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Introduction to 1 Corinthians

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Book of 1 Corinthians

  1. Opening (1:1–9)
  2. Against divisions (1:10–4:15)
  3. Against sexual immorality (4:16–6:20)
  4. On abstinence (7:1–40)
  5. On food (8:1–11:1)
  6. On head coverings (11:2–16)
  7. On the Lord’s Supper (11:17–34)
  8. On spiritual gifts (12:1–14:40)
  9. On the resurrection of the dead (15:1–58)
  10. On the collection and visits (16:1–12)
  11. Closing: final commands and greetings (16:13–24)

More detailed outlines for each of these sections appear in the chapter introductions.

Who Wrote the Book of 1 Corinthians?

The author identifies himself as Paul the apostle. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee, and he persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire, telling people about Jesus. Paul first visited the Corinthians during his third time traveling around the Roman Empire (see Acts 18:1–18). After that, Paul wrote this letter while he was in Ephesus (16:8). He lived and proclaimed the gospel there for more than two years (see Acts 19:1–10), and it was sometime during those years that he wrote this letter to the Corinthians.

What Is the Book of 1 Corinthians about?

While Paul was in Ephesus, he learned things about the Corinthians. People from “Chloe” told Paul about “factions” in the Corinthian group (1:11), and the Corinthian believers wrote a letter to him asking questions (7:1). Paul also mentions that he has “heard” things about what they are doing and saying (see 5:1; 11:18; 15:12). He may have learned these things from the people “from Chloe,” from their letter, or from other sources, such as “Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus,” who visited Paul before he wrote this letter (see 16:17). Paul writes his letter in response to what he has learned about how the Corinthians are thinking and acting. He addresses multiple topics in order. You can see these topics in the outline above. Paul focuses on encouraging the Corinthian believers to remain faithful to Jesus and to behave as those who follow Jesus.

How Should the Title of this Book Be Translated?

Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “First Corinthians” or “1 Corinthians.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s First Letter to the Church in Corinth” or “A First Letter to the Christians in Corinth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What was the city of Corinth like?

Corinth was a major city located in ancient Greece. Because it was near the Mediterranean Sea and in an important location, many travelers and traders came to buy and sell goods there. Therefore, many different kinds of people lived in the city, and there were many wealthy people. Also, people in Corinth worshiped many different gods, and their worship could include food and sexual activity. In this culture, Christians who did not participate in worshiping at least some of the many gods were often considered to be strange, and people would not want to associate with them.

What was the issue that Paul was addressing in this letter?

Paul addresses many specific topics and issues in his letter to the Corinthian believers. These include church unity, sexual behavior, worship practices, food sacrificed to idols, spiritual gifts, and the resurrection. It is possible that all the problems that Paul wishes to correct in these areas come from one single issue in the Corinthian church. It could be that false teachers are leading the Corinthians astray, or it could be that the Corinthians are acting like everyone else in their culture, even when this is not properly following Jesus. Most likely, the Corinthians believed that they had already received all the blessings that Christians will receive when Jesus comes back to the earth. They may have also believed the false teaching that matter and physical things were less important than “spiritual” things. Whatever exactly the primary problem is, what is clear is that the Corinthians were not properly following Jesus in how they were thinking and acting, and Paul writes the letter to guide them back to faithfully following Jesus.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What does Paul mean when he talks about “wisdom” and “foolishness”?

These words do not refer primarily to how much or how little education someone has. Rather, they refer to how well or how poorly someone plans actions and knows how the world works. If someone creates plans and ideas that work out well, that person is wise. If someone creates plans and ideas that do not work out well, that person is foolish. The wise person makes good choices, and the foolish person makes bad choices. Paul uses these words to contrast what humans think is wise or foolish with what God thinks is wise or foolish. By doing this, Paul wishes to keep the Corinthians from thinking in ways that other humans consider to be “wise.” Rather, he wishes them to think in ways that God considers to be “wise,” which are ways that the other humans might consider to be “foolish.”

What does Paul mean when he talks about “knowledge”?

Paul uses “knowledge” to refer to comprehending or understanding what is true about God and the world. Paul emphasizes that no one really has “knowledge” without the help of the Holy Spirit. He also wants those who have this “knowledge” to continue to act in ways that respect and honor those who do not have the “knowledge.” In other words, he wants to convince the Corinthians that acting in love toward fellow believers is more valuable than any “knowledge.” So, Paul argues that “knowledge” is valuable, but other things are more important.

What does Paul mean when he talks about “power” and “weakness”?

Someone who has “power” has much influence and authority and can accomplish many things. Someone who has “weakness” does not have much influence and authority and is not able to accomplish many things. Paul contrasts what humans think is powerful or weak with what God thinks is powerful or weak. By doing this, Paul wishes to keep the Corinthians from acting in ways that other humans think are “powerful.” Rather, he wishes them to act in ways that God considers “powerful,” which are ways that the other humans might consider to be “weak.”

What did Paul mean by the expressions “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?

Paul uses the spatial metaphor “in Christ” (often with another name for “Christ,” such as “Lord” or “Jesus”) very frequently in this letter. This metaphor emphasizes that believers are as closely united to Christ as if they were inside him. Paul believes that this is true for all believers, and sometimes he uses “in Christ” simply to identify that what he is speaking about is true for those who believe in Jesus. Other times, he emphasizes union with Christ as the means or the basis for some statement or exhortation. See the notes on specific verses for help in understanding the contextual meaning of “in Christ” and related phrases. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

How should “brothers” be translated?

Many times in this letter, Paul directly addresses or refers to people he calls “brothers.” Often, a direct address to the “brothers” indicates that Paul is beginning a new section. The word “brothers” refers in general to fellow believers, both male and female. Paul uses this word because he considers believers to be as closely united together as siblings in a family. Consider what word or phrase would best express both the reference to fellow believers and the idea that these fellow believers are as close as family members. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/brother]])

How should extended metaphors be translated?

Throughout this letter, Paul uses long or extended metaphors. In 3:1–17, he speaks about children, farming, construction, and temples to discuss how he and others who preach the gospel should relate to the Corinthians. In 5:6–8, he uses the Jewish festival of Passover to encourage the Corinthians to behave in a certain way. In 9:9–11, he uses a farming metaphor to speak about receiving money for preaching the gospel, and in 9:24–27, he uses metaphors related to athletic competitions to encourage the Corinthians to behave in a certain way. In 12:12–27, Paul uses the human body as an analogy and metaphor for the church. Finally, in 15:36–38, 42–44, Paul uses a farming metaphor to speak about the resurrection of the dead. Since these extended metaphors are a significant part of Paul’s argument in these sections, you should retain the metaphors in your translation if possible or express the idea by using an analogy. See the chapter introductions and notes for more information and translation options. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

How should rhetorical questions be translated?

Paul asks many questions in this letter. He does not asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to provide him with information. Rather, he asks these questions because he wants the Corinthians to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with Paul. If your readers would understand these kinds of questions, you should retain them in your translation. If your readers would understand these kinds of questions, you could supply the answers or express the questions as statements. See the notes on each rhetorical question for the implied answer and ways to translate the question as a statement. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

How should euphemisms be translated?

Paul uses euphemisms in multiple places in this letter, particularly when he is discussing sexual activity or death. If possible, use similar euphemisms in your translation. See the notes on each verse that has a euphemism for translation options. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

How should “you” and “we” be translated?

Throughout the letter, you should assume that “you,” “your,” and “yours” are plural and refer to the Corinthian believers unless a note specifies that the form of “you” is singular. Similarly, throughout the letter, you should assume that “we,” “us,” “our,” and “ours” include Paul, those who work with Paul, and the Corinthian believers unless a notes specifies that the form of “we” excludes the Corinthian believers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

What are the major issues in the text of the Book of 1 Corinthians?

In the following verses, ancient manuscripts do not all have the same words. The ULT uses the words that are found in most of the earliest manuscripts. When you translate these verses, you should compare the ULT with any translations that your readers may be familiar with to see what your readers may expect. Unless there is a good reason to use the alternate words, you should follow the ULT. See the footnotes and notes at each of these verses for more information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

  • “the mystery of God” (2:1). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “the testimony of God.”
  • “God judges” (5:13). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “God will judge.”
  • “glorify God in your body” (6:20). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which belong to God.”
  • “as under the law, not being under the law myself in order to gain those under the law” (9:20). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “as under the law in order to gain those under the law.”
  • “put the Lord to the test” (10:9). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “put Christ to the test.”
  • “and conscience—” (10:28). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “and conscience, for the earth and everything in it belong to the Lord—”
  • “I hand over my body so that I might boast” (13:3). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “I hand over my body to be burned.”
  • “let him be ignorant” (14:38). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “he is considered ignorant.”
  • “let us also bear” (15:49). Some ancient manuscripts have this: “we will also bear.”
  • “Amen” (16:24). Some ancient manuscripts do not have “Amen.”
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1 Corinthians 1 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Opening (1:1–9)
    • Greetings and Blessing (1:1–3)
    • Praise and Prayer (1:4–9)
  2. Against divisions (1:10–4:15)
    • Divisions, Leaders, and Baptism (1:10–17)
    • Wisdom, Foolishness, and Boasting (1:18–31)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the words of verse 19, which are from the Old Testament.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Disunity

In this chapter, Paul urges the Corinthians to stop dividing up into smaller groups that identify themselves with one specific leader. He mentions some of the leaders, including himself, in 1:12. The Corinthians probably chose these leaders themselves, since there is no evidence that any of the people mentioned in 1:12 were trying to create their own groups. People in the Corinthian church were probably trying to sound wiser or more powerful than other people, so they would choose a group and a leader and say they were better than others. Paul argues against these kinds of divisions first, and then he argues against anyone who tries to sound wiser and more powerful than others.

Wisdom and foolishness

Throughout this chapter, Paul speaks of both wisdom and foolishness. These words do not refer primarily to how much or how little education someone has. Rather, they refer to how well or how poorly someone plans actions and knows how the world works. If someone creates plans and ideas that work out well, that person is wise. If someone creates plans and ideas that do not work out well, that person is foolish. The wise person makes good choices, and the foolish person makes bad choices. Use words in your language that indicate these ideas. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/foolish]])

Power and weakness

Throughout this chapter, Paul speaks of both power and weakness. These words primarily refer to how much influence and authority a person has and to how much they can accomplish. Someone who has “power” has much influence and authority and can accomplish many things. Someone who has “weakness” does not have much influence and authority and is not able to accomplish many things. Use words in your language that indicate these ideas (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/power]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Metaphors about Christ

In this chapter, Paul says that “Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God” (1:24) and that Christ “was made for us wisdom from God, righteousness, and also sanctification and redemption” (1:30). With these two verses, Paul is not saying that Christ is no longer a person and is instead these abstract ideas. Rather, Paul is speaking in this way because Christ and his work for believers include all of these abstract ideas. Christ’s work is powerful and wise, and gives those who believe in him wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption. For ways to translate these two statements, see the notes on these two verses.

Rhetorical questions

Paul asks many questions in this chapter. He is not asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with Paul. For ways to translate these questions, look for the notes on each verse that includes these kinds of questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Positive and negative uses of “wisdom”

Throughout this chapter, Paul speaks about wisdom in both positive and negative ways. He uses the same words throughout the chapter, and he distinguishes between positive and negative meanings by connecting the words to different people or ideas. For example, he speaks of wisdom negatively when it is the wisdom of the world, or the wisdom of humans. However, he speaks of wisdom positively when it is wisdom from God or wisdom given by God. If possible, translate the negative and positive meanings of wisdom with the same word, just as Paul uses one word for both negative and positive. If you must use different words, use positive words for God’s wisdom and negative words for human wisdom.

Using different perspectives

Sometimes, Paul speaks of God as if God were “foolish” and “weak” (1:25) and as if he chose “foolish” and “weak” things (1:27). Paul does not actually think that God is foolish and weak and chooses foolish and weak things. Rather, he is speaking from the perspective of normal human thinking. What God does, from a human perspective, is “weak” and “foolish.” He makes this clear in several verses. For example, in 1:26, Paul says that most of the Corinthians were not wise “according to the flesh.” This is Paul’s way of saying that they were not wise according to human thinking. If possible translate the times Paul speaks from a human perspective with the same words he uses for “weakness” and “foolishness” when he speaks from God’s perspective. If it is necessary to distinguish these uses, use a word or phrase that explains which perspective Paul is using. He does this himself sometimes, and if it is necessary, you could do it in other places as well.

Information presented out of order

The ULT puts parentheses around 1:16 because Paul is speaking about whom he baptized, an idea that fits logically with 1:14 and not as well after 1:15. Paul has remembered someone else that he baptized, and instead of going back and putting that information in 1:14, he includes it in 1:16, interrupting the flow of the argument. If possible, keep 1:16 where it is, and use a form in your language that indicates that Paul is interrupting his argument. If there is no way to do this in your language, you could move 1:16 so that it is between 1:14 and 1:15.

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Παῦλος

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In this culture, letter writers would give their own names first, referring to themselves in the third person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use the first person here. Or if your language has a particular way of introducing the author of a letter, and if it would be helpful to your readers, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “From Paul. I have been” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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Παῦλος

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Paul

Here and throughout the letter, Paul is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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κλητὸς ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ

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Sosthenes our brother

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on who is called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” Alternate translation: “whom Christ Jesus called to be an apostle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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διὰ θελήματος Θεοῦ

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Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {the} will that God has. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind that this phrase refers to what God wills with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “because God desired this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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καὶ Σωσθένης

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This phrase means that Sosthenes is with Paul, and Paul writes the letter for both of them. It does not mean that Sosthenes was the scribe who wrote the letter down. It also does not mean that Sosthenes dictated the letter with Paul, since Paul uses the first-person singular more than the first-person plural in the letter. If there is a way in your language to indicate that Paul writes on behalf of Sosthenes, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “and I write on behalf of Sosthenes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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Σωσθένης

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Sosthenes is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ…τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ

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to the church of God at Corinth

In this culture, after giving their own names, letter writers would name those to whom they sent the letter, referring to them in the third person. If that is confusing in your language, you could use the second person here. Or if your language has a particular way of introducing the recipient of a letter, and if it would be helpful to your readers, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “This letter is for you who are members of the church of God at Corinth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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ἡγιασμένοις ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ…κλητοῖς ἁγίοις

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those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are sanctified and called rather than focusing on the person doing the “sanctifying” and “calling.” If you must state who does the actions, Paul implies that “God” does them. Alternate translation: “whom God has sanctified in Christ Jesus, and whom God has called to be saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

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Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ Jesus to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ Jesus, or united to Christ, could explain: (1) the means by which God has sanctified the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “by means of your union with Christ Jesus” (2) the reason why God has sanctified the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “because of your union with Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ

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Here Paul describes all believers as if they were in every place. He speaks this way to emphasize that believers can be found in many countries, towns, and villages. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate in every place to indicate that believers are found in many places around the world. Alternate translation: “in many places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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ἐπικαλουμένοις τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν

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those who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ

The calling on the name of someone is an idiom that refers to worshiping and praying to that person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “who pray to and venerate our Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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αὐτῶν καὶ ἡμῶν

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their Lord and ours

In the phrase theirs and ours, Paul has left out words that may be needed in some languages to make a complete thought. If you cannot leave out these words in your language, you could supply words such as “who is” and “Lord” to make a complete thought. Alternate translation: “who is Lord over them and us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

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General Information:

After stating his name and the name of the person to whom he is writing, Paul adds a blessing for the Corinthians. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “May you experience kindness and peace within you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus the Messiah” or “I pray that grace and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus the Messiah will always be with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

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πάντοτε

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Here, always is an exaggeration that the Corinthians would have understood to emphasize how often Paul prays for the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express always with a word that indicates frequency. Alternate translation: “consistently” or “frequently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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τῷ Θεῷ μου

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When Paul speaks of my God, he does not mean that this is a different God than the one the Corinthians believe in. Rather, he simply wishes to state that this God is his God. If my God in your translation sounds like it makes a distinction between Paul’s God and the Corinthians’ God, you could use a plural pronoun. Alternate translation: “to our God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

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τῇ δοθείσῃ

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because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the grace that was given rather than the person doing the “giving.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “that he gave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

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Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ Jesus to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ Jesus, or united to Christ, could explain: (1) the means by which God has given grace to the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “by means of your union with Christ Jesus” (2) the reason why God has given grace to the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “because of your union with Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ὅτι

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Here, For introduces an explanation of “the grace of God that was given” in 1:4. Use a word or phrase that introduces a further explanation or elaboration in your language. Alternate translation: “That is,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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παντὶ

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Alternate translation: “every way”

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ἐπλουτίσθητε

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you have been made rich in him

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians had received a lot of money in him. With this language of being rich, Paul means that the Corinthians have received more than they need, and 1:7 shows that what they have received are spiritual blessings and gifts. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate made rich to: (1) express this idea with a phrase that refers to how much God has given them. Alternate translation: “you were given many gifts” (2) clarify that Paul speaks of spiritual riches. Alternate translation: “you were made spiritually rich” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ἐπλουτίσθητε

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If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are made rich rather than the person “making” them rich. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God has made you rich” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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ἐν αὐτῷ

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Here, him refers to Jesus, since God the Father is the one who makes the Corinthians rich. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express him with the words “Christ” or “Christ Jesus” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “in Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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παντὶ λόγῳ

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in all speech

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind word, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “speak” or “say.” Alternate translation: “everything you speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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πάσῃ γνώσει

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all knowledge

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind knowledge, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “know.” Alternate translation: “everything you know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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καθὼς

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Here, just as could introduce: (1) the reason why the Corinthians were made rich. Alternate translation: “which is due to how” (2) a comparison that illustrates how the Corinthians were made rich. Alternate translation: “in the same way that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐβεβαιώθη

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In this verse, Paul speaks as if what he told the Corinthians about Christ were testimony he gave as a witness in a court of law. This testimony has been confirmed, just as if other evidence proved to the judge that his testimony was accurate. With this metaphor, Paul reminds the Corinthians that they have believed the message about Christ and that it is now an important part of their lives. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express it plainly. Alternate translation: “our message about Christ has been established” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

the testimony about Christ has been confirmed as true among you

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak about a testimony that concerns Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit that Christ is the content of the testimony. Alternate translation: “the testimony about Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

31

1CO

1

6

tfo3

figs-activepassive

τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐβεβαιώθη

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is confirmed rather than the person doing the “confirming.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God has confirmed the testimony of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

32

1CO

1

7

t2hd

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὥστε

1

Therefore

Here, so that could introduce: (1) a result from “being made rich” in 1:5 and from the confirmation of the “testimony” in 1:6. If you use one of the following alternate translations, you may need to end the previous sentence with a period and begin a new sentence. Alternate translation: “God has made you rich and confirmed our testimony so that” (2) a result from just the confirmation in 1:6. Alternate translation: “God confirmed our testimony among you so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

33

1CO

1

7

p5y6

figs-litotes

ὑμᾶς μὴ ὑστερεῖσθαι ἐν μηδενὶ χαρίσματι

1

you lack no spiritual gift

Here Paul uses two negative words, not and lack, to express a strong positive meaning. He means that the Corinthians have every spiritual gift that God gives. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form in positive form. Alternate translation: “you have every gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

34

1CO

1

7

ymph

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

χαρίσματι, ἀπεκδεχομένους

1

Here, eagerly waiting for introduces something that happens at the same time as not lacking in any gift. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection explicitly. Alternate translation: “gift while you eagerly wait for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

35

1CO

1

7

fe4q

figs-possession

τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ;

1

the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a revelation whose content is our Lord Jesus Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this explicit by translating the phrase with a verb with “God” or our Lord Jesus Christ as the subject. Alternate translation: “God to reveal our Lord Jesus Christ” or “our Lord Jesus Christ to be revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

36

1CO

1

7

o145

figs-explicit

τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

In this context, it is clear that Paul does not simply mean that knowledge about our Lord Jesus Christ will be revealed. Rather, he means that our Lord Jesus Christ himself will return to earth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a word such as “return” to make this idea clear. Alternate translation: “the return of our Lord Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

37

1CO

1

8

cqpk

writing-pronouns

ὃς

1

Here, who could refer to: (1) God, who is the implied subject of all the verbs in this section. “If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to end the previous sentence with a period.” If you use one of the following alternate translations, you may need to end the previous sentence with a period. Alternate translation: “It is God who” (2) Jesus, which is the closest name. Alternate translation: “It is Jesus who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

38

1CO

1

8

usci

translate-unknown

καὶ βεβαιώσει ὑμᾶς

1

Here, confirm is the same word that Paul used in 1:6, also translated “confirmed.” Paul uses the word also to remind the reader that he has already used “confirmed.” If possible, translate confirmed as you did in 1:6. Just as there, here it refers to something or someone that is proved to be true or accurate. In this case, it means that God will make the Corinthians’ faith true to {the} end. Alternate translation: “will also establish your faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

39

1CO

1

8

qtpq

figs-idiom

ἕως τέλους

1

The phrase translated to {the} end means that some activity or state will continue until a definable point in the future. Here it means that God will confirm the Corinthians until their earthly lives end. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “until your race is run” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

40

1CO

1

8

pif5

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἀνεγκλήτους

1

you will be blameless

Here, blameless gives the result of God confirming them to the end. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this connection explicit. Alternate translation: “so that you will be blameless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

41

1CO

1

9

hp30

figs-activepassive

δι’ οὗ ἐκλήθητε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than the person doing the “calling.” Alternate translation: “who called you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

42

1CO

1

9

u2z0

figs-possession

εἰς κοινωνίαν τοῦ Υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe fellowship that is with his Son. If it would be helpful in your language, you could: (1) use a word such as “with” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “into fellowship with his Son” (2) translate fellowship with a verb such as “share in” or “commune with.” Alternate translation: “to commune with his Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

43

1CO

1

9

kx3z

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

τοῦ Υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ

1

his Son

Son is an important title for Jesus and identifies his relationship with God the Father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

44

1CO

1

10

huz1

grammar-connect-words-phrases

παρακαλῶ δὲ

1

Here, Now indicates the beginning of a new section. Paul transitions from giving thanks to appealing to the Corinthians to avoid divisions. You could: (1) leave this word untranslated and show the shift in topic by starting a new paragraph. Alternate translation: “I urge” (2) use a word or phrase that indicates the beginning of a new section. Alternate translation: “Next, I urge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

45

1CO

1

10

u1u1

figs-infostructure

παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

1

In this sentence, the words I urge you are located far from what Paul is urging. If it would be clearer in your language, you could move I urge you so that it comes right before that you all speak. Alternate translation: “Now brothers, through the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, I urge you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

46

1CO

1

10

k7gw

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

47

1CO

1

10

sw54

figs-metonymy

διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

through the name of our Lord Jesus Christ

Here Paul uses the name of Jesus to refer to the authority of Jesus. With this language, he reminds the Corinthians that he is an apostle with authority from Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of name with a comparable figure of speech or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “on behalf of our Lord Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

48

1CO

1

10

u4y2

figs-idiom

τὸ αὐτὸ λέγητε πάντες

1

that you all agree

In this language, to speak the same {thing} is an idiom that means that everyone is in agreement, not only in what they speak but also in what they believe and set as goals. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “you all see eye to eye” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

49

1CO

1

10

j75c

translate-unknown

σχίσματα

1

that there be no divisions among you

Here, divisions refers to when one group splits into multiple different groups because they have different leaders, beliefs, or opinions. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this word with a comparable noun or a short phrase that makes this clear. Alternate translation: “opposing parties” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

50

1CO

1

10

tjkg

translate-unknown

κατηρτισμένοι

1

Here, joined together refers to putting something into its proper position or state, often returning it to that state. Here, then, it refers to restoring the community to the unity it had and is supposed to have. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this word with a short phrase. Alternate translation: “restored to your previous unity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

51

1CO

1

10

emt2

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ νοῒ καὶ ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ γνώμῃ

1

be joined together with the same mind and by the same purpose

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind mind and purpose, you can express the ideas by using verbs such as “think” and “decide” or “choose.” Alternate translation: “by thinking the same things and by choosing the same things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

52

1CO

1

11

dtsp

grammar-connect-logic-result

γάρ

1

Here, For introduces the reason why Paul is urging them to become united together. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express for with a short phrase to express the idea. Alternate translation: “I speak this way because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

53

1CO

1

11

tayn

figs-activepassive

ἐδηλώθη…μοι περὶ ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί μου, ὑπὸ τῶν Χλόης

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what was made clear rather than the people making it clear. Alternate translation: “those of Chloe have made it clear to me concerning you, my brothers,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

54

1CO

1

11

ur84

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί μου

1

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to both men or women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “my brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

55

1CO

1

11

e8jb

figs-explicit

τῶν Χλόης

1

Chloe’s people

Here, {those} of Chloe refers to people who are connected to Chloe and probably live in her house or work for her. Paul does not tell us whether they are family members, slaves, or employees. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a word or phrase that indicates that these people are related to or dependent on Chloe. Alternate translation: “people connected to Chloe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

56

1CO

1

11

fd71

translate-names

Χλόης

1

Chloe is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

57

1CO

1

11

vbe6

translate-unknown

ἔριδες ἐν ὑμῖν εἰσιν

1

there are factions among you

Here, factions refers to quarrels or strife among groups within a community. These quarrels or fights are not physical but verbal. If possible, use a word that refers to verbal conflict or express the idea with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “you have verbal fights with each other” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

58

1CO

1

12

umbx

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, Now introduces a further explanation of what Paul started talking about in 1:11. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave the word untranslated or use a word that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

59

1CO

1

12

tsn6

figs-idiom

λέγω…τοῦτο,

1

Here Paul uses the phrase I say this to explain what he meant in the previous verse when he mentioned “factions” (1:11). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a comparable idiom for explaining what has already been said or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “what I mean is this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

60

1CO

1

12

a4lo

figs-explicitinfo

τοῦτο, ὅτι

1

Having both this and that in this sentence may be redundant in your language. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a simpler way to introduce what Paul wants to say. Alternate translation: “that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

61

1CO

1

12

wf0n

figs-hyperbole

ἕκαστος ὑμῶν λέγει

1

Here Paul uses each of you to emphasize that many individuals within the Corinthian congregation are saying these kinds of things. He does not mean that each person says all four of these things. He also does not mean that every single person in the church is making these kinds of claims. Finally, he does not mean that these are the only four claims that they are making. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the form that Paul uses with an expression that singles out many individuals within a group, and you could add a phrase that indicates that these are examples of what they are saying. Alternate translation: “people in your group are saying things like” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

62

1CO

1

12

vpym

translate-names

Παύλου…Ἀπολλῶ…Κηφᾶ

1

Paul, Apollos, and Cephas are the names of three men. Cephas is another name for Peter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

63

1CO

1

12

bfd0

figs-quotations

ἐγὼ μέν εἰμι Παύλου, ἐγὼ δὲ Ἀπολλῶ, ἐγὼ δὲ Κηφᾶ, ἐγὼ δὲ Χριστοῦ

1

If you cannot use this quotation form in your language, you could translate these statements as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “that you are of Paul, or you are of Apollos, or you are of Cephas, or you are of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

64

1CO

1

12

a57r

figs-possession

ἐγὼ μέν εἰμι Παύλου, ἐγὼ δὲ Ἀπολλῶ, ἐγὼ δὲ Κηφᾶ, ἐγὼ δὲ Χριστοῦ

1

Each one of you says

Here Paul uses the possessive form to indicate that these people claim to be part of a specific leader’s group. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with a word such as “belong” or “follow.” Alternate translation: “‘I follow Paul,’ or ‘I follow Apollos,’ or ‘I follow Cephas,’ or ‘I follow Christ.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

65

1CO

1

13

iam2

figs-123person

μὴ Παῦλος ἐσταυρώθη ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, ἢ εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Παύλου ἐβαπτίσθητε

1

In this verse, Paul speaks of himself in the third person. This could sound like he is speaking about a different Paul than himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this use of Paul by clarifying that Paul is naming himself. Alternate translation: “I, Paul, was not crucified for you, was I? Or were you baptized in my name, Paul?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

66

1CO

1

13

wf6r

figs-rquestion

μεμέρισται ὁ Χριστός?

1

Is Christ divided?

Paul asks if Christ has been divided, but he is not really asking for information. Rather, the question assumes that the answer is “no,” and Paul uses a question to invite the Corinthians to think about how absurd their behavior is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this question with a strong negative statement. Alternate translation: “Christ has certainly not been divided!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

67

1CO

1

13

w175

figs-activepassive

μεμέρισται ὁ Χριστός?

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are divided rather than whoever does the “dividing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “Have they divided Christ?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

68

1CO

1

13

aw2r

figs-metaphor

μεμέρισται ὁ Χριστός

1

Here Paul speaks as if Christ could be divided into pieces and given to different groups. He speaks this way because he identifies the church with the body of Christ. If the church is divided into groups, then the body of Christ has been divided up as well. However, it is absurd to think that Christ’s body has been cut up into pieces, so it is also absurd to divide the church into pieces. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this connection more explicit. Alternate translation: “Has Christ’s own body been divided, just as your church has been divided?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

69

1CO

1

13

g5qh

figs-rquestion

μὴ Παῦλος ἐσταυρώθη ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν

1

Was Paul crucified for you?

Paul asks if Paul was not crucified, but he is not really asking for information. Rather, the question assumes that the answer is “no,” and Paul uses a question to invite the Corinthians to think about how absurd their thinking is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negative statement. Alternate translation: “Paul was certainly not crucified for you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

70

1CO

1

13

lqsy

figs-activepassive

μὴ Παῦλος ἐσταυρώθη ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the one who is crucified rather than whoever does the “crucifying.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “They did not crucify Paul for you, did they?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

71

1CO

1

13

tb2i

figs-rquestion

ἢ εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Παύλου ἐβαπτίσθητε?

1

Were you baptized in the name of Paul?

Paul asks if they were baptized in the name of Paul, but he is not really asking for information. Rather, the question assumes that the answer is “no,” and Paul uses a question to invite the Corinthians to think about how absurd their thinking is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negative statement. Alternate translation: “You were certainly not baptized in the name of Paul!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

72

1CO

1

13

tii7

figs-activepassive

ἢ εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Παύλου ἐβαπτίσθητε?

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are baptized rather than whoever does the “baptizing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “Or did they baptize you in the name of Paul?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

73

1CO

1

13

zi1y

figs-metonymy

εἰς τὸ ὄνομα Παύλου

1

in the name of Paul

Here Paul uses the word name to refer to authority. What he means is that, when they were baptized, no one used the name of Paul, and therefore they do not belong to his group. Instead, he implicitly asserts that they belong to God, whose name would have been used when they were baptized. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this word by using the word “authority” or by a phrase that includes the language of “belonging.” Alternate translation: “under the authority of Paul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

74

1CO

1

14

hhh8

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐδένα ὑμῶν ἐβάπτισα, εἰ μὴ

1

none of you, except

If it would appear in your language that Paul is making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword the sentence to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “I baptized only two of you:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

75

1CO

1

14

vqq6

translate-names

Κρίσπον…Γάϊον

1

Crispus

Crispus and Gaius are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

76

1CO

1

15

hv3m

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

This was so that no one would say that you were baptized into my name

Here, so that introduces a purpose or result. In this case, it introduces what results from Paul not baptizing many of the Corinthians. Because he did not baptize almost any of them, they cannot say that they were baptized into his name. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word that indicates result, and you could specify that it is the result of Paul not baptizing many of them. Alternate translation, as a new sentence: “The result is that” or “Therefore,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

77

1CO

1

15

dwdv

figs-activepassive

εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα ἐβαπτίσθητε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are baptized rather than whoever does the “baptizing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “someone baptized you into my name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

78

1CO

1

15

u8f6

figs-metonymy

εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα

1

Here, just as in 1:13, Paul uses the word name to refer to authority. What he means is that, when they were baptized, no one used Paul’s name, and therefore they do not belong to his group. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this word by using the word “authority” or by a phrase that includes the language of “belonging.” Alternate translation: “under my authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

79

1CO

1

16

mq74

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, Now interrupts the argument and reintroduces the theme of 1:14, which is about whom Paul baptized. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this transition by using punctuation that indicates a brief aside or parenthesis, or you could use a phrase that introduces when someone remembers something. Alternate translation: “Speaking of baptizing, I remember that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

80

1CO

1

16

ed59

translate-names

Στεφανᾶ

1

the household of Stephanas

Stephanas is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

81

1CO

1

16

nlzn

translate-unknown

οὐκ οἶδα εἴ τινα ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα

1

This statement expresses more or less confidence about how many people Paul baptized. It could mean that Paul is: (1) relatively confident that he has thought of everyone he baptized. Alternate translation: “I think that this is everyone that I baptized” (2) less confident that he has thought of everyone he baptized. Alternate translation: “I do not remember if I baptized any others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

82

1CO

1

16

qbjf

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ

1

Paul here uses the condition introduced by if because he wishes to acknowledge that he thinks he has mentioned everyone that he baptized, but he is not sure. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word with a word that expresses uncertainty. Alternate translation: “whether” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

83

1CO

1

17

jkfj

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces an explanation for why Paul has baptized so few people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word that introduces an explanation, and you could clarify that it explains how little he baptizes. Alternate translation: “I only baptized a few people, because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

84

1CO

1

17

ga5k

figs-infostructure

οὐ…ἀπέστειλέν με Χριστὸς βαπτίζειν, ἀλλὰ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι

1

If your language would not naturally put the negative statement before the positive statement, you could reverse them and introduce not with wise speech by repeating proclaim. Alternate translation: “Christ sent me to proclaim the gospel, not to baptize. I proclaim the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

85

1CO

1

17

tg7i

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι

1

Christ did not send me to baptize

In this clause, Paul has omitted some words that might be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If you do need these words in your language, you could repeat the “sending” language. Alternate translation: “but he sent me to proclaim the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

86

1CO

1

17

p3cf

figs-ellipsis

οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ λόγου

1

In this clause, Paul has omitted some words that might be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If you do need these words in your language, you could repeat the “proclaiming” language. Alternate translation: “I do not proclaim it with wise speech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

87

1CO

1

17

u60s

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

Here, so that introduces the purpose for which Paul does not use “wise speech.” Here, you could use a word or phrase that normally indicates purpose. Alternate translation: “in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

88

1CO

1

17

zn1n

figs-metaphor

μὴ κενωθῇ ὁ σταυρὸς τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

clever speech … the cross of Christ should not be emptied of its power

Here Paul speaks as if the cross of Christ were a container that was full of power and which he does not wish to empty of that power. By this, he means that he does not want to take away the power that the cross and the message about it have. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly, including the idea of power. Alternate translation: “the cross of Christ would not lose its power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

89

1CO

1

17

qdyj

figs-activepassive

μὴ κενωθῇ ὁ σταυρὸς τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the cross that could be emptied rather than the person doing the “emptying.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that he himself would do it. Alternate translation: “I would not empty the cross of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

90

1CO

1

18

j7cw

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Connecting Statement:

Here, For introduces an explanation of the last part of 1:17. In this verse, then, Paul explains further why he does not use wise speech. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with words that introduce an explanation, and you could briefly restate what Paul is explaining. Alternate translation: “I speak in this way because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

91

1CO

1

18

fq4x

figs-possession

ὁ λόγος…ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ

1

the message about the cross

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak about a word or a teaching that is about the cross. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that the cross is the content of the word. Alternate translation: “the word about the cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

92

1CO

1

18

utr3

figs-metonymy

τοῦ σταυροῦ

1

Here, the word cross stands for the event in which Jesus died on the cross. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include Jesus’ death in your translation. Alternate translation: “of Jesus’s death on the cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

93

1CO

1

18

p4wb

figs-abstractnouns

μωρία ἐστίν

1

is foolishness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind foolishness, you could express the idea by using an adjective such as “foolish.” Alternate translation: “seems foolish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

94

1CO

1

18

lq5z

figs-activepassive

τοῖς…ἀπολλυμένοις

1

to those who are dying

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the ones perishing rather than focusing on the person who makes them “perish.” If you must state who does the action, Paul could imply that: (1) they cause or experience the action. Alternate translation: “to those who will experience destruction” (2) God does the action. Alternate translation: “to those whom God will destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

95

1CO

1

18

ao4m

figs-activepassive

τοῖς δὲ σῳζομένοις ἡμῖν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the ones being saved rather than the person doing the “saving.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “but to us whom God is saving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

96

1CO

1

18

m66w

figs-distinguish

τοῖς δὲ σῳζομένοις ἡμῖν

1

The description the ones being saved distinguishes us from everyone else. It is not just adding information. Use a form in your language that shows that this is a distinguishing phrase. Alternate translation: “but to us, that is, the ones who are being saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

97

1CO

1

18

ji74

figs-possession

δύναμις Θεοῦ ἐστιν

1

it is the power of God

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe power that comes from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that God is the source of the power. Alternate translation: “power from God” or “God working in power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

98

1CO

1

19

fdhk

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γάρ

1

Here, For introduces Paul’s evidence that what he said in 1:18 is true. You could use a word that introduces evidence for a claim or leave the word untranslated. Alternate translation: “As” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

99

1CO

1

19

wx5x

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the scripture or scripture author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “Isaiah has written” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God has said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

100

1CO

1

19

tzmj

writing-quotations

γέγραπται γάρ

1

In Paul’s culture, For it is written was a normal way to introduce a quotation from an important text. In this case, the quotation comes from Isaiah 29:14. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express how Paul introduces the quotation with a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “For it can be read in Isaiah” or “For it says in the book of Isaiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

101

1CO

1

19

tc6n

figs-quotations

ἀπολῶ τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν, καὶ τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν ἀθετήσω

1

I will frustrate the understanding of the intelligent

If you cannot use this form in your language, you could translate this direct quote as an indirect quote, specifying that God is the subject and including an introductory word such as “that.” Alternate translation: “that God will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and he will frustrate the understanding of the intelligent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

102

1CO

1

19

kzb0

figs-possession

τὴν σοφίαν τῶν σοφῶν…τὴν σύνεσιν τῶν συνετῶν

1

In both of these clauses, Paul uses the possessive form to describe wisdom or understanding that belongs to the wise or the intelligent. If it would be helpful in your language, you could indicate that wisdom and understanding belong to the wise or the intelligent. Alternate translation: “the wisdom that the wise have … the understanding that the intelligent have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

103

1CO

1

19

gft6

figs-nominaladj

τῶν σοφῶν…τῶν συνετῶν

1

Paul is using the adjectives wise and intelligent as nouns in order to describe groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate these with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “of the people who are wise … of the people who are intelligent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

104

1CO

1

19

pa5n

translate-unknown

τῶν συνετῶν

1

Here, intelligent describes someone who is good at figuring out problems, understanding new ideas, and making smart decisions. Use a word in your language that gets this general idea across. Alternate translation: “of the smart” or “of the clever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

105

1CO

1

20

m6tf

figs-rquestion

ποῦ σοφός? ποῦ γραμματεύς? ποῦ συνζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου?

1

Where is the wise person? Where is the scholar? Where is the debater of this world?

With these questions, Paul is not actually asking about the location of certain people. Rather, he is suggesting to the Corinthians that these kinds of people cannot be found. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind these questions with statements that: (1) assert that these people do not actually have real wisdom, knowledge, or skill. Alternate translation: “The wise person does not really have wisdom. The scholar does not really know much. The debater of this age is not really good at arguing” (2) assert that these people do not exist. Alternate translation: “There is no wise person. There is no scholar. There is no debater of this age” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

106

1CO

1

20

h0qa

figs-genericnoun

σοφός…γραμματεύς…συνζητητὴς

1

Paul uses these singular nouns to identify types of people, but he does not mean just one wise person, scholar, or debater. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a form that identifies a type of person, or you could translate these nouns in plural form. Alternate translation: “the kind of person who has wisdom … the kind of person who is a scholar … the kind of person who is a debater” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

107

1CO

1

20

mzxx

figs-possession

συνζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a debater who is part of this age. In fact, Paul may mean that the wise person and the scholar also belong to this age. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “the debater, who belongs in this age” or “the debater? All these kinds of people belong to this age” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

108

1CO

1

20

u5j5

translate-unknown

συνζητητὴς

1

the debater

Here, debater refers to a person who spends much of their time arguing about beliefs, values, or actions. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word with a short phrase or a term that expresses this idea better. Alternate translation: “the disputant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

109

1CO

1

20

a7zl

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ ἐμώρανεν ὁ Θεὸς τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ κόσμου?

1

Has not God turned the wisdom of the world into foolishness?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a statement. Alternate translation: “ God has turned the wisdom of the world into foolishness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

110

1CO

1

20

y5wx

figs-possession

τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ κόσμου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe wisdom that seems wise according to the standard of this world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “the wisdom that this world values” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

111

1CO

1

21

cihg

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces an explanation of how God has turned the wisdom of the world into foolishness (1:20). You could use a word that introduces an explanation in your language or a short phrase that identifies that this verse explains the previous verse. Alternate translation: “That is,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

112

1CO

1

21

eauj

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἐπειδὴ…οὐκ ἔγνω ὁ κόσμος διὰ τῆς σοφίας τὸν Θεόν, εὐδόκησεν ὁ Θεὸς

1

Here, since introduces the reason for the second half of the verse, which , begins with God was pleased. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make this more explicit or break the two pieces into two sentences and use a transition word that indicates result. Alternate translation: “because … the world did not know God through wisdom, therefore God was pleased” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

113

1CO

1

21

tnez

figs-possession

ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak of wisdom that God uses when he makes decisions or acts. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by adding “plans” or “thinking” and translating wisdom with an adjective such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “in God’s wise plan” or ”in God’s wise thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

114

1CO

1

21

odyk

figs-synecdoche

ὁ κόσμος

1

Here Paul uses the world to refer to the humans that are part of the the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word by translating the world with a word or phrase that refers to people who do not believe in Christ, or you could use a phrase like “people of the world.” Alternate translation: “the people of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

115

1CO

1

21

d7xw

figs-possession

τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος

1

those who believe

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak of preaching that is characterized by foolishness. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by translating foolishness as an adjective describing the preaching or the content of the preaching. Alternate translation: “the foolish preaching” or “the foolish message that we preach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

116

1CO

1

21

lkk1

figs-irony

τῆς μωρίας

1

Paul describes the preaching as foolishness. He does not actually think his message is foolish. Instead, he speaks from the perspective of the world and its wisdom, because the message is foolish to the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this way of speaking with an expression that indicates that Paul is using irony or speaking from another person’s perspective. Alternate translation: “the so-called foolishness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

117

1CO

1

22

j8nh

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ἐπειδὴ καὶ Ἰουδαῖοι

1

Here, For sets up the contrast between this verse and what Paul says in the next verse. If your language has a way to begin a contrast, you could use it here. Otherwise, you could leave the word untranslated. Alternate translation: “It is indeed true that Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

118

1CO

1

22

e1sy

figs-hyperbole

Ἰουδαῖοι…Ἕλληνες

1

By using the words translated Jews and Greeks, Paul is not saying that every single Jewish and Greek person does these things. Instead, he is generalizing, identifying common patterns among people who are Jewish and Greek. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that not all Jews and Greeks are meant. Alternate translation: “most Jews … most Greeks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

119

1CO

1

22

t32r

translate-unknown

Ἕλληνες

1

Here, Greeks does not refer only to people who are ethnically Greek. However, it also does not refer to everyone who is not a Jew. Rather, it refers to people who speak the Greek language and who value the philosophy and education that are part of Greek culture. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word with a word or phrase that identifies these people by their interests and values more than by their ethnicity. Alternate translation: “people who value Greek philosophy” or “people who had a Greek education” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

120

1CO

1

23

q8sj

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Here Paul uses But to continue the contrast he set up in 1:22. Jews seek signs, and Greeks seek wisdom, but Paul and those like him proclaim that the Messiah was crucified. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that indicates a strong contrast between behavior or beliefs. Alternate translation: “In contrast with them,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

121

1CO

1

23

v9fa

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

1

General Information:

Here, we refers to Paul and others who proclaim the gospel with him. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

122

1CO

1

23

ntu3

figs-activepassive

Χριστὸν ἐσταυρωμένον

1

Christ crucified

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on Christ who was crucified rather than the person doing the “crucifying.” If you must state who does the action, you can express the idea with: (1) Christ as the subject. Alternate translation: “that Christ laid down his life on the cross” (2) an indefinite or vague subject. Alternate translation: “that they crucified Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

123

1CO

1

23

krw3

figs-metaphor

σκάνδαλον

1

a stumbling block

Paul uses stumbling block to indicate that the message about “Christ crucified” causes offense or repulses many Jews. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “a repulsive concept” or “an unacceptable idea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

124

1CO

1

23

n6u2

figs-hyperbole

Ἰουδαίοις…ἔθνεσιν

1

By using the words translated Jews and Gentiles, Paul is not saying that every single Jewish and Gentile person responds to the gospel in these ways. Instead, he is generalizing, identifying common patterns among people who are Jewish and Gentile. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that not all Jews and Gentiles are meant. Alternate translation: “to most Jews … to most Gentiles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

125

1CO

1

24

xgw1

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Here Paul uses But to contrast the called and the “Jews” and “Gentiles” in 1:23. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that contrasts people and their thinking. Alternate translation: “In contrast with them,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

126

1CO

1

24

i7l4

figs-infostructure

αὐτοῖς…τοῖς κλητοῖς, Ἰουδαίοις τε καὶ Ἕλλησιν, Χριστὸν Θεοῦ δύναμιν, καὶ Θεοῦ σοφίαν

1

Paul here puts the people he is talking about first before he makes a statement about them. If this is unnatural in your language, you could: (1) phrase the sentence so that the called is the subject of the whole sentence. Alternate translation: “those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, know that Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God” (2) move to the called to the end of the sentence. Alternate translation: “Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

127

1CO

1

24

h7iw

figs-123person

αὐτοῖς…τοῖς κλητοῖς

1

to those whom God has called

Paul uses the third person to speak about those whom God has called, because he is speaking of the group as a category in comparison with Jews who find the gospel a stumbling block and Gentiles who find the gospel to be foolish. He does not use the third person because he excludes himself or the Corinthians from this category. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with the first person. Alternate translation: “to those of us who are called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

128

1CO

1

24

appp

figs-activepassive

τοῖς κλητοῖς

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “whom God has called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

129

1CO

1

24

pt5x

translate-unknown

Ἕλλησιν

1

Here, Greeks does not refer only to people who are ethnically Greek. However, it also does not refer to everyone who is not a Jew. Rather, it refers to people who speak the Greek language and who value the philosophy and education that are part of Greek culture. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word with a word or phrase that identifies these people by their interests and values more than by their ethnicity. Alternate translation: “people who value Greek philosophy” or “people who had a Greek education” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

130

1CO

1

24

hu1s

figs-metonymy

Χριστὸν

1

Christ as the power and the wisdom of God

Here, the word Christ could refer to: (1) the message about the work of Christ. Alternate translation: “the message about Christ” (2) the work of Christ, especially his death. Alternate translation: “Christ’s work” or “Christ’s death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

131

1CO

1

24

w9vm

figs-possession

Θεοῦ δύναμιν

1

the power … of God

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak of power that comes from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that God is the source of the power. Alternate translation: “power from God” or “God acting powerfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

132

1CO

1

24

p1hu

figs-possession

Θεοῦ σοφίαν

1

the wisdom of God

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak of wisdom that comes from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that God is the source of the wisdom. Alternate translation: “wisdom from God” or “God giving wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

133

1CO

1

25

fst8

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

Here, For introduces the reason why the seemingly foolish message about Christ is power and wisdom (1:24). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word that introduces a reason or a short phrase that connects this verse to the previous verse or verses. Alternate translation: “God works through foolishness because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

134

1CO

1

25

h9hh

figs-irony

τὸ μωρὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ…τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

the foolishness of God is wiser than people, and the weakness of God is stronger than people

Paul describes God as having foolishness and weakness. He does not actually think that God is weak and foolish, but he is speaking of them from the perspective of the world and its wisdom. From the perspective of the world, Paul’s God is indeed foolish and weak. What Paul means to say is that what the world sees as foolishness and weakness is still wiser and stronger than anything that humans have to offer. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this way of speaking with an expression that indicates that Paul is using irony or speaking from another person’s perspective. Alternate translation: “the apparent foolishness of God … the apparent weakness of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

135

1CO

1

25

esc9

figs-gendernotations

τῶν ἀνθρώπων

-1

The words translated men in both places in this verse do not refer just to male people. Rather, Paul means any human of any sex. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate men to refer to both genders or use a gender-neutral word. Alternate translation: “women and men … women and men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

136

1CO

1

25

jydy

figs-possession

τὸ μωρὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ…ἐστίν

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe foolishness that comes from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with a phrase that indicates that God does foolishness. Alternate translation: “the foolish things that God does are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

137

1CO

1

25

uciw

figs-ellipsis

σοφώτερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐστίν

1

Paul does not include all the words that are needed in many languages to make a complete comparison. If you do need these words in your language, you could add whatever is needed to make the comparison complete, such “the wisdom.” Alternate translation: “is wiser than the wisdom of men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

138

1CO

1

25

gnpe

figs-possession

τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe weakness that comes from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by translating this idea with a phrase that indicates that God does weakness. Alternate translation: “the weak things that God does are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

139

1CO

1

25

i7pl

figs-ellipsis

ἰσχυρότερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων

1

Paul does not include all the words that are needed in many languages to make a complete comparison. If you do need these words in your language, you could add whatever is needed to make the comparison complete, such “the strength.” Alternate translation: “stronger than the strength of men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

140

1CO

1

26

je03

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces proof for or examples of what Paul has claimed so far about God choosing to work through foolishness and weakness. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that introduces examples or support. Alternate translation: “For instance,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

141

1CO

1

26

c8sf

figs-synecdoche

τὴν κλῆσιν ὑμῶν

1

Here, calling refers primarily to who the Corinthians were at the time of their calling. It does not primarily refer to God’s act in calling them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could emphasize this aspect in your translation. Alternate translation: “who you were at your calling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

142

1CO

1

26

xq6b

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

Here, brothers does not just refer to men but to people of any sex. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

143

1CO

1

26

w6l1

figs-litotes

οὐ πολλοὶ

-1

Not many of you

Here Paul uses a form that can more easily be stated in inverse form in many languages. If: (1) your language would most naturally put not with the verb instead of many, you could do so here. Alternate translation: “many were not … many were not … and many were not” (2) your language would most naturally use a word that indicates a small number of people here, you could use it without not. Alternate translation: “few … few … and few” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

144

1CO

1

26

unig

writing-pronouns

οὐ πολλοὶ

-1

While Paul does not explicitly state that not many refers to the Corinthians, he is referring to the Corinthians when he says not many. If it would be helpful in your language, you could insert “you.” Alternate translation: “not many of you … not many of you … and not many of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

145

1CO

1

26

camj

figs-infostructure

οὐ πολλοὶ σοφοὶ κατὰ σάρκα, οὐ πολλοὶ δυνατοί, οὐ πολλοὶ εὐγενεῖς

1

Paul here uses the phrase according to {the} flesh to clarify what he means by wise, and also powerful, and also of noble birth, not just wise. If it would be helpful in your language, you could move the phrase according to {the} flesh so that it is clear that it modifies all three of these statements. Alternate translation: “according to the flesh, not many were wise, not many were powerful, and not many were of noble birth (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

146

1CO

1

26

pws2

figs-idiom

κατὰ σάρκα

1

wise according to the flesh

Here Paul uses the phrase according to {the} flesh to refer to human ways of thinking. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase by stating the idiom according to {the} flesh with a phrase that refers to human values or perspectives. Alternate translation: “according to human definitions” or “according to what humans value” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

147

1CO

1

27

qjvd

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλὰ

1

Here Paul uses But to introduce a contrast. He is contrasting God chose the foolish {things} with what a person might expect about how God would treat foolish and weak people like the Corinthians. He is not contrasting how God chose the foolish {things} with the statements in the previous verse about the foolishness and weakness of the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this contrast by clarifying that Paul writes But to contrast this statement with what a person might expect about God. Alternate translation: “Despite what might be expected,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

148

1CO

1

27

qv5l

figs-parallelism

τὰ μωρὰ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελέξατο ὁ Θεός, ἵνα καταισχύνῃ τοὺς σοφούς; καὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελέξατο ὁ Θεός, ἵνα καταισχύνῃ τὰ ἰσχυρά

1

God chose … wise. God chose … strong

Here Paul makes two very similar statements in which foolish goes with weak and wise goes with strong. These two statements are almost synonymous, and Paul repeats himself to emphasize the point. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine the two sentences into one. Alternate translation: “God chose the unimportant things of the world in order that he might shame the important things” or “God chose the foolish and weak things of the world in order that he might shame the wise and strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

149

1CO

1

27

r4ly

figs-possession

τὰ μωρὰ τοῦ κόσμου…τὰ ἀσθενῆ τοῦ κόσμου

1

Paul uses the possessive form twice to clarify that the foolish {things} and weak {things} are only foolish and weak from the perspective of the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with a phrase such as “according to the world.” Alternate translation: “things that are foolish according to the world … things that are weak according to the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

150

1CO

1

27

gdob

figs-synecdoche

τοῦ κόσμου

-1

When Paul uses the world in this context, he is not referring primarily to everything that God has made. Rather, he uses the world to refer to human beings. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the world with an expression that refers to human beings in general. Alternate translation: “of people … of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

151

1CO

1

27

iwho

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

-1

Here, in order that could introduce: (1) the purpose for which God chose the foolish {things} of the world and the weak {things} of the world. Alternate translation: “so that … so that” (2) what happened when God chose the foolish {things} of the world and the weak {things} of the world. Alternate translation: “with the result that … with the result that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

152

1CO

1

27

vtzx

figs-nominaladj

τοὺς σοφούς…τὰ ἰσχυρά

1

Paul uses the adjective wise to describe a group of people, and he uses the adjective strong to describe a group of people and things. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate these two adjectives with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “people who are wise … people and things which are strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

153

1CO

1

28

tqxg

figs-parallelism

τοῦ κόσμου…ἐξελέξατο ὁ Θεός,…ἵνα

1

In this verse, Paul repeats many of the words from the parallel parts of the previous verse. He does this because, in his culture, repeating the same idea with different examples was more convincing than using just one example. If possible, translate these words the same way that you translated them in 1:27. You could remove or change some of the words if it makes the sentence sound more convincing. Alternate translation: “he chose … of the world … in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

