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Introduction to the Song of Songs

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of the Song of Songs

  1. The bride longs for the bridegroom to arrive (1:1–2:7)
  2. The bridegroom praises the woman he loves (2:8–3:5)
  3. The bridegroom arrives and praises the bride (3:6–5:1)
  4. The bride longs for the bridegroom (5:2–6:9)
  5. The bridegroom praises the beauty of his bride (6:1–8:4)
  6. Final thoughts about love between a man and a woman (8:5–14)

What is the Song of Songs about?

The Song of Songs is a poem or a series of poems that celebrate love and intimacy between a man and a woman. Jews traditionally have interpreted the book as a picture of God’s love for his people Israel. In the same way, many Christians interpret it as a picture of love between Christ and his bride, the church of all believers.

Who wrote the Song of Songs?

The first verse of the book (“The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s”) gives the idea that King Solomon of Israel wrote it. However, people have interpreted this verse in different ways, so not everyone is persuaded that Solomon wrote it.

How should the title of this book be translated?

This book is traditionally titled “Song of Songs,” which means the very best song, or “Song of Solomon.” It may also be called “Songs of Love,” “Great Poems of Love,” or “The Love Songs of Solomon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What place do the descriptions of sexual behavior have in the Song of Songs?

The Song of Songs approves of sexual behavior expressing love between a husband his wife.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

How many characters are in the Song of Songs?

The two main characters in this book are the man and the woman, who love each other. The woman also speaks to a group of women called the “daughters of Jerusalem,” and these women make comments. However, it is possible that the group of women is not real and the woman is only imagining them.

Some interpreters believe there may be more characters than these, but this is not certain. The ULT and UST versions recognize only the man, the woman, and the group of women.

What are the lines about people speaking?

The Song of Songs is a poem that shows the thoughts and words of a man, a woman, and the woman’s friends. Throughout the poem, the author does not identify the speakers and their audience. So to help readers understand the poem, some translations attempt to identify the speaker and the audience. It is not always certain who the speaker is, so sometimes translations disagree about who is speaking.

Before each speech, the ULT identifies the speaker and the audience like this: “The woman speaking to the other women,” “The woman speaking to the man,” “The man speaking to the woman,” or “The woman speaking to herself.” Translators are encouraged to include these ways of identifying the speaker and the audience, and to format them differently from the scripture text. The translators should also include a note explaining that these explanations are not actually part of the scripture.

How should one translate the Song of Songs if the readers will view certain terms as coarse, vulgar, or improper?

Readers might consider many images or forms appearing in the Song of Songs as improper when translated. The translator should try to avoid offensive language if possible, by using expressions that will not cause offense. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

How do I translate metaphors and similes in this book?

There are many metaphors and similes in this book. These figures of speech are often unclear. If they have sexual meanings, figures of speech describing feelings or emotions are often used to avoid offense by hiding their meaning. However, since their meanings are often unclear, ambiguity in translation is encouraged. You can translate the words as they are written in order to avoid committing to a specific meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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Song of Songs 1 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Kisses

The kisses in this chapter are a type of kiss that was only done between a husband a wife. It is an intimate kiss. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Love and affection

This chapter is centered on the feelings of love, affection, and attraction. Different cultural standards may make translation difficult and the translator may use euphemisms to avoid offending people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

In the ancient Near East, it was common to describe a woman using metaphors involving animals. In many cultures today, this can be considered offensive. Different metaphors of beauty are used in different cultures. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“I am dark”

In the ancient Near East, rich people usually had lighter skin because they did not need to work outside in the sun. This young woman had to work out in the sun, and her skin became darker than it was when she was younger.

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General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]

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The Song of Songs

Alternate translation: “The Best Song” or “The Most Excellent Song”

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which is Solomon’s

Possible meanings are “which is about Solomon” or “which Solomon composed.”

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General Information:

The first part of the book begins with this verse.

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your love is better than wine

Alternate translation: “I enjoy having you near me more than I enjoy drinking wine”

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Your anointing oils

Alternate translation: “The oils that you put on your body”

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have a delightful fragrance

Alternate translation: “smell wonderful”

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figs-simile

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your name is like flowing perfume

Perfume has a good smell that spreads as the air moves. The name is either a metonym for: (1) the person’s reputation, what other people think of him. Here the speaker says that people always think that the hearer is a good person, or (2) the person himself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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with you

“The word “you” refers to the man and so is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

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figs-metaphor

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Take

“Pull” or “Drag.” Here the woman described as being like a captive who is willing to follow her captor. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-exclusive

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we will run

The word “we” refers to the young woman together with the man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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We are glad … We rejoice … let us celebrate

The woman speaks of herself as if she were more than one person. Many versions change the pronoun to “I” as the UST does. Other versions present these as the words of the woman’s friends speaking about either the woman or the man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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about you

Alternate translation: “because of you”

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let us celebrate

Alternate translation: “let us praise”

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It is natural for the other women to adore you

Alternate translation: “Women who adore you are doing as they should do”

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I am dark but lovely

Alternate translation: “My skin is dark, but I am still beautiful” or “Even though my skin is dark, I am beautiful”

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figs-simile

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dark like the tents of Kedar

The nomadic tribes in Kedar used black goat skins to build their homes. The woman is comparing her skin to these tents. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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figs-simile

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lovely like the curtains of Solomon

Solomon produced beautiful curtains either for his own palace or for the Temple. She says that her skin is beautiful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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scorched

This exaggeration for “burned” or “made black” refers to the sun changing her skin from light to dark. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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My mother’s sons

“My half-brothers.” These brothers probably had the same mother as the woman but not the same father.

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made me keeper of the vineyards

Alternate translation: “made me take care of the vineyards”

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figs-metaphor

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but my own vineyard I have not kept

The woman compares herself to a vineyard. Alternate translation: “but I have not been able to take care of myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metonymy

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my soul loves

The soul is a metonym for the person. Alternate translation: “I love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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feed your flock

Alternate translation: “graze your flocks”

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rest your flock

Alternate translation: “have your flock lie down”

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figs-rquestion

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Why should I be like someone who wanders beside the flocks of your companions?

The woman asks this question to emphasize that she has a closer relationship to the man than other women do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Tell me so that I will not need to wander around among the flocks of your companions when I am looking for you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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figs-metaphor

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who wanders

“who goes all around.” She does not want to have to look for the man. Perhaps she is afraid other men will think she is a prostitute looking for business. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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your companions

Alternate translation: “your friends” or “your co-workers”

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most beautiful among women

Alternate translation: “you who are the most beautiful of all women”

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follow the tracks of my flock

Alternate translation: “follow along behind the flock”

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tracks

marks of the hooves of the flock on the ground

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pasture your young goats

Alternate translation: “graze your young goats” or “let your young goats eat”

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figs-simile

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I compare you, my love, to a mare among Pharaoh’s chariot horses

The Jews of those days considered horses beautiful, and the Pharaoh’s horses would have been the most beautiful he could find. The man considers the young woman beautiful. Alternate translation: “My love, you are as beautiful as any of Pharaoh’s chariot horses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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my love

Alternate translation: “you whom I love”

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Pharaoh’s chariot horses

Alternate translation: “the horses that pull Pharaoh’s chariots”

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figs-metaphor

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Your cheeks are beautiful with ornaments

These ornaments could be: (1) jewels hanging from a band around the head or (2) earrings or (3) a metaphor for her long hair. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-pronouns

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We will make

The man speaks as if he were many people. Some versions change this to singular “I.” Other versions take these to be the words of the woman’s friends. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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with silver studs

Alternate translation: “with spots of silver”

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lay on his couch

“sat eating his special meal.” This probably refers to one of the couches on which people would lie around a table at a banquet. You could translate using the common word for what people do with their bodies when they eat special meals.

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nard

an oil that people got from the expensive nard or spikenard (valerian plant with small pink or white flowers) and used to make their skin soft and to have a pleasant odor.

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emitted its fragrance

Alternate translation: “gave off its good smell”

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figs-simile

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My beloved is to me like a bag of myrrh … breasts

Women would place a small bag or pouch of myrrh on a necklace so it would lie between their breasts and they could enjoy its pleasant fragrance. This woman enjoys having her beloved close to her. She adds “to me” to show that she does not expect anyone else to enjoy her beloved in this way. Alternate translation: “I enjoy my beloved as much as I enjoy having a bag of myrrh … breasts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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My beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” Alternate translation: “My dear one” or “My lover”

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figs-euphemism

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lying between my breasts

If this phrase would offend your readers, you could use a euphemism. Alternate translation: “close to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

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figs-simile

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My beloved is to me like a cluster of henna flowers

Henna flowers have a fragrance that people enjoy. The woman enjoys her beloved. She adds “to me” to show that she does not expect anyone else to enjoy her beloved in this way. Alternate translation: “I enjoy my beloved as much as I enjoy the smell of clusters of henna flowers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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henna flowers

flowers from a small desert tree that people used as a perfume

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Listen, you

Alternate translation: “Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: you”

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my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9

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figs-metonymy

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your eyes are doves

This could mean: (1) the Israelites considered doves to be gentle and soft birds, and the man considers the woman’s eyes beautiful because the way the woman looks at him makes him think she is gentle. Alternate translation: “you are very gentle” or (2) the man is speaking of the woman’s white eyeballs or the shape of her eyes as being like the shape of a dove. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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Listen, you

Alternate translation: “Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: you”

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handsome

Use the word in your language that describes a good-looking man.

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my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

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figs-metaphor

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lush plants are our bed

This speaks of the lush plants as if they were a bed. Alternate translation: “lush plants are what we lie down on to sleep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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The lush plants

plants that are green, moist, and grow abundantly

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figs-metaphor

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The beams of our house are cedars; our rafters are firs

The woman describes the forest as though it were a house in which they were lying down. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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beams … rafters

This could mean: (1) “beams” refers to large logs used to support everything above the walls and “rafters” refers to the large pieces of wood to which the roof is attached or (2) “beams” refers to the rafters and “rafters” refers to the strips attached to the beams, onto which the builders attached the roofing materials.

