ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι ἡμῶν φανερωθῇ

1

the life of Jesus also may be shown in our bodies

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “other people may also see the life of Jesus in our bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

201

2CO

4

11

ht74

figs-metaphor

ἀεὶ γὰρ ἡμεῖς, οἱ ζῶντες, εἰς θάνατον παραδιδόμεθα διὰ Ἰησοῦν

1

For we who are alive are always being handed over to death for the sake of Jesus

Here, being handed over to death represents being in danger of dying because of being loyal to Jesus. Alternate translation: “for those of us who are alive, God is always leading us to face death because we are joined to Jesus” or “for people are always causing us who are alive to be in danger of dying because we are joined to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

202

2CO

4

11

d1wm

ἵνα καὶ ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ φανερωθῇ ἐν τῇ θνητῇ σαρκὶ ἡμῶν

1

so that the life of Jesus may be shown in our mortal flesh

God wants Jesus’ life to be shown in us. This could mean: (1) our bodies will live again, because Jesus is alive. (2) the spiritual life that Jesus gives also may be shown in our bodies. See how you translated this phrase in 2 Corinthians 4:10.

203

2CO

4

11

ww5r

figs-activepassive

ἵνα καὶ ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ φανερωθῇ ἐν τῇ θνητῇ σαρκὶ ἡμῶν

1

so that the life of Jesus may be shown in our mortal flesh

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. See how you translated this phrase in 2 Corinthians 4:10. Alternate translation: “so other people may see the life of Jesus in our body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

204

2CO

4

12

q3il

figs-personification

ὁ θάνατος ἐν ἡμῖν ἐνεργεῖται, ἡ δὲ ζωὴ ἐν ὑμῖν

1

death is at work in us, but life is at work in you

Paul speaks of death and life as if they are persons who can work. This means that they are always in danger of physical death so that the Corinthians can have spiritual life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

205

2CO

4

13

ret6

τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα τῆς πίστεως

1

the same spirit of faith

Here the word spirit refers a person’s attitude and temperament. Alternate translation: “the same attitude of faith”

206

2CO

4

13

gzf4

figs-activepassive

κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον

1

according to that which was written

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “as the one who wrote these words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

207

2CO

4

13

il5h

ἐπίστευσα, διὸ ἐλάλησα

1

I believed, and so I spoke

This is a quote from the Psalms.

208

2CO

4

14

t2i8

figs-idiom

ὁ ἐγείρας τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ…ἐγερεῖ

1

that the one who raised the Lord Jesus will … raise

Here to raise up is an idiom for causing someone who has died to become alive again. Alternate translation: “the one who caused the Lord Jesus to live again will also raise” or “God, who raised the Lord Jesus, will also raise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

209

2CO

4

15

v7sj

τὰ γὰρ πάντα δι’ ὑμᾶς

1

For all these things are for your sake

Here, all these things refers to all of the sufferings that Paul has described in previous verses.

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15

l1mu

figs-activepassive

ἡ χάρις πλεονάσασα διὰ τῶν πλειόνων

1

the grace that is abounding to more and more people

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “as God spreads his grace to many more people, it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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15

u8pp

figs-metaphor

τὴν εὐχαριστίαν περισσεύσῃ

1

thanksgiving may increase

Paul speaks of thanksgiving as if it were an object that could become larger by itself. Alternate translation: “more and more people may give thanks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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16

u6e5

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul writes that the Corinthian difficulties are minor and do not last long when compared to the unseen eternal things.

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16

cb92

figs-doublenegatives

διὸ οὐκ ἐνκακοῦμεν

1

So we do not become discouraged

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not … discouraged, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “So we remain confident” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

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16

hhv6

figs-explicit

ὁ ἔξω ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος διαφθείρεται

1

outwardly we are wasting away

This refers to their physical bodies decaying and dying. Alternate translation: “our physical bodies are getting weak and dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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4

16

s9b2

figs-explicit

ὁ ἔσω ἡμῶν ἀνακαινοῦται ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἡμέρᾳ

1

inwardly we are being renewed day by day

This refers to their inward, spiritual lives getting stronger. Alternate translation: “our spiritual beings are being strengthened day by day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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4

16

zct5

figs-activepassive

ὁ ἔσω ἡμῶν ἀνακαινοῦται ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἡμέρᾳ

1

inwardly we are being renewed day by day

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God is renewing our inward being more each day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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17

pd63

figs-metaphor

τὸ γὰρ παραυτίκα ἐλαφρὸν τῆς θλίψεως ἡμῶν…αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης, κατεργάζεται ἡμῖν

1

this momentary, light affliction is preparing us for an eternal weight of glory

Paul speaks of his sufferings and the glory that God will give him as if they were objects that can be weighed. The glory far outweighs the suffering. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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17

na9y

figs-metaphor

καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν

1

that exceeds all measurement

The glory that Paul will experience is so heavy that no one can measure it. Alternate translation: “that cannot be measured” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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4

17

d9re

figs-activepassive

καθ’ ὑπερβολὴν εἰς ὑπερβολὴν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that no one can measure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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4

18

t2fp

figs-activepassive

τὰ βλεπόμενα, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὴ βλεπόμενα

1

things that are seen … things that are unseen

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “things that we can see, but not the things that we cannot see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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4

18

f97x

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ τὰ μὴ βλεπόμενα

1

but for things that are unseen

You can supply the verb for this phrase. Alternate translation: “but we are watching for things that are unseen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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5

intro

s14p

0

2 Corinthians 5 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

New bodies in heaven

Paul knows that when he dies he will receive a much better body. Because of this, he is not afraid of being killed for preaching the gospel. So he tells others that they too can be reconciled to God. Christ will take away their sin and give them his righteousness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/goodnews]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reconcile]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

New creation

The old and new creation probably refers to how Paul illustrates the old and new self. These concepts are also the same as the old and new man. The term “old” probably does not refer to the sinful nature with which a person is born. It refers to the old way of living or the Christian formerly being bound to sin. The “new creation” is the new nature or new life that God gives a person after they come to believe in Christ. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Home

The Christian’s home is no longer in the world. A Christian’s real home is in heaven. By using this metaphor, Paul emphasizes that the Christian’s circumstances in this world are temporary. It gives hope to those who are suffering. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/hope]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“The message of reconciliation”

This refers to the gospel. Paul calls for people who are hostile to God to repent and be reconciled to him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reconcile]])

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1

p7b7

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul contrasts believers’ earthly bodies to the heavenly ones God will give.

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1

z4vs

figs-metaphor

ἐὰν ἡ ἐπίγειος ἡμῶν οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους καταλυθῇ, οἰκοδομὴν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἔχομεν

1

if the earthly dwelling that we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God

Here a temporary earthly dwelling is a metaphor for a person’s physical body. Here a permanent “building from God” is a metaphor for the new body that God will give believers after they die. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1

zy2k

figs-activepassive

ἐὰν ἡ ἐπίγειος ἡμῶν οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους καταλυθῇ

1

if the earthly dwelling that we live in is destroyed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “if people destroy the earthly dwelling that we live in” or “if people kill our bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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5

1

bqi5

figs-synecdoche

οἰκίαν ἀχειροποίητον αἰώνιον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

It is a house not made by human hands

Here, house means the same thing as “building from God.” Here, hands is a synecdoche that represents the human as a whole. Alternate translation: “It is a house in heaven, not made by humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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5

1

bbvr

figs-activepassive

οἰκίαν ἀχειροποίητον αἰώνιον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “It is a house in heaven that humans did not make” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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5

2

tc2j

ἐν τούτῳ στενάζομεν

1

in this tent we groan

Here, this means the same thing as “the earthly dwelling that we live in.” The word groan is a sound that a person makes when they eagerly desire to have something that is good.

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2

ss6g

figs-metaphor

τὸ οἰκητήριον ἡμῶν τὸ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἐπενδύσασθαι ἐπιποθοῦντες

1

longing to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling

The words our dwelling that is from heaven means the same thing as “a building from God.” Paul speaks of the new body that believers receive after they die as if it were both a building and a piece of clothing that a person can put on. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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3

i4es

ἐνδυσάμενοι

1

we have put it on

Alternate translation: “by putting on our heavenly dwelling”

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5

3

ap7v

figs-activepassive

οὐ γυμνοὶ εὑρεθησόμεθα

1

we will not be found to be naked

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we will not be naked” or “God will not find us naked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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5

4

bz6k

figs-metaphor

οἱ ὄντες ἐν τῷ σκήνει

1

while we are in this tent

Paul speaks of the physical body as if it were a tent. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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4

e34b

ἐν τῷ σκήνει, στενάζομεν

1

in this tent, we groan

The word tent refers to “the earthly dwelling that we live in.” The word groan is a sound that a person makes when they eagerly desire to have something that is good. See how you translated this in 2 Corinthians 5:2.

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5

4

cjt4

figs-metaphor

βαρούμενοι

1

being burdened

Paul refers to the difficulties that the physical body experiences as if they were heavy objects that are difficult to carry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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4

f8rb

figs-metaphor

οὐ θέλομεν ἐκδύσασθαι…ἐπενδύσασθαι

1

We do not want to be unclothed … we want to be clothed

Paul speaks of the body as if it were clothing for our spirit. Here, to be unclothed refers to the death of the physical body; “to be clothed” refers to having the resurrection body that God will give. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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4

n78p

ἐκδύσασθαι

1

to be unclothed

Alternate translation: “to be without clothes” or “to be naked”

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5

4

de2b

figs-metaphor

ἵνα καταποθῇ τὸ θνητὸν ὑπὸ τῆς ζωῆς

1

so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life

Paul speaks of life as if it were an animal that eats the mortal. The physical body that will die will be replaced by a resurrection body that will live forever. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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5

4

e5zi

figs-activepassive

ἵνα καταποθῇ τὸ θνητὸν ὑπὸ τῆς ζωῆς

1

so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “so that life may swallow up what is mortal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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2CO

5

5

g7yj

figs-metaphor

ὁ δοὺς ἡμῖν τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ Πνεύματος

1

who gave us the Spirit as the down payment

The Spirit is spoken of as if he were a partial down payment toward eternal life. See how you translated a similar phrase in 2 Corinthians 1:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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6

clh5

0

Connecting Statement:

Because believers will have a new body and have the Holy Spirit as a pledge, Paul reminds them to live by faith that they may please the Lord. He continues by reminding them to persuade others because: (1) believers will appear at the judgment seat of Christ. (2) Christ who died for believers in love.

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6

xv3m

figs-metaphor

ἐνδημοῦντες ἐν τῷ σώματι

1

being at home in the body

Paul speaks of the physical body as if it were a place where a person dwells. Alternate translation: “while we are living in this earthly body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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6

ebl4

ἐκδημοῦμεν ἀπὸ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

we are away from the Lord

Alternate translation: “we are not at home with the Lord” or “we are not in heaven with the Lord”

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5

7

rfn4

figs-metaphor

διὰ πίστεως…περιπατοῦμεν, οὐ διὰ εἴδους

1

we walk by faith, not by sight

Here, walk is a metaphor for “live” or “behave.” Alternate translation: “we live according to faith, not according to what we see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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8

a6au

εὐδοκοῦμεν, μᾶλλον ἐκδημῆσαι ἐκ τοῦ σώματος

1

we would rather be away from the body

Here the word body refers to the physical body.

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8

i3m3

ἐνδημῆσαι πρὸς τὸν Κύριον

1

at home with the Lord

Alternate translation: “at home with the Lord in heaven”

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9

ml5j

figs-ellipsis

εἴτε ἐνδημοῦντες εἴτε ἐκδημοῦντες

1

whether we are at home or away

The phrases “with the Lord” and “from the Lord” may be supplied from the previous verses. Alternate translation: “whether we are at home with the Lord or away from the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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9

j1sl

εὐάρεστοι αὐτῷ εἶναι

1

to be pleasing to him

Alternate translation: “to please the Lord”

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10

kdf2

ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ βήματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

before the judgment seat of Christ

Alternate translation: “before Christ to be judged”

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10

c499

κομίσηται ἕκαστος

1

each one may receive back the things done in

Alternate translation: “each person may receive what he deserves for”

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2CO

5

10

v8sl

figs-activepassive

τὰ διὰ τοῦ σώματος

1

the things done in the body

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the things he has done in the physical body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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10

lsh8

εἴτε ἀγαθὸν εἴτε κακὸν

1

whether for good or for bad

Alternate translation: “whether those things were good or bad”

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11

dzh5

εἰδότες…τὸν φόβον τοῦ Κυρίου

1

knowing the fear of the Lord

Alternate translation: “knowing what it means to fear the Lord”

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11

qm34

figs-explicit

ἀνθρώπους πείθομεν

1

we persuade people

This could mean: (1) we persuade people of the truth of the gospel. (2) we persuade people that we are legitimate apostles. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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5

11

v11v

figs-activepassive

Θεῷ…πεφανερώμεθα

1

What we are is clearly seen by God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God clearly sees what kind of people we are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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11

y5l1

καὶ ἐν ταῖς συνειδήσεσιν ὑμῶν πεφανερῶσθαι

1

that it is also clear to your conscience

Alternate translation: “that you are also convinced of it”

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12

mza1

ἵνα ἔχητε

1

so you may have an answer

Alternate translation: “so you may have something to say to”

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5

12

it2r

figs-metonymy

τοὺς ἐν προσώπῳ καυχωμένους, καὶ μὴ ἐν καρδίᾳ

1

those who boast about appearances but not about what is in the heart

Here the word face refers to outward expressions of things like ability and status. The word heart refers to the inward character of a person. Alternate translation: “those who praise their own actions, but do not care about what they really are in their inner being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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13

cy57

figs-idiom

εἴτε…ἐξέστημεν…εἴτε σωφρονοῦμεν

1

if we are out of our minds … if we are in our right minds

Paul is speaking about the way others think of him and his coworkers. Alternate translation: “if people think we are crazy … if people think we are sane” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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14

azi9

ἡ γὰρ ἀγάπη τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the love of Christ

This could refer to: (1) our love for Christ. (2) Christ’s love for us.