154

1CO

1

28

k3kd

translate-unknown

τὰ ἀγενῆ

1

what is low and despised

Here, base {things} is the opposite of the word translated “of noble birth” in 1:26. Paul uses it to refer to things and people that were not considered important or powerful in his culture. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express base {things} with a word or phrase that refers to people and things that have low status or low importance. Alternate translation: “the marginalized things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

155

1CO

1

28

d5pa

translate-unknown

τὰ ἐξουθενημένα

1

While base {things} refers to a person’s status or a thing’s status, the word translated despised {things} refers to how people treat other people or things that have low status. Usually, people badly treat others whom they consider to be of lower status, ignoring them or mocking them. That is what Paul means when he says despised. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express despised {things} with a word or phrase that refers to how people mistreat others of lower status. Alternate translation: “the scorned things” or “the things people treat with contempt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

156

1CO

1

28

wir6

figs-possession

τὰ ἀγενῆ τοῦ κόσμου καὶ τὰ ἐξουθενημένα

1

Here Paul uses of the world to describe both the base {things} and the despised {things}. As in 1:27, he uses the possessive form to clarify that base {things} and the despised {things} are only base and despised from the perspective of the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind of the worldwith a phrase such as “according to the world.” Alternate translation: “the base things and the despised things according to the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

157

1CO

1

28

unyl

figs-synecdoche

τοῦ κόσμου

1

When Paul uses the world in this context, he is not referring primarily to everything that God has made. Rather, he uses the world to refer to human beings. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the world with an expression that refers to human beings in general. Alternate translation: “of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

158

1CO

1

28

gj19

figs-hyperbole

τὰ μὴ ὄντα

1

nothing, to bring to nothing things that are held as valuable

Here Paul further describes the base {things} and the despised {things} as if they were {things that} are not. He does not mean that the base and despised {things} do not exist. Instead, he is identifying how people often ignore the base and despised {things}, just as if they did not exist at all. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things that} are not with a comparable phrase or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the things that people ignore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

159

1CO

1

28

f11p

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

things that are held as valuable

Here, in order that could introduce: (1) the purpose for which God chose the base things and the despised things of the world, the things that are not. Alternate translation: “so that” (2) what happened when God chose the base things and the despised things of the world, the things that are not. Alternate translation: “with the result that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

160

1CO

1

28

f9s5

translate-unknown

καταργήσῃ

1

Here, he might bring to nothing refers to making something ineffective, useless, or irrelevant. What Paul means is that God has made the things that are unimportant and without function because he instead worked through the things that are not. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express bring to nothing with a word or phrase that indicates that a person has acted so that something else is no longer important, useful, or effective. Alternate translation: “he might tear down” or “render ineffective” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

161

1CO

1

28

etjg

figs-idiom

τὰ ὄντα

1

In this context, the {things that} are does not refer primarily to things that exist. Rather, it refers primarily to things that are important in society and culture. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things that} are with a comparable phrase that refers to important or significant things and people in your culture. Alternate translation: “the things that people care about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

162

1CO

1

29

unr6

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ὅπως

1

Here, so that introduces a final goal. In 1:28–29, Paul uses “in order that” to introduce immediate goals, but here, so that is the overall goal. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express so that with a word or phrase that introduces a final or overall goal, making sure to distinguish it from the words you used in 1:28–29, if possible. Alternate translation: “so that, in the end,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

163

1CO

1

29

q4gh

figs-idiom

μὴ…πᾶσα σὰρξ

1

Paul uses the word flesh to refer to humans. Unlike in many other places in his letters, flesh does not indicate sinful and weak humanity. Instead, it simply refers to humans compared to their creator, God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express flesh with a word or phrase that commonly refers to people in general, especially if it includes the idea that people are created by God. Alternate translation: “no creature” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

164

1CO

1

29

fdv5

figs-metaphor

ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul speaks of people not boasting before God, as if they were standing in front of God. With this way of talking, Paul means that people are acting as if they could see God and God could see them. This means that they recognize that God knows what they say and do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable phrase that indicates that someone recognizes that God knows what they are doing and thinking. Alternate translation: “when they know that God sees them” or “while God looks on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

165

1CO

1

30

yk4y

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, But introduces a slight contrast between people who might boast and the Corinthians who are united to Christ. However, But primarily means that Paul is moving to the next step in his argument. If But would not express this idea in your language, you could use a word that indicates that the author is moving on to the next step, or you could leave it untranslated. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

166

1CO

1

30

fmr3

figs-activepassive

ἐξ αὐτοῦ…ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

because of him

While because of him, you are in Christ Jesus is not written the way most passive sentences are, this construction is like a passive sentence and may be difficult to represent in your language. What because of him means is that God is the source of how the Corinthians are in Christ Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could rephrase these words so that “God” is the subject who makes it so that you are in Christ Jesus. Alternate translation: “he puts you in Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

167

1CO

1

30

alyj

writing-pronouns

αὐτοῦ

1

Here, of him refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to whom him refers with the name “God” here. Alternate translation: “of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

168

1CO

1

30

a986

figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ Jesus to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ Jesus, or united to Christ Jesus, explains how Christ Jesus can be wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption for the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “in union with Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

169

1CO

1

30

f1at

figs-metaphor

ὃς ἐγενήθη σοφία ἡμῖν ἀπὸ Θεοῦ, δικαιοσύνη τε, καὶ ἁγιασμὸς, καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις;

1

Christ Jesus, who was made for us wisdom from God

Here Paul uses language and structure that is very similar to what he used in 1:24. Refer back to that verse to help you translate this verse. When Paul says that Jesus was made for us wisdom and righteousness, and also sanctification and redemption, he does not mean that Jesus has become these abstract ideas. Instead, he means that Jesus is the source of wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption for us who are in Christ Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some clarifying words such as “the source of.” Alternate translation: “who was made for us the source of wisdom from God, the source of righteousness, and also the source of sanctification and redemption” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

170

1CO

1

30

lxpy

figs-activepassive

ὃς ἐγενήθη σοφία ἡμῖν ἀπὸ Θεοῦ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on Christ Jesus, who was made for us wisdom, rather than focusing on the person “making” him wisdom. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “whom God made for us wisdom from himself” or “whom God made to be wisdom for us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

171

1CO

1

30

yyns

writing-pronouns

ὃς

1

Here, who refers to Christ Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use the name of Christ Jesus instead of using who or along with who. Alternate translation: “the Christ who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

172

1CO

1

30

g5um

figs-abstractnouns

σοφία…ἀπὸ Θεοῦ, δικαιοσύνη τε, καὶ ἁγιασμὸς, καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption, you can express the ideas by using verbs with God as the subject. Alternate translation: “a person through whom God taught us, judged us not guilty, and also set us apart for himself and set us free” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

173

1CO

1

31

dm5h

grammar-connect-logic-result

ἵνα

1

Here, so that could introduce: (1) the result of everything he has said about God being the one who chooses and acts. If you use one of the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “Because of all this” or “Therefore” (2) the purpose for which God chose the weak and foolish. Alternate translation: “in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

174

1CO

1

31

gtv0

figs-ellipsis

ἵνα καθὼς γέγραπται

1

Here Paul leaves out some words that might be required in your language to make a complete thought. If your language does need these words, you could supply words such as “we should do.” Alternate translation: “so that we should behave just as it is written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

175

1CO

1

31

paga

figs-infostructure

καθὼς γέγραπται, ὁ καυχώμενος, ἐν Κυρίῳ καυχάσθω

1

If it would be unnatural in your language to put just as it is written before the quotation, you could put just as it is written at the end of the sentence. Alternate translation: “‘Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord,’ just as it is written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

176

1CO

1

31

ebvw

writing-quotations

καθὼς γέγραπται

1

In Paul’s culture, just as it is written is a normal way to introduce a quotation from an important text, in this case, the Old Testament book written by Jeremiah the prophet (see Jeremiah 9:24). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “as it can be read in the Old Testament” or “according to Jeremiah the prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

177

1CO

1

31

pfa7

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the scripture or scripture author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “Jeremiah has written” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God has said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

178

1CO

1

31

fym9

figs-imperative3p

ὁ καυχώμενος, ἐν Κυρίῳ καυχάσθω

1

Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could: (1) translate this one as a conditional sentence, adding “if.” Alternate translation: “If people want to boast, they should boast in the Lord” (2) translate this one using a word such as “should.” Alternate translation: “Anyone who boasts should boast in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

179

1CO

1

31

mo0q

figs-idiom

ἐν Κυρίῳ καυχάσθω

1

When Paul says that someone can boast in {the} Lord, he does not mean that they are inside {the} Lord. Rather, he means that they are boasting about {the} Lord and what he has done. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express boast in the Lord with a comparable phrase that indicates that someone is boasting about someone else. Alternate translation: “Let … boast with reference to the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

180

1CO

2

intro

k86p

0

1 Corinthians 2 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Against divisions (1:10–4:15)
    • Paul’s attitude among the Corinthians (2:1–5)
    • The wisdom of God, revealed by the Spirit (2:6–16)

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the words of verses 9 and 16, which are from the Old Testament. Verse 9 quotes from Isaiah 64:4, and verse 16 quotes from Isaiah 40.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Wisdom and foolishness

Throughout this chapter, Paul continues to speak of both wisdom and foolishness. Just as in chapter one, these words do not refer primarily to how much or how little education someone has. Rather, they refer to how well or how poorly someone plans actions and knows how the world works. Continue to use the words you chose in chapter one. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/foolish]])

Power and weakness

Throughout this chapter, Paul continues to speak of both power and weakness. Just as in chapter one, these words primarily refer to how much influence and authority a person has and to how much they can accomplish. Someone who has “power” has much influence and authority and can accomplish many things. Someone who has “weakness” does not have much influence and authority and is not able to accomplish many things. Continue to use the words that you chose in chapter one. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/power]])

The Spirit

Paul first mentions the “Spirit” in this chapter. In most places where this word appears, it refers to God’s Spirit (the Holy Spirit), who is the third person of the Trinity. However, in two places in this chapter, the word “spirit” refers to something else. First, “spirit of the world” in 2:12 refers to a “spirit” that is not God’s Spirit and that originates from within the world. Paul says that this kind of “spirit” is not the kind that believers in Jesus have received. Second, the “spirit of a man” in 2:11 refers to the nonphysical part of a person. It does not refer to God’s Spirit or to something that God’s Spirit replaces. Sometimes Paul uses the adjective form “spiritual” (2:13; 2:15) and the adverb form “spiritually” (2:14). Both of these forms also refer to God’s Spirit. If someone or something is “spiritual,” that means that the person or thing has or is characterized by God’s Spirit. If something is done “spiritually,” that means that it is done by the power of God’s Spirit. Once, Paul uses the word “natural” (2:14), which is the opposite of “spiritual.” “Natural” means that the person or thing does not have and is not characterized by God’s Spirit. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyspirit]])

The Mystery

Paul speaks of a “mystery” in 2:1; 2:7. This “mystery” is not some secret truth that is hard to understand and that only a few privileged individuals can learn about. Instead, it refers to God’s plans that once were unknown but are now known to all his people. As Paul has already stated in chapter one, these plans center around the cross, which seems to be foolishness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reveal]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

The deep things of God

In 2:10, Paul says that the Spirit searches “the deep things of God.” Paul talks about God as if he were a well or a lake with parts that are deep down in order to identify things about God that humans cannot understand or find it difficult to understand. He does not mean that God is a being or location with deep parts. See the note on this verse for translation options.

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

The rulers of this age

In 2:6; 2:8, Paul speaks about “the rulers of this age.” This phrase refers to individuals who have power in the created world during the time between Christ’s first and second comings. While Paul does not state whether these individuals with power are humans or spiritual beings, he does say that they were the ones who crucified Jesus (2:8). This suggests that they are humans, and they would be people like governors, emperors, and unfaithful religious leaders. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/ruler]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/age]])

Positive and negative uses of “wisdom”

Just as in chapter one, Paul continues to speak about wisdom in both positive and negative ways. He uses the same words throughout the chapter, and he distinguishes between positive and negative meanings by connecting the words to different people or ideas. For example, he speaks of wisdom negatively when it is the wisdom of the world, or the wisdom of humans. However, he speaks of wisdom positively when it is wisdom from God or wisdom given by God. If possible, translate the negative and positive meanings of wisdom with the same word, just as Paul uses one word for both negative and positive. If you must use different words, use positive words for God’s wisdom and negative words for human wisdom.

First-person singular and plural

Paul uses the first-person singular in 2:1–5 because in these verses he speaks of his own time among the Corinthians. He switches to the first-person plural in 2:6–16 because in these verses he is speaking more generally about everyone who proclaims the Gospel as he does. In 2:6–16, the first-person plural sometimes includes the Corinthians and sometimes does not include the Corinthians. Throughout the chapter, the first-person plural will include the Corinthians unless a note specifies that it does not include them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

181

1CO

2

1

pxmq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

κἀγὼ

1

Here, And I introduces how Paul himself fits into the pattern he introduced in the last chapter. Just as God chooses the weak and the foolish, Paul preaches the gospel in weak and foolish ways. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this connection with a word or phrase that introduces an example or a comparison. Alternate translation: “In the same way, I” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

182

1CO

2

1

qvj7

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to both men or women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

183

1CO

2

1

koh8

figs-explicitinfo

ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς…ἦλθον οὐ

1

Here Paul twice says that he has come to them. This is a structure that makes sense in Paul’s language. However, If it would be helpful in your language, you could: (1) translate the first come with a different word, such as “visit.” Alternate translation: “having visited you, did not come” (2) combine these two phrases. Alternate translation: “did not come to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

184

1CO

2

1

o0vw

grammar-connect-time-background

ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

The phrase having come to you gives background information. It describes what happened before Paul did not come with superiority of speech or of wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection by clarifying by using a word that introduces action that has already occurred. Alternate translation: “after I came to you” or “when I came to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-background]])

185

1CO

2

1

mioj

figs-go

ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς…ἦλθον οὐ

1

Here Paul is speaking about how he had previously visited the Corinthians. Use a form in your language that refers to a past visit. Alternate translation: “after arriving where you live, did not arrive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

186

1CO

2

1

o3ks

figs-possession

ὑπεροχὴν λόγου ἢ σοφίας

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe speech and wisdom that have superiority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this form by translating superiority as an adjective. Alternate translation: “superior speech or superior wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

187

1CO

2

1

ikmt

translate-unknown

ὑπεροχὴν λόγου ἢ σοφίας

1

Here, superiority refers to how something or someone has more authority, skill, knowledge, or power than something or someone else. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this word with a comparable word or a short description. Alternate translation: “greatness of speech or of wisdom” or “speech or wisdom that was better than what others have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

188

1CO

2

1

kxie

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

σοφίας, καταγγέλλων ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The phrase proclaiming to you the mystery of God gives the situation in which Paul did not come with superiority of speech or of wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit by including a word that indicates that these things are happening at the same time. Alternate translation: “or wisdom when I proclaimed to you the mystery of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

189

1CO

2

1

nam8

figs-possession

τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a mystery that is: (1) revealed by God. Alternate translation: “the mystery given by God” or “the mystery from God” (2) about God. Alternate translation: “the mystery about God” or “the mystery concerning God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

190

1CO

2

1

xu7t

translate-textvariants

μυστήριον

1

In Paul’s language, mystery and “testimony” look and sound very similar. While some early and important manuscripts have “testimony” here, other early and important manuscripts have mystery. Unless there is a good reason to translate “testimony,” it is best to follow the ULT here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

191

1CO

2

2

a2g9

figs-hyperbole

οὐ…ἔκρινά τι εἰδέναι ἐν ὑμῖν, εἰ μὴ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν

1

I decided to know nothing … except Jesus Christ

Here Paul speaks as if he decides to forget all his knowledge and become ignorant of everything except Jesus Christ. This is an exaggeration that the Corinthians would have understood as emphasis on Paul’s sharp focus on Jesus Christ as the one thing he wished to tell the Corinthians about. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this exaggeration with a phrase that indicates that it is an exaggeration or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “I decided to speak among you only about Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

192

1CO

2

2

nk9r

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐ…ἔκρινά τι εἰδέναι ἐν ὑμῖν, εἰ μὴ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν, καὶ τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον

1

If it would appear in your language that Paul makes a strong statement about knowing nothing and then contradicts it, you could reword this sentence so that there is no except. Alternate translation: “I decided that among you I would only know Jesus Christ and him crucified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

193

1CO

2

2

zvge

figs-activepassive

τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on Jesus Christ who was crucified rather than the person doing the “crucifying.” If you must state who does the action, you can express the idea with: (1) Christ as the subject. Alternate translation: “how he laid down his life on the cross” (2) an indefinite or vague subject. Alternate translation: “how they crucified him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

194

1CO

2

3

xen3

grammar-connect-words-phrases

κἀγὼ

1

Here, And I is the same word Paul used to introduce 2:1. It again introduces how Paul himself fits into the pattern he introduced in the last chapter. Just as God chooses the weak and the foolish, Paul himself was weak and foolish. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this connection with a word or phrase that introduces an example or a comparison. Alternate translation: “Just as I did not use superior words and wisdom, I myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

195

1CO

2

3

s9lp

κἀγὼ…ἐγενόμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

I was with you

Alternate translation: “And I remained with you”

196

1CO

2

3

e8li

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ, καὶ ἐν φόβῳ, καὶ ἐν τρόμῳ πολλῷ,

1

in weakness

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind weakness, fear, and trembling, you can express the ideas by using adjectives or verbs. Alternate translation: “as a weak, fearful, and frequently trembling person” or “while I ailed, feared, and often trembled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

197

1CO

2

4

lewv

figs-ellipsis

ὁ λόγος μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμά μου, οὐκ ἐν πειθοῖς σοφίας λόγοις

1

Here Paul does not use the verb {were} in his sentence. In English, this word is essential, so it has been included in the ULT. If you can translate this sentence without {were}, you could do so here. Otherwise, you could retain {were} as it appears in the ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

198

1CO

2

4

g5my

figs-abstractnouns

ὁ λόγος μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμά μου, οὐκ

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind word and proclamation, you can express the ideas by using verbs such as “speak” or “talk” and “proclaim.” Alternate translation: “I spoke and proclaimed a message not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

199

1CO

2

4

m23e

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν πειθοῖς σοφίας λόγοις

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind words and wisdom, you can express the ideas by using a verb such as “speak” or “talk” and an adverb such as “wisely.” Alternate translation: “based on speaking persuasively and wisely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

200

1CO

2

4

hl7e

figs-possession

πειθοῖς σοφίας λόγοις

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to identify the words as containing wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by translating wisdom with an adjective such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “wise, persuasive words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

201

1CO

2

4

chtx

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλ’ ἐν ἀποδείξει Πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως;

1

Here Paul has omitted some words that may be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If your language needs these words, you could add them here, supplying the idea from earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “but my word and my proclamation were with a demonstration of the Spirit and of power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

202

1CO

2

4

kgnb

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἀποδείξει Πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind demonstration and power, you can express the ideas by using a verb such as “demonstrate” or “show” and an adverb such as “powerfully.” Alternate translation: “based on demonstrating the Spirit and how he works powerfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

203

1CO

2

4

qrfj

figs-possession

ἀποδείξει Πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a demonstration that: (1) comes from {the} Spirit and power. Alternate translation: “a demonstration by the Spirit and by power” (2) proves that the Spirit and power are present. Alternate translation: “a demonstration of the presence of the Spirit and of power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

204

1CO

2

4

s83h

translate-unknown

ἀποδείξει

1

Here, demonstration refers to proving or showing that something is true. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this word with a comparable expression. Alternate translation: “a validation” or “a confirmation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

205

1CO

2

4

s6h6

figs-hendiadys

Πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως

1

This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with and. The word Spirit tells who is acting in power. If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase that does not use and. Alternate translation: “of the Spirit’s power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

206

1CO

2

5

av3t

figs-idiom

ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν, μὴ ᾖ ἐν σοφίᾳ ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλ’ ἐν δυνάμει Θεοῦ

1

Here, when someone has faith that is in something, the word in signals what the faith is based on. Unlike in many other cases, in does not introduce what it is that people trust. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase by translating in with a word or phrase that indicates the basis of the faith. Alternate translation: “your faith might not be based on the wisdom of men but be based on the power of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

207

1CO

2

5

ovoj

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν, μὴ ᾖ

1

If you cannot use this form in your language, you could express the idea in active form by translating faith with a verb such as “trust” or “believe.” Alternate translation: “you might believe not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

208

1CO

2

5

rkoy

figs-possession

σοφίᾳ ἀνθρώπων

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe what men think is wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by translating men with an adjective such as “human.” Alternate translation: “in human wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

209

1CO

2

5

cdw7

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων

1

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

210

1CO

2

5

b29d

figs-possession

δυνάμει Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak of power that God has and shows. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this phrase by translating power as a verb or adverb with God as the subject. Alternate translation: “God working powerfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

211

1CO

2

6

azm7

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Now we do speak

Here, Now introduces a contrast with what Paul has said in 2:4–5. In those verses, he said that he did not speak with wisdom. In this verse, however, he clarifies that he does speak with wisdom of a certain kind. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind Nowby using a word that introduces a contrast. Alternate translation: “In spite of this,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

212

1CO

2

6

uena

figs-exclusive

λαλοῦμεν

1

Here, we refers to Paul and others like him who preach the gospel. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

213

1CO

2

6

uka3

figs-abstractnouns

σοφίαν

-1

speak wisdom

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind wisdom, you can express the idea by using by using an adverb such as “wisely” or an adjective such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “wisely … the wise speech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

214

1CO

2

6

eq1q

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς τελείοις

1

the mature

Paul is using the adjective mature as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate mature with a noun phrase or a relative clause. Alternate translation: “those who are mature” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

215

1CO

2

6

tm2e

figs-possession

σοφίαν δὲ, οὐ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, οὐδὲ τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe wisdom that fits with the standards and values of this age and that rulers of this age value. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using verbal phrases. Alternate translation: “but not wisdom that fits with this age nor wisdom that the rulers of this age value” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

216

1CO

2

6

xn85

figs-ellipsis

σοφίαν δὲ, οὐ

1

Here Paul omits some words that may be needed in your language to make this a complete thought. If your language does need these words, you could supply them from earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “but we do not speak wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

217

1CO

2

6

xydl

figs-possession

τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe rulers who are in power during this age. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using language about the time in which the rulers have power or the place in which they have power. Alternate translation: “of the rulers who have power now” or “of the rulers who control this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

218

1CO

2

6

endk

translate-unknown

τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

1

The rulers of this age could refer to: (1) humans who have power. Alternate translation: “of the people who rule this age” (2) spiritual beings that have power. Alternate translation: “of the spiritual powers that rule this age” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

219

1CO

2

6

tbnh

translate-unknown

τῶν καταργουμένων

1

Paul has already used the word translated passing away in 1:28, where it is translated bring to nothing. Here, the word means that the rulers are becoming ineffective, useless, or irrelevant, which means that they will no longer have power. If possible, translate this word like you did in 1:28. Alternate translation: “who are becoming ineffective” or “who are losing their power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

220

1CO

2

7

l064

figs-exclusive

λαλοῦμεν…ἡμῶν

1

Here, we refers to Paul and anyone who preaches the gospel. It does not include the Corinthians. However, the word our does include the Corinthians along with Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

221

1CO

2

7

bsme

figs-possession

Θεοῦ σοφίαν

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe wisdom that God would consider to be true wisdom. This also means that the wisdom comes from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by clarifying that the wisdom comes from God. Alternate translation: “the wisdom from God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

222

1CO

2

7

wy8u

figs-abstractnouns

σοφίαν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind wisdom, you can express the idea by using by using an adverb such as “wisely” or an adjective such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “the wise message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

223

1CO

2

7

xbye

figs-explicitinfo

ἐν μυστηρίῳ τὴν ἀποκεκρυμμένην

1

Here Paul uses both has been hidden and in a mystery. Both of these phrases refer to something that is secret. If using both of these phrases is redundant in your language, you could use only one. Alternate translation: “that has been hidden” or “that is a mystery” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

224

1CO

2

7

fd3s

figs-activepassive

τὴν ἀποκεκρυμμένην

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the wisdom that has been hidden rather than the person doing the “hiding.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “that God has hidden” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

225

1CO

2

7

ctb4

writing-pronouns

ἣν

1

Here, that refers to the wisdom, not a mystery. If it would be helpful in your language, you could repeat wisdom here. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “the wisdom that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

226

1CO

2

7

k2ct

figs-idiom

πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων

1

before the ages

Paul uses the phrase translated before the ages to say that God predestined before he made anything. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “before the beginning of time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

227

1CO

2

7

q2z9

grammar-connect-logic-goal

εἰς δόξαν ἡμῶν

1

for our glory

Here, the phrase translated for our glory introduces the purpose for which God predestined the wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express for our glory with a word or phrase that introduces a purpose. Alternate translation: “so that we might have glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

228

1CO

2

8

bw5i

writing-pronouns

ἣν

1

Just as in 2:7, which refers to “the wisdom,” not to “a mystery.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could repeat “wisdom” here. Alternate translation: “the wisdom that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

229

1CO

2

8

imbk

figs-possession

τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου

1

Just as in 2:6, Paul uses the possessive form to describe rulers who are in power during this age. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using language about the time in which the rulers have power or the place in which they have power. Alternate translation: “of the rulers who have power now” or “of the rulers who control this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

230

1CO

2

8

ur15

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, for introduces Paul’s proof that the rulers did not understand. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this word using a word that customarily introduces proof or evidence. Alternate translation: “which is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

231

1CO

2

8

ji1o

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

εἰ…ἔγνωσαν, οὐκ ἂν τὸν Κύριον τῆς δόξης ἐσταύρωσαν;

1

Here Paul uses if to introduce a scenario that he knows is not true. He wants to point out that the rulers were the ones who crucified Jesus, and this proves that they did not understand God’s wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by reversing the two clauses and making they understood {it} negative and they would not have crucified the Lord of glory positive. Alternate translation: “they crucified the Lord of glory, which means that they did not understand it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

232

1CO

2

8

zc89

figs-possession

τὸν Κύριον τῆς δόξης

1

the Lord of glory

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe the Lord who has glory. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by translating glory with an adjective or a relative clause. Alternate translation: “the Lord, who has glory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

233

1CO

2

9

fu1y

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλὰ

1

Things that no eye … arisen, the things … who love him

Here, But introduces a contrast with the hypothetical statement in 2:8 about how the rulers would not have crucified the Lord if they had understood God’s wisdom. The But reminds the reader that this hypothetical statement is not true, and Paul wishes to introduce further statements about how people do not understand God’s wisdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave But untranslated or use a word or phrase that would signal that Paul is no longer speaking hypothetically. Alternate translation: “But instead,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

234

1CO

2

9

wuar

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται

1

Here Paul has omitted some words that may be necessary in your language to form a complete thought. If necessary, you could supply a summary from 2:8 of what the rulers did not understand and how they acted. Alternate translation: “But the rulers did not understand, just as it is written” or “But the rulers did do these things, just as it is written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

235

1CO

2

9

qcb2

writing-quotations

καθὼς γέγραπται

1

In Paul’s culture, just as it is written is a normal way to introduce a quotation from an important text, in this case, the Old Testament book written by Isaiah the prophet (see Isaiah 64:4). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “as it can be read in the Old Testament” or “according to Isaiah the prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

236

1CO

2

9

w3m2

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the scripture author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “Isaiah has written” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God has said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

237

1CO

2

9

pt3m

figs-infostructure

ἃ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν, καὶ οὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν, καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη, ἃ ἡτοίμασεν ὁ Θεὸς τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν

1

In this quotation, What eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and has not arisen in the heart of man are the {things} God has prepared. If your language would naturally put What eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and has not arisen in the heart of man after God has prepared, you could reverse the order. Alternate translation: “God has prepared for those who love him what eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and has not arisen in the heart of man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

238

1CO

2

9

j9ib

figs-synecdoche

ἃ ὀφθαλμὸς οὐκ εἶδεν, καὶ οὖς οὐκ ἤκουσεν, καὶ ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη

1

Things that no eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has imagined

Here, the words eye, ear, and heart refer to the parts of the person that see, hear, and think. In each case, the word means that the whole person sees, hears, and thinks. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this way of speaking with a word that refers to a person as a whole instead of just a part of that person. Alternate translation: “What a person has not seen, and a person has not heard, and has not arisen when a person thinks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

239

1CO

2

9

xe03

figs-idiom

ἐπὶ καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἀνέβη

1

The phrase heart of man refers to the place where humans think. If something “arises” there, that means that a human has thought about that thing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of arisen in the heart of man with a comparable phrase or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “man has not thought about” or “man has not imagined” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

240

1CO

2

9

pigi

figs-possession

καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a heart that belongs to a man. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by translating man with an adjective such as “human.” Alternate translation: “the human heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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1CO

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9

yw0a

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπου

1

Although man is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express man with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

242

1CO

2

9

us5y

grammar-collectivenouns

ἀνθρώπου

1

Here, even though man is written in singular form, it refers to anyone who would be considered a man, that is, any human. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make man plural. Alternate translation: “of men” or “of humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

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1CO

2

10

z472

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces an explanation of the last line of the quote from 2:9: “these things God has prepared for those who love him.” Paul wants to explain that these are the things that God has revealed to those who believe. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave For untranslated or use a word or phrase that introduces an explanation. Alternate translation: “In fact,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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2

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hp6w

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

2

Here, For introduces an explanation for why God’s revelation is made to us through the Spirit. It is because the Spirit searches everything and knows everything that is revealed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a comparable word or phrase that introduces this kind of explanation. Alternate translation: “He works through the Spirit because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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1CO

2

10

zccl

translate-unknown

ἐραυνᾷ

1

Here, searches refers to how someone can explore or seek to know about something else. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express searches with another word for “exploring” or “knowing.” Alternate translation: “comprehends” or “knows about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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2

10

bhyv

translate-unknown

τὰ βάθη τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

The phrase deep {things} of God refers to things about God that are hard to understand or things about God that no one can fully comprehend. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a comparable expression or state the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “secrets about God” or “things about God that no one knows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

247

1CO

2

11

h4p8

figs-rquestion

τίς γὰρ οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ?

1

For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of the person in him?

Here Paul uses a question because he thinks that everyone will agree with him, for this information is common knowledge in his culture. He does not use a question because he is not sure about the answer. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question by using a form that presents information that everyone knows and agrees with. Alternate translation: “For it is a well-known fact that no one among men knows the things of a man except the spirit of the man that is within him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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2

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gw3u

grammar-connect-exceptions

τίς γὰρ οἶδεν ἀνθρώπων τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, εἰ μὴ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ? οὕτως καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ οὐδεὶς ἔγνωκεν, εἰ μὴ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Θεοῦ.

1

no one knows the deep things of God except the Spirit of God

In both parts of this verse, Paul makes a negative claim and then offers an exception to that claim. If it would appear in your language that Paul is contradicting himself, you could use a different structure that also singles out one possibility and negates all other possibilities. Alternate translation: “For the spirit of the man that is within him is the only one among men that knows the things of a man, right? So also, the Spirit of God is the only one that knows the things of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

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2

11

li8e

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων…ἀνθρώπου…τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ

1

Although the words translated men, man, and him are masculine, Paul is using them to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these masculine words with non gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “among people … of a person … of the person that is within that person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

250

1CO

2

11

lmzi

figs-genericnoun

ἀνθρώπου…τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ

1

Paul uses the word man to speak of people in general, not one specific person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express man with a form that indicates people in general in your language. Alternate translation: “of a certain man … of that certain man that is within him” or “of men … of men that is within them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

251

1CO

2

11

wfr2

figs-idiom

τίς…ἀνθρώπων

1

The phrase who among men is a way of asking about people or things that belong to a specific category. Paul means to ask if there are any men who can know the things of a man. He uses this phrase because God also knows the things of a man, so he must limit his question to only men. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using a phrase that asks about people or things, but only those that belong in a specific category. Alternate translation: “which man” or “out of all men, who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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1CO

2

11

mi27

figs-idiom

τὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου…τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the phrases the {things} of a man and the {things} of God to refer to everything that makes up the person, including personality, thoughts, actions, desires, possessions, and many more similar categories. Paul is intentionally general and does not narrow down which of these categories he has in mind. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with an expression that refers to all the aspects of a person that makes that person unique. Alternate translation: “all the details about a man … all the details about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

253

1CO

2

11

i47d

translate-unknown

τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ

1

spirit of the person

Here, the word translated spirit is the same word that Paul uses for the Holy Spirit. It refers to the interior life of a person, to the part of them that people cannot see, including their thoughts and desires. If possible, use the same word here that you will use later in the verse for the Spirit, since Paul is drawing an analogy between the human spirit and God’s Spirit. If you cannot use the word for God’s Spirit to describe a human being, you could: (1) refer simply to a human without specifying which part of the human knows. Alternate translation: “the man himself” (2) use an expression that refers to the interior life of a human. Alternate translation: “the consciousness of the man that is within him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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1CO

2

11

to3t

figs-idiom

τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τὸ ἐν αὐτῷ

1

In this culture, people would speak of the nonphysical part of a human being as if it were inside the physical part of a human being. Here Paul speaks in this way when he says that the spirit of the man is within him. By using within him, Paul is identifying the spirit as the one that belongs to the man. It is not some other man’s spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate within him by: (1) using a word or phrase that identifies that the spirit belongs to the man only. Alternate translation: “that man’s own spirit” (2) expressing the idea by using a phrase that describes where a human being’s nonphysical part would be in your culture. Alternate translation: “the spirit of the man that permeates him” or “the spirit of the man that suffuses him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

255

1CO

2

12

zbv8

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

General Information:

Here, But introduces the next part of Paul’s argument. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave But untranslated or use a word or phrase that signifies that the argument is moving on. Alternate translation: “Now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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1CO

2

12

evts

figs-infostructure

ἡμεῖς…οὐ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου ἐλάβομεν, ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

If your language would naturally state the negative before the positive, you could reverse the order of the not statement and the but statement. Alternate translation: “we received the Spirit who is from God, not the spirit of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

257

1CO

2

12

emse

translate-unknown

τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου

1

The phrase spirit of the world could refer to: (1) a spirit that does not actually exist. In other words, Paul is saying that the Spirit they received did not come from the world but rather came from God. Alternate translation: “a spirit that comes from the world” (2) human ways of thinking and understanding, which could be called a spirit. In other words, Paul is saying that they did not receive human ways of thinking but rather ways of thinking that God’s Spirit brings. Alternate translation: “human ways of thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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1CO

2

12

ev7j

figs-possession

τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a spirit that comes from or has its source in the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a word or phrase that indicates that the world is the source or origin of this spirit. Alternate translation: “the spirit from the world” or “the spirit that comes from the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

259

1CO

2

12

vw4v

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλὰ τὸ Πνεῦμα

1

Here Paul omits some words that may be needed in your language to make a complete thought. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply some words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “but we received the Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

260

1CO

2

12

w1qd

figs-activepassive

τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could make God the subject of the who statement. Alternate translation: “the Spirit whom God sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

261

1CO

2

12

n1c7

figs-activepassive

τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν

1

freely given to us by God

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the {things} that are given rather than God, who does the “giving.” Alternate translation: “the things that God has freely given to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

262

1CO

2

13

nan2

figs-exclusive

λαλοῦμεν

1

Here, we refers to Paul and others who proclaim the gospel with him. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

263

1CO

2

13

u797

figs-infostructure

οὐκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις, ἀλλ’ ἐν διδακτοῖς Πνεύματος

1

The Spirit interprets spiritual words with spiritual wisdom

If your language would not naturally put the negative statement before the positive statement, you could reverse them, putting words with the positive statement. Alternate translation: “in words taught by the Spirit, not in those taught by human wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

264

1CO

2

13

yg45

figs-activepassive

διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις

1

The Spirit interprets spiritual words with spiritual wisdom

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the words that are taught rather than focusing on the person doing the “teaching.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “humans” or “people” do it. Alternate translation: “words that human wisdom teaches” or “words that humans teach as wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

265

1CO

2

13

ywbw

figs-activepassive

διδακτοῖς Πνεύματος

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the words that are taught rather than the Spirit, who does the “teaching.” Alternate translation: “those that the Spirit teaches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

266

1CO

2

13

gueq

translate-unknown

πνευματικοῖς πνευματικὰ συνκρίνοντες

1

Here, the phrase combining spiritual things with spiritual words could mean: (1) that Paul and those with him interpret spiritual things and ideas with spiritual words. Alternate translation: “interpreting spiritual things with spiritual words” (2) that Paul and those with him explain spiritual things to spiritual people. Alternate translation: “explaining spiritual things to spiritual people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

267

1CO

2

13

kinz

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

συνκρίνοντες

1

Here, combining introduces an action that takes place at the same time as when we speak. The idea is that combining spiritual things with spiritual words is the way that we speak these {things}. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this connection by including a word or phrase that indicates that combining is the way in which we speak. Alternate translation: “by means of combining” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

268

1CO

2

13

mnpq

translate-unknown

συνκρίνοντες

1

Here, combining could mean: (1) interpreting or explaining an idea. Alternate translation: “interpreting” (2) putting two things together, either to compare or blend them together. Alternate translation: “comparing” or “compounding” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

269

1CO

2

14

i8jw

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Here, But introduces a new part of Paul’s argument, and it also introduces a contrast with how Paul and those with him speak by the power of the Spirit in 2:13. Unlike Paul and those with him, the natural person does not have the Spirit and does not use spiritual words. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave But untranslated or use a word that introduces a contrast. Alternate translation: “However,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

270

1CO

2

14

hq3u

translate-unknown

ψυχικὸς…ἄνθρωπος

1

unspiritual person

The phrase {the} natural person describes a person who does not have God’s Spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this phrase by using a word or phrase that describes someone who has not received God’s Spirit. Alternate translation: “the person without the Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

271

1CO

2

14

cve2

figs-genericnoun

ψυχικὸς…ἄνθρωπος, οὐ δέχεται…αὐτῷ…οὐ δύναται

1

General Information:

Paul uses the words person, him, and he to speak of people in general, not one specific man. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of these words with a form that indicates people in general in your language. Alternate translation: “any natural person does not receive … to him or her … he or she is not able” or “natural people do not receive … to them … they are not able” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

272

1CO

2

14

vvju

figs-gendernotations

αὐτῷ…οὐ δύναται

1

Here, the words translated him and he are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind he and himby using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “to that person … that person is not able” or “to him or her … he or she is not able” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

273

1CO

2

14

fye5

figs-activepassive

μωρία…αὐτῷ ἐστίν

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could reverse the structure and make him the subject of a verb such as “think” or “consider.” Alternate translation: “for he thinks that they are foolishness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

274

1CO

2

14

gwe3

figs-activepassive

πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται

1

because they are spiritually discerned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is discerned rather than focusing on the person doing the “discerning.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “people can only discern them spiritually” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

275

1CO

2

14

vznr

πνευματικῶς ἀνακρίνεται

1

Alternate translation: “they are discerned by the power of the Spirit” or “they are discerned by people who are indwelt by the Spirit”

276

1CO

2

15

w4q7

translate-unknown

ὁ…πνευματικὸς

1

the one who is spiritual

Here Paul uses the spiritual one as the opposite of “the natural person” in 2:14. The phrase the spiritual one describes a person who does have God’s Spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of this phrase by using a word or phrase that describes someone who has received God’s Spirit. Alternate translation: “the person with the Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

277

1CO

2

15

gcv7

figs-genericnoun

ὁ…πνευματικὸς ἀνακρίνει…αὐτὸς…ἀνακρίνεται

1

Paul uses the words spiritual one and he himself to speak of people in general, not one specific man. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of these words with a form that indicates people in general. Alternate translation: “any spiritual person discerns … he himself or she herself” or “spiritual people discern … they themselves are discerned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

278

1CO

2

15

ap89

figs-hyperbole

τὰ πάντα

1

Here Paul uses all {things} as an exaggeration that the Corinthians would have understood to emphasize that the spiritual one can discern God’s gifts and the message of the gospel. Paul does not mean that every spiritual person is able to discern everything there is to know. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this exaggeration by using a phrase such as “many things,” and express the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “many things indeed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

279

1CO

2

15

ji5n

figs-activepassive

αὐτὸς…ὑπ’ οὐδενὸς ἀνακρίνεται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on he who is discerned rather than the person doing the “discerning.” Alternate translation: “no one discerns him himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

280

1CO

2

15

ypl6

figs-gendernotations

αὐτὸς…ἀνακρίνεται

1

Here, the words translated he himself are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind he himselfby using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “that person is discerned” or “he himself or she herself is discerned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

281

1CO

2

15

zg4b

figs-explicit

αὐτὸς…ὑπ’ οὐδενὸς ἀνακρίνεται

1

Here Paul wishes to say that it is impossible for someone without the Spirit to properly understand or make judgments about the person who does have the Spirit. If this implication would be missed by your readers, you could make it more explicit that Paul is speaking about the impossibility of someone without the Spirit “discerning” someone with the Spirit. Alternate translation: “he himself cannot be discerned by anyone who is not spiritual” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

282

1CO

2

15

ndi1

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὸς…ἀνακρίνεται

1

Here, himself focuses attention on the spiritual one. If himself would not draw attention in this way in your language, you could express the attention or focus in another way. Alternate translation: “he is discerned” or “he indeed is discerned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

283

1CO

2

16

ye98

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces proof from Scripture to support what Paul has said about the “natural person” and the “spiritual” person in 2:14–15. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that indicates that Paul is introducing proof. Alternate translation: “you could tell that these things are true, because” or “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

284

1CO

2

16

tj79

writing-quotations

γὰρ

1

Here, For is the only word that Paul uses to introduce a quotation from the Old Testament, in this case, from the book written by Isaiah the prophet (see Isaiah 40:13). If your language would not introduce a quotation in this way, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “For, as it can be read in the Old Testament,” or “For, according to Isaiah the prophet,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

285

1CO

2

16

m4pu

figs-rquestion

τίς…ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, ὃς συμβιβάσει αὐτόν?

1

For who can know the mind of the Lord, that he can instruct him?

Here, the passage that Paul quotes from the book of Isaiah uses a question to indicate that no human has known {the} mind of {the} Lord, and no human will instruct him. The quoted question is not asking for information. Instead, it assumes that the answer is “no one,” and the author used a question to make a negative claim that is stronger than a simple statement. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the question with a strong negative statement. Alternate translation: “no one has known the mind of the Lord—no one will instruct him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

286

1CO

2

16

wacc

figs-possession

νοῦν Κυρίου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a mind that the Lord has or uses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind that the Lord is one who is thinking with {the} mindby using a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “the thoughts that the Lord thinks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

287

1CO

2

16

r18k

figs-metaphor

νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν

1

Here Paul speaks as if we are people who possess {the} mind of Christ. Paul means that we are able to understand what Christ thinks and share the same ways of thinking with him. He does not mean that we have taken Christ’s mind from him or that we no longer have our own mind. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express “having someone else’s mind” with a comparable metaphor or with a verb such as “share.” Alternate translation: “think the same thoughts as Christ does” or “share in the mind of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

288

1CO

2

16

pr9b

figs-possession

νοῦν Χριστοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a mind that Christ has or uses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind that Christ is the one who is thinking with {the} mindby using a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “the thoughts that Christ thinks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

289

1CO

3

intro

g6ku

0

1 Corinthians 3 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Against divisions (1:10–4:15)
    • Paul identifies the divisions (3:1–5)
    • Farming metaphor (3:6–9a)
    • Building metaphor (3:9b–15)
    • Temple metaphor (3:16–17)
    • Wisdom and folly (3:18–20)
    • All things are yours (3:21–23)

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page to make them easier to read. The ULT does this with the quoted words of verses 19 and 20. Verse 19 quotes from Job 5:13, and verse 20 quotes from Psalm 94:11.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Fleshly people

In 3:1–4, Paul calls the Corinthian believers “fleshly.” In 3:3, he defines “fleshly” as “walking according to men.” The word “fleshly” thus refers to people who think and behave from a merely human point of view, without thinking and behaving from God’s perspective. The opposite of “fleshly” is “spiritual,” which refers to those who think and behave by the power of the Spirit. (See 3:1, [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/flesh]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]])

Fire and judgment

In Paul’s culture, fire was commonly associated with the day when God would come to judge everyone. Paul uses this association when he makes use of the metaphor of a building. When a building catches on fire, it shows how well it was built. Similarly, when the fire of God’s judgment comes, it will show who has taught the gospel correctly. Fire fits within the metaphor of a building, but it is not just a part of that metaphor. If it is possible, retain the language of fire for God’s judgment. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judgmentday]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/fire]])

Wisdom and foolishness

Throughout this chapter, Paul continues to speak of both wisdom and foolishness. Just as in chapters one and two, these words do not refer primarily to how much or how little education someone has. Rather, they refer to how well or how poorly someone plans actions and knows how the world works. Continue to use the words you chose in chapters one and two. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/foolish]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Infants and food metaphor

In 3:1–2, Paul speaks as if the Corinthians are infants who were, and still are, unable to eat any solid food, but can only drink milk. By speaking about them as if they were infants, Paul wishes to tell the Corinthians that they are spiritually immature enough that they can only drink milk. Paul uses “milk” to refer to the very basic teachings about Christ, while he uses “solid food” to refer to the more advanced teachings. In translating this metaphor, use words that identify what very small children can eat (milk) and what they cannot eat (solid food). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

Farming metaphor

In 3:6–9a, Paul speaks as if he and Apollos were farmers. Paul first proclaimed the gospel to the Corinthians, so he is like a farmer who plants seeds. Apollos taught the Corinthians more about the gospel, so he is like a farmer who waters the plants when they start to grow. However, God is the one who makes seeds grow into plants and the one who enables believers to accept and learn more about the gospel. With this metaphor, Paul wishes to emphasize that he and Apollos are equal in that they both teach about the gospel. However, neither one of them is significant in comparison to God, who is the one who actually enables people to accept and believe in the gospel. If possible, preserve the farming metaphor, even if you need to adjust some of the details. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

Building metaphor

In 3:9b–15, Paul speaks of the Corinthians as if they were a house. Paul is the one who laid the house’s foundation, because he was the one who first proclaimed the gospel to them. Other people, whom Paul does not name, build on the foundation. They are the ones who are teaching the Corinthians more, whether what they teach is correct or not. Paul then says that the building will catch on fire, and what each of these builders used to construct the house will become evident. If they built with durable materials, they will be rewarded, but if they built with materials that burn, they will suffer loss, and the builders themselves will barely escape from the fire. In speaking this way, Paul is warning those who teach more about the gospel that God himself will judge whether what they teach is correct or not. If it is incorrect, those teachers will lose everything and barely be saved themselves. If it is correct, God will honor and reward those teachers. If possible, preserve the building metaphor, even if you need to adjust some of the details. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

Temple metaphor

In 3:16–17, Paul speaks as if the Corinthians were God’s temple. By speaking this way, he identifies the Corinthian believers as a place where God is specially present. Paul then notes that anyone who does anything to harm God’s temple will be punished by God. Since the Corinthians are like God’s temple, God will punish anyone who does anything to harm them, including if anyone tries to divide them up into different groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

Paul asks many questions in this chapter (3:3–5; 16). He is not asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with Paul. For ways to translate these questions, look for the notes on each verse that includes these kinds of questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Christ is God’s

In 3:23, Paul says that “Christ is God’s.” He does not mean that Christ is a person who belongs to God but is not God. Rather, he means that Christ is part of who God is. Christ belongs to the being of God. In your translation, you should try to preserve this meaning. However, if possible, do not make your translation into a statement about the divinity of Christ, since that is not the main point that Paul is trying to make.

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grammar-connect-words-phrases

κἀγώ

1

The word translated And I is the same word that appears at the beginning of 2:1. Just as there, Paul uses And I here to introduce how his own experience visiting the Corinthians fits into the general pattern he has outlined at the end of chapter 2. Here, however, his experience with the Corinthians is the opposite of what he would have liked. Therefore, the words And I introduce a contrast with what he said in 2:16 about having the mind of Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of And Iby using a word or phrase that introduces a specific example or a word or phrase that introduces a contrast. Alternate translation: “But I” or “As for me, I” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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r4iw

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

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jn0q

figs-infostructure

οὐκ ἠδυνήθην λαλῆσαι ὑμῖν ὡς πνευματικοῖς, ἀλλ’ ὡς σαρκίνοις, ὡς νηπίοις ἐν Χριστῷ.

1

If your language would not naturally state the negative before the positive, you could reverse the order of the not statement and the but statements. Alternate translation: “had to speak to you as to fleshly, as to infants in Christ, not as to spiritual” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

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jx17

figs-nominaladj

πνευματικοῖς…σαρκίνοις

1

spiritual people

Paul is using the adjectives spiritual and fleshly as nouns in order to describe groups of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate these with noun phrases. Alternate translation: “to spiritual people … to fleshly people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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figs-ellipsis

ἀλλ’ ὡς σαρκίνοις, ὡς νηπίοις

1

fleshly people

Here Paul leaves out some words that might be required in your language to make a complete thought. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply the needed words from earlier in the sentence. Alternate translation: “but I spoke to you as to fleshly; I spoke to you as to infants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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figs-metaphor

νηπίοις ἐν Χριστῷ

1

as to little children in Christ

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians were infants. He wants the Corinthians to think about how infants are immature, lack knowledge, and are unable to understand most things. By calling the Corinthians infants in Christ, he means that in their relationship with Jesus, they are immature, have little knowledge, and are unable to understand very much. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express why Paul calls the Corinthians infants with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to beginners in Christ” or “to those who could understand very little about their faith in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ

1

Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ, or united to Christ, explains in what area of their lives they were like infants. They acted like infants in their relationship with Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind in Christby referring to their “faith” in Christ or their “relationship” with Christ. Alternate translation: “in their faith in Christ” or “in their relationship with Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metaphor

γάλα ὑμᾶς ἐπότισα, οὐ βρῶμα

1

I fed you milk, not solid food

Paul is using milk, the food of “infants” (see 3:1), which is easy to digest, to represent things that are easy to understand. Paul is using solid food, which is harder to digest, to represent things that are harder to understand. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “I had to let you crawl, not walk” or “I taught you things that are easy to understand, not things that are hard to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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fujt

figs-ellipsis

οὐ βρῶμα

1

Here Paul has omitted some words that may be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If your language needs these words, you could add a phrase such as “to eat.” Alternate translation: “not solid food to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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d2x5

figs-ellipsis

οὔπω…ἐδύνασθε…οὐδὲ νῦν δύνασθε

1

Here Paul has omitted some words that may be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If your language needs these words, you could add them here, supplying the idea from earlier in the verse. Alternate translation: “you were not yet able to eat solid food … even now, you are not able to eat solid food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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i3r5

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλ’

1

Here, Indeed functions to contrast the time when Paul visited the Corinthians with the time when Paul is writing this letter. He speaks of these two different times to say that the Corinthians could not to eat the solid food at either time. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Indeed with a word or phrase that contrasts two times or a word that introduces additional information. Alternate translation: “In fact” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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m712

figs-nominaladj

σαρκικοί

-1

still fleshly

Paul is using the adjective fleshly as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this adjective with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “fleshly people … fleshly people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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o618

figs-abstractnouns

ὅπου…ἐν ὑμῖν ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind jealousy and strife, you can express the ideas by using verbs such as “being jealous” and “fighting.” Alternate translation: “where you are jealous and fight with one another” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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s1uy

figs-metonymy

ὅπου

1

The word where often refers to space. However, here Paul uses it to indicate that something exists without focusing on exactly where in space that thing is. Instead of identifying a specific location, it identifies existence. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind whereby using a word that refers to whether something exists or not. Alternate translation: “if there is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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k5ll

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε καὶ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε?

1

are you not living according to the flesh, and are you not walking by human standards?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information or for agreement or disagreement. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a statement that draws a conclusion from the jealousy and the strife. Alternate translation: “you are fleshly and walking according to men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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figs-hendiadys

καὶ

2

Here Paul uses and to introduce a definition of what fleshly means. It means walking according to men. If you cannot use and to introduce a definition or explanation, you could use another word or phrase that does introduce a definition or explanation. If you use one of the following alternate translations, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “that is, are you not” or “which means” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

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figs-metaphor

κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε

1

Paul speaks of behavior in life as if it were walking. If walking would not be understood as a description of a person’s way of life in your language, you could express the idea with a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “behaving as men do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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ljri

figs-idiom

κατὰ ἄνθρωπον

1

Here Paul speaks of behavior that is according to men. He uses this phrase to refer to behaviors done by people who think and act in only human ways. These people do not have God’s Spirit, so they “walk” according to the values and goals of this world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind according to menby using a word or phrase that refers to things and behaviors valued by people who do not believe. Alternate translation: “according to what mere humans value” or “according to this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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y8b4

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπον

1

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

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grammar-connect-words-phrases

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces further evidence for Paul’s argument that the Corinthians are acting in merely humans ways. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave For untranslated or express the idea using a word or phrase that introduces more evidence or examples. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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writing-pronouns

λέγῃ τις…ἕτερος

1

Here Paul uses the pronouns one and another to give two examples of some people in the Corinthian church who are saying these kinds of things. He does not mean that only two people are saying these things. He also does not mean that these are the only things that people in the church are saying. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with words that introduce examples of a larger pattern, and you could add a phrase that indicates that the words I am of Paul and I am of of Apollos are two examples of the kinds of things that they are saying. Alternate translation: “some people among you say things like … other people among you say things like” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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figs-quotations

ἐγὼ…εἰμι Παύλου…ἐγὼ Ἀπολλῶ

1

If you cannot use this form in your language, you could translate these statements as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “that he or she is of Paul … that he or she is of Apollos” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

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g68p

figs-possession

ἐγὼ…εἰμι Παύλου…ἐγὼ Ἀπολλῶ

1

Just as in 1:12, Paul uses the possessive form to indicate that people are claiming to be part of a specific leader’s group. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with a word such as “belong” or “follow.” Alternate translation: “‘I follow Paul’ … ‘I follow Apollos’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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zsby

translate-names

Παύλου…Ἀπολλῶ

1

Paul and Apollos are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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s96g

figs-rquestion

οὐκ ἄνθρωποί ἐστε?