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cedars … firs

Cedars were large and strong trees. The word translated “firs” is a general term for trees like cedars but smaller. If cedar and fir trees are unknown in your area, you could use general terms for the tallest and strongest trees. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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Song of Songs 2 General Notes

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

Women are compared to flowers in this chapter. This metaphor may describe a woman’s beauty and delicacy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Euphemisms

It is possible that some of the metaphors used in this chapter are actually euphemisms. These euphemisms would refer to sex or the physical love between a husband a wife. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

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General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]

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figs-metaphor

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I am a meadow flower of Sharon

The woman speaks as if she were one of many flowers in a land known for beautiful flowers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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Sharon

the name of a land that is flat, has no trees, and grows many different kinds of grasses and flowers

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figs-metaphor

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lily of the valleys

The woman speaks as if she were one of many flowers in a land known for beautiful flowers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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lily

a sweet smelling flower that grows in places where there is much water. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:1-2.

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valleys

flat areas between mountains and near water

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figs-simile

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As a lily among thorns … young women

A flower is much more beautiful than a thorn bush. The man thinks the woman is much more beautiful than the other women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9.

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the young women

Alternate translation: “the other young women”

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figs-simile

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As an apricot tree … the young men

People enjoy the fruit of an apricot tree, but the trees of the forest do not bear fruit. The woman enjoys being with the man, but not with the other young men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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apricot tree

a tree that produces a small yellow fruit that is very sweet. If your readers will not know what this is, you could use the word for another fruit tree or the general word “fruit tree.”

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the forest

The Hebrew word here refers to land where trees grow for which people have no use.

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my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

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figs-metaphor

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I sit down under his shadow with great delight

The woman finds great joy and comfort in being so near to the man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-metaphor

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his fruit is sweet to my taste

The woman enjoys eating sweet fruit, and she enjoys being near to the man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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the house of wine

This could mean: (1) the very large room where the king would serve many people large meals with wine or (2) a small booth in a vineyard where the man and woman could be alone together.

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figs-metonymy

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his banner over me was love

This could mean: (1) the banner is a metonym for a military escort. And, the military escort is a metaphor that represents the man’s love which gives courage to the woman who was nervous to enter the large room where the king served many people. Alternate translation: “but his loving protection guided me and gave me courage” or (2) the woman knew that the man wanted to make love to her from the way he looked at her. Alternate translation: “he looked at me lovingly” or “when he looked at me, I knew he wanted to make love to me” or (3) they made love. Alternate translation: “he lovingly covered me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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Revive me

Alternate translation: “Return my strength” or “Give me energy”

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with raisin cakes

“by giving me raisin cakes to eat.” Raisin cakes were cakes made of dried grapes pressed together.

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refresh me with apricots

Alternate translation: “support me by giving me apricots” or “help me by giving me apricots”

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figs-metaphor

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for I am weak with love

The woman speaks of feeling weak because her love is so strong as if love were a kind of sickness. Alternate translation: “because my love is so strong that I feel feeble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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left hand … right hand

Alternate translation: “left arm … right arm”

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embraces me

Alternate translation: “holds me”

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figs-apostrophe

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daughters of Jerusalem

“young women of Jerusalem.” These young women could not hear her and were not present, but the woman speaks as if they were present and could hear her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

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figs-apostrophe

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by the gazelles and the does of the fields

Although the daughters of Jerusalem could not hear her, the woman speaks to them as if they could hear saying that the gazelles and the does will punish them they break their promise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

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the gazelles

These are animals that look like deer and move quickly.

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does

female deer

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of the fields

“that live in the countryside.” This was land that has not been farmed.

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figs-personification

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will not awaken or arouse love until she pleases

Here “love” is spoken of as if it were a person asleep that does not want to be awakened. This is a metaphor that represents the man and woman who do not want to be disturbed until they are finished making love. Alternate translation: “will not disturb us until we have finished making love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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figs-doublet

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will not awaken or arouse

If your language has only one word for waking people out of sleep, you could combine these words. Alternate translation: “will not awaken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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General Information:

The second part of the book begins here. It is not clear whether the woman is speaking to herself or to the daughters of Jerusalem.

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Listen

This could mean: (1) “Listen carefully to what I am about to say.” You could use a word in your language that tells the hearer to listen carefully, or (2) “Listen so you can hear him coming.”

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my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

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leaping … jumping

The woman shows that she is excited to see the man come by using as few words as possible to describe what he is doing. Your language may have a different way of showing that the speaker is excited about what is happening.

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fr67

figs-metaphor

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leaping over the mountains, jumping over the hills

“leaping on the mountains, running quickly on the hills.” The woman speaks of the man as if he were “a gazelle or a young stag” (verse 9) coming quickly toward her over rough ground. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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0

gazing … peering

The woman shows that she is excited to see the man come by using as few words as possible to describe what he is doing. Your language may have a different way of showing that the speaker is excited about what is happening.

98

SNG

2

9

f2lu

figs-simile

0

like a gazelle or a young stag

Gazelles and young stags move quickly over rough ground. The woman imagines the man coming as fast as he can to be with her. You could translate using animals in your language that people think of as fast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

99

SNG

2

9

kq5f

0

a gazelle

This is an animal that looks like a deer and moves quickly. Translate as the singular of “the gazelles” as in Song of Songs 2:7.

100

SNG

2

9

qbs9

0

a young stag

Alternate translation: “a young male deer”

101

SNG

2

9

s6z4

0

look

“listen carefully” or “what I am about to say is important.” You could use a word in your language that tells the hearer to listen carefully.

102

SNG

2

9

umf5

0

behind our wall

“on the other side of our wall.” The woman is in a house and the man is outside the house.

103

SNG

2

9

be2w

figs-exclusive

0

our wall

The word “our” refers to the woman and the other people in the house with her. If she is speaking to herself, it is inclusive, but if she is speaking to the daughters of Jerusalem, whether she is referring to herself and her companions or to herself only in plural, as in “We are glad … We rejoice … let us celebrate” (Song of Songs 1:4), it is exclusive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

104

SNG

2

9

kf9u

0

gazing through the window

Alternate translation: “he stares in through the windows”

105

SNG

2

9

s9xt

0

peering through the lattice

Alternate translation: “he peeks through the lattice”

106

SNG

2

9

z1bl

0

lattice

a cover for a window or some other entrance that someone has made by weaving long strips of wood together. Lattices have holes that people can look through.

107

SNG

2

10

hl12

0

My beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “My dear one” or “My lover”

108

SNG

2

10

pah1

0

Arise, my love

Alternate translation: “Get out of bed, my love”

109

SNG

2

10

fff7

0

my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9

110

SNG

2

11

yv91

0

Look

“Listen carefully” or “What I am about to say is important.” You could use a word in your language that tells the hearer to listen carefully.

111

SNG

2

11

eyh9

0

the winter is past; the rain is over and gone

In winter it is too cold and wet to make love outside, but the cold, wet time has passed.

112

SNG

2

11

e658

0

the winter is past

Winter is the cold time of year when plants do not grow and people prefer to stay inside their houses. You could use the term in your language for that time of year.

113

SNG

2

11

f4hz

0

the rain is over and gone

In Israel it only rains during the winter. The rain here is cold and unpleasant, not the refreshing rain of the hot season.

114

SNG

2

12

wfw3

0

The flowers have appeared

Alternate translation: “People can see flowers”

115

SNG

2

12

j8f3

0

in the land

Alternate translation: “all over this land”

116

SNG

2

12

sv72

0

for pruning

for cutting off branches from a plant so that it will produce more fruit or look better

117

SNG

2

12

x3li

0

the singing of birds

Alternate translation: “for birds to sing”

118

SNG

2

12

zmw4

figs-activepassive

0

the sound of the doves is heard

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “people can hear the sound of doves” or “the doves are cooing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

119

SNG

2

13

mk2y

figs-personification

0

The fig tree ripens her green figs

The tree is spoken of as if it were actively causing its fruit to ripen. This is a collective singular and can be translated as a plural. Alternate translation: “The figs on the trees are becoming ripe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

120

SNG

2

13

ef3j

0

vines are in blossom

Alternate translation: “vines are flowering” or “vines have flowers”

121

SNG

2

13

xhn3

0

they give off

The word “they” refers to the blossoms on the vines.

122

SNG

2

13

wjr7

0

their fragrance

Alternate translation: “their sweet smell”

123

SNG

2

13

m4mt

0

my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9

124

SNG

2

14

a7lp

0

General Information:

The man is speaking.

125

SNG

2

14

wv7q

figs-metaphor

0

My dove

The Israelites considered doves beautiful birds with pleasant voices. The man thinks the woman’s face and voice are beautiful. If calling a woman a “dove” would be offensive, you could leave out the metaphor. Alternate translation: “My beautiful woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

126

SNG

2

14

eju1

0

the clefts

large cracks in the side of mountain rocks large enough for people to hide in

127

SNG

2

14

afg5

0

the mountain crags

Alternate translation: “the steep rocks on the sides of the mountains”

128

SNG

2

14

bhl6

0

your face

Some versions translate this as “your appearance” or “your form” or “what you look like.”

129

SNG

2

15

pu8l

figs-you

0

Catch

This is plural, as if the woman is speaking to more than one man, but most versions translate who she is speaking to as the man, so you could translate this as singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

130

SNG

2

15

xns5

figs-metaphor

0

the foxes

These animals look like small dogs and were often used in love poetry to represent eager young men who would spoil a young woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

131

SNG

2

15

v31m

figs-exclusive

0

for us … our vineyard

The words us and our could possibly be: (1) exclusive, referring to the woman herself, as in Song of Songs 1:4, or (2) inclusive, referring to the woman and the man, or (3) exclusive, referring to the woman and the rest of her family. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

132

SNG

2

15

dac9

0

foxes

Another possible meaning is “jackals.” A jackal is a type of thin wild dog with long legs.

133

SNG

2

15

wl95

figs-metaphor

0

the little foxes that spoil

Foxes spoil or destroy vineyards by digging holes and eating vines and grapes. This could be a metaphor for young men who spoil young women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

134

SNG

2

15

r16k

figs-metaphor

0

in blossom

This implies that the vineyard is healthy and the grapes have appeared, but they are not ready for harvest. This could be a metaphor for a young lady ready for marriage and bearing children. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

135

SNG

2

16

zb2r

0

My beloved is mine

Alternate translation: “My beloved belongs to me”

136

SNG

2

16

lxy4

0

I am his

Alternate translation: “I belong to him”

137

SNG

2

16

n6c3

figs-metaphor

0

he grazes

“feeds” or “eats grass.” The woman speaks of the man as if he were “a gazelle or a young stag” (verse 17) that eats plants among the lilies. Grazing is probably a metaphor for lovemaking (Song of Songs 2:1-2). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

138

SNG

2

16

x5db

0

lilies

sweet-smelling flowers that grow in places where there is much water. Translate as the plural of “lily” in Song of Songs 2:1.