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5

14

nd9g

ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀπέθανεν

1

died for all

Alternate translation: “died for all people”

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5

15

h831

τῷ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἀποθανόντι καὶ ἐγερθέντι

1

him who for their sake died and was raised

Alternate translation: “for him who for their sake died and whom God caused to live again” or “for Christ, who died for their sake and whom God raised”

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15

ri6f

τῷ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἀποθανόντι καὶ ἐγερθέντι

1

for them

Here, for the one could refer: (1) only to who died. (2) to both who died and was raised.

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5

16

f2ww

0

Connecting Statement:

Because of Christ’s love and death, we are not to judge by human standards. We are appointed to teach others how to be united with and have peace with God through Christ’s death and receive God’s righteousness through Christ.

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ic21

ὥστε

1

For this reason

Here, Therefore refers to what Paul has just said about living for Christ instead of living for self.

265

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5

17

tl3h

figs-metaphor

καινὴ κτίσις

1

he is a new creation

Paul speaks of the person who believes in Christ as if God had created a new person. Alternate translation: “he is a new person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

266

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5

17

ue8f

τὰ ἀρχαῖα παρῆλθεν

1

The old things have passed away

Here, The old things refers to the things that characterized a person before they trusted in Christ.

267

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5

17

vpe3

ἰδοὺ

1

See

The word behold here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

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5

18

jyf7

τὰ…πάντα

1

All these things

Here, all these things refers to what Paul has just said in the previous verse about new things replacing old things.

269

2CO

5

18

lj2h

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν διακονίαν τῆς καταλλαγῆς

1

the ministry of reconciliation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word reconciliation, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “the ministry of reconciling people to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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5

19

w1d1

figs-metonymy

ἦν ἐν Χριστῷ κόσμον καταλλάσσων ἑαυτῷ

1

in Christ God is reconciling the world to himself

Here, the world refers to the people in the world. Alternate translation: “in Christ, God was reconciling mankind to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

271

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5

19

b62q

θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν τὸν λόγον τῆς καταλλαγῆς

1

He is entrusting to us the message of reconciliation

God has given Paul the responsibility to spread the message that God is reconciling people to himself.

272

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5

19

ix97

τὸν λόγον τῆς καταλλαγῆς

1

the message of reconciliation

Alternate translation: “the message about reconciliation”

273

2CO

5

20

wg8f

figs-activepassive

ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ οὖν πρεσβεύομεν

1

Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has appointed us as Christ’s representatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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20

q9u9

ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ…πρεσβεύομεν

1

representatives of Christ

Alternate translation: “we are those who speak for Christ”

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5

20

a6fx

figs-activepassive

καταλλάγητε τῷ Θεῷ

1

Be reconciled to God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Let God reconcile you to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

276

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5

21

jp2a

τὸν μὴ γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν, ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησεν

1

The one who did not know sin, he made sin for us

Alternate translation: “God made Christ become the sacrifice for our sin”

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5

21

hz6z

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν…ἡμεῖς

1

us … we

Here the words us and we are inclusive and refer to all believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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5

21

ebz2

τὸν μὴ γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν

1

The one who did not know sin

Alternate translation: “Christ, the one who never sinned”

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5

21

kmt9

figs-explicit

ἵνα ἡμεῖς γενώμεθα δικαιοσύνη Θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ

1

so that we might become the righteousness of God in him

The phrase the righteousness of God refers to the righteousness that God requires and which comes from God. Alternate translation: “so that we might have God’s righteousness in us through Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

280

2CO

6

intro

f5qu

0

2 Corinthians 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verses 2 and 16-18, which are words from the Old Testament.

Special concepts in this chapter

Servants

Paul refers to Christians as servants of God. God calls Christians to serve him in all circumstances. Paul describes some of the difficult circumstances in which he and his companions served God.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Contrasts

Paul uses four pairs of contrasts: righteousness versus lawlessness, light versus darkness, Christ versus Satan, and the temple of God versus idols. These contrasts show a difference between Christians and non-Christians. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/light]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/darkness]])

Light and darkness

The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Rhetorical questions

Paul uses a series of rhetorical questions to teach his readers. All of these questions make essentially the same point: Christians should not intimately fellowship with those who live in sin. Paul repeats these questions for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

We

Paul likely uses the pronoun “we” to represent at least Timothy and himself. It may also include other people.

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6

1

kf1d

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul summarizes how working together for God is supposed to be.

282

2CO

6

1

tbr6

figs-explicit

συνεργοῦντες

1

Working together

Paul is implying that he and Timothy are working with God. Alternate translation: “working together with God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

283

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6

1

s8db

figs-doublenegatives

καὶ, παρακαλοῦμεν μὴ εἰς κενὸν τὴν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ δέξασθαι ὑμᾶς

1

we also urge you not to receive the grace of God in vain

Paul pleads with the Corinthians to allow the grace of God to be effective in their lives. If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not … in vain, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “we beg you to make use of the grace that you have received from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

284

2CO

6

2

u9kc

figs-explicit

λέγει γάρ

1

For he says

This introduces a quotation from the prophet Isaiah. Alternate translation: “for God says in scripture” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

285

2CO

6

2

sa94

ἰδοὺ

1

Look

The word Behold here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

286

2CO

6

3

v3wc

figs-metaphor

μηδεμίαν ἐν μηδενὶ διδόντες προσκοπήν

1

We do not place a stumbling block in front of anyone

Paul speaks of anything that would prevent a person from trusting in Christ as if it were a physical object over which that person trips and falls. Alternate translation: “we do not want to do anything that will prevent people from believing our message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

287

2CO

6

3

he3c

figs-activepassive

μὴ μωμηθῇ ἡ διακονία

1

our ministry might not

The word discredited refers to people speaking badly about Paul’s ministry, and working against the message he proclaims. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no oner will be able to speak badly about our ministry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

288

2CO

6

4

xd9l

figs-exclusive

συνιστάντες

1

General Information:

When Paul uses we here, he is referring to himself and Timothy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

289

2CO

6

4

p9up

ἐν παντὶ συνιστάντες ἑαυτοὺς ὡς Θεοῦ διάκονοι

1

we commend ourselves in everything as God’s servants

Alternate translation: “we prove that we are God’s servants by all that we do”

290

2CO

6

4

xyf9

Θεοῦ διάκονοι: ἐν ὑπομονῇ πολλῇ, ἐν θλίψεσιν, ἐν ἀνάγκαις, ἐν στενοχωρίαις

1

God’s servants; in much endurance, affliction, distress, hardship

Paul mentions these difficult situations in which they proved that they are God’s servants.

291

2CO

6

6

w84c

ἐν ἁγνότητι…ἐν ἀγάπῃ ἀνυποκρίτῳ

1

in purity … in genuine love

Paul lists several moral virtues that they maintained in difficult situations that proved that they are God’s servants.

292

2CO

6

7

b6am

ἐν λόγῳ ἀληθείας, ἐν δυνάμει Θεοῦ

1

in the word of truth, in the power of God

Their dedication to preach the gospel in the power of God proves that they are God’s servants.

293

2CO

6

7

dui6

ἐν λόγῳ ἀληθείας

1

in the word of truth

Alternate translation: “by speaking God’s message about truth” or “by speaking God’s true message”

294

2CO

6

7

p5l5

ἐν δυνάμει Θεοῦ

1

in the power of God

Alternate translation: “by showing God’s power to people”

295

2CO

6

7

ven8

figs-metaphor

διὰ τῶν ὅπλων τῆς δικαιοσύνης τῶν δεξιῶν καὶ ἀριστερῶν

1

through the weapons of righteousness for the right hand and for the left

Paul speaks of their righteousness as if it is weapons that they use to fight spiritual battles. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

296

2CO

6

7

ef5b

τῶν ὅπλων τῆς δικαιοσύνης

1

the weapons of righteousness

Alternate translation: “righteousness as our armor” or “righteousness as our weapons”

297

2CO

6

7

ijr2

τῶν δεξιῶν καὶ ἀριστερῶν

1

for the right hand and for the left

This could mean: (1) there is a weapon in one hand and a shield in the other. (2) they are completely equipped for battle, able to fend off attacks from any direction.

298

2CO

6

8

zi7d

figs-merism

0

General Information:

Paul lists several extremes of how people think about him and his ministry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

299

2CO

6

8

e4pf

figs-activepassive

ὡς πλάνοι

1

as imposters

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people accuse us of being deceitful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

300

2CO

6

9

fcb5

figs-activepassive

ὡς ἀγνοούμενοι καὶ ἐπιγινωσκόμενοι

1

as if we were unknown and we are still well known

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “as if people did not know us and yet people still know us well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

301

2CO

6

9

r1d9

figs-activepassive

ὡς παιδευόμενοι καὶ μὴ θανατούμενοι

1

as being punished, and yet not being killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we work as if people are punishing us for our actions but not as if they have condemned us to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

302

2CO

6

11

v74j

τὸ στόμα ἡμῶν ἀνέῳγεν πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

Our mouth has been opened to you

Alternate translation: “We have spoken honestly to you”

303

2CO

6

11

mv85

figs-metaphor

ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν πεπλάτυνται

1

our heart is opened wide

Paul speaks of his great affection for the Corinthians as having a heart that is open. Alternate translation: “we love you very much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

304

2CO

6

11

r815

figs-metonymy

ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν πεπλάτυνται

1

Here, heart is a metonym for a person’s emotions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

305

2CO

6

12

m2kq

figs-metaphor

οὐ στενοχωρεῖσθε ἐν ἡμῖν, στενοχωρεῖσθε δὲ ἐν τοῖς σπλάγχνοις ὑμῶν

1

Paul speaks of the Corinthians lack of love for him as if their inner parts were squeezed into a tight space. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

306

2CO

6

12

u4fz

figs-activepassive

οὐ στενοχωρεῖσθε ἐν ἡμῖν

1

You are not restrained by us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “We have not restrained you” or “We have not given you any reason to stop loving us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

307

2CO

6

12

xv9t

figs-metonymy

στενοχωρεῖσθε δὲ ἐν τοῖς σπλάγχνοις ὑμῶν

1

You are not restrained by us, but you are restrained in your affections

Here, inner parts is a metonym for a person’s emotions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

308

2CO

6

12

ecn4

figs-activepassive

στενοχωρεῖσθε δὲ ἐν τοῖς σπλάγχνοις ὑμῶν

1

you are restrained in your affections

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “but your own hearts are restraining you” or “but you have stopped loving us for your own reasons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

309

2CO

6

13

c6vp

figs-metaphor

πλατύνθητε καὶ ὑμεῖς

1

open yourselves wide also

Paul urges the Corinthians to love him as he has loved them. Alternate translation: “love us back” or “love us much as we have loved you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

310

2CO

6

14

v7kk

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ γίνεσθε ἑτεροζυγοῦντες ἀπίστοις

1

Do not be yoked together with unbelievers

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not … unbelievers, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “Only be tied together with believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

311

2CO

6

14

qd33

figs-metaphor

μὴ γίνεσθε ἑτεροζυγοῦντες

1

be yoked together with

Paul speaks of working together toward a common purpose as if it were two animals tied together to pull a plow or cart. Alternate translation: “Do not team up” or “Do not have a close relationship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

312

2CO

6

14

v7pw

figs-rquestion

τίς γὰρ μετοχὴ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀνομίᾳ

1

For what association does righteousness have with lawlessness?

This is a rhetorical question that anticipates a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “For righteousness can have no association with lawlessness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

313

2CO

6

14

xr52

figs-rquestion

ἢ τίς κοινωνία φωτὶ πρὸς σκότος?

1

For what fellowship does light have with darkness?

Paul asks this question to emphasize that light and darkness cannot coexist since light dispels darkness. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “And light can have no fellowship with darkness!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

314

2CO

6

14

h9ks

figs-metaphor

ἢ τίς κοινωνία φωτὶ πρὸς σκότος?

1

The words light and darkness refer to the moral and spiritual qualities of believers and unbelievers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

315

2CO

6

15

r1vq

figs-rquestion

τίς δὲ συμφώνησις Χριστοῦ πρὸς Βελιάρ

1

What agreement can Christ have with Beliar?

This is a rhetorical question that anticipates a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “There is no agreement between Christ and Beliar!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

316

2CO

6

15

rm3r

translate-names

Βελιάρ

1

Beliar

Beliar is another name for the devil. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

317

2CO

6

15

z9iv

figs-rquestion

ἢ τίς μερὶς πιστῷ μετὰ ἀπίστου?