1

are you not living as human beings?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information or for agreement or disagreement. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a statement that draws a conclusion from what Paul says the Corinthians are saying. Alternate translation: “you are men” or “this shows that you are men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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mmlq

figs-explicit

ἄνθρωποί

1

When Paul says that the Corinthians are men, he means that they are “only” or “merely” men. He is not identifying them as humans. Rather, he means that they are acting and speaking from “merely human” perspective rather than from God’s perspective, a perspective they can share if they have God’s Spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could add a word or phrase that clarifies that men refers to a “merely human” view of the world. Alternate translation: “merely men” or “speaking from a human perspective” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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te5r

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωποί

1

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non-gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “humans” or “men and women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

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grammar-connect-words-phrases

οὖν

1

Here, then introduces a further stage in Paul’s argument. He has argued in 3:4 that Paul and Apollos should not be treated as leaders of groups. In this verse, he goes on to explain how he thinks that Paul and Apollos should be treated, which is as servants of Christ. Thus, the word translated then introduces who Paul and Apollos really are. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave then untranslated or use a word that introduces the next step in an argument. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “therefore,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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figs-rquestion

τί οὖν ἐστιν Ἀπολλῶς? τί δέ ἐστιν Παῦλος? διάκονοι

1

Who then is Apollos? And who is Paul?

Here Paul uses these questions to do two things. First, the questions imply that Apollos and Paul are not very important. Therefore, an implied answer to these questions would be that Apollos and Paul are “not very much.” Second, Paul uses the questions to introduce his own answer to these questions. After using the questions to imply that he and Apollos are not much, he then states that they are servants. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind these questions as a statement about the status of Apollos and Paul as servants, and you could use a word such as “only” or “merely” to express the idea that they are not very important. Alternate translation: “Apollos and Paul are merely servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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i9d0

translate-names

Ἀπολλῶς…Παῦλος

1

Apollos and Paul are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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lq6n

figs-123person

ἐστιν Παῦλος?

1

And who is Paul?

In this verse, Paul speaks of himself in the third person. This could sound like he is speaking about a different Paul than himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this use of Paul by clarifying that Paul is naming himself. Alternate translation: “am I, Paul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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figs-ellipsis

διάκονοι δι’ ὧν ἐπιστεύσατε

1

Servants through whom you believed

Here Paul omits several words that may be required in your language to make a complete thought. If your language needs these words, you could include words such as “we are” or “they are.” Alternate translation: “We are servants through whom you believed” or “They are servants through whom you believed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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edod

figs-explicit

διάκονοι δι’ ὧν ἐπιστεύσατε

1

When Paul says that he and Apollos are those through whom the Corinthians believed, he is implying that the Corinthians believed in someone other than Paul and Apollos. That is, they believed in Christ. If your readers would not make this inference about whom the Corinthians believed in, you could make it explicit by including what the Corinthians believed in, which is “Christ” and not Apollos or Paul. Alternate translation: “Servants through whom you believed in Christ” or “Servants through whom you believed in Christ, not in us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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h2jv

grammar-connect-words-phrases

καὶ…ὡς

1

Here, the words translated even as introduce the way in which Apollos and Paul act as servants. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that would introduce the ways in which Apollos and Paul are servants. Alternate translation: “who do what” or “serving just as” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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figs-ellipsis

καὶ ἑκάστῳ ὡς ὁ Κύριος ἔδωκεν

1

Servants through whom you believed, to each of whom the Lord gave tasks

Here Paul omits what the Lord gave because it would be clear that he means that the Lord gave a specific job or task to each one of them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could add a word or phrase to the Lord gave to each one to indicates that the Lord gave a specific job or task. Alternate translation: “even as the Lord gave a task to teach one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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e8tb

writing-pronouns

ἑκάστῳ

1

Here, to each one directly refers back to Apollos and Paul. However, it also probably refers to everyone who serves the Lord. If you can refer to multiple individuals considered separately in your language, you could use that form here. Alternate translation: “to each and every one who serves him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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figs-exmetaphor

ἐγὼ ἐφύτευσα, Ἀπολλῶς ἐπότισεν, ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς ηὔξανεν.

1

I planted

Paul speaks about the roles that God gave to him and to Apollos as if they were farmers who planted and watered their crops. See the chapter introduction for further explanation of this metaphor. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the way that Paul uses farming language to describe how the Corinthians received the gospel with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “I introduced you to the gospel, Apollos taught you more about the gospel, but God enabled you to believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

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ic6x

figs-ellipsis

ἐγὼ ἐφύτευσα, Ἀπολλῶς ἐπότισεν, ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς ηὔξανεν.

1

Paul never states what it is that he planted, that Apollos watered, and that God caused {it} to grow. He does not state what it is because he wishes to use a general statement about farming practices. If you need to state what is planted and watered, you could include a general word or words such as “seed,” “plant,” or “crop.” Alternate translation: “I planted the seeds, Apollos watered the plants, but God caused the crop to grow” or “I planted the crop, Apollos watered it, but God caused it to grow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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gyi5

translate-names

Ἀπολλῶς

1

Apollos watered

Apollos is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἐφύτευσα, Ἀπολλῶς ἐπότισεν, ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς

1

but God gave the growth

Here Paul uses but to contrast himself and Apollos with God. The point is that what he did and what Apollos did are at the same level of importance, but God’s work is the most important. Another way to understand this contrast is to notice that Paul and Apollos assist in the process of plants growing, but God is the only one who actually makes them grow. Again, the main point is that Paul and Apollos are simply “servants” of God (3:5) in a process that God oversees. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express but with a word or phrase that puts Paul and Apollos together in contrast with God. Alternate translation: “planted, and Apollos watered. However, it was God who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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grammar-connect-logic-result

ὥστε

1

Here, so then introduces a conclusion or inference from what Paul has said about watering, planting, and growth in 3:6. He wishes to explain that the difference between God causing the growth and anyone planting or watering relates to their importance in the process. It is God who is important, because he is the only one causing the growth, just as Paul stated in 3:6. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express so then with a comparable word or phrase that introduces a conclusion or an inference. Alternate translation: “Therefore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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figs-exmetaphor

οὔτε ὁ φυτεύων ἐστίν τι, οὔτε ὁ ποτίζων, ἀλλ’ ὁ αὐξάνων, Θεός.

1

Paul now speaks in general about the tasks that God has given to those who proclaim the gospel. He continues to speak as if those who proclaim the gospel were farmers who planted and watered their crops. See the chapter introduction for further explanation of this metaphor. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the way that Paul uses farming language to describe how people proclaim the gospel and how God enables others to receive it with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “neither the person who introduces believers to the gospel nor the person who teaches believers more about the gospel is anything, but God is the one who enables believers to have faith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

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dl3z

figs-genericnoun

ὁ φυτεύων…ὁ ποτίζων

1

neither he who plants is anything … but God is the one who causes the growth

When Paul speaks of the one planting, he has himself in mind. When he speaks of the one watering, he has Apollos in mind. This is clear from what he says in the last verse (3:6). However, he is now speaking in more general terms. He does not mean just one person who does planting and one person who does watering. Rather, he wishes to refer to anyone who does either of these tasks. If the phrase the one would not be understood to mean that in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to any person who does the task. Alternate translation: “any person who plants … any person who waters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

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uutk

figs-ellipsis

ὁ φυτεύων…ὁ ποτίζων

1

Paul never states what it is that someone is planting and what someone else is watering. He does not state what it is because he wishes to use a general statement about farming practices. If you need to state what is planted and watered, you could include a general word or words such as “seed,” “plant,” or “crop.” Alternate translation: “the one who plants the seeds … the one who waters the plants” or “the one who plants the crop … the one who waters it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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figs-hyperbole

τι

1

Here, anything is an exaggeration the Corinthians would have understood as emphasis on how unimportant the people who plant and water are. It is as if they were nothing, as if they did not exist. Paul does not mean that they do not exist. Instead, he uses this exaggeration to show how unimportant the people who plant and water are compared to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express anything with a word or phrase that indicates “importance.” Alternate translation: “important” or “significant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

335

1CO

3

7

hmk6

figs-ellipsis

ἀλλ’ ὁ αὐξάνων, Θεός.

1

Here Paul does not directly finish the contrast between the people who plant and water and God. What he means is that God is the one who is important, because he is causing the growth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply the words that Paul omits, including a word or phrase about how God is “important.” Alternate translation: “but God, who is the one who causes the growth, is the important one” or “but God is the significant one because he causes the growth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

336

1CO

3

7

c68g

figs-abstractnouns

αὐξάνων

1

but God is the one who causes the growth

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind growth, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “grow.” Alternate translation: “who makes it grow” or “who causes things to grow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

337

1CO

3

8

dmfs

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, Now introduces the next step in Paul’s argument. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave Now untranslated or use a word or phrase that introduces the next step in an argument. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

338

1CO

3

8

s16b

figs-exmetaphor

ὁ φυτεύων…καὶ ὁ ποτίζων, ἕν εἰσιν; ἕκαστος δὲ τὸν ἴδιον μισθὸν λήμψεται, κατὰ τὸν ἴδιον κόπον.

1

he who plants and he who waters are one

Here Paul continues to speak as if those who proclaim the gospel were farmers who planted and watered their crops. See the chapter introduction for further explanation of this metaphor. The one planting and the one watering will receive wages that match the kind of labor they did. In the same way, those who first proclaim the gospel and those who teach more about the gospel will receive rewards from God that match the task they accomplished. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the way that Paul uses farming language to describe how people proclaim the gospel and how God rewards those who do so with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the person who introduces believers to the gospel and the person who teaches believers more about the gospel are one, and each will receive his own reward from God according to his own task” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

339

1CO

3

8

ydx8

figs-genericnoun

ὁ φυτεύων…ὁ ποτίζων

1

Just as in 3:7, when Paul speaks of the one planting, he has himself in mind. When he speaks of the one watering, he has Apollos in mind. This is clear from what he says in 3:6. However, he is now speaking in more general terms. He does not mean just one person who is planting and one person who is watering. Rather, he wishes to refer to anyone who does either of these tasks. If the phrase the one would not be understood to mean that in your language, you could use a word or phrase that refers to any person who does the task. Alternate translation: “any person who plants … any person who waters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

340

1CO

3

8

fsj6

figs-ellipsis

ὁ φυτεύων…ὁ ποτίζων

1

Paul never states what it is that someone is planting and that someone else is watering. He does not state what it is because he wishes to use a general statement about farming practices. If you need to state what is planted and watered, you could include a general word or words such as “seed,” “plant,” or “crop.” Alternate translation: “the one who plants the seeds … the one who waters the plants” or “the one who plants the crop … the one who waters it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

341

1CO

3

8

za43

figs-metaphor

ἕν εἰσιν

1

are one

Paul here speaks as if the one planting and the one watering are the same person. He speaks in this way in order to: (1) show that the one planting and the one watering do the same kind of work with the same goal in mind. Alternate translation: “share a common goal” or “do the same kind of work” (2) state that the one planting and the one watering have equal status. Alternate translation: “are of equal importance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

342

1CO

3

8

dfhn

figs-gendernotations

τὸν ἴδιον

-1

Here, the words translated his are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind his by using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “his or her own … his or her own” or “that person’s own … that person’s own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

343

1CO

3

9

vphl

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γάρ

1

Here, For introduces a summary statement that concludes the whole section in which Paul compares those who proclaim the gospel to farmers (3:5–8). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind Forby using a word or phrase that introduces a summary statement. Alternate translation: “Thus,” or “In the end,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

344

1CO

3

9

gj26

figs-exclusive

ἐσμεν

1

we are brutally beaten

Here, we refers to Paul, Apollos, and others who proclaim the gospel; we does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

345

1CO

3

9

r9sn

figs-possession

Θεοῦ…συνεργοί

1

God’s fellow workers

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe: (1) fellow workers who work for God. Alternate translation: “coworkers under God’s leadership” (2) workers who join God in God’s work. Alternate translation: “people who work with God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

346

1CO

3

9

iaan

figs-infostructure

Θεοῦ γεώργιον, Θεοῦ οἰκοδομή ἐστε.

1

Here Paul switches from a metaphor about farming to a metaphor about building. He makes this switch without using any connecting words, and he makes the switch within one sentence. Consider whether your language would include the introduction of a new topic at the end of the previous section or at the beginning of a new section, and put God’s building where it would be understood as introducing a new section. Include you are again if it would be necessary. Additionally, if your language would not begin a new section without using a connecting word or phrase, you could use such a word or phrase here. Alternate translation: “you are God’s field. In fact, you are also God’s building” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

347

1CO

3

9

lqg1

figs-metaphor

Θεοῦ γεώργιον

1

God’s garden

Here Paul concludes the farming metaphor he began in 3:6. He identifies the Corinthians as a field that is owned by God. It is in this field that those who proclaim the gospel “plant” and “water” the crop. By calling the Corinthians a God’s field, Paul means to say that they belong to God and that they are the people among whom those who proclaim the gospel labor. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “people who belong to God and among whom we work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

348

1CO

3

9

l2fq

figs-exmetaphor

Θεοῦ οἰκοδομή

1

God’s building

Here Paul introduces a new metaphor that compares the Corinthians to a building. This building belongs to God, and those who proclaim the gospel, including Paul, help to construct the building. He uses this metaphor and variations of it in 3:9–17. Here, he calls the Corinthians God’s building, by which he means basically the same thing as when he calls them God’s field. They belong to God, and he and others who proclaim the gospel work among them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “people who belong to God and among whom we work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

349

1CO

3

10

iln9

figs-activepassive

τοῦ Θεοῦ τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι

1

According to the grace of God that was given to me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the grace that was given rather than focusing on the person doing the “giving.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “that God gave me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

350

1CO

3

10

a69q

figs-exmetaphor

ὡς σοφὸς ἀρχιτέκτων θεμέλιον ἔθηκα, ἄλλος δὲ ἐποικοδομεῖ. ἕκαστος δὲ βλεπέτω, πῶς ἐποικοδομεῖ.

1

I laid a foundation

Paul began using the metaphor of a house in 3:9. Here he continues that metaphor by speaking about himself as a wise master builder who lays a foundation. By speaking in this way, he means that he is the one who first introduced the Corinthian believers to the gospel, just like a master builder first lays a foundation. He then speaks of people who build {on} that foundation, meaning that others who proclaim more about the gospel can only do this by using and continuing from the good news that Paul already proclaimed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this extended metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “as a wise church planter, I first proclaimed the gospel to you, and another is teaching you more about that gospel, but let each one be careful how he teaches you more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

351

1CO

3

10

nw8f

figs-infostructure

ὡς σοφὸς ἀρχιτέκτων θεμέλιον ἔθηκα

1

The phrase as a wise master builder could describe: (1) the way in which Paul laid a foundation. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “I laid a foundation as a wise master builder” (2) the specific grace that God gave to Paul. Alternate translation: “to be a wise master builder, I laid a foundation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

352

1CO

3

10

mpxl

translate-unknown

σοφὸς ἀρχιτέκτων

1

Here, master builder refers to the person who is in charge of an entire construction project, including designing it and making sure that the building is constructed according to the design. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express master builder with a comparable word or phrase. Alternate translation: “a wise architect” or “a wise construction manager” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

353

1CO

3

10

mqb8

writing-pronouns

ἄλλος…ἐποικοδομεῖ

1

Here, another refers to anyone who is building {on} the foundation, including Apollos. However, Paul does not mean to identify one specific person who is building. If your readers would not infer that another refers to any builder, you could use a word or phrase that identifies any person who does a specific task. Alternate translation: “other people are building on it” or “someone else is building on it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

354

1CO

3

10

pwi7

figs-imperative3p

ἕκαστος…βλεπέτω

1

another is building on it

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should.” Alternate translation: “each one should be careful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

355

1CO

3

10

px9c

writing-pronouns

ἕκαστος

1

each man

Here, each one refers to any person who builds on the foundation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express each one with a word or phrase that identifies any person who falls into a certain category. Alternate translation: “every person who builds on it” or “each builder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

356

1CO

3

10

krd6

figs-gendernotations

ἐποικοδομεῖ

2

Here, he is written in masculine form, but it refers to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind heby using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “he or she builds on it” or “each one builds on it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

357

1CO

3

11

m4j2

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, for introduces the reason why the people who build on the foundation should “be careful how” they build “on it” (3:10). They need to “be careful” because what they build must match the only foundation that exists, which is Jesus Christ. If for would not indicate this connection in your language, you could express the idea with a word that gives a reason or basis for a command. Alternate translation: “because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

358

1CO

3

11

qd1o

figs-exmetaphor

θεμέλιον…ἄλλον οὐδεὶς δύναται θεῖναι, παρὰ τὸν κείμενον, ὅς ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς Χριστός.

1

Paul continues the metaphor about houses, again speaking about a foundation. Here, he reminds the Corinthians that each house has only one foundation, and once that foundation has been laid, no one lays another foundation for the house. He speaks in this way to remind them that only one person can introduce them to the gospel, and anyone who tries to introduce them to another gospel is building a different house, not the same house. Paul then directly states that the foundation refers to the message about Jesus Christ that he preached to them and which should be the starting point and basis for everything else they learn about the gospel. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “no one can first proclaim a gospel to you other than the one that I already proclaimed to you, which is Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

359

1CO

3

11

jt2b

figs-activepassive

τὸν κείμενον

1

no one can lay a foundation other than the one that has been laid

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is being laid rather than focusing on the person doing the “laying.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that he himself does it. Alternate translation: “the one that I already laid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

360

1CO

3

11

yh1f

ὅς ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς Χριστός.

1

If you use the second alternate translation, you may need to change the comma to a period before it. Alternate translation: “which is Jesus Christ” or “That foundation is Jesus Christ”

361

1CO

3

11

azm0

figs-metonymy

Ἰησοῦς Χριστός

1

Here Paul uses the words translated Jesus Christ to refer to the message he proclaimed to them about Jesus Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include a word or phrase that refers to Paul’s message about Jesus Christ. Alternate translation: “the good news about Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

362

1CO

3

12

nuza

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δέ

1

Here, Now introduces the next step in Paul’s argument. If it would be helpful in your language, you could leave Now untranslated or use a word or phrase that introduces the next step in an argument. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

363

1CO

3

12

nbu2

figs-exmetaphor

εἰ…τις ἐποικοδομεῖ ἐπὶ τὸν θεμέλιον χρυσόν, ἄργυρον, λίθους τιμίους, ξύλα, χόρτον, καλάμην

1

Now if anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw

Here Paul continues the metaphor about building a house. He compares those who teach about the gospel with builders who construct a house on its foundation. These builders can use a variety of different materials to construct the house, and Paul lists six. The first three, gold, silver, precious stones, are more durable, while the last three, wood, hay, or straw, are less durable. It is clear that Paul is interested in durability, because of the next verse, where he states that all of these materials will be tested with fire (3:13). By speaking this way, he indicates that those who proclaim more about the gospel can teach things that are more or less true and acceptable to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “if anyone teaches you more about the gospel with words that are acceptable to God or words that are not acceptable to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

364

1CO

3

12

f8oa

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ…τις ἐποικοδομεῖ ἐπὶ τὸν θεμέλιον

1

Here Paul uses a conditional if, but he does not think that this is a hypothetical situation or something that is likely not true. Instead, Paul thinks that people are “building” on the foundation, and he wants to talk about how they are doing so. Additionally, the “then” part of the if statement does not begin until the next verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could rephrase this form and structure by stating the condition as a circumstance or an assumption. Alternate translation: “whenever people build on the foundation, using” or “when anyone builds on the foundation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

365

1CO

3

12

tzgf

translate-unknown

χρυσόν, ἄργυρον, λίθους τιμίους, ξύλα, χόρτον, καλάμην,

1

These six things are all materials that could be used in constructing buildings. The first three will survive if the building catches on fire, but the last three will not (for the fire, see 3:13–15). In your culture, you may not use all of these materials for constructing buildings. In that case, you could include just some of these materials or include materials that you do use for constructing buildings in your culture, making sure to include some materials will not burn up and others that will burn up. Alternate translation: “steel, concrete, lumber, or cloth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

366

1CO

3

13

ndu3

figs-exmetaphor

ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον φανερὸν γενήσεται; ἡ γὰρ ἡμέρα δηλώσει, ὅτι ἐν πυρὶ ἀποκαλύπτεται; καὶ ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον, ὁποῖόν ἐστιν, τὸ πῦρ αὐτὸ δοκιμάσει

1

For it will be revealed in fire. The fire will test the quality of what each one had done

Here Paul continues the metaphor about building a house. He speaks as if the day of God’s judgment is like a fire that will test the building and show what kind of building materials the builders used. Paul speaks in this way to illustrate how God’s judgment will reveal whether what those who proclaim more about the gospel teach is pleasing to him or not. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the truth of what each one has taught you will become evident, for God will show how true it is when he comes to judge everyone; when he comes, he will judge everyone, and his judgment will reveal whether what each person has taught is true or not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

367

1CO

3

13

wv4h

figs-synecdoche

ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον

1

Here, work refers to the product or result of the work, not the action of “working.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind workwith a word or phrase that refers to the product of the work. Alternate translation: “what each one has made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

368

1CO

3

13

t2mk

figs-activepassive

ἑκάστου τὸ ἔργον φανερὸν γενήσεται

1

his work will be revealed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the work that will be evident rather than the person doing making it evident. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God will make the work of each one evident” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

369

1CO

3

13

mv14

figs-explicit

ἡ…ἡμέρα δηλώσει

1

for the daylight will reveal it

Here Paul uses day in the same way the Old Testament uses it: to refer to an event in which God saves his people and punishes his enemies. Paul specifically refers to the event in which Jesus returns to judge everyone. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include more words that clarify what Paul means by day. Alternate translation: “the day of Christ’s return will display” or “when Christ returns, he will display it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

370

1CO

3

13

lyny

figs-activepassive

ἐν πυρὶ ἀποκαλύπτεται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is revealed rather than the person doing the “revealing.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God reveals it in fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

371

1CO

3

13

x48s

writing-pronouns

ἀποκαλύπτεται

1

Here, it is revealed refers to the day. It does not refer to the work. If it would be helpful in your language, you could clarify that it refers to the day. Alternate translation: “that day is revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

372

1CO

3

13

ozx6

figs-pastforfuture

ἀποκαλύπτεται

1

Here Paul speaks as if the day is revealed right now. In his language, he can use the present tense to speak about the way in which something happens in general, even if it is not happening in the present moment. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this use of the present tense by using the future tense. Alternate translation: “it will be revealed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

373

1CO

3

13

rgfy

ἐν πυρὶ

1

Alternate translation: “with fire” or “in a fiery way”

374

1CO

3

13

wo2j

figs-rpronouns

τὸ πῦρ αὐτὸ

1

Here, itself focuses attention on the fire. If itself would not draw attention in this way in your language, you could express the attention or focus in another way. Alternate translation: “that fire” or “the fire indeed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

375

1CO

3

14

wexj

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον μενεῖ, ὃ ἐποικοδόμησεν, μισθὸν λήμψεται.

1

Here and in 3:15, Paul uses If to introduce a true possibility. He means that a person’s work might remain, or it might not. He then specifies the result for each possibility. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the If statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “Anyone whose work that he built will remain will receive a reward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

376

1CO

3

14

ygva

figs-exmetaphor

εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον μενεῖ, ὃ ἐποικοδόμησεν, μισθὸν λήμψεται.

1

Here Paul continues the metaphor about building a house. In this verse, he notes that builders whose structures survive a fire receive rewards. He speaks in this way to indicate that God will reward those who proclaim more about the gospel if God finds their teachings to be accurate and acceptable to him when he judges everyone. The reward includes public recognition and other blessings. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “If anyone teaches you more about the gospel with words that are acceptable to God, he will be honored by God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

377

1CO

3

14

iddt

figs-doublet

τινος τὸ ἔργον…ὃ ἐποικοδόμησεν

1

Here Paul speaks both of work and what he built. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine the ideas into one expression. Alternate translation: “anyone’s building project” or “what anyone built” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

378

1CO

3

14

s4u3

figs-synecdoche

τὸ ἔργον

1

work remains

Here Paul uses work to refer to the product or result of the work, not the action of “working.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind workwith a word or phrase that refers to the product of the work. Alternate translation: “project” or “house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

379

1CO

3

14

tec9

μενεῖ

1

Alternate translation: “does not burn up”

380

1CO

3

14

ge6s

figs-gendernotations

τινος…ἐποικοδόμησεν…λήμψεται

1

Here, he is written in masculine form, but it refers to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind heby using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “anyone’s … he or she built … he or she will receive” or “people’s … they built … they will receive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

381

1CO

3

15

vax6

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον κατακαήσεται, ζημιωθήσεται

1

Here, just as in 3:14, Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a person’s work might remain, or it might not. He then specifies the result for each possibility. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “Anyone whose work will be burned up will suffer loss” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

382

1CO

3

15

ysjz

figs-exmetaphor

εἴ τινος τὸ ἔργον κατακαήσεται, ζημιωθήσεται; αὐτὸς δὲ σωθήσεται, οὕτως δὲ ὡς διὰ πυρός.

1

Here Paul continues the metaphor about building a house. In this verse, those who proclaim more about the gospel are like builders whose structures do not survive a fire. They suffer loss, but they are saved, almost as if they were in the fire but escaped. Paul means that those who teach others wrongly about God will not receive honor or reward from God, but God will still accept them, although only just barely. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “If anyone teaches you more about the gospel with words that are not acceptable to God, he will receive no honor or blessing when God judges everyone, but he himself will be accepted by God, although just barely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

383

1CO

3

15

c2xj

figs-activepassive

τινος τὸ ἔργον κατακαήσεται

1

if anyone’s work is burned up

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the work that is burned up rather than on what does the “burning up.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the fire does it. Alternate translation: “fire burns up anyone’s work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

384

1CO

3

15

fyfr

figs-synecdoche

τὸ ἔργον

1

Here Paul uses work to refer to the product or result of the work, not the action of “working.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind workwith a word or phrase that refers to the product of the work. Alternate translation: “project” or “house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

385

1CO

3

15

b2l8

figs-gendernotations

τινος…ζημιωθήσεται…αὐτὸς…σωθήσεται

1

Here, the words translated he and himself are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter which their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind he and himselfby using words that do not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “anyone’s … he or she will suffer loss … he himself or she herself will be saved” or “people’s … they will suffer loss … they themselves will be saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

386

1CO

3

15

ups4

translate-unknown

ζημιωθήσεται

1

he will suffer loss

The phrase he will suffer loss expresses the opposite of “receiving a reward.” Instead of gaining honor and money, the person loses honor and money. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind he will suffer lossby using a phrase that refers to losing honor and money. Alternate translation: “he will lose honor and money” or “he will be deprived of any reward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

387

1CO

3

15

w1zv

figs-activepassive

αὐτὸς δὲ σωθήσεται

1

but he himself will be saved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on he who will be saved rather than the person doing the “saving.” you can express the idea with he saving himself or he not perishing. Alternate translation: “but he will not perish” or “but he will save himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

388

1CO

3

15

vdvl

figs-rpronouns

αὐτὸς…σωθήσεται

1

but he himself will be saved

Here, himself focuses attention on he. If himself would not draw attention in this way in your language, you could express the attention or focus in another way. Alternate translation: “he will be saved” or “he indeed will be saved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

389

1CO

3

16

uq2g

figs-rquestion

οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ναὸς Θεοῦ ἐστε, καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν?

1

Do you not know that you are God’s temple and that the Spirit of God lives in you?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information or for agreement or disagreement. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing by reminding them of something that they should already know. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “you know that you are a temple of God, and you know that the Spirit of God lives in you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

390

1CO

3

16

yc1g

figs-exmetaphor

οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ναὸς Θεοῦ ἐστε, καὶ τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ Θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν?

1

Here Paul develops the metaphor about constructing a building in new ways. First, he says that the Corinthians together are a temple of God, which is a specific type of building. The temple of God was the place where God was present in a special way. Paul is thus identifying the Corinthians as people among whom God is present in the same kind of special way. Second, he says that the Corinthians together are the house or city in which the Spirit of God lives. The house or city in which someone lives is where they are always present. Paul is thus saying that the Holy Spirit is always present with the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of Paul’s metaphors with a comparable metaphor or express the idea in nonfigurative language. Alternate translation: “Do you not know that you are the sacred shrine where God dwells, and you are the country in which the Spirit of God has residency?” or “Do you not know that God is present among you, and the Spirit of God is always with you?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

391

1CO

3

17

pc0d

figs-exmetaphor

εἴ τις τὸν ναὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ φθείρει, φθερεῖ τοῦτον ὁ Θεός; ὁ γὰρ ναὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ ἅγιός ἐστιν, οἵτινές ἐστε ὑμεῖς.

1

Here Paul finishes the metaphor about the temple that he began in 3:16. He notes that, because God’s temple is holy, God will destroy anyone who destroys the temple. He then again repeats that the Corinthians are the temple. By speaking in this way, Paul wishes to remind everyone among the Corinthian believers that “destroying” the unity of the believers is like “destroying” the temple, and God will act in response to this like he would if someone “destroyed” his temple. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “If anyone desecrates God’s sacred shrine, God will punish that person. For the sacred shrine is holy, and you are God’s sacred shrine” or “If anyone divides the place of God’s presence, God will punish that person. For wherever God’s presence can be found is holy, and you are the place where God’s presence can be found” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

392

1CO

3

17

pv8w

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ τις τὸν ναὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ φθείρει, φθερεῖ τοῦτον ὁ Θεός

1

Here Paul uses If to introduce a true possibility. He means that a person might destroy God’s temple, or that person might not. He then specifies the consequence if someone does destroy God’s temple. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the If statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “God will destroy anyone who destroys the temple of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

393

1CO

3

17

vcuv

writing-pronouns

οἵτινές ἐστε ὑμεῖς

1

Here, which could refer to: (1) the temple of God. Alternate translation: “which temple you are” (2) holy. Alternate translation: “and you too are holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

394

1CO

3

18

glg8

figs-imperative3p

μηδεὶς ἑαυτὸν ἐξαπατάτω…μωρὸς γενέσθω

1

Let no one deceive himself

In this verse, Paul uses two third-person imperatives. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use them here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the ideas using a word such as “should.” Alternate translation: “No one should deceive himself … he should become a ‘fool’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

395

1CO

3

18

s57s

figs-gendernotations

μηδεὶς ἑαυτὸν ἐξαπατάτω; εἴ τις δοκεῖ σοφὸς εἶναι ἐν ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, μωρὸς γενέσθω, ἵνα γένηται σοφός.

1

Here, the words translated himself, he, and him are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind himself, he, and himby using words that do not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “Let no one deceive himself or herself. If anyone among you thinks he or she is wise in this age, let him or her become a ‘fool,’ that he or she may become wise” or “Let no people deceive themselves. If any people among you think they are wise in this age, let them become ‘fools,’ that they may become wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

396

1CO

3

18

p3wi

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ τις δοκεῖ σοφὸς εἶναι ἐν ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, μωρὸς γενέσθω

1

in this age

Here Paul uses If to introduce a true possibility. He means that a person might think that he is wise, or that person might not think this. He then specifies the consequence if someone does think that he is wise. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the If statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “Let whoever among you thinks he is wise in this age become a ‘fool’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

397

1CO

3

18

p53y

ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ

1

Alternate translation: “according to the standards of this age”

398

1CO

3

18

s7xi

figs-irony

μωρὸς γενέσθω, ἵνα γένηται σοφός

1

let him become a “fool”

Here Paul commands any wise person among the Corinthians to become a fool. He does not actually think that doing what he commands makes a person a fool, which is why fool appears in quotation marks. Rather, he knows that many will call doing what he commands “becoming a fool.” To make this clearer, he then says that becoming what many will call a “fool” will actually lead to becoming truly wise. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Paul’s use of the word fool with a form in your language that indicates that Paul is speaking from the perspective of other people. Alternate translation: “let him become a so-called ‘fool,’ that he may become truly wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

399

1CO

3

18

pvt3

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

Here, that introduces the goal or purpose for which a person should become a “fool”. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind thatwith a word or phrase that introduces a goal or purpose. Alternate translation: “in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

400

1CO

3

19

m0gd

figs-possession

ἡ…σοφία τοῦ κόσμου τούτου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe what this world considers to be wisdom. If the wisdom of this world would not be understood in your language as wisdom from the perspective of this world, you could use a different form that makes this meaning clear. Alternate translation: “what this world considers to be wisdom” or “worldly wisdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

401

1CO

3

19

uqb3

figs-idiom

παρὰ τῷ Θεῷ

1

Here Paul uses the phrase with God to identify God’s perspective. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind with Godwith a word or phrase that identifies that this is foolishness according to how God views the world. Alternate translation: “from God’s perspective” or “in God’s eyes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

402

1CO

3

19

ayvv

writing-quotations

γέγραπται γάρ

1

In Paul’s culture, For it is written is a normal way to introduce a quotation from an important text, in this case, the Old Testament book titled “Job” (see Job 5:13). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “For it can be read in the Old Testament” or “For the book of Job says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

403

1CO

3

19

vpod

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the scripture or scripture author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “the author of Job has written” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God has said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

404

1CO

3

19

zws3

figs-quotations

γέγραπται…ὁ δρασσόμενος τοὺς σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτῶν

1

He catches the wise in their craftiness

If you cannot use this form in your language, you could translate these statements as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “it is written that God catches the wise in their craftiness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

405

1CO

3

19

wxz2

figs-metaphor

δρασσόμενος τοὺς σοφοὺς ἐν τῇ πανουργίᾳ αὐτῶν

1

Here Paul speaks as if God reaches out and grabs the wise as they act in craftiness. By speaking in this way, he means that even “crafty” or clever people cannot avoid God when he wishes to “catch” them. God is not deceived, and he can disrupt their clever plans. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express catches with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “interrupts the clever plans of the wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

406

1CO

3

19

j0ga

figs-nominaladj

τοὺς σοφοὺς

1

Paul is using the adjective wise as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this adjective with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “wise people” or “those who think they are wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

407

1CO

3

19

x6ts

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ πανουργίᾳ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind craftiness, you can express the idea by using by using a phrase such as “crafty plans” or “clever planning.” Alternate translation: “crafty plans” or “clever planning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

408

1CO

3

20

n5pu

writing-quotations

καὶ πάλιν

1

In Paul’s culture, And again is a normal way to introduce another quotation from an important text that supports the same point. In this case, Paul quotes from the Old Testament book titled “Psalms” (see Psalm 94:11). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express And again with a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is introducing another quotation from an important text. Alternate translation: “In another place in the Old Testament it can be read” or “And the book of Psalms also says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

409

1CO

3

20

la6x

figs-quotations

Κύριος γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν σοφῶν, ὅτι εἰσὶν μάταιοι

1

The Lord knows that the reasoning of the wise is futile

If you cannot use this form in your language, you could translate these statements as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “that the Lord knows the reasonings of the wise, that they are futile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

410

1CO

3

20

gvyq

figs-explicitinfo

γινώσκει τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν σοφῶν, ὅτι εἰσὶν μάταιοι

1

If the form the reasonings of the wise, that they would be redundant in your language, you could express the idea without the redundant words. Alternate translation: “knows that the reasonings of the wise are futile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

411

1CO

3

20

ot38

figs-abstractnouns

τοὺς διαλογισμοὺς τῶν σοφῶν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind reasonings, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “reason” or “plan.” Alternate translation: “the things that the wise reason” or “the things that the wise plan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

412

1CO

3

20

tlk9

figs-nominaladj

τῶν σοφῶν

1

Paul is using the adjective wise as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this adjective with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “of wise people” or “of those who are wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

413

1CO

3

20

kz2u

εἰσὶν μάταιοι

1

futile

Alternate translation: “they will come to nothing” or “they are worthless”

414

1CO

3

21

molu

figs-imperative3p

μηδεὶς καυχάσθω ἐν ἀνθρώποις

1

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should.” Alternate translation: “no one should boast in men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

415

1CO

3

21

xyti

figs-idiom

μηδεὶς καυχάσθω ἐν ἀνθρώποις

1

The phrase boast in men means that a person is boasting “about” humans. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express boast in with a word or phrase that clarifies that the “boasting” has men as its content. Alternate translation: “let no one boast about men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

416

1CO

3

21

k9i3

figs-explicit

ἐν ἀνθρώποις

1

The next verse makes it clear that here Paul specifically has leaders in mind. He wishes to tell the Corinthians that they should not boast about having a specific leader that they follow. If this meaning of in men would not be understood in your language, you could include some words that clarify that it refers to following leaders. Alternate translation: “in men that they follow” or “in men whose group they are part of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

417

1CO

3

21

ogfq

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώποις

1

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “in people” or “in men or women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

418

1CO

3

21

g0hr

figs-explicit

πάντα…ὑμῶν ἐστιν

1

Here, all {things} are yours also implies that boasting in men is foolish. If the Corinthians have everything, then boasting about following a specific leader does not make sense. All the Corinthians have all the leaders, and much more beyond that (see 3:22). If your readers would not infer that all {things} are yours implies these conclusions, you could include a phrase that states these conclusions. Alternate translation: “all things are yours, including all leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

419

1CO

3

22

lrlg

translate-names

Παῦλος…Ἀπολλῶς…Κηφᾶς

1

Paul, Apollos, and Cephas are the names of three men. They are the same men who were mentioned in 1:12 as leaders whom the Corinthians were claiming to follow. Cephas is another name for Peter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

420

1CO

3

22

x1w6

εἴτε Παῦλος, εἴτε Ἀπολλῶς, εἴτε Κηφᾶς, εἴτε κόσμος, εἴτε ζωὴ, εἴτε θάνατος, εἴτε ἐνεστῶτα, εἴτε μέλλοντα;

1

Paul does not want his readers to think that this list tells the Corinthians everything that they have. Rather, he uses the list to give examples. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include a word or phrase that shows that the list gives examples. Alternate translation: “including Paul and Apollos and Cephas and the world and life and death and things present and things to come”

421

1CO

3

22

o3k5

figs-explicit

εἴτε ζωὴ, εἴτε θάνατος

1

When Paul says that life and death are theirs, he means that neither life nor death has control over the Corinthians. Rather, they have control over life and death. What this means is that they can live their lives without being afraid of what will happen while they are alive or afraid of losing their lives when they die. If it would be helpful in your language, you could add some words that clarify the meaning of life and death. Alternate translation: “or confidence in life or peace in death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

422

1CO

3

22

pyir

figs-explicit

εἴτε ἐνεστῶτα, εἴτε μέλλοντα

1

Here Paul refers to {things} present because it refers to what was happening at the time when Paul wrote this letter. On the other hand, {things} to come refers to what is going to happen in the future, specifically when Jesus comes back. The {things} present is the way the world works right now. The {things} to come is the way the world will work when Jesus returns. If it would be helpful in your language, you could add some words that clarify the meaning of these phrases. Alternate translation: “or the current order or the order that Jesus will bring” or “or what happens now or what will happen soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

423

1CO

3

22

jt0x

figs-infostructure

πάντα ὑμῶν

1

Here Paul uses the same phrase he used at the end of 3:21: all {things are} yours. He repeats the phrase here to explain that the list provides examples of all {things} and also to introduce the point he is about to make in the next verse. Because all {things are} yours ends the list and also introduces the next idea, the ULT begins a new sentence with all {things are} yours. Use whatever form in your language most clearly identifies a conclusion that also introduces the next statement. Alternate translation: “Thus, all things are yours,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

424

1CO

3

23

nj48

figs-possession

ὑμεῖς…Χριστοῦ

1

you are Christ’s, and Christ is God’s

Here Paul uses the possessive form to show the Corinthians that they belong to Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using a phrase such as “belong to” or a verb such as “has.” Alternate translation: “you belong to Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

425

1CO

3

23

dc6v

figs-possession

Χριστὸς…Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to show the Corinthians that Christ belongs to who God is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using a phrase such as “belongs to” or a verb such as “includes.” Alternate translation: “Christ belongs to God” or “Christ is part of who God is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

426

1CO

4

intro

vg5z

0

1 Corinthians 4 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Against divisions (1:10–4:15)
    • God alone is judge (4:1–5)
    • Present weakness (4:6–15)
  2. Against sexual immorality (4:16–6:20)
    • Paul’s planned visit (4:16–21)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Judgment

In 4:3–5, Paul refers to three different judgments. The first judgment is what humans think of each other, including what they think of Paul. The second is Paul’s own judgment of himself. The third is God’s judgment, which occurs when the Lord returns. Paul argues that the first two judgments are not important and carry no weight. Rather, the only judgment that matters is God’s judgment. Therefore, Paul argues that no one should issue a final verdict about anything until God has performed his judgment (4:5). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/discernment]])

Pride

Paul mentions the Corinthians’ pride many times in this chapter. He speaks specifically of being “puffed up” (4:6; 4:18–19), and boasting (4:7). In contrast, Paul describes himself and the other apostles as humble and weak (4:9–13). By making this contrast, Paul wants the Corinthians to rethink their opinions about themselves. If the apostles, the leaders of the church, are weak and humble, they need to think again about whether they really are as great as they think they are.

Word and power

In 4:19–20, Paul contrasts “word” with “power.” This is a common comparison in his culture that contrasts talk and deeds. Anyone can say they are capable of doing something, but only those with “power” can actually do what they claim. Paul introduces this contrast because he is coming to see if those who claim greatness (“word”) can do what they claim (“power”). He argues that “power” is what matters more than “word” because God’s kingdom is a matter of “power,” not “word.” It is about action, not just talk. If your language has a standard comparison between “talk” and “deeds,” you could use it in these verses.

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Paul as father

In 4:14–15, Paul identifies the Corinthians as his children, which makes him their father. He became their father when he preached the gospel to them. Thus, he is their spiritual father, the one who helped bring them into the Christian life. In the metaphor, Paul does not specify who the mother is, and he does not intend his audience to make an inference as to who it might be. In 4:17, Paul continues this metaphor by claiming Timothy as his spiritual child. If possible, use words in your language that do not always require biological relationships. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/father]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/children]])

The spectacle

In 4:9, Paul speaks of the “spectacle” that he and the other apostles participate in. The “spectacle” could be a victory parade in which Paul and the other apostles are prisoners who will be killed, or it could be a gladiatorial performance in an arena in which Paul and the other apostles are destined to die. See the notes on the verse for translation options. Whichever “spectacle” Paul refers to, he is presenting himself and the other apostles as people who are going to be humiliated and killed in public. With this metaphor he continues the theme of Christ working in power through his and others’ weakness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Irony

In 4:8, Paul says that the Corinthians are satisfied, rich, and reigning. In the second half of the verse, however, he says that he “wishes” that they were actually reigning. The first part of the verse, then, presents how the Corinthians think about themselves. Paul speaks from their perspective in order to show them that their views are foolish and impossible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

Rhetorical questions

In 4:7 and 4:21, Paul uses several questions. All the questions in these two verses are not seeking answers that provide information or further knowledge. Rather, all the questions are meant to make the Corinthians think about what they are thinking and doing. For translation options, see the notes on these two verses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

“Not beyond what is written”

In 4:6, Paul quotes a phrase: “Not beyond what is written.” This is not a quote from Scripture, and Paul does not say where the phrase comes from. However, the way he quotes it shows that both he and the Corinthians were familiar with this saying. Most likely, the phrase is a well-known proverb or wise saying that Paul uses to strengthen his argument. For the meaning of the phrase and translation options, see the notes on that verse.

Paul’s coming

In 4:18–21, Paul speaks many times about how he will “come” to them. He intends to visit them again, and he speaks in these verses about what his visit might be like. Use words in your language that refer to someone temporarily visiting someone else.

427

1CO

4

1

nkda

figs-explicitinfo

οὕτως ἡμᾶς λογιζέσθω ἄνθρωπος ὡς

1

If the form In this manner let a man regard us: as would be redundant in your language, you could express the idea without the redundant words. Alternate translation: “Let a man regard us as” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

428

1CO

4

1

k1v5

figs-imperative3p

ἡμᾶς λογιζέσθω ἄνθρωπος

1

Connecting Statement:

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should.” Alternate translation: “a man should regard us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

429

1CO

4

1

xt4u

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπος

1

Although man is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express man with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “man or woman” or “human” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

430

1CO

4

1

fk8c

figs-genericnoun

ἄνθρωπος

1

Paul uses the word man to speak of people in general, not one specific person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express man with a form that indicates people in general in your language. Alternate translation: “everybody” or “any person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

431

1CO

4

1

px42

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς

1

Here, us refers to Paul, Apollos, and others who proclaim the gospel. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

432

1CO

4

1

if6t

figs-possession

οἰκονόμους μυστηρίων Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe stewards who are in charge of {the} mysteries of God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form by using a verb such as “manage” or “oversee.” Alternate translation: “stewards who manage the mysteries of God” or “stewards who oversee the mysteries of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

433

1CO

4

1

duab

figs-possession

μυστηρίων Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe mysteries that are: (1) revealed by God. Alternate translation: “of the mysteries given by God” or “of the mysteries from God” (2) about God. Alternate translation: “of the mysteries about God” or “of the mysteries concerning God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

434

1CO

4

2

th8e

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ὧδε λοιπὸν

1

what is required of stewards

Here Paul uses the phrase In this case to introduce further information about what it means to be stewards. Since he is talking about himself and others who proclaim the gospel as stewards, it is important to understand what it is that stewards are required to do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that introduces more information about a topic. Alternate translation: “Now” or “Speaking of stewards,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

435

1CO

4

2

de61

figs-explicit

ζητεῖται ἐν τοῖς οἰκονόμοις, ἵνα πιστός τις εὑρεθῇ

1

While Paul does not directly apply this sentence to himself and others who proclaim the gospel, it is clear that he intends the reader to apply it to him and these others. Paul then means that he and others who proclaim the gospel are required to do so faithfully by God. If this implication would not be understood by your readers, you could use a word or phrase that makes it clear by identifying Paul as one of the stewards. Alternate translation: “it is required in stewards like us that we be found faithful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

436

1CO

4

2

qek0

figs-activepassive

ζητεῖται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is required rather than the on person doing the “requiring.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague subject or refer to “masters.” Alternate translation: “people require” or “a master requires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

437

1CO

4

2

dpeo

figs-activepassive

πιστός τις εὑρεθῇ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is found rather than the person doing the “finding.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague subject or refer to “masters.” Alternate translation: “people find one faithful” or “a master finds one faithful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

438

1CO

4

2

yesr

writing-pronouns

τις

1

Here Paul uses one to refer to any of the stewards. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind oneby using a plural pronoun such as “they.” Alternate translation: “they” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

439

1CO

4

3

t133

ἐμοὶ…ἐστιν

1

Alternate translation: “I consider it” or “from my perspective”

440

1CO

4

3

fspp

figs-idiom

εἰς ἐλάχιστόν ἐστιν

1

When Paul says that it is a very small {thing} for him to be examined, what he means is that their “examination” of him is unimportant to him. Whether they think he has been faithful or not does not matter to him at all. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “it is no big deal” or “it has no significance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

441

1CO

4

3

k6nc

figs-activepassive

ὑφ’ ὑμῶν ἀνακριθῶ, ἢ ὑπὸ ἀνθρωπίνης ἡμέρας;

1

it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on Paul, who is examined, rather than you or the human court, who does the “examining.” Alternate translation: “you or a human court would examine me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

442

1CO

4

3

l2tt

translate-unknown

ἀνθρωπίνης ἡμέρας

1

Here, the words translated a human court refer to an official legal proceeding where whether Paul was faithful or not could be judged by those in charge. Here, he uses the words primarily to refer to any people who are in charge of this legal proceeding. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express a human court with a word or phrase that refers to an official meeting to decide whether someone is innocent or guilty or a word or phrase that refers to who is in charge at such a meeting. Alternate translation: “a court of law” or “a human jury” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

443

1CO

4

3

skwh

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ἀλλ’

1

Here, For introduces an even stronger statement about how little Paul cares about being examined by humans. He cares so little that he does not even examine himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that normally introduces a further, stronger statement. Alternate translation: “Indeed,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

444

1CO

4

4

u9jd

figs-idiom

οὐδὲν…ἐμαυτῷ σύνοιδα

1

I am not aware of any charge being made against me

Paul says that he is aware of nothing against himself. By this, he means that he does not know about anything that could be used to accuse him. He is not aware of anything he has done wrong. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “I have a clear conscience” or “I cannot think of any wrong things I have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

445

1CO

4

4

h3wl

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἐν τούτῳ δεδικαίωμαι;

1

that does not mean I am innocent. It is the Lord who judges me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on Paul, who is justified, rather than what “justifies” him. Alternate translation: “this does not justify me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

446

1CO

4

4

bulo

writing-pronouns

τούτῳ

1

Here, this refers back to the whole idea that Paul is aware of nothing against himself. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this by clarifying that it refers back to the whole previous statement. Alternate translation: “what I am aware of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

447

1CO

4

4

hjob

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

Paul uses but to introduce a contrast with everyone else who might “examine” Paul (see 4:3–4). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that introduces a contrast with several previous statements. Alternate translation: “Instead,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

448

1CO

4

4

f6bb

ὁ…ἀνακρίνων με Κύριός ἐστιν.

1

Alternate translation: “the Lord is the one who judges me”

449

1CO

4

5

qi3g

figs-explicitinfo

πρὸ καιροῦ…ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ ὁ Κύριος

1

Therefore

If the form before {the} time, until the Lord comes contains redundant information that would be unnatural to state in your language, you could express the idea without the redundant words. Alternate translation: “before the Lord comes” or “until the Lord comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicitinfo]])

450

1CO

4

5

t1oq

figs-go

ἔλθῃ

1

Therefore

Here Paul is speaking about how the Lord will “come” back to earth at some point in the future. Use a form in your language that could refer to Jesus’ return to earth. Alternate translation: “returns to the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

451

1CO

4

5

wl3i

figs-metaphor

ὃς καὶ φωτίσει τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους

1

He will bring to light the hidden things of darkness and reveal the purposes of the heart

Here Paul speaks as if the Lord will bring a flashlight or torch when he comes, and he will use that torch or flashlight to shine light on things that are currently hidden in the darkness. By speaking in this way, Paul means that the Lord will reveal what no person knows right now. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this phrase with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “who will both disclose what people do not know about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

452

1CO

4

5

dcje

figs-possession

τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {things} that are hidden in darkness. If the hidden {things} would not be understood to be in darkness in your language, you could express the idea by using a word such “in” or “within.” Alternate translation: “the things hidden in darkness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

453

1CO

4

5

ywuk

figs-abstractnouns

τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους

1

If your language does not use the abstract noun darkness, you can express the idea by using a word or phrase that describes something that cannot be seen because there is no light, such as “in shadow.” Alternate translation: “the hidden things in shadow” or “the things hidden where no light shines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

454

1CO

4

5

spwh

figs-possession

τὰς βουλὰς τῶν καρδιῶν

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe purposes that come from or are created in the hearts. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind that the purposes are located in the heartsby using a word such as “from” or “in.” Alternate translation: “the purposes in the hearts” or “the purposes from the hearts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

455

1CO

4

5

tgdg

translate-unknown

τὰς βουλὰς

1

Here, purposes refers to how humans have specific goals in mind and plan ways of attaining those goals. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express purposes with a word such as “plans” or “intentions.” Alternate translation: “the plans” or “the intentions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

456

1CO

4

5

tgox

figs-metonymy

τῶν καρδιῶν

1

In Paul’s culture, hearts are the places where humans think and plan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could state clearly the place where humans think in your culture or express the idea of hearts. Alternate translation: “of the minds” or “that humans plan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

457

1CO

4

5

pw6r

figs-idiom

ὁ ἔπαινος γενήσεται ἑκάστῳ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul speaks as if praise were something that could come or travel from God to humans. Paul means that God is the source of the praise that each one will receive. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of this sentence by translating it so that God is the one who gives the praise. Alternate translation: “God will give praise to each one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

458

1CO

4

5

kcya

figs-explicit

ὁ ἔπαινος γενήσεται ἑκάστῳ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ

1

Here Paul might seem to be saying that every person will receive some praise from God. However, Paul does not mean that. Instead, he only gives the example of the person who has been faithful to God, not the example of the person who has not been faithful to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express why Paul uses only one example by clarifying that this example is only about those who are faithful, or you could include the opposite example about those who have been unfaithful. Alternate translation: “the praise from God will come to each faithful one” or “the praise and blame from God will come to each one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

459

1CO

4

6

agfz

writing-pronouns

ταῦτα

1

Here, these {things} refers back to everything Paul has said about himself and Apollos in 3:4–23. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what these {things} refers to by clarifying that it refers to what Paul has said about farming and building. Alternate translation: “what I have said about farming and building” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

460

1CO

4

6

ijn5

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

brothers

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

461

1CO

4

6

xxp2

translate-names

Ἀπολλῶν

1

Apollos is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

462

1CO

4

6

ymxi

figs-exclusive

ἡμῖν

1

Here, us refers to Paul and Apollos only. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

463

1CO

4

6

ziz9

figs-quotations

μάθητε, τό μὴ ὑπὲρ ἃ γέγραπται

1

for your sakes

If your language does not use this form, you can translate this statement as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “you might learn not to go beyond what is written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

464

1CO

4

6

o02a

figs-explicit

τό μὴ ὑπὲρ ἃ γέγραπται,

1

Here Paul quotes a short phrase that is not from the Old Testament but that would have been well-known to the Corinthians. The phrase what is written could refer to: (1) the Old Testament scriptures. Paul is telling the Corinthians that they should only act in ways that the Old Testament approves. Alternate translation: “Not beyond what the Scriptures say” (2) general principles of life that everyone knows about. Paul is telling the Corinthians that they should only act in ways that are generally approved and accepted. Alternate translation: “Not beyond proper standards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

465

1CO

4

6

kyrt

figs-activepassive

γέγραπται

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than focusing on the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the Scriptures or scriptural author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “the authors of Scripture have written” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God has said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

466

1CO

4

6

hk55

figs-infostructure

ἵνα

2

The statement introduced by so that could be the purpose for: (1) learning that they should not go beyond what is written. Alternate translation: “with the goal that” (2) Paul applying these {things} to himself and Apollos. Alternate translation: “so that, in the end,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

467

1CO

4

6

e79m

figs-activepassive

μὴ εἷς…φυσιοῦσθε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the person “puffs” himself or herself up. Alternate translation: “no one would puff himself or herself up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

468

1CO

4

6

hjfu

writing-pronouns

τοῦ ἑνὸς…τοῦ ἑτέρου

1

Here, the one and the other refer to any specific leaders the Corinthians might praise or blame. Perhaps Paul specifically has himself and Apollos in mind, but he intentionally uses words that would include any leader whom the Corinthians could praise or blame. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the one and the otherby using a word or phrase that indicates that Paul is speaking generally of any leaders here. Alternate translation: “of any leader … any other leader” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

469

1CO

4

7

fnu3

figs-yousingular

σε…ἔχεις…ἔλαβες…ἔλαβες…καυχᾶσαι…λαβών

1

between you … do you have that you did not … you have freely … do you boast … you had not

In this verse, Paul uses the singular form for you. He does this in order to directly address each specific person among the Corinthian believers. In the next verse, he again uses the plural form of “you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

470

1CO

4

7

gtb5

figs-rquestion

τίς…σε διακρίνει?