139

SNG

2

17

b3kg

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

140

SNG

2

17

p2uq

0

dawn

the part of the day when the sun is rising

141

SNG

2

17

lz3y

figs-metaphor

0

the shadows flee away

The woman describes the shadows as though they were running away from the light of the sun. Alternate translation: “the shadows disappear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

142

SNG

2

17

d8mw

0

like a gazelle or a young stag

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:9.

143

SNG

2

17

vlw3

0

gazelle

an animal that looks like a deer and moves quickly. Translate as the singular of “gazelles” as in Song of Songs 2:7.

144

SNG

2

17

l8dz

0

stag

an adult male deer

145

SNG

2

17

ia1r

0

rugged mountains

Alternate translation: “rocky mountains” or “rough mountains”

146

SNG

3

intro

t72h

0

Song of Songs 3 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Longing

This chapter describes a feeling of longing, or the waiting in anticipation of the one you love. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Metaphors

In the ancient Near East, it was common to describe a woman using metaphors involving animals. In many cultures today, this can be considered offensive. Different metaphors of beauty are used in different cultures. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

147

SNG

3

1

l1kv

0

I was longing for him … could not find him

Alternate translation: “I had a strong desire to be with him … loves, but he was not there”

148

SNG

3

1

hu3u

figs-metonymy

0

him whom my soul loves

The soul is a metonym for the whole person. Here it makes a stronger statement of the woman’s love for the man than “my beloved” (Song of Songs 1:14). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

149

SNG

3

2

uyu7

0

go through the city

Alternate translation: “walk through the city”

150

SNG

3

2

x9ki

0

through the streets and squares

The word “squares” indicates the center area of a town where streets or roads come together. It is often an area where people sell items, a market, and a place where people come together to talk.

151

SNG

3

2

afu9

0

will search

Alternate translation: “will to look for”

152

SNG

3

3

rdd5

0

watchmen

men who have the job of keeping guard of the town at night to keep the people safe

153

SNG

3

3

b9j2

0

as they were making their rounds in the city

Alternate translation: “who were walking around the city on the walls”

154

SNG

3

3

pab8

figs-metonymy

0

him whom my soul loves

The soul is a metonym for the whole person. Here it makes a stronger statement of the woman’s love for the man than “my beloved” (Song of Songs 1:14). See how you translated this in Song of Songs 3:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

155

SNG

3

4

p5k2

0

the bedroom

Alternate translation: “the room for sleeping”

156

SNG

3

4

ri8e

figs-metonymy

0

the one who had conceived me

This is a metonym for her mother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

157

SNG

3

5

a3y1

0

General Information:

Translate this verse as in Song of Songs 2:7.

158

SNG

3

5

t61g

figs-apostrophe

0

daughters of Jerusalem

“young women of Jerusalem.” These young women could not hear her and were not present, but the woman speaks as if they were present and could hear her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

159

SNG

3

5

qw1m

figs-apostrophe

0

by the gazelles and the does of the fields

Although the daughters of Jerusalem are not there to hear her, the woman is telling them that the gazelles and the does will punish them they break their promise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

160

SNG

3

5

b4r5

0

the gazelles

animals that look like deer and move quickly.

161

SNG

3

5

ruq7

0

does

female deer

162

SNG

3

5

n2aq

0

of the fields

“that live in the countryside.” This refers to land that has not been farmed.

163

SNG

3

5

cm9r

figs-personification

0

will not awaken or arouse love until she pleases

Here “love” is spoken of as if it were a person asleep that does not want to be awakened. This is a metaphor that represents the man and woman who do not want to be disturbed until they are finished making love. Alternate translation: “will not disturb us until we have finished making love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

164

SNG

3

5

dbf9

figs-doublet

0

will not awaken or arouse

If your language has only one word for waking people out of sleep, you could combine these words. Alternate translation: “will not awaken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

165

SNG

3

6

e1ly

0

General Information:

The third part of the book begins here. It begins with a description of sixty men carrying Solomon’s bed up from the wilderness to Jerusalem.

166

SNG

3

6

y8wr

0

What is that coming up from the wilderness

The group of people is traveling from the wilderness to Jerusalem. They must go up in order to reach Jerusalem because the wilderness is low in the Jordan valley and Jerusalem is high in the mountains.

167

SNG

3

6

z3w1

0

What is that

Many versions translate this “Who is that.”

168

SNG

3

6

tjf4

figs-simile

0

like a column of smoke

The dust looked like smoke from far away because the people raised much dust in the air as they traveled. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

169

SNG

3

6

w7kr

0

perfumed with myrrh and frankincense

Alternate translation: “with the sweet smell of myrrh and frankincense”

170

SNG

3

6

bf7f

figs-ellipsis

0

with all the powders sold by merchants

The words “perfumed with” are understood from the previous phrase. They can be repeated here. Alternate translation: “perfumed with all the powders sold by merchants” or “and with the sweet smell of all the powders that merchants sell” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

171

SNG

3

6

sy9j

0

powders

a fine dust made by crushing something solid

172

SNG

3

7

ldh8

0

Look

“Listen carefully” or “What I am about to say is important.” You could use a word in your language that tells the hearer to listen carefully. The speaker now discovers the answer to the question in verse 6.

173

SNG

3

7

e4uw

0

it is the bed

This refers to a bed with a cover that can be carried from one place to another.

174

SNG

3

7

rd7d

figs-doublet

0

sixty warriors surround it, sixty soldiers of Israel

These two phrases refer to the same sixty people. The second phrase clarifies that the “warriors” are “soldiers of Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

175

SNG

3

7

u16s

0

warriors

men who fight

176

SNG

3

8

mm7c

writing-background

0

A description of the bed itself begins in verse 9. You could use words in your language that show that this is background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

177

SNG

3

8

v2yx

0

are experienced in warfare

Alternate translation: “can fight battles well”

178

SNG

3

8

z9n4

0

armed against

Alternate translation: “so that he can fight against”

179

SNG

3

8

jqy9

figs-abstractnouns

0

terrors of the night

Here, “terrors” is a metonym for evil people who frighten others by attacking them. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word terrors, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “evil people who attack others at night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

180

SNG

3

9

nnm6

0

sedan chair

This is a chair or couch for important people to sit or lie on. It rests on long poles that people can use to carry it

181

SNG

3

10

f5mj

writing-background

0

The description of the bed itself that began in Song of Songs 3:9 continues. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

182

SNG

3

10

w2at

0

Its posts

The word “its” refers to King Solomon’s sedan chair.

183

SNG

3

10

xnj4

0

posts

The word “posts” here refers to pieces either made of silver or made of wood covered with silver that hold up the tent of cloth around his chair.

184

SNG

3

10

rr69

0

Its interior was

Alternate translation: “The inside of it was”

185

SNG

3

10

apj8

0

with love

This could mean: (1) “with love,” indicating that the women made the sedan beautiful in a special way to show their love for Solomon, or (2) “with leather.”

186

SNG

3

11

i961

0

daughters of Zion

Alternate translation: “you young women who live in Zion”

187

SNG

3

11

sj76

0

gaze on King Solomon

“look at King Solomon.” The word “gaze” refers to look at someone or something for a long time, usually with strong emotional feeling.

188

SNG

3

11

tf1d

0

bearing the crown

Alternate translation: “wearing the crown”

189

SNG

3

11

ei7z

figs-metonymy

0

the day of the joy of his heart

The word “heart” is a metonym for the person. Alternate translation: “the day on which he truly rejoiced” or “the happiest day of his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

190

SNG

4

intro

r3aw

0

Song of Songs 4 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Beauty

The woman is described as the epitome of beauty in ancient Israel. Not all cultures share the same the same standards of beauty.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Metaphors

In the ancient Near East, it was common to describe a woman using metaphors involving animals. In many cultures today, this can be considered offensive. Different metaphors of beauty are used in different cultures. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

“My sister, my bride”

The woman described is not the sister of her husband. They are not related. Instead, this is a reference to a woman who is a fellow Israelite.

191

SNG

4

1

rg3f

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]

192

SNG

4

1

m3g6

figs-metaphor

0

Your eyes are doves

One possibility is that the man is speaking of the woman’s white eyeballs or the shape of her eyes, the shape of a dove. Another possibility is that the Israelites considered doves to be gentle and soft birds, and the man considers the woman’s eyes beautiful because the way the woman looks at him makes him think she is gentle. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:15. Alternate translation: “You are very gentle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

193

SNG

4

1

z6f7

0

my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9.

194

SNG

4

1

pnn4

figs-simile

0

Your hair is like a flock of goats going down from Mount Gilead

Goats in Israel were usually dark in color. The woman’s hair was probably dark. You may need to specify that the goats were dark or even use another simile that the reader will understand that refers to something dark and beautiful. People thought of Mount Gilead as beautiful and fertile. The speaker considered the woman beautiful and ready to become the mother of his children. If you remove the simile of the goats, you may have to remove the simile of the mountain as well. Alternate translation: “Your hair is as dark as storm clouds above a fertile land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

195

SNG

4

2

bdg1

figs-simile

0

Your teeth are like a flock of newly shorn ewes

After sheep have their wool cut off, they are washed and their skin looks very white. The woman’s teeth are white. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

196

SNG

4

2

cj59

figs-activepassive

0

a flock of newly shorn ewes

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “a flock of ewes whose wool people have cut off” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

197

SNG

4

2

wc12

figs-explicit

0

coming up from the washing place

The ewes are coming up out of the water. Alternate translation: “that are coming up out of the water after people have washed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

198

SNG

4

2

jw1w

figs-metaphor

0

Each one has a twin

Sheep usually give birth to two lambs at one time. These twin lambs usually look like one another. Each of the woman’s teeth has a matching tooth on the other side of her mouth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

199

SNG

4

2

vl9d

0

none among them is bereaved

Each of the woman’s teeth has a matching tooth on the other side of her mouth. She has not lost any of her teeth.