1

Or what share does a believer have together with an unbeliever?

This is a rhetorical question that anticipates a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “And a believer shares nothing in common with an unbeliever!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

318

2CO

6

16

y99x

figs-rquestion

τίς δὲ συνκατάθεσις ναῷ Θεοῦ μετὰ εἰδώλων?

1

And what agreement is there between the temple of God and idols?

This is a rhetorical question that anticipates a negative answer. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “And there is no agreement between the temple of God and idols!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

319

2CO

6

16

s3l8

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς γὰρ ναὸς Θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος

1

we are the temple of the living God

Here, we refers not only to Paul and his associates, but includes all Christians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

320

2CO

6

16

aqql

figs-metaphor

ἡμεῖς γὰρ ναὸς Θεοῦ ἐσμεν ζῶντος

1

Paul speaks of Christians as forming a temple for God to dwell in. Alternate translation: “we are like the temple where the living God dwells” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

321

2CO

6

16

u5g3

figs-parallelism

ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐνπεριπατήσω

1

I will dwell among them and walk among them.

This is an Old Testament quotation that speaks of God being with the people in two different ways that mean the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

322

2CO

6

16

g0nl

figs-metaphor

ἐνοικήσω ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐνπεριπατήσω

1

The words dwell among speak of living where others live, while the words walk among speak of being with them as they go about their lives. Alternate translation: “I will be with them and help them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

323

2CO

6

17

fe1z

0

General Information:

Paul quotes portions from the Old Testament prophets, Isaiah and Ezekiel.

324

2CO

6

17

z5ld

figs-activepassive

ἀφορίσθητε

1

be separate

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “set yourselves apart” or “allow me to set you apart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

325

2CO

6

17

c8jq

figs-doublenegatives

ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε

1

Touch no unclean thing

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative no unclean, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “touch only things that are clean” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

326

2CO

7

intro

hg36

0

2 Corinthians 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In verses 2-4, Paul finishes his defense. He then writes about Titus’ return and the comfort it brought.

Special concepts in this chapter

Clean and unclean

Christians are “clean” in the sense that God has cleansed them from sin. They do not need to be concerned with being clean according to the law of Moses. Ungodly living can still make a Christian unclean. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/clean]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]])

Sadness and sorrow

The words “sad” and “sorrow” in this chapter indicate that the Corinthians were upset to the point of repenting. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

We

Paul likely uses the pronoun “we” to represent at least Timothy and himself. It may also include other people.

Original situation

This chapter discusses in detail a previous situation. We can figure out some aspects of this situation from the information in this chapter. But it is best not to include this type of implicit information in a translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

327

2CO

7

1

h5xv

ἀγαπητοί

1

Beloved

Alternate translation: “you whom I love” or “dear friends”

328

2CO

7

1

fv49

καθαρίσωμεν ἑαυτοὺς

1

let us cleanse ourselves

Here Paul is saying to stay away from any form of sin that would affect one’s relationship with God.

329

2CO

7

1

c2xf

ἐπιτελοῦντες ἁγιωσύνην

1

perfecting holiness

Alternate translation: “striving to be holy”

330

2CO

7

1

pt41

ἐν φόβῳ Θεοῦ

1

in the fear of God

Alternate translation: “out of deep respect for God”

331

2CO

7

2

v4nu

0

Connecting Statement:

Having already warned the people of Corinth about other leaders who were striving to get these Corinthian believers to follow them, Paul reminds the people of the way he feels about them.

332

2CO

7

2

x3lg

figs-explicit

χωρήσατε ἡμᾶς

1

Make room for us

This refers back to what Paul said starting in 2 Corinthians 6:11 about them opening their hearts to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

333

2CO

7

2

c2yz

figs-metaphor

χωρήσατε ἡμᾶς

1

Paul speaks of the Corinthians loving him as if they were opening their hearts to him. Alternate translation: “Make room for us in your hearts” or “Love us and accept us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

334

2CO

7

3

bhb7

πρὸς κατάκρισιν οὐ λέγω

1

I do not speak for your condemnation

Here, Paul refers back to what he has just said about not having wronged anyone. Alternate translation: “I do not say this to accuse you of having done wrong.”

335

2CO

7

3

fay3

figs-metaphor

ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν ἐστε

1

you are in our hearts

Paul speaks of his and his associates’ great love for the Corinthians as if they held them in their hearts. Alternate translation: “you are very dear to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

336

2CO

7

3

xzg3

figs-idiom

εἰς τὸ συναποθανεῖν καὶ συνζῆν

1

for us to die together and to live together

This means that Paul and his associates will continue to love the Corinthians no matter what happens. Alternate translation: “whether we live or whether we die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

337

2CO

7

4

mh12

figs-activepassive

πεπλήρωμαι τῇ παρακλήσει

1

I am filled with encouragement

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “You fill me with comfort” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

338

2CO

7

4

mx9b

figs-metaphor

ὑπερπερισσεύομαι τῇ χαρᾷ

1

I overflow with joy

Paul speaks of joy as if it is a liquid that fills him until he overflows. Alternate translation: “I am extremely joyful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

339

2CO

7

4

mr75

ἐπὶ πάσῃ τῇ θλίψει ἡμῶν

1

even in all our afflictions

Alternate translation: “despite all our hardships”

340

2CO

7

5

f3c5

figs-exclusive

ἐλθόντων ἡμῶν εἰς Μακεδονίαν

1

When we came to Macedonia

Here the word we refers to Paul and Timothy but not to the Corinthians or Titus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

341

2CO

7

5

c8ju

figs-synecdoche

οὐδεμίαν ἔσχηκεν ἄνεσιν ἡ σὰρξ ἡμῶν

1

our flesh had no rest

Here, our flesh refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “we had no rest” or “we were very tired” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

342

2CO

7

5

h3cv

figs-activepassive

ἐν παντὶ θλιβόμενοι

1

we were troubled in every way

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we experienced every kind of trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

343

2CO

7

5

i4wr

figs-explicit

ἔξωθεν μάχαι, ἔσωθεν φόβοι

1

by conflicts on the outside and fears on the inside

Here, without could mean: (1) “outside of our bodies.” (2) “outside of the church.” The word within refers to their inward emotions. Alternate translation: “by conflicts with other people and by fears within ourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

344

2CO

7

7

w7td

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει ᾗ παρεκλήθη ἐφ’ ὑμῖν

1

by the comfort that Titus had received from you

Paul received comfort from knowing that the Corinthians had comforted Titus. Alternate translation: “by learning about the comfort that Titus had received from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

345

2CO

7

8

b2xj

ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ἐκείνη

1

General Information:

This refers to Paul’s previous letter to these Corinthian believers where he rebuked them for their acceptance of a believer’s sexual immorality with his father’s wife.

346

2CO

7

8

vk7m

βλέπω ὅτι ἡ ἐπιστολὴ ἐκείνη

1

when I saw that my letter

Alternate translation: “when I learned that my letter”

347

2CO

7

9

kn5q

figs-activepassive

οὐχ ὅτι ἐλυπήθητε

1

not because you were distressed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “not because what I said in my letter distressed you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

348

2CO

7

9

l6d2

figs-idiom

ἐν μηδενὶ ζημιωθῆτε ἐξ ἡμῶν

1

you would not suffer loss in anything through us

This means that although the letter caused them sorrow, they eventually benefited from the letter because it led them to repentance. Alternate translation: “so that we did not harm you in any way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

349

2CO

7

10

dtm3

figs-ellipsis

ἡ γὰρ κατὰ Θεὸν λύπη, μετάνοιαν εἰς σωτηρίαν…ἐργάζεται

1

For the sorrow that God intends produces repentance that leads to salvation

The word repentance may be repeated to clarify its relationship to what precedes it and what follows it. Alternate translation: “For godly sorrow produces repentance, and repentance leads to salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

350

2CO

7

10

lc4m

ἀμεταμέλητον

1

without regret

This could mean: (1) Paul has no regret that he caused them sorrow because that sorrow led to their repentance and salvation. (2) the Corinthians will not regret experiencing sorrow because it led to their repentance and salvation.

351

2CO

7

10

lc1s

figs-explicit

ἡ δὲ τοῦ κόσμου λύπη, θάνατον κατεργάζεται

1

But the sorrow of the world produces death

This kind of sorrow leads to death instead of salvation because it does not produce repentance. Alternate translation: “Worldly sorrow, however, leads to spiritual death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

352

2CO

7

11

gpp2

figs-exclamations

ἀλλὰ ἀπολογίαν

1

what earnestness, what eagerness to defend yourselves

Here the word what makes this statement an exclamation. Alternate translation: “your determination to prove you were innocent was very great!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

353

2CO

7

11

h6jc

figs-activepassive

ἀλλὰ ἐκδίκησιν

1

what avenging of wrong

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that someone should carry out justice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

354

2CO

7

12

i6sn

figs-activepassive

τοῦ φανερωθῆναι τὴν σπουδὴν ὑμῶν, τὴν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

your good will toward us should be made known to you in the sight of God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “so that you would know that your good will toward us is sincere” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

355

2CO

7

12

ycy7

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

before God

Here, before God refers to God’s presence. See how you translated this in 2 Corinthians 4:2.

356

2CO

7

13

kn2q

figs-activepassive

διὰ τοῦτο παρακεκλήμεθα

1

For this reason we are encouraged

Here the phrase this reason refers to the way the Corinthians responded to Paul’s previous letter, as he described in the previous verse. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “This is what encourages us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

357

2CO

7

13

v2g6

figs-activepassive

ἀναπέπαυται τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ πάντων ὑμῶν

1

his spirit was refreshed by all of you

Here the word spirit refers to a person’s temperament and disposition. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “all of you refreshed his spirit” or “all of you made him stop worrying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

358

2CO

7

14

b4uq

ὅτι εἴ τι αὐτῷ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν κεκαύχημαι

1

For if I boasted to him about you

Alternate translation: “For although I boasted to him about you”

359

2CO

7

14

m22c

οὐ κατῃσχύνθην

1

I was not embarrassed

Alternate translation: “you did not disappoint me”

360

2CO

7

14

q5hg

ἡ καύχησις ἡμῶν ἡ ἐπὶ Τίτου ἀλήθεια ἐγενήθη

1

our boasting about you to Titus proved to be true

Alternate translation: “you proved to Titus that our boasting about you was true”

361

2CO

7

15

d87j

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν πάντων ὑμῶν ὑπακοήν

1

the obedience of all of you

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word obedience, you can express the same idea with the verb, “obey.” Alternate translation: “how all of you obeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

362

2CO

7

15

g9bz

figs-doublet

μετὰ φόβου καὶ τρόμου ἐδέξασθε αὐτόν

1

you welcomed him with fear and trembling

Here, fear and trembling share similar meanings and emphasize the intensity of fear. Alternate translation: “you welcomed him with great reverence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

363

2CO

7

15

q47h

μετὰ φόβου καὶ τρόμου

1

with fear and trembling

This could refer to: (1) great reverence for God. (2) great reverence for Titus.

364

2CO

8

intro

kl7m

0

2 Corinthians 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Chapters 8 and 9 begin a new section. Paul writes about how churches in Greece helped needy believers in Jerusalem.

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. The ULT does this with the quoted words of verse 15.

Special concepts in this chapter

Gift to the church in Jerusalem

The church in Corinth started preparing to give money to the poor believers in Jerusalem. The churches in Macedonia also had given generously. Paul sends Titus and two other believers to Corinth to encourage the Corinthians to give generously. Paul and the others will carry the money to Jerusalem. They want people to know it is being done honestly.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

We

Paul likely uses the pronoun “we” to represent at least Timothy and himself. It may also include other people.

Paradox

A “paradox” is a true statement that appears to describe something impossible. These words in verse 2 are a paradox: “the abundance of their joy and the extremity of their poverty have produced great riches of generosity.” In verse 3 Paul explains how their poverty produced riches. Paul also uses riches and poverty in other paradoxes. (2 Corinthians 8:2)

365

2CO

8

1

mm8g

0

Connecting Statement:

Having explained his changed plans and his ministry direction, Paul talks about giving.

366

2CO

8

1

d1mj

figs-activepassive

τὴν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὴν δεδομένην ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Μακεδονίας

1

the grace of God that has been given to the churches of Macedonia

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the grace that God has given to the churches of Macedonia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

367

2CO

8

2

fsq8

figs-personification

ἡ περισσεία τῆς χαρᾶς αὐτῶν καὶ ἡ κατὰ βάθους πτωχεία αὐτῶν, ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς ἁπλότητος αὐτῶν

1

the abundance of their joy and the extremity of their poverty have produced great riches of generosity

Paul speaks of joy and poverty as if they were living things that can produce generosity. Alternate translation: “because of the people’s great joy and extreme poverty, they have become very generous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

368

2CO

8

2

b7k5

figs-metaphor

ἡ περισσεία τῆς χαρᾶς αὐτῶν

1

the abundance of their joy

Paul speaks of joy as if it were a physical object that could increase in size or quantity. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

369

2CO

8

2

pr8c

ἡ κατὰ βάθους πτωχεία αὐτῶν…τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς ἁπλότητος αὐτῶν

1

their deep poverty … the riches of their generosity

Though the churches of Macedonia have suffered testings of affliction and poverty, by God’s grace, they have been able to collect money for the believers in Jerusalem.