1

For who makes you superior?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no one.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “there is no one who makes you superior.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

471

1CO

4

7

r6yw

figs-rquestion

τί…ἔχεις ὃ οὐκ ἔλαβες?

1

What do you have that you did not freely receive?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “nothing.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “there is nothing that you have that you did not receive.” or “you received everything that you have.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

472

1CO

4

7

eixw

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ δὲ καὶ ἔλαβες

1

Paul is speaking as if “receiving {it}” were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “And since you indeed received it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

473

1CO

4

7

e8l2

figs-rquestion

τί καυχᾶσαι ὡς μὴ λαβών?

1

why do you boast as if you had not done so?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. Here, there is no answer to the question, since that is exactly Paul’s point. There is no reason for them to boast. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an imperative or a “should” statement. Alternate translation: “do not boast as if you did not receive it.” or “you should not boast as if you did not receive it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

474

1CO

4

7

p0hg

writing-pronouns

ἔλαβες…λαβών

2

Here, both uses of {it} refer back to what the Corinthians have. If your language does not use {it} to refer to an unstated “thing,” you can use a word or phrase that does refer clearly back to what the Corinthians have. Alternate translation: “you received everything … you did … receive everything” or “you received what you have … you did … receive what you have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

475

1CO

4

8

yp8s

figs-irony

ἤδη κεκορεσμένοι ἐστέ, ἤδη ἐπλουτήσατε, χωρὶς ἡμῶν ἐβασιλεύσατε

1

General Information:

With these statements, Paul is stating what he thinks the Corinthians would say about themselves. He does not mean that he believes that these things are true. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some words that clarify that Paul is speaking from the Corinthians’s perspective, such as “it is as if” or “you say.” Alternate translation: “Already it is as if you are satisfied! Already it is as if you have become rich! It is as if you began to reign apart from us” or “Already you say that you are satisfied! Already you say that you have become rich! You say that you have begun to reign apart from us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

476

1CO

4

8

v77u

figs-metaphor

κεκορεσμένοι ἐστέ

1

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians have had more than enough food to eat and beverages to drink. By this, he means that (they think that) they have so many spiritual blessings that there are no more that they can receive. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of satisfied with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “you are stuffed with blessings” or “you have every spiritual gift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

477

1CO

4

8

uc7s

figs-metaphor

ἐπλουτήσατε

1

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians have become wealthy people. He speaks in this way to again emphasize that (they think that) they have more spiritual blessings than they need. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the meaning of become richwith a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “you have become fat” or “you have an excess of spiritual gifts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

478

1CO

4

8

mpir

figs-exclusive

ἡμῶν…ἡμεῖς

1

Here, us and we refer to Paul and others who proclaim the gospel. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

479

1CO

4

9

bb41

grammar-connect-words-phrases

γάρ

1

God has put us apostles on display

Here, For introduces evidence that Paul and the other apostles are not “reigning” right now. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this connection by using a contrast word such as “rather” or use a word or phrase that indicates that this sentence provides evidence that Paul is not “reigning.” Alternate translation: “Rather,” or “you could tell we are not reigning, since” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

480

1CO

4

9

v0bg

translate-unknown

δοκῶ

1

Here, I think introduces Paul’s own opinion of what he and other apostles are meant to do and experience. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind I thinkby using a word or phrase that introduces a person’s interpretation or opinion. Alternate translation: “in my opinion,” or “it seems to me that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

481

1CO

4

9

lz8v

figs-exclusive

ἡμᾶς…ἐγενήθημεν

1

Here, we and us refer to Paul and his fellow apostles. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

482

1CO

4

9

vfq3

figs-metaphor

ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀποστόλους ἐσχάτους ἀπέδειξεν, ὡς ἐπιθανατίους

1

has put us apostles on display

Here Paul uses a metaphor that identifies himself and other apostles as those who receive public humiliation and are put to death. The metaphor itself could: (1) refer to a Roman gladiatorial contest. The apostles, then, would be exhibited in the arena as part of the last event. As those who are sentenced to death, they would then die in this last event. Alternate translation: “has exhibited us apostles in the last event of the gladiatorial games, in which we are destined to die” (2) refer to a victory parade. The apostles, then, would be exhibited at the end of the parade, or last. As the last prisoners, they are sentenced to death, and will be killed soon after the parade ends. Alternate translation: “has exhibited us apostles at the end of the victory parade, in the place where prisoners who are sentenced to death march” (3) be a figure of speech that your readers would misunderstand. If this is the case, you could express the idea in nonfigurative language. Alternate translation: “has chosen us apostles to be humiliated, and we are destined to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

483

1CO

4

9

ayu9

translate-unknown

ἐσχάτους

1

Here, last of all could identify: (1) the time when the apostles are exhibited, which would be as the last event held in the arena. Alternate translation: “at the end” (2) the place where the apostles are exhibited, which would be at the end of the victory parade. Alternate translation: “last in line” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

484

1CO

4

9

e4i1

figs-metaphor

θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν τῷ κόσμῳ, καὶ ἀγγέλοις καὶ ἀνθρώποις

1

Here Paul speaks as if he and other apostles were part of a gladiatorial game or a theatrical show. He speaks in this way to show that the humiliation and death he and other apostles suffer happens in public, with everyone watching to see what happens. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “we live in full view of the world—both of angels and of men” or “we undergo these things publicly, before the world—both angels and men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

485

1CO

4

9

cqh4

figs-infostructure

τῷ κόσμῳ, καὶ ἀγγέλοις καὶ ἀνθρώποις

1

to the world—to angels, and to human beings

This structure could mean that: (1) Paul wants to define the world as angels and men. Alternate translation: “to the world, that is, both to angels and to men” (2) Paul is listing three different things. Alternate translation: “to the world, to angels, and to men.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

486

1CO

4

9

d8da

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώποις

1

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether men or women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “to men and women” or “to people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

487

1CO

4

10

ds54

figs-ellipsis

ἡμεῖς μωροὶ διὰ Χριστόν, ὑμεῖς δὲ φρόνιμοι ἐν Χριστῷ; ἡμεῖς ἀσθενεῖς, ὑμεῖς δὲ ἰσχυροί; ὑμεῖς ἔνδοξοι, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄτιμοι

1

In Paul’s language, he did not need to include {are}. However, many languages, including English, must add {are}, which is why the ULT includes it in brackets. If your language would not use {are} here, you could leave it unexpressed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

488

1CO

4

10

johq

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

-1

Here, we refers to Paul and the other “apostles.” It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

489

1CO

4

10

fkw2

figs-irony

ἡμεῖς μωροὶ…ἡμεῖς ἀσθενεῖς…ἡμεῖς…ἄτιμοι

1

We are fools … in dishonor

With these statements, Paul identifies what he and the other apostles are like from the perspective of this world. They are fools, weak, and dishonored. Paul does know that from God’s perspective they are actually “wise,” “strong,” and “honored.” However, he speaks from the perspective of this world to help the Corinthians change their thinking. Instead of wanting to be wise, strong, and honored, the Corinthians need to realize that following God will instead make them appear to this world as fools, weak, and dishonored. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of these statements with a word or phrase that clarifies that they are spoken from a different perspective. Alternate translation: “We seem to be fools … We seem to be weak … we seem to be dishonored” or “According to the world, we are fools … According to the word, we are weak … according to the world, we are dishonored’ (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

490

1CO

4

10

ufj2

figs-irony

ὑμεῖς δὲ φρόνιμοι…ὑμεῖς δὲ ἰσχυροί…ὑμεῖς ἔνδοξοι

1

With these statements, Paul identifies what the Corinthians think about themselves. They think they are wise, strong, and honored from the perspective of this world. Paul contrasts what the Corinthians think about themselves and how he and other apostles look from the world’s perspective in order to make the Corinthians reconsider what they think about themselves. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these statements with a word or phrase that identifies that they are spoken from the perspective of the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “but you consider yourselves wise … but you consider yourselves strong … You consider yourselves honored” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

491

1CO

4

10

wqh7

figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ

1

You are held in honor

Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ, or united to Christ, explains: (1) the means by which God has made the Corinthians wise. Alternate translation: “by means of your union with Christ” (2) the reason why God has made the Corinthians wise. Alternate translation: “because of your union with Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

492

1CO

4

10

d1s9

figs-infostructure

ὑμεῖς ἔνδοξοι, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄτιμοι.

1

Paul changes the order of the last item in the list, putting You in front of we. In his culture, this is one way to identify the last item in a list. If it would be helpful in your language, you could match the order that Paul uses for the first two items. Alternate translation: “We are dishonored, but you are honored” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

493

1CO

4

11

i298

figs-idiom

ἄχρι τῆς ἄρτι ὥρας

1

Up to this present hour

In Paul’s culture, the phrase Up to this present hour means that what Paul is about to say has been happening and continues to happen up to the time when he writes this letter. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “To this very day” “All the time that we serve Christ,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

494

1CO

4

11

k3f1

figs-exclusive

πεινῶμεν

1

Here, we refers to Paul and the other “apostles.” It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

495

1CO

4

11

hqco

translate-unknown

γυμνιτεύομεν

1

Here, are poorly clothed means that the clothing is old and worn and barely covers a person’s body. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate are poorly clothed with a word or phrase that identifies clothing that barely covers a person. Alternate translation: “are clothed in rags” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

496

1CO

4

11

jj2y

figs-activepassive

καὶ κολαφιζόμεθα, καὶ

1

we are brutally beaten

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on we who are beaten rather than focusing on the people doing the “beating.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “and people brutally beat us, and we” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

497

1CO

4

11

yhf4

translate-unknown

ἀστατοῦμεν

1

we are homeless

Here, are homeless means that Paul and the other apostles do not have a permanent residence or a house that they own. It does not mean that they never had a place to stay. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express are homeless with a word or phrase that indicates that Paul and the other apostles do not have a permanent residence. Alternate translation: “do not own homes” or “are always on the move” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

498

1CO

4

12

exfo

figs-exclusive

ἰδίαις…εὐλογοῦμεν…ἀνεχόμεθα

1

Here, our and we refer to Paul and other “apostles.” They do not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

499

1CO

4

12

ushf

figs-doublet

κοπιῶμεν, ἐργαζόμενοι

1

Here, the words working hard and working mean basically the same thing. Paul uses both words to emphasize how hard he is working. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine these words and indicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “are working very hard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

500

1CO

4

12

e0mz

figs-idiom

ἐργαζόμενοι ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσίν

1

In Paul’s culture, the phrase with {our} own hands indicates that Paul and other apostles were doing manual labor. In fact, we know that Paul himself made tents (see Acts 18:3), so that is probably the manual labor which he refers to here. If with {our} hands would not refer to manual labor in your language, you could use a comparable idiom or an expression that refers to manual labor. Alternate translation: “doing physically demanding work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

501

1CO

4

12

z6fg

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

λοιδορούμενοι…διωκόμενοι

1

The phrases Being reviled and being persecuted identify the situations in which Paul and other apostles bless and endure. If it would be helpful in your language, you could: (1) include a word such as “when” to indicate that these actions happen at the same time. Alternate translation: “Any time we are reviled … any time we are persecuted” (2) include a word such as “although” to indicate that these actions are in contrast with each other. Alternate translation: “Although we are reviled … although we are persecuted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

502

1CO

4

12

n389

figs-activepassive

λοιδορούμενοι

1

When we are reviled, we bless

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are reviled rather than focusing on the people doing the “reviling.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “Others reviling us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

503

1CO

4

12

o7jz

translate-unknown

λοιδορούμενοι

1

Here, Being reviled refers to someone abusing another person with words. If that meaning for Being reviled would not be obvious in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does refer to using abusive words about another person. Alternate translation: “Being slandered” or “Being attacked verbally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

504

1CO

4

12

l71q

figs-explicit

εὐλογοῦμεν

1

Here Paul does not state whom or what they bless. He could mean that they bless: (1) the people who “revile” them. Alternate translation: “we bless in return” (2) God, even though they are suffering. Alternate translation: “we bless God anyway” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

505

1CO

4

12

kue7

figs-activepassive

διωκόμενοι

1

When we are persecuted

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are persecuted rather than the people doing the “persecuting.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “Others persecuting us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

506

1CO

4

13

xvn4

figs-exclusive

παρακαλοῦμεν…ἐγενήθημεν

1

Here, we refers to Paul and other “apostles.” It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

507

1CO

4

13

l3ns

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

δυσφημούμενοι

1

The phrase being slandered identifies the situation in which Paul and other apostles comfort. If it would be helpful in your language, you could: (1) include a word such as “when” to indicate that these actions happen at the same time. Alternate translation: “Any time we are slandered” (2) include a word such as “although” to indicate that these actions are in contrast with each other. Alternate translation: “Although we are slandered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

508

1CO

4

13

a6hp

figs-activepassive

δυσφημούμενοι

1

When we are slandered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are slandered rather than the people doing the “slandering.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “others slandering us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

509

1CO

4

13

p0fd

figs-simile

ὡς περικαθάρματα τοῦ κόσμου ἐγενήθημεν, πάντων περίψημα

1

Here Paul says that he and other apostles are like scum and refuse, both of which are words that describe garbage. Paul speaks in this way to show that the world considers him and other apostles to be worthless, just like garbage is worthless and should be thrown away. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this simile with a comparable image or plainly. Alternate translation: “We have no value according to the world’s perspective” or “We have become like a heap of garbage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

510

1CO

4

13

uubg

figs-doublet

περικαθάρματα τοῦ κόσμου…πάντων περίψημα

1

Here Paul uses two different words for garbage. The word scum refers to what people throw away after they clean something. The word refuse refers to dirt or filth that people wipe or scrub off an object. Paul uses two very similar words in order to emphasize that the world thinks that he and other apostles are like garbage. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “the filthy scum of all the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

511

1CO

4

13

gqxj

figs-possession

περικαθάρματα τοῦ κόσμου

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe what the world identifies as scum. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a short phrase to clarify that scum is what the world thinks he and other apostles are. Alternate translation: “what the world considers scum” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

512

1CO

4

13

flf9

figs-synecdoche

τοῦ κόσμου

1

When Paul uses the world in this context, he is not referring primarily to everything that God has made. Rather, he uses the world to refer to human beings who do not believe in Jesus. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the world with an expression that refers to human beings in general. Alternate translation: “of human beings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

513

1CO

4

13

ip6p

figs-possession

πάντων περίψημα

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe refuse that: (1) comes from all {things}. Alternate translation: “the refuse from all things” (2) all people consider to be garbage. Alternate translation: “what all people consider to be refuse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

514

1CO

4

13

z4tt

figs-idiom

ἕως ἄρτι

1

Here Paul ends this sentence in a similar way to how he began his sentence in 4:11. In Paul’s culture, the phrase even until now means that what Paul speaks about has been happening and continues to happen up to the time when he writes this letter. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to this very day” “all the time we serve Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

515

1CO

4

14

k1at

figs-infostructure

οὐκ ἐντρέπων ὑμᾶς γράφω ταῦτα, ἀλλ’ ὡς τέκνα μου ἀγαπητὰ, νουθετῶ

1

I do not write these things to shame you, but to correct you

If your language would not put the negative statement before the positive statement, you could reverse them. Alternate translation: “I correct you as my beloved children. I do not write these things as shaming you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

516

1CO

4

14

r9pj

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἐντρέπων ὑμᾶς

1

Here, the phrase as shaming you introduces what Paul did not write to do. If your readers would not understand as shaming as a purpose, you could use a word or phrase that does clearly indicate purpose. Alternate translation: “in order to shame you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

517

1CO

4

14

nlzx

writing-pronouns

ταῦτα

1

Here, these {things} refers back to what Paul has already written, focusing on 4:6–13. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these {things} with a word or phrase that refers back to what Paul has just finished writing. Alternate translation: “what I have said about us apostles and you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

518

1CO

4

14

t8jc

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὡς τέκνα μου ἀγαπητὰ

1

correct

Here, the phrase as my beloved children could introduce: (1) the reason why Paul corrects the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “because you are my beloved children” (2) the way in which he corrects the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “as a father corrects his beloved children, so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

519

1CO

4

14

ruu5

figs-metaphor

τέκνα μου ἀγαπητὰ

1

my beloved children

Here Paul speaks of the Corinthians as if they were his beloved children. He speaks in this way because he is their spiritual father, the one who first preached the good news to them. Also, he loves them in the same way a father loves his own children. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind why Paul calls the Corinthians his beloved childrenwith a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “my beloved younger siblings” or “fellow believers whom I love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

520

1CO

4

15

ur1i

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

ἐὰν…μυρίους παιδαγωγοὺς ἔχητε ἐν Χριστῷ

1

Here Paul is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He knows that the Corinthians do not have myriads of guardians, but he speaks in this way to emphasize that they have only one spiritual father, no matter how many guardians they have. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “even if you somehow had myriads of guardians in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

521

1CO

4

15

n8c1

figs-hyperbole

μυρίους παιδαγωγοὺς

1

ten thousand guardians

Here, myriads of guardians is an exaggeration that the Corinthians would have understood to mean a large number of guardians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express myriads with a word or phrase that refers to a large number. Alternate translation: “many guardians” or “a large number of guardians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

522

1CO

4

15

nkcc

figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ

1

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ, or united to Christ, could identify: (1) that these guardians are helping the Corinthians in their union with Christ. Alternate translation: “who work to unite you more strongly to Christ” (2) the guardians as fellow believers in Jesus. Alternate translation: “who believe in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

523

1CO

4

15

d25x

figs-ellipsis

οὐ πολλοὺς πατέρας

1

Here Paul omits some words that may be essential in your language to create a complete thought. In English, these words are essential, so they have been included in the ULT in brackets. If you can translate this sentence without these words, you could do so here. Otherwise, you could retain these words as they appear in the ULT. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

524

1CO

4

15

yij4

οὐ πολλοὺς πατέρας

1

Alternate translation: “you would have only one father”

525

1CO

4

15

j01t

figs-exmetaphor

οὐ πολλοὺς πατέρας; ἐν γὰρ Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, ἐγὼ ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα.

1

Here Paul speaks of himself as a “father” to the Corinthian believers. He became their father through the gospel, which means that he is their spiritual father. He is the one who preached the gospel to them when they became united to Christ Jesus, and that makes him the one who fathered them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express how Paul speaks about fathers by clarifying that Paul refers to “spiritual” fathers. Alternate translation: “you would not have many spiritual fathers; for I fathered you spiritually in Christ Jesus through the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

526

1CO

4

15

m9ek

figs-metaphor

ἐν…Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

2

I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ Jesus to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ, or united to Christ, could explain: (1) that the Corinthians became united to Christ when Paul preached the good news to them. Alternate translation: “when you were united to Christ Jesus” (2) Paul is their father in the Christian family, the family that is united to Christ. Alternate translation: “in the Christian family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

527

1CO

4

16

vkao

figs-abstractnouns

μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind imitators, you can express the idea by using a verbal such as “imitate.” Alternate translation: “imitate me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

528

1CO

4

17

lrqn

writing-pronouns

διὰ τοῦτο

1

Here, this refers back to what Paul said in the previous verse about imitating him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what this refers to by clarifying that it refers back to the previous verse. Alternate translation: “For that reason” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

529

1CO

4

17

r7z7

ἔπεμψα

1

Sometimes, Paul uses the past tense sent with reference to the person who carries the letter to its destination. However, Paul later speaks of Timothy visiting them as only a possibility (see 16:10). Therefore, the visit to which Paul refers here could: (1) have already happened by the time Paul is writing this letter. Timothy would be visiting the Corinthians while Paul is writing this letter, since Paul uses the future tense to refer to how Timothy will remind them of Paul’s ways. Alternate translation: “I have sent” (2) be when Timothy brings the letter to them, at which time he will remind them of his ways. Alternate translation: “I am sending”

530

1CO

4

17

hi7w

figs-metaphor

ὅς ἐστίν μου τέκνον, ἀγαπητὸν καὶ πιστὸν

1

my beloved and faithful child in the Lord

Here Paul speaks of Timothy as if he were his own child. This continues the metaphor about Paul as a spiritual father from 4:15. Paul is Timothy’s spiritual father, and Paul loves Timothy in the way a father loves his child. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “who is my beloved and faithful spiritual child” or “whom I love and who is faithful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

531

1CO

4

17

nwqz

figs-metaphor

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in {the} Lord to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in {the} Lord, or united to the Lord, identifies Timothy as someone who faithfully does what he is called to do in his union with {the} Lord. Alternate translation: “in his union with the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

532

1CO

4

17

oqd7

figs-metaphor

τὰς ὁδούς μου τὰς ἐν

1

Here Paul speaks of how he lives and what he does as my ways, which refers to the paths that Paul walks on. This way of speaking is related to how Paul has already spoken of behavior as “walking” (see 3:3). The phrase my ways could identify: (1) how Paul thinks and lives. Alternate translation: “the way that I live in” (2) the principles that Paul follows concerning how to think and live. Alternate translation: “the principles that I follow in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

533

1CO

4

17

cq9z

figs-metaphor

ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ

1

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in Christ Jesus to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in Christ Jesus, or united to Christ Jesus, describes Paul’s ways as ways that are appropriate for those united to Christ Jesus. Alternate translation: “appropriate in union with Christ Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

534

1CO

4

17

j6gj

figs-explicit

καθὼς…διδάσκω

1

Here Paul does not explicitly state what it is that he is teaching. From the previous words, however, it is clear that he teaches his ways, the same ways that Timothy will remind them about. If you need to clarify what Paul teaches, you could refer to the ways explicitly. Alternate translation: “the same ways that I teach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

535

1CO

4

17

xs5y

figs-hyperbole

πανταχοῦ ἐν πάσῃ ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

Here Paul speaks as if Paul has been everywhere and visited every church. The Corinthians would have understood this to refer to everywhere and every church that Paul has visited. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express everywhere and every church by clarifying that Paul refers to every place and church he has visited. Alternate translation: “everywhere I go and in every church that I visit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

536

1CO

4

17

wdug

figs-doublet

πανταχοῦ ἐν πάσῃ ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

Here, the words everywhere and in every church have very similar meanings. Paul repeats the idea to emphasize that he teaches the ways in every church, not just among the Corinthians. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine the two phrases into one. Alternate translation: “in every church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

537

1CO

4

18

v4fn

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δέ

1

Now

Here, Now introduces a development in the argument. Paul starts addressing some of the Corinthians who are proud. If Now does not introduce a new part of the argument in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does do this. Alternate translation: “Moving on,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

538

1CO

4

18

th6i

writing-pronouns

τινες

1

The word some refers to some of the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what some refers to by clarifying that it identifies some Corinthian believers. Alternate translation: “some from among you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

539

1CO

4

18

flbr

figs-activepassive

ἐφυσιώθησάν

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the people “puff” themselves up. Alternate translation: “have puffed themselves up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

540

1CO

4

18

gap0

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

ὡς

1

Here Paul speaks of him not coming as something that is a possibility. However, he is convinced that this is not true, since he will “come” to them. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “as if” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

541

1CO

4

18

sq6q

figs-go

μὴ ἐρχομένου…μου

1

Here Paul is speaking about his plan to visit the Corinthians at some point. Use a form in your language that indicates future travel plans to visit someone. Alternate translation: “I were not about to arrive where you live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

542

1CO

4

19

jdk5

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

I will come to you

Here, But introduces a contrast with what some people are thinking in the previous verse, that is, that Paul is not going to visit them. In this verse, he says that he will visit them soon. Use a word or phrase in your language that introduces a strong contrast. Alternate translation: “Despite what they think,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

543

1CO

4

19

y1sl

figs-infostructure

ἐλεύσομαι…ταχέως πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἐὰν ὁ Κύριος θελήσῃ

1

If your language would put the if statement first, you could rearrange these two clauses. Alternate translation: “if the Lord wills, I will come to you soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

544

1CO

4

19

hr6o

figs-go

ἐλεύσομαι…πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

Here Paul is speaking about his plan to visit the Corinthians at some point. Use a form in your language that indicates future travel plans to visit someone. Alternate translation: “I will arrive where you live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

545

1CO

4

19

eyq3

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν ὁ Κύριος θελήσῃ

1

Here Paul says that he will only visit the Corinthians if the Lord wills. He is not sure whether the Lord will “will” or not. Use a form in your language that indicates a true hypothetical. Alternate translation: “only if the Lord wills, of course” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

546

1CO

4

19

tdbk

figs-explicit

τὸν λόγον…τὴν δύναμιν

1

The contrast between word and power was well known in Paul’s culture. The contrast states that people can say many things, but they cannot always do what they say they can. If your language has a way to express this contrast between “talk” and “action,” you could use it here. Alternate translation: “the talk … their deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

547

1CO

4

19

kbp1

figs-metonymy

τὸν λόγον τῶν πεφυσιωμένων

1

Here, word represents what someone says in words. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express word with an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “what these who have been puffed up say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

548

1CO

4

19

fz8n

figs-activepassive

τῶν πεφυσιωμένων

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the people “puff” themselves up. Alternate translation: “of these people who have puffed themselves up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

549

1CO

4

19

m92u

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν δύναμιν

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind power, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “powerful.” Alternate translation: “how powerful they are” or “their powerful deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

550

1CO

4

20

iucw

figs-metaphor

οὐ…ἐν λόγῳ ἡ Βασιλεία τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἀλλ’ ἐν δυνάμει

1

Here Paul speaks as if the kingdom of God exists in, not word, but power. By this, he means that the kingdom of God does not consist in what people say but in what they do. To say it another way, word, or what people say, by itself does not make people part of God’s kingdom. Rather, it takes God’s power working for and through people to make them part of God’s kingdom. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the kingdom of God consists not in word but in power” or “the kingdom of God is not about word but about power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

551

1CO

4

20

shgb

figs-explicit

ἐν λόγῳ…ἀλλ’ ἐν δυνάμει

1

The contrast between word and power was well-known in Paul’s culture. The contrast states that people can say many things, but they cannot always do what they say they can do. If your language has a way to express this contrast between “talk” and “action,” you could use it here. Alternate translation: “not in talk but in deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

552

1CO

4

20

gfhp

figs-metonymy

λόγῳ

1

Here, word represents what someone says in words. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express word with an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “what people say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

553

1CO

4

20

wzpo

figs-abstractnouns

δυνάμει

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind power, you can express the idea another way. Alternate translation: “powerful deeds” or “what people powerfully do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

554

1CO

4

21

ix5g

figs-rquestion

τί θέλετε?

1

What do you want?

Paul asks the Corinthians What they want because he wants them to realize that their behavior will show him how to respond to them. He does not want the Corinthians to tell him all their desires. Rather, he presents two options in the rest of the verse, and the question What do you want? shows the Corinthians that they can choose between those two options by listening to Paul or choosing not to listen to him. If your language does not use a question to express this idea, you can translate the question in statement form. Alternate translation: “Depending on what you do, I will behave towards you in one of two ways.” or “How you respond to me will tell me how to respond to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

555

1CO

4

21

wv61

figs-rquestion

ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ἢ ἐν ἀγάπῃ, πνεύματί τε πραΰτητος?

1

Shall I come to you with a rod or with love and in a spirit of gentleness?

Here Paul uses a question to present the two options for how he could act toward the Corinthians when he “comes” to them. He asks a question for the same reason he asked the first question in this verse. He wants them to realize that how they choose to respond to him will dictate how he will act when he visits. If they do not listen to him, he will come with a rod. If they do listen, he will come with love and a spirit of gentleness. If your language does not use a question to express this idea, you can translate the question in statement form. Alternate translation: “I will either come to you with a rod or with love and a spirit of gentleness.” or “If you do not listen, I will come to you with a rod. If you do listen, I will come to you with love and a spirit of gentleness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

556

1CO

4

21

iscw

figs-go

ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς

1

Shall I come to you with a rod or with love and in a spirit of gentleness?

Here Paul is speaking about his plan to visit the Corinthians at some point. Use a form in your language that indicates future travel plans to visit someone. Alternate translation: “Shall I arrive where you live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

557

1CO

4

21

bl1d

figs-metaphor

ἐν ῥάβδῳ

1

Paul speaks of coming with a rod as if he is going to physically beat the Corinthians to teach them to listen to him. This metaphor may continue the way in which he speaks of himself as a “father” in 4:14–15, since fathers could punish their children physically with a rod if they did not obey. By speaking in this way, Paul thus refers to discipline or punishment, but the discipline he threatens will not be physical. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a word or phrase that would describe discipline or punishment, or you could express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to punish you” or “with a harsh rebuke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

558

1CO

4

21

h4oj

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἀγάπῃ…τε

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind love, you can express the idea by using an adverb such as “lovingly” or a verb such as “love.” Alternate translation: “shall I love you with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

559

1CO

4

21

u7b9

figs-possession

πνεύματί…πραΰτητος

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe a spirit that is characterized by gentleness. If your language would not use the possessive form to express that idea, you could express the idea by translating gentleness as an adjective, such as “gentle.” Alternate translation: “a gentle spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

560

1CO

4

21

hpmb

translate-unknown

πνεύματί

1

Here, spirit does not refer to God’s Spirit, the Holy Spirit. Rather, it refers to Paul’s spirit. In Paul’s culture, as spirit of something is a way to describe a person’s attitude that is characterized by that thing. Here, then, Paul speaks about an attitude that is gentle. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express spirit with a word such as “attitude” to express the idea. Alternate translation: “an attitude” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

561

1CO

4

21

ix7l

figs-abstractnouns

πραΰτητος

1

of gentleness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind gentleness, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “gentle.” Alternate translation: “that is gentle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

562

1CO

5

intro

vb3l

0

1 Corinthians 5 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Against sexual immorality (4:16–6:20)
    • Paul condemns a sexually immoral man (5:1–5)
    • Passover festival metaphor (5:6–8)
    • Explanation of previous letter (5:9–13)

Some translations set quotations from the Old Testament farther to the right on the page to make them easier to read. The ULT does this with the quoted words of verse 13. Verse 13 quotes from Deuteronomy 17:7.

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Sexual immorality

This chapter deals mostly with what Paul calls “sexual immorality” (5:1, 9–11). The word Paul uses for “sexual immorality” is a general term for sexual behavior that is considered improper. The specific type of “sexual immorality” that Paul addresses in this chapter is a man having sex with his step-mother. In some languages, there is a specific word for this. English uses the word “incest.” However, since Paul uses a general term and then brings up a specific situation, you also should use a general term for “sexual immorality” in this chapter. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/fornication]])

Judgment

Paul refers to “judgment” or “judging” in 5:3, 12–13. “Judging” refers to deciding whether someone is guilty or innocent. Paul emphasizes in this chapter that Christians should “judge” other Christians in the proper setting (see 5:3–5). However, they do not need to “judge” people who are not Christians. Paul states that “judging” them is God’s responsibility (5:12–13). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

Excommunication

In 5:2, Paul speaks about “removing” the person who committed the sexual sin from among the Corinthians, and he makes a similar command in 5:13. The phrase “hand this man over to Satan” in 5:5 has a similar meaning. Finally, when Paul tells them to “clean out the old yeast” (5:7), this is a metaphor for the same action. Paul is commanding the Corinthians to stop including in their group the man who committed the sexual sin. It is not totally clear whether the man can be accepted back into the group if he stops committing the sin.

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Euphemisms

As is the case in many cultures, sexual behavior is a delicate topic. Paul thus uses euphemisms to avoid sounding crude or nasty. When he says that “someone has his father’s wife” (5:1), this is a delicate way to refer to someone consistently having sex with his father’s wife, whether married or not. He later on calls this behavior “a deed” (5:2) or “such a thing” (5:3). These phrases are ways of referring back to the man having sex with his father’s wife without using crude words. If your language has similar euphemisms for delicately referring to sexual behavior, you could use them here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

Passover metaphor

In 5:6–8, Paul speaks of “yeast” and “Passover.” Passover was Jewish festival in which the people celebrated how God delivered them from serving as slaves in Egypt. The Israelites sacrificed lambs and spread the blood on their doors, and they ate bread without yeast in it because they would have to leave quickly, before the bread could rise. Then, God sent a destroying angel who killed the firstborn child in every house that did not have blood on its door. When this happened, the ruler of Egypt told the Israelites to leave immediately. you could read about these events in Exodus 12. Later generations of Israelites celebrated this day by removing the yeast from their houses and by sacrificing a lamb. Paul refers to this festival in these verses. He uses the festival of Passover as a metaphor to encourage the Corinthians to remove sinful people (“yeast”) from their group (“their house”). There is even a “Passover lamb,” who is Jesus himself. Since this metaphor is drawn from the Old Testament, you should preserve it in your translation. If necessary you could include a footnote that gives some extra information, or you could refer your readers to Exodus 12 if they have access to the book of Exodus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/yeast]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/passover]], and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

In 5:6 and 5:12, Paul uses rhetorical questions. He is not asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with Paul. For ways to translate these questions, look for the notes on each verse that includes these kinds of questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Present in spirit

In 5:3–4, Paul speaks of being with the Corinthians “in spirit.” While this could be a reference to the Holy Spirit, who would connect Paul with the Corinthians, more likely Paul is referring to his own “spirit,” which refers to the aspect of Paul that can connect with the Corinthians even when he is not physically present. When he says that he is with them “in spirit,” that means that he is thinking about them and that they should act as they would if Paul was physically present. You could either use a comparable idiom in your language or explain in some other way what “spirit” means in these verses. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Structure of 5:3–5

In 5:3–5, Paul uses a long and complicated sentence structure. In 5:3, he describes how he has “passed judgment” as if he were present. In 5:5, he tells them what the response to that judgment should be: “hand this man over to Satan.” In 5:4, then, he describes the situation in which they should hand the man over: they should be gathered together and acting with the authority of both Paul and Jesus. Finally, in 5:4, “in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ” could describe how Paul has “passed judgment” in 5:3, or it could describe how the Corinthians have “assembled” in 5:4. In order to translate these verses clearly, you may need to rearrange some clauses or add explanatory information that clarifies what Paul is saying. For more details and translation options, see the notes on those verses.

Structure of 5:12–13

In 5:12–13, Paul alternates between talking about judging “those outside” and “those inside.” If alternating between these two ideas would be confusing in your language, you could rearrange the clauses so that the verses deal with “those outside” first and then “those inside.” Here is an example of how you could do this: “For what to me to judge those outside? God will judge those outside. But do you not judge those inside? “Remove the evil from among yourselves.”

563

1CO

5

1

k55t

translate-unknown

ὅλως ἀκούεται

1

Here, actually could: (1) emphasize that something is really true. Alternate translation: “It is really reported that” (2) emphasize that many people know about what is going on in the Corinthian church. Alternate translation: “It is everywhere reported that” or “It is reported by many people that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

564

1CO

5

1

wrj1

figs-activepassive

ὅλως ἀκούεται

1

Here Paul intentionally uses a passive form to avoid stating who told him about the sexual immorality. If your language does not use this passive form, you can express the idea by making Paul the subject of a verb such as “learn” or by using a form that avoids naming a person. Alternate translation: “Some people have actually reported to me that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

565

1CO

5

1

dlj2

figs-doublet

ἐν ὑμῖν πορνεία, καὶ τοιαύτη πορνεία ἥτις οὐδὲ ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν

1

which does not even exist among the Gentiles

Here Paul repeats sexual immorality in order to emphasize how shocked and upset he is that people among the Corinthians are committing sexual sins. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine these two statements and express Paul’s shock in another way. Alternate translation: “there is sexual immorality among you that even the Gentiles condemn” or “you overlook flagrant sexual immorality, a kind which even the Gentiles do not accept” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

566

1CO

5

1

bnnc

figs-explicit

ἥτις οὐδὲ ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν

1

While Paul does not explicitly say why this immorality is not among the Gentiles, the Corinthians would have understood him to mean that the Gentiles do not permit such behavior and prohibit it by law or social practice. If this information would not be implied in your language, you could include a word or phrase that indicates that Paul refers to the attitude of Gentiles towards this kind of sexual immorality. Alternate translation: “which even the Gentiles avoid” or “which even the Gentiles find shocking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

567

1CO

5

1

q8p7

translate-unknown

τοῖς ἔθνεσιν

1

Here Paul does not use the Gentiles primarily to refer to non-Jews, since there were non-Jewish members of the church. Rather, Paul uses the Gentiles to describe anyone who does not worship the true God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the Gentiles with a word or phrase that identifies those who do not worship or serve God. Alternate translation: “the pagans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

568

1CO

5

1

b9xn

figs-euphemism

γυναῖκά τινα τοῦ πατρὸς ἔχειν

1

a man has his father’s wife

In Paul’s culture, if man has a woman, it refers to a long-term sexual relationship. Often this would be a marriage, but it could also be a sexual relationship without marriage. Here, it is not clear whether the person (someone) marries {his} father’s wife or not. What is clear is that he is in a long-term sexual relationship with {his} father’s wife. If possible use a word or phrase that indicates this kind of general relationship. Alternate translation: “someone is living with his father’s wife” or “someone is sleeping with his father’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

569

1CO

5

1

lxp1

translate-kinship

γυναῖκά…τοῦ πατρὸς

1

father’s wife

Here, {his} father’s wife identifies a woman who is married to a man’s father but who is not the man’s mother. If your language has a specific word for this relationship, you could use it here. If your language does not have a word for this relationship, you can describe the relationship with a phrase, much like the ULT does. Alternate translation: “his father’s wife who is not his mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

570

1CO

5

2

idwe

figs-activepassive

ὑμεῖς πεφυσιωμένοι ἐστέ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that you “puff” yourselves up. Alternate translation: “you puff yourselves up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

571

1CO

5

2

uwco

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα ἀρθῇ…ὁ, τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο ποιήσας

1

Here, so that could introduce: (1) a purpose for the “mourning.” Alternate translation: “in order that the one who did this deed might be removed (2) a command. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “The one who did this deed should be removed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

572

1CO

5

2

rr93

figs-activepassive

ἵνα ἀρθῇ ἐκ μέσου ὑμῶν ὁ, τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο ποιήσας

1

The one who did this must be removed from among you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is removed rather than the people doing the “removing.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “you” do it. Alternate translation: “so that you remove the one who did this deed from among you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

573

1CO

5

2

ffwt

figs-doublet

ὁ, τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο ποιήσας

1

In Paul’s culture, it was normal to use both done and deed to refer to performing an act. If your language would not use both done and deed here, you could express the idea with just one of these two words. Alternate translation: “the one who did this” or “the one who carried out this deed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

574

1CO

5

2

qwja

figs-idiom

ἀρθῇ ἐκ μέσου ὑμῶν

1

When someone is removed from among a group, it means that he or she is no longer part of the group. If your language has a specific word or phrase to describe expelling a member of a group, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “might be banned from your group” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

575

1CO

5

3

rm6l

grammar-connect-logic-result

γάρ

1

Here, the word For introduces the reason why the man who has committed the sexual sin should be “removed from among you” (5:2). The reason is because Paul has already passed judgment on him, and so the Corinthians should be enacting the punishment. Use a word or phrase in your language that introduces a reason. Alternate translation: “He should be removed since” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

576

1CO

5

3

u5a2

figs-idiom

ἀπὼν τῷ σώματι

1

In Paul’s culture, being absent in body is a figurative way to speak about not being present in person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express being absent in the body with a comparable expression or translate the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “not being there with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

577

1CO

5

3

xm4e

figs-idiom

παρὼν…τῷ πνεύματι

1

I am present in spirit

In Paul’s culture, being present in spirit is a figurative way to speak of thinking about and caring about that person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind being present in spiritwith a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “still being connected to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

578

1CO

5

3

gfep

τῷ πνεύματι

1

Here, spirit could refer to: (1) Paul’s spirit, which would be the part of him that connects with the Corinthians across a distance. Alternate translation: “in my spirit” (2) the Holy Spirit, which connects Paul with the Corinthians, even though they are not physically together. Alternate translation: “in God’s Spirit” or “by the power of God’s Spirit”

579

1CO

5

3

ax3u

ἤδη κέκρικα…τὸν οὕτως τοῦτο κατεργασάμενον

1

I have already passed judgment on the one who did this

Here Paul has already passed judgment, which means that he has declared the man to be guilty. Two verses later (5:4), Paul specifies what the punishment that results from the judgment should be: the man should be “handed over to Satan.” Here, then, use a word or phrase that indicates a decision about guilt, not a punishment. Alternate translation: “have already judged the one who did such a thing to be guilty”

580

1CO

5

3

sac6

figs-abstractnouns

ἤδη κέκρικα

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind judgment, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “judge” instead of passed judgment on. Alternate translation: “have already judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

581

1CO

5

3

v4o9

figs-euphemism

τὸν οὕτως τοῦτο κατεργασάμενον

1

Paul does not wish to repeat the ugly details of the man having sex with his stepmother. Instead, he uses general words to refer back to what he has already said about the man. If possible, preserve how Paul avoids repeating the details of the sin in your translation. You could use vague language like Paul does, or you could use a similar euphemism. Alternate translation: “the man who committed this sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

582

1CO

5

3

g8b6

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

ὡς παρὼν

1

Here Paul makes a conditional statement that might sound hypothetical but that he knows is not true. He knows that he is not present with them, but he wants to emphasize that his judgment is just as effective as if he were present. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “even though I am absent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

583

1CO

5

4

xc3z

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

συναχθέντων ὑμῶν καὶ τοῦ ἐμοῦ πνεύματος

1

The phrase You and my spirit, having been assembled gives the time and situation in which the Corinthians should “hand this man over to Satan” (5:5). If this phrase would not indicate timing or a situation in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does indicate time or situation. Alternate translation: “One of the times when you and my spirit have been assembled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

584

1CO

5

4

m9yz

figs-activepassive

συναχθέντων

1

When you are assembled

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the things that are assembled rather than what does the “assembling.” you can express the idea in active form by using a verb such as “gather together” or “meet.” Alternate translation: “meeting together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

585

1CO

5

4

t83d

figs-idiom

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

in the name of our Lord Jesus

Acting in the name of a person means representing that person. Representatives, those who do anything in the name of someone else, act with the authority of the people they represent. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express in the name of with a comparable idiom for representing someone or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “as representatives of our Lord Jesus Christ” or “as people who act for our Lord Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

586

1CO

5

4

fznv

figs-infostructure

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, συναχθέντων ὑμῶν καὶ τοῦ ἐμοῦ πνεύματος,

1

The phrase in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ could modify: (1) how they have been assembled. Alternate translation: “You and my spirit, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ having been assembled” (2) how Paul has “passed judgment” in 5:3. Alternate translation: “I passed this judgment in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. You and my spirit, having been assembled,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

587

1CO

5

4

rhdc

figs-idiom

καὶ τοῦ ἐμοῦ πνεύματος

1

Just as in 5:3, Paul speaks of his “spirit.” Just as there, Paul’s spirit being assembled with them is a figurative way to speak of how Paul thinks about and cares about them. Here, it has the additional implication that what they do when assembled carries Paul’s own authority. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind my spiritwith a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “and my thoughts” or “with my authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

588

1CO

5

4

ku2d

τοῦ ἐμοῦ πνεύματος

1

Here, my spirit could refer to: (1) Paul’s spirit, which would be the part of him that connects with the Corinthians across a distance. Alternate translation: “my own spirit” (2) the Holy Spirit, which connects Paul with the Corinthians, even though they are not physically together. Alternate translation: “my share of God’s Spirit” or “I, by the power of God’s Spirit”

589

1CO

5

4

jz43

figs-abstractnouns

σὺν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind power, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “empower” or “authorize.” Alternate translation: “as people who are empowered by our Lord Jesus” or “as people whom our Lord Jesus has empowered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

590

1CO

5

5

pqbs

figs-infostructure

παραδοῦναι τὸν τοιοῦτον

1

The phrase hand {this} man over identifies the punishment that goes with the verdict that Paul reached when he “judged” him (5:3). If possible, express hand {this} man over as the result or the implication of Paul having “already judged” him. Alternate translation: “since I have declared this man guilty, hand him over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

591

1CO

5

5

xcf6

figs-metaphor

παραδοῦναι τὸν τοιοῦτον τῷ Σατανᾷ

1

hand this man over to Satan

The phrase hand someone over to someone else refers to transferring a person from one authority to another. Here, then, Paul wants the Corinthians to transfer {this} man from under the authority of the church to under the authority of Satan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this figure of speech with a comparable idiom or plainly. Alternate translation: “turn this man over to Satan” or “put this man under Satan’s authority” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

592

1CO

5

5

xmig

grammar-connect-logic-result

εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός

1

Here, for introduces the result of “handing this man over to Satan.” If for would not indicate result in your language, use a word or phrase that does introduce a result. Alternate translation: “with the result that his flesh is destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

593

1CO

5

5

nq4y

translate-unknown

εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός

1

for the destruction of the flesh

This phrase could be a reference to the destruction of: (1) the parts of the man that are weak and sinful, which would indicate cleansing or sanctification. Alternate translation: “so that he will not continue to live sinfully” (2) the man’s physical body, which would mean either by physical suffering or death. Alternate translation: “so that he suffers in his body” or “for the death of his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

594

1CO

5

5

jg1u

figs-possession

εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to clarify that destruction will happen to the flesh. If your language does not use this form to express that idea, you can translate destruction with a verb such as “destroy.” Alternate translation: “to destroy the flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

595

1CO

5

5

nqn8

figs-abstractnouns

εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind destruction, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “destroy.” Alternate translation: “to destroy the flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

596

1CO

5

5

tit6

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

While for {the} destruction of the flesh is the result of the “handing over,” the words so that introduce the purpose of the “handing over.” Use a word or phrase in your language that introduces a purpose. Alternate translation: “in order that” or “with the goal that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

597

1CO

5

5

z2cl

figs-activepassive

τὸ πνεῦμα σωθῇ

1

so that his spirit may be saved on the day of the Lord

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are saved rather than focusing on the person doing the “saving.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God may save his spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

598

1CO

5

5

eibc

translate-unknown

τὸ πνεῦμα

1

Here, spirit refers to the parts of {this} man that are not flesh. Therefore, the spirit is not just the nonphysical part of the person but rather a reference to the whole person apart from his or her sins and weaknesses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express that meaning of spirit with a word or phrase that refers to the salvation of the whole person. Alternate translation: “he” or “his soul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

599

1CO

5

5

ny5b

figs-explicit

ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

Here Paul uses the words translated day of the Lord in the same way the Old Testament uses them: to refer to an event in which God saves his people and punishes his enemies. Paul specifically refers to the event in which Jesus returns to judge everyone. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate day of the Lord by including more words that clarify what Paul means by day. Alternate translation: “on the day when the Lord returns” or “when the Lord comes to judge everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

600

1CO

5

6

h2hk

οὐ καλὸν τὸ καύχημα ὑμῶν

1

Your boasting is not good

Alternate translation: “Your boasting is bad”

601

1CO

5

6

mucf

figs-explicit

μικρὰ ζύμη, ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ

1

In 5:6–8, Paul speaks about yeast and “dough.” Verses 7–8 clarify that Paul is thinking about the “Passover.” In this Jewish festival, people would remove all the yeast from their houses and only bake dough that was not fermented (“unleavened bread”). See Exodus 12:1–28. In this verse, then, the yeast does not represent a good thing. Rather, it is supposed to be removed from the house, but any yeast that is left will still “leaven” a whole loaf. If your language would not consider yeast to be a bad thing when mixed into dough, you could include a word or phrase that indicates that the yeast is not wanted in the dough. Alternate translation: “a little yeast leavens a whole loaf that is meant to be unleavened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

602

1CO

5

6

n9w0

figs-rquestion

οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι μικρὰ ζύμη, ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ?

1

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information or for agreement or disagreement. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing by reminding them of something that they should already know. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “You know that a little yeast leavens the whole loaf” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

603

1CO

5

6

ng4m

figs-exmetaphor

μικρὰ ζύμη, ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ

1

Do you not know that a little yeast leavens the whole loaf?

Here, yeast refers to anything that is added to bread dough to make it ferment and rise. This could be yeast itself or dough that is already fermented (“leaven”). Paul here uses this metaphor to indicate that, just like even a little bit of yeast will “leaven” the whole loaf, so a little bit of sin, or one person who sins, will affect the whole church. Therefore, the Corinthians believers should not “boast,” since the one person who is sinning among them denigrates the whole church. Since this metaphor is based on material from the Old Testament, you should try to preserve the form in your language. You could use a simile, or if necessary, you could use a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “sin is like yeast: a little yeast leavens the whole loaf” or “one bad apple spoils the whole barrel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

604

1CO

5

7

b8fi

figs-explicit

ἐκκαθάρατε τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι. καὶ γὰρ τὸ Πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη, Χριστός

1

Just as in 5:6 and 5:8, Paul is thinking about the Jewish festival of Passover. During this festival, people would remove all the yeast from their houses and only bake unleavened bread, that is, bread that is not fermented. Additionally, a lamb would be sacrificed and eaten. The lamb would remind the people about how God had delivered them from slavery in the land of Egypt. See Exodus 12:1–28. If your readers would not infer this information, you could include a footnote that explains Passover and how it relates to yeast and a Lamb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

605

1CO

5

7

mpra

figs-exmetaphor

ἐκκαθάρατε τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι

1

Here Paul speaks about how Jews would clean out the old yeast during the festival of Passover and only bake unleavened bread. Just like in 5:6, he compares sin to yeast. By speaking in this way, he urges the Corinthians to clean out the person who is sinning. Then, they will be like new dough, like unleavened bread, that is, without sin. Since this metaphor is based on material from the Old Testament, you should try to preserve the form in your language. You could use a simile, or if necessary, you could use a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “Clean out the old yeast, that is, sin, so that you may be new dough, just as you are unleavened bread” or “Clean out the bad apple so that you may be a fresh barrel, just as you are fresh apples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

606

1CO

5

7

z7vq

translate-unknown

καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι

1

When Paul says that they are unleavened bread, this means that they are in danger of encountering the yeast, that is, sin. This is why they must clean out the old yeast. If they remain unleavened by avoiding contact with old yeast, they will be new dough. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express you are unleavened bread by clarifying that Paul calls them this because it shows that yeast is a threat to them. Alternate translation: “for you are currently unleavened bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

607

1CO

5

7

x3pt

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here Paul uses For to introduce the reason why his metaphor about yeast is appropriate. Christ is like the Passover lamb. Since Christ has been sacrificed like that lamb, the Corinthians are supposed to live as if it is Passover. This means avoiding sin in their group. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it more explicit. Alternate translation: “You should act like people observing Passover because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

608

1CO

5

7

ret3

figs-explicit

καὶ…τὸ Πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη, Χριστός

1

Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed

When God delivered the Jewish people from Egypt, he required them to sacrifice a lamb and spread its blood on their doors. God did not harm anyone who had the blood on their door, but the firstborn son of anyone who did not have the blood on their door died. Because of this, the lamb that was sacrificed at Passover represented God delivering the Jewish people by accepting the lamb’s death in place of the firstborn son. See Exodus 12:1–28. The implication here is that Christ’s death also functioned in this way, in place of those whom he delivers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could add a footnote explaining the function of the lamb at Passover. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

609

1CO

5

7

qhrz

figs-exmetaphor

καὶ…τὸ Πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη, Χριστός

1

Here Paul compares Christ to the Passover lamb, since both died to save someone else. Since this metaphor is based on material from the Old Testament, you should try to preserve the form in your language, or you could use a simile. Alternate translation: “Christ, who is like our Passover lamb, has also been sacrificed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

610

1CO

5

7

yzjl

figs-activepassive

καὶ…τὸ Πάσχα ἡμῶν ἐτύθη, Χριστός

1

Paul intentionally does not state who sacrificed the Passover lamb, who is Christ. If your language does not use this passive form, you can express the idea in another way. If possible, do not state who sacrificed Christ. Alternate translation: “Christ, our Passover lamb, has also died as a sacrifice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

611

1CO

5

8

ouhj

figs-explicit

ὥστε ἑορτάζωμεν, μὴ ἐν ζύμῃ παλαιᾷ, μηδὲ ἐν ζύμῃ κακίας καὶ πονηρίας, ἀλλ’ ἐν ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινείας καὶ ἀληθείας.

1

Just as in 5:6–7, here Paul speaks about yeast and “dough.” In this Jewish festival of Passover, people would remove all the yeast from their houses and only bake dough that was not fermented (unleavened bread). See Exodus 12:1–28. Here, then, the yeast is what is meant to be removed, and the unleavened bread is what is meant to be eaten. If your readers would not understand this background, you could include a footnote that gives extra information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

612

1CO

5

8

donb

figs-exmetaphor

ὥστε ἑορτάζωμεν, μὴ ἐν ζύμῃ παλαιᾷ, μηδὲ ἐν ζύμῃ κακίας καὶ πονηρίας, ἀλλ’ ἐν ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινείας καὶ ἀληθείας.