200

SNG

4

2

sb14

0

bereaved

lost a loved one who has died

201

SNG

4

3

t9kf

figs-simile

0

are like a thread of scarlet

Scarlet is a beautiful red color, and scarlet thread was very expensive. The woman’s lips were red. Alternate translation: “are a deep red like scarlet thread” or “are red and very beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

202

SNG

4

3

v1ae

0

scarlet

a dark red color that is very similar to the color of blood

203

SNG

4

3

q1mk

0

is lovely

Alternate translation: “is beautiful”

204

SNG

4

3

j2a3

figs-simile

0

are like pomegranate halves

Pomegranates are smooth, round, and rich red. The man thinks the woman’s cheeks are beautiful and show that she is healthy. Alternate translation: “are red and round like two halves of a pomegranate” or “are red and full and healthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

205

SNG

4

3

y47i

0

behind your veil

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:1.

206

SNG

4

4

i3qt

figs-simile

0

Your neck is like the tower of David

No one knows if this was a real tower. A tower is a tall, slender building, and saying that David built it implies that it was beautiful. The man considered the woman’s neck long and slender and so beautiful. Alternate translation: “Your neck is long and beautiful like the tower of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

207

SNG

4

4

v4ae

0

of David

Alternate translation: “that David built”

208

SNG

4

4

cq2q

figs-metaphor

0

built in rows of stone

Women had necklaces that covered their entire necks with rows of decorations. The man compares these rows of decorations with the rows of stone on the tower. Alternate translation: “that has many rows of stone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

209

SNG

4

4

c4nk

figs-metaphor

0

with a thousand shields

The man compares the decorations of the woman’s necklace with shields hanging on the tower. The necklace probably went around her neck many times. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

210

SNG

4

4

wgq3

translate-numbers

0

a thousand shields

“1,000 shields.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

211

SNG

4

4

swd3

0

all the shields of soldiers

Alternate translation: “all of the shields belong to mighty warriors”

212

SNG

4

5

f8qi

0

two breasts

If the word “two” seems unnecessary and so out of place, you could omit it.

213

SNG

4

5

ea9j

figs-simile

0

like two fawns, twins of a gazelle

The man implies that the woman’s breasts are matching, soft, and perhaps small. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

214

SNG

4

5

wd7y

0

twins

the babies of a mother who gave birth to two babies at one time

215

SNG

4

5

gu86

0

gazelle

an animal that looks like a deer and moves quickly. Translate as the singular of “gazelles” as in Song of Songs 2:7.

216

SNG

4

5

p33d

0

grazing among the lilies

“eating plants among the lilies.” While it is clear that the man “grazing among the lilies” is a metaphor for making love (Song of Songs 2:16), it is not clear what these words refer to. It is best to translate them literally.

217

SNG

4

5

bb93

0

lilies

sweet-smelling flowers that grow in places where there is much water. Translate as the plural of “lily” in Song of Songs 2:1.

218

SNG

4

6

y1xu

0

Until the dawn arrives and the shadows flee away

Translate similar wording in this line as you did the line in Song of Songs 2:17.

219

SNG

4

6

re83

figs-metaphor

0

I will go to the mountain of myrrh and to the hill of frankincense

The “mountain of myrrh” and “hill of frankincense” are metaphors for the woman’s breasts (Song of Songs 1:13). Alternate translation: “I will lie close to your breasts, which are like mountains that smell like myrrh and frankincense” or “I will lie close to your breasts, which smell very sweet” or “I will go to the sweet-smelling mountains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

220

SNG

4

6

bm4n

0

the mountain of myrrh

Alternate translation: “the mountain made of myrrh” or “the mountain that has myrrh growing on it”

221

SNG

4

6

ekc1

0

the hill of frankincense

Alternate translation: “the hill where there are clouds of smoke from burning frankincense in the air”

222

SNG

4

7

wt7k

0

You are beautiful in every way

Alternate translation: “Every part of you is beautiful” or “All of you is beautiful”

223

SNG

4

7

l1xq

0

my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9.

224

SNG

4

7

ci96

0

there is no blemish in you

Alternate translation: “you have no blemish”

225

SNG

4

8

h4yw

0

from Lebanon

Alternate translation: “away from Lebanon”

226

SNG

4

8

j8s2

0

my bride

This Hebrew word can refer to a woman who is married or to one whom a man has arranged to become his son’s wife. If your language has a polite word that a man would use to his wife and that has not been used yet in this book, you could use it here. Otherwise you could use any polite term a man would use with his wife.

227

SNG

4

8

m2km

translate-names

0

Amana

the name of a mountain north of Israel (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

228

SNG

4

8

ir9l

translate-names

0

Senir

the name of a mountain near Amana and Hermon. Some people think that this refers to the same mountain as Hermon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

229

SNG

4

8

ybd2

0

dens

places where lions and leopards live, like caves or holes in the ground

230

SNG

4

9

d7n7

figs-idiom

0

You have stolen my heart

This idiom could mean: (1) “My heart now belongs completely to you” or (2) “I strongly desire to make love to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

231

SNG

4

9

vdf7

figs-idiom

0

my sister

This is an idiom of affection. They are not actually brother and sister. Alternate translation: “my dear” or “my darling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

232

SNG

4

9

k4ah

0

my bride

This Hebrew word can refer to a woman who is married or to one whom a man has arranged to become his son’s wife. If your language has a polite word that a man would use to his wife and that has not been used yet in this book, you could use it here. Otherwise you could use any polite term a man would use with his wife. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:8.

233

SNG

4

9

d83s

0

heart, with just one look at me, with just one jewel

“heart. All you have to do is look at me once or show me just one jewel.” Both the woman’s eyes and her jewelry attract the man to her.

234

SNG

4

9

laj2

0

necklace

This necklace probably went around her neck many times (Song of Songs 4:4).

235

SNG

4

10

g6qt

0

How beautiful is your love

Alternate translation: “Your love is wonderful”

236

SNG

4

10

v1gy

figs-idiom

0

my sister

This is an idiom of affection. They are not actually brother and sister. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9. Alternate translation: “my dear” or “my darling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

237

SNG

4

10

ibb8

0

my bride

This Hebrew word can refer to a woman who is married or to one whom a man has arranged to become his son’s wife. If your language has a polite word that a man would use to his wife and that has not been used yet in this book, you could use it here. Otherwise you could use any polite term a man would use with his wife. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9.

238

SNG

4

10

td9x

0

How much better is your love than wine

“Your love is much better than wine.” See how you translated a similar phrase in Song of Songs 1:2.

239

SNG

4

10

ts8k

figs-ellipsis

0

the fragrance of your perfume than any spice

The verb may be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “how much better is the fragrance of your perfume than the fragrance of any spice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

240

SNG

4

10

wzb4

0

fragrance … perfume

See how you translated these words in Song of Songs 1:3.

241

SNG

4

10

r5ni

0

spice

dried plants or seeds that have a good smell or taste

242

SNG

4

11

fw88

figs-metaphor

0

Your lips … drip honey

Possible meanings are that honey is a metaphor for (1) the sweet taste of the woman’s kisses or (2) the woman’s words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

243

SNG

4

11

vc6y

figs-metaphor

0

honey and milk are under your tongue

Because “milk and honey” is a common phrase in the Bible, you should translate literally. Possible meanings are that honey is a metaphor for: (1) the sweet taste of the woman’s kisses or (2) the woman’s words. Milk is a metaphor for luxury, owning many things that help people enjoy life. When the woman kisses the man, he enjoys life. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

244

SNG

4

11

nyc9

0

the fragrance of your garments is like the fragrance of Lebanon

“the smell of your clothes is like the smell of Lebanon.” Many cedar trees grew in Lebanon. Cedar trees smell very good, so Lebanon would have smelled sweet and fresh.

245

SNG

4

12

whp4

figs-idiom

0

My sister

This is an idiom of affection. They are not actually brother and sister. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9. Alternate translation: “My dear” or “My darling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

246

SNG

4

12

nrw6

0

my bride

This Hebrew word can refer to a woman who is married or to one whom a man has arranged to become his son’s wife. If your language has a polite word that a man would use to his wife and that has not been used yet in this book, you could use it here. Otherwise you could use any polite term a man would use with his wife. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9.

247

SNG

4

12

j45u

figs-metaphor

0

is a garden locked up

“is a garden that no one can enter.” The garden is a metaphor for the woman, and the lock is a metaphor for her still being a virgin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

248

SNG

4

12

i5nb

figs-metaphor

0

a spring that is sealed

“a spring with a cover on it.” The spring or well is a metaphor for the woman, and the cover is a metaphor for her being a virgin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

249

SNG

4

13

uvg6

figs-euphemism

0

Your branches

branches or channels of rivers, a clear euphemism for the female body part. If any reference to this would be offensive, translate it as a synecdoche for the whole person. Alternate translation: “You” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

250

SNG

4

13

i3mi

0

a grove

a place where many trees grow together

251

SNG

4

13

eji6

0

with choice fruits

Alternate translation: “with the best kinds of fruits”

252

SNG

4

13

q938

0

nard plants

plants that give oil that people used to make their skin soft and to have a pleasant odor. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:14.

253

SNG

4

13

dju5

0

henna

small desert trees that people used as a perfume. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:14.

254

SNG

4

14

dxj9

0

saffron

a spice that comes from the dried parts from the yellow thread in the center of a certain flower

255

SNG

4

14

ujr7

0

calamus

a reed with a pleasant smell that people used to make anointing oil.

256

SNG

4

14

w1cm

0

cinnamon

a spice made from the bark of a tree that people used for cooking

257

SNG

4

14

kx8c

0

myrrh

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13.

258

SNG

4

14

bm3m

0

aloes

a type of large plant that had a very sweet smell

259

SNG

4

14

p646

0

all the finest spices

Alternate translation: “all the best spices”

260

SNG

4

15

z2an

figs-metaphor

0

You are a garden spring

“You are a spring in a garden.” A garden spring gives sweet, clean water that people enjoy drinking. The man enjoys being close to the woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

261

SNG

4

15

t9ch

0

fresh water

water that is good to drink

262

SNG

4

15

zl7c

0

streams flowing down from Lebanon

Because Lebanon had mountains covered with trees, the streams from Lebanon were clean and cool.