370

2CO

8

2

z6mt

τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς ἁπλότητος αὐτῶν

1

the riches of their generosity

The word riches emphasizes the greatness of their generosity. Alternate translation: “a very great generosity”

371

2CO

8

4

nmw8

figs-explicit

τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους

1

this ministry to the saints

Paul is referring to providing money to the believers in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “this ministry of providing for the believers in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

372

2CO

8

6

z42y

καθὼς προενήρξατο

1

he had already begun this task

Paul is referring to the collection of money from the Corinthians for the believers in Jerusalem.

373

2CO

8

6

vn4u

figs-explicit

καὶ ἐπιτελέσῃ εἰς ὑμᾶς καὶ τὴν χάριν ταύτην

1

he would complete among you this act of grace

Titus was to help the Corinthians to complete the collection of money. Alternate translation: “he should encourage you to finish collecting and giving your generous gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

374

2CO

8

7

fpe1

figs-metaphor

ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ χάριτι περισσεύητε

1

you should abound in this act of grace

Paul speaks of the Corinthian believers as if they should produce physical goods. Alternate translation: “make sure you do well in giving for the believers in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

375

2CO

8

8

wn2k

figs-explicit

διὰ τῆς ἑτέρων σπουδῆς…τὸ τῆς ὑμετέρας ἀγάπης γνήσιον δοκιμάζων

1

to test … through the diligence of others

Paul is encouraging the Corinthians to give generously by comparing them with the generosity of the Macedonian churches. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

376

2CO

8

9

c1ch

τὴν χάριν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

1

the grace of our Lord

In this context, the word grace emphasizes the generosity with which Jesus had blessed the Corinthians.

377

2CO

8

9

iz6z

figs-metaphor

δι’ ὑμᾶς ἐπτώχευσεν, πλούσιος ὤν

1

though he was rich, for your sakes he became poor

Paul speaks of Jesus before his incarnation as being rich, and of his becoming human as becoming poor. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

378

2CO

8

9

j5ym

figs-metaphor

ὑμεῖς τῇ ἐκείνου πτωχείᾳ πλουτήσητε

1

through his poverty you might become rich

Paul speaks of the Corinthians becoming spiritually rich as a result of Jesus becoming human. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

379

2CO

8

10

b7ht

figs-explicit

ἐν τούτῳ

1

In this matter

Here the word this refers to Corinthians collecting money to give to the believers in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “with regard to the collection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

380

2CO

8

11

fc27

figs-abstractnouns

καθάπερ ἡ προθυμία τοῦ θέλειν

1

there was the readiness of your desire

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word readiness, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “just as you were eager and desired to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

381

2CO

8

11

d6ly

καὶ τὸ ἐπιτελέσαι

1

there may be the completion

Alternate translation: “complete it” or “finish it”

382

2CO

8

12

k9wh

καθὸ ἐὰν ἔχῃ

1

according to whatever a person has

Alternate translation: “if it is proportional to what the person giving has”

383

2CO

8

13

mp6k

0

For this

This verse refers back to collecting money for the believers in Jerusalem.

384

2CO

8

13

smk2

figs-activepassive

ἵνα ἄλλοις ἄνεσις, ὑμῖν θλῖψις

1

for the ease of others, and your affliction

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that you may relieve others and burden yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

385

2CO

8

13

ktd1

ἐξ ἰσότητος

1

for the sake of equality

Alternate translation: “so that there would be equality”

386

2CO

8

14

v7aj

ἵνα καὶ τὸ ἐκείνων περίσσευμα γένηται εἰς τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα

1

This is also so that their abundance may supply your need

Since the Corinthians are acting in the present time, it is implied that the believers in Jerusalem will also help them at some time in the future. Alternate translation: “this is also so that in the future their abundance may supply your need”

387

2CO

8

15

ue8w

figs-activepassive

καθὼς γέγραπται

1

as it is written

Here Paul quotes from Exodus. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language.If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “as Moses wrote” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

388

2CO

8

15

u28y

figs-doublenegatives

οὐκ ἠλαττόνησεν

1

did not have too little

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not … too little, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “had all he needed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

389

2CO

8

16

cr18

figs-synecdoche

τῷ διδόντι τὴν αὐτὴν σπουδὴν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Τίτου

1

who put into Titus’ heart the same earnest care that I have for you

Here, heart refers to the emotions. This means that God caused Titus to love them. Alternate translation: “the one who made Titus care for you as much as I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

390

2CO

8

16

vsm3

τὴν αὐτὴν σπουδὴν

1

same earnest care

Alternate translation: “the same enthusiasm” or “same deep concern”

391

2CO

8

17

e4xn

figs-explicit

ὅτι τὴν μὲν παράκλησιν ἐδέξατο

1

For he not only accepted our appeal

Paul is referring to his asking Titus to return to Corinth and complete the collection. Alternate translation: “For he not only agreed to our request that he help you with the collection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

392

2CO

8

18

rje2

μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

with him

Alternate translation: “with Titus”

393

2CO

8

18

jll9

figs-activepassive

τὸν ἀδελφὸν, οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος…διὰ πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν

1

the brother who is praised among all of the churches

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the brother whom believers among all of the churches praise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

394

2CO

8

19

j9rk

οὐ μόνον

1

Not only this

Alternate translation: “not only do believers among all of the churches praise him”

395

2CO

8

19

c667

figs-activepassive

καὶ χειροτονηθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν

1

he also was selected by the churches

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the churches also selected him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

396

2CO

8

19

k7dy

σὺν τῇ χάριτι ταύτῃ τῇ διακονουμένῃ ὑφ’ ἡμῶν

1

along with this act of grace which is being administered by us

This refers to taking the offering to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “to carry out this act of generosity”

397

2CO

8

19

v22x

προθυμίαν ἡμῶν

1

our readiness

Alternate translation: “our eagerness to help”

398

2CO

8

20

a3ps

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ ἁδρότητι ταύτῃ τῇ διακονουμένῃ ὑφ’ ἡμῶν

1

concerning this generosity that we are carrying out

This refers to taking the offering to Jerusalem. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word administration, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “concerning the way we are handling this generous gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

399

2CO

8

21

n4x1

προνοοῦμεν γὰρ καλὰ

1

For we considered beforehand what is right

Alternate translation: “We are careful to handle this gift in an honorable way”

400

2CO

8

21

ey5n

ἐνώπιον Κυρίου…ἐνώπιον ἀνθρώπων

1

before the Lord … before people

Alternate translation: “in the Lord’s opinion … in people’s opinion”

401

2CO

8

22

d3yj

αὐτοῖς

1

with them

The word them refers to Titus and the previously mentioned brother.

402

2CO

8

23

mmi2

κοινωνὸς ἐμὸς καὶ εἰς ὑμᾶς συνεργός

1

he is my partner and fellow worker for you

Alternate translation: “he is my partner who works with me to help you”

403

2CO

8

23

lat3

ἀδελφοὶ ἡμῶν

1

As for our brothers

Here, our brothers refers to the two other men who will accompany Titus.

404

2CO

8

23

u8lx

figs-activepassive

ἀπόστολοι ἐκκλησιῶν

1

they are sent by the churches

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the churches have sent them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

405

2CO

8

23

a8v2

figs-abstractnouns

δόξα Χριστοῦ

1

an honor to Christ

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word glory, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “they will cause people to honor Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

406

2CO

9

intro

lt8d

0

2 Corinthians 9 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with verse 9, which is quoted from the Old Testament.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

Paul uses three agricultural metaphors. He uses them to teach about giving to needy believers. The metaphors help Paul explain that God will reward those who give generously. Paul does not say how or when God will reward them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/reward]])

407

2CO

9

1

wc5l

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul continues on the subject of giving. He wants to make sure that the collection of their offering for the needy believers in Jerusalem takes place before he comes so that it does not seem as though he takes advantage of them. He talks about how giving blesses the giver and glorifies God.

408

2CO

9

1

fxs3

figs-explicit

τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους

1

the ministry that is for the saints

This refers to the collection of money to give to the believers in Jerusalem. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the ministry for the believers in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

409

2CO

9

2

rd2g

translate-names

Ἀχαΐα

1

General Information:

When Paul refers to Achaia, he is talking about a Roman province located in southern Greece where Corinth is located. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

410

2CO

9

2

i529

figs-metonymy

Ἀχαΐα παρεσκεύασται

1

Achaia has been ready

Here the word Achaia refers to the people who live in this province, and specifically to the people of the church in Corinth. Alternate translation: “the people of Achaia have been preparing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

411

2CO

9

3

r5pp

τοὺς ἀδελφούς

1

the brothers

Here, the brothers refers to Titus and the two men who accompany him.

412

2CO

9

3

k1er

μὴ τὸ καύχημα ἡμῶν, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, κενωθῇ

1

our boasting about you may not be futile

Paul does not want others to think that the things that he had boasted about the Corinthians were false.

413

2CO

9

4

j8ey

εὕρωσιν ὑμᾶς ἀπαρασκευάστους

1

find you unprepared

Alternate translation: “find you unprepared to give”

414

2CO

9

5

q1up

figs-go

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς, ἵνα προέλθωσιν εἰς ὑμᾶς

1

the brothers they they would come to you

From Paul’s perspective, the brothers are going. Alternate translation: “the brothers to come to you beforehand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

415

2CO

9

5

nm2n

figs-activepassive

μὴ ὡς πλεονεξίαν

1

not as forced

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “not as something that we forced you to give” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

416

2CO

9

6

mm9w

figs-metaphor

ὁ σπείρων φειδομένως, φειδομένως καὶ θερίσει; καὶ ὁ σπείρων ἐπ’ εὐλογίαις, ἐπ’ εὐλογίαις καὶ θερίσει

1

the one who sows … will also reap in blessings

Paul uses the image of a farmer sowing seeds to describe the results of giving. As a farmer’s harvest is based on how much he sows, so will God’s blessings be little or much based on how generously the Corinthians give. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

417

2CO

9

7

tzt4

figs-metonymy

καθὼς προῄρηται τῇ καρδίᾳ

1

let each one give as he has decided in his heart

Here, heart refers to the thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “just as he has determined” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

418

2CO

9

7

whg6

figs-abstractnouns

μὴ ἐκ λύπης ἢ ἐξ ἀνάγκης

1

not reluctantly or under compulsion

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind the words sorrow and compulsion, you can express the same idea with verbal forms. Alternate translation: “not because he feels guilty or because someone is compelling him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

419

2CO

9

7

t26d

ἱλαρὸν γὰρ δότην ἀγαπᾷ ὁ Θεός

1

for God loves a cheerful giver

God wants people to give gladly to help provide for fellow believers.

420

2CO

9

8

cz9b

figs-metaphor

δυνατεῖ δὲ ὁ Θεὸς, πᾶσαν χάριν περισσεῦσαι εἰς ὑμᾶς

1

God is able to make all grace overflow for you

Here, grace is spoken of as if it were a physical object of which a person can have more than he can use. As a person gives financially to other believers, God also gives to the giver everything he needs. Alternate translation: “God is able to give you more than you need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

421

2CO

9

8

zxz9

χάριν

1

grace

Here, grace refers to the physical things a Christian needs, not to the need for God to save him from his sins.

422

2CO

9

8

u8w6

περισσεύητε εἰς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθόν

1

you may abound in every good work

Alternate translation: “so that you may be able to do more and more good deeds”

423

2CO

9

9

mma1

figs-activepassive

καθὼς γέγραπται

1

just as it is written

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “This is just as the writer wrote” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

424

2CO

9

10

p3fl

ὁ…ἐπιχορηγῶν

1

He who supplies

Alternate translation: “God who supplies”

425

2CO

9

10

b1xe

figs-metonymy

ἄρτον εἰς βρῶσιν

1

bread for food

Here the word bread refers to food in general. Alternate translation: “food to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

426

2CO

9

10

uts1

figs-metaphor

χορηγήσει καὶ πληθυνεῖ τὸν σπόρον ὑμῶν

1

will supply and multiply your seed for sowing

Paul speaks of the Corinthians’ possessions as if they are seeds and of giving to others as if they were sowing seeds. Alternate translation: “will also supply and multiply your possessions so that you can sow them by giving them to others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

427

2CO

9

10

ci67

figs-metaphor

αὐξήσει τὰ γενήματα τῆς δικαιοσύνης ὑμῶν

1

will increase the fruits of your righteousness

Paul compares the benefits that the Corinthians will receive from their generosity to that of a harvest. Alternate translation: “God will bless you even more for your righteousness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

428

2CO

9

10

yv67

τὰ γενήματα τῆς δικαιοσύνης ὑμῶν

1

the fruits of your righteousness

Here, righteousness refers to the righteous actions of the Corinthians in giving their resources to the believers in Jerusalem.

