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2

HAG

front

intro

hz6m

0

Introduction to Haggai

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Haggai

  1. The people must finish the temple for Yahweh to bless them again (1:1–15)
  2. This temple will be more glorious than the first temple (2:1–9)
  3. Yahweh will bless a defiled people (2:10–19)
  4. Yahweh will defeat the nations and establish his ruler (2:20–23)

What is the Book of Haggai about?

The people of Israel lacked food and warm clothes. The prophet Haggai told them it was because they were not obeying Yahweh. If they would listen to him and start rebuilding the temple, then Yahweh would send rain and bless them again. The people listened and began to work on the temple. Yahweh encouraged the people, the priests, and the leaders. He told them that he was with them and would bless them.

How should the title of this book be translated?

This book traditionally has been titled “Haggai” or “The Book of Haggai.” Translators may decide to call it “The Sayings of Haggai.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Who wrote the Book of Haggai?

The prophet Haggai wrote this book. He wrote it after the exiles returned from Babylon. They returned during the reign of the Persian king Darius I. Haggai probably gave all the prophesies in this book during a four-month period of time.

Very little is known about Haggai. He lived at the same time as the prophet Zechariah.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

Did Haggai prophesy before Ezra and Nehemiah?

It is likely that Haggai prophesied before the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What does “consider your ways” mean?

Yahweh told the people to “consider your ways” several times in this book. This means that he wants them to think carefully about how they have lived and behaved.

3

HAG

1

intro

n84r

0

Haggai 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Farming imagery

Scripture frequently uses the imagery of farming in reference to spiritual matters. The statement “You have sown much seed, but bring in little harvest” indicates that they had done a lot but have very little to show for it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/spirit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/seed]])

4

HAG

1

1

qt5i

translate-ordinal

0

In the second year of Darius the king

“In the second year of the reign of Darius the king” or “After Darius had been king for more than a year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

5

HAG

1

1

ha87

translate-names

0

Darius … Haggai … Zerubbabel … Shealtiel … Joshua … Jehozadak

These are all names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

6

HAG

1

1

y3ei

translate-hebrewmonths

0

in the sixth month, on the first day of the month

“on the first day of the sixth month.” This is the sixth month of the Hebrew calendar. The first day is near the middle of August on Western calendars. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

7

HAG

1

1

ria7

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came

This idiom is used to introduce a special message from God. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message” or “Yawheh spoke this message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

8

HAG

1

1

fdv5

0

Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

9

HAG

1

1

wn8q

figs-synecdoche

0

by the hand of Haggai

Here the word “hand” refers to Haggai himself. Yahweh used Haggai as the agent to deliver his command. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “through Haggai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

10

HAG

1

2

cav8

0

Yahweh’s house

the temple

11

HAG

1

3

xs12

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came

This idiom is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message” or “Yawheh spoke this message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

12

HAG

1

3

wk3b

figs-synecdoche

0

by the hand of Haggai

Here the word “hand” refers to Haggai himself. Yahweh used Haggai as the agent to deliver his command. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “through Haggai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

13

HAG

1

4

ms19

figs-rquestion

0

Is it a time for you … ruined?

Yahweh is rebuking the people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Now is not the time for you … ruined.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

14

HAG

1

4

u9tf

0

this house

the temple of Yahweh

15

HAG

1

6

rma3

0

but cannot get drunk

There is not enough wine to satisfy the people’s thirst and not nearly enough for drunkenness. The reader should understand that the text is not calling drunkenness a good thing.