263

SNG

4

16

jv5g

figs-personification

0

Awake, north wind; come, south wind; blow

The woman speaks to the north wind and the south wind as though they were people. Alternate translation: “I wish the north wind and south wind would come and blow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

264

SNG

4

16

x71g

0

Awake, north wind

Alternate translation: “North wind, start blowing”

265

SNG

4

16

l273

figs-metaphor

0

blow on my garden

The garden is a metaphor for her body, which she has covered with sweet-smelling oils (Song of Songs 4:14). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

266

SNG

4

16

kdi9

0

may give off their fragrance

Alternate translation: “may send out their good smells”

267

SNG

4

16

lqh1

figs-metaphor

0

May my beloved … choice fruit

The woman is inviting the man to make love to her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

268

SNG

4

16

dp46

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

269

SNG

4

16

mbn7

0

choice fruit

Alternate translation: “wonderful fruit”

270

SNG

5

intro

kdw4

0

Song of Songs 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Verses 2-7 describe a dream the woman had.

Special concepts in this chapter

Beauty

The woman is described as the epitome of beauty in ancient Israel. Not all cultures share the same standards of beauty.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphors

In the ancient Near East, it was common to describe a woman using metaphors involving animals. In many cultures today, this can be considered offensive. Different metaphors of beauty are used in different cultures. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“My sister, my bride”

The woman described is not the sister of her husband. They are not related. Instead, this is a reference to a woman who is a fellow Israelite.

271

SNG

5

1

zka3

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]

272

SNG

5

1

m575

0

I have come

It is clearly the woman’s lover who is speaking.

273

SNG

5

1

f2qr

figs-metaphor

0

have come into my garden

The word “garden” is a metaphor for the woman. The man is finally able to fully enjoy the woman as they make love. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

274

SNG

5

1

tgd7

figs-idiom

0

my sister

This is an idiom of affection. They are not actually brother and sister. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9. Alternate translation: “my dear” or “my darling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

275

SNG

5

1

psq4

0

my bride

This Hebrew word can refer to a woman who is married or to one whom a man has arranged to become his son’s wife. If your language has a polite word that a man would use to his wife and that has not been used yet in this book, you could use it here. Otherwise you could use any polite term a man would use with his wife. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9.

276

SNG

5

1

lgr1

figs-metaphor

0

myrrh … spice … honeycomb … honey … wine … milk

These are all metaphors for the man enjoying the woman’s body (Song of Songs 1:13, Song of Songs 2:4, Song of Songs 4:11, and Song of Songs 4:14). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

277

SNG

5

1

sq9d

0

spice

plants that have a strong smell or taste

278

SNG

5

1

i16q

figs-metaphor

0

Eat … drink … be drunk with love

Eating and drinking are metaphors for making love. Alternate translation: “Make love … make love … make love until you are fully satisfied” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

279

SNG

5

2

a7v6

figs-euphemism

0

General Information:

The fourth part of the book begins here. The young woman uses euphemisms to describe her dream so that it can be interpreted in two different ways: (1) the woman describes a dream about a night when the man came to visit her at her house; and (2) the woman describes a dream about starting to sleep with the man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

280

SNG

5

2

biy3

figs-idiom

0

but my heart was awake

The heart is the center of thought and feeling. Alternate translation: “but I could think clearly” or “but I knew what I was feeling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

281

SNG

5

2

tk43

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

282

SNG

5

2

qjv8

figs-explicit

0

Open to me

This could mean: (1) literal, “Open the door for me,” or (2) metaphorical, “Let me make love to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

283

SNG

5

2

rx38

figs-idiom

0

my sister

This is an idiom of affection. They are not actually brother and sister. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:9. Alternate translation: “my dear” or “my darling” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

284

SNG

5

2

d52k

0

my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9.

285

SNG

5

2

c27j

0

my dove

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:14.

286

SNG

5

2

gaj1

0

undefiled one

Alternate translation: “my perfect one” or “my faithful one” or “my innocent one”

287

SNG

5

2

yh2r

0

dew

drops of water or mist that form as the night becomes cool

288

SNG

5

2

d3gt

figs-ellipsis

0

my hair with the night’s dampness

The words “is wet” are understood from the previous phrase. They can be repeated here. Alternate translation: “my hair is wet with the night’s dampness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

289

SNG

5

3

tr8w

figs-quotations

0

“I have taken off my robe … dirty?”

This is what the woman thought to herself when she heard the man speak. (Song of Songs 5:2). This could be translated with the woman saying that this is what she was thinking, or the woman could just explain the situation and her thoughts as in the UST. Alternate translation: “I thought to myself, ‘I have taken off my robe … dirty?’” or “I had taken off my robe and I did not want to put it on again. I had washed my feet and I did not want to get them dirty.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

290

SNG

5

3

am4r

0

robe

thin linen clothing that people wore on their skin

291

SNG

5

3

g6z2

figs-rquestion

0

must I put it on again?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not want to put it on again.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

292

SNG

5

3

r5cm

figs-euphemism

0

I have washed my feet

While the word “feet” can be a euphemism for private parts, this probably refers to literal feet. The woman seems more likely to want to make love than to want to refrain from lovemaking because she has just bathed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

293

SNG

5

3

h4w3

0

must I get them dirty?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not want to get them dirty.”

294

SNG

5

4

w3ff

figs-euphemism

0

My beloved put in his hand through the opening of the door latch

Possible interpretations are: (1) literal, the lover reaches into the house through a hole in the door in order to open the door or (2) euphemisic, they have begun to make love. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

295

SNG

5

4

hqn5

0

My beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “My dear one” or “My lover”

296

SNG

5

4

nns1

0

door latch

Alternate translation: “door lock”

297

SNG

5

5

w3k2

figs-metaphor

0

I got up to open the door for my beloved

This could mean: (1) literal, the young woman got out of bed in order to let the man into the house, or (2) metaphorical. Alternate translation: “I prepared myself to make love with my beloved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

298

SNG

5

5

q3qx

figs-euphemism

0

my hands … my fingers … door handle

While these may be euphemisms for the woman’s and man’s bodies, it is best to translate literally. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

299

SNG

5

5

ycr1

0

with moist myrrh

Alternate translation: “with liquid myrrh”

300

SNG

5

6

b7qk

0

my beloved

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13.

301

SNG

5

6

z8na

figs-metaphor

0

My heart sank

The heart is a metaphor for the person, and sinking, going down, is a metaphor for becoming weak or sad. Alternate translation: “I was very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

302

SNG

5

7

a9yk

0

The watchmen

men who have the job of keeping guard of the town at night to keep the people safe. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 3:3.

303

SNG

5

7

rqq4

0

as they were making their rounds in the city

“who were walking around the city on the walls.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 3:3.

304

SNG

5

7

v79f

0

found me

found the woman

305

SNG

5

7

zhf3

0

struck me

Alternate translation: “beat me” or “hit me”

306

SNG

5

7

q2vt

0

wounded me

Alternate translation: “injured me”

307

SNG

5

7

euu8

0

the guards on the walls

Alternate translation: “the men who guard the walls”

308

SNG

5

7

h38e

0

cloak

a garment that people wore over the other clothing on their upper body when they went outdoors in public

309

SNG

5

8

czu7

0

I want you to swear

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:7.

310

SNG

5

8

j8ub

figs-apostrophe

0

daughters of Jerusalem

“young women of Jerusalem.” These young women could not hear her and were not present, but the woman speaks as if they were present and could hear her. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

311

SNG

5

8

w1ul

figs-rquestion

0

my beloved—What will you make known to him?—that I am

The woman uses a question to introduce what she wants the daughters of Jerusalem to tell her beloved. Alternate translation: “my beloved, this is what I want you to say to him: tell him that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

312

SNG

5

8

v5m3

figs-metaphor

0

sick from love

She loves the man so strongly that she feels sick. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

313

SNG

5

9

kr5i

0

your beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for the other women to refer to him as “your lover.” See how you translated “my beloved” in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “your dear one” or “your lover”

314

SNG

5

9

eap5

0

most beautiful among women

“you who are the most beautiful of all women.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:8.

315

SNG

5

9

vbc6

0

Why is your beloved better

Alternate translation: “What makes your beloved better”

316

SNG

5

9

rfp3

0

that you ask us to take an oath like this

Alternate translation: “and causes you to have us take this oath”

317

SNG

5

9

zp43

0

an oath like this

the oath in Song of Songs 5:8

318

SNG

5

10

qb4q

0

My beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “My dear one” or “My lover”

319

SNG

5

10

xuy2

figs-explicit

0

is radiant and ruddy

This phrase refers to his complexion. Alternate translation: “has radiant and ruddy skin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

320

SNG

5

10

za1u

0

radiant

“is completely healthy” or “is pure.” The man has skin that does not have any problems.

321

SNG

5

10

rgj8

0

ruddy

a healthy color of the skin that is brownish red

322

SNG

5

10

hms2

figs-metaphor

0

outstanding among ten thousand

“the best of 10,000.” Alternate translation: “better than anyone else” or “no one else is like him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

323

SNG

5

11

s23z

figs-metaphor

0

His head is the purest gold

The man’s head is as precious to the woman as the purest gold. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

324

SNG

5

11

m1w4

figs-simile

0

a raven

a bird with very black feathers (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

325

SNG

5

12

m6e7

figs-metonymy

0

His eyes are like doves

Translate “eyes are like doves” as in Song of Songs 1:15. This could mean: (1) the Israelites considered doves to be gentle and soft birds, and the woman considers the man’s eyes beautiful because the way the man looks at her makes her think he is gentle. Alternate translation: “His eyes are gentle like doves” or (2) the woman is speaking of the man’s white eyeballs or the shape of his eyes, the shape of a dove. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

326

SNG

5

12

knr8

figs-metaphor

0

doves beside streams of water

Birds that the Israelites considered gentle sitting beside a gently flowing stream are a metaphor for a gentle person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

327

SNG

5

12

xp2d

0

streams of water

Alternate translation: “gently flowing water”

328

SNG

5

12

tr46

figs-metaphor

0

bathed in milk

Milk is a metaphor for the whiteness of the doves. Alternate translation: (1) “doves that are white like milk” or (2) milk is a metaphor for the white part of the man’s eyes. Alternate translation: “his pupils are like doves bathing in white milk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

329

SNG

5

12

qe85

figs-simile

0

mounted like jewels

His eyes are beautiful. Jewels that a craftsman has carefully put in place are beautiful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

330

SNG

5

13

ip4j

figs-simile

0

His cheeks … aromatic scents

This explains that his cheeks are like beds of spices because they both give off wonderful smells. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

331

SNG

5

13

mtt8

figs-metaphor

0

beds of spices

gardens or parts of gardens where people grow spices. Spices give people pleasure. The man’s body gives the woman pleasure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

332

SNG

5

13

mem2

0

yielding aromatic scents

Alternate translation: “that give off wonderful smells.”