429

2CO

9

11

eey1

figs-activepassive

πλουτιζόμενοι

1

enriching you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will enrich you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

430

2CO

9

11

b3e5

figs-explicit

ἥτις κατεργάζεται δι’ ἡμῶν, εὐχαριστίαν τῷ Θεῷ

1

which produces thanksgiving to God through us

The word which refers to the Corinthian’s generosity. Alternate translation: “Because of your generosity, those who receive the gifts we bring them will thank God” or “and when we give your gifts to those who need them, they will give thanks to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

431

2CO

9

12

l7kq

figs-explicit

ὅτι ἡ διακονία τῆς λειτουργίας ταύτης

1

For the ministry of this service

Here, service refers to Paul and his companions bringing the contribution to the believers in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “For our carrying out this service for the believers in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

432

2CO

9

12

esk7

figs-metaphor

ἀλλὰ καὶ περισσεύουσα διὰ πολλῶν εὐχαριστιῶν τῷ Θεῷ

1

but is also overflowing into many acts of thanksgiving to God

Paul speaks of the Corinthian believers’ act of service as if it were a liquid of which there is more than a container can hold. Alternate translation: “It also causes many deeds for which people will thank God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

433

2CO

9

13

plj4

figs-activepassive

διὰ τῆς δοκιμῆς τῆς διακονίας ταύτης

1

Because of the proof of this ministry

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Because this service has tested and proven you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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9

13

ze14

δοξάζοντες τὸν Θεὸν ἐπὶ τῇ ὑποταγῇ τῆς ὁμολογίας ὑμῶν εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ ἁπλότητι τῆς κοινωνίας εἰς αὐτοὺς καὶ εἰς πάντας

1

they glorify God for your obedience … the generosity of your sharing with them and with everyone

Paul says that the Corinthians will glorify God both by being faithful to Jesus and by giving generously to other believers who have need.

435

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9

15

es8c

ἐπὶ τῇ ἀνεκδιηγήτῳ αὐτοῦ δωρεᾷ

1

for his inexpressible gift

This gift could refer to: (1) “the very great grace” that God has given to the Corinthians, which has led them to be so generous. (2) Jesus Christ, whom God gave to all believers.

436

2CO

10

intro

abcd

0

2 Corinthians 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. The ULT does this with the quoted words of verse 17.

In this chapter, Paul returns to defending his authority. He also compares the way he speaks and the way he writes.

Special concepts in this chapter

Boasting

“Boasting” is often thought of as bragging, which is not good. But in this letter “boasting” means confidently exulting or rejoicing.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

In verses 3-6, Paul uses many metaphors from war. He probably uses them as part of a larger metaphor about Christians being spiritually at war. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Flesh

“Flesh” is possibly a metaphor for a person’s sinful nature. Paul is not teaching that our physical bodies are sinful. Paul appears to be teaching that as long as Christians are alive (“in the flesh”), we will continue to sin. But our new nature will be fighting against our old nature. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/flesh]])

437

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10

1

yc1g

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul shifts the subject from giving to affirming his authority to teach as he does.

438

2CO

10

1

gq7j

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τῆς πραΰτητος καὶ ἐπιεικείας τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

by the meekness and gentleness of Christ

If your language does not use abstract noun for the ideas behind the word meekness and gentleness, you can express the same ideas with verbal forms. Alternate translation: “I am humble and gentle as I do so, because Christ has made me that way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

439

2CO

10

2

i6hh

τοὺς λογιζομένους ἡμᾶς

1

those who regard

Alternate translation: “who think of us”

440

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10

2

ik1p

figs-metonymy

ὡς κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦντας

1

as walking according to the flesh

Here, flesh is a metonym for sinful human nature. Alternate translation: “are acting from human motives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

441

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10

3

cvd6

figs-metaphor

ἐν σαρκὶ…περιπατοῦντες

1

we walk in the flesh

Here, walking is a metaphor for “living.” Alternate translation: “we live our lives in the flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

442

2CO

10

3

zbet

figs-metonymy

ἐν σαρκὶ…περιπατοῦντες

1

Here, flesh is a metonym for physical life. Alternate translation: “we live our lives in physical bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

443

2CO

10

3

k7h8

figs-metaphor

οὐ…στρατευόμεθα

1

we do not wage war

Paul speaks of his trying to persuade the Corinthians to believe him and not the false teachers as if he were fighting a physical war. These words should be translated literally. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

444

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10

3

gpd3

figs-metonymy

οὐ κατὰ σάρκα στρατευόμεθα

1

wage war according to the flesh

The word flesh is: (1) a metonym for physical life. Alternate translation: “fight against our enemies using physical weapons” (2) a metonym for sinful human nature. Alternate translation: “wage war in sinful ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

445

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10

4

uf5s

figs-metaphor

τὰ…ὅπλα τῆς στρατείας ἡμῶν οὐ σαρκικὰ, ἀλλὰ δυνατὰ τῷ Θεῷ πρὸς καθαίρεσιν ὀχυρωμάτων, λογισμοὺς καθαιροῦντες

1

the weapons we fight with … for pulling down arguments

Paul speaks of godly wisdom showing human wisdom to be false as if it were a weapon with which he was destroying an enemy stronghold. Alternate translation: “the weapons we fight with … show people that what our enemies say is completely wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

446

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10

4

d1gj

figs-metonymy

οὐ σαρκικὰ

1

are not fleshly

The word fleshly is: (1) a metonym for merely physical. Alternate translation: “are not physical” (2) a metonym for sinful human nature. Alternate translation: “are not sinful” or “do not enable us to do wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

447

2CO

10

5

xuz9

πᾶν ὕψωμα ἐπαιρόμενον

1

every high thing that rises up

Paul is still speaking with the metaphor of a war, as if “the knowledge of God” were an army and every high thing were a wall that people had made to keep the army out. Alternate translation: “every false argument that proud people think of to protect themselves”

448

2CO

10

5

b74d

πᾶν ὕψωμα

1

every high thing

Alternate translation: “everything that proud people do”

449

2CO

10

5

vm1a

figs-metaphor

ἐπαιρόμενον κατὰ τῆς γνώσεως τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

rises up against the knowledge of God

Paul speaks of arguments as if they were a wall standing high against an army. The phrase rises up mean “stands tall,” not that the “high thing” is floating up into the air. Alternate translation: “people use so they will not have to know who God is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

450

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10

5

r2yz

figs-metaphor

αἰχμαλωτίζοντες πᾶν νόημα εἰς τὴν ὑπακοὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

We take every thought captive into obedience to Christ

Paul speaks of people’s thoughts as if they were enemy soldiers whom he captures in battle. Alternate translation: “we show how all the false ideas those people have are wrong and teach the people to obey Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

451

2CO

10

6

m4ds

figs-metonymy

ἐκδικῆσαι πᾶσαν παρακοήν

1

to avenge every act of disobedience

Here, act of disobedience is a metonym for the people who commit those acts. Alternate translation: “punish every one of you who disobey us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

452

2CO

10

7

y2yb

figs-rquestion

τὰ κατὰ πρόσωπον βλέπετε

1

You are looking at the appearance of things

This could be: (1) a command. (2) a statement. Alternate translation: “You are looking only at what you can see with your eyes.” Some think this is a rhetorical question that may also be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “Are you looking at what is clearly in front of you?” or “You seem unable to see what is clearly in front of you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

453

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10

7

z1t5

τοῦτο λογιζέσθω πάλιν ἐφ’ ἑαυτοῦ

1

let him remind himself

Alternate translation: “he needs to remember”

454

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10

7

f3i9

καθὼς αὐτὸς Χριστοῦ, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς

1

that just as he is Christ’s, so also are we

Alternate translation: “we belong to Christ just as much as he does”

455

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10

8

d4zu

figs-metaphor

εἰς οἰκοδομὴν καὶ οὐκ εἰς καθαίρεσιν ὑμῶν

1

to build you up and not to destroy you

Paul speaks of helping the Corinthians to know Christ better as if he were constructing a building. Alternate translation: “to help you become better followers of Christ and not to discourage you so you stop following him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

456

2CO

10

9

nw6e

ἂν ἐκφοβεῖν ὑμᾶς

1

I would terrify you

Alternate translation: “I am trying to frighten you”

457

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10

11

m6m6

τοῦτο λογιζέσθω ὁ τοιοῦτος

1

Let such a one consider this

Alternate translation: “I want such people to be aware”

458

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10

11

g58z

οἷοί ἐσμεν τῷ λόγῳ δι’ ἐπιστολῶν ἀπόντες, τοιοῦτοι καὶ παρόντες τῷ ἔργῳ

1

what we are in the words of our letters when we are absent is what we will be in our actions when we are there

Alternate translation: “we will do the same things when we are there with you that we have written about in our letters while we have been away from you”

459

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10

11

kb55

figs-exclusive

ἐσμεν

1

we are

Here, we refers to Paul’s ministry team but not to the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

460

2CO

10

12

k94z

ἐνκρῖναι ἢ συνκρῖναι ἑαυτούς, τισιν

1

to group or compare ourselves

Alternate translation: “to say we are as good as some”

461

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10

12

i85y

figs-parallelism

αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, ἑαυτοὺς μετροῦντες καὶ συνκρίνοντες ἑαυτοὺς ἑαυτοῖς

1

they measure themselves by one another and compare themselves with each other

Both of these clauses mean essentially the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

462

2CO

10

12

n8sx

figs-metaphor

αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς, ἑαυτοὺς μετροῦντες

1

they measure themselves by one another

Paul is speaking of goodness as though it were something whose length people could measure. Alternate translation: “they look at each other and try to see who is better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

463

2CO

10

12

zwl5

οὐ συνιᾶσιν

1

have no understanding

Alternate translation: “show everyone that they do not know anything”

464

2CO

10

13

x79x

figs-metaphor

0

General Information:

Paul speaks of the authority he has as if it were a land over which he rules, those things over which he has authority as being within the borders or “limits” of his land, and those things not under his authority as being beyond the “limits.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

465

2CO

10

13

a4ud

figs-idiom

οὐκ εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα καυχησόμεθα

1

will not boast beyond limits

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “will not boast about things over which we have no authority” or “will boast only about things over which we have authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

466

2CO

10

13

u84l

κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τοῦ κανόνος, οὗ ἐμέρισεν ἡμῖν ὁ Θεὸς

1

according to the measure of the area that God has assigned to us

Alternate translation: “about things under the authority that God has given us to do”

467

2CO

10

13

fx2b

figs-metaphor

μέτρου, ἐφικέσθαι ἄχρι καὶ ὑμῶν

1

a measure that reached even as far as you

Paul speaks of the authority he has as if it were a land over which he rules. Alternate translation: “and you are within the border of our authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

468

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10

14

ay6h

οὐ…ὑπερεκτείνομεν ἑαυτούς

1

we are not overextending ourselves

Alternate translation: “we did not go beyond our borders”

469

2CO

10

15

hu9l

figs-idiom

οὐκ εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα καυχώμενοι

1

Neither do we boast beyond limits about

This is an idiom. See how similar words were translated in 2 Corinthians 10:13. Alternate translation: “And we have not boasted about things over which we have no authority” or “We have not boasted only about things over which we have authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

470

2CO

10

16

raq7

ἀλλοτρίῳ κανόνι

1

another person’s area

Alternate translation: “an area that God has assigned to someone else”

471

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10

17

q8cc

ἐν Κυρίῳ καυχάσθω

1

boast in the Lord

Alternate translation: “let … boast about what the Lord has done”

472

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10

18

h81t

ὁ ἑαυτὸν συνιστάνων

1

who commends himself

This means that he provides enough evidence for each person who hears him to decide whether he is right or wrong. See how “recommend ourselves” is translated in 2 Corinthians 4:2.

473

2CO

10

18

n5v6

figs-activepassive

οὐ…ἐστιν δόκιμος

1

is approved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “is not whom the Lord approves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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10

18

sy2r

figs-ellipsis

ὃν ὁ Κύριος συνίστησιν

1

the one whom the Lord commends

You can make explicit the understood information. Alternate translation: “the one whom the Lord recommends is the one of whom the Lord approves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

475

2CO

11

intro

abce

0

2 Corinthians 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In this chapter, Paul continues defending his authority.

Special concepts in this chapter

False teaching

The Corinthians were quick to accept false teachers. They taught things about Jesus and the gospel that were different and not true. Unlike these false teachers, Paul sacrificially served the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/goodnews]])

Light

Light is commonly used in the New Testament as a metaphor. Paul here uses light to indicate the revealing of God and his righteousness. Darkness describes sin. Sin seeks to remain hidden from God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/light]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/darkness]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

Paul begins this chapter with an extended metaphor. He compares himself to the father of a bride who is giving a pure, virgin bride to her bridegroom. Wedding practices change depending on the cultural background. But the idea of helping to present someone as a grown and holy child is explicitly pictured in this passage. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Irony

This chapter is full of irony. Paul is hoping to shame the Corinthian believers with his irony.

“You tolerate these things well enough!” Paul thinks that they should not tolerate the way the false apostles treated them. Paul does not think they are really apostles at all.

The statement, “For you gladly put up with fools. You are wise yourselves!” means that the Corinthian believers think they were very wise but Paul does not agree.

“I will say to our shame that we were too weak to do that.” Paul is speaking about behavior he thinks is very wrong in order to avoid it. He is speaking as if he thinks he is wrong for not doing it. He uses a rhetorical question also as irony. “Did I sin by humbling myself so you might be exalted?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/apostle]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Rhetorical questions

In refuting the false apostles claiming to be superior, Paul uses a series of rhetorical questions. Each question is coupled with an answer: “Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I. Are they servants of Christ? (I speak as though I were out of my mind.) I am more.”