16

HAG

1

6

aw8t

figs-metaphor

0

the wage earner earns money only to put it into a bag full of holes

Not earning enough money to buy necessary goods is spoken of as if the person were losing the money that falls out through holes in the money bag. Alternate translation: “the money the worker earns is gone before he finishes buying everything he needs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

17

HAG

1

8

qmi7

figs-synecdoche

0

bring timber

This represents only a part of what they needed to build the temple. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

18

HAG

1

9

yx8d

0

behold

Alternate translation: “look” or “listen” or “pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

19

HAG

1

9

eb3a

figs-metaphor

0

I blew it away

The people not being able to find what they were looking for is spoken of as if Yahweh had blown on dust so it would go away. Alternate translation: “I made sure there was nothing there for you to find” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

20

HAG

1

9

g652

figs-123person

0

declares Yahweh of hosts

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

21

HAG

1

10

suc8

figs-metaphor

0

the heavens withhold the dew from you

The dew that appears at night is spoken of as if it formed in the sky and fell like rain. The sky is spoken of as if it were a person who refused to give a present or a parent who refused to feed his child. Alternate translation: “the sky does not allow the dew to fall” or “no dew forms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

22

HAG

1

11

a7ds

figs-personification

0

I have summoned a drought upon the land

Rain not falling for a long time is spoken of as if Yahweh had told a person to come and make the land dry. Alternate translation: “I have kept the rain from falling on the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

23

HAG

1

11

v7pk

figs-metonymy

0

upon the new wine, upon the oil

“Wine” and “oil” are metonyms for grapes and olives. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

24

HAG

1

11

ird4

figs-abstractnouns

0

all the labor of your hands

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word labor, you can express the same idea with a verbal form such as “work hard.” The labor that the hands perform is a metonym for the things that the labor produces. The hand is a metonym for the person. Alternate translation: “everything you have worked hard to make” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

25

HAG

1

12

n5g8

translate-names

0

Zerubbabel … Shealtiel … Joshua … Jehozadak … Haggai

See how you translated these men’s names in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

26

HAG

1

12

c4he

figs-metonymy

0

obeyed the voice of Yahweh … the words of Haggai

The voice and the words are metonyms for the persons. Alternate translation: “obeyed Yahweh and Haggai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

27

HAG

1

12

e9sl

figs-synecdoche

0

the people feared the face of Yahweh

This could mean: (1) the face could be a synecdoche for the person. Alternate translation: “the people feared Yahweh” or (2) the face could be a metonym for the person’s presence. Alternate translation: “the people were afraid to be in Yahweh’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

28

HAG

1

13

dtj5

0

this is Yahweh’s declaration

Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh, have declared”

29

HAG

1

14

n1e7

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh stirred up the spirit of the governor of Judah, Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, and the spirit of the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people

Stirring the spirit is a metonym for making someone want to act. Alternate translation: “Yahweh made the governor of Judah, Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, and the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak, and all the remnant of the people want to act” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

30

HAG

1

14

iax3

0

remnant

people who were still alive after being captive in Babylon and had returned to Jerusalem

31

HAG

1

15

vp6z

translate-hebrewmonths

0

in the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month

This is just 23 days after he received the vision. This is the sixth month of the Hebrew calendar. The twenty-fourth day is near the middle of September on Western calendars. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

32

HAG

1

15

cx2u

translate-ordinal

0

the second year of Darius the king

“second year of the reign of Darius the king” or “after Darius had been king for more than one year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

33

HAG

2

intro

ieh7

0

Haggai 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 2:3-9, 21-23.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Unclean

Haggai uses an extended metaphor in this chapter related to ritual cleanliness. While the Jews were not unclean by nature as the Gentiles were, their actions made them unclean. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/clean]])

34

HAG

2

1

v31v

translate-hebrewmonths

0

In the seventh month on the twenty-first day of the month

This is the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar. The twenty-first day is near the middle of October on Western calendars. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

35

HAG

2

1

fm14

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came

This idiom is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message” or “Yawheh spoke this message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

36

HAG

2

1

t1us

figs-synecdoche

0

by the hand of Haggai

Here the word “hand” refers to Haggai himself. Yahweh used Haggai as the agent to deliver his command. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “through Haggai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

37

HAG

2

1

hz54

translate-names

0

Haggai

See how you translated this man’s name in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

38

HAG

2

2

q56p

translate-names

0

Zerubbabel … Shealtiel … Joshua … Jehozadak

See how you translated these men’s names in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

39

HAG

2

3

wy32

0

General Information:

Yahweh speaks to the people about the new temple they are building. They are building it on the same place their ancestors built the former temple, which Nebuchadnezzar completely destroyed. This new temple is much smaller than the former temple.