333

SNG

5

13

a4hu

figs-metaphor

0

His lips are lilies

The woman probably compares his lips with lilies because they are beautiful and smell wonderful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

334

SNG

5

13

t4f1

0

lilies

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:16.

335

SNG

5

13

x8c2

figs-metaphor

0

dripping liquid myrrh

“that drip with the best myrrh.” His lips are moist and have a wonderful smell like myrrh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

336

SNG

5

14

nl6y

figs-metaphor

0

His arms are rounded gold set with jewels

“His arms are cylinders of gold that have jewels all over them.” The woman uses this image to say that his arms are beautiful and precious. The first readers would have understood this as a metaphor for the male body part (Song of Songs 5:3), but this would be difficult to bring out in translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

337

SNG

5

14

bg51

figs-metaphor

0

his abdomen is ivory covered with sapphires

“his belly is smooth ivory that has sapphires all over it.” The woman uses this image to say that his belly is beautiful and precious. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

338

SNG

5

14

k5ga

0

ivory

the white tusk or tooth of an animal that is similar to bone. People use ivory to make smooth and shiny pieces of art.

339

SNG

5

14

ws92

0

sapphires

valuable stones that are either: (1) blue or (2) clear and either blue or golden

340

SNG

5

15

i1xz

figs-metaphor

0

His legs are pillars of marble, set on bases of pure gold

Marble and gold are strong and beautiful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

341

SNG

5

15

juu1

0

marble

a very strong stone that has many different colors and that people polish to make very smooth

342

SNG

5

15

z75c

figs-simile

0

his appearance is like Lebanon

“he looks like Lebanon.” Lebanon was a very beautiful area with many mountains and cedar trees. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

343

SNG

5

16

sc8p

figs-metonymy

0

His mouth is most sweet

The mouth is a metonym for either: (1) the man’s sweet kisses or (2) the sweet words that he says. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

344

SNG

5

16

w3vr

0

he is completely lovely

Alternate translation: “every part of him is lovely” or “all of him is lovely”

345

SNG

5

16

pi1a

0

This is my beloved, and this is my friend

The word “This” refers to the man that the woman has just finished describing. Alternate translation: “That is what the one I love is like, and that is what my friend is like”

346

SNG

5

16

zd7b

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

347

SNG

5

16

r6zc

figs-apostrophe

0

daughters of Jerusalem

“young women of Jerusalem.” These young women could not hear her and were not present, but the woman speaks as if they were present and could hear her. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

348

SNG

6

intro

fa9a

0

Song of Songs 6 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Beauty

The woman is described as the epitome of beauty in ancient Israel. Not all cultures share the same standards of beauty.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Metaphors

In the ancient Near East, it was common to describe a woman using metaphors involving animals. In many cultures today, this can be considered offensive. Different metaphors of beauty are used in different cultures. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

349

SNG

6

1

z4sf

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]. The fifth part of the book begins here.

350

SNG

6

1

xnv3

0

In what direction has your beloved gone

Alternate translation: “Which way did your beloved go”

351

SNG

6

1

wr5y

0

your beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for the other women to refer to him as “your lover.” See how you translated “my beloved” in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “your dear one” or “your lover” or “the man you love”

352

SNG

6

1

emy4

0

most beautiful among women

“you who are the most beautiful of all women.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:8.

353

SNG

6

1

ise2

figs-explicit

0

gone, so that we may seek him with you?

The words “tell us” are understood from the context. They can be stated clearly Alternate translation: “gone? Tell us, so that we can look for him with you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

354

SNG

6

2

vrq9

figs-metaphor

0

My beloved has gone down to his garden

The word “garden” is a metaphor for the woman. The man is finally able to fully enjoy the woman as they make love. See the explanation of this metaphor in Song of Songs 5:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

355

SNG

6

2

v5x3

figs-metaphor

0

beds of spices

gardens or parts of gardens where people grow spices. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 5:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

356

SNG

6

2

w7gn

figs-metaphor

0

to graze in the garden and to gather lilies

These words are metaphors for the man enjoying her body. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

357

SNG

6

2

st2n

figs-metaphor

0

graze

“feeds” or “eats grass.” The woman speaks of the man as if he were “a gazelle or a young stag” (Song of Songs 2:17) that eats plants among the lilies. Grazing is probably a metaphor for lovemaking (Song of Songs 2:1-2). See how you translated “he grazes” in Song of Songs 2:16. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

358

SNG

6

2

e94c

0

to gather lilies

Alternate translation: “to pick lilies”

359

SNG

6

2

gp6q

0

lilies

sweet-smelling flowers that grow in places where there is much water. Translate as the plural of “lily” in Song of Songs 2:1.

360

SNG

6

3

z5rf

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

361

SNG

6

3

lr7w

0

I am my beloved’s, and my beloved is mine

See how you translated the similar phrase “My beloved is mine, and I am his” in Song of Songs 2:16.

362

SNG

6

3

p4l4

0

he grazes among the lilies with pleasure

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:16.

363

SNG

6

4

q66q

0

General Information:

Here begins Part Five of the book

364

SNG

6

4

xk88

figs-simile

0

as beautiful as Tirzah, my love, as lovely as Jerusalem

These cities were famous for being beautiful and pleasant to be in. The man thinks the woman is beautiful, and he takes pleasure in being with her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

365

SNG

6

4

nj8w

0

my love

“you whom I love.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:9.

366

SNG

6

4

rjr5

0

lovely

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:5.

367

SNG

6

4

uwd8

0

as awe-inspiring as an army with its banners

The beauty of the woman is so powerful that it makes the man feel helpless, as if an army were approaching him.

368

SNG

6

5

e85g

0

overwhelm me

“terrify me.” The eyes of the woman are so beautiful that it makes the man feel weak and afraid because he cannot resist their power.

369

SNG

6

5

lbz1

0

Your hair … from the slopes of Gilead

Translate “Your hair … from Mount Gilead” as in Song of Songs 4:1.

370

SNG

6

6

lxi1

figs-simile

0

Your teeth are like a flock of ewes

After sheep have their wool cut off, they are washed and their skin looks very white. The woman’s teeth are white. See how “Your teeth are like a flock of newly shorn ewes” is translated in Song of Songs 4:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

371

SNG

6

6

j7se

figs-explicit

0

coming up from the washing place

The ewes are coming up out of the water. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:2. Alternate translation: “that are coming up out of the water after people have washed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

372

SNG

6

6

x7hr

figs-metaphor

0

Each one has a twin

Sheep usually give birth to two lambs at one time. These twin lamb usually look like one another. Each of the woman’s teeth has a matching tooth on the other side of her mouth. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

373

SNG

6

6

s4qj

0

none among them is bereaved

Each of the woman’s teeth has a matching tooth on the other side of her mouth. She has not lost any of her teeth. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:2.

374

SNG

6

6

j4u3

0

bereaved

lost a loved one who has died. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:2.

375

SNG

6

7

zid1

figs-simile

0

are like pomegranate halves

Pomegranates are smooth, round, and rich red. The man thinks the woman’s cheeks are beautiful and show that she is healthy. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:3. Alternate translation: “are red and round like two halves of a pomegranate” or “are red and full and healthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

376

SNG

6

7

z88b

0

behind your veil

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:1.

377

SNG

6

8

g963

translate-numbers

0

There are sixty queens, eighty concubines … young women without number

These numbers are to be large, then larger, and then beyond counting. Alternate translation: “There are 60 queens, 80 concubines … more young women than anyone could count” or “There are many queens, even more concubines, and more young women than anyone could count” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

378

SNG

6

9

a2hh

figs-metaphor

0

My dove

The Israelites considered doves beautiful birds with pleasant voices. The man thinks the woman’s face and voice are beautiful. If calling a woman a “dove” would be offensive, you could leave out the metaphor. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:14. Alternate translation: “You beautiful woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

379

SNG

6

9

dk9e

0

my undefiled

“my perfect one” or “my faithful one” or “my innocent one.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 5:2.

380

SNG

6

9

m138

figs-hyperbole

0

the only daughter of her mother

This is an exaggeration. Alternate translation: “her mother’s special daughter” or “completely different from her mother’s other daughters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

381

SNG

6

9

tej6

0

the woman who bore her

“the woman who gave birth to her.” This phrase refers to her mother.

382

SNG

6

9

wmx6

0

young women … queens … concubines

the women spoken of in Song of Songs 6:8.

383

SNG

6

9

al8y

0

called her blessed

Alternate translation: “said that things had gone especially well for her”

384

SNG

6

10

cw4k

0

General Information:

The ULT understands this to be what the queens and the concubines said about the woman. However, some versions understand these to be the words of the man.

385

SNG

6

10

g6e9

figs-rquestion

0

Who is this who appears like the dawn … banners?

They are using this question to say that they think the young woman is amazing. Alternate translation: “This is an amazing woman! She comes into view like the dawn … banners!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

386

SNG

6

10

y3dp

figs-simile

0

who appears like the dawn

The dawn is beautiful. The woman is beautiful. Alternate translation: “who comes into view like the dawn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

387

SNG

6

10

vb8c

figs-simile

0

as awe-inspiring as an army with its banners

The beauty of the woman is so powerful that it makes the other women feel helpless, as if an army were approaching them. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 6:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

388

SNG

6

11

x84j

figs-metaphor

0

General Information:

The man finishes speaking to himself. Looking to see if plants had matured is probably a metaphor for enjoying the sight of the woman’s body. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

389

SNG

6

11

xmc2

0

grove

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:13.

390

SNG

6

11

vs9r

0

young growth

Alternate translation: “young plants” or “new shoots”

391

SNG

6

11

qw4q

0

had budded

“had grown their buds.” Buds are the small round parts of plants which open up into flowers.

392

SNG

6

11

w8xh

0

were in bloom

Alternate translation: “were opening their flowers”

393

SNG

6

12

lt9y

figs-simile

0

I was so happy that I felt I was riding in the chariot of a prince

The man uses this image to express how happy he is. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

394

SNG

6

13

u681

0

General Information:

This is 7:1, the first verse of chapter seven, in some versions. The ULT understands this to be the friends and the woman talking to each other. Some versions understand this to be the man speaking to the woman.