1

Here Paul finishes the metaphor about yeast and Passover that he began in 5:6. Paul encourages the Corinthians to celebrate the festival by getting rid of the old yeast. He then identifies that the yeast stands for evil and wickedness, while the unleavened bread that they are supposed to eat stands for sincerity and truth. With this metaphor Paul exhorts the Corinthians to expel from their group the man who has sinned, just as one would remove yeast from one’s house during the festival. Since this metaphor is based on material from the Old Testament, you should try to preserve the form in your language. You could use a simile, or you could include a footnote that explains the metaphor. Alternate translation: “So then, we should be like those who celebrate the festival, not with old yeast, nor with yeast of evil and wickedness, but with unleavened bread of sincerity and truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

613

1CO

5

8

hoew

figs-explicit

ἑορτάζωμεν

1

Because of what Paul has said in 5:7, this festival must be the festival connected with Passover. If your readers would not understand this from the context, you could include the name “Passover” here. Alternate translation: “we might celebrate the Passover festival” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

614

1CO

5

8

ph92

figs-doublet

μὴ ἐν ζύμῃ παλαιᾷ, μηδὲ ἐν ζύμῃ κακίας καὶ πονηρίας

1

Here Paul repeats yeast in order to define what he means by old yeast. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine the two phrases and introduce the definition in another way. Alternate translation: “not with old yeast, which is evil and wickedness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

615

1CO

5

8

xvx4

figs-possession

ζύμῃ κακίας καὶ πονηρίας

1

Here Paul uses the possessive from to identify the yeast as evil and wickedness. If your language does not use this form for that idea, you can express the idea by using a word or phrase that renames or identifies something. Alternate translation: “yeast, that is, evil and wickedness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

616

1CO

5

8

fo1r

figs-abstractnouns

κακίας καὶ πονηρίας

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind evil and wickedness, you can express the ideas by using adjectives that describe actions or “behavior.” Alternate translation: “of evil and wicked behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

617

1CO

5

8

ymus

figs-doublet

κακίας καὶ πονηρίας

1

Here, the words evil and wickedness mean almost the same thing. The word evil refers to something that is morally “bad,” while the word wickedness refers to something that is characterized by vice. If your language does not have two words that are this similar, you can express the idea with one word. Alternate translation: “of evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

618

1CO

5

8

viwj

figs-possession

ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινείας καὶ ἀληθείας

1

Here Paul uses the possessive from to identify the unleavened bread as sincerity and truth. If your language does not use this form for that idea, you can express the idea by using a word or phrase that renames or identifies something. Alternate translation: “unleavened bread, that is, sincerity and truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

619

1CO

5

8

olbn

figs-abstractnouns

εἰλικρινείας καὶ ἀληθείας

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind sincerity and truth, you can express the ideas by using adjectives that describe actions or behaviors. Alternate translation: “of sincere and true behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

620

1CO

5

8

mybu

translate-unknown

εἰλικρινείας

1

The word sincerity identifies actions done with only one intention, done without deceit. The people doing those actions do not say or pretend one thing while doing something else. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this word by using a word or phrase that identifies something that is done honestly and with one goal in mind. Alternate translation: “of integrity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

621

1CO

5

9

mcrl

figs-explicit

ἔγραψα ὑμῖν ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολῇ

1

Here Paul refers to a letter that he wrote and sent to the Corinthians before he began this letter. The phrase does not refer to this letter but to a previous letter. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate I wrote to you in {my} letter by including a word that clarifies that {my} letter is one that Paul has already sent. Alternate translation: “I already wrote to you in my previous letter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

622

1CO

5

9

le8i

translate-unknown

συναναμίγνυσθαι

1

Here, to associate with often refers to two groups of people meeting together. The idea here is that sexually immoral people should not be a part of the Corinthians’ group. If to associate with does not have this meaning in your language, you could express the idea by using a word that refers to including people in one’s group. Alternate translation: “to consistently meet with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

623

1CO

5

10

vkid

grammar-connect-words-phrases

οὐ πάντως

1

Paul uses by no means to strongly introduce a clarification about what he wrote to them previously (5:9). When he told them “not to associate with sexually immoral people,” he did not mean people of this world. Rather, as the next verse clarifies, he meant fellow believers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express by no means with a word or phrase that introduces a qualification to a previous statement. Alternate translation: “not that you should not associate at all with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

624

1CO

5

10

pgwb

translate-unknown

τοῦ κόσμου τούτου

1

The phrase of this world clarifies that the immoral people are not part of the church. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a comparable phrase that identifies the immoral people as unbelievers. Alternate translation: “who do not believe” or “who are not part of the church” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

625

1CO

5

10

grud

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς πλεονέκταις

1

Paul is using the adjective greedy as a noun in order to identify a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “greedy people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

626

1CO

5

10

taf5

translate-unknown

ἅρπαξιν

1

the greedy

Here, swindlers identifies people who take money from others dishonestly. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express swindlers with a word that refers to such people. Alternate translation: “thieves” or “embezzlers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

627

1CO

5

10

m59j

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

ἐπεὶ ὠφείλετε ἄρα ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελθεῖν

1

you would need to go out of the world

Here Paul draws the logical conclusion about what he did not mean in his letter. Thus, while Paul does not think that the basis for the exhortation is true, he does think that this is the logical result of that basis. He gives this exhortation to show that it is absurd, since they cannot go out from the world. Therefore, the basis for this exhortation is also absurd. If since then in your language would not introduce a result from a reason that Paul thinks is not true, you could use a word or phrase that would introduce such an idea. Alternate translation: “If that was what I had meant, then you would need to go out from the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

628

1CO

5

10

egcx

translate-unknown

ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου ἐξελθεῖν

1

This phrase is not a euphemism for dying. Instead, Paul is saying that the Corinthians would need to travel off earth to get away from the immoral people of this world. In his culture and time, this was impossible. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express go out from the world with a word or phrase that refers to traveling off earth. Alternate translation: “to leave earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

629

1CO

5

11

nys9

νῦν δὲ ἔγραψα ὑμῖν

1

Here Paul could be speaking about: (1) the letter he is writing now, in contrast to the letter he already wrote (5:9). He uses the past tense wrote because the “writing” will be in the past when the letter is read to the Corinthians. Use the tense that would be appropriate in your language for this situation. Alternate translation: “But now I have written to you” (2) the letter he already wrote, but he wants them to understand it correctly now. Alternate translation: “But what I really wrote to you was”

630

1CO

5

11

mi6t

translate-unknown

συναναμίγνυσθαι

1

Here, to associate with often refers to two groups of people meeting together. The idea here is that sexually immoral people who claim to belong to the Corinthians’ group should not be considered part of the group. If to associate with does not have this meaning in your language, you could express the idea by using a word that refers to including people in one’s group. Alternate translation: “to consistently meet with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

631

1CO

5

11

cyrp

figs-distinguish

ἐάν τις ἀδελφὸς ὀνομαζόμενος

1

Here, who is called a brother distinguishes anyone from the people mentioned in the last verse. Paul did not require the Corinthians not to associate with those people, but he does require them not to associate with any such person who is called a brother. Use a construction in your language that indicates that Paul is distinguishing, not informing. Alternate translation: “any person called a brother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

632

1CO

5

11

w9w8

figs-activepassive

ὀνομαζόμενος

1

anyone who is called

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, you can use “you” or “the brother” as the subject. Alternate translation: “who calls himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

633

1CO

5

11

b4us

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφὸς

1

brother

Although brother is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to a man or a woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brother with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “a brother or a sister” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

634

1CO

5

11

xob7

translate-unknown

λοίδορος

1

Here, verbally abusive describes someone who shows anger by using vicious words to attack others. Use a word in your language that describes this kind of person. Alternate translation: “vocally vicious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

635

1CO

5

11

ypib

translate-unknown

ἅρπαξ

1

Here, swindler identifies a person who takes money from others dishonestly. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express swindler with a word that refers to such people. Alternate translation: “a thief” or “an embezzler” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

636

1CO

5

11

fq7j

figs-explicit

τῷ τοιούτῳ μηδὲ συνεσθίειν

1

In Paul’s culture, to eat with someone meant that you accepted them into your social group. Here, he wants the Corinthians not to accept such people into their group. If “eating with” someone does not signify accepting them in your culture, you may need to make that idea explicit. Alternate translation: “Do not even include such a person in your group’s meals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

637

1CO

5

12

kj1x

grammar-connect-logic-result

γάρ

1

Here, For introduces further reasons why Paul wants the Corinthians to focus on “judging” fellow believers but not those outside. These reasons continue into the next verse (5:13). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this connection with a word or phrase that would introduce further reasons. Alternate translation: “Further,” or “For more proof,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

638

1CO

5

12

xeu7

figs-rquestion

τί…μοι τοὺς ἔξω κρίνειν?

1

how am I involved with judging those who are outside the church?

Here Paul asks what to me to judge those outside, but he is not really asking for information. Rather, the question assumes that the answer is “nothing” or “it does not matter to me,” and Paul uses the question to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negative statement. Alternate translation: “it is nothing to me to judge those outside” or “it is not my business to judge those outside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

639

1CO

5

12

jmxt

figs-ellipsis

τί…μοι

1

Here Paul omits some words that may be required in your language to make a full sentence. You could supply words such as “is it” or “does it matter” to complete the thought. Alternate translation: “what is it to me” or “what does it matter to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

640

1CO

5

12

n6on

figs-123person

μοι

1

Here Paul speaks of himself only, but he wants the Corinthians to have the same opinion that he has. If to me would cause your readers to misunderstand this point, you could include the Corinthians in this question as well. Alternate translation: “to us” or “to you and me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

641

1CO

5

12

ncl1

figs-idiom

τοὺς ἔξω…τοὺς ἔσω

1

The phrase the ones outside identifies people who do not belong to the group of believers in Corinth. The phrase the ones inside identifies the opposite: people who do belong to the group of believers in Corinth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these phrases with words or phrases that refer to people who belong to and do not belong to a specific group. Alternate translation: “the outsiders … the insiders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

642

1CO

5

12

m4s6

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ τοὺς ἔσω ὑμεῖς κρίνετε?

1

Are you not to judge those inside?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation or statement of obligation. Alternate translation: “But you should judge those inside” or “You do indeed judge those inside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

643

1CO

5

13

m1d9

translate-textvariants

κρίνει

1

In Paul’s language, judges and “will judge” look and sound very similar. While some early and important manuscripts have “will judge” here, some early and important manuscripts have judges. Unless there is a good reason to translate “will judge,” it is best to follow the ULT here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

644

1CO

5

13

hvo1

figs-pastforfuture

κρίνει

1

Here, judges makes a general statement about what God does. The present tense does not mean that God is currently passing final judgment on those outside and will not do so in the future. Rather, Paul has the final judgment in mind. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the present tense of judges with the future tense here. Alternate translation: “will judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

645

1CO

5

13

z45o

figs-idiom

τοὺς…ἔξω

1

The phrase the ones outside identifies people who do not belong to the group of believers in Corinth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase with a word or phrase that refers to people who do not belong to a specific group. Alternate translation: “the outsiders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

646

1CO

5

13

kx9j

writing-quotations

ἐξάρατε τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν

1

Here Paul quotes a command that appears many times in the Old Testament book named Deuteronomy (see Deuteronomy 13:5; 17:7, 17:12; 19:19; 21:21; 22:21–22, 22:24; 24:7). If your readers would not recognize this command as a quotation, you could introduce it in the same way that you have already introduced quotations from the Old Testament (see 1:31). Alternate translation: “As it can be read in the Old Testament, ‘Remove the evil from among yourselves’” or “According to the book of Deuteronomy, ‘Remove the evil from among yourselves’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

647

1CO

5

13

al7v

figs-quotations

ἐξάρατε τὸν πονηρὸν ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν

1

If you cannot use this form in your language, you could translate this command as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “We read in Scripture that you should remove the evil from among yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

648

1CO

5

13

h6ry

figs-nominaladj

τὸν πονηρὸν

1

Paul is using the adjective evil as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

649

1CO

6

intro

s6hb

0

1 Corinthians 6 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. Against sexual immorality (4:16–6:20)
    • Against public lawsuits (6:1–8)
    • Sins and salvation (6:9–11)
    • Flee from sexual immorality (6:12–20)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Lawsuits

In 6:1–8, Paul speaks about believers taking other believers to court in lawsuits. Paul critiques them for taking their disputes before unbelievers rather than settling them within the church. By the end of the section, Paul says that lawsuits themselves are a “complete defeat” of believers. Paul’s point is that believers will judge angels and the world, so they are quite able to resolve disputes within the church. Therefore, believers should never take other believers to court. In this section, use words and language that describe legal matters in your language. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

Sexual immorality

In 6:12–20, Paul discusses “sexual immorality.” This phrase refers generally to any kind of improper sexual activity, and Paul does speak generally in this section. He mentions particularly having sex with prostitutes, but the commands he gives apply to all kinds of sexual activity. The Corinthians seemed to think that they could do whatever they wanted with their bodies, including having sex with anyone. Paul responds that their bodies are united to Christ, and any sexual activity they participate in needs to fit with their union with Christ. Use general words for improper sexual activity in this section. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/fornication]])

Redemption

In 6:20, Paul tells the Corinthians that they have been “bought with a price.” He does not state what the price is or whom God bought the Corinthians from. However, it is clear that Paul is speaking about what we call “redemption” here. Paul thinks of the Corinthians as slaves up for sale, and God buys them from their previous owner by paying a price. The previous owner can be understood as sin, death, and evil powers, while the price is Jesus the Son dying for believers. You should not include all these implications in your translation, but you should use words that can be interpreted in this way. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/redeem]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

“Members” of Christ or of a prostitute

In 6:15–17, Paul speaks of a person’s connection to Christ and to a prostitute with the language of “members” and “joining.” When he refers to “members,” he is speaking as if the believer were either a body part of Christ or a body part of a prostitute. He shows how bad it is to be “joined” with a prostitute by speaking as if someone cut a body part off of Christ and attached it to a prostitute instead. That is how closely a person is joined either to Christ or to a prostitute. If possible, preserve the body parts language here. (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/other/member]])

Body as temple

In 6:19, Paul speaks as if believers’ bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit. Sometimes he speaks as if the church as a whole is a temple, but here he means that individual believers are all temples. A temple is where a god is specially present, so Paul means that the Holy Spirit is specially present in believers’ bodies. If possible, preserve this metaphor, since it connects to themes throughout the entire Bible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

In 6:1–7, 9, 15–16, 19, Paul uses rhetorical questions. He is not asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with Paul. For ways to translate these questions, look for the notes on each verse that includes these kinds of questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Words for homosexual behavior

In 6:9, Paul refers to “male prostitutes” and “those who practice homosexuality.” In Paul’s culture, these words refer to both participants in homosexual activity. The words “male prostitutes” refers to those who are penetrated during sexual activity, while “those who practice homosexuality” refer to those who do the penetrating during sexual activity. If your culture has specific words to describe these things, you could use them here. If your culture does not have such specific words, you could use general phrases like the ULT does, or you could combine the two phrases into one phrase that identifies homosexual activity.

Quoting the Corinthians

In 6:12–13, Paul quotes words that the Corinthians have said or that they wrote to him. The ULT indicates these words by putting quotation marks around them. Use a natural way in your language to indicate that an author is quoting someone else. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

650

1CO

6

1

gmy5

figs-rquestion

τολμᾷ τις ὑμῶν, πρᾶγμα ἔχων πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον, κρίνεσθαι ἐπὶ τῶν ἀδίκων, καὶ οὐχὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἁγίων?

1

does he dare to go … saints?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. Here, the truthful answer to the question is “they are, but they should not.” Paul asks the question to get the Corinthians to realize how bad going to court before the unrighteous is. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a “should” statement or a statement of fact. Alternate translation: “Some of you actually dare, having a dispute with another, to go to court before the unrighteous, and not before the saints.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

651

1CO

6

1

q5d3

translate-unknown

τολμᾷ

1

dispute

Here, dare refers to having confidence or boldness when one should not have confidence or boldness. Use a word or phrase in your language that indicates improper confidence. Alternate translation: “Do … have the audacity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

652

1CO

6

1

qi57

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

πρᾶγμα ἔχων πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον

1

The phrase having a dispute with another provides the situation in which they are going to court. If it would be helpful in your language, you could make it explicit. Alternate translation: “if you have a dispute with another” or “whenever you have a dispute with another” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

653

1CO

6

1

jsgt

figs-explicit

τὸν ἕτερον

1

Here, another identifies the other person as a fellow believer. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate another with a word or phrase that identifies another as a believer. Alternate translation: “another believer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

654

1CO

6

1

umgg

figs-idiom

κρίνεσθαι ἐπὶ…ἐπὶ

1

The phrase to go to court before refers to settling a lawsuit or other legal dispute before a judge. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express go to court before with a comparable idiom that refers to setting a dispute in a court of law. Alternate translation: “to resolve your lawsuit in the presence of … in the presence of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

655

1CO

6

2

r8sj

grammar-connect-words-phrases

1

The word Or introduces an alternate to what Paul speaks about in 6:1. The Corinthians currently think that going to court in public is fine. Paul gives the true alternative: they will judge the world and thus should not need to take their quarrels and lawsuits anywhere else. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Or with a word that signifies a contrast or gives an alternative. Alternate translation: “Rather,” or “On the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

656

1CO

6

2

i1m5

figs-rquestion

ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ ἅγιοι τὸν κόσμον κρινοῦσιν?

1

Or do you not know that the believers will judge the world?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “You already know that the saints will judge the world.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

657

1CO

6

2

i67f

figs-rquestion

ἀνάξιοί ἐστε κριτηρίων ἐλαχίστων?

1

If then, you will judge the world, are you not able to settle matters of little importance?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negative or positive statement. Alternate translation: “you are definitely not unworthy of the smallest cases” or “you are definitely worthy of the smallest cases (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

658

1CO

6

2

py6h

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος

1

Paul is speaking as if the world is judged by you was a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “because the world is judged by you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

659

1CO

6

2

yq8e

figs-activepassive

ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the world, which is judged, rather than you, who do the “judging.” Alternate translation: “you judge the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

660

1CO

6

2

jqvf

figs-pastforfuture

κρίνεται

1

Here, is judged makes a general statement about what you, that is, the saints, do. The present tense does not mean that the saints are currently passing final judgment and will not do so in the future. Rather, Paul uses the present tense to state a general fact about the saints. The judgment itself will occur in the future. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the present tense of is judged with the future tense here. Alternate translation: “will be judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

661

1CO

6

2

stvc

figs-idiom

ἀνάξιοί…κριτηρίων ἐλαχίστων

1

Here, to be unworthy of something means that one is not capable of doing that thing or is not qualified to do it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express unworthy of with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “unqualified concerning the smallest cases” “not able to judge the smallest cases” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

662

1CO

6

2

dmi6

translate-unknown

κριτηρίων ἐλαχίστων

1

Here, cases could refer to: (1) legal disputes that are resolved in a court of law. Alternate translation: “of the smallest legal disputes” (2) the court of law that decides the legal dispute. Alternate translation: “of the lowest courts of law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

663

1CO

6

3

us55

figs-rquestion

οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ἀγγέλους κρινοῦμεν,

1

Do you not know that we will judge the angels?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “Surely you know that we will judge angels.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

664

1CO

6

3

x6h3

figs-rquestion

μήτι γε βιωτικά?

1

How much more, then, can we judge matters of this life?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the reader agrees. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “How much more the matters of this life!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

665

1CO

6

3

hxzn

figs-ellipsis

μήτι γε βιωτικά

1

Here Paul omits some words that may be required in your language to make a full sentence. You could supply words such as “can we judge” or “are we able to judge” to complete the thought. Alternate translation: “How much more can we judge the matters of this life” or “How much more are we able to judge the matters of this life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

666

1CO

6

3

h3z0

grammar-connect-logic-result

μήτι γε

1

Here Paul’s argument assumes that judging angels is a greater and more difficult thing than judging the matters of this life. The phrase How much more implies that people who can do a great and difficult thing like judging angels can easily do a less impressive and easier thing like judging the matters of this life. If How much more does not express that connection in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does express that connection. Alternate translation: “If we can do that, can we not judge” or “Should it not be easy, then, to judge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

667

1CO

6

3

h374

translate-unknown

βιωτικά

1

matters of this life

Here, matters of this life refers to anything that is a part of people’s ordinary or daily lives. Paul uses the word to identify the lawsuits among the Corinthians as simply matters of ordinary life and insignificant in comparison with something like judging angels. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express matters of this life with a word or phrase that refers to features of daily or regular life. Alternate translation: “what happens in our daily lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

668

1CO

6

4

xn32

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

βιωτικὰ…κριτήρια ἐὰν ἔχητε

1

If then you have to make judgments that pertain to daily life

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that they might have legal disputes, or they might not have legal disputes. He then specifies the result for if they do have legal disputes. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by introducing it with a word such as “whenever” or “when.” Alternate translation: “when you have legal disputes about things of this life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

669

1CO

6

4

v80t

translate-unknown

κριτήρια…ἔχητε

1

Here, legal disputes could refer to: (1) legal disputes that are resolved in a court of law. Alternate translation: “you have lawsuits” (2) the court of law that decides the legal dispute. Alternate translation: “you seek a judgment in a court of law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

670

1CO

6

4

cu0s

translate-unknown

βιωτικὰ

1

Here, things of this life refers to anything that is a part of people’s ordinary or daily lives. Paul uses the word to identify the lawsuits among the Corinthians as matters of ordinary life. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express about things of this life with a word or phrase that refers to features of daily or regular life. Alternate translation: “about what happens in your daily lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

671

1CO

6

4

vw5t

figs-rquestion

τοὺς ἐξουθενημένους ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ, τούτους καθίζετε?

1

If then you have to make judgments that pertain to daily life, why do you lay such cases as these before those who have no standing in the church?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “there is no good reason.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an emphatic statement or a command. Alternate translation: “do not appoint as judges those who are of no account in the church!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

672

1CO

6

4

e791

translate-unknown

τοὺς ἐξουθενημένους ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ

1

why do you lay such cases as these before those who have no standing in the church?

Here, these ones of no account in the church could be: (1) people who are not members of the church in Corinth. Alternate translation: “who do not believe” (2) people who are members of the church in Corinth but whom other believers do not respect. Alternate translation: “whom the fellow believers do not respect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

673

1CO

6

5

dvq3

writing-pronouns

λέγω

1

The phrase I speak could refer: (1) to what Paul has already said, probably all of 6:1–4. Alternate translation: “I say those things” (2) to what Paul is saying throughout this whole section (6:1–8). Alternate translation: “I am saying these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

674

1CO

6

5

xnd7

figs-idiom

πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ὑμῖν

1

Here, to your shame means that the things that Paul has said should make the Corinthians feel shame. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to your shame with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “to embarrass you” or “to make you feel ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

675

1CO

6

5

ebh6

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ὑμῖν λέγω

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind shame, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “shame.” Alternate translation: “I say this to shame you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

676

1CO

6

5

hk4q

figs-idiom

οὕτως οὐκ ἔνι…οὐδεὶς σοφὸς

1

The phrase {Is it} thus {that} there is not any wise {man} identifies a situation in which no wise {man} can be found. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this phrase or find it confusing with a comparable expression that identifies a situation in which there are no wise people. Alternate translation: “Is there not a wise man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

677

1CO

6

5

fue4

figs-rquestion

οὕτως οὐκ ἔνι ἐν ὑμῖν οὐδεὶς σοφὸς, ὃς δυνήσεται διακρῖναι ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ?

1

Is there no one among you wise enough to settle a dispute between brothers?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing, specifically by making them feel ashamed. The question assumes that the answer is “there should be.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a “should” statement or introduce a statement with “surely.” Alternate translation: “You should have a wise man among you who will be able to discern between his brothers.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

678

1CO

6

5

xma9

figs-gendernotations

οὐκ ἔνι…σοφὸς…αὐτοῦ

1

Although the words translated wise {man} and his are masculine, Paul is using them to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these masculine words with non gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “there are not any wise people … their” or “there is not any wise man or woman … his or her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

679

1CO

6

5

l1hd

figs-gendernotations

τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ

1

brothers

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

680

1CO

6

5

o28z

translate-unknown

διακρῖναι ἀνὰ μέσον

1

The phrase to discern between refers to making decisions about disputes between people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this phrase with a word or phrase that refers to deciding which party is in the right in a dispute. Alternate translation: “to judge between” or “to settle disputes between” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

681

1CO

6

6

m7ls

figs-rquestion

ἀδελφὸς μετὰ ἀδελφοῦ κρίνεται, καὶ τοῦτο ἐπὶ ἀπίστων?

1

But brother goes to court against brother, and this before unbelievers!

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that there will be no verbal answer. Rather, the question is supposed to make the Corinthians feel ashamed. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a statement that expresses shock or condemnation. Alternate translation: “brother really goes to court against brother, and this before unbelievers!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

682

1CO

6

6

fyq8

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφὸς…ἀδελφοῦ

1

Although the words translated brother are masculine, Paul is using these words to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brother with non gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “a brother or sister … a brother or sister” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

683

1CO

6

6

dv5g

figs-ellipsis

καὶ τοῦτο ἐπὶ ἀπίστων

1

In this clause, Paul has omitted some words that might be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If your language needs these words, you could include what action is happening. Alternate translation: “and they do this before unbelievers” or “and they go to court before unbelievers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

684

1CO

6

7

kvva

figs-infostructure

ἤδη μὲν οὖν ὅλως ἥττημα ὑμῖν ἐστιν, ὅτι κρίματα ἔχετε μεθ’ ἑαυτῶν

1

Here Paul gives the reason for the defeat after he mentions the defeat. If your language would state the reason first, you could reverse the order of these clauses. Alternate translation: “Therefore, since you have lawsuits among yourselves, this is indeed already a complete defeat for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

685

1CO

6

7

topu

ἤδη…ὅλως ἥττημα ὑμῖν

1

Here, already refers to how the Corinthians do not suffer defeat in the court of law but rather before that, when the lawsuit begins. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express already by clarifying that the time in view is before the lawsuit is decided. Alternate translation: “a complete defeat for you even before you enter the court of law”

686

1CO

6

7

ugf7

ἤδη μὲν οὖν ὅλως ἥττημα ὑμῖν ἐστιν

1

Alternate translation: “Therefore, you are indeed already completely defeated”

687

1CO

6

7

lvc1

figs-metaphor

ὅλως ἥττημα

1

Here, complete defeat refers to total failure in attempting to accomplish some goal. The defeat does not require an opponent, since one can suffer defeat because of other obstacles. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind complete defeatwith a comparable metaphor or plainly. Alternate translation: “a total derailing” or “a total failure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

688

1CO

6

7

tn9m

figs-rquestion

διὰ τί οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθε? διὰ τί οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἀποστερεῖσθε?

1

Why not rather suffer the wrong? Why not rather allow yourselves to be cheated?

Paul does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The questions assume that the reader agrees that it would be better to be wronged and cheated. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these questions by stating the ideas as emphatic comparisons. Alternate translation: “It would be better to be wronged! It would be better to be cheated!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

689

1CO

6

7

ruiy

figs-doublet

διὰ τί οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἀδικεῖσθε? διὰ τί οὐχὶ μᾶλλον ἀποστερεῖσθε?

1

Here Paul repeats his first question with almost exactly the same words. He does this to emphasize the point he is making. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine the questions and express the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Why not rather be wronged or cheated?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

690

1CO

6

7

i5n5

figs-activepassive

ἀδικεῖσθε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are wronged rather than the person doing the “wronging.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that a “fellow believer” does it. Alternate translation: “let a fellow believer wrong you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

691

1CO

6

7

vpy9

figs-activepassive

ἀποστερεῖσθε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are cheated rather than focusing on the person doing the “cheating.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that a “fellow believer” does it. Alternate translation: “let a fellow believer cheat you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

692

1CO

6

8

yfos

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἀλλὰ

1

Here, But introduces a contrast with what Paul wants them to do, which is to “be wronged” and “cheated” rather than take a fellow believer to court. Here Paul says that they do the exact opposite. Rather than “be wronged” and “cheated,” they actually wrong and cheat fellow believers. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this connection with a phrase that clarifies what Paul is contrasting. Alternate translation: “But instead of being wronged and cheated,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

693

1CO

6

8

ixb9

figs-ellipsis

καὶ τοῦτο ἀδελφούς

1

In this clause, Paul has omitted some words that might be necessary to make a complete thought in your language. If your language needs these words, you could include what action is happening. Alternate translation: “and you do this to your brothers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

694

1CO

6

8

kk7b

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφούς

1

your own brothers

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using this word to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “to your brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

695

1CO

6

9

i2ln

0

In 6:9–10, Paul lists people who do things that are unrighteous. Many of these words are the same words he used in the similar lists in 5:10–11. It may be helpful to refer to how you translated the words there.

696

1CO

6

9

ojaf

grammar-connect-words-phrases

1

The word Or introduces Paul’s question as an alternative to “wronging and cheating brothers” in 6:7. If they do indeed know that {the} unrighteous will not inherit {the} kingdom of God, they should not be “wronging and cheating brothers.” Paul uses the word Or to show that these two things are not compatible. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Or with a word or phrase that introduces an alternative. Alternate translation: “Against that,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

697

1CO

6

9

h17l

figs-rquestion

ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ἄδικοι Θεοῦ Βασιλείαν οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν?

1

Or do you not know that

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, we know.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “Surely you know that the unrighteous will not enter the kingdom of God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

698

1CO

6

9

slcx

figs-nominaladj

ἄδικοι

1

Paul is using the adjective unrighteous as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are unrighteous” or “unrighteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

699

1CO

6

9

t1rt

figs-metaphor

οὐ κληρονομήσουσιν

1

will inherit

Here Paul speaks of the kingdom of God as if it were property that a parent could pass on to their child when the parent dies. Here, Paul uses the word inherit to refer to being able to live in the kingdom of God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “will not live in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

700

1CO

6

9

eywd

figs-activepassive

μὴ πλανᾶσθε

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are deceived rather than focusing on the person doing the “deceiving.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “Let no one deceive you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

701

1CO

6

9

vtlq

figs-nominaladj

πόρνοι

1

Paul is using the adjective phrase sexually immoral as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are sexually immoral” or “sexually immoral people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

702

1CO

6

9

h2na

translate-unknown

οὔτε μαλακοὶ, οὔτε ἀρσενοκοῖται,

1

male prostitutes, those who practice homosexuality

The word translated male prostitutes identifies men who are penetrated during sexual acts with other men. The word translated practicing homosexuals identifies men who penetrate other men during sexual acts. Your language may have specific words for these behaviors. If so, you could use them here. If your language does not have specific words for these behavior, you can either use descriptive phrases, or you can combine the two words and refer to homosexual activity in general. Alternate translation: “nor men who practice homosexuality” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

703

1CO

6

9

blc7

figs-abstractnouns

ἀρσενοκοῖται

1

male prostitutes

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind homosexuals, you can express the idea by using verbal form. Alternate translation: “those who have same-sex intercourse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

704

1CO

6

10

zzb5

figs-nominaladj

πλεονέκται

1

Paul is using the adjective greedy as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are greedy” or “greedy people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

705

1CO

6

10

bgj9

translate-unknown

λοίδοροι

1

the greedy

Here, slanderers is the same word that is translated “verbally abusive” in 5:11. It describes someone who shows anger by using vicious words to attack others. Use a word in your language that describes this kind of person. Alternate translation: “vocally vicious people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

706

1CO

6

10

yzdx

translate-unknown

ἅρπαγες

1

Here, swindlers is the same word that is translated “swindler” in 5:11. It identifies a person who takes money from others dishonestly. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express swindlers with a word that refers to such people. Alternate translation: “embezzlers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

707

1CO

6

10

h6aa

figs-metaphor

κληρονομήσουσιν

1

Here Paul speaks of the kingdom of God as if it were property that a parent could pass on to their child when the parent dies. Here, Paul uses the word inherit to refer to being able to live in the kingdom of God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “will live in” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

708

1CO

6

11

j49p

writing-pronouns

ταῦτά

1

Here, that refers to the list of unrighteous behaviors that Paul gave in 6:9–10. Paul identifies some of the Corinthians as people who behaved in those ways. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate that by more clearly referring back to the list of unrighteous behaviors. Alternate translation: “those kinds of people are what” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

709

1CO

6

11

pxp6

figs-doublet

ἀλλὰ ἀπελούσασθε, ἀλλὰ ἡγιάσθητε, ἀλλὰ ἐδικαιώθητε

1

Here Paul repeats But you were in order to emphasize the contrast between what the Corinthians were and what they have now experienced. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can use But you were once and express the strong contrast in another way. Alternate translation: “But now you have been washed, sanctified, and justified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

710

1CO

6

11

v5yq

figs-activepassive

ἀπελούσασθε…ἡγιάσθητε…ἐδικαιώθητε

1

you have been cleansed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on you, who are washed, sanctified, and justified, rather than the person doing the “washing,” “sanctifying,” and “justifying.” If you must state who does the actions, Paul implies that “God” does them. Alternate translation: “God washed you … God sanctified you … God justified you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

711

1CO

6

11

rri7

figs-metaphor

ἀπελούσασθε

1

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians had been washed with water. By speaking in this way, Paul emphasizes that they have been cleansed from sin, just like washing with water cleanses a person from dirt. Paul may have baptism in mind. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “you were washed clean” or “you were purified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

712

1CO

6

11

s55x

figs-idiom

ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ

When something is done in the name of a person, it is done with the authority or power of that person. Here the cleansing, sanctification, and justification are done with the authority or power of Jesus, since they are done in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express in the name of with a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “with the power of the Lord Jesus Christ” or “by the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

713

1CO

6

11

gzrh

figs-possession

τῷ Πνεύματι τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν

1

Here Paul uses the possessive form to identify the Spirit as our God, that is, as the Holy Spirit. He does not mean that the Spirit is something that belongs to our God. If your language would not use that form to identify the Spirit as our God, you could use a word or phrase that does identify the Spirit as our God or the “Holy Spirit.” Alternate translation: “the Spirit who is our God” or “the Holy Spirit, our God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

714

1CO

6

12

c3bs

figs-doublet

πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ’ οὐ πάντα συμφέρει. πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐγὼ ἐξουσιασθήσομαι ὑπό τινος.

1

Here Paul repeats Everything is lawful for me to make two separate comments on the statement. By repeating Everything is lawful for me, Paul emphasizes his qualifications or objections to this statement. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can state Everything is lawful for me once and include both comments after that. Alternate translation: ““Everything is lawful for me,’ but not everything is beneficial, and I will not be mastered by anything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

715

1CO

6

12

sw2e

writing-quotations

πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν, ἀλλ’

-1

Connecting Statement:

In this verse, Paul twice quotes what some people in the Corinthian church are saying. The ULT, by using quotation marks, indicates that these claims are quotations. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Everything is lawful for me and think that Paul is claiming this by clarifying that some of the Corinthians are saying this, and Paul is saying the words that occur after but. Alternate translation: “You say, ‘Everything is lawful for me,’ but I respond that … You say, ‘Everything is lawful for me,’ but I respond that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

716

1CO

6

12

r4mx

figs-explicit

πάντα

-1

Everything is lawful for me

Here, Everything refers to any action or behavior that one might pursue. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Everything by clarifying that Paul is referring to any action or behavior. Alternate translation: “Every behavior … every behavior … Every behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

717

1CO

6

12

y6kn

figs-explicit

συμφέρει

1

Here Paul does not say to whom everything is not beneficial. He means that everything is not beneficial to the person or people who say that Everything is lawful for them. If your language would include for whom everything is not beneficial, you could include a phrase such as “for you” here. Alternate translation: “is beneficial for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

718

1CO

6

12

c8vz

figs-activepassive

οὐκ ἐγὼ ἐξουσιασθήσομαι ὑπό τινος

1

I will not be mastered by any of them

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are not mastered rather than focusing on anything, which tries to do the “mastering.” Alternate translation: “nothing will master me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

719

1CO

6

12

p0d8

translate-unknown

οὐκ…ἐξουσιασθήσομαι ὑπό

1

Here, be mastered refers to being under the authority of something else. Paul here means that some things, when a person habitually does them, begin to have power or control over that person. Here, then, he wishes to tell the Corinthians that, while such things might be lawful, they should avoid doing these things because they will be mastered by these things. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind be masteredby using words that refer to “power” or “control.” Alternate translation: “will not be controlled by” or “will not be under the power of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

720

1CO

6

13

jz55

writing-quotations

τὰ βρώματα τῇ κοιλίᾳ, καὶ ἡ κοιλία τοῖς βρώμασιν;…δὲ

1

“Food is for the stomach, and the stomach is for food,” but God will do away with both of them

In this verse, Paul quotes what some people in the Corinthian church are saying, just like he did in 6:12. The ULT, by using quotation marks, indicates that this claim is a quotation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Food {is} for the stomach, and the stomach for food and think that Paul is claiming this by clarifying that some of the Corinthians are saying this, and Paul is saying the words that occur after but. Alternate translation: “You say, ‘Food is for the stomach, and the stomach for food,’ but I respond that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

721

1CO

6

13

gt0n

figs-ellipsis

τὰ βρώματα τῇ κοιλίᾳ, καὶ ἡ κοιλία τοῖς βρώμασιν…τὸ…σῶμα οὐ τῇ πορνείᾳ, ἀλλὰ τῷ Κυρίῳ, καὶ ὁ Κύριος τῷ σώματι

1

In these two sentences, Paul omits {is} multiple times. If your language does not need to state {is} to express the idea, you can omit {is} throughout these two sentences. If your language does need to state {is} to express the idea, you could: (1) include {is} the first time it is needed in each sentence. See the ULT. (2) include {is} every time it is needed. Alternate translation: “Food is for the stomach, and the stomach is for food … the body is not for sexual immorality, but is for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

722

1CO

6

13

uc1v

translate-unknown

καταργήσει

1

do away with

Here, will do away with refers to making something ineffective, useless, or irrelevant. What Paul means is that God will make food and the stomach unimportant and without function. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express will do away with with a word or phrase that indicates that a God has acted so that food and the stomach are no longer important, useful, or effective. Alternate translation: “will render ineffective” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

723

1CO

6

13

scrh

writing-pronouns

καὶ ταύτην καὶ ταῦτα

1

Here, this refers to stomach, and those refers to food, since food is plural here. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what this and those refer to with the names stomach and food instead. Alternate translation: “both stomach and food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

724

1CO

6

13

pd10

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

2

Here, Now introduces a development based on what Paul has said about food and the stomach. While food is indeed for the stomach, the body is not for sexual immorality. Paul agrees with the Corinthians about food and the stomach, but he disagrees that sexual immorality and the body should be understood in the same way. Instead, the body exists for the Lord. Paul further explains in the next verse (6:14) that, unlike food and the stomach, God will not do away with the body, since we will be resurrected. If Now would not introduce a difference between the stomach and the body, you could use a word or phrase that does introduce such a contrast. Alternate translation: “On the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

725

1CO

6

13

r1co

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ πορνείᾳ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind immorality, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “immoral.” Alternate translation: “for what is sexually immoral” or “sexually immoral behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

726

1CO

6

13

d9q7

figs-explicit

τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

Here Paul means that the body is meant to serve and please the Lord. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate for the Lord with a verbal phrase that indicates that the body should serve the Lord. Alternate translation: “for pleasing the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

727

1CO

6

13

zpx9

figs-explicit

καὶ ὁ Κύριος τῷ σώματι

1

Here, the Lord for the body could express the idea that: (1) the Lord works for the human body and not just the human “soul” or nonphysical part. If you use either of the following alternate translations, you may need to include a comma before it. Alternate translation: “and the Lord works for the body” (2) the Lord is human now and in a body, which would explain why Paul speaks about the resurrection of the Lord in the next verse. Alternate translation: “and the Lord has a human body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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tayy

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, Now introduces one way in which “the Lord is for the body” (6:13). Human bodies are important and are not for sexual immorality, because God will raise those who believe to new life, and this includes human bodies. If Now would not introduce a further development of the argument in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does function in this way. Alternate translation: “Further,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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ev9l

figs-idiom

τὸν Κύριον ἤγειρεν, καὶ ἡμᾶς ἐξεγερεῖ

1

raised the Lord

Paul uses the words raised and raise up to refer to someone who had previously died coming back to life. If your language does not use these words to describe coming back to life, you can use a comparable idiom or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “restored the Lord to life and will also restore us to life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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jvng

ἤγειρεν…ἐξεγερεῖ

1

Here, raised and raise up have the same meaning. Paul uses a slightly different word for variety or because he is referring to the future. In your translation, you could use the same word for raised and raise up. Alternate translation: “raised … will … raise”

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wgh4

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind power, you can express the idea by using an adverb such as “powerfully” or an adjective such as “powerful.” Alternate translation: “by working powerfully” or “by his powerful action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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gt2x

figs-metaphor

μέλη Χριστοῦ…τὰ μέλη τοῦ Χριστοῦ…πόρνης μέλη

1

Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ?

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians were members, which are body parts, that belong either to Christ or to a prostitute. He speaks in this way to indicate how closely joined the Corinthians are either to Christ or to a prostitute. This union is as close as the union between a finger and the body to which it belongs. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “united to Christ … people who are united to Christ … unite with a prostitute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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io5p

figs-rquestion

οὐκ οἴδατε, ὅτι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν μέλη Χριστοῦ ἐστιν?

1

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, we know.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “You should know that your bodies are members of Christ.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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agvy

figs-metaphor

ἄρας…τὰ μέλη τοῦ Χριστοῦ

1

Here Paul speaks about taking away the members of Christ as if, like cutting off a finger, he could remove a body part from Christ. He speaks in this way to show how bad it is to remove a person from union with Christ. It is as bad as cutting off a finger, arm, or leg from a person’s body. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “having removed people from union with Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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f4vd

figs-rquestion

ἄρας…τὰ μέλη τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ποιήσω πόρνης μέλη?

1

Shall I then take away the members of Christ and join them to a prostitute? May it not be!

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no, you should not.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negation. Alternate translation: “I should never take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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h21r

figs-123person

ποιήσω

1

Shall I then take away the members of Christ and join them to a prostitute? May it not be!

Here Paul speaks in the first person because he is using himself as an example. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include a word or phrase that clarifies that Paul is treating himself as an example, or you could use a form that would naturally provide an example in your language. Alternate translation: “should I, for example, make them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

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kmt2

figs-idiom

μὴ γένοιτο

1

May it not be!

Here, May it never be! gives Paul’s own response to his question. The phrase is one of the strongest negatives Paul could use. Use a strong word or phrase that answers a question with a no. Alternate translation: “Never!” or “Absolutely not!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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seg6

figs-rquestion

ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ὁ κολλώμενος τῇ πόρνῃ, ἓν σῶμά ἐστιν?

1

Do you not know that … her?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, we know.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question as an emphatic statement. Alternate translation: “You know for sure that the one who is joined to the prostitute is one body.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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zcgg

figs-euphemism

ὁ κολλώμενος τῇ πόρνῃ

1

Do you not know that … her?

Here, being joined to the prostitute is a euphemism for having sex with a prostitute. Paul uses this euphemism in order to be polite. He also picks this specific euphemism because it can also refer to being joined to someone without sexual implications. He uses the phrase in this way in the next verse to speak about union with Christ (6:17). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express being joined to the prostitute with a similar polite euphemism in your language. If possible, use a euphemism that can also work to describe the nonsexual union with Christ in the next verse. Alternate translation: “the one who lives with the prostitute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

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6

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z54k

figs-activepassive

ὁ κολλώμενος τῇ πόρνῃ

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is joined rather than the person doing the “joining.” If you must state who did the action, Paul implies that the person did it to himself. Alternate translation: “the one who joins himself to the prostitute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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w1am

figs-genericnoun

τῇ πόρνῃ

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

Jesus is speaking of prostitutes in general, not of one particular prostitute. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that refers in general to “prostitutes.” Alternate translation: “to any prostitute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

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up28

figs-ellipsis

ἓν σῶμά ἐστιν

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

Here Paul is pointing out that the one being joined and the prostitute make up one body together. He is not arguing that the one being joined by himself is one body. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some words that Paul implies. Alternate translation: “is one body with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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fioa

figs-metaphor

ἓν σῶμά ἐστιν

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

Here Paul is speaking as if the one being joined and the prostitute together share one body when they have sex. He speaks in this way to emphasize the unity that these two people have when they have sex, which is as close as if they had only one body. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “shares all things with her” or “is united to her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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m2gm

writing-quotations

γάρ, φησίν,

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

In Paul’s culture, For it says is a normal way to introduce a quotation from an important text, in this case, the Old Testament book titled “Genesis” (see Genesis 2:24). If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “For it can be read in the Old Testament” or “For in the book of Genesis we read” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

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vv2n

figs-quotations

ἔσονται…φησίν, οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

If you do not use this form in your language, you could translate these statements as indirect quotes instead of as direct quotes. Alternate translation: “it says that the two will become as one flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

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ks89

figs-explicit

ἔσονται…οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν

1

he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one flesh with her

The passage that Paul quotes here comes from the book of Genesis. The story is about God creating Adam and Eve, the first man and woman. When God brings Eve, the woman, to the man named Adam, the narrative comments that this is why “a man will leave his father and his mother, and he will cling to his wife, and they will become one flesh” (Genesis 2:24). Paul quotes the end of this sentence here. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what this quote refers to, you could include a footnote explaining the context. Additionally by clarifying what the word two refers to. Alternate translation: “A man and a woman will become as one flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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zyjd

figs-metaphor

ὁ…κολλώμενος τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

he who is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him

Here, being joined to the Lord refers to what Paul elsewhere describes as being “in Christ” or “united to Christ.” Paul uses this specific phrase because he used it in the last verse to refer to union with a “prostitute” (see 6:16). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express being joined to the Lord with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. If possible, use the same words you that you used in the last verse for “joined to the prostitute.” Alternate translation: “the one who lives with the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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c2tb

figs-activepassive

ὁ…κολλώμενος τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

he who is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person being joined rather than the person doing the “joining.” If you must state who did the action, Paul implies that the person did it to himself or herself. Alternate translation: “the one who joins himself to the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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z273

figs-ellipsis

ἓν πνεῦμά ἐστιν

1

he who is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him

Here Paul is pointing out that the one being joined and the Lord make up one spirit together. He is not arguing that the one being joined by himself is one spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include some words that Paul implies. Alternate translation: “is one spirit with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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vv1s

figs-metaphor

ἓν πνεῦμά ἐστιν

1

he who is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him

Here Paul is speaking as if the one being joined and the Lord together share one spirit when the one being joined believes in the Lord. He speaks in this way to emphasize the unity between a believer and Jesus, which is as close as if they had only one spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “shares all things with him spiritually” or “is spiritually united to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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kt2x

πνεῦμά

1

he who is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him

Here, spirit could refer to: (1) a person’s spirit in contrast to his or her “body.” While a prostitute and a man can have “one body” (6:16), which is a physical union, the Lord and a believer can have one spirit, which is a spiritual union. Alternate translation: “spiritually” (2) the Holy Spirit, who unites the Lord and the believer. Alternate translation: “in the Holy Spirit”

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ex92

figs-metaphor

φεύγετε

1

Flee from

Here Paul wants the Corinthians to avoid sexual immorality as urgently as if it were an enemy or danger that they might Flee from. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “Carefully stay away from” or “Fight against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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nhpq

figs-abstractnouns

τὴν πορνείαν

1

Flee from

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind immorality, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “immoral.” Alternate translation: “what is sexually immoral” or “sexually immoral behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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sc9d

grammar-connect-exceptions

πᾶν ἁμάρτημα ὃ ἐὰν ποιήσῃ ἄνθρωπος ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ πορνεύων εἰς τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα ἁμαρτάνει

1

immorality! Every other sin that a person commits is outside the body, but

If it would appear in your language that Paul was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using exception language. Alternate translation: “Almost every sin that a man might commit is outside the body, but the one who is sexually immoral sins against his own body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

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dfck

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπος…τὸ ἴδιον

1

immorality! Every other sin that a person commits is outside the body, but

Although man and his are masculine, Paul is using these words to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express man and {his} with non gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “a man or woman … his or her own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

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jr46

figs-metaphor

ἐκτὸς τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν

1

sin that a person commits

Here Paul speaks as if sins were located outside the body. By speaking in this way, he means that most sins do not affect the body the way sexual immorality does. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this figure of speech plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “does not directly affect the body” or “is apart from the body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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i5bt

grammar-connect-words-phrases

1

Do you not know … God? … that you are not your own?

The word Or introduces an alternate to what Paul speaks about in 6:18. Some people are indeed “sinning against their bodies.” Paul gives the correct alternative: they should know that their bodies are the “temple” of the Holy Spirit. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Or with a word that signifies a contrast or gives an alternative. Alternate translation: “Rather,” or “On the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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qy5j

figs-rquestion

ἢ οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι τὸ σῶμα ὑμῶν, ναὸς τοῦ ἐν ὑμῖν Ἁγίου Πνεύματός ἐστιν, οὗ ἔχετε ἀπὸ Θεοῦ?

1

Do you not know … God? … that you are not your own?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, we know.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “You certainly know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit in you, whom you have from God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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bb35

grammar-collectivenouns

τὸ σῶμα ὑμῶν

1

your body

The word body is a singular noun that refers to multiple “bodies.” Paul makes this clear by using a plural your. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “each of your bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

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d2mc

figs-metaphor

ναὸς τοῦ ἐν ὑμῖν Ἁγίου Πνεύματός

1

temple of the Holy Spirit

Here Paul speaks of the relationship between the believer and the Holy Spirit as if the believer were a temple and the Holy Spirit were the god that dwelled in that temple. In Paul’s culture, deities had specific temples, and they would be specially present to their worshipers in those temples. Paul applies this thinking to believers. Each believer is a temple, and the Holy Spirit is in each believer. This means that the Holy Spirit is specially present with each believer. This is a significant metaphor in the Bible so, if possible, preserve the metaphor or express the idea by using a simile. Alternate translation: “is a temple in which the Holy Spirit dwells” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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cg8m

οὗ ἔχετε ἀπὸ Θεοῦ

1

temple of the Holy Spirit

Alternate translation: “whom God has given to you”

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vzz8

figs-metaphor

ἠγοράσθητε…τιμῆς

1

For you were bought with a price

Here Paul speaks if the Corinthians were slaves whom God had bought with a price from someone else. Paul is speaking of what we often call “redemption.” The price is Christ’s death on the cross, which “redeems” believers from sin and evil powers. This is an important biblical metaphor so, if possible, preserve the metaphor or express it as an analogy. Alternate translation: “you were bought with a price, which is the Messiah’s death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1CO

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qv47

figs-activepassive

ἠγοράσθητε…τιμῆς

1

For you were bought with a price

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are bought rather than the person doing the “buying.” If you must state who did the action, Paul implies that “God” did it. Alternate translation: “God bought you with a price” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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y7fe

ἐν τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν

1

Therefore

Alternate translation: “with your body” or “with what you do with your body”

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t65e

translate-textvariants

ἐν τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν

1

Therefore

After your body, a few early manuscripts include “and in your spirit, which belong to God.” Most early manuscripts do not include these additional words. If possible, do not include this addition. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

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intro

a25m

0

1 Corinthians 7 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. On abstinence (7:1–40)
    • Directions on sex in marriage (7:1–7)
    • Directions on marriage and divorce (7:8–16)
    • Believers should remain as God called them (7:17–24)
    • Benefit of staying as one is, whether single or married (7:25–35)
    • Exceptions for engaged Christians and widows (7:36–40)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

The letter from the Corinthians to Paul

In 7:1, Paul says that the Corinthians wrote to him. In fact, the second half of the verse is probably a quote from their letter to Paul. To show this, the ULT puts the quotation inside quotation marks. We do not know what else the letter included about marriage and sex. In the rest of the chapter, though, Paul responds to what they wrote to him.

Sex and marriage

Throughout this chapter, Paul speaks at length about sex and marriage. While he does not argue this here, he assumes that sexual relations should only take place within a marriage. This is clear when he says that lack of sexual self-control is a good reason to get married in 7:9. Further, he has four categories of people in mind: those who have never gotten married, those who are engaged to be married, those who are no longer married (whether through divorce or death of a spouse), and those who are currently married. Whether your language has more or fewer categories for marital status, make the distinctions between these four categories as clear as possible.

Sanctification of unbelieving spouse and children

In 7:12–16, Paul addresses Christian men and women who have an unbelieving spouse. He specifically argues that they should stay together unless the unbelieving spouse wishes to leave the marriage. He argues that they should stay together because the unbelieving spouse and the children are “sanctified” by the believing spouse. By “sanctified,” Paul does not mean that the unbelieving spouse and the children are considered to be Christians whom God has saved. Rather, “sanctified” identifies the unbelieving spouse and the children as appropriate family for the believing spouse. In other words, having an unbelieving spouse does not make one’s marriage and children improper before God. Instead, God “sanctifies” them. If your language has a way to refer to an improper or unacceptable marriage, you might be able to use those kinds of words here.

Divorce

In this passage, Paul uses a number of words and phrases to refer to what we call divorce: “being separated” (7:10–11), “divorce” (11–13), “departing” (15), and “being released” (27). In Paul’s culture, the rules for divorce were different in different places, and some divorces would have been more formal and legal than others. Additionally, in many places both men and women could divorce a spouse, but in a few places only men could divorce their wives. If Paul’s language would be understood in your language, you should try to preserve the different words and phrases he uses. If you need to make his language more consistent, use a word or phrase that refers generally to ending a marriage. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/divorce]])

The “virgin”

In 7:25–38, Paul refers repeatedly to “virgins.” With this word, he identifies a woman who has never been married. The word does not necessarily mean that the woman has never had any sexual experiences. When Paul identifies the virgin as “his virgin,” he refers either to a woman who is engaged to be married to a man or to a daughter who is under the authority of her father (see the last section in this introduction). In your language, use a word or phrase that refers to a woman who has never been married.