40

HAG

2

3

m1jr

figs-rquestion

0

Who is left among you who saw this house in its former glory?

Yahweh speaks of the new temple as if it were the same building as the old temple. He is telling those who had seen the former temple to pay attention. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I want those among you who saw this house in its former glory to pay attention.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

41

HAG

2

3

x5q5

figs-rquestion

0

How do you see it now?

Yahweh is telling them that he knows what they are thinking about the new temple. He speaks of the new temple as if it were the same building as the old temple. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I know what you think of this new temple.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

42

HAG

2

3

tsx7

figs-rquestion

0

Is it not like nothing in your eyes?

Yahweh is telling the people that he understands that they are disappointed because the new temple is so small. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I know that you think it is not important at all.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

43

HAG

2

4

y2v9

0

Now, be strong

Alternate translation: “From now on, be strong”

44

HAG

2

4

x8wv

figs-123person

0

this is the declaration of Yahweh of hosts

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:9. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh of hosts has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh of hosts, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

45

HAG

2

6

e2qq

figs-metaphor

0

I will … shake the heavens … the earth … the sea … the dry land

The words “I will shake the earth” could be translated as “I will cause an earthquake,” and that earthquake would shake “the sea” as well as “the dry land,” a merism for the entire earth. Yahweh speaks of the heavens and every nation as if they also were solid objects that he could shake. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

46

HAG

2

6

l2sj

0

shake

Use the verb you usually use for pushing trees back and forth to get fruit or other objects to fall from them.

47

HAG

2

7

hre1

figs-metaphor

0

I will shake every nation

The metaphor that begins with the words “I will … shake the heavens” in verse 6 ends here. Yahweh speaks of every nation as if they also were solid objects that he could shake. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

48

HAG

2

7

u8qx

figs-metaphor

0

I will fill this house with glory

Yahweh speaks of glory as if it were a solid or liquid that could be put into a container, the temple. This could mean: (1) the temple will become very beautiful. Alternate translation: “I will make this house very beautiful” or (2) the “precious things” that “every nation will bring” include much silver and gold and other forms of wealth. Alternate translation: “I will have people bring many beautiful things into this house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

49

HAG

2

8

f56d

figs-123person

0

this is the declaration of Yahweh of hosts

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:9. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh of hosts has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh of hosts, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

50

HAG

2

10

wc9p

translate-hebrewmonths

0

On the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month

This is the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar. The twenty-fourth day is near the middle of December on Western calendars. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

51

HAG

2

10

if92

translate-ordinal

0

in the second year of Darius

“in the second year of the reign of Darius” or “when Darius had been king for more than one year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

52

HAG

2

10

i4py

translate-names

0

Darius … Haggai

See how you translated these men’s names in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

53

HAG

2

10

s26v

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came

This idiom is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message” or “Yawheh spoke this message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

54

HAG

2

12

x84u

0

meat that is set apart to Yahweh … holy

The words “that is set apart to Yahweh” and the word “holy” translate the same Hebrew word. “holy meat … holy”

55

HAG

2

13

bg3q

0

because of death

Alternate translation: “because he has touched a dead body”

56

HAG

2

14

q5p8

0

So Haggai answered and said, “So it is … is unclean

Haggai answers the priests with the words that Yahweh told Haggai to tell the priests. Alternate translation: “So Haggai answered and told them Yahweh’s words: ‘So it is … is unclean”

57

HAG

2

14

dv6p

0

So it is with this people and this nation before me

“I look at this people and this nation the same way.” Yahweh reminds the priests that a clean thing that touches an unclean thing becomes unclean. He then reminds them that he thinks of them as unclean because they have been worshiping idols, and so everything they touch and make becomes unclean.