He also uses a series of rhetorical questions to empathize with his converts: “Who is weak, and I am not weak? Who has caused another to fall into sin, and I do not burn within?”

“Are they servants of Christ?”

This is sarcasm, a special type of irony used to mock or insult. Paul does not believe these false teachers actually serve Christ, only that they pretend to do so.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Paradox

A “paradox” is a true statement that appears to describe something impossible. This sentence in verse 30 is a paradox: “If I must boast, I will boast about what shows my weaknesses.” Paul does not explain why he would boast in his weakness until 2 Corinthians 12:9. (2 Corinthians 11:30)

476

2CO

11

1

r4q6

ἀνείχεσθέ μου μικρόν τι ἀφροσύνης

1

bear with me in a little bit of foolishness

Alternate translation: “you would allow me allow me to act like a fool”

477

2CO

11

2

m6vl

ζηλῶ…ὑμᾶς Θεοῦ ζήλῳ

1

jealous … jealousy

These words speak of a good, strong desire that the Corinthians be faithful to Christ, and that no one should persuade them to leave him.

478

2CO

11

2

ee9i

figs-metaphor

ἡρμοσάμην γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἑνὶ ἀνδρὶ, παρθένον ἁγνὴν παραστῆσαι τῷ Χριστῷ

1

for I promised you in marriage to one husband, to present you as a pure virgin to Christ

Paul speaks of his care for the Corinthian believers as if he had promised another man that he would prepare his daughter to marry him and he is most concerned that he be able to keep his promise to the man. Alternate translation: “for I was like a father who promised to present his daughter to one husband. I promised to keep you as a pure virgin so I could give you to Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

479

2CO

11

3

l2hr

φοβοῦμαι δὲ, μή πως ὡς ὁ ὄφις ἐξηπάτησεν Εὕαν ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτοῦ, φθαρῇ τὰ νοήματα ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἁπλότητος καὶ τῆς ἁγνότητος τῆς εἰς τὸν Χριστόν

1

But I am afraid that somehow … the sincerity and the purity that are in Christ

Alternate translation: “But I am afraid that somehow your thoughts might be led astray from a sincere and pure devotion to Christ just as the serpent deceived Eve by his craftiness”

480

2CO

11

3

m5zn

figs-metaphor

φθαρῇ τὰ νοήματα ὑμῶν

1

your thoughts might be led astray

Paul speaks of thoughts as if they were animals that people could lead along the wrong path. Alternate translation: “someone might cause you to believe lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

481

2CO

11

4

wq57

εἰ μὲν γὰρ ὁ ἐρχόμενος

1

For if one who comes

Alternate translation: “When anyone comes and”

482

2CO

11

4

l7m8

πνεῦμα ἕτερον…ὃ οὐκ ἐλάβετε, ἢ εὐαγγέλιον ἕτερον ὃ οὐκ ἐδέξασθε

1

or you receive a different spirit which you did not receive, or you receive a different gospel which you did not accept

Alternate translation: “a different spirit than the Holy Spirit, or a different gospel than you received from us”

483

2CO

11

4

fs5z

καλῶς ἀνέχεσθε

1

you are bearing with it well

See how these words were translated in 2 Corinthians 11:1. Alternate translation: “you are dealing correctly with these things”

484

2CO

11

5

eet1

figs-irony

τῶν ὑπέρλίαν ἀποστόλων

1

those super-apostles

Paul uses irony here to show that those teachers are less important then people say there are. Alternate translation: “those teachers whom some think are better than anyone else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

485

2CO

11

6

f8d1

figs-litotes

οὐ τῇ γνώσει

1

I am not untrained in knowledge

This negative phrase emphasizes the positive truth that he is trained in knowledge. Alternate translation: “I am certainly trained in knowledge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

486

2CO

11

6

n7xy

figs-abstractnouns

οὐ τῇ γνώσει

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word knowledge, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “I am trained to know what they know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

487

2CO

11

7

un9v

figs-rquestion

ἢ ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησα ἐμαυτὸν ταπεινῶν, ἵνα ὑμεῖς ὑψωθῆτε, ὅτι δωρεὰν τὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ εὐαγγέλιον εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν?

1

Or did I sin by humbling myself so you might be exalted?

Paul is beginning to claim that he treated the Corinthians well. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I think we agree that I did not sin by humbling myself so you might be exalted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

488

2CO

11

7

ax51

δωρεὰν τὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ εὐαγγέλιον εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν

1

freely preached the gospel of God to you

Alternate translation: “I preached the gospel of God to you without expecting anything from you in return”

489

2CO

11

8

k6ds

figs-hyperbole

ἄλλας ἐκκλησίας ἐσύλησα

1

I robbed other churches

This is an exaggeration to emphasize that Paul received money from churches who were not obligated to give to him. Alternate translation: “I accepted money from other churches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

490

2CO

11

8

a416

figs-explicit

τὴν ὑμῶν διακονίαν

1

the ministry to you

The full meaning of this can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “I could serve you at no cost” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

491

2CO

11

9

a23k

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ ἐλθόντες

1

the brothers who came

These brothers were probably all male.

492

2CO

11

9

fc6l

figs-metaphor

ἐν παντὶ ἀβαρῆ ἐμαυτὸν ὑμῖν ἐτήρησα καὶ τηρήσω

1

In everything I have kept myself from being a burden to you

Paul speaks of someone for whom one has to spend money as if they were heavy items that people have to carry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

493

2CO

11

9

sqcf

figs-explicit

ἐν παντὶ ἀβαρῆ ἐμαυτὸν ὑμῖν ἐτήρησα καὶ τηρήσω

1

The full meaning of this can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “I have done all I can to make sure you do not have to spend money so that I can be with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

494

2CO

11

9

b35r

ἀβαρῆ ἐμαυτὸν…ἐτήρησα καὶ τηρήσω

1

I will continue to do that

Alternate translation: “I never will be a burden to you”

495

2CO

11

10

si2r

ἔστιν ἀλήθεια Χριστοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ

1

the truth of Christ is in me

Paul is emphasizing that because his readers know that he tells the truth about Christ, they can know that he is telling the truth here. “As surely as you know that I truly know and proclaim the truth about Christ, you could know that what I am about to say is true”

496

2CO

11

10

nae3

figs-activepassive

ἡ καύχησις αὕτη οὐ φραγήσεται εἰς ἐμὲ

1

this boasting of mine will not be silenced

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one will be able to make me stop boasting and stay silent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

497

2CO

11

10

ua2i

ἡ καύχησις αὕτη…εἰς ἐμὲ

1

this boasting of mine

This refers to what Paul spoke about starting in (2 Corinthians 11:7).

498

2CO

11

11

zqu5

figs-rquestion

διὰ τί? ὅτι οὐκ ἀγαπῶ ὑμᾶς?

1

Why? Because I do not love you?

Paul uses rhetorical questions to emphasize love for the Corinthians. These questions can be combined or made into a statement. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could combine them or express them as statements. Alternate translation: “Is it because I do not love you that I do not want to be a burden to you?” or “I will continue to keep you from paying for my needs because this shows others that I love you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

499

2CO

11

11

rj6f

figs-ellipsis

ὁ Θεὸς οἶδεν

1

God knows

You can make explicit the understood information. Alternate translation: “God knows I love you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

500

2CO

11

12

d9sl

figs-metaphor

ἵνα ἐκκόψω τὴν ἀφορμὴν τῶν θελόντων ἀφορμήν, ἵνα ἐν ᾧ καυχῶνται, εὑρεθῶσιν καθὼς καὶ ἡμεῖς

1

in order that I may take away the opportunity

Paul speaks of a false claim that his enemies state as if it were something that he can carry away. Alternate translation: “so that I might make it impossible for those who are trying to get people to regard them as highly as they respect us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

501

2CO

11

12

t4js

figs-activepassive

εὑρεθῶσιν

1

they may be regarded as equal to us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people will think highly of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

502

2CO

11

13

ml66

οἱ γὰρ τοιοῦτοι

1

For such people

Alternate translation: “I do what I do because people like them”

503

2CO

11

13

nq3t

ἐργάται δόλιοι

1

deceitful workers

Alternate translation: “dishonest workers”

504

2CO

11

13

y896

μετασχηματιζόμενοι εἰς ἀποστόλους

1

disguising themselves as apostles

Alternate translation: “are not apostles, but they try to make themselves look like apostles”

505

2CO

11

14

v9z4

figs-litotes

οὐ θαῦμα

1

no wonder

By stating this in a negative form Paul is emphasizing that the Corinthians should expect to meet many “false apostles” (2 Corinthians 11:13). Alternate translation: “we should expect this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

506

2CO

11

14

ss7s

αὐτὸς…ὁ Σατανᾶς μετασχηματίζεται εἰς ἄγγελον φωτός

1

Satan disguises himself as an angel of light

Alternate translation: “Satan is not an angel of light, but he tries to make himself look like an angel of light”

507

2CO

11

14

mld4

figs-metaphor

ἄγγελον φωτός

1

an angel of light

Here, light is a metaphor for righteousness. Alternate translation: “an angel of righteousness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

508

2CO

11

15

fvx7

figs-litotes

οὐ μέγα…εἰ

1

it is no great thing

By stating this in a negative form Paul is emphasizing that the Corinthians should expect to meet many “false apostles” (2 Corinthians 11:13). Alternate translation: “we should certainly expect to see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

509

2CO

11

15

sb58

καὶ οἱ διάκονοι αὐτοῦ μετασχηματίζονται ὡς διάκονοι δικαιοσύνης

1

his servants also disguise themselves as servants of righteousness

Alternate translation: “his servants are not servants of righteousness, but they try to make themselves look like servants of righteousness”

510

2CO

11

16

s962

γε κἂν ὡς ἄφρονα δέξασθέ με, ἵνα κἀγὼ μικρόν τι καυχήσωμαι

1

receive me as a fool so I may boast a little

Alternate translation: “receive me as you would receive a fool: let me talk, and consider my boasting the words of a fool”

511

2CO

11

18

t4ic

figs-metonymy

κατὰ σάρκα

1

according to the flesh

Here the metonym flesh refers to man in his sinful nature and his achievements. Alternate translation: “about their own human achievements” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

512

2CO

11

19

u8f3

ἀνέχεσθε τῶν ἀφρόνων

1

put up with the foolish

See how a similar phrase was translated in 2 Corinthians 11:1. Alternate translation: “you … accept me when I act like a fool”

513

2CO

11

19

si6l

figs-irony

φρόνιμοι ὄντες

1

being wise

Paul is shaming the Corinthians by using irony. Alternate translation: “thinking that you are wise, even through you are not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

514

2CO

11

20

zmfo

figs-hyperbole

εἴ τις ὑμᾶς καταδουλοῖ, εἴ τις κατεσθίει

1

Paul is using exaggeration when he speaks of some people forcing others to obey rules as if they were forcing them to be slaves or devouring them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

515

2CO

11

20

lu7d

figs-metaphor

ὑμᾶς καταδουλοῖ

1

enslaves you

Paul speaks of people forcing others to obey rules as if they were forcing them to be slaves. Alternate translation: “makes you follow rules they have thought of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

516

2CO

11

20

sr4n

figs-metaphor

κατεσθίει

1

he consumes you

Paul speaks of the super-apostles’ taking people’s material resources as if they were eating the people themselves. Alternate translation: “takes all your property” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

517

2CO

11

20

yn5t

λαμβάνει

1

takes advantage of you

A person takes advantage of another person by knowing things that the other person does not and using that knowledge to help himself and harm the other person.

518

2CO

11

21

n8s9

figs-irony

κατὰ ἀτιμίαν λέγω ὡς ὅτι ἡμεῖς ἠσθενήκαμεν!

1

I will say to our shame that we were too weak to do that

Paul is using irony to tell the Corinthians that it was not because he was weak that he treated them well. Alternate translation: “I am not ashamed to say that we had the power to harm you, but we treated you well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

519

2CO

11

21

v8a3

ἐν ᾧ…ἄν τις τολμᾷ…τολμῶ κἀγώ

1

Yet if anyone boasts … I too will boast

Alternate translation: “in whatever anyone boasts about … I will dare to boast about it also”

520

2CO

11

22

jdq8

figs-rquestion

Ἑβραῖοί εἰσιν? κἀγώ. Ἰσραηλεῖταί εἰσιν? κἀγώ. σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ εἰσιν? κἀγώ.

1

Are they Hebrews? … Are they Israelites? … Are they descendants of Abraham?