The “coming distress”

In 7:26, Paul speaks of the “coming distress.” This is trouble, persecution, or difficulties that affect the Corinthian church and perhaps all churches. When Paul says that the distress is “coming,” he could mean that it has already begun to happen and will continue to happen. It is more likely, however, that “coming” means that the distress is about to begin. Because of this “distress,” Paul thinks that believers are better off not getting married. It is unclear what Paul thought about the length of this “distress.” Is the “distress” still happening in the present day? It is better not to clarify the answer to this in your translation, since Paul does not give any hints. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/trouble]])

Calling

Paul refers consistently to a “calling” and to “being called” in 7:17–24. Throughout this section, “being called” refers to God’s action to save a person. Paul speaks about a person’s situation when they “were called” as a “calling” in 7:20, while in other places he specifies what that situation might be: married or unmarried, circumcised or uncircumcised, slave or free. The point Paul wishes to make is that God’s “call” does not require one to change one’s situation. Rather, God’s “call” is for people to serve him in the situation they are in. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/call]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Euphemisms for having sex

In the first half of this chapter, Paul uses many euphemisms for having sex: “touching a woman” (7:1), “duty” (3), not “depriving each other” (5), and being “together again” (5). In most cases, he speaks in this way to be polite and avoid offending those who would read the letter. When this is true, you could translate Paul’s language with any polite way of referring to having sex in your language. However, the euphemism “duty” in (7:3) particularly emphasizes that married couples are required to have sex. If your language has a euphemism that emphasizes “duty,” you could use it in that verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

Redemption

Just as in 6:20, in 7:23 Paul tells the Corinthians that they have been “bought with a price.” He does not state what the price is or from whom God bought the Corinthians. However, it is clear that Paul is speaking about what we call “redemption” here. Paul thinks of the Corinthians as slaves who are for sale, and God buys them from their previous owner by paying a price. The previous owner can be understood as sin, death, and evil powers, while the price is Jesus the Son dying for believers. You should not include all these implications in your translation, but you should use words that can be interpreted in this way. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/redeem]])

Those who have … should be as those who do not have …

In 7:29–31, Paul emphasizes that those who have or do something “should be as those” who do not have or do that thing. He emphasizes this by giving a list of five examples. Paul’s point is that actions or things related to this world should not define who Christians are. He backs this up in 7:31 by stating that “the present form of this world is passing away.” Therefore, those who weep should act like those who do not weep, and those who are married should act like those who are not married. Neither weeping nor marriage should have an impact on who the Christian is and on what the Christian does. As a Christian, none of these five things, which stand for everything in the “present form of this world,” are significant for one’s relationship to God. If possible, preserve the strong contrasts, which almost sound like contradictions. These strong contrasts are an essential part of Paul’s argument.

Rhetorical questions

Paul uses rhetorical questions in 7:16. He asks these questions to involve the Corinthians in his argument and to force them to think about what he is saying. He again uses rhetorical questions in 7:18, 21, 27. He asks these questions for a different reason: to identify those to whom his statements apply. If possible, you should preserve these questions. However, if your language does not use rhetorical questions, see the notes on each question for other translation possibilities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Translating gendered words

In much of this chapter, Paul uses masculine and feminine words to identify when he is addressing men and when he is addressing women. Unlike in most of the previous chapters, then, you should intentionally preserve most of the gendered language in this chapter. The notes will identify any cases of gendered language that refer to all people. If there is no note, assume that the gendered language is functioning to distinguish between genders.

Who speaks, Paul or the Lord?

Throughout this chapter, Paul uses a number of phrases to indicate whose authority lies behind the commands he gives. First, he marks 7:10–11 as something that the Lord, not him, has spoken. Of course, he himself is speaking, but he is summarizing the Lord’s teaching on divorce. Therefore, “not I, but the Lord” in 7:11 is Paul’s way of indicating that he is summarizing teaching directly from the Lord. Second, he marks 7:12–16 as something he commands. By using “I, not the Lord” in 7:12, he indicates that he gives the commands that follow on his own authority as an apostle. He is not saying that these commands are not as authoritative or important as those in 7:10–11. Third, Paul introduces 7:25–40 by stating that again he does “not have a command from the Lord,” but that he gives “an opinion” that God has made “trustworthy.” He concludes the section by stating that he has given his “judgment,” and he has the “Spirit of God” (7:40). This is a slightly weaker claim to authority than he made in 7:12: these are his “opinion” or “judgment.” However, Paul also claims that God has made him “trustworthy” and given him the Spirit, so these verses should not be taken simply as Paul’s private opinion. Rather, Paul himself already provides exceptions and qualifications in this section because he is less confident. Do not translate what Paul says as if it were simply advice from someone. Instead, this whole chapter carries apostolic authority.

Father or fiancé in 7:36–38?

In these verses, Paul repeatedly refers to “he” or “him.” He does not state who this man is, but the man has a “virgin.” There are two common ways to understand these verses. First, and more likely, the man is engaged to “his virgin,” and Paul is giving him instructions on whether to get married or not. Second, and less likely, the man is the father of the daughter (“his virgin”), and Paul is giving him instructions on whether to give his daughter in marriage or not. If a specific translation choice follows one of these interpretations instead of the other, the notes on these verses will point out whether it matches the “fiancé interpretation” or the “father interpretation.”

767

1CO

7

1

y4lx

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Now

Here, Now introduces a new topic in the letter. Paul begins to discuss things that the Corinthians asked him about in a letter. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Now with a word or phrase that introduces a new topic. Alternate translation: “Next,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

768

1CO

7

1

jq21

figs-explicit

ὧν ἐγράψατε

1

the issues you wrote about

The phrase what you wrote implies that the Corinthians had previously written a letter to Paul in which they asked him questions. Paul now begins to answer those questions. If what you wrote would not imply that the Corinthians had already written a letter to Paul, you could make this explicit. Alternate translation: “what you wrote to me in your letter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

769

1CO

7

1

erl5

figs-explicit

ἐγράψατε, καλὸν ἀνθρώπῳ, γυναικὸς μὴ ἅπτεσθαι

1

“It is good for a man not to touch a woman.”

Here Paul could be: (1) quoting what the Corinthians said in their letter so that he can respond to it, much like he did in 6:12–13. Alternate translation: “you wrote: You said, ‘It is good for a man not to touch a woman.’” (2) expressing his own views about men and women. Alternate translation: “you wrote: It is true that it is good for a man not to touch a woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

770

1CO

7

1

inrh

καλὸν ἀνθρώπῳ, γυναικὸς μὴ ἅπτεσθαι;

1

Alternate translation: “When a man does not touch a woman, that is good”

771

1CO

7

1

cm7y

figs-explicit

ἀνθρώπῳ, γυναικὸς

1

for a man

While the words man and woman could refer specifically to “husband” and “wife,” Paul is quoting a more general statement here that refers to men and women in general. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express man and woman with words that refer more specifically to the sex of the people involved. Alternate translation: “for a male … a female” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

772

1CO

7

1

z9j5

figs-genericnoun

ἀνθρώπῳ, γυναικὸς

1

Here Paul refers to man and woman in the singular, but he is speaking generically of any man and any woman. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “for men … women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

773

1CO

7

1

mx7w

figs-euphemism

ἀνθρώπῳ, γυναικὸς μὴ ἅπτεσθαι

1

not to touch a woman

Here, for a man to touch a woman is a euphemism for having sex. This is a general statement about having sex, although Paul primarily speaks about sex within marriage in the verses that follow. The Corinthians used this euphemism in their letter to Paul in order to be polite. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express for a man not to touch a woman with a similar polite euphemism in your language. Alternate translation: “for a man not to sleep with a woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

774

1CO

7

2

c3uq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

But because

Here, But introduces the qualifications Paul wishes to give for the statement in the previous verse: “{It is} good for a man not to touch a woman.” Paul wishes to give qualifications about whether that statement is from the Corinthians or is Paul’s own statement. Use a word or phrase in your culture that introduces qualifications to a claim. Alternate translation: “However,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

775

1CO

7

2

fys4

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ…τὰς πορνείας

1

But because of temptations for many immoral acts, each

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind immorality, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “immoral.” Alternate translation: “because people are immoral” or “because of immoral behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

776

1CO

7

2

ktqd

figs-metonymy

διὰ…τὰς πορνείας

1

Here, because of immorality refers to how people desire to commit immorality and do commit immorality. Paul does not refer to immorality in the abstract. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate immorality with a word or phrase that refers to “temptation” or “behavior.” Alternate translation: “because of the temptation of immorality” or “because people act immorally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

777

1CO

7

2

r822

figs-imperative3p

ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα ἐχέτω, καὶ ἑκάστη τὸν ἴδιον ἄνδρα ἐχέτω

1

Here Paul uses two third-person imperatives. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use them here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea by using a word such as “should” or “allow.” Alternate translation: “each man should have his own wife, and each woman should have her own husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

778

1CO

7

2

j4wc

figs-idiom

ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα ἐχέτω, καὶ ἑκάστη τὸν ἴδιον ἄνδρα ἐχέτω

1

The phrases have {his} own wife and have {her} own husband refer primarily to the ongoing state of being married, which includes continuing to have sex. However, the idiom primarily emphasizes remaining in a state of marriage with one’s current spouse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate have {his} own wife and have {her} own husband with a comparable idiom or refer directly to staying married. Alternate translation: “let each man continue in marriage with his own wife, and let each woman continue in marriage with her own husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

779

1CO

7

3

he0c

figs-genericnoun

τῇ γυναικὶ ὁ ἀνὴρ…ἡ γυνὴ τῷ ἀνδρί

1

Here Paul refers to the husband and the wife in the singular, but he is speaking generically about any husband and wife. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “each husband … to his wife … each wife … to her husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

780

1CO

7

3

xv9s

figs-imperative3p

ὁ ἀνὴρ…ἀποδιδότω

1

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should” or “must.” Alternate translation: “A husband should give” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

781

1CO

7

3

mj8l

figs-euphemism

τῇ γυναικὶ ὁ ἀνὴρ τὴν ὀφειλὴν ἀποδιδότω

1

sexual rights

Here Paul uses duty to refer to married couples having sex. He uses this word to be polite and also because he wishes to emphasize that having sex is an obligation for married couples. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express duty with a comparable euphemism or refer directly to how married couples “should” have sex. Alternate translation: “Let the husband fulfill his sexual obligations to the wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

782

1CO

7

3

vhv1

figs-ellipsis

ὁμοίως…καὶ ἡ γυνὴ τῷ ἀνδρί

1

likewise the wife to her husband

Here Paul omits some words that may be required in your language to make a full sentence. You could supply words from the first half of the verse to complete the thought. Alternate translation: “likewise let the wife also give to the husband the duty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

783

1CO

7

4

px2s

figs-genericnoun

ἡ γυνὴ…ὁ ἀνήρ…ὁ ἀνὴρ…ἡ γυνή

1

Just as in 7:3, Paul here refers to the husband and the wife in the singular, but he is speaking generically about any husband and wife. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “each wife … her husband does … each husband … his wife does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

784

1CO

7

4

a7nb

figs-abstractnouns

τοῦ ἰδίου σώματος οὐκ ἐξουσιάζει

-1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind authority, you can express the idea by using a verb or verbal phrase such as “control” or “claim as one’s own.” Alternate translation: “does not control her own body … does not control his own body” or “does not claim her body as her own … does not claim his body as his own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

785

1CO

7

4

sspg

figs-ellipsis

ὁ ἀνήρ…ἡ γυνή

1

In both these places, Paul omits some words that may be required in your language to make a full sentence. You could supply words from the first half of each statement in order to complete the thought, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “the husband has authority over her body … the wife has authority over his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

786

1CO

7

5

qq7u

figs-euphemism

μὴ ἀποστερεῖτε ἀλλήλους

1

Do not deprive each other

Here Paul omits a direct reference to having sex in order to be polite. The Corinthians would have understood him to mean that they should not deprive each other of having sex. If your readers also would understand this, you could express the idea the same way Paul did. If your readers would not understand this, you may need to include a word or phrase that politely refers to having sex. Alternate translation: “Do not deprive each other of sleeping together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

787

1CO

7

5

wzeh

grammar-connect-exceptions

μὴ ἀποστερεῖτε ἀλλήλους, εἰ μήτι ἂν ἐκ συμφώνου

1

If it would appear in your language that Paul was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “You should deprive each other only in one situation: by mutual agreement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

788

1CO

7

5

cnr5

figs-abstractnouns

ἐκ συμφώνου

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind agreement, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “agree.” Alternate translation: “when you both agree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

789

1CO

7

5

d3cr

figs-idiom

πρὸς καιρὸν

1

Here, for a season identifies a short, undefined period of time. The word season does not refer to winter or summer. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express for a season with a word or phrase that refers vaguely to a short time. Alternate translation: “for a short period of time” “for a brief time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

790

1CO

7

5

gh0e

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

1

Here, so that introduces the purpose for which the Corinthians can deprive each other. In other words, it gives the purpose for the except statement. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what so that refers back to by clarifying that it explains why the Corinthians can deprive each other. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “You may deprive each only so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

791

1CO

7

5

uq6x

translate-unknown

σχολάσητε τῇ προσευχῇ

1

so that you may devote yourselves to prayer

Here, devote {yourselves} refers to making time to focus on something specific. Paul argues that the only time to avoid having sex with one’s spouse is so that both spouses have extra time to focus on praying to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express devote {yourselves} with a comparable expression. Alternate translation: “you may make more time for prayer” or “you may spend more time in prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

792

1CO

7

5

nww5

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ προσευχῇ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind prayer, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “praying.” Alternate translation: “to praying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

793

1CO

7

5

s1ya

figs-euphemism

πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ἦτε

1

come together again

Here, be together again is a polite way to refer to resuming sexual relations. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express be together again with a comparable phrase that politely refers to having sex. Alternate translation: “sleep together again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

794

1CO

7

5

mdj0

grammar-connect-logic-goal

ἵνα

2

Here, so that could introduce the purpose for which: (1) the Corinthians need quickly to be together again. It is because Satan will tempt them unless they are together. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “Be together again soon so that” (2) the Corinthians should not deprive each other. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “The point of not depriving each other is so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

795

1CO

7

5

md2z

grammar-connect-logic-result

διὰ

1

Here, because could introduce the reason why: (1) Satan may tempt them. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “which he would do because of” (2) they should soon be together again. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “You should do this because of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

796

1CO

7

5

ii8n

figs-abstractnouns

διὰ τὴν ἀκρασίαν ὑμῶν

1

because of your lack of self-control

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind self-control, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “cannot restrain.” Alternate translation: “because you cannot restrain yourselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

797

1CO

7

6

wrma

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο

1

Here, this could refer to: (1) what Paul has said about the one situation in which they may “deprive each other” in 7:5. Alternate translation: “this about when you may deprive each other” (2) what Paul has said about how married couples should regularly have sex in 7:2–5. Alternate translation: “this about being married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

798

1CO

7

6

hprb

figs-infostructure

κατὰ συνγνώμην, οὐ κατ’ ἐπιταγήν

1

If your language would express the negative statement before the positive, you could reverse the order of these two phrases. Alternate translation: “not as a command but as a concession” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

799

1CO

7

6

ncig

translate-unknown

συνγνώμην

1

Here, a concession is something that one allows even though one does not entirely agree with it. Usually, the concession is made because one wishes to avoid antagonizing the person one is dealing with. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind concessionby using a comparable word or phrase. Alternate translation: “a compromise” or “an allowance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

800

1CO

7

6

zsy3

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ συνγνώμην, οὐ κατ’ ἐπιταγήν

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind concession and command, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “concede” and “command.” Alternate translation: “because I concede it, not because I command it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

801

1CO

7

7

b7xz

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

1

Here, But introduces a contrast with everything that Paul has said in 7:1–6. In those verses, he speaks about how believers should act when they are already married. Now, however, he begins to talk about getting married, and he says that he wishes that people stayed unmarried, like he does. The But introduces a new stage in the argument that deals with getting married. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express But with a word or phrase that introduces a new but related topic. Alternate translation: “Now” or “Moving on,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

802

1CO

7

7

rbe7

figs-explicit

εἶναι ὡς καὶ ἐμαυτόν

1

were as I am

When Paul wrote this letter, he was not married, and as far as we know, he was never married. When Paul says that he wishes that all people were even as myself, he is referring to how he is unmarried. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate to be even as myself to include the fact that Paul is not married. Alternate translation: “to be unmarried as I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

803

1CO

7

7

mlsi

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπους…ἴδιον

1

Although men and his are masculine, Paul is using these words to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men and his with non gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “men and women … his or her own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

804

1CO

7

7

zima

figs-metaphor

χάρισμα

1

Here Paul speaks about the way of life that God has called each person to live as if it were a gift that each person receives from God. By using gift, Paul emphasizes that the person receives the gift freely from God and that the gift is a good thing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind gift plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “blessing” or “calling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

805

1CO

7

7

w9ld

figs-ellipsis

ὁ μὲν οὕτως, ὁ δὲ οὕτως

1

But each one has his own gift from God. One has this kind of gift, and another that kind

Here Paul omits some words that may be necessary in your language to make a complete thought. If your language needs these words, you could include a phrase such as “acts in” or “live in.” Alternate translation: “one indeed acts in this way, and another acts in that way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

806

1CO

7

8

y6lc

translate-unknown

τοῖς ἀγάμοις

1

Here, unmarried could refer to: (1) people who are not currently married, whether they never have been married or are no longer married. Alternate translation: “to those without spouses” (2) men whose wives have died, which pairs well with widows. Alternate translation: “to the widowers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

807

1CO

7

8

n401

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς ἀγάμοις

1

Paul is using the adjective unmarried as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate unmarried with a noun phrase or a relative clause. Alternate translation: “to those who are unmarried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

808

1CO

7

8

s7s9

translate-unknown

ταῖς χήραις

1

Here, widows refers specifically to women whose husbands have died. It does not refer to men whose wives have died. Alternate translation: “to women who are widowed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

809

1CO

7

8

f43d

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν

1

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that people might remain as Paul is or they might not. He specifies that it is good if they do remain. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “whenever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

810

1CO

7

8

r27x

figs-explicit

μείνωσιν ὡς κἀγώ

1

it is good

Just as in 7:7, Paul again assumes that his readers know that he is unmarried. When Paul says that it is good for the unmarried and the widows to remain as I also am, he is referring to how he is unmarried. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate remain as I also am by including the fact that Paul is not married. Alternate translation: “remain without a spouse, as I also am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

811

1CO

7

9

o4j5

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ…οὐκ ἐνκρατεύονται, γαμησάτωσαν

1

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that people might have self-control or they might not. Here he gives instructions for if they do not have self-control. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “whoever does not have self-control should marry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

812

1CO

7

9

bxa2

figs-abstractnouns

οὐκ ἐνκρατεύονται

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind self-control, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “self-controlled” or a verbal phrase such as “control themselves.” Alternate translation: “they are not self-controlled” or “they do not control themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

813

1CO

7

9

jy8g

figs-imperative3p

γαμησάτωσαν

1

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “let” or “should,” as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “let them marry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

814

1CO

7

9

ty79

figs-metaphor

πυροῦσθαι

1

to burn with desire

Here, to burn is a way to refer to sexual desire. Paul uses burn because he represents the desire as hard to fight and as something that consumes a person like fire consumes a building. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or by including a reference to sexual desire. Alternate translation: “to burn with desire” or “to lust after someone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

815

1CO

7

10

gxni

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς…γεγαμηκόσιν

1

Paul is using the adjective married as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate married with a noun phrase or a relative clause. Alternate translation: “to those who are married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

816

1CO

7

10

zwgk

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

οὐκ ἐγὼ, ἀλλὰ ὁ Κύριος

1

Here Paul clarifies that he is not the authority behind this command. It is the Lord who is the authority here. Paul specifically has in mind what the Lord said about marriage and divorce while he was on earth (see Mark 10:5–12). If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate not I, but the Lord either by identifying that it is not Paul “alone” who gives the command, or by clarifying that Paul is referring to what the Lord said. Alternate translation: “not I alone, but the Lord also” or “and here I refer to what the Lord said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

817

1CO

7

10

ywsy

figs-genericnoun

γυναῖκα ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς

1

Here Paul is speaking of wives and husbands in general, not just of one wife and husband. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express wife and husband with a comparable way to refer generically to wives and husbands. Alternate translation: “each wife … from her husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

818

1CO

7

10

hc5p

figs-idiom

ἀπὸ…μὴ χωρισθῆναι

1

should not separate from

Here, to be separated from is technical language for ending a marriage before death. The phrase does not distinguish between “separation” and “divorce.” If possible, use a similar general phrase in your language. Alternate translation: “is not to divorce or separate from” or “is not to leave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

819

1CO

7

10

h049

figs-activepassive

μὴ χωρισθῆναι

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the wife, who is separated, rather than the person doing the “separating.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the wife does it herself. Alternate translation: “is not to separate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

820

1CO

7

11

wtbo

figs-infostructure

ἐὰν δὲ καὶ χωρισθῇ, μενέτω ἄγαμος ἢ τῷ ἀνδρὶ καταλλαγήτω

1

The ULT puts this clause in parentheses because it is a qualification of what Paul said in 7:11 and because one can read 7:10–11 smoothly together without this clause. In this clause, Paul issues commands about what the wife is supposed to do if she divorces her husband despite what Paul has said. Use a form in your language that would indicate a qualification or a parenthesis. Alternate translation: “if she is separated despite what I have said, let her remain unmarried, or let her be reconciled to the husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

821

1CO

7

11

r5oz

figs-genericnoun

χωρισθῇ…τῷ ἀνδρὶ…ἄνδρα…γυναῖκα

1

Here Paul is speaking of wives and husbands in general, not just of one wife and husband. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express wife and husband with a comparable way to refer generically to wives and husbands. Alternate translation: “one of the wives might be separated … to her husband … each husband … his wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

822

1CO

7

11

pqr9

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν δὲ καὶ χωρισθῇ, μενέτω

1

Here Paul uses even if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a wife might be separated, or she might not. He then specifies the result if she is separated. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by introducing it with a word such as “whenever” or with a relative clause. Alternate translation: “but let whichever wife might be separated remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

823

1CO

7

11

phpw

figs-activepassive

χωρισθῇ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the “wife” who is separated, rather than focusing on the person doing the “separating.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the “wife” does it herself. Alternate translation: “she separates” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

824

1CO

7

11

lj79

figs-ellipsis

χωρισθῇ

1

Here Paul omits some words that might be needed in your language to make a complete thought. Paul omits them because he already used them in 7:10 and he assumes his audience will infer them from there. If you need to include these words, you could insert the words “from her husband.” Alternate translation: “she might be separated from her husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

825

1CO

7

11

tvo2

figs-imperative3p

μενέτω ἄγαμος ἢ τῷ ἀνδρὶ καταλλαγήτω

1

Here Paul uses two third-person imperatives. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use them here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea by using a word such as “should” or “must.” Alternate translation: “she must remain unmarried, or she must be reconciled to the husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

826

1CO

7

11

lxf7

figs-activepassive

τῷ ἀνδρὶ καταλλαγήτω

1

be reconciled to her husband

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the “wife,” who is reconciled, rather than focusing on the person doing the “reconciling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the “wife” does it herself. Alternate translation: “let her reconcile with the husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

827

1CO

7

11

k7ju

ἄνδρα γυναῖκα μὴ ἀφιέναι

1

Alternate translation: “a husband should not divorce a wife”

828

1CO

7

12

k9yd

τοῖς…λοιποῖς

1

agrees

Here, the rest could refer to: (1) people in situations other than those already named, particularly those who are married to an unbelieving spouse. Alternate translation: “to the rest of those who are married” (2) everything else Paul is about to say. Alternate translation: “about other situations”

829

1CO

7

12

xn88

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ἐγώ, οὐχ ὁ Κύριος

1

Here, I, not the Lord is the opposite of what Paul said in 7:10. Paul wishes to clarify that he is the authority behind this command. Of course, the Lord made him an apostle and gave him authority, but he wants the Corinthians to know that he is speaking out of that authority here, and he is not referring to what the Lord said while he was on earth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate I, not the Lord either by identifying that it is Paul alone who gives the command, or by clarifying that the Lord did not say anything about this topic. Alternate translation: “I alone” or “on my own authority, since the Lord did not speak about this topic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

830

1CO

7

12

rrfp

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ τις ἀδελφὸς γυναῖκα ἔχει ἄπιστον, καὶ αὕτη συνευδοκεῖ οἰκεῖν μετ’ αὐτοῦ, μὴ ἀφιέτω

1

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a brother might have an unbelieving wife, and she might agree to live with him, or this situation might not happen. He then specifies the result if this situation does happen. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by introducing it with a word such as “whenever” or by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “but let any brother who has an unbelieving wife who agrees to live with him not divorce” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

831

1CO

7

12

ae1u

figs-idiom

οἰκεῖν μετ’ αὐτοῦ

1

Here, to live with him refers to staying married. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to live with him with a comparable idiom that refers to staying married. Alternate translation: “to stay with him” or “to remain married to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

832

1CO

7

12

jej3

figs-imperative3p

μὴ ἀφιέτω αὐτήν

1

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “must” or “should.” Alternate translation: “he must not divorce her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

833

1CO

7

13

gtxx

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

γυνὴ εἴ τις ἔχει ἄνδρα ἄπιστον, καὶ οὗτος συνευδοκεῖ οἰκεῖν μετ’ αὐτῆς, μὴ ἀφιέτω

1

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a woman might have an unbelieving husband, and he might agree to live with her, or this situation might not happen. He then specifies the result if this situation does happen. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by introducing it with a word such as “whenever” or by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “but let any woman who has an unbelieving husband who agrees to live with her not divorce” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

834

1CO

7

13

q39l

figs-idiom

οἰκεῖν μετ’ αὐτῆς

1

Here, to live with her refers to staying married. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to live with her with a comparable idiom that refers to staying married. Alternate translation: “to stay with her” or “to remain married to her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

835

1CO

7

13

fsbq

figs-imperative3p

μὴ ἀφιέτω τὸν ἄνδρα

1

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “must” or “should.” Alternate translation: “she must not divorce the husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

836

1CO

7

14

hv30

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

Here, For introduces the reason or basis for Paul’s commands in 7:12–13. When one spouse is not a believer, Paul wants them to stay together, and the reason is that the unbelieving spouse is sanctified. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express For with a word or phrase that introduces the basis for a command. Alternate translation: “You should do this because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

837

1CO

7

14

k0qs

figs-genericnoun

ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ἄπιστος ἐν τῇ γυναικί…ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄπιστος ἐν τῷ ἀδελφῷ

1

Here Paul is speaking of wives and husbands in general, not just of one wife and husband. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express wife and husband with a comparable way to refer generically to wives and husbands. Alternate translation: “any unbelieving husband … through his wife … any unbelieving wife … through her husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

838

1CO

7

14

l84p

figs-activepassive

ἡγίασται…ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ἄπιστος ἐν τῇ γυναικί; καὶ ἡγίασται ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄπιστος ἐν τῷ ἀδελφῷ

1

For the unbelieving husband is set apart because of his wife

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are sanctified rather than the person doing the “sanctifying.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God sanctifies the unbelieving husband through the wife, and God sanctifies the unbelieving wife through the brother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

839

1CO

7

14

b9rb

translate-unknown

ἡγίασται

-1

Here, sanctified is a reference to purity. It does not mean that the unbelieving husband or unbelieving wife is considered to be a believer. Rather, Paul’s point is that the believing spouse is not made unclean by the unbelieving spouse. Just the opposite: the marriage is clean and pure because of the believing spouse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express sanctified with a word or phrase that identifies an acceptable or pure marriage partner. Alternate translation: “is made clean … is made clean” or “is considered an acceptable spouse … is considered an acceptable spouse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

840

1CO

7

14

i1x4

figs-explicit

τῷ ἀδελφῷ

1

the brother

Here, the brother refers to a believing man, in this case the believing husband. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the brother by clarifying that the brother is the unbelieving wife’s spouse. Alternate translation: “the husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

841

1CO

7

14

x9vy

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

ἐπεὶ ἄρα τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν ἀκάθαρτά ἐστιν

1

Here, Otherwise refers to what the situation would be like if what Paul has just said were not true. Paul does not actually think that your children are unclean, but that would be true if he was wrong about the unbelieving spouse being sanctified. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Otherwise with a form that refers to a situation that the author thinks is not true. Alternate translation: “If that were not so, your children would be unclean” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

842

1CO

7

14

iy14

figs-123person

ὑμῶν

1

Here, your refers to anyone among the Corinthians who has an unbelieving spouse. Thus, it refers back to the wife and the brother. If your language would not use your in this situation, you could use their instead. Alternate translation: “their” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

843

1CO

7

14

qtbz

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

νῦν δὲ ἅγιά ἐστιν

1

Here, but now provides the contrast with Otherwise your children are unclean. The word now does not refer to time but rather identifies that what Paul has said about the unbelieving spouse being sanctified really is true. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express now with a word or phrase that identifies that what Paul has said is true. Alternate translation: “but since the unbelieving spouse is sanctified, they are holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

844

1CO

7

14

fmu5

translate-unknown

ἀκάθαρτά…ἅγιά

1

they are set apart

Here, holy is a reference to purity, and unclean is a reference to impurity. The word holy does not mean that the children are considered to be believers. Rather, Paul’s point is that the children are not made unclean by having an unbelieving parent. Just the opposite: the children are clean and pure because of the believing parent. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express unclean and holy with words or phrases that identify the children as those born in a “clean” or “honorable” way. Alternate translation: “not pure … pure” or “dishonored … honorable” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

845

1CO

7

15

rdwy

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ…ὁ ἄπιστος χωρίζεται, χωριζέσθω

1

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that the unbeliever might depart, or he or she might not. He then specifies the result for if the unbeliever departs. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “whichever unbeliever departs, let him go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

846

1CO

7

15

qjmw

figs-idiom

εἰ…ὁ ἄπιστος χωρίζεται, χωριζέσθω

1

Here, departs refers to ending the marriage, that is, leaving the spouse. The phrase let him go refers to allowing the spouse to break the marriage or leave. If these words would not refer to breaking a marriage or getting divorced in your language, you could use a comparable expression. Alternate translation: “if the unbeliever wants a divorce, let him divorce you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

847

1CO

7

15

t5tf

figs-gendernotations

ὁ ἄπιστος…χωριζέσθω

1

Although him is masculine, Paul is using it to refer back to the unbeliever, which could refer to either a man or a woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express him with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “the unbeliever … let him or her go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

848

1CO

7

15

uefj

figs-genericnoun

ὁ ἄπιστος…ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ

1

Here Paul is speaking of unbelievers, brothers, and sisters in general and not of just one unbeliever, brother, or sister. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these words with a comparable way to refer generically to unbelievers, brothers, and sisters. Alternate translation: “one of the unbelievers … the brother or the sister involved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

849

1CO

7

15

h9qc

figs-imperative3p

χωριζέσθω

1

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should” or “allow.” Alternate translation: “allow him to go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

850

1CO

7

15

jef4

figs-metaphor

οὐ δεδούλωται ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ

1

In such cases, the brother or sister is not bound to their vows

Here, bound could refer to: (1) the marriage with an unbelieving spouse. Paul is saying that the brother or the sister does not need to try to preserve the marriage. They are not bound to the unbeliever but can accept the divorce. Alternate translation: “the brother or the sister is not bound to the unbeliever” (2) the rules that Paul laid out for staying with a spouse in 7:10–13. Paul is saying that the brother or the sister does not have to follow those rules about staying with a spouse, and perhaps he is even saying that they can marry someone else. Alternate translation: “the brother or the sister is not bound to remain unmarried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

851

1CO

7

15

v76o

figs-explicit

ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ

1

In such cases, the brother or sister is not bound to their vows

Here Paul uses brother and sister to identify the people involved as believers of both genders. The people he refers to are brother and sister of the Corinthian believers, not of the unbeliever. Rather, the brother or the sister is married to the unbeliever. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the brother or the sister with a word or phrase that refers to believing husbands and wives. Alternate translation: “the believing husband or wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

852

1CO

7

15

q6k2

figs-activepassive

οὐ δεδούλωται ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are not bound rather than focusing on what does the “binding.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “the marriage” does not bind the brother or sister. Alternate translation: “the brother or the sister is free” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

853

1CO

7

15

z5nz

grammar-connect-words-phrases

δὲ

2

Here, but introduces how Paul wants the Corinthians to act in general. Whether their spouse leaves or not, they should act in peace. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind butby using a word or phrase that introduces a general principle. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “In every case,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

854

1CO

7

15

tli3

figs-abstractnouns

εἰρήνῃ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind peace, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “peaceful” or an adverb such as “peaceably.” Alternate translation: “act peaceably” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

855

1CO

7

16

l559

figs-yousingular

οἶδας…τὸν ἄνδρα σώσεις…οἶδας…τὴν γυναῖκα σώσεις

1

do you know, woman … you will save your husband … do you know, man … you will save your wife

Here Paul addresses each individual woman within the Corinthian church. Because of this, you in this verse is always singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

856

1CO

7

16

h5td

figs-rquestion

τί…οἶδας, γύναι, εἰ τὸν ἄνδρα σώσεις? ἢ τί οἶδας, ἄνερ, εἰ τὴν γυναῖκα σώσεις?

1

how do you know, woman, whether you will save your husband?

Paul does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The questions assume that the answer is “we do not know for sure.” If these questions would be confusing for your readers, you could express the ideas by using statements. Paul could be using these questions to show the Corinthians that: (1) they should have little confidence about unbelieving spouses becoming Christians. The questions thus support how Paul allows divorces initiated by an unbelieving spouse in 7:15. Alternate translation: “you cannot know, woman, that you will save the husband. And you cannot know, man, that you will save the wife.” (2) show the Corinthians that they should have much confidence about unbelieving spouses becoming Christians. The questions thus support how Paul says that the unbelieving spouse is “holy” in 7:14. Alternate translation: “you could not know, woman, but you may save the husband. And you could not know, man, but you may save the wife.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

857

1CO

7

16

nd1k

figs-infostructure

τί γὰρ οἶδας, γύναι, εἰ…τί οἶδας, ἄνερ, εἰ

1

how do you know, man, whether you will save your wife?

Here, the words woman and man are direct addresses to people in the audience. If your language would put these words somewhere else in the sentence, you could move them to where they sound natural. Alternate translation: “For woman, how do you know whether… man, how do you know whether” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

858

1CO

7

16

dbz6

τί…οἶδας, γύναι, εἰ τὸν ἄνδρα σώσεις? ἢ τί οἶδας, ἄνερ, εἰ τὴν γυναῖκα σώσεις?

1

how do you know, man, whether you will save your wife?

Here Paul directly addresses a woman and a man in the audience. The Corinthians would have understood him to mean a woman or man in their group who was married to an unbelieving spouse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express woman or man by stating the direct address in a different way. Alternate translation: “how does any woman know whether she will save the husband? Or how does any man know whether he will save the wife?”

859

1CO

7

16

b5zw

figs-genericnoun

γύναι…τὸν ἄνδρα…ἄνερ…τὴν γυναῖκα

1

how do you know, man, whether you will save your wife?

Here Paul refers to woman, husband, man, and wife in the singular, but he is speaking generically of any person who fits into these categories. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “each of you women … your husband … each of you men … your wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

860

1CO

7

16

jt3c

figs-metonymy

σώσεις

-1

how do you know, man, whether you will save your wife?

Here Paul speaks of husbands or wives leading their spouses to faith in Jesus as “saving” them. By this, Paul means that the woman or man is the means by which God will save the husband or wife. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express you will save with a word or phrase that refers to leading someone towards “salvation,” that is, helping them to believe in Jesus. Alternate translation: “God will use you to save … God will use you to save” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

861

1CO

7

17

ivee

grammar-connect-words-phrases

εἰ μὴ

1

each one

Here, However acknowledges the exception about “walking” as the Lord has assigned to each one that he just included: if an unbelieving spouse wishes to divorce a believing spouse, that is permissible. Paul acknowledges this exception but wishes to emphasize the main point: the believers should remain in the state they are in. If However would not have the meaning of acknowledging an exception to a claim, you could use a word or phrase that does do so. Alternate translation: “In every other case” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

862

1CO

7

17

l5lu

figs-infostructure

ἑκάστῳ ὡς ἐμέρισεν ὁ Κύριος, ἕκαστον ὡς κέκληκεν ὁ Θεός, οὕτως περιπατείτω

1

each one

If your language would state the command to walk before explaining how to walk, you could rearrange these clauses so that they read more naturally. Alternate translation: “let each one walk as the Lord has assigned to each one, as God has called each one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

863

1CO

7

17

ya76

figs-ellipsis

ὡς ἐμέρισεν ὁ Κύριος

1

each one

Here Paul omits some words that might be needed in your language to make a complete sentence. If necessary, you could include what it is that the Lord has assigned by using a word such as “task” or “position.” Alternate translation: “as the Lord has assigned a position” or “as the Lord has assigned a task” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

864

1CO

7

17

hl43

figs-metaphor

περιπατείτω

1

each one

Paul speaks of behavior in life as if it were “walking.” If let him walk would not be understood as a description of a person’s way of life in your language, you could express the idea plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “let him live his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

865

1CO

7

17

c7b9

figs-imperative3p

περιπατείτω

1

each one

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should” or “must.” Alternate translation: “he must walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

866

1CO

7

17

o6v2

figs-gendernotations

περιπατείτω

1

each one

Here, he is written in masculine form, but it refers to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind heby using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “let him or her walk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

867

1CO

7

17

iid2

καὶ οὕτως ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις πάσαις διατάσσομαι

1

I direct in this way in all the churches

Alternate translation: “This is what I require from all the churches”

868

1CO

7

18

zo3j

figs-gendernotations

μὴ ἐπισπάσθω…μὴ περιτεμνέσθω

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

Here Paul is speaking of male circumcision only. Therefore, the masculine words in this verse should be retained in translation if possible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

869

1CO

7

18

unc4

figs-rquestion

περιτετμημένος τις ἐκλήθη? μὴ ἐπισπάσθω

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to identify people who fit into the situation he describes. If someone answered “yes” to this question, then the following command applies to them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question with a different way to identify to whom the command applies. Alternate translation: “If anyone was called, having been circumcised, let him not be uncircumcised.” or “Some of you were called, having been circumcised. If that is you, do not be uncircumcised.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

870

1CO

7

18

gpav

figs-activepassive

τις ἐκλήθη…κέκληταί τις

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “Did God call anyone … Did God call anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

871

1CO

7

18

xt7p

figs-activepassive

περιτετμημένος

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are circumcised rather than focusing on the person doing the “circumcising.” If you must state who does the action, you can use an indefinite or vague subject. Alternate translation: “someone having circumcised them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

872

1CO

7

18

tkn4

translate-unknown

μὴ ἐπισπάσθω

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

To be uncircumcised refers to a physical procedure by which one could make one’s penis appear to have a foreskin, even though one had been circumcised. If your language has a word for this procedure, you could use it here. If your language does not have such a word, you can use a phrase that identifies this procedure. Alternate translation: “Let him not hide his circumcision” or “Let him not undo his circumcision” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

873

1CO

7

18

cejz

figs-imperative3p

μὴ ἐπισπάσθω…μὴ περιτεμνέσθω

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

In this verse, Paul uses two third-person imperatives. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use them here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the ideas using a word such as “should” or “must.” Alternate translation: “He must not be uncircumcised … he must not be circumcised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

874

1CO

7

18

uwuw

figs-activepassive

μὴ ἐπισπάσθω…μὴ περιτεμνέσθω

1

Was anyone called when he was circumcised?

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is uncircumcised or circumcised rather than the person doing the “uncircumcising” or “circumcising.” If you must state who does the action, you can use an indefinite or vague subject. Alternate translation: “Let someone not uncircumcise him … Let someone not circumcise him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

875

1CO

7

18

fqv6

figs-rquestion

ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ κέκληταί τις? μὴ περιτεμνέσθω

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to identify people who fit into the situation he describes. If someone answered “yes” to this question, then the following command applies to them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question with a different way to identify to whom the command applies. Alternate translation: “If anyone was called in uncircumcision, let him not be circumcised.” or “Some of you were called in uncircumcision. If that is you, do not be circumcised.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

876

1CO

7

18

a8g3

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind uncircumcision, you can express the idea by using an adjective such as “uncircumcised.” Alternate translation: “while uncircumcised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

877

1CO

7

19

oajz

figs-hyperbole

ἡ περιτομὴ οὐδέν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ἀκροβυστία οὐδέν ἐστιν

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

Here Paul says that both Circumcision and uncircumcision are nothing. He does not mean that Circumcision and uncircumcision do not exist. Rather, the Corinthians would have understood him to mean that Circumcision and uncircumcision do not have value or importance. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express nothing with a comparable figure of speech or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “Circumcision has no value, and uncircumcision has no value” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

878

1CO

7

19

focy

figs-parallelism

ἡ περιτομὴ οὐδέν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ἀκροβυστία οὐδέν ἐστιν

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

Here Paul repeats is nothing because this repetition was powerful in his language. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine the two clauses and make the claim sound strong by using some other method. Alternate translation: “Neither circumcision nor uncircumcision is anything”” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

879

1CO

7

19

eku9

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ περιτομὴ…ἡ ἀκροβυστία

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind circumcision and uncircumcision, you can express the ideas by using adjectives such as “circumcised” and “uncircumcised.” Alternate translation: “Being circumcised … being uncircumcised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

880

1CO

7

19

nc2u

figs-ellipsis

τήρησις ἐντολῶν Θεοῦ

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

Here Paul omits some words that may be necessary in your language to complete the thought. If your language does require more words, you could infer them from the first half of the verse. Alternate translation: “observance of the commandments of God is everything” or “observance of the commandments of God is important” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

881

1CO

7

19

vx9p

figs-abstractnouns

τήρησις ἐντολῶν

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind observance, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “observe.” Alternate translation: “observing the commandments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

882

1CO

7

19

he16

figs-abstractnouns

ἐντολῶν Θεοῦ

1

Was anyone called in uncircumcision?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind commandments, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “command.” Alternate translation: “what God commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

883

1CO

7

20

khsd

figs-infostructure

ἕκαστος ἐν τῇ κλήσει ᾗ ἐκλήθη, ἐν ταύτῃ μενέτω

1

General Information:

The order of elements in this sentence might be confusing in your language. If your language would structure this sentence in a different way, you could rearrange the elements so that they sound more natural. Paul has arranged the elements to emphasize in the calling in which he was called, so retain the emphasis on this element if possible. Alternate translation: “Let each one remain in the calling in which he was called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

884

1CO

7

20

ssaq

ἐν τῇ κλήσει ᾗ ἐκλήθη

1

General Information:

Alternate translation: “in the calling which God gave to him” or “in his own calling from God”

885

1CO

7

20

yy8l

figs-gendernotations

ἐκλήθη…μενέτω

1

General Information:

Here, the words translated he and him are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind he and himby using words that do not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “he or she was called, let him or her remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

886

1CO

7

20

hsz1

figs-activepassive

ἐκλήθη

1

in the calling … he should remain

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God called him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

887

1CO

7

20

s3mh

figs-imperative3p

μενέτω

1

in the calling … he should remain

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should” or “must.” Alternate translation: “he must remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

888

1CO

7

20

hrqk

figs-metaphor

ἐν ταύτῃ μενέτω

1

in the calling … he should remain

Here, remain in refers to faithfully serving God in a specific situation. In other words, Paul does not want them to try to change their social and economic situation. Instead, they should serve God in the situation in which God called them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind remain in plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “let him live his life in that” or “let him be content in that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

889

1CO

7

21

ag5a

figs-yousingular

ἐκλήθης…σοι…δύνασαι

1

Were you … called you? Do not be … you can become

Here Paul addresses each individual person within the Corinthian church. Because of this, you in this verse is always singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

890

1CO

7

21

nli9

figs-rquestion

δοῦλος ἐκλήθης? μή σοι μελέτω

1

Were you a slave when God called you? Do not be concerned

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to identify people who fit into the situation he describes. If someone answered “yes” to this question, then the command that follows applies to them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question with a different way to identify to whom the command applies. Alternate translation: “If you were called as a slave, let it not be a concern to you.” or “Some of you were called as slaves. If that is you, let it not be a concern to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

891

1CO

7

21

emau

figs-activepassive

ἐκλήθης

1

Were you a slave when God called you? Do not be concerned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on you, who are called, rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “Did God call you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

892

1CO

7

21

l8qt

figs-imperative3p

μή σοι μελέτω

1

Were you a slave when God called you? Do not be concerned

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should,” or you could rephrase the imperative. Alternate translation: “Do not be concerned about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

893

1CO

7

21

y02l

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ καὶ δύνασαι ἐλεύθερος γενέσθαι, μᾶλλον χρῆσαι

1

Were you a slave when God called you? Do not be concerned

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a person might be able to become free, or that person might not. He then specifies the result for if someone is able to become free. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “indeed whoever is able to become free should take advantage of it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

894

1CO

7

21

h7e1

χρῆσαι

1

Were you a slave when God called you? Do not be concerned

Alternate translation: “use the opportunity that you have”

895

1CO

7

22

mgt6

grammar-connect-logic-result

γὰρ

1

the Lord’s freeman

Here, For provides support for the claim that Paul made at the beginning of the previous verse that those who are slaves should not be concerned by that (7:21). If it would be helpful in your language, you could make what For supports explicit. Alternate translation: “Do not be concerned about being a slave because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

896

1CO

7

22

l6vq

figs-activepassive

ὁ…ἐν Κυρίῳ κληθεὶς…ὁ…κληθεὶς

1

the Lord’s freeman

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “the one whom God called in the Lord as … the one whom God called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

897

1CO

7

22

gy9z

figs-metaphor

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

the Lord’s freeman

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in {the} Lord to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in {the} Lord, or united to the Lord, identifies the person having been called as someone who is united to the Lord. Alternate translation: “to be united to the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

898

1CO

7

22

ie5k

figs-possession

ἀπελεύθερος Κυρίου

1

the Lord’s freeman

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe someone who is a freedman in the perspective of {the} Lord. In other words, while the person may be a slave in terms of human thinking, that person is a freedman before {the} Lord. If your language would not use the possessive form to express that idea, you could express the idea by speaking about the Lord’s “perspective” or “sight.” Alternate translation: “is a freedman in the Lord’s eyes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

899

1CO

7

22

npb1

figs-possession

δοῦλός…Χριστοῦ

1

the Lord’s freeman

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe someone who is a slave who belongs to Christ. In other words, while the person may be free in terms of human thinking, that person is a slave in relationship to Christ. If your language would not use the possessive form to express that idea, you could express the idea by using a phrase such as “belonging to.” Alternate translation: “a slave who belongs to Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

900

1CO

7

23

m53p

figs-activepassive

τιμῆς ἠγοράσθητε

1

You have been bought with a price

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on you, who are bought, rather than focusing on the person doing the “buying.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God bought you with a price” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

901

1CO

7

23

sgft

figs-metaphor

τιμῆς ἠγοράσθητε

1

You have been bought with a price

Here Paul speaks as if the Corinthians were slaves whom God had bought with a price from someone else. Paul is speaking of what we often call “redemption.” The price is Christ’s death on the cross, which “redeems” believers from sin and evil powers. This is an important biblical metaphor so, if possible preserve the metaphor or express it as an analogy. Alternate translation: “you were bought with a price, which is the Messiah’s death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

902

1CO

7

23

pe5g

figs-metaphor

μὴ γίνεσθε δοῦλοι ἀνθρώπων

1

You have been bought with a price

Here Paul uses slaves as a description of anyone who follows and obeys someone else. Paul wants the Corinthians, whether they are slaves or “freedmen” in social and economic terms, to only obey and serve God, not men. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express slaves by clarifying that Paul has “serving” and “obeying” in mind. Alternate translation: “do not obey men” or “do not serve mere humans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

903

1CO

7

23

pjgp

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπων

1

You have been bought with a price

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

904

1CO

7

24

jio8

0

General Information

This verse is very similar to 7:20. The main difference is that this verse refers to remaining with God, while that verse does not. With that exception, translate this verse so that it sounds similar to 7:20.

905

1CO

7

24

s3ms

figs-infostructure

ἕκαστος ἐν ᾧ ἐκλήθη…ἐν τούτῳ μενέτω παρὰ Θεῷ.