395

SNG

6

13

sm5j

figs-pronouns

0

Turn back … gaze on you

Possible meanings here are: (1) the friends are speaking to the woman or (2) the man is referring to himself in plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

396

SNG

6

13

x9hk

0

Turn back, turn back

“Come back, come back.” This is repeated for emphasis.

397

SNG

6

13

za54

figs-pronouns

0

we may gaze

Some versions understand the plural to refer to the man speaking of himself. Alternate translation: “I may gaze” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

398

SNG

6

13

c258

0

gaze

look intently for a long time

399

SNG

6

13

e2bm

figs-pronouns

0

Why do you gaze on the perfect woman … armies

Possible meanings here are: (1) the woman refers to herself as another person and is speaking to the friends or (2) the woman is speaking to the man as if he were many men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

400

SNG

6

13

iqb9

0

as if on the dance between two armies

Alternate translation: “as if she were dancing between two armies”

401

SNG

7

intro

hqv7

0

Song of Songs 7 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Beauty

The woman is described as the epitome of beauty in ancient Israel. Not all cultures share the same the same standards of beauty.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Similes

There are many similes in this chapter. Their purpose is to describe the beauty of the woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

402

SNG

7

1

z7jk

0

General Information:

This is 7:2, the second verse of chapter seven, in some versions.

403

SNG

7

1

v8jn

figs-explicit

0

How beautiful your feet appear in your sandals

It may be that the woman is dancing (Song of Songs 6:13). Alternate translation: “Your feet are so very beautiful in your sandals as you dance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

404

SNG

7

1

k8va

0

prince’s daughter

Another possible interpretation is “you who have a noble character.”

405

SNG

7

1

e9bd

figs-simile

0

The curves of your thighs are like jewels

The shape of the woman’s thighs remind the speaker of a beautiful precious stone that a skilled workman has carved. Alternate translation: “The curves of your thighs are beautiful like the beautiful curves of jewel that a skilled craftsman has made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

406

SNG

7

1

xs8e

0

your thighs

The word “thighs” refers to the hips of a woman and the part of her legs that is above her knee.

407

SNG

7

1

fc12

figs-synecdoche

0

the work of the hands of a master craftsman

The hands are a synecdoche for the person. Alternate translation: “the work of a master craftsman” or “something that a master craftsman has made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

408

SNG

7

2

u88e

figs-simile

0

Your navel is like a round bowl

A bowl is round. The woman’s navel is round. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

409

SNG

7

2

dp5a

0

navel

the spot on the stomach left from the cord that attaches a baby to its mother

410

SNG

7

2

n59p

figs-metaphor

0

may it never lack mixed wine

People used large bowls to mix wine with water or spices at feasts. Drinking wine is a metaphor for enjoying beauty. The litotes can be translated as a positive. Alternate translation: “may it always contain mixed wine” or “may I always enjoy its beauty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

411

SNG

7

2

q8fy

figs-simile

0

Your belly is like a mound of wheat encircled with lilies

The Israelites thought mounds of wheat and lilies were pleasant to look at. Much wheat was a sign that there would be much food to eat. They threshed wheat in high, dry places, and lilies grow in low, wet places, so this simile combines beautiful sights that people would not usually see at the same time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

412

SNG

7

2

w6nh

figs-simile

0

Your belly is like a mound of wheat

People thought that the color of wheat was the most beautiful color of skin and that round piles of wheat were beautiful. Alternate translation: “Your belly has a beautiful color and is round like a pile of wheat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

413

SNG

7

2

ah1p

0

a mound of wheat

This is a pile of the grains of wheat after people remove the parts of it that they do not use.

414

SNG

7

2

cz8d

0

encircled with lilies

Alternate translation: “with lilies all around it”

415

SNG

7

2

ue5r

0

lilies

sweet-smelling flowers that grow in places where there is much water. Translate as the plural of “lily” in Song of Songs 2:1.

416

SNG

7

3

jw6n

0

two breasts

If the word “two” seems unnecessary and so out of place, you could omit it. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:5.

417

SNG

7

3

ugf3

figs-simile

0

like two fawns, twins of a gazelle

The man implies that the woman’s breasts are matching, soft, and perhaps small. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

418

SNG

7

3

jh3u

0

twins

the babies of a mother who gave birth to two babies at one time. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 4:5.

419

SNG

7

3

wr8t

0

gazelle

an animal that looks like a deer and moves quickly. Translate as the singular of “gazelles” as in Song of Songs 2:7.

420

SNG

7

4

uv17

figs-simile

0

Your neck is like a tower of ivory

A tower is long and straight. Ivory is white. The woman’s neck is long and straight, and her skin is light in color. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

421

SNG

7

4

b1sy

0

a tower of ivory

Alternate translation: “a tower that people have decorated with ivory”

422

SNG

7

4

xgt7

0

ivory

the white tusk or tooth of an animal that is similar to bone. People use ivory to make art and to make things look beautiful.

423

SNG

7

4

h4ih

figs-metaphor

0

your eyes are the pools in Heshbon

The woman’s eyes are spoken of as if they are clear pools of water. Pools of water are clear and sparkle in the sunlight and so are pleasant to look at. The woman’s eyes are clear and sparkle and so are pleasant to look at. This can be stated as a simile. Alternate translation: “your eyes are as clear as the pools in Heshbon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

424

SNG

7

4

md6s

translate-names

0

Heshbon

This is the name of a city east of the Jordan River (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

425

SNG

7

4

r1vf

translate-names

0

Bath Rabbim

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

426

SNG

7

4

a4vg

figs-simile

0

nose is like the tower in Lebanon

A tower is tall and straight, and her nose is tall and straight. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

427

SNG

7

4

s23k

figs-metonymy

0

that looks toward Damascus

The tower looking is a metonym for people on the tower looking. Alternate translation: “that allows people to look toward Damascus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

428

SNG

7

5

jn22

figs-simile

0

Your head is on you like Carmel

Mount Carmel is higher than everything else around it. The man wants to look at the woman’s head more than at anything else. Alternate translation: “Your head is on you like a crown, higher than anything else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

429

SNG

7

5

sr83

0

dark purple

Other possible translations are: (1) “dark black” or (2) “dark red.”

430

SNG

7

5

hkk7

figs-metaphor

0

The king is held captive by its tresses

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Your hair that hangs down is so beautiful that the king is not able to stop admiring it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

431

SNG

7

5

l5e5

0

tresses

the clusters of hair that hang down from a woman’s head

432

SNG

7

6

hqx3

0

my love, with delights

Alternate translation: “my love. You delight me”

433

SNG

7

7

j31f

0

General Information:

The man describes what he would like to do with the woman .

434

SNG

7

7

jy1s

figs-simile

0

Your height is like that of a date palm tree

“You stand up like a date palm tree.” Date palm trees are tall and straight, and their branches are only at the top, with the fruit under the branches. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

435

SNG

7

7

f6me

0

date palm tree

a tall, straight tree that produces a sweet, brown, and sticky fruit that grows in groups

436

SNG

7

7

jr1v

figs-simile

0

your breasts like clusters of fruit

The dates on a palm tree grow soft and round in large bunches that hang from the tree just below the branches, which are all at the top. The woman’s breasts are soft and round and are just lower than her arms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

437

SNG

7

8

p7ge

0

I said

“I thought” or “I said to myself.” The man said this silently.

438

SNG

7

8

r1b3

figs-metaphor

0

I want to climb … its branches

The man wants to embrace the woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

439

SNG

7

8

w5g3

figs-simile

0

May your breasts be like clusters of grapes

The man wants to touch her breasts. Clusters of grapes are round and soft. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

440

SNG

7

8

zfb8

figs-simile

0

may the fragrance of your nose be like apricots

The word “nose” is a metonym for the breath coming out of the nose. Alternate translation: “may the breath coming from your nose smell sweet like apricots” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

441

SNG

7

8

f9is

0

apricots

sweet yellow fruit

442

SNG

7

9

yrg1

figs-metonymy

0

May your palate be like the best wine

The palate is a metonym for the lips. Wine tastes good. The man wants to kiss the woman’s lips. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

443

SNG

7

9

rq12

0

flowing smoothly for my beloved

“that flows smoothly for the one I love.” The man enjoys the smooth kisses of the woman.

444

SNG

7

9

ed64

0

gliding over the lips of those who sleep

Alternate translation: “that flows over our lips as we sleep”

445

SNG

7

10

k7zq

0

I am my beloved’s

See how you translated a similar phrase in Song of Songs 6:3.

446

SNG

7

10

j44v

0

my beloved’s

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one’s” or “my lover’s”

447

SNG

7

10

a143

0

he desires me

Alternate translation: “he wants to make love to me” or “he wants me”

448

SNG

7

11

bhr6

0

spend the night in the villages

Though the words here translated “spends the night” and “villages” appear together in Song of Songs 1:13-14 as “spends the night” and “henna flowers,” and the context both here and there is lovemaking, the ULT chooses this reading because the immediate metaphor is of the man and woman sleeping in the village, rising in the morning, and going out into the vineyards. The word for “henna plants” and the word for “villages” sound exactly the same.

449

SNG

7

12

iii6

0

rise early

Alternate translation: “get up early” or “wake up early”

450

SNG

7

12

cs6n

0

have budded

Alternate translation: “have begun to bloom”

451

SNG

7

12

r952

0

blossoms

flowers when they are open

452

SNG

7

12

ukd9

0

are in flower

Alternate translation: “have flowers open on the plant”

453

SNG

7

12

q3a4

0

I will give you my love

Alternate translation: “I will make love with you”

454

SNG

7

13

v61b

translate-unknown

0

mandrakes

This is the name of plants that give off a strong but pleasant scent. The scent is slightly intoxicating and stimulating, which increases the desire to make love. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

455

SNG

7

13

alp4

0

give off their fragrance

Alternate translation: “produce their scent” or “smell very nice”

456

SNG

7

13

xbk7

figs-explicit

0

at the door

The doors belong to their house. Alternate translation: “above the entrances of our house” or “by the doors of our house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

457

SNG

7

13

c2ah

0

are all sorts of choice fruits, new and old

Alternate translation: “is every kind of the best fruit, both old fruit and new fruit”

458

SNG

7

13

jsb8

0

stored up for you

Alternate translation: “saved so I can give to you”

459

SNG

7

13

h8r2

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

460

SNG

8

intro

d35n

0

Song of Songs 8 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Kisses

The kisses in this chapter are a type of kiss that was only done between a husband a wife. It is an intimate kiss. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Passion

The chapter describes the passion that can exist between a husband a wife. This is the feeling of strong or uncontrollable desire for another person.