Paul is asking and answering questions the Corinthians might be asking to emphasize that he is as much a Jew as the super-apostles are. You should keep the question-and-answer form if possible. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “They want you to think they are important and to believe what they say because they are Hebrews and Israelites and descendants of Abraham. Well, so am I!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

521

2CO

11

23

a4tz

figs-rquestion

διάκονοι Χριστοῦ εἰσιν? (παραφρονῶν λαλῶ), ὑπὲρ ἐγώ

1

Are they servants of Christ? (I speak as though I were out of my mind.) I am more

Paul continues asking and answering questions the Corinthians might be asking to emphasize that he is as much a Jew as the super-apostles are. You should keep the question-and-answer form if possible. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “They say they are servants of Christ—I speak as though I were out of my mind—but I am more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

522

2CO

11

23

bq23

παραφρονῶν λαλῶ

1

as though I were out of my mind

Alternate translation: “I speak as though I were unable to think well”

523

2CO

11

23

vy54

figs-ellipsis

ὑπὲρ ἐγώ

1

I am more

You can make explicit the understood information. Alternate translation: “I am more a servant of Christ than they are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

524

2CO

11

23

s8wq

ἐν κόποις περισσοτέρως

1

in even more hard work

Alternate translation: “I have worked harder”

525

2CO

11

23

dr6x

ἐν φυλακαῖς περισσοτέρως

1

in far more imprisonments

Alternate translation: “I have been in prisons more often”

526

2CO

11

23

cs3f

figs-idiom

ἐν πληγαῖς ὑπερβαλλόντως

1

in beatings beyond measure

Here, beyond measure is an idiom that means he had been beaten many, many times. Alternate translation: “I have been beaten very many times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

527

2CO

11

23

qdcm

figs-hyperbole

ἐν πληγαῖς ὑπερβαλλόντως

1

This is exaggerated to emphasize that he had been beaten many, many times. Alternate translation: “I have been beaten too many times to bother counting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

528

2CO

11

23

r6jv

ἐν θανάτοις πολλάκις

1

in facing many dangers of death

Alternate translation: “and I have almost died many times”

529

2CO

11

24

ttz2

τεσσεράκοντα παρὰ μίαν

1

forty lashes minus one

This was a common expression for being whipped 39 times. In Jewish law the most they were allowed to whip a person at one time was forty lashes. So they commonly whipped a person thirty-nine times so that they would be guilty of whipping someone too many times if the accidentally counted wrong.

530

2CO

11

25

u9xc

figs-activepassive

ἐραβδίσθην

1

I was beaten with rods

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people beat me with wooden rods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

531

2CO

11

25

xk9w

figs-activepassive

ἐλιθάσθην

1

I was stoned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people threw stones at me until they thought I was dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

532

2CO

11

25

b4kz

νυχθήμερον ἐν τῷ βυθῷ πεποίηκα

1

I have spent a night and a day on the open sea

Paul was referring to floating in the water after the ship he was on sank.

533

2CO

11

26

b3j9

figs-explicit

κινδύνοις ἐν ψευδαδέλφοις

1

in danger from false brothers

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “and in danger from people who claimed to be brothers in Christ, but who betrayed us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

534

2CO

11

27

ds5h

figs-hyperbole

γυμνότητι

1

nakedness

Here Paul exaggerates to show his need of clothing. Alternate translation: “without enough clothing to keep me warm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

535

2CO

11

28

n1q5

figs-metaphor

ἡ ἐπίστασίς μοι ἡ καθ’ ἡμέραν, ἡ μέριμνα πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν

1

there is the daily pressure on me of my anxiety

Paul knows that God will hold him responsible for how well the churches obey God and speaks of that knowledge as if it were a heavy object pushing him down. Alternate translation: “I know that God will hold me accountable for the spiritual growth of all the churches, and so I always feel like a heavy object is pushing me down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

536

2CO

11

29

fvz6

figs-rquestion

τίς ἀσθενεῖ, καὶ οὐκ ἀσθενῶ?

1

Who is weak, and I am not weak?

This rhetorical question emphasizes that Paul cares about people. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Whenever anyone is weak, I feel that weakness also.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

537

2CO

11

29

hhb2

figs-metaphor

τίς ἀσθενεῖ, καὶ οὐκ ἀσθενῶ?

1

Who is weak, and I am not weak?

The word weak is probably a metaphor for a spiritual condition, but no one is sure what Paul is speaking of, so it is best to use the same word here. Alternate translation: “I am weak whenever anyone else is weak.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

538

2CO

11

29

g5am

figs-metaphor

τίς σκανδαλίζεται, καὶ οὐκ ἐγὼ πυροῦμαι?

1

Who has been caused to stumble, and I do not burn?

Here Paul’s anger is spoken of as a burning inside him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

539

2CO

11

29

bdd4

figs-rquestion

τίς σκανδαλίζεται, καὶ οὐκ ἐγὼ πυροῦμαι?

1

Paul uses this question to express his anger when a fellow believer is caused to sin. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Whenever anyone causes a brother to sin, I am angry.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

540

2CO

11

29

xu57

figs-metaphor

σκανδαλίζεται

1

has been caused to stumble

Paul speaks of sin as if it were tripping over something and then falling. Alternate translation: “has been led to sin” or “has thought that God would permit him to sin because of something that someone else did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

541

2CO

11

30

gxe6

τὰ τῆς ἀσθενείας

1

what shows my weaknesses

Alternate translation: “what shows how weak I am”

542

2CO

11

31

yx8z

figs-litotes

οὐ ψεύδομαι

1

I am not lying

Paul is using litotes to emphasize that he is telling the truth. Alternate translation: “I am telling the absolute truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

543

2CO

11

32

n383

ὁ ἐθνάρχης Ἁρέτα τοῦ βασιλέως ἐφρούρει τὴν πόλιν

1

the governor under King Aretas was guarding the city

Alternate translation: “the governor whom King Aretas had appointed had told men to guard the city”

544

2CO

11

32

j7de

πιάσαι με

1

to arrest me

Alternate translation: “so that they might catch and arrest me”

545

2CO

11

33

i8xa

figs-activepassive

ἐν σαργάνῃ, ἐχαλάσθην

1

I was lowered in a basket

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “some people put me in a basket and lowered me to the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

546

2CO

11

33

aw7d

figs-metonymy

τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ

1

from his hands

Paul uses the governor’s hands as metonymy for the governor. Alternate translation: “from the governor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

547

2CO

12

intro

abcf

0

2 Corinthians 12 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Paul continues defending his authority in this chapter.

When Paul was with the Corinthians, he proved himself to be an apostle by his powerful deeds. He had not ever taken anything from them. Now that he is coming for the third time, he will still not take anything. He hopes that when he visits, he will not need to be harsh with them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/apostle]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Paul’s vision

Paul now defends his authority by telling about a wonderful vision of heaven. Although he speaks in the third person in verses 2-5, verse 7 indicates that he was the person who experienced the vision. It was so great, God gave him a physical handicap to keep him humble. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

Third heaven

Many scholars believe the “third” heaven is the dwelling place of God. This is because Scripture also uses “heaven” to refer to the sky (the “first” heaven) and the universe (the “second” heaven).

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Paul uses many rhetorical questions as he defends himself against his enemies who accused him: “For how were you less important than the rest of the churches, except that I was not a burden to you?” “Did Titus take advantage of you? Did we not walk in the same way? Did we not walk in the same steps?” and “Do you think all of this time we have been defending ourselves to you?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Sarcasm

Paul uses sarcasm, a special type of irony, when he reminds them how he had helped them at no cost. He says, “Forgive me for this wrong!” He also uses regular irony when he says: “But, since I am so crafty, I am the one who caught you by deceit.” He uses it to introduce his defense against this accusation by showing how impossible it was to be true. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Paradox

A “paradox” is a true statement that appears to describe something impossible. This sentence in verse 5 is a paradox: “I will not boast, except about my weaknesses.” Most people do not boast about being weak. This sentence in verse 10 is also a paradox: “For whenever I am weak, then I am strong.” In verse 9, Paul explains why both of these statements are true. (2 Corinthians 12:5)

548

2CO

12

1

iwn3

0

Connecting Statement:

In defending his apostleship from God, Paul continues to state specific things that have happened to him since he became a believer.

549

2CO

12

1

iur3

ἐλεύσομαι…εἰς

1

I will go on to

Alternate translation: “I will continue talking, but now about”

550

2CO

12

1

rb42

figs-hendiadys

ὀπτασίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεις Κυρίου

1

visions and revelations from the Lord

This could mean: (1) Paul uses the words visions and revelations to mean the same thing in hendiadys for emphasis. Alternate translation: “things that the Lord has allowed only me to see” (2) Paul is speaking of two different things. Alternate translation: “secret things that the Lord has let me see with my eyes and other secrets that he has told me about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

551

2CO

12

2

cz7u

οἶδα ἄνθρωπον ἐν Χριστῷ

1

I know a man in Christ

Paul is actually speaking of himself as if he were speaking of someone else, but this should be translated literally if possible.

552

2CO

12

2

fth2

εἴτε ἐν σώματι οὐκ οἶδα, εἴτε ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματος οὐκ οἶδα

1

whether in the body, I do not know, or out of the body, I do not know

Paul continues to describe himself as if this happened to another person. “I do not know if this man was in his physical body or in his spiritual body”

553

2CO

12

2

k4aw

τρίτου οὐρανοῦ

1

the third heaven

Here, the third heaven refers to the dwelling place of God rather than the sky or outer space (the planets, stars, and the universe).

554

2CO

12

4

qv5h

ἡρπάγη εἰς τὸν Παράδεισον

1

was caught up into paradise

Paul continues his account of what happened to “this man” (verse 3). If your language does not use this passive form, you can state this in active form. This could mean: (1) God took this man into paradise. (2) an angel took this man into paradise. If possible, it would be best not to name the one who took the man: “someone took him up to paradise” or “they took him up to paradise.”

555

2CO

12

4

wm7y

ἡρπάγη

1

caught up

Here, caught up refers to being suddenly and forcefully held and taken.

556

2CO

12

4

ic45

τὸν Παράδεισον

1

paradise

Here, paradise could refer to: (1) heaven. (2) the third heaven. (3) a special place in heaven.

557

2CO

12

5

hpq6

τοῦ τοιούτου

1

of such a person

Alternate translation: “of that person”

558

2CO

12

5

i12f

οὐ καυχήσομαι, εἰ μὴ ἐν ταῖς ἀσθενείαις

1

I will not boast, except about my weaknesses

You can state this in positive form. Alternate translation: “I will boast only of my weaknesses”

559

2CO

12

6

p8fm

μή τις εἰς ἐμὲ λογίσηται ὑπὲρ ὃ βλέπει με, ἢ ἀκούει ἐξ ἐμοῦ

1

no one will think more of me than what he sees in me or hears from me

Alternate translation: “no one will give me more credit than what he sees in me or hears from me”

560

2CO

12

7

v5s7

0

General Information:

This verse reveals that Paul was speaking about himself beginning in 2 Corinthians 12:2.

561

2CO

12

7

xxi2

τῇ ὑπερβολῇ τῶν ἀποκαλύψεων

1

because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations

Alternate translation: “because those revelations were so much greater than anything anyone else had ever seen”

562

2CO

12

7

hu8g

figs-activepassive

ἐδόθη μοι σκόλοψ τῇ σαρκί

1

a thorn in the flesh was given to me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God gave me a thorn in the flesh” or “God allowed me to have a thorn in the flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

563

2CO

12

7

q5e7

figs-metaphor

σκόλοψ τῇ σαρκί

1

a thorn in the flesh

Here Paul’s physical problems are compared to a thorn piercing his flesh. Alternate translation: “an affliction” or “a physical problem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

564

2CO

12

7

q7lz

ἄγγελος Σατανᾶ

1

a messenger from Satan

Alternate translation: “a servant of Satan”

565

2CO

12

7

ehp9

μὴ ὑπεραίρωμαι

2

overly proud

Alternate translation: “I would not become too proud”

566

2CO

12

8

n76p

τρὶς

1

Three times

Paul put the words three times at the beginning of the sentence to emphasize that he had prayed many times about his “thorn” (2 Corinthians 12:7).

567

2CO

12

8

wc7r

ὑπὲρ τούτου

1

Lord about this

Alternate translation: “about this thorn in the flesh,” or “about this affliction”

568

2CO

12

9

nr2j

ἀρκεῖ σοι ἡ χάρις μου

1

My grace is enough for you

Alternate translation: “I will be kind to you, and that is all you need”

569

2CO

12

9

cs63

ἡ γὰρ δύναμις ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ τελεῖται

1

for power is made perfect in weakness

Alternate translation: “for my power works best when you are weak”

570

2CO

12

9

g8mi

figs-metaphor

ἐπισκηνώσῃ ἐπ’ ἐμὲ ἡ δύναμις τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the power of Christ might reside on me

Paul speaks of the power of Christ as if it were a tent built over him. This could mean: (1) people might see that Paul has the power of Christ. (2) Paul truly has the power of Christ. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

571

2CO

12

10

pxf1

εὐδοκῶ ἐν ἀσθενείαις, ἐν ὕβρεσιν, ἐν ἀνάγκαις, ἐν διωγμοῖς, καὶ στενοχωρίαις, ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ

1

I am content for Christ’s sake in weaknesses, in insults, in troubles, in persecutions and distressing situations

This could mean: (1) Paul is content in weaknesses, insults, troubles, persecutions, and distressing situations if these things come because I belong to Christ. (2) Paul is content in weakness if these things cause more people to know Christ.