1

Brothers

The order of elements in this sentence might be confusing in your language. If your language would structure this sentence in a different way, you could rearrange the elements so that they sound more natural. Paul has arranged the elements to emphasize each one in that which he was called, so retain the emphasis on this element if possible. Alternate translation: “let each one remain with God in that which he was called” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

906

1CO

7

24

yrp9

ἐν ᾧ ἐκλήθη

1

Brothers

Alternate translation: “in that which God gave to him” or “in what he received from God”

907

1CO

7

24

qu1l

figs-gendernotations

ἐκλήθη, ἀδελφοί…μενέτω

1

Brothers

Although Brothers, he, and him are masculine, Paul is using these words to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Brothers, he, and him with non gendered words or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “Brothers and sisters … he or she was called, let him or her remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

908

1CO

7

24

c83e

figs-activepassive

ἐκλήθη

1

was called

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are called rather than focusing on the person doing the “calling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God called him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

909

1CO

7

24

ghrk

figs-imperative3p

μενέτω

1

was called

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should” or “must.” Alternate translation: “he must remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

910

1CO

7

24

wix0

figs-metaphor

ἐν τούτῳ μενέτω παρὰ Θεῷ

1

was called

Here, remain with God in that refers to faithfully serving God in a specific situation. In other words, Paul does not want them to try to change their social and economic situations. Instead, they should serve God in the situations in which God called them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind remain with God in that plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “let him live his life with God in that” or “let him be content serving God in that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

911

1CO

7

25

ag3x

grammar-connect-words-phrases

περὶ δὲ

1

Now concerning those who never married, I have no commandment from the Lord

Just as in 7:1, Now concerning introduces a new topic that Paul wishes to address. Likely, the topics that he introduces in this way are what the Corinthians wrote to him about. Translate Now concerning here as you did in 7:1. Alternate translation: “Next, about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

912

1CO

7

25

f71a

translate-unknown

ἐπιταγὴν Κυρίου οὐκ ἔχω

1

Now concerning those who never married, I have no commandment from the Lord

Here Paul wishes to clarify that he is speaking out of the authority that he has as an apostle. He is not referring to anything that the Lord said while he was on earth, unlike what Paul did in 7:10. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express I do not have a command of {the} Lord with the language of “authority” or “quotation.” Alternate translation: “I do not quote from the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

913

1CO

7

25

q3k1

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπιταγὴν Κυρίου

1

Now concerning those who never married, I have no commandment from the Lord

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind command, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “command.” Alternate translation: “anything that the Lord commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

914

1CO

7

25

vaa4

translate-unknown

γνώμην…δίδωμι

1

I give my opinion

Here, I give an opinion identifies that Paul is speaking from his own knowledge and authority. He wants the Corinthians to take this as strong advice, not as a command from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express I give an opinion with a word or phrase that indicates that what Paul says is not as strong as a command. Alternate translation: “I give my own view” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

915

1CO

7

25

iuyv

figs-abstractnouns

γνώμην…δίδωμι

1

I give my opinion

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind opinion, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “think.” Alternate translation: “I say what I think” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

916

1CO

7

25

qqz7

figs-activepassive

ἠλεημένος ὑπὸ Κυρίου

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on Paul, who has received mercy, rather than focusing on the Lord, who gives the “mercy.” Alternate translation: “one to whom the Lord has given mercy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

917

1CO

7

25

lyqi

figs-abstractnouns

ἠλεημένος ὑπὸ Κυρίου

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind mercy, you can express the idea by using an adverb such as “mercifully” or an adjective such as “merciful.” Alternate translation: “having received what the Lord has mercifully done to make me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

918

1CO

7

26

zf3o

grammar-connect-words-phrases

οὖν

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Here, Therefore does not refer back to how Paul has received mercy from God. Rather, Therefore introduces the “opinion” that Paul said he was going to “give” (7:25). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Therefore with a word or phrase that introduces a statement that one has already spoken about. Alternate translation, changing the comma to a colon or a period: “Here is my opinion:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

919

1CO

7

26

hq08

figs-doublet

τοῦτο καλὸν ὑπάρχειν διὰ τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἀνάγκην, ὅτι καλὸν

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Here Paul repeats good, because in his language it was a natural way to remind the reader that he had already said this is good. If your language would not use repetition in this way, you could use only one good. Alternate translation: “that, because of the coming distress, it is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

920

1CO

7

26

kqxa

figs-infostructure

τοῦτο καλὸν ὑπάρχειν διὰ τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἀνάγκην, ὅτι καλὸν ἀνθρώπῳ τὸ οὕτως εἶναι

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Here Paul interrupts his sentence to include the reason why he thinks that this is good advice. He does this to emphasize the coming distress. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate rearrange the sentence and represent the emphasis on the coming distress in another way. Alternate translation: “that it is good for a man to remain as he is. This is because of the coming distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

921

1CO

7

26

lvoc

translate-unknown

τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἀνάγκην

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Here, coming could refer to: (1) something that is about to happen. Alternate translation: “of the distress that will soon be here” (2) something that is already happening. Alternate translation: “of the present distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

922

1CO

7

26

a25d

translate-unknown

τὴν ἐνεστῶσαν ἀνάγκην

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Here, distress could refer to: (1) general suffering and persecution of the church throughout the world. Alternate translation: “of the coming general distress” (2) suffering and difficulties that the Corinthian believers are experiencing. Alternate translation: “of the distress coming on your group” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

923

1CO

7

26

ikl6

figs-gendernotations

ἀνθρώπῳ…τὸ οὕτως

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Here, the words translated man and he are written in masculine form, but they refer to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind man and heby using words that do not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “for a person … as he or she is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

924

1CO

7

26

r3xs

τὸ οὕτως εἶναι

1

as one who, by the Lord’s mercy, is trustworthy

Alternate translation: “to stay in the position he is in”

925

1CO

7

27

a77x

figs-yousingular

δέδεσαι…λέλυσαι

1

General Information:

Here Paul addresses specific individuals within the Corinthian church. Because of this, you in this verse is always singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

926

1CO

7

27

k9td

figs-rquestion

δέδεσαι γυναικί? μὴ ζήτει…λέλυσαι ἀπὸ γυναικός? μὴ ζήτει

1

Are you married to a wife? Do not

Paul does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to identify people who fit into the situations he describes. If someone answered “yes” to one of these questions, then the following command applies to that person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these questions with a different way to identify to whom the command applies. Alternate translation: “If you are bound to a woman, do not seek … If you are released from a woman, do not seek” or “Some of you are bound to a woman. If that is you, do not seek … Some of you are released from a woman. If that is you, do not seek” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

927

1CO

7

27

r4kt

figs-idiom

δέδεσαι γυναικί

1

Are you married to a wife? Do not

Here, bound to a wife could refer to: (1) a man being engaged to marry a woman. Alternate translation: “Are you engaged to a woman” (2) a man being married to a woman. Alternate translation: “Are you married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

928

1CO

7

27

x2lk

figs-idiom

μὴ ζήτει λύσιν

1

Do not seek a divorce

Here, released could refer to: (1) breaking off an engagement or betrothal. Alternate translation: “Do not seek to break off the betrothal” (2) ending a marriage. Alternate translation: “Do not seek a divorce” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

929

1CO

7

27

ypa2

figs-idiom

λέλυσαι ἀπὸ γυναικός

1

Do not seek a divorce

Here, released from a wife could refer to: (1) someone who has never been engaged or married. Alternate translation: “Are you single” (2) someone who has been engaged or married but broken the marriage or engagement. Alternate translation: “Have you left your fiancée” or “Have you divorced your wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

930

1CO

7

27

cgc7

figs-activepassive

μὴ ζήτει λύσιν. λέλυσαι ἀπὸ γυναικός

1

Do not seek a divorce

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are released rather than focusing on the person doing the “releasing.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that either you or a “judge” does it. Alternate translation: “Do not seek to break up. Do you have no woman” or “Do not seek for a judge to release you. Has a judge released you from a woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

931

1CO

7

27

d79c

figs-idiom

μὴ ζήτει γυναῖκα

1

do not seek a wife

Here, to seek a wife refers to searching for a woman to marry. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express seek a wife with a comparable idiom or expression. Alternate translation: “Do not look for a wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

932

1CO

7

28

sip2

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

δὲ

1

I want to spare you from this

Here, But introduces an exception to Paul’s general advice in the previous verse (7:27). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express But with a word or phrase that introduces an exception. Alternate translation: “In fact, though,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

933

1CO

7

28

hi7o

figs-yousingular

γαμήσῃς, οὐχ ἥμαρτες

1

I want to spare you from this

Here Paul addresses specific men within the Corinthian church. Because of this, you here is singular. The you at the end of the verse is plural because here Paul has both the men and the women in mind. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

934

1CO

7

28

c66v

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν…καὶ γαμήσῃς, οὐχ ἥμαρτες

1

I want to spare you from this

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a man might marry, or a man might not. He then specifies the result for if the man does marry. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “whichever man does indeed marry has not sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

935

1CO

7

28

ad8m

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν γήμῃ ἡ παρθένος, οὐχ ἥμαρτεν

1

I want to spare you from this

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that a virgin might marry, or she might not. He then specifies the result for if the virgin does marry. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “whichever virgin marries has not sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

936

1CO

7

28

cav7

writing-pronouns

οἱ τοιοῦτοι

1

I want to spare you from this

Here, the ones of such kind refers back to the man and the virgin who marry. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the ones of such kind by clarifying that it refers to married people. Alternate translation: “those who are married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

937

1CO

7

28

r2qf

translate-unknown

θλῖψιν…τῇ σαρκὶ ἕξουσιν

1

I want to spare you from this

Here, distress in the flesh refers to the same problems and troubles that Paul has already called “the coming distress” in 7:26. The phrase does not refer to marital problems or fights with one’s spouse. Rather, it refers to extra distress that married people will experience while suffering under persecution and troubles. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate distress in the flesh by referring to how you translated “the coming distress” in 7:26 and making the connection to that phrase clear. Alternate translation: “will experience the distress in the flesh that I have already said is coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

938

1CO

7

28

m6ea

figs-abstractnouns

θλῖψιν…ἕξουσιν

1

I want to spare you from this

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind distress, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “suffer.” Alternate translation: “will suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

939

1CO

7

28

whf5

writing-pronouns

ἐγὼ…ὑμῶν φείδομαι

1

I want to spare you from this

Here,this refers back to the distress in the flesh. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this by clarifying that it refers to the distress. Alternate translation: “I want to spare you from this distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

940

1CO

7

28

tcwd

figs-idiom

ὑμῶν φείδομαι

1

I want to spare you from this

Here, to spare you {from this} refers to Paul’s desire to keep the Corinthians from experiencing the distress he has mentioned. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to spare you {from this} with a comparable idiom or expression. Alternate translation: “want to help you avoid this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

941

1CO

7

29

oq9f

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο…φημι

1

The time is short

Here, this refers forward to what Paul is about to say. Paul refers to what he will say before he says it in order to emphasize what he is about to say. If your language would not use this to refer to something that will soon be said, you could use a word or phrase that does introduces something about to be said and express the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “listen to what I am about to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

942

1CO

7

29

dv1e

figs-gendernotations

ἀδελφοί

1

The time is short

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

943

1CO

7

29

r594

figs-metaphor

ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν

1

The time is short

When time is shortened, an event at the end of that time is about to happen. In other words, something is about to happen. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind The time is shortenedwith a comparable metaphor or a descriptive phrase. Alternate translation: “There is not much time left” or “The time until the event occurs is short” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

944

1CO

7

29

j9ev

figs-activepassive

ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστίν

1

The time is short

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the time, which is shortened, rather than focusing on the person doing the “shortening.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God has shortened the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

945

1CO

7

29

dp57

figs-explicit

ὁ καιρὸς

1

The time is short

Here, The time could refer to the time until: (1) the events of the end times begin. Alternate translation: “The time until the end” or “The time until Jesus comes back” (2) the “distress” he has mentioned in 7:26, 28 begins. Alternate translation: “The time until the distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

946

1CO

7

29

ufy2

grammar-connect-logic-result

τὸ λοιπὸν, ἵνα

1

The time is short

Here Paul introduces how the Corinthians should behave now that the time has been shortened. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express so that from now on with a word or phrase that draws an inference or introduces a result. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a period before it. Alternate translation: “This means that, from the present on” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

947

1CO

7

29

dpii

ὡς μὴ ἔχοντες ὦσιν

1

The time is short

Alternate translation: “should behave like those who have none”

948

1CO

7

29

vcsw

writing-pronouns

μὴ ἔχοντες

1

The time is short

Here, none refers back to wives. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express none by clarifying that it refers to wives. Alternate translation: “those having no wives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

949

1CO

7

30

vm8k

figs-ellipsis

οἱ κλαίοντες, ὡς μὴ κλαίοντες; καὶ οἱ χαίροντες, ὡς μὴ χαίροντες; καὶ οἱ ἀγοράζοντες, ὡς μὴ κατέχοντες

1

those who weep

Here Paul omits some words that may be needed in your language to complete the thought. Paul omits these words because he stated them in the last verse, and the Corinthians would have understood them from that verse. If your language does need these words, you could supply “should be as those” from 7:29. Alternate translation: “those who weep should be as those not weeping; and those who rejoice should be as those not rejoicing; and those who buy should be as those not possessing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

950

1CO

7

30

qziw

figs-ellipsis

οἱ ἀγοράζοντες, ὡς μὴ κατέχοντες

1

those who weep

Here Paul omits what the people are buying and are not possessing. If your language would state what is bought and possessed, you could include a general or vague object. Alternate translation: “those who buy things, as not possessing those things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

951

1CO

7

30

no3s

καὶ οἱ κλαίοντες, ὡς μὴ κλαίοντες; καὶ οἱ χαίροντες, ὡς μὴ χαίροντες; καὶ οἱ ἀγοράζοντες, ὡς μὴ κατέχοντες

1

those who weep

Alternate translation: “and those who weep should behave like those who do not weep; and those who rejoice should behave like those who do not rejoice; and those who buy should behave like those who do not possess”

952

1CO

7

31

rhoz

figs-ellipsis

οἱ χρώμενοι τὸν κόσμον, ὡς μὴ καταχρώμενοι

1

those using the world

Here Paul omits some words that may be needed in your language to complete the thought. Paul omits these words because he stated them in 7:29, and the Corinthians would have understood them from that verse. If your language does need these words, you could supply “should be as those” from 7:29. Alternate translation: “those using the world should be as not using it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

953

1CO

7

31

t41v

translate-unknown

οἱ χρώμενοι τὸν κόσμον, ὡς μὴ καταχρώμενοι

1

those using the world

Here, using refers to taking something and doing work with it. Paul here refers to taking things that belong to the world and doing work with them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express using with a word or phrase that refers to performing a task with something that one possesses. Alternate translation: “those doing things with the world, as not doing things with it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

954

1CO

7

31

u5qh

figs-synecdoche

τὸν κόσμον

1

those using the world

Here, the world specifically focuses on people and things that belong to the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the world by clarifying that Paul is focusing on things that belong to the world. Alternate translation: “something worldly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

955

1CO

7

31

jl2r

translate-unknown

τὸ σχῆμα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου

1

as though they were not using it

Here, present form of this world refers to how this world is currently structured and how things work in this world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express present form with a word or phrase that refers to how the world is right now. Alternate translation: “the current setup of this world” or “the way the world presently works” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

956

1CO

7

31

yl3s

παράγει

1

as though they were not using it

Alternate translation: “will soon end”

957

1CO

7

32

t4ab

translate-unknown

ἀμερίμνους…μεριμνᾷ

1

free from worries

Here, free from concern and concerned are opposites. They both refer to consistently thinking about and worrying about things. Paul wishes the Corinthians to think and worry about as few things as possible. In line with that, the only thing the unmarried man thinks and cares about is the things of the Lord. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express concern and concerned with a word or phrase that refers to thinking and worrying consistently about something. Alternate translation: “free from worry … is worried about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

958

1CO

7

32

f569

figs-genericnoun

ὁ ἄγαμος

1

concerned about

Here Paul refers to The unmarried {man} in the singular, but he is speaking generically about any unmarried {man}. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “Each unmarried man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

959

1CO

7

32

d4zd

figs-gendernotations

ὁ ἄγαμος…ἀρέσῃ

1

concerned about

Here Paul is referring only to men. He will go on address unmarried women in 7:34. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

960

1CO

7

32

fouj

figs-activepassive

μεριμνᾷ

1

concerned about

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the {man} who is concerned rather than focusing on what makes him concerned. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the unmarried {man} himself does it. Alternate translation: “concerns himself with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

961

1CO

7

32

zqfz

figs-possession

τὰ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

concerned about

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {things} that are directly related to the Lord. This phrase identifies anything that one does that relates to the Lord. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things} of the Lord with a word or phrase that refers to anything related to the Lord. Alternate translation: “everything that concerns the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

962

1CO

7

32

g3nk

πῶς ἀρέσῃ τῷ Κυρίῳ

1

concerned about

Here, how he might please the Lord further explains what being concerned about the {things} of the Lord means. If how would not introduce a further explanation in your language, you could use a word or phrase that does introduce such an explanation. Alternate translation: “that is, how he might please the Lord”

963

1CO

7

33

upzf

figs-genericnoun

ὁ…γαμήσας

1

concerned about

Here Paul refers to the married {man} in the singular, but he is speaking generically about any married man. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “each unmarried man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

964

1CO

7

33

hzcp

figs-activepassive

μεριμνᾷ

1

concerned about

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the {man} who is concerned rather than focusing on what makes him concerned. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the married man himself does it. Alternate translation: “concerns himself with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

965

1CO

7

33

gcvl

figs-possession

τὰ τοῦ κόσμου

1

concerned about

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {things} that are directly related to the world. This phrase identifies anything that one does that relates to the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things} of the world with a word or phrase that refers to anything related to the world. Alternate translation: “many things that relate to the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

966

1CO

7

33

sank

figs-genericnoun

τῇ γυναικί

1

concerned about

Here Paul refers to the wife, but he specifically has in mind the wife of the married man already mentioned. If your language would not use this form to refer to the man’s wife, you could express the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “his wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

967

1CO

7

33

s16y

figs-metaphor

μεμέρισται

1

concerned about

Here Paul speaks as if the man is divided into two pieces. By speaking in this way, Paul means that the married man has conflicting interests or concerns. He is concerned about how to please the Lord and how to please his wife. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express is divided with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “he is pulled in two directions” or “he is of two minds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

968

1CO

7

33

llv3

figs-activepassive

μεμέρισται

1

concerned about

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on he who is divided rather than focusing on what does the “dividing.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the man’s “concerns” do it. Alternate translation: “concerns about the Lord and the world divide him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

969

1CO

7

33

z7rv

figs-genericnoun

ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄγαμος καὶ ἡ παρθένος

1

concerned about

Here Paul refers to the unmarried woman and the virgin in the singular, but he is speaking generically about unmarried woman or virgin. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can use a form that does refer generically to people in your language. Alternate translation: “each unmarried woman or virgin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

970

1CO

7

33

hnoo

translate-unknown

ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄγαμος καὶ ἡ παρθένος

1

concerned about

Here Paul could be distinguishing between: (1) older single women (the unmarried woman) and younger single women (the virgin). Alternate translation: “the older or younger single woman” (2) divorced women (the unmarried woman) and women who have never been married (the virgin). Alternate translation: “the divorced woman or the woman who has never married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

971

1CO

7

34

ug6n

figs-activepassive

μεριμνᾷ

1

is concerned about

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are concerned rather than focusing on what makes them concerned. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “the unmarried woman or the virgin” (7:33) does it. Alternate translation: “concerns herself with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

972

1CO

7

34

b884

figs-possession

τὰ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

is concerned about

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {things} that are directly related to the Lord. This phrase identifies anything that one does that relates to the Lord. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things} of the Lord with a word or phrase that refers to anything related to the Lord. Alternate translation: “everything that concerns the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

973

1CO

7

34

el97

figs-merism

καὶ τῷ σώματι καὶ τῷ πνεύματι

1

is concerned about

Here Paul refers to the body and the spirit as a way to refer to everything that a person is. The body is the outward part of the person, while the spirit is in the inward part of the person. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express both in the body and in the spirit with a word or phrase that emphasizes that the entire person is in view. Alternate translation: “in body and soul” or “in every part” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

974

1CO

7

34

mfin

figs-gendernotations

ἡ…γαμήσασα

1

is concerned about

Here, the one having been married is feminine. If this is not clear for your readers, you could clarify that this phrase speaks about women. Alternate translation: “the woman who is married” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

975

1CO

7

34

h91l

figs-activepassive

μεριμνᾷ

2

is concerned about

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are concerned rather than focusing on what makes them concerned. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the one having been married does it. Alternate translation: “concerns herself with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

976

1CO

7

34

edvb

figs-possession

τὰ τοῦ κόσμου

1

is concerned about

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {things} that are directly related to the world. This phrase identifies anything that one does that relates to the world. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things} of the world with a word or phrase that refers to anything related to the world. Alternate translation: “many things that relate to the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

977

1CO

7

34

puzh

figs-genericnoun

τῷ ἀνδρί

1

is concerned about

Here Paul refers to the husband, but he specifically has in mind the husband of the the one who is married already mentioned. If your language would not use this form to refer to the woman’s husband, you could express the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “her husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

978

1CO

7

35

ah8e

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο

1

constraint

Here, this refers back to what Paul has said about how unmarried people can serve the Lord better in 7:32–34. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this by clarifying what it refers back to. Alternate translation: “this about marriage and serving the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

979

1CO

7

35

x1kh

figs-abstractnouns

πρὸς τὸ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν σύμφορον

1

constraint

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind benefit, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “benefit” or “help.” Alternate translation: “to benefit you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

980

1CO

7

35

rp3w

translate-unknown

βρόχον

1

constraint

Here, constraint refers to a noose or rope that ties someone or something up and keeps them in one place. Paul uses this word to tell the Corinthians that he is not trying to “tie” them to either marriage or singleness. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express constraint with a word or phrase that expresses the idea in another way. Alternate translation: “a noose” or “any hindrance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

981

1CO

7

35

op8w

figs-metaphor

βρόχον ὑμῖν ἐπιβάλω

1

constraint

Here Paul speaks as if he could tie the Corinthians up and control where they went as if they were farm animals. Paul speaks in this way to refer to commands that require certain behavior, just like a rope requires an animal to stay in a certain area. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind put any constraint on you plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “tie you up” or “require one way of living” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

982

1CO

7

35

a5sg

figs-idiom

πρὸς τὸ

2

constraint

Here, toward introduces the purpose of what Paul has said. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express toward what {is} with a word or phrase that introduces what follows as a purpose or goal. Alternate translation: “in order that you may act in ways that are” or “with the goal of doing what is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

983

1CO

7

35

ffx4

translate-unknown

τὸ εὔσχημον καὶ εὐπάρεδρον

1

devoted

Here, appropriate refers to behavior that fits a situation or relationship properly. The word devoted describes someone who does a good job of helping someone else. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express appropriate and devoted with words or phrases that express the ideas in another way. Alternate translation: “what is proper and helpful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

984

1CO

7

35

ms4g

translate-unknown

ἀπερισπάστως

1

devoted

Here, without any distraction means that nothing is hindering specific actions. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express without any distraction with a word or phrase that describes a situation in which nothing is hindering an action. Alternate translation: “without hindrance” or “with full attention” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

985

1CO

7

35

ip8a

figs-abstractnouns

ἀπερισπάστως

1

devoted

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind distraction, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “distract.” Alternate translation: “without being distracted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

986

1CO

7

36

t87y

0

he is acting improperly toward

This verse has two primary interpretations: (1) the fiancé interpretation, which suggests that the verse is about a man who is engaged to marry a woman. In this case, Paul is saying that the man should marry his fiancée if he thinks he is acting improperly and if she is of a certain age. (2) the father interpretation, which suggests that the verse is about a father who has a daughter. In this case, Paul is saying that the father should allow his daughter to get married if he thinks he is acting improperly and if the daughter is of a certain age. In the notes that follow, we will identify which choices match with which of these two major options.

987

1CO

7

36

lx6q

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ…τις ἀσχημονεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν παρθένον αὐτοῦ νομίζει, ἐὰν ᾖ ὑπέρακμος καὶ οὕτως ὀφείλει γίνεσθαι

1

he is acting improperly toward

Here Paul uses if to introduce two true possibilities. He means that a man might be acting improperly, or the man might not be. He also means that the woman might be beyond the age of marriage, or she might not be. He then specifies the result for if the man is acting improperly and the woman is beyond the age of marriage. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by describing the specific situation. Alternate translation: “someone might think he is acting improperly toward his virgin, and she might be beyond the age of marriage. In this situation, it must be so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

988

1CO

7

36

qw58

writing-pronouns

τις

1

he is acting improperly toward

Here, anyone could refer to: (1) a man who is engaged to the virgin. This fits with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “any fiancé” (2) a father has a daughter who is a virgin. This fits with the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “any father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

989

1CO

7

36

jn8j

translate-unknown

ἀσχημονεῖν ἐπὶ

1

he is acting improperly toward

The phrase acting improperly is often used to refer to sexual impropriety, including shameful nakedness or improper sexual behavior. Therefore, acting improperly could refer to: (1) engaging in or wishing to engage in improper sexual behavior. This fits with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “he might have improper sex with” (2) wrongly prohibiting a daughter from marrying and thus shaming her. This fits with the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “he is wrongly shaming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

990

1CO

7

36

dsma

translate-unknown

τὴν παρθένον αὐτοῦ

1

he is acting improperly toward

Here, his virgin could refer to: (1) a woman who is engaged to a man. This fits with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “his fiancée” (2) a daughter who has never married. This fits with the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “his unmarried daughter”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

991

1CO

7

36

crb8

figs-gendernotations

1

his virgin

Here, the word translated she could refer to a man or to a woman. If it refers to: (1) a woman, it identifies something about the woman as the reason for the man and woman to get married. This fits with both the father and the fiancé interpretations. (2) a man, it identifies something about the man as the reason for the man and woman to get married. This fits best with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “he” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

992

1CO

7

36

whuj

translate-unknown

ὑπέρακμος

1

his virgin

Here, beyond the age of marriage could describe: (1) a person who is older than the normal age at which a person gets married. This fits with both the father and the fiancé interpretations. Alternate translation: “is older than average to get married” (2) a person who has reached full sexual maturity. This fits with both the father and the fiancé interpretations. Alternate translation: “is fully matured” or “is ready to have sex” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

993

1CO

7

36

m0hq

writing-pronouns

ὑπέρακμος καὶ οὕτως ὀφείλει γίνεσθαι…ποιείτω

1

his virgin

Here, it could refer to: (1) what Paul is about to say, which is he should do what he wants. Alternate translation: “is beyond the age of marriage—then this is how it must be: he should do” (2) the necessity of getting married. Alternate translation: “is beyond the age of marriage and it seems necessary to marry—he should do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

994

1CO

7

36

wfea

writing-pronouns

ὃ θέλει ποιείτω

1

his virgin

Here, he could refer to: (1) the fiancé, who wants to get married. Alternate translation: “the fiancé should do what he wants” (2) the father, who wants his daughter to get married. Alternate translation: “the father should do what he wants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

995

1CO

7

36

pyh7

figs-explicit

ὃ θέλει ποιείτω

1

let them marry

Here, what he wants could refer to: (1) how the fiancé wants to get married and have sex. Alternate translation: “he should get married as he wants to” (2) how the father wants his daughter to get married. Alternate translation: “he should give her in marriage as he wants to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

996

1CO

7

36

ugk2

figs-imperative3p

ποιείτω

1

let them marry

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “must” or “let.” Alternate translation: “let him do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

997

1CO

7

36

j6lc

figs-imperative3p

γαμείτωσαν

1

let them marry

Here Paul uses a third-person imperative. If you have third-person imperatives in your language, you could use one here. If you do not have third-person imperatives, you could express the idea using a word such as “should” or “can.” Alternate translation: “they can marry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative3p]])

998

1CO

7

36

wdj5

writing-pronouns

γαμείτωσαν

1

let them marry

Here, them identifies the man and the woman who are getting married. This fits with both the fiancé interpretation and the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “let the man and the woman marry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

999

1CO

7

37

ta66

0

But if he is standing firm in his heart

Much like the previous verse (7:36), this verse has two primary interpretations: (1) the fiancé interpretation, which suggests that the verse is about a man who is engaged to marry a woman. In this case, Paul is saying that the man who decides not to marry his fiancée does well. (2) the father interpretation, which suggests that the verse is about a father who has a daughter. In this case, Paul is saying that the father who decides to keep his daughter from marrying does well. In the notes that follow, I will identify any choices that specifically match with these two major options. Follow the interpretation that you chose in the last verse.

1000

1CO

7

37

nm99

figs-metaphor

ὃς…ἕστηκεν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ ἑδραῖος

1

But if he is standing firm in his heart

Here Paul speaks as if a person’s heart were a place in which he or she could “stand firm.” By speaking in this way, Paul means that the person will not change what they have decided in his or her heart. It is as if they are standing firm in a specific location. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this figure of speech plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “the one who settles on a decision” or “the one who firmly decides” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1001

1CO

7

37

uthl

figs-metonymy

ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ…ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ καρδίᾳ

1

In Paul’s culture, the heart is the place where humans think and plan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate heart by referring to the place where humans think in your culture or by expressing the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “in his mind … in his own mind” or “in what he has planned … in what he himself has planned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1002

1CO

7

37

v41a

figs-abstractnouns

ἔχων ἀνάγκην

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind compulsion, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “compel.” Alternate translation: “through someone compelling him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1003

1CO

7

37

o8o2

figs-abstractnouns

ἐξουσίαν…ἔχει περὶ τοῦ ἰδίου θελήματος

1

If your language does not use abstract nouns for the ideas behind authority and will, you can express the ideas by using verbs such as “control” and “want.” Alternate translation: “ruling over what he wants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1004

1CO

7

37

vjrv

figs-infostructure

τοῦτο κέκρικεν ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ καρδίᾳ, τηρεῖν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ παρθένον, καλῶς ποιήσει

1

The order of these three phrases might be unnatural in your language. If the order is unnatural, you could reorder the phrases so that they sound more natural. Alternate translation: “he has decided in his own heart to keep his own virgin, this man will do well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1005

1CO

7

37

b7sk

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο…ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ καρδίᾳ, τηρεῖν

1

Here, this refers forward to what Paul is about to say: to keep {his} own virgin. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this by clarifying that Paul is talking about what he is about to say. Alternate translation: “in his own heart to do this—that is, to keep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1006

1CO

7

37

fny7

figs-idiom

τηρεῖν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ παρθένον

1

Here, to keep {his} own virgin could mean that: (1) the man does not marry his fiancée but leaves her as a virgin. This fits with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “to remain unmarried to his fiancée” (2) the father does not give his daughter in marriage but leaves her as a virgin. This fits with the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “not to give his daughter in marriage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1007

1CO

7

37

k842

figs-ellipsis

καλῶς ποιήσει

1

Here Paul omits what it is that is done well. The Corinthians would have inferred from the verse that Paul means that keeping {his} own virgin is what he does well. If your readers would not make this inference, you could clarify what is done well. Alternate translation: “he is right to do this” or “this is a good choice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1008

1CO

7

37

mebk

figs-pastforfuture

ποιήσει

1

Here Paul uses the future tense to identify something that is true in general. If your language would not use the future tense for something that is generally true, you could use whatever tense is natural here. Alternate translation: “he does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

1009

1CO

7

38

c93x

figs-genericnoun

ὁ γαμίζων…ὁ μὴ γαμίζων

1

Paul uses the words the one marrying and the one not marrying to speak of people in general, not one specific man. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the meaning of these words with a form that indicates people in general. Alternate translation: “anyone who marries … anyone who does not marry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1010

1CO

7

38

px3z

translate-unknown

ὁ γαμίζων τὴν ἑαυτοῦ παρθένον

1

Here Paul could be referring to: (1) a man marrying his fiancée. This fits with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “the man who marries his fiancée” (2) a father giving his daughter in marriage. This fits with the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “a father who give his daughter in marriage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1011

1CO

7

38

idyk

translate-unknown

ὁ μὴ γαμίζων

1

Here Paul could be referring to: (1) a man not marrying his fiancée. This fits with the fiancé interpretation. Alternate translation: “the man who does not marry his fiancée” (2) a father not giving his daughter in marriage. This fits with the father interpretation. Alternate translation: “a father who does not give his daughter in marriage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1012

1CO

7

38

kdm6

figs-pastforfuture

ποιήσει

1

Here Paul uses the future tense to identify something that is true in general. If your language would not use the future tense for something that is generally true, you could use whatever tense is natural here. Alternate translation: “does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

1013

1CO

7

39

d413

figs-metaphor

δέδεται ἐφ’

1

A wife is bound for as long as her husband lives

Here, bound refers to the legal and moral obligation to remain married. This obligation is strong enough that Paul can speak about it as if it were a rope that bound the man and the woman together. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind bound plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “is required to stay with her husband” or “is spoken for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1014

1CO

7

39

jhq4

figs-activepassive

γυνὴ δέδεται

1

A wife is bound for as long as her husband lives

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the wife, who is bound, rather than the person doing the “binding.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” or the “law” does it. Alternate translation: “A wife must remain married” or “God’s law binds a wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1015

1CO

7

39

ms7z

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

ἐὰν…κοιμηθῇ ὁ ἀνήρ, ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν

1

for as long as … lives

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that the husband might die or he might not. He then specifies the result for if the husband dies. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause. Alternate translation: “any wife whose husband dies is free” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1016

1CO

7

39

f1dy

grammar-connect-exceptions

ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν ᾧ θέλει γαμηθῆναι, μόνον ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

whomever she wishes

If it would appear in your language that Paul was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using this form. Alternate translation: “she is free to marry whomever she wishes as long as they are in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

1017

1CO

7

39

y6rz

figs-metaphor

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

whomever she wishes

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in {the} Lord to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in {the} Lord, or united to the Lord, identifies the person as someone who believes in Jesus. Alternate translation: “if they believe in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1018

1CO

7

40

hwz4

figs-abstractnouns

κατὰ τὴν ἐμὴν γνώμην

1

my judgment

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind judgment, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “judge.” Alternate translation: “I judge that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1019

1CO

7

40

pse4

figs-explicit

οὕτως μείνῃ

1

lives as she is

Here Paul is referring back to the wife from the previous verse (7:39) whose husband had died. By remain as she is, Paul means “remain unmarried after her husband died.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate remain as she is by clarifying that the wife from the previous verse is in view. Alternate translation: “she remains unmarried” or “she does not marry again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1020

1CO

7

40

hd7f

figs-explicit

κἀγὼ, Πνεῦμα Θεοῦ ἔχειν

1

happier

This could mean that: (1) Paul thinks his judgment is backed up by {the} Spirit of God. Alternate translation: “I have the Spirit of God supporting my judgment” (2) Paul wishes to say that he has the Spirit of God as much as the Corinthians do. Alternate translation: “I also, not just you, have the Spirit of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1021

1CO

8

intro

c8l6

0

1 Corinthians 8 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. On food (8:1–11:1)
    • The truth about food and idols (8:1–6)
    • Respecting the “weak” (8:7–13)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Things sacrificed to idols

In Paul’s culture, animals were often sacrificed to the gods. After the animal was slaughtered, the people who were participating in the worship would eat parts of the animal. In fact, for most people who were not wealthy, participating in worship with a sacrifice was one of the few situations in which they could eat meat. Throughout this chapter, Paul explains how the Corinthians should think about eating or not eating this meat. (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]])

The “weak”

In 8:9, 11, Paul speaks about the “weak,” and in 8:7, 10, 12, he mentions a “weak conscience,” which is the conscience of the “weak.” The “weak” person or conscience considers eating things sacrificed to idols to be participation in idolatry, and thus, sinful. Perhaps “weak” was a word that the Corinthians were using for fellow believers who were not comfortable eating food sacrificed idols. Paul urges the Corinthians to respect these “weak” people, even if it means never eating meat again. While Paul never uses the word “strong” in this section, the “strong would probably be those who are comfortable eating meat sacrificed to an idol.

Knowledge

Paul refers to “knowledge” in 8:1, 7, 10–11 and to “knowing” in 8:2–4. Throughout the chapter, the one who has “knowledge” is contrasted with the one who is “weak.” In 8:4–6, Paul explains what this “knowledge” is about: while other people may name many gods and many lords, believers know that there is only one God and one Lord. Because of this “knowledge,” eating food sacrificed to idols has no significance, since there is only one God and Lord. Paul, however, urges the Corinthians to respect those who do not fully comprehend this “knowledge.” (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/other/know]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Building up

In 8:1, Paul contrasts what “knowledge” does (“puffs up”) with what love does (“builds up”). “Building up” in this verse refers to helping other Christians grow in their knowledge of God and care for each other. In 8:10, however, “building up” has a negative connotation. In this verse, the conscience of the “weak” is “built up,” which means that the “weak” person eats food sacrificed to idols despite his or her conscience says. “Building up” in this verse refers to strengthening a conscience so that one is able to do what one is uncomfortable with.

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Other “gods” and “lords”

In 8:4–5, Paul states that an idol is “nothing.” However, he also acknowledges that there are many so-called “gods” and “lords.” In 10:20–21, Paul will make his point more clearly: those who sacrifice to idols are actually sacrificing to demons. So, Paul denies the existence of other “gods,” but he thinks that the idols do represent something: demons. In this chapter, you could clarify that Paul is speaking about what other people call “gods” and “lords.” (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]])

1022

1CO

8

1

cep1

grammar-connect-words-phrases

περὶ δὲ

1

Now about

Just as in 7:1, Now about introduces a new topic that Paul wishes to address. Likely, the topics that he introduces in this way are what the Corinthians wrote to him about. Translate Now about here as you translated “now concerning” in 7:1, 7:25. Alternate translation: “Next, about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1023

1CO

8

1

g5t3

translate-unknown

τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων

1

food sacrificed to idols

Here Paul speaks about animals that are slaughtered, offered to a god, and then eaten. For many people in Paul’s culture, this was the only meat that was available for them to eat. In many cases, people would eat this meat at a god’s temple or shrine. However, sometimes the meat could be sold to people, who would then eat it in their homes. In the next few chapters, Paul will speak about whether and how Christians should eat or not eat this meat. If your language has a specific word or phrase for meat from an animal that has been offered to a god, you could use it here. If your language does not have such a word, you can use a descriptive phrase. Alternate translation: “meat from animals sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1024

1CO

8

1

beh8

figs-activepassive

τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων

1

food sacrificed to idols

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is sacrificed rather than focusing on the person doing the “sacrificing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “the things that people have sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1025

1CO

8

1

vk06

figs-explicit

οἴδαμεν ὅτι πάντες γνῶσιν ἔχομεν

1

food sacrificed to idols

Here Paul could be: (1) expressing his own view about knowledge. Alternate translation: “We know that we all indeed have knowledge” (2) quoting what the Corinthians said in their letter so that he can respond to it, much like he did in 6:12–13; 7:1. Alternate translation: “you wrote, ‘we know that we all have knowledge.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1026

1CO

8

1

a6hi

figs-explicit

πάντες γνῶσιν ἔχομεν

1

food sacrificed to idols

Here Paul does not specify what the knowledge is about. It becomes clear in 8:4–6 that Paul is speaking about knowledge about other gods, specifically knowing that there is only one God and that other gods do not really exist. If possible, do not give further explanation of knowledge here, since Paul explains later in the chapter. If you must specify what the knowledge is about, you could clarify that it is about the idols or the topic of {things} sacrificed to idols. Alternate translation: “we all have knowledge about idols” or “we all have knowledge about this issue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1027

1CO

8

1

ytrf

figs-abstractnouns

πάντες γνῶσιν ἔχομεν…ἡ γνῶσις

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind knowledge, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “know.” Alternate translation: “we all know things. Knowing things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1028

1CO

8

1

yw8s

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ δὲ ἀγάπη

1

but love builds up

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind love, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “love.” Alternate translation: “but loving other believers” or “but a loving action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1029

1CO

8

1

an8s

figs-metaphor

ἀγάπη οἰκοδομεῖ

1

love builds up

Paul here speaks as if believers were a building that one builds up. With this metaphor, he emphasizes that love helps other believers become stronger and more mature, just like building a house makes it strong and complete. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this figure of speech plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “love enables other believers to grow” or “love edifies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1030

1CO

8

2

egjr

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἴ τις δοκεῖ ἐγνωκέναι τι, οὔπω ἔγνω

1

thinks he knows something

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that someone might think he knows something, or that person might not think so. He then specifies the result that happens if the person does think he knows something. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause or by introducing the sentence with “whenever.” Alternate translation: “Anyone who thinks he knows something does not yet know” or “Whenever anyone thinks he knows something, he does not yet know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1031

1CO

8

2

qbh9

figs-gendernotations

ἐγνωκέναι…οὔπω ἔγνω…δεῖ

1

thinks he knows something

Although he is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express he with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “he or she knows … he or she does not yet know … he or she ought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1032

1CO

8

3

qsa7

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ…τις ἀγαπᾷ τὸν Θεόν, οὗτος ἔγνωσται

1

that person is known by him

Just as in the last verse, here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that someone might love God, or that person might not. He then specifies the result for if the person does love God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by using a relative clause or by introducing the sentence with “whenever.” Alternate translation: “anyone who loves God is known” or “whenever anyone loves God, that one is known” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1033

1CO

8

3

etd6

figs-activepassive

οὗτος ἔγνωσται ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ

1

that person is known by him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is known rather than focusing on God, who does the “knowing.” Alternate translation: “he knows that one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1034

1CO

8

3

lnwx

writing-pronouns

οὗτος…αὐτοῦ

1

that person is known by him

Here, that one refers to anyone, and him refers to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these pronouns by clarifying to whom they refer. Alternate translation: “that person … God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1035

1CO

8

4

v4gx

grammar-connect-words-phrases

περὶ

1

General Information:

Here Paul repeats about from 8:1 to let his readers know that he is going to speak directly about things sacrificed to idols again. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the repetition of the phrase from 8:1 by clarifying that Paul is returning to the topic he introduced there. Alternate translation: “returning to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1036

1CO

8

4

bgd2

figs-possession

τῆς βρώσεως…τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων

1

General Information:

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak about eating meat sacrificed to idols. If your language does not use this form to express that meaning, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “eating things sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1037

1CO

8

4

wkep

translate-unknown

τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων

1

General Information:

Here, the {things} sacrificed to idols refers to meat that has been offered to an idol. Translate this phrase the same way you did in 8:1. Alternate translation: “of meat from animals sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1038

1CO

8

4

mbqo

figs-activepassive

τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων

1

General Information:

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is sacrificed rather than focusing on the person doing the “sacrificing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “of the things that people have sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1039

1CO

8

4

y3ee

figs-explicit

οἴδαμεν ὅτι οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κόσμῳ, καὶ ὅτι οὐδεὶς Θεὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς

1

We know that an idol in this world is nothing and that there is no God but one

Here Paul could be: (1) expressing his own view about an idol and God. Alternate translation: “We know that an idol in the world indeed is nothing and that there is indeed no God except one” (2) quoting what the Corinthians said in their letter so that he can respond to it, much like he did in 6:12–13; 7:1. If you chose this option in 8:1, you should also choose it here. Alternate translation: “you wrote, ‘we know that an idol in the world is nothing’ and, ‘there is no God except one’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1040

1CO

8

4

g67g

figs-metaphor

οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κόσμῳ

1

Here Paul says that an idol is nothing in order to emphasize that idols are not really gods. He is not saying that images or statues do not exist. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express nothing by clarifying that Paul is speaking about how an idol does not have the power or existence of the true God. Alternate translation: “an idol in the world is not really a god” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1041

1CO

8

4

w8ar

grammar-connect-exceptions

οὐδεὶς Θεὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς

1

If it would appear in your language that Paul was making a statement here and then contradicting it, you could reword this to avoid using an exception clause. Alternate translation: “there is only one God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-exceptions]])

1042

1CO

8

4

tx5b

figs-explicit

εἰ μὴ εἷς

1

Here Paul does not directly quote from the Old Testament, but he uses words that would make any reader who is familiar with the Old Testament think about Deuteronomy 6:4, where it is written that “the Lord is one.” If your readers would not make this connection, you could include a footnote or a brief reference to Deuteronomy. Alternate translation: “except one, as Moses wrote in the Scriptures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1043

1CO

8

5

s77m

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

καὶ…εἴπερ

1

so-called gods

Here, even if introduces a possibility that Paul does not believe to be true. In other words, Paul does not think that there are many gods and many lords. He does think that people speak about many gods and many lords. Thus, his main point is that, no matter how many gods and lords other people talk about, believers only acknowledge one God and one Lord (8:6). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express even if with a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “although it might be that” or “while some people claim that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

1044

1CO

8

5

sl8j

εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ

1

so-called gods

Alternate translation: “people name many ‘gods’”

1045

1CO

8

5

x4ob

figs-merism

θεοὶ, εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς

1

so-called gods

Paul speaks, using heaven and earth in order to include them and everything in between. By speaking in this way, he includes every place that God created. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “gods in all parts of creation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1046

1CO

8

5

l7ib

figs-irony

θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοί

1

many “gods” and many “lords.”

Here Paul acknowledges that there are many “gods” and “lords”. He implies that so-called from earlier in the verse also applies here, so the ULT has put quotation marks around gods and lords to indicate that these are the names people use. Paul himself does not believe that what people call gods and lords really are those things; rather, 10:20–21 suggests that Paul thinks these gods and lords are actually demons. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what Paul means by “gods” and “lords” with a form that indicates that Paul is speaking from someone else’s perspective. Alternate translation: “many so-called gods and many so-called lords” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1047

1CO

8

6

y6hq

figs-explicit

ἡμῖν εἷς Θεὸς

1

Yet for us there is only one God

In this verse, Paul does not directly quote from the Old Testament, but he uses words that would make any reader who is familiar with the Old Testament think about Deuteronomy 6:4, just like he did in 8:4. The Old Testament passage says, “The Lord is our God, the Lord is one.” If your readers would not make this connection, you could include a footnote or a brief reference to Deuteronomy. Alternate translation: “we accept from the Scriptures that there is one God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1048

1CO

8

6

sv67

guidelines-sonofgodprinciples

ὁ Πατὴρ

1

Yet for us there is only one God

Father is an important title that describes one person in the Trinity. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “that is, the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])

1049

1CO

8

6

x3d6

figs-explicit

ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα

1

Yet for us there is only one God

Here Paul emphasizes that God the Father created all things and is their ultimate source. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express from whom {are} all {things} with a phrase that identifies God the Father as the creator of everything that exists. Alternate translation: “who is the creator of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1050

1CO

8

6

vw06

figs-explicit

ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν

1

Yet for us there is only one God

Here Paul emphasizes that the purpose for which we exist is to serve and honor God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express for whom we {are} with a phrase that identifies God the Father as the goal or purpose of Christian life. Alternate translation: “whom we are to serve” or “whom we worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1051

1CO

8

6

cokf

figs-explicit

δι’ οὗ τὰ πάντα

1

Yet for us there is only one God

Here Paul emphasizes that the Lord Jesus Christ is the agent through whom God the Father created all things. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express through whom all {things are} with a phrase that identifies the Lord Jesus Christ as the agent in the creation of everything that exists. Alternate translation: “through whom God the Father created all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1052

1CO

8

6

jsqb

figs-explicit

ἡμεῖς δι’ αὐτοῦ

1

Yet for us there is only one God

Here Paul could be expressing the idea: (1) that we exist because of what Christ has done by creating and then saving us. Alternate translation: “through whom we live” (2) that we have been saved and given new life by Christ. Alternate translation: “through whom we have new life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1053

1CO

8

7

th5p

figs-metaphor

οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις

1

General Information:

Here Paul speaks as if everyone were a container in which knowledge could be stored, but some people do not have knowledge stored in them. He speaks in this way to show that not everyone understands what he has just said about how God the Father and Jesus are the only God and Lord. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea that knowledge is not in someone with a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “not everyone knows this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1054

1CO

8

7

v7lt

figs-idiom

τῇ συνηθείᾳ…τοῦ εἰδώλου

1

everyone … some

The Corinthians would have understood the custom of the idols to refer to regular practices associated with worshiping idols, including eating meat sacrificed to idols. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate the custom of the idols, by refer to worshiping idols “regularly.” Alternate translation: “regularly involved in worshiping idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1055

1CO

8

7

heud

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ συνηθείᾳ…τοῦ εἰδώλου

1

everyone … some

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind custom, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “used to” or “accustomed.” Alternate translation: “accustomed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1056

1CO

8

7

e737

figs-explicit

ἕως ἄρτι

1

everyone … some

Here, now refers to the time since these people became believers. Paul means that these people worshiped idols until they became Christians, not until the time he writes this letter. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express until now by clarifying that Paul is referring to when these people first believed in Jesus. Alternate translation: “until they believed in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1057

1CO

8

7

jdnr

translate-unknown

εἰδωλόθυτον

1

everyone … some

Here, the things sacrificed to idols refers to meat that has been offered to an idol. Translate this phrase the same way you did in 8:1. Alternate translation: “meat from animals sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1058

1CO

8

7

pdev

figs-activepassive

εἰδωλόθυτον

1

everyone … some

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is sacrificed rather than focusing on the person doing the “sacrificing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “things that people have sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1059

1CO

8

7

o04n

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

ὡς εἰδωλόθυτον ἐσθίουσιν

1

everyone … some

This phrase could refer to: (1) whenever the people that Paul is talking about eat {things} as sacrificed to idols. Alternate translation: “happen to eat things sacrificed to idols” (2) how the people that Paul is talking about think that the {things} as sacrificed to idols actually belong to another god. Alternate translation: “eat meat as if it were sacrificed to idols that were real” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

1060

1CO

8

7

xl4f

grammar-collectivenouns

ἡ συνείδησις αὐτῶν

1

everyone … some

The word conscience is a singular noun that refers to all their consciences. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternate translation: “each of their consciences” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

1061

1CO

8

7

pbyx

figs-metaphor

ἀσθενὴς οὖσα

1

everyone … some

Here, being weak identifies a conscience that easily leads a person to feel guilty. A weak conscience condemns some things that are probably acceptable before God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express being weak with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “being sensitive” or “which often condemns them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1062

1CO

8

7

ba7e

figs-activepassive

ἡ συνείδησις αὐτῶν ἀσθενὴς οὖσα μολύνεται

1

is defiled

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on their conscience, which is defiled, rather than focusing on who or what does the “defiling.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that the {things} as sacrificed to idols or “they” do it. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “their conscience being weak, they defile it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1063

1CO

8

8

ii4m

figs-personification

βρῶμα…ἡμᾶς οὐ παραστήσει τῷ Θεῷ

1

food will not present us to God

Here Paul speaks as if food were a person who could bring us near to God. By speaking in this way, Paul discusses whether food can make our relationship with God stronger or not. Just like a person who cannot bring us near to someone so that we can know that person better, so food cannot make our relationship with God any stronger. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “food will not make our relationship with God any stronger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1064

1CO

8

8

yzt9

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

οὔτε ἐὰν μὴ φάγωμεν, ὑστερούμεθα; οὔτε ἐὰν φάγωμεν, περισσεύομεν

1

food will not present us to God

Here Paul contrasts “eating” and “not eating” while negating both sides of the contrast. If your language does not use this form, you can express the idea with two negative clauses. Alternate translation: “we are not made to lack if we do not eat, and we do not abound if we eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1065

1CO

8

8

wp5k

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

οὔτε ἐὰν μὴ φάγωμεν, ὑστερούμεθα; οὔτε ἐὰν φάγωμεν, περισσεύομεν

1

food will not present us to God

Here Paul uses if twice to introduce true possibilities. He means that a person might not eat, or that person might eat. He specifies the result for each option. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statements by introducing them with a word such as “whenever” or by using relative clauses. Alternate translation: “neither are we made to lack whenever we do not eat, nor do we abound whenever we eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1066

1CO

8

8

x91v

figs-explicit

ὑστερούμεθα…περισσεύομεν

1

We are not worse if we do not eat, nor better if we do eat it

Here Paul does not specify in what we might lack or abound. If possible, do not specify this is in your translation. If you must clarify in what we might lack or abound, Paul implies that it is God’s “favor” or “grace.” Alternate translation: “are we made to lack God’s grace … we abound in God’s grace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1067

1CO

8

8

ciez

figs-explicit

μὴ φάγωμεν…φάγωμεν

1

We are not worse if we do not eat, nor better if we do eat it

Here Paul states a general principle, and he does not clarify what kinds of food he has in mind. If possible, do not specify what we eat in your translation. If you must clarify what we eat, you could include a vague or generic reference to “certain kinds of food.” Alternate translation: “we do not eat specific kinds of food … we eat specific kinds of food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1068

1CO

8

9

ns0y

figs-explicit

ἡ ἐξουσία ὑμῶν αὕτη

1

those who are weak

Here Paul implies that their authority is over “food”, as mentioned in the last verse (8:8). The point is that food has no authority over believers, whether to make them more or less “near to God.” Instead, believers have authority over food and can thus eat whatever they want. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what authority refers to here by clarifying that it refers to authority over “food.” Alternate translation: “this authority of yours over food” or “this authority of yours concerning eating” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1069

1CO

8

9

vu0y

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ ἐξουσία ὑμῶν αὕτη

1

those who are weak

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind authority, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “rule” or “manage” and include “food” or “eating” as the object. Alternate translation: “how you rule over food” or “how you manage your eating (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1070

1CO

8

9

loo1

ἡ ἐξουσία ὑμῶν αὕτη

1

those who are weak

Alternate translation: “this authority that you have”

1071

1CO

8

9

f3ds

figs-metaphor

τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν

1

those who are weak

Much like in 8:7, weak identifies a person who easily feels guilty. A weak person thinks some things are wrong that are probably acceptable before God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express weak with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “for the sensitive” or “for those who often condemn themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1072

1CO

8

9

deu5

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν

1

those who are weak

Paul is using the adjective weak as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who are weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1073

1CO

8

10

usg7

grammar-connect-condition-fact

ἐὰν…τις ἴδῃ

1

sees the one who has

Paul is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it will happen at some point. If your language does not state something as a condition if it will happen, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying might not happen, then you can introduce the clause by using a word such as “when” or “after”. Alternate translation: “whenever someone might see” or “after someone sees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1074

1CO

8

10

a7qn

figs-explicit

γνῶσιν

1

sees the one who has

Here Paul does not specify what the knowledge is about. However, it is clear from 8:4–6 that Paul is speaking about knowledge about other gods, specifically knowing that there is only one God and that other gods do not really exist. If you must specify what the knowledge is about, you could clarify that it is about the idols or the topic of things sacrificed to idols. Alternate translation: “knowledge about idols” or “knowledge about this issue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1075

1CO

8

10

v611

figs-abstractnouns

τὸν ἔχοντα γνῶσιν

1

sees the one who has

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind knowledge, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “know.” Alternate translation: “the person who knows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1076

1CO

8

10

xhn9

translate-unknown

κατακείμενον

1

sees the one who has

In Paul’s culture, people ate lying down on their side (reclining). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express reclining to eat with a word or phrase that describes the normal position for eating in your culture or indicate that the person is about to eat. Alternate translation: “about to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1077

1CO

8

10

ph53

figs-rquestion

οὐχὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτοῦ ἀσθενοῦς ὄντος οἰκοδομηθήσεται, εἰς τὸ τὰ εἰδωλόθυτα ἐσθίειν

1

sees the one who has

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, it will be built up.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “his conscience, being weak, will surely be built up so as to eat the things sacrificed to idols.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1078

1CO

8

10

i6ej

figs-gendernotations

αὐτοῦ

1

his … conscience

Here, his is written in masculine form, but it refers to anyone, no matter what their gender might be. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind hisby using a word that does not have gender, or you could use both genders. Alternate translation: “his or her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1079

1CO

8

10

x5pa

figs-metaphor

οἰκοδομηθήσεται

1

built up so as to eat

Here Paul speaks as if his conscience were a structure that could be built up. By speaking in this way, he means that the conscience becomes more confident or stronger, just a like a structure is stronger after it is built up. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “will … become stronger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1080

1CO

8

10

t5ae

figs-activepassive

οὐχὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτοῦ ἀσθενοῦς ὄντος οἰκοδομηθήσεται

1

built up so as to eat

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on those who are not built up rather than focusing on whatever does not “build them up.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that seeing the person with knowledge eating in an idol’s temple does it. Alternate translation: “will this not build up his conscience, which is weak,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1081

1CO

8

10

ohzy

figs-metaphor

ἀσθενοῦς ὄντος

1

built up so as to eat

Here, being weak identifies a conscience that easily leads a person to feel guilty. A weak conscience condemns some things that are probably acceptable before God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express being weak with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “being sensitive” or “which often condemns him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1082

1CO

8

10

mdqc

translate-unknown

τὰ εἰδωλόθυτα

1

built up so as to eat

Here, the {things} sacrificed to idols refers to meat that has been offered to an idol. Translate this phrase the same way you did in 8:1. Alternate translation: “meat from animals sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1083

1CO

8

10

a7s8

figs-activepassive

τὰ εἰδωλόθυτα

1

built up so as to eat

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is sacrificed rather than focusing on the person doing the “sacrificing.” If you must state who does the action, you can use a vague or indefinite subject. Alternate translation: “the things that people have sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1084

1CO

8

11

g5tn

figs-activepassive

ἀπόλλυται…ὁ ἀσθενῶν ἐν τῇ σῇ γνώσει, ὁ ἀδελφὸς, δι’ ὃν Χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν

1

the one who is weak … is destroyed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on the person who is destroyed rather than focusing on what or who does the “destroying.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “you” or “your knowledge” does it. Alternate translation: “you, through your knowledge, destroy the one who is weak, the brother for whom Christ died,” or “your knowledge destroys the one who is weak, the brother for whom Christ died (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1085

1CO

8

11

x6jd

figs-genericnoun

ὁ ἀσθενῶν…ὁ ἀδελφὸς

1

the one who is weak … is destroyed

Jesus is speaking of those who are weak and brothers in general, not of one particular person who is a brother and the one being weak. If your language does not use the singular form to refer to people in general, you can express the idea in a form that is more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “each one who is weak, who is a brother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1086

1CO

8

11

zy3t

figs-metaphor

ὁ ἀσθενῶν

1

the one who is weak … is destroyed

Much like in 8:9, the one being weak identifies a person who easily feels guilty. A weak person thinks some things are wrong that are probably acceptable before God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express being weak with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “the one who is sensitive” or “the one who often condemns himself or herself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1087

1CO

8

11

xs2l

figs-gendernotations

ὁ ἀδελφὸς

1

the one who is weak … is destroyed

Although brother is masculine, Paul is using this word to refer to any believer, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brother with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “the brother or sister” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1088

1CO

8

11

ez6t

figs-yousingular

σῇ

1

your knowledge

Here Paul addresses specific individuals within the Corinthian church. Because of this, your in this verse is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

1089

1CO

8

11

gwc9

figs-explicit

γνώσει

1

your knowledge

Here Paul does not specify what the knowledge is about. However, just as in 8:10, it is clear that Paul is speaking of knowledge about other gods, specifically knowing that there is only one God and that other gods do not really exist. If you must specify what the knowledge is about, you could clarify that it is about the idols or the topic of things sacrificed to idols. Alternate translation: “knowledge about idols” or “knowledge about this issue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1090

1CO

8

11

f6bg

figs-abstractnouns

ἐν τῇ σῇ γνώσει

1

your knowledge

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind knowledge, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “know.” Alternate translation: “through what you know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1091

1CO

8

12

azal

writing-pronouns

οὕτως

1

your knowledge

Here, thus refers back to the series of actions and results in 8:10–11. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what thus refers to by clarifying that it refers to the previous two verses. Alternate translation: “through your knowledge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1092

1CO

8

12

d8ni

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

οὕτως…ἁμαρτάνοντες εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς, καὶ τύπτοντες αὐτῶν τὴν συνείδησιν ἀσθενοῦσαν, εἰς Χριστὸν ἁμαρτάνετε

1

your knowledge

Here Paul means that whenever the Corinthians “sin against” and “wound” their brothers, they at the same time sin against Christ. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the relationship between sinning against your brothers and wounding their weak consciences and sin against Christ by clarifying that they happen at the same time. Alternate translation: “any time you thus sin against your brothers and wound their weak consciences, you at the same time sin against Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

1093

1CO

8

12

i5f6

καὶ τύπτοντες

1

your knowledge

Alternate translation: “by wounding” or “because you wound”

1094

1CO

8

12

o0w5

figs-gendernotations

τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς

1

your knowledge

Although brothers is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brothers with a non=gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “your brothers and sisters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1095

1CO

8

12

ti84

figs-metaphor

τύπτοντες αὐτῶν τὴν συνείδησιν ἀσθενοῦσαν

1

your knowledge

Here Paul speaks as if consciences were body parts that could be wounded. By speaking in this way, he emphasizes that the Corinthians who have knowledge are hurting the weak consciences of other believers as surely as if they had wounded their arms or bodies. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express wounding their weak consciences by clarifying that Paul means that the Corinthians who have knowledge are hurting weak consciences or making the weak consciences feel guilty. Alternate translation: “hurting their weak consciences” or “making their weak consciences feel guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1096

1CO

8

12

x857

figs-metaphor

τὴν συνείδησιν ἀσθενοῦσαν

1

your knowledge

Here, weak identifies consciences that easily lead people to feel guilty. These weak consciences condemn some things that are probably acceptable before God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express weak with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “sensitive consciences” or “consciences, which often condemn them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1097

1CO

8

13

i8tb

figs-personification

βρῶμα σκανδαλίζει τὸν ἀδελφόν μου

1

Therefore

Here, food is spoken of as though it were a person who could cause someone to stumble. Paul speaks in this way to emphasize that the food is the key issue that leads to “stumbling.” If this might be confusing for your readers, you could clarify that the person who eats the food causes someone to stumble. Alternate translation: “how I eat causes my brother to stumble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1098

1CO

8

13

seua

figs-123person

εἰ βρῶμα σκανδαλίζει τὸν ἀδελφόν μου, οὐ μὴ φάγω κρέα εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα

1

Therefore

Here Paul uses the first-person singular in order to use himself as an example for the Corinthians to follow. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express that this is why Paul uses the first person by clarifying that Paul is offering himself as an example. Alternate translation: “if food causes my brother to stumble, I, for one, will certainly not ever eat meat” or “take me as an example: if food causes my brother to stumble, I will certainly not ever eat meat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1099

1CO

8

13

vf92

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ βρῶμα σκανδαλίζει τὸν ἀδελφόν μου

1

if food causes to stumble

Paul is speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it will happen at some point. If your language does not state something as a condition if it will happen, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying might not happen, then you can introduce the clause by using a word such as “in cases where” or “since.” Alternate translation: “because food causes my brother to stumble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1100

1CO

8

13

eyrr

figs-gendernotations

τὸν ἀδελφόν

-1

Therefore

Although brother is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to anyone, whether man or woman. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express brother with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “brother or sister … brother or sister” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1101

1CO

8

13

ucfd

figs-genericnoun

τὸν ἀδελφόν μου

-1

Therefore

Paul is speaking of “brothers” in general, not of one particular brother. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express my brother with a word or phrase that refers to “brothers” in general. Alternate translation: “any brother of mine … any brother of mine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1102

1CO

8

13

ra1m

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ μὴ

1

Therefore

The words translated certainly not are two negative words. In Paul’s culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would think that the two negatives form a positive, so the ULT expresses the idea with one strong negative. If your language can use two negatives as Paul’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you can translate with one strong negative, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “by no means” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1103

1CO

8

13

k5oj

figs-explicit

κρέα

1

Therefore

Throughout this section, the “things sacrificed to idols” refers primarily to meat, and eating this kind of meat was one of the only ways for most people to eat meat at all. Paul here is stating that he will give up meat in general, whether it is sacrificed to idols or not. He implies that he does this so that fellow believers, who do not know whether the meat has been sacrificed to idols or not, will not stumble. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate the implications here to make them explicit. Alternate translation: “meat, even if it has not been sacrificed to idols” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1104

1CO

9

intro

z8d4

0

1 Corinthians 9 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  1. On food (8:1–11:1)
    • Paul claims to be an apostle (9:1–2)
    • Paul defends supporting himself (9:3–15)
    • Paul explains why he supports himself (9:16–23)
    • Paul on athletes (9:24–27)

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Receiving support from the church

Throughout the chapter, and especially in 9:1–18, Paul defends why he does not ask for or receive financial support from the Corinthians. From what he says in 9:3, it seems that some people were “examining” Paul, and they thought that how Paul supported himself was not appropriate behavior for an apostle. These people thought that if Paul was really an apostle, he would require support from the churches to whom he preached. The fact that Paul did not require this support suggested to these people that Paul did not really have authority. Paul, in response, argues that he could require support if he wanted to, but he thinks that working to support himself helps him proclaim the gospel better. Throughout the chapter, you could use words that refer to how churches support their leaders financially.