58

HAG

2

14

ua4f

figs-123person

0

this is Yahweh’s declaration

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:9. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

59

HAG

2

15

l2sc

figs-activepassive

0

Before stone was placed upon stone in the temple

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Before you laid the first stones for the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

60

HAG

2

16

zx3c

translate-numbers

0

twenty measures

“20 measures.” A “measure” is an unknown amount. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

61

HAG

2

16

ply4

translate-numbers

0

fifty measures

“50 measures.” A “measure” is an unknown amount. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

62

HAG

2

17

p7cx

0

all the work of your hands

Alternate translation: “everything you made” or “your crops”

63

HAG

2

17

bk6n

figs-123person

0

this is Yahweh’s declaration

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:9. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

64

HAG

2

18

zyq1

translate-hebrewmonths

0

the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month

This is the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar. The twenty-fourth day is near the middle of December on Western calendars. See how you translated this in Haggai 2:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

65

HAG

2

18

pcm4

figs-activepassive

0

the day that the foundation of Yahweh’s temple was laid

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “the day that you laid the foundation of Yahweh’s temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

66

HAG

2

19

mx58

figs-rquestion

0

Is there still seed in the storehouse?

Yahweh is preparing the people for the promise he is about to give them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “you could see that there is no seed in the storehouse.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

67

HAG

2

19

ld7r

0

The vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate, and the olive tree

Alternate translation: “Your grape vines, fig trees, pomegranate trees, and olive trees”

68

HAG

2

19

g2gc

figs-explicit

0

the pomegranate

This is a type of sweet fruit. You may need to make explicit that the tree is being spoken of. Alternate translation: “the pomegranate tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

69

HAG

2

20

l5py

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came

This idiom is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message” or “Yawheh spoke this message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

70

HAG

2

20

hwk9

translate-names

0

Haggai

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

71

HAG

2

20

rru4

translate-hebrewmonths

0

on the twenty-fourth day of the month

You may need to make explicit which month is spoken of. Alternate translation: “on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

72

HAG

2

21

ac9q

translate-names

0

Zerubbabel

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

73

HAG

2

21

w9i2

figs-metaphor

0

I will shake the heavens and the earth

The words “I will shake the earth” could be translated as “I will cause an earthquake.” Yahweh speaks of the heavens as if they also were solid objects that he could shake. See how these ideas are translated in Haggai 2:6.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

74

HAG

2

21

v17h

0

shake

Use the verb you usually use for pushing trees back and forth to get fruit or other objects to fall from them. See how you translated this in Haggai 2:6.

75

HAG

2

21

fbc6

figs-merism

0

the heavens and the earth

This is a merism for “the whole universe” or “everything that exists.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

76

HAG

2

22

ni5i

figs-metonymy

0

I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms

The throne is a metonym for the person sitting on the throne. Alternate translation: “I will take kings off of their thrones” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

77

HAG

2

22

sv3n

figs-metonymy

0

the throne of kingdoms

Here “throne” is a metonym for the king who sits on it. Alternate translation: “government ruled by kings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

78

HAG

2

22

gza6

figs-explicit

0

I will … destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations

You may need to make explicit that “the nations” are Israel’s enemies. Alternate translation: “I will make it so the kingdoms of the nations that are Israel’s enemies are no longer strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

79

HAG

2

22

js5m

figs-metonymy

0

each one because of his brother’s sword

The sword here is a metonym for violent death. Alternate translation: “each one because his brother has killed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

80

HAG

2

23

p75j

figs-123person

0

this is the declaration of Yahweh of hosts

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:9. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh of hosts has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh of hosts, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

81

HAG

2

23

p3ww

translate-names

0

Zerubbabel … Shealtiel

See how you translated these men’s names in Haggai 1:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

82

HAG

2

23

itg1

figs-123person

0

this is Yahweh’s declaration

Yahweh speaks of himself by name to express the certainty of what he is declaring. See how you translated this in Haggai 1:9. Alternate translation: “this is what Yahweh has declared” or “this is what I, Yahweh, have declared” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

83

HAG

2

23

h7nz

figs-simile

0

I will make you like a signet ring

Kings used a signet ring to seal documents to show that they truly had his authority. Zerubbabel would have authority from Yahweh because he would speak Yahweh’s words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])