572

2CO

12

10

s5sx

ἐν ἀσθενείαις

1

in weaknesses

Alternate translation: “when I am weak”

573

2CO

12

10

xl8q

ἐν ὕβρεσιν

1

in insults

Alternate translation: “when people try to make me angry by saying that I am a bad person”

574

2CO

12

10

hza1

ἐν ἀνάγκαις

1

in troubles

Alternate translation: “when I am suffering”

575

2CO

12

10

c4t2

στενοχωρίαις

1

distressing situations

Alternate translation: “when there is trouble”

576

2CO

12

10

t7qg

ὅταν γὰρ ἀσθενῶ, τότε δυνατός εἰμι

1

For whenever I am weak, then I am strong

Paul is saying that when he is no longer strong enough to do what needs to be done, Christ, who is more powerful than Paul could ever be, will work through Paul to do what needs to be done. However, it would be best to translate these words literally, if your language allows.

577

2CO

12

11

a1ym

γέγονα ἄφρων

1

I have become a fool

Alternate translation: “I am acting like a fool”

578

2CO

12

11

pzw1

ὑμεῖς με ἠναγκάσατε

1

You forced me to this

Alternate translation: “You forced me to talk this way”

579

2CO

12

11

v2lr

figs-activepassive

ἐγὼ…ὤφειλον ὑφ’ ὑμῶν συνίστασθαι

1

I should have been commended by you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you should have praised me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

580

2CO

12

11

f644

συνίστασθαι

1

commended

See how you translated similar phrases in (3:1) and (4:2). Alternate translation: “been praised” or “been recommended”

581

2CO

12

11

h4d5

figs-litotes

οὐδὲν γὰρ ὑστέρησα

1

For I was not at all inferior

By using the negative form, Paul is saying strongly that those Corinthians who think that he is inferior are wrong. Alternate translation: “For I am just as good as” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

582

2CO

12

11

s82x

figs-irony

τῶν ὑπέρλίαν ἀποστόλων

1

super-apostles

Paul uses irony here to show that those teachers are less important then people say they are. See how this is translated in 2 Corinthians 11:5. Alternate translation: “those teachers whom some think are better than anyone else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

583

2CO

12

12

kp5l

figs-activepassive

τὰ μὲν σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου κατειργάσθη

1

indeed the signs of an apostle were performed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form with emphasis on the signs, or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “it is the true signs of an apostle that I performed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

584

2CO

12

12

d4um

σημείοις τε, καὶ τέρασιν, καὶ δυνάμεσιν

1

signs and wonders and mighty deeds

These are the “signs of an apostle” that Paul performed “with all perseverance.”

585

2CO

12

13

z35e

figs-rquestion

τί γάρ ἐστιν ὃ ἡσσώθητε ὑπὲρ τὰς λοιπὰς ἐκκλησίας, εἰ μὴ ὅτι αὐτὸς ἐγὼ οὐ κατενάρκησα ὑμῶν?

1

how were you less important than the rest of the churches, except that … you?

Paul is emphasizing that the Corinthians are wrong to accuse him of wanting to do them harm. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “I treated you the same way I treated all the other churches, except that I myself did not burden you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

586

2CO

12

13

d426

αὐτὸς ἐγὼ οὐ κατενάρκησα ὑμῶν

1

I was not a burden to you

Alternate translation: “I did not ask you for money or other things I needed”

587

2CO

12

13

sy7v

figs-irony

χαρίσασθέ μοι τὴν ἀδικίαν ταύτην!

1

Forgive me for this wrong!

Paul is being ironic to shame the Corinthians. Both he and they know that he has done them no wrong, but they have been treating him as though he has wronged them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

588

2CO

12

13

u1w9

τὴν ἀδικίαν ταύτην

1

this wrong

Here, this wrong refers to not asking them for money and other things he needed.

589

2CO

12

14

ugk1

figs-explicit

ἀλλὰ ὑμᾶς

1

but you

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “but what I want is that you love and accept me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

590

2CO

12

14

wd97

οὐ…ὀφείλει τὰ τέκνα τοῖς γονεῦσιν θησαυρίζειν

3

children should not save up for the parents

Young children are not responsible for saving money or other goods to give to their healthy parents.

591

2CO

12

15

vj2m

figs-metaphor

ἐγὼ…ἥδιστα δαπανήσω καὶ ἐκδαπανηθήσομαι

1

I will most gladly spend and be spent

Paul speaks of his work and his physical life as if it were money that he or God could spend. Alternate translation: “I will gladly do any work and gladly allow God to permit people to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

592

2CO

12

15

nk8v

figs-metonymy

ὑπὲρ τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν

1

for your souls

The word souls is a metonym for the people themselves. Alternate translation: “for you” or “so you will live well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

593

2CO

12

15

t3na

figs-rquestion

εἰ περισσοτέρως ὑμᾶς ἀγαπῶν, ἧσσον ἀγαπῶμαι?

1

If I love you more, am I to be loved less?

This rhetorical question to emphasize that the Corinthians should love Paul. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “If I love you so much, you should not love me so little.” or “If I love you so much, you should love me more than you do.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

594

2CO

12

15

j887

περισσοτέρως

1

more

It is not clear what it is that Paul’s love is more than. It is probably best to use “very much” or a “so much” that can be compared to “so little” later in the sentence.

595

2CO

12

16

ur5x

figs-irony

ἀλλὰ ὑπάρχων πανοῦργος δόλῳ, ὑμᾶς ἔλαβον

1

But, since I am so crafty, I am the one who caught you by deceit

Paul uses irony to shame the Corinthians who think he lied to them even if he did not ask them for money. Alternate translation: “but others think I was deceptive and used trickery” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

596

2CO

12

17

vb7q

figs-rquestion

μή τινα ὧν ἀπέσταλκα πρὸς ὑμᾶς, δι’ αὐτοῦ ἐπλεονέκτησα ὑμᾶς?

1

I did not take advantage of you by any of those whom I sent to you, did I?

Both Paul and the Corinthians know the answer is “no.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one that I sent to you has taken advantage of you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

597

2CO

12

18

pjl2

figs-rquestion

μήτι ἐπλεονέκτησεν ὑμᾶς Τίτος?

1

Titus did not take advantage of you, did he?

Both Paul and the Corinthians know the answer is “no.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Titus certainly did not take advantage of you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

598

2CO

12

18

acg6

figs-metaphor

οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν

1

Did we not walk in the same way?

Paul speaks of living as if it were walking on a road. Alternate translation: “We all walk in the same spirit.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

599

2CO

12

18

rjiy

figs-rquestion

οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι περιεπατήσαμεν

1

Both Paul and the Corinthians know the answer to the question is “yes.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We all have the same attitude and live alike.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

600

2CO

12

18

k6b3

figs-rquestion

οὐ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἴχνεσιν?

1

Did we not walk in the same steps?

Both Paul and the Corinthians know the answer to the question is “yes.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “We all walk in the same steps.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

601

2CO

12

18

oket

figs-metaphor

οὐ τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἴχνεσιν?

1

Paul speaks of living as if it were walking on a road. Alternate translation: “We all do things the same way.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

602

2CO

12

19

g1iw

figs-rquestion

πάλαι δοκεῖτε ὅτι ὑμῖν ἀπολογούμεθα?

1

Do you think all of this time we have been defending ourselves to you?

Paul uses this question to acknowledge something that the people may have been thinking. He does this so that he can assure them that it is not true. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you could express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Perhaps you think that all of this time we have been defending ourselves to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

603

2CO

12

19

ih3e

figs-metaphor

κατέναντι Θεοῦ

1

Before God

Paul speaks of God knowing everything Paul does as if God were physically present and observed everything Paul said and did. Alternate translation: “With God as witness” or “In the presence of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

604

2CO

12

19

vg3u

figs-metaphor

ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμῶν οἰκοδομῆς

1

for your strengthening

Paul speaks of knowing how to obey God and desiring to obey him as if it were physical growth. Alternate translation: “so that you would know God and obey him better” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

605

2CO

12

20

cu6s

οὐχ οἵους θέλω, εὕρω ὑμᾶς

1

I may not find you as I wish

Alternate translation: “I may not like what I find” or “I may not like what I see you doing”

606

2CO

12

20

zy6g

κἀγὼ εὑρεθῶ ὑμῖν οἷον οὐ θέλετε

1

I may not be found by you as you wish

Alternate translation: “you might not like what you see in me”

607

2CO

12

20

rh1h

figs-abstractnouns

μή πως ἔρις, ζῆλος, θυμοί, ἐριθεῖαι, καταλαλιαί, ψιθυρισμοί, φυσιώσεις, ἀκαταστασίαι

1

there may be quarreling, jealousy, outbursts of anger, rivalries, slander, gossip, arrogance, and disorder

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind the words quarreling, jealousy, outbursts of anger, rivalries, slander, gossip, arrogance, and disorder, you can express the same ideas with verbal forms. This could mean: (1) some of you will be arguing with us, jealous of us, suddenly becoming very angry with us, trying to take our places as leaders, speaking falsely about us, telling about our private lives, being proud, and opposing us as we try to lead you. (2) some of you will be arguing with each other, jealous of each other, suddenly becoming very angry with each other, quarreling with each other over who will be the leader, speaking falsely about each other, telling about each other’s private lives, being proud, and opposing those whom God has chosen to lead you. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

608

2CO

12

21

ddw3

πενθήσω πολλοὺς τῶν προημαρτηκότων,

1

I might be grieved by many of those who have sinned

Alternate translation: “I will be grieved because many of them have not given up their old sins”

609

2CO

12

21

hq1e

figs-parallelism

μὴ μετανοησάντων ἐπὶ τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ, καὶ πορνείᾳ, καὶ ἀσελγείᾳ

1

did not repent of the impurity and sexual immorality and lustful indulgence

This could mean: (1) Paul is saying almost the same thing three times for emphasis. Alternate translation: “did not stop commiting the sexual sins that they practiced” (2) Paul is speaking of three different sins. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

610

2CO

12

21

rh22

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπὶ τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ

1

of the impurity

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word impurity, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “of secretly thinking about and desiring things that do not please God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

611

2CO

12

21

rn6u

figs-abstractnouns

πορνείᾳ

1

of the … sexual immorality

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word sexual immorality, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “of doing sexually immoral deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

612

2CO

12

21

yyr5

figs-abstractnouns

ἀσελγείᾳ

1

of the … lustful indulgence

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word lustful indulgence, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “doing things that satisfy immoral sexual desire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

613

2CO

13

intro

abcg

0

2 Corinthians 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In this chapter, Paul finishes defending his authority. He then concludes the letter with a final greeting and blessing.

Special concepts in this chapter

Preparation

Paul instructs the Corinthians as he prepares to visit them. He is hoping to avoid needing to discipline anyone in the church so he can visit them joyfully. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/disciple]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Power and weakness

Paul repeatedly uses the contrasting words “power” and “weakness” in this chapter. The translator should use words that are understood to be opposites of each other.

“Examine yourselves to see if you are in the faith. Test yourselves.”

Scholars are divided over what these sentences mean. Some scholars say that Christians are to test themselves to see whether their actions align with their Christian faith. The context favors this understanding. Others say these sentences mean that Christians should look at their actions and question whether they are genuinely saved. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

614

2CO

13

1

slj1

figs-activepassive

ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ τριῶν σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα

1

Every matter must be established by the evidence of two or three witnesses

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Believe that someone has done something wrong only after two or three people have said the same thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

615

2CO

13

2

fxl6

τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν

1

all the rest

Alternate translation: “all you other people”

616

2CO

13

4

a1bf

figs-activepassive

καὶ…ἐσταυρώθη

1

he was crucified

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they crucified him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

617

2CO

13

5

sbx4

ἐν ὑμῖν

1

in you

Here, in you could mean: (1) Jesus is living inside each individual. (2) Jesus is living among them, part of and the most important member of the group.

618

2CO

13

7

u75e

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ ποιῆσαι ὑμᾶς κακὸν μηδέν

1

that you may not do any wrong

If your readers would misunderstand the double-negative not … wrong, you could express it in positive form. Alternate translation: “you will do everything right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

619

2CO

13

7

gt2e

δόκιμοι

1

to have passed the test

Alternate translation: “to be great teachers and live the truth”

620

2CO

13

8

a3l7

οὐ…δυνάμεθά τι κατὰ τῆς ἀληθείας

1

we are not able to do anything against the truth

Alternate translation: “we are not able to keep people from learning the truth”

621

2CO

13

9

vt7b

τὴν ὑμῶν κατάρτισιν

1

for your perfection

Alternate translation: “that you may become spiritually mature”

622

2CO

13

10

rlm8

figs-metaphor

εἰς οἰκοδομὴν καὶ οὐκ εἰς καθαίρεσιν.

1

for building up, and not for tearing down

Paul speaks of helping the Corinthians to know Christ better as if he were constructing a building. See how you translated a similar phrase in 2 Corinthians 10:8. Alternate translation: “to help you become better followers of Christ and not to discourage you so you stop following him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

623

2CO

13

11

uk1p

0

Connecting Statement:

Paul closes his letter to the Corinthian believers.

624

2CO

13

11

fm8m

καταρτίζεσθε

1

Be restored

Alternate translation: “Work toward maturity”

625

2CO

13

11

diw1

τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖτε

1

be of the same mind

Alternate translation: “live in harmony with one another”

626

2CO

13

12

p1nh

ἐν ἁγίῳ φιλήματι

1

with a holy kiss

Alternate translation: “with Christian love”

627

2CO

13

12

x2qd

οἱ ἅγιοι

1

the saints

Alternate translation: “those whom God has set apart for himself”