The “right”

In 9:4–6, 12, and 18, Paul speaks about a “right” that he and others have. This “right” can be to travel with a wife, to eat and to drink, and most importantly, to receive support from the Corinthians. Paul uses the word “right” to indicate that he is able to require financial support and other help from the Corinthians. However, he also states that he does not use this “right” because he thinks that he is serving God better without making use of it. In your translation, use a word or phrase that indicates that Paul and the others have the authority and the ability to do and require certain things. (See: [[rc://*/tw/dict/bible/kt/authority]])

Important Figures of Speech in this Chapter

Rhetorical questions

In 9:1, 4–13, 18, 24, Paul uses rhetorical questions. He is not asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to provide him with information. Rather, he is asking these questions because he wants the Corinthians to think about how they are acting and what they are thinking. The questions encourage them to think along with Paul. For ways to translate these questions, look for the notes on each verse that include these kinds of questions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Farming metaphor

In 9:9–11, Paul applies an Old Testament law about farming to himself and others who proclaim the gospel. In 9:11, he speaks about “sowing spiritual things,” by which he means proclaiming the gospel. When he and others “sow spiritual things,” they should be able to “reap material things,” by which he means financial support. If possible, preserve the farming metaphor here since it is related to the Old Testament law. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Athletic metaphors

In 9:24–27, Paul uses several metaphors that are based on athletes and athletic competitions. Paul speaks about “running a race” and how the winner receives a “wreath,” which was a crown made out of leaves. He also speaks about “boxing” and how a good boxer does not “box the air.” Finally, he refers to how athletes in general must exercise “self-control” as they train. Paul uses these athletic metaphors to indicate how he and all believers need to focus on the goal, which is the reward that God has promised. To reach this goal, believers must exercise “self-control,” just as athletes do. The point is for believers to live their lives so that they receive the reward from God, just like athletes focus completely on trying to win the prize, the “wreath.” Paul uses these metaphors across several verses, and they are very important for his argument. If possible, preserve the metaphors in your translation. If necessary, you could express them as analogies. See the notes on these verses for translation possibilities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

“I became (as) …”

In 9:20–22, Paul explains how he has “become as a Jew,” “as under the law,” “as without the law,” and “weak.” What Paul means is that he acts like these four groups of people when he is with them. He does this because he wishes to “gain” all these people for Christ. When you translate these verses, use a phrase that indicates that Paul is acting like a specific kind of person.

Paul’s use of Deuteronomy 25:4

In 9:9, Paul quotes from Deuteronomy 25:4, which forbids a farmer from “muzzling an ox” while it threshes grain. Paul then explains to the Corinthians that God is not concerned about oxen but is speaking for “us” (9:9–10). What he means is that the law should not primarily be applied to “oxen” but rather to those who proclaim the gospel. He is not saying that God does not have any concern for oxen. When you translate these verses, focus on maintaining the strength of Paul’s argument, but if possible allow the reader to see that God does also care for “oxen.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1105

1CO

9

1

mdm4

figs-rquestion

οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐλεύθερος? οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος? οὐχὶ Ἰησοῦν τὸν Κύριον ἡμῶν ἑόρακα? οὐ τὸ ἔργον μου ὑμεῖς ἐστε ἐν Κυρίῳ?

1

Am I not free?

Paul does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The questions assume that the answer to all of them is “yes.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these questions by stating the ideas with strong affirmations. Alternate translation: “I certainly am free. I certainly am an apostle. I have certainly seen Jesus our Lord. You are certainly my work in the Lord.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1106

1CO

9

1

ctp3

figs-explicit

ἐλεύθερος

1

Am I not free?

Here, free could mean that Paul is free to: (1) eat whatever he wants. This connects this question with chapter 8. Alternate translation: “free to eat whatever I wish” (2) receive financial support from the believers he serves. This connects this question with the first half of this chapter. Alternate translation: “free to receive support from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1107

1CO

9

1

dbp9

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ ἔργον μου

1

Am I not an apostle?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind work, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “labor.” Alternate translation: “whom I labor for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1108

1CO

9

1

l6sq

figs-metonymy

τὸ ἔργον μου

1

Am I not an apostle?

Here, work refers to the result of the work. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express work by clarifying that what the work produced is the focus here. Alternate translation: “the result of my work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1109

1CO

9

1

re1t

figs-metaphor

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

Have I not seen Jesus our Lord?

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in {the} Lord to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in {the} Lord, or united to the Lord, describes the work as what Paul does because of his union with the Lord. Alternate translation: “in union with the Lord” or “that I perform because I am united to the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1110

1CO

9

2

j6qz

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ ἄλλοις οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος, ἀλλά γε

1

you are the proof of my apostleship in the Lord

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that others might think that he is not an apostle, or they might think that he is an apostle. He then specifies the result for if the others think that he is not an apostle. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by introducing the statement with “perhaps.” Alternate translation: “Perhaps I am not an apostle to others, but at least” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1111

1CO

9

2

j4k8

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ…σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς, ὑμεῖς ἐστε

1

you are the proof of my apostleship in the Lord

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind proof, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “prove” or “show.” Alternate translation: “you prove my apostleship” or “you show that I am an apostle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1112

1CO

9

2

y2nh

figs-possession

ἡ…σφραγίς μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς

1

you are the proof of my apostleship in the Lord

Here Paul uses the possessive form to speak about a proof that shows his apostleship. If your language does not use this form to express that meaning, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “what proves my apostleship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1113

1CO

9

2

gxhr

figs-abstractnouns

μου τῆς ἀποστολῆς

1

you are the proof of my apostleship in the Lord

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind apostleship, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “I am an apostle.” Alternate translation: “that I am an apostle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1114

1CO

9

2

z5sb

figs-metaphor

ἐν Κυρίῳ

1

you are the proof of my apostleship in the Lord

Here Paul uses the spatial metaphor in {the} Lord to describe the union of believers with Christ. In this case, being in {the} Lord, or united to the Lord, describes the proof that the Corinthians provide as something that happens in union with the Lord. Alternate translation: “in union with the Lord” or “as you are united to the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1115

1CO

9

3

yb0x

figs-metaphor

ἡ ἐμὴ ἀπολογία τοῖς ἐμὲ ἀνακρίνουσίν

1

This is my defense … me:

Here Paul uses language that would normally be used in the legal courts. The defense is what the persons accused would say to prove their innocence. The ones examining are the ones who are in charge of the court and make the decisions about who is guilty and who is innocent. Paul uses this metaphor to explain that he is defending himself against people who have accused him of acting wrongly. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the legal metaphor plainly or with a comparable metaphor. Alternate translation: “My answer to those who accuse me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1116

1CO

9

3

ktze

figs-abstractnouns

ἡ ἐμὴ ἀπολογία τοῖς

1

This is my defense … me:

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind defense, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “defend.” Alternate translation: “What I say to defend myself against those” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1117

1CO

9

3

l2n5

figs-explicit

τοῖς ἐμὲ ἀνακρίνουσίν

1

This is my defense … me:

Here Paul does not state how the ones examining him think he has acted wrongly. The previous verse suggests that it relates to his “apostleship” (6:21). Paul intentionally does not state the “charge” against him, so leave it unstated if possible. If you must state what the “charge” against Paul is, you could clarify that it relates to whether he is truly an apostle or not. Alternate translation: “to those who examine me about my apostleship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1118

1CO

9

3

b17x

writing-pronouns

αὕτη

1

This is my defense … me:

Here, this refers to what Paul is about to say, most likely including everything in the rest of this chapter. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this with a normal form in your language to speak about what you are about to say. Alternate translation: “what I am about to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1119

1CO

9

4

mr4g

figs-rquestion

μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν?

1

Do we not have the right to eat and drink?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, you do.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “We most definitely have the right to eat and to drink.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1120

1CO

9

4

ninf

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ οὐκ

1

Do we not have the right to eat and drink?

The Greek words translated certainly not are two negative words. In Paul’s culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would misunderstand two negatives, so the ULT expresses the idea with one strong negative. If your language can use two negatives as Paul’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you can translate with one strong negative, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “by no means” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1121

1CO

9

4

p4vq

figs-exclusive

ἔχομεν

1

we … have

Here, we refers to Paul and Barnabas (see 9:6). It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1122

1CO

9

4

h0c3

figs-abstractnouns

μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν

1

we … have

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind right, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “are able to” or “can require.” Alternate translation: “Are we certainly not able” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1123

1CO

9

4

i6tk

figs-metonymy

φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν

1

we … have

Here, to eat and to drink refers not primarily to the physical process of “eating” and “drinking.” Rather, the phrase refers primarily to what is needed to eat and to drink, that is, food and drink. Paul is saying that he and Barnabas have the right to receive food and drink so that they can eat and drink. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to eat and to drink by clarifying that Paul refers to “food” and “drink.” Alternate translation: “to food to eat and beverages to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1124

1CO

9

4

e45j

figs-explicit

φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν

1

we … have

Although Paul does not explicitly say this, he implies that we have the right to receive the food and drink from the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what Paul is saying by clarifying that the food to eat and the beverages to drink would have come from the Corinthians in support of Paul’s work. Alternate translation: “to be supported by you so that we can eat and drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1125

1CO

9

5

s9k8

figs-rquestion

μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν ἀδελφὴν, γυναῖκα περιάγειν, ὡς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τοῦ Κυρίου, καὶ Κηφᾶς?

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, you do.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “We certainly do have the right to take along a believing wife, even as do the rest of the apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1126

1CO

9

5

x2jm

figs-exclusive

ἔχομεν

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

Here, we refers to Paul and Barnabas (see 9:6). It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1127

1CO

9

5

zmsx

figs-doublenegatives

μὴ οὐκ

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

The words translated certainly not are two negative words. In Paul’s culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would misunderstand two negatives, so the ULT expresses the idea with one strong negative. If your language can use two negatives as Paul’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you can translate with one strong negative, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “surely not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1128

1CO

9

5

s7gs

figs-abstractnouns

ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind right, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “are able to” or “can require.” Alternate translation: “Are we … able to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1129

1CO

9

5

hw7f

translate-unknown

περιάγειν

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

Here, to take along refers to journeying with someone as a companion. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to take along with a word or phrase that refers to traveling with someone else. Alternate translation: “to travel with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1130

1CO

9

5

bpbf

οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τοῦ Κυρίου, καὶ Κηφᾶς

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

Here, apostles could include: (1) Paul and Barnabas, the brothers of the Lord, Cephas, and many others who proclaimed the good news. Alternate translation: “the rest of the apostles, including the brothers of the Lord and Cephas” (2) just the “Twelve,” the primary apostles, which would include Cephas but not the brothers of the Lord. Alternate translation: “the rest of the twelve apostles and the brothers of the Lord—even Cephas”

1131

1CO

9

5

snio

οἱ λοιποὶ ἀπόστολοι, καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τοῦ Κυρίου, καὶ Κηφᾶς

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

Even though Cephas was one of the apostles, Paul mentions him separately to emphasize him as an example. He has already used Cephas as an example earlier in the letter (see 1:12; 3:22). Perhaps the Corinthians were comparing Cephas and Paul. Be sure that the wording of your translation does not suggest that Cephas was not an apostle. Alternate translation: “the rest of the apostles and the brothers of the Lord—even Cephas”

1132

1CO

9

5

hnbw

translate-kinship

οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τοῦ Κυρίου

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

These were Jesus’ younger brothers. They were sons of Mary and Joseph. Since the Father of Jesus was God, and their father was Joseph, they were actually his half-brothers. That detail is not normally translated, but if your language has a specific word for “younger brother,” you can use it here. Alternate translation: “the younger brothers of the Lord” or “the half-brothers of the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

1133

1CO

9

5

y3g0

translate-names

Κηφᾶς

1

Do we not have the right to take along with us a wife who is a believer, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Cephas?

Cephas is the name of a man. It is another name for “Peter,” the apostle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1134

1CO

9

6

za87

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ἢ μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρναβᾶς, οὐκ ἔχομεν

1

Or is it only Barnabas and I who do not have the right not to work?

The word Or introduces an alternate to what Paul asked in 9:4–5. Paul already spoke about what he thinks is true: he and Barnabas do “have the right” to receive food and drink, and they “have the right” to travel with a wife. Here Paul gives the incorrect alternative: they alone do not have the right not to work. He introduces this incorrect alternate to show that his earlier statements must be true. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Or with a word that signifies a contrast or gives an alternative. Alternate translation: “Otherwise, would it not be true that only Barnabas and I do not have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1135

1CO

9

6

wx1p

figs-rquestion

ἢ μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρναβᾶς, οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι?

1

Or is it only Barnabas and I who do not have the right not to work?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no, you do have the right.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong statement. Alternate translation: “Barnabas and I too certainly have the right not to work.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1136

1CO

9

6

j84g

figs-doublenegatives

οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι

1

Or is it only Barnabas and I who do not have the right not to work?

Paul here includes not twice. In his culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would understand two negatives here, so the ULT expresses the idea with both. If your language can use two negatives as Paul’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you can translate with one negative and express the other negative by stating the opposite. Alternate translation: “do … lack the right not to work” or “do … not have the right to refrain from working” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1137

1CO

9

6

o8ok

figs-abstractnouns

μόνος ἐγὼ καὶ Βαρναβᾶς, οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν

1

Or is it only Barnabas and I who do not have the right not to work?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind right, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “are able to” or “can require.” Alternate translation: “are only Barnabas and I not able” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1138

1CO

9

6

ngpd

figs-explicit

μὴ ἐργάζεσθαι

1

Or is it only Barnabas and I who do not have the right not to work?

Here Paul refers to the privilege of receiving financial support from churches so that the person serving Christ does not have to work. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express what Paul is speaking about by clarifying that receiving aid from others is in view here. Alternate translation: “to receive financial support” or “not to work because believers support us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1139

1CO

9

7

f3qf

figs-rquestion

τίς στρατεύεται ἰδίοις ὀψωνίοις ποτέ? τίς φυτεύει ἀμπελῶνα, καὶ τὸν καρπὸν αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐσθίει? ἢ τίς ποιμαίνει ποίμνην, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ γάλακτος τῆς ποίμνης, οὐκ ἐσθίει?

1

Who serves as a soldier at his own expense?

Paul does not ask these questions because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks them to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The questions assume that the answer to all of them is “no one.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these questions by stating the ideas with strong negations. Alternate translation: “No one serves as a soldier at any time at his own expense. No one plants a vineyard and does not eat its fruit. No one shepherds a flock and does not drink from the milk of the flock.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1140

1CO

9

7

zh5m

figs-gendernotations

ἰδίοις

1

Who plants a vineyard and does not eat its fruit?

Here, his is masculine because most soldiers in Paul’s culture were male. However, Paul is not emphasizing the gender of soldiers here. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express his with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “his or her own” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1141

1CO

9

7

r1ih

translate-unknown

ἰδίοις ὀψωνίοις

1

Or who tends a flock and does not drink milk from it?

Here, expense refers to the cost of food, weapons, and lodging for a solider to “serve.” Paul’s point is that soldiers do not pay these costs. Rather, the one who controls the army pays these costs. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express expense by clarifying that it refers to the costs of maintaining an army. Alternate translation: “by paying for his own cost of living” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1142

1CO

9

8

jld4

figs-rquestion

μὴ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον, ταῦτα λαλῶ

1

Am I not saying these things according to human authority?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no, you are not.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negation. If you do so, you will need to separate the first half of the verse from the second half. Alternate translation: “I am not saying these things according to men.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1143

1CO

9

8

igpe

figs-gendernotations

ἄνθρωπον

1

Am I not saying these things according to human authority?

Although men is masculine, Paul is using it to refer to any humans, whether men or women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express men with a non gendered word or refer to both genders. Alternate translation: “men and women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

1144

1CO

9

8

drqe

figs-idiom

κατὰ ἄνθρωπον

1

Am I not saying these things according to human authority?

Here Paul speaks of saying things according to men. By using this phrase, he wishes to identify arguments made by people who think and act in only human ways. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind the phrase according to menby using a word or phrase that refers to what unbelievers say and argue. Alternate translation: “according to what mere humans argue” or “according to this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1145

1CO

9

8

tdze

writing-pronouns

ταῦτα

-1

Am I not saying these things according to human authority?

In both places where it appears, these {things} refers back to what Paul has said in 9:3–7 about his “right” to receive financial support from the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express these {things} with a word or phrase that clearly refers back to what has already been said. Alternate translation: “those things … those things” or “what I have said … what I have said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1146

1CO

9

8

ou7a

grammar-connect-words-phrases

1

Or does not the law also say this?

The word or introduces an alternate to what Paul says in the first half of the verse. Paul could be saying these things according to men. However, with or he introduces what he thinks is actually true: the law also says these {things}. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this use of or with another word that signifies a contrast or gives an alternative. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to end the first half of the sentence with its own question mark. Alternate translation: “Instead,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1147

1CO

9

8

vy1n

figs-rquestion

ἢ καὶ ὁ νόμος ταῦτα οὐ λέγει?

1

Or does not the law also say this?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, the law says these things.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong statement. If you do so, you will need to separate the second half of the verse from the first half. Alternate translation: “No, the law also says these things.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1148

1CO

9

8

spqj

translate-unknown

ὁ νόμος

1

Or does not the law also say this?

Here, the law refers specifically to the first five books of the Old Testament, often called the Pentateuch or “the law of Moses.” Make sure your readers can tell that Paul is referring to this specific law here. Alternate translation: “the Pentateuch” or “Moses’ law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1149

1CO

9

9

lf1q

writing-quotations

ἐν γὰρ τῷ Μωϋσέως νόμῳ, γέγραπται

1

Do not put a muzzle on

In Paul’s culture, For it is written is a normal way to introduce a quotation from an important text. In this case, Paul clarifies that the quote comes from the law of Moses. It is specifically from Deuteronomy 25:4. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express how Paul introduces the quotation with a comparable phrase that indicates that Paul is quoting from an important text. Alternate translation: “For it can be read in the law of Moses” or “For in the book of Deuteronomy, in the law of Moses we read” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

1150

1CO

9

9

wc4i

figs-activepassive

ἐν…τῷ Μωϋσέως νόμῳ, γέγραπται

1

Do not put a muzzle on

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than focusing on the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the scripture author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “Moses has written in the law” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God has said in the law of Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1151

1CO

9

9

fks6

figs-quotations

Μωϋσέως…οὐ φιμώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα

1

Do not put a muzzle on

If your language does not use this form, you can translate the command as an indirect quote instead of as a direct quote. Alternate translation: “of Moses that you should not muzzle an ox treading out grain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1152

1CO

9

9

h2d3

figs-yousingular

οὐ φιμώσεις

1

Do not put a muzzle on

The command from the law of Moses is addressed to specific individuals. Because of this, the command is in the singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])

1153

1CO

9

9

kvxh

translate-unknown

οὐ φιμώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα

1

Do not put a muzzle on

In Paul’s culture, farmers often would make oxen walk or “tread” on harvested wheat to separate the kernels of grain from the wheat stalks. Some people would muzzle an ox while it is treading out grain in order to keep the ox from eating the grain. The point of the command is that the ox should be allowed to eat what it is working to produce: the grain. If your readers would not understand what this command is about, you could include a footnote explaining the context or add a short clarifying phrase. Alternate translation: “Do not muzzle an ox to keep it from eating the grain it is treading out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1154

1CO

9

9

sxk2

figs-rquestion

μὴ τῶν βοῶν μέλει τῷ Θεῷ?

1

Is it really the oxen that God cares about?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no, he does not.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negation. Alternate translation: “God does not care about the oxen.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1155

1CO

9

9

pdqe

figs-hyperbole

μὴ τῶν βοῶν μέλει τῷ Θεῷ?

1

Is it really the oxen that God cares about?

Here Paul speaks as if God has no concern or interest in oxen. The Corinthians would have understood him to mean that the primary intent of the command he quotes is not about caring for oxen but rather caring for something or someone else. He specifies what the primary intent of the command is in the next verse: it is for our sake (9:9). If it would be helpful in your language, you could soften Paul’s question so that it argues that the command is not “primarily” or “mostly” about oxen. If possible, however, maintain the strength of Paul’s statement, since he offers an explanation in the next verse. Alternate translation: “God does not mostly care about the oxen, does he” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1156

1CO

9

10

frkk

grammar-connect-words-phrases

1

Or is he speaking entirely for our sake?

The word Or introduces an alternate to what Paul says at the end of the previous verse (9:9). In that verse, he asked whether God cares about the oxen in this law. Since that is not the issue here, the or introduces what Paul thinks is actually true: the law is entirely for our sake. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express Or with a word that signifies a contrast or gives an alternative. Alternate translation: “On the other hand,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1157

1CO

9

10

x84t

figs-rquestion

ἢ δι’ ἡμᾶς πάντως λέγει?

1

Or is he speaking entirely for our sake?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, he is.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong statement. Alternate translation: “Actually, he is speaking entirely for our sake.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1158

1CO

9

10

b1tg

writing-pronouns

λέγει

1

Or is he speaking entirely for our sake?

Here, he refers back to “God” in 9:9. Paul assumes that God is the one who is speaking in the passage he quoted in the last verse. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express he by clarifying that it refers to God speaking the “law of Moses.” Alternate translation: “is God speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1159

1CO

9

10

f8f4

figs-exclusive

δι’ ἡμᾶς

-1

for our sake

Here, our could refer to: (1) everyone who believes, including the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “for the sake of us who believe … for the sake of us who believe” (2) Paul, Barnabas, and others who proclaim the good news. Alternate translation: “for the sake of us who proclaim the gospel … for the sake of us who proclaim the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1160

1CO

9

10

evv4

figs-activepassive

ἐγράφη

1

for our sake

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is written rather than focusing on the person doing the “writing.” If you must state who does the action, you can express it so that: (1) the scripture author writes or speaks the words. Alternate translation: “Moses wrote it” (2) God speaks the words. Alternate translation: “God said it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1161

1CO

9

10

d1cn

grammar-connect-logic-result

ὅτι

1

for our sake

Here, that could introduce: (1) the reason why it was written. Alternate translation: “because” (2) a summary of the content of what was written. If you use the following alternate translation, you may need to add a comma before it. Alternate translation: “and it means that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

1162

1CO

9

10

c42y

figs-genericnoun

ὁ ἀροτριῶν…ὁ ἀλοῶν

1

for our sake

Paul is speaking of these people in general, not of one particular person plowing or threshing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form with a form that refers to people in general. Alternate translation: “anyone who plows … anyone who threshes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1163

1CO

9

10

bdlk

figs-abstractnouns

ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι…ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι τοῦ μετέχειν

1

for our sake

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind hope, you can express the idea by using an adverb such as “hopefully” or a verb such as “expect.” Alternate translation: “hopefully … hopefully expecting to share the harvest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1164

1CO

9

10

pas5

figs-ellipsis

ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

for our sake

Here Paul does not mention what the hope expects because he states it at the end of the verse: sharing the harvest. If it would be helpful in your language, you could explicitly state that sharing the harvest is what the hope expects. Alternate translation: “in hope of sharing the harvest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1165

1CO

9

10

q1q2

figs-ellipsis

ὁ ἀλοῶν ἐπ’ ἐλπίδι

1

for our sake

Here Paul omits some words that your language may require to make a complete thought. Paul omits these words because he stated them explicitly in the previous clause (ought to plow). If your language does need these words, you could supply them from that clause. Alternate translation: “the one who threshes ought to thresh in hope” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1166

1CO

9

11

zn5m

figs-metaphor

εἰ ἡμεῖς ὑμῖν τὰ πνευματικὰ ἐσπείραμεν, μέγα εἰ ἡμεῖς ὑμῶν τὰ σαρκικὰ θερίσομεν?

1

is it too much for us to reap material things from you?

In this verse, Paul applies the farming language he used in 9:9–10. When he and Barnabas “sow,” they should also “reap” the harvest. Paul clarifies that what they sowed was spiritual {things}, which means the good news. The material {things} that they can reap are money and support from the Corinthians. If your reader would misunderstand this application of the farming language, you could use analogies to clarify what Paul is referring to or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “Similarly, if we told you about the good news, is it too much if we receive material support from you?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1167

1CO

9

11

b5g9

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς

-1

is it too much for us to reap material things from you?

Here, we refers particularly to Paul and Barnabas. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1168

1CO

9

11

jpjj

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ

1

is it too much for us to reap material things from you?

Paul is speaking as if we “sowing spiritual things” was a possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “Since” or “Given that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1169

1CO

9

11

g1wh

figs-rquestion

μέγα εἰ ἡμεῖς ὑμῶν τὰ σαρκικὰ θερίσομεν?

1

is it too much for us to reap material things from you?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “no, it is not.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong negation. Alternate translation: “it is by no means too much if we will reap material things from you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1170

1CO

9

11

czcs

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ

2

is it too much for us to reap material things from you?

Here Paul uses if to introduce a true possibility. He means that we could reap material things from you, though we might not do so. He specifies the result for if we do reap material {things}. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statement by introducing it with a word such as “whenever” or “that.” Alternate translation: “that” or “whenever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1171

1CO

9

12

v333

grammar-connect-condition-fact

εἰ

1

If others exercised this right

Paul is speaking as if others “sharing” the right over you was a possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “Since” or “Given that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1172

1CO

9

12

z3mr

figs-explicit

τῆς ὑμῶν ἐξουσίας μετέχουσιν

1

If others exercised this right

While Paul does not directly state this, the Corinthians would have understood right to refer to the right to receive financial support. If your readers would not understand right in this way, you could express the idea more clearly. Alternate translation: “shared the right to financial support from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1173

1CO

9

12

cr62

figs-abstractnouns

τῆς ὑμῶν ἐξουσίας μετέχουσιν…ἡμεῖς…τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ ταύτῃ

1

If others exercised this right

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind right, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “able to.” If you do so, you may need to express an object, which here is receiving financial support. Alternate translation: “were able to require financial support from you, are we … being able to require financial support from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1174

1CO

9

12

lld4

figs-rquestion

οὐ μᾶλλον ἡμεῖς?

1

If others exercised this right over you, should we not even more?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, you do.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “we certainly do even more.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1175

1CO

9

12

po30

figs-ellipsis

οὐ μᾶλλον ἡμεῖς

1

If others exercised this right over you, should we not even more?

Here Paul omits some words that may be required in your language to make a complete thought. If your language needs these words, you could supply them from the first half of the sentence. Alternate translation: “do we not share the right even more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1176

1CO

9

12

ybwy

figs-exclusive

ἡμεῖς…ἐχρησάμεθα…στέγομεν…δῶμεν

1

Here, we refers to Paul and Barnabas. It does not include the Corinthians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1177

1CO

9

12

nr6u

figs-explicit

πάντα στέγομεν

1

others

Here Paul refers to what he and Barnabas had to “endure” because they did not take advantage of receiving financial aid from the Corinthians. They had to work to support themselves, and they probably had to go without as much food and supplies as they would have liked. Some of the hardships that Paul and Barnabas endured appear in 4:10–13. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate everything to make it more explicit. Alternate translation: “we endured serving without financial support” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1178

1CO

9

12

q7vj

figs-idiom

μή τινα ἐνκοπὴν δῶμεν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

1

this right

In Paul’s culture, to give any hindrance means to “delay” or to “block” something. Paul means that he would rather have endured everything” than to have hindered the gospel. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind give any hindrancein a form that is more natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we might not hinder the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1179

1CO

9

12

prci

figs-abstractnouns

μή τινα ἐνκοπὴν δῶμεν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

1

this right

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind hindrance, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “hinder.” Alternate translation: “we might not hinder the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1180

1CO

9

13

slf9

figs-rquestion

οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ τὰ ἱερὰ ἐργαζόμενοι, τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐσθίουσιν; οἱ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ παρεδρεύοντες, τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ συνμερίζονται?

1

Do you not know that those who serve in the temple eat from the things of the temple

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the answer is “yes, we know.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question with a strong affirmation. Alternate translation: “You know that those working in the temple eat from the things of the temple; those serving at the altar partake from the altar.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1181

1CO

9

13

pq05

figs-explicit

οἱ τὰ ἱερὰ ἐργαζόμενοι

1

Do you not know that those who serve in the temple eat from the things of the temple

Here, the ones working in the temple refers to any person whose job takes place in or around the temple. Paul may specifically have the “Levites” or other “temple servants” in mind. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the ones working in the temple with a word or phrase in your language that refers generally to anyone whose job is in the temple. Alternate translation: “the temple servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1182

1CO

9

13

ergc

translate-unknown

τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ

1

Do you not know that those who serve in the temple eat from the things of the temple

Here, to eat from the {hings} of the temple means that these people eat some of the food that people donate to the temple or offer to God in the temple. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the {things} of the temple with a word or phrase that refers to what people have offered or given to the temple. Alternate translation: “from what people give to the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1183

1CO

9

13

omzu

οἱ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ παρεδρεύοντες

1

Do you not know that those who serve in the temple eat from the things of the temple

Here, the ones serving at the altar could be: (1) a specific group within the ones working in the temple, specifically the priests who work at the altar. Alternate translation: “particularly, those serving at the altar” (2) another way to speak about the ones working in the temple. Paul repeats himself to clarify exactly what eating from the {things} of the temple means. Alternate translation: “that is, those serving at the altar”

1184

1CO

9

13

fxxi

figs-explicit

οἱ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ παρεδρεύοντες

1

Do you not know that those who serve in the temple eat from the things of the temple

Here, the ones serving at the altar refers to the specific people who offered sacrifices on the altar. Paul may specifically have in mind the “priests.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the ones serving at the altar with a word or phrase for the people who have the closest contact with God and who offer sacrifices to him. Alternate translation: “the priests” or “those who serve the most sacred things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1185

1CO

9

13

lqar

translate-unknown

τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ συνμερίζονται

1

Do you not know that those who serve in the temple eat from the things of the temple

Here, to partake from the altar means that these people offer part of a sacrifice on the altar, but they also eat part of that sacrifice. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express partake from the altar with a word or phrase that refers to eating part of what people offer to their god. Alternate translation: “eat part of what is sacrificed on the altar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1186

1CO

9

14

g5i8

figs-explicit

ὁ Κύριος διέταξεν

1

get their living from the gospel

Here Paul refers to how Jesus said that a “worker deserves wages” when he sent people to proclaim the good news. See the saying in Matthew 10:10 and Luke 10:7. If it would be helpful in your language, you could include a footnote to explain the reference to what Jesus said. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1187

1CO

9

14

tuiy

figs-idiom

ἐκ…ζῆν

1

get their living from the gospel

Here, to live from identifies how a person should support themselves and acquire food and other necessities. For example, to live from carpentry would mean that the person makes money to pay for food and housing by doing carpentry. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express to live from with a word or phrase in your language that refers to how a person makes a living or supports themselves. Alternate translation: “to support themselves on” or “to receive their income from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1188

1CO

9

14

rj38

figs-metonymy

τοῦ εὐαγγελίου

1

get their living from the gospel

Here, the gospel refers to: (1) the job or occupation of proclaiming the gospel. Alternate translation: “preaching the gospel” (2) the people who hear and believe in the gospel. Alternate translation: “those who believe the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1189

1CO

9

15

fs7a

translate-unknown

οὐ κέχρημαι

1

these rights

Here, taken advantage of refers to “making use of” a resource or “requiring” a specific behavior. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express taken advantage of with a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “have not made use of” or “have not required you to provide” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1190

1CO

9

15

j8zn

figs-doublenegatives

οὐ κέχρημαι οὐδενὶ

1

these rights

Here Paul uses two negative words in the Greek: “have not taken advantage of none.” In Paul’s culture, two negative words made the statement even more negative. English speakers would misunderstand these two negatives, so the ULT expresses the idea with one strong negative. If your language can use two negatives as Paul’s culture did, you could use a double negative here. If your language does not use two negatives in this way, you can translate with one strong negative, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “have by no means taken advantage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1191

1CO

9

15

wese

writing-pronouns

τούτων

1

these rights

Here, these {things} could refer to: (1) the “right” or “rights” that Paul has to financial support from the Corinthians. Alternate translation: “of these rights” (2) all the reasons he has given in 9:6–14 for why those who proclaim the gospel should receive financial support. Alternate translation: “of these reasons” or “of these arguments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1192

1CO

9

15

u9my

figs-pastforfuture

οὐκ ἔγραψα

1

these rights

Here Paul refers to 1 Corinthians itself, the letter he is currently writing. Use whatever tense in your language would be appropriate to refer to the letter itself. Alternate translation: “I have not written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

1193

1CO

9

15

ygaz

writing-pronouns

ταῦτα

1

these rights

Here Paul refers to what he has already written, especially to 9:6–14. Use a form in your language that refers back to things that have just been said. Alternate translation: “those things” or “what I have just written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1194

1CO

9

15

vf7d

writing-pronouns

οὕτως γένηται

1

these rights

Here, thus refers to receiving financial support from the Corinthians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express thus with a word or phrase that more clearly refers to receiving financial support. Alternate translation: “these things might be done” or “support might be given” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1195

1CO

9

15

sy42

figs-activepassive

γένηται ἐν ἐμοί

1

so that this might be done for me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on what is done rather than the person doing it. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “you,” the Corinthians, would do it. Alternate translation: “you might do for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1196

1CO

9

15

fd69

figs-metaphor

τὸ καύχημά μου…κενώσει

1

deprive me of my boasting

Here Paul speaks as if a boast was a container that someone could make empty. By speaking in this way, Paul means that someone could take away what he boasts about. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express make my boast empty with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “will remove my reason for boasting” or “will deflate my boast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1197

1CO

9

15

rl1y

figs-abstractnouns

τὸ καύχημά μου

1

deprive me of my boasting

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind boast, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “boast.” Alternate translation: “what I boast about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1198

1CO

9

16

lq4l

figs-infostructure

ἐὰν…εὐαγγελίζωμαι, οὐκ ἔστιν μοι καύχημα, ἀνάγκη γάρ μοι ἐπίκειται

1

this necessity was placed upon me

If your language would normally put the reason before the result, you could rearrange the order of these clauses. Alternate translation: “because compulsion is placed on me, there is nothing for me to boast about if I proclaim the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1199

1CO

9

16

xpve

grammar-connect-condition-fact

ἐὰν

1

this necessity was placed upon me

Paul is speaking as if “proclaiming” the gospel was only a possibility, but he means that he actually does this. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you could translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “when” or “whenever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])

1200

1CO

9

16

ecw2

figs-activepassive

ἀνάγκη…ἐπίκειται

1

this necessity was placed upon me

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on himself, upon whom the compulsion is placed, rather than focusing on the person placing the compulsion. If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God places compulsion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1201

1CO

9

16

qyp0

figs-abstractnouns

ἀνάγκη…μοι ἐπίκειται

1

this necessity was placed upon me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind compulsion, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “compel” and rephrase the clause. Alternate translation: “I am compelled to do so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1202

1CO

9

16

eimr

figs-metaphor

ἀνάγκη…μοι ἐπίκειται

1

this necessity was placed upon me

Here Paul speaks as if compulsion were a physical object that someone had placed upon him. By speaking in this way, he means that he is required to do something. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “I am commanded to do so” or “I have an obligation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1203

1CO

9

16

l7as

figs-idiom

οὐαὶ…μοί ἐστιν

1

woe be to me if

Here, woe be to me expresses what Paul thinks would happen to him if he ever were to stop preaching the gospel. He would experience woe, with the implication that this woe will come from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express woe be to me with a word or phrase that expresses the expectation of bad things to come. Alternate translation: “bad things will happen to me” or “God will punish me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1204

1CO

9

16

p1sa

grammar-connect-condition-contrary

ἐὰν μὴ εὐαγγελίζωμαι

1

woe be to me if

Paul is making a conditional statement that sounds hypothetical, but he is already convinced that the condition is not true. He knows that he does indeed preach the gospel. Use a natural form in your language for introducing a condition that the speaker believes is not true. Alternate translation: “whenever I stop preaching the gospel, which I will never do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary]])

1205

1CO

9

17

d7l9

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

εἰ…ἑκὼν τοῦτο πράσσω, μισθὸν ἔχω; εἰ δὲ ἄκων, οἰκονομίαν πεπίστευμαι

1

if I do this willingly

Here Paul uses if to introduce two possibilities. He means that he might do this willingly, or he might do it unwillingly. He specifies a result for each option, but he implies that he does it unwillingly (see the “compulsion” in 9:16). If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this form by stating the if statements in a natural way in your language, such as by introducing them with “whenever.” Alternate translation: “were I to do this willingly, I would have a reward. But were it unwillingly, I would still have been entrusted with a stewardship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

1206

1CO

9

17

jtwy

writing-pronouns

τοῦτο πράσσω

1

if I do this willingly

Here, this refers back to “preaching the gospel” in 9:16. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this by clarifying what it refers to. Alternate translation: “I preach the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

1207

1CO

9

17

x6s9

translate-unknown

ἑκὼν…ἄκων

1

if I do this willingly

Here, willingly means that someone does something because they choose to, while unwillingly means that someone has to do something whether they choose to or not. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind willingly and unwillinglyby using two contrasting words that refer to whether someone chooses to do something or not. Alternate translation: “because I choose to … I do not choose to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1208

1CO

9

17

gkxi

figs-abstractnouns

μισθὸν ἔχω

1

if I do this willingly

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind reward, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “reward” or “compensate.” Alternate translation: “I am compensated for it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1209

1CO

9

17

gteh

figs-infostructure

εἰ δὲ ἄκων, οἰκονομίαν πεπίστευμαι.

1

But if not willingly

This sentence could: (1) include both the “if” and the “then” statements and explain how Paul preaching the gospel is “unwilling.” He did not choose this stewardship, and so he does it unwillingly. However, the reason he does preach the gospel is because he has been entrusted with that stewardship. Alternate translation: “But if unwillingly, I do this because I have been entrusted with a stewardship” (2) express the “if” statement for the question (the “then” statement) at the beginning of the next verse (9:18). The word unwillingly would modify entrusted, and you would need to connect the end of this verse and the beginning of the next verse with a comma, dropping the capitalization on “What.” Alternate translation: “But I have been unwillingly entrusted with a stewardship,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1210

1CO

9

17

t8pm

figs-ellipsis

εἰ δὲ ἄκων

1

But if not willingly

Here Paul omits some words that your language may require to make a complete thought. Paul omits these words because he stated them explicitly in the previous clause (I do this). If your language does need these words, you could supply them from that clause. Alternate translation: “But if I do this unwillingly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1211

1CO

9

17

xa5p

figs-activepassive

πεπίστευμαι

1

I have been entrusted with a stewardship

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Paul uses the passive form here to focus on himself, who has been entrusted, rather than focusing on the person doing the “entrusting.” If you must state who does the action, Paul implies that “God” does it. Alternate translation: “God has entrusted me with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1212

1CO

9

17

kjgf

figs-abstractnouns

οἰκονομίαν

1

I have been entrusted with a stewardship

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind stewardship, you can express the idea by using a phrase with a verb such as “oversee” or “do.” Alternate translation: “something to do” or “a task to oversee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1213

1CO

9

18

lg51

figs-rquestion

τίς οὖν μού ἐστιν ὁ μισθός?

1

What then is my reward?

Paul does not ask this question because he is looking for information. Rather, he asks it to involve the Corinthians in what he is arguing. The question assumes that the following words are the answer. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this question by using a construction that introduces what follows as the reward. Alternate translation: “This, then, is my reward:” or “Here, then, is my reward:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1214

1CO

9

18

pfw2

figs-abstractnouns

μού…ὁ μισθός

1

What then is my reward?

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind reward, you can express the idea by using a verb such as “reward” or “compensate.” Alternate translation: “the way God rewards me” or “the way God compensates me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1215

1CO

9

18

ia5x

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἀδάπανον, θήσω

1

That when I preach, I may offer the gospel without charge

Here, proclaiming the gospel without charge describes how Paul wishes to offer the gospel. The phrase proclaiming the gospel without charge could: (1) provide the means by which Paul might offer. Alternate translation: “by proclaiming the gospel without charge, I might offer” (2) give the situations in which Paul “offers” the gospel without taking advantage of his right. Alternate translation: “whenever I proclaim the gospel without charge, I offer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

1216

1CO

9

18

o3ju

translate-unknown

ἀδάπανον

1

That when I preach, I may offer the gospel without charge

Here, without charge means that something is free to the person who receives it. Paul is stating that the gospel is “free” or “at no cost” for those to whom he preaches. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express without cost with a word or phrase that indicates that something is “free” or “without cost.” Alternate translation: “freely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1217

1CO

9

18

dln7

figs-idiom

θήσω τὸ εὐαγγέλιον

1

offer the gospel

Here, to offer the gospel means to tell people about the gospel so that they have the chance to believe in it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express offer the gospel with a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “I might present the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1218

1CO

9

18

ft7p

translate-unknown

καταχρήσασθαι τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ μου

1

offer the gospel

Here, to take advantage of something means to use that thing for one’s own benefit. Here Paul could use the word: (1) negatively, which would mean that Paul does not want to abuse his right. Alternate translation: “to abuse my right” or “to exploit my right” (2) positively, which would mean that Paul does not want to make use of the right, even though it would be fine to do so. Alternate translation: “”to make use of my right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1219

1CO

9

18

fn7i

figs-abstractnouns

τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ μου

1

so not take full use of my right in the gospel

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind right, you can express the idea by using a verbal phrase such as “are able to” or “can require.” Alternate translation: “of what I can require” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1220

1CO

9

18

ziyb

figs-metaphor

ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ

1

so not take full use of my right in the gospel

Here Paul speaks as if his right was inside the gospel. He speaks in this way in order to show that he only has the right because of his work for the gospel. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this figure of speech with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “by the gospel” or “that comes from the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1221

1CO

9

19

of7z

grammar-connect-words-phrases

ἐλεύθερος γὰρ ὢν

1

I am free from all

Here, For introduces verses 19–23. Paul is drawing an inference from what he said in 9:18 about offering the gospel “without charge.” Since he offers the gospel without charge, he is free from all. In this and the following verses, Paul will explain what he does as someone who is free from all and how this is beneficial or a “reward.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express For with a word or phrase that introduces an explanation or further development. Alternate translation: “So, because I am free” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1222

1CO

9

19

b83w

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

ὢν

1

I am free from all

Here, being introduces a phrase that: (1) contrasts with I enslaved myself. Alternate translation: “although I am” (2) gives the reason why Paul can “enslave himself.” Alternate translation: “because I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1223

1CO

9

19

s48l

figs-metaphor

ἐλεύθερος…ὢν ἐκ πάντων, πᾶσιν ἐμαυτὸν ἐδούλωσα

1

I am free from all

Here Paul uses the language of slavery and freedom to describe how he proclaims the gospel. Since he does not charge money when he proclaims the gospel, he is free. No person employs him or tells him what to do. However, Paul decides to serve others, to “enslave himself,” by doing what others think is right. In this way, he acts like a slave who has to do what his master requires. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the slavery and freedom metaphor with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “not having to obey all, I choose to obey all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1224

1CO

9

19

gv2u

figs-explicit

πάντων, πᾶσιν

1

I am free from all

Here, the Corinthians would have understood all to refer specifically to people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate all by including a word or phrase that clarifies that Paul is speaking about “people.” Alternate translation: “all people … to all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1225

1CO

9

19

xlhn

translate-unknown

κερδήσω

1

I am free from all

Here, to gain someone means to help them toward belief in the Messiah. Once people believe, they belong to Christ and his church, and so the person who preached the gospel to them “gained” them as a new part of the church. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind gain plainly or with a comparable phrase. Alternate translation: “I might convert” or “I might gain for Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1226

1CO

9

19

mms9

figs-explicit

τοὺς πλείονας

1

I might gain even more

Here Paul is speaking about how “enslaving himself” to all gains more than if he did not “enslave himself” in this way. He refers specifically to people here, just like all refers to people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express even more {things} by clarifying that Paul is referring to gaining more people than if he did not “enslave himself.” Alternate translation: “even more people” or “more people in this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1227

1CO

9

20

hh8t

ἐγενόμην…ὡς Ἰουδαῖος

1

I became like a Jew

Alternate translation: “I practiced Jewish customs”

1228

1CO

9

20

g1ig

translate-unknown

κερδήσω

-1

I became like a Jew

Just as in 9:19, to gain someone means to help them to believe in the Messiah. Translate this word the same way you did in 9:19. Alternate translation: “to convert” or “to gain for Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1229

1CO

9

20

s9tu

figs-metaphor

ὑπὸ νόμον

-1

I became like one under the law

Here Paul speaks about those who think that they need to obey the law as if they were physically under law. By speaking as if the law were on top of these people, Paul emphasizes how the law controls their lives. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express under law with a word or phrase that refers to the obligation to obey the law. Alternate translation: “who keep the law … one who keeps the law … one who keeps the law … who keep the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1230

1CO

9

20

buuw

figs-ellipsis

ὑπὸ νόμον, ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον

1

I became like one under the law

Here Paul omits some words that your language may require to make a complete thought. Paul omits these words because he stated them explicitly in the previous clause (I became). If your language does need these words, you could supply them from that clause. Alternate translation: “under law, I became as one under law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1231

1CO

9

20

rusa

ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον

1

I became like one under the law

Alternate translation: “I kept the law”

1232

1CO

9

20

m82d

translate-textvariants

μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον

1

I became like one under the law

A few early manuscripts do not include not being under law myself. However, most early manuscripts do include these words. If possible, include these words in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1233

1CO

9

20

fhhp

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

μὴ ὢν

1

I became like one under the law

Here, not being introduces a phrase that contrasts with as under law. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate not being by adding words that introduce a contrast. Alternate translation: “although I am not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

1234

1CO

9

20

d330

figs-infostructure

νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω

1

I became like one under the law

Here, in order to gain the ones under law is the purpose for which Paul acts like a person under law. The phrase not being under law myself indicates that Paul realizes that he is not actually under law. If your language would put the purpose immediate after what leads to that purpose, you could rearrange these two clauses. Alternate translation: “law in order to win those under law, not being under law myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1235

1CO

9

21

vjuq

translate-unknown

τοῖς ἀνόμοις…ἄνομος…τοὺς ἀνόμους

1

outside the law

Here, without the law refers to people who do not have the law that Moses wrote down. These people are not Jews, but Paul is not saying that they are disobedient. Rather, Paul is emphasizing the law that Moses wrote down here, which is why he uses this language rather than referring to “Gentiles” or “non-Jews.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind without the lawby clarifying that Paul is referring to people who do not have the law of Moses. Alternate translation: “To those without Moses’ law … without Moses’ law … those without Moses’ law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1236

1CO

9

21

htnr

figs-ellipsis

ὡς ἄνομος

1

outside the law

Here Paul omits some words that your language may require to make a complete thought. Paul omits these words because he stated them explicitly in the previous verses (I became in 9:20). If your language does need these words, you could supply them from that clause. Since English needs these words, the ULT has supplied them in brackets. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1237

1CO

9

21

d1ol

figs-infostructure

μὴ ὢν ἄνομος Θεοῦ, ἀλλ’ ἔννομος Χριστοῦ, ἵνα κερδάνω τοὺς ἀνόμους

1

outside the law

Much like in 9:20, Paul includes some statements between being without {the} law and the purpose of being without {the} law. If your readers would find this structure confusing, you could rearrange the clauses so that the purpose comes immediately after without {the} law, or you could mark the statements in the middle as parenthetical, as the ULT does. Alternate translation: “so that I might win those without the law. Now I am not without the law of God, but under the law of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

1238

1CO

9

21

hzib

figs-possession

ἄνομος Θεοῦ

1

outside the law

Here Paul uses the possessive form to state that: (1) he is not without the law that God has given. Paul distinguishes between the law that Moses wrote down and God’s law in general. Alternate translation: “without any law from God” (2) he is not someone who is disobedient (without {the} law) towards God. Paul is distinguishing between people who do not have the law that Moses wrote down and people who disobey God. Alternate translation: “disobedient towards God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1239

1CO

9

21

qtu7

figs-metaphor

ἔννομος Χριστοῦ

1

outside the law

Much like in 9:20, Paul speaks about those who think that they need to obey {the} law as if they were physically under {the} law. By speaking as if {the} law were on top of these people, Paul emphasizes how {the} law controls their lives. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express under {the} law with a word or phrase that refers to the obligation to obey {the} law of Christ. Alternate translation: “keeping the law of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1240

1CO

9

21

p13t

figs-possession

ἔννομος Χριστοῦ

1

outside the law

Here Paul uses the possessive form to describe {the} law that Christ commanded. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind this form with a word or phrase that clearly states that Christ commanded this law. Alternate translation: “under Christ’s law” or “under the law that comes from Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

1241

1CO

9

21

pksy

translate-unknown

κερδάνω

1

outside the law

Just as in 9:19, to gain someone means to help them to believe in the Messiah. Translate this word the same way you did in 9:19. Alternate translation: “I might convert” or “I might gain for Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1242

1CO

9

22

zimr

figs-metaphor

τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν, ἀσθενής…τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς

1

outside the law

Much like in 8:7–12, weak identifies a person who easily feels guilty. A weak person thinks some things are wrong that are probably acceptable before God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express weak with a comparable metaphor or express the idea plainly. Alternate translation: “To the sensitive … sensitive … the sensitive” or “To those who often condemn themselves … one who condemns himself … those who often condemn themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1243

1CO

9

22

dd4r

figs-nominaladj

τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν…τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς

1

outside the law

Paul is using the adjective weak as a noun in order