461

SNG

8

1

me7m

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]]

462

SNG

8

1

dp21

figs-simile

0

you were like my brother

A woman could show affection for her brother in public. This woman wanted to be able to show affection for the man in public. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

463

SNG

8

1

v5fh

0

you outside

Alternate translation: “you in public”

464

SNG

8

1

zyd6

0

I could kiss you

A woman would probably kiss her brother on his cheek order to greet him.

465

SNG

8

1

ec82

0

would despise me

Alternate translation: “would think that I am a bad person”

466

SNG

8

2

i6ch

figs-explicit

0

she who taught me

taught her how to make love (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

467

SNG

8

2

s68s

figs-metaphor

0

I would give you spiced wine to drink and some of the juice of my pomegranates

The woman uses these images to say that she will give herself to the man and make love with him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

468

SNG

8

2

au41

figs-metaphor

0

spiced wine

“wine with spices” or “wine that has spices in it.” This represents the intoxicating power of lovemaking. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

469

SNG

8

3

s92v

0

His left hand … embraces me

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:6.

470

SNG

8

3

e5cp

0

left hand … right hand

Alternate translation: “left arm … right arm”

471

SNG

8

3

v65k

0

embraces me

Alternate translation: “holds me”

472

SNG

8

4

z8a4

0

I want you to swear

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:7

473

SNG

8

4

rk33

figs-apostrophe

0

daughters of Jerusalem

“young women of Jerusalem.” These young women could not hear her and were not present, but the woman speaks as if they were present and could hear her. See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

474

SNG

8

4

qg8i

0

that you will … until it pleases

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:7.

475

SNG

8

5

a5w5

0

General Information:

The fifth part of the book begins here.

476

SNG

8

5

xxv3

figs-rquestion

0

Who is this who is coming up

They are using this question to say that they think the young woman is amazing. A similar phrase was translated in Song of Songs 6:10. Alternate translation: “Look at this amazing woman as she comes up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

477

SNG

8

5

p4rr

0

I awakened you

Alternate translation: “I woke you up” or “I aroused you”

478

SNG

8

5

zfa2

0

the apricot tree

a tree that produces a small yellow fruit that is very sweet. If your readers will not know what this is, you could use the word for another fruit tree or the general word “fruit tree.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:3.

479

SNG

8

5

g9tp

0

there

under the apricot tree

480

SNG

8

5

d4ub

0

she delivered you

Alternate translation: “she bore you”

481

SNG

8

6

jr5m

figs-metaphor

0

Set me as a seal over your heart, like a seal on your arm

This could mean: (1) because seals were very important, people always kept them around their neck or on their hand. The woman wants to be with the man constantly like a seal, or (2) a seal shows who owns the thing that has the seal on it, and the woman wants herself as the seal on the man’s heart and arm to show that all of his thoughts, emotions, and actions belong to her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

482

SNG

8

6

yzj4

figs-simile

0

for love is as strong as death

Death is very strong because it overcomes even the most powerful people of the world. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

483

SNG

8

6

tci8

figs-simile

0

as unrelenting as Sheol

“as tough as Sheol.” Sheol never allows people to come back to life after they have already died. Love is as persistent as Sheol because it never changes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

484

SNG

8

6

fvz9

figs-metaphor

0

its flames burst out … any other fire

Love is very powerful like fire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

485

SNG

8

6

tw71

0

burst out

Alternate translation: “burn suddenly”

486

SNG

8

7

baf6

figs-metaphor

0

Surging waters cannot quench love

Love is so strong that it is like a fire that is so hot that it cannot be put out even with an ocean full of water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

487

SNG

8

7

j6mc

0

Surging waters

Alternate translation: “Oceans of water” or “Huge amounts of water”

488

SNG

8

7

dd1i

0

cannot quench

Alternate translation: “cannot extinguish” or “cannot put out”

489

SNG

8

7

e1ej

figs-metaphor

0

nor can floods sweep it away

Love never changes and always stays the same so it is like something that not even a powerful flood can move. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

490

SNG

8

7

dju9

0

floods

In Israel, water from the rain flows into deep and narrow valleys. This creates a flood of water so powerful that it can move huge boulders and trees.

491

SNG

8

7

kqk9

0

sweep it away

Alternate translation: “carry it away” or “wash it away”

492

SNG

8

7

jwh1

figs-hypo

0

If a man gave … the offer would utterly be despised

This is something that could possibly happen. Alternate translation: “Even if a man … he would be utterly despised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

493

SNG

8

7

g5ja

0

gave

offered to give

494

SNG

8

7

l4u3

0

all the possessions in his house

Alternate translation: “everything he owns”

495

SNG

8

7

n3pn

0

for love

Alternate translation: “in order to get love” or “in order to buy love”

496

SNG

8

7

nt2s

figs-activepassive

0

the offer would utterly be despised

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “people would completely despise him” or “people would harshly ridicule him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

497

SNG

8

8

au5a

0

little sister

Alternate translation: “young sister”

498

SNG

8

8

t852

figs-rquestion

0

What can we do … in marriage?

The speaker uses this question to introduce what he wants to say. Alternate translation: “This is what we will do … in marriage.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

499

SNG

8

8

g5fp

figs-idiom

0

she will be promised in marriage

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “a man comes and wants to marry her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

500

SNG

8

9

mpf5

0

General Information:

The young woman’s brothers continue to speak among themselves.

501

SNG

8

9

x3j1

figs-metaphor

0

If she is a wall … If she is a door

The little sister (Song of Songs 8:8) has very small breasts that either have not grown or are very small. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

502

SNG

8

9

am5u

figs-metaphor

0

we will build on her a tower of silver … we will adorn her with boards of cedar

The brothers decide to decorate the little sister with silver and cedar, symbols of riches, so that she will be more likely to attract a good husband. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

503

SNG

8

9

cnw3

0

will adorn her

Alternate translation: “will decorate her”

504

SNG

8

10

n2vy

figs-metaphor

0

I was a wall

The wall is a metaphor for a woman with small breasts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

505

SNG

8

10

mc78

figs-simile

0

my breasts are now like fortress towers

Fortress towers are tall. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

506

SNG

8

10

rll2

figs-metonymy

0

I am in his eyes as one

Here eyes are a metonym for judgment or value. Alternate translation: “I am in his judgment as one” or “he thinks of me as one” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

507

SNG

8

10

b5uu

figs-explicit

0

brings peace

You may need to make explicit to whom the woman brings peace. Alternate translation: “brings him peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

508

SNG

8

10

hi47

0

peace

Alternate translation: “well-being”

509

SNG

8

11

tt74

0

General Information:

Possible interpretations: (1) The woman contrasts the way she wants to give herself to the man, who will give her his love, to the way Solomon leases out his vineyard to those who will give him money. (2) The man contrasts the woman, whom he will not give to another man, to Solomon’s vineyard, which he gave to other men.

510

SNG

8

11

x2c3

translate-names

0

Baal Hamon

This is the name of a town in the northern part of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

511

SNG

8

11

mz3u

0

gave the vineyard

leased, agreed to let other people pay him so they could grow grapes in the vineyard

512

SNG

8

11

b1b3

0

to those who would maintain it

Alternate translation: “to people who would take care of it”

513

SNG

8

11

h77m

figs-ellipsis

0

Each one was to bring a thousand shekels of silver for its fruit

It may be helpful to state that this payment was for the fruit of the vineyard. Alternate translation: “Each man was supposed to give Solomon a thousand shekels as payment for the fruit of the vineyard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

514

SNG

8

11

t2dp

translate-bmoney

0

to bring a thousand shekels of silver

“to bring 1,000 shekels of silver.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

515

SNG

8

11

e3jp

0

shekels

Alternate translation: “coins”

516

SNG

8

11

mm2j

figs-apostrophe

0

Solomon

Some versions understand the woman to be speaking directly to Solomon. Others understand her to be speaking in an apostrophe to her friends, to the man, or to herself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

517

SNG

8

12

za66

figs-metaphor

0

My vineyard, my very own

The woman refers to herself as a vineyard, as in Song of Songs 1:6. Here she emphasizes that she and no one else will decide what she dies with the “vineyard.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

518

SNG

8

12

gc75

figs-idiom

0

is before me

This is an idiom that means the a person has the right to do what they want with something. Alternate translation: “is at my disposal” or “is mine to do with as I desire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

519

SNG

8

12

tl1c

0

the thousand shekels are for you, Solomon

The woman knows that Solomon has leased out the vineyard so he can get money, but she does not want money.

520

SNG

8

12

t7u1

0

the two hundred shekels

The speaker has not mentioned these before, but the hearer would understand that she is speaking of the money that those who worked the vineyard would have left for their own after they paid Solomon.

521

SNG

8

13

dp6s

figs-you

0

You who live

The man is speaking to the woman, so “you” and “live” are feminine singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

522

SNG

8

13

zm5h

figs-metonymy

0

listening for your voice

The voice is a metonym for what the person says. If your language has a word for thinking only of what one is listening for, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “waiting to hear you start speaking” or “waiting to hear what you have to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

523

SNG

8

13

ew6z

0

let me hear it

Alternate translation: “let me hear your voice.”

524

SNG

8

14

vrp7

0

my beloved

This phrase refers to the man whom the woman loves. In some languages it may be more natural for her to refer to him as “my lover.” See how you translated this in Song of Songs 1:13. Alternate translation: “my dear one” or “my lover”

525

SNG

8

14

zh44

0

like a gazelle or a young stag

See how you translated this in Song of Songs 2:9.

526

SNG

8

14

yhn7

0

gazelle

a type of slender deer-like animal with long curved horns

527

SNG

8

14

gp9l

0

stag

an adult male deer

528

SNG

8

14

mqx9

figs-metaphor

0

the mountains of spices

“the mountains that have spices all over them.” The woman uses this metaphor to invite the man to make love to her. See how the man uses the metaphor of a mountain of myrrh and a hill of frankincense in Song of Songs 4:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])