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PSA

front

intro

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Introduction to Psalms

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Psalms

  1. Book One (Psalms 1-41)
  2. Book Two (Psalms 42-72)
  3. Book Three (Psalms 73-89)
  4. Book Four (Psalms 90-106)
  5. Book Five (Psalms 107-150)

What is the Book of Psalms?

The Book of Psalms is a collection of songs. People called psalmists wrote them for different reasons. In some psalms, the psalmists expressed their praise for God. In other psalms, they asked God for help and expressed confidence in his love and power. In others, they confessed their sins and begged for mercy. The Israelites wrote some psalms to ask Yahweh to defeat their enemies. Other psalms celebrated the event of a new king beginning his reign. Psalmists also wrote to praise the city of Jerusalem. They wrote some psalms to instruct people on how to be wise by honoring Yahweh and obeying his law. Also, pilgrims sang some of the psalms while traveling to Jerusalem to worship there. Some psalms became songs of praise in the temple worship of Yahweh.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators can use the traditional title of this book, “The Book of Psalms” or just “Psalms.” Another title of this book is “Songs of Praise.” Translators may express this meaning in their own languages, or they may choose to use or transliterate the name from another language version if it is well known. For example, the French title “Les Psaumes” might be understood by everyone in a project language, if French is the language of wider communication in the region. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

When was the Book of Psalms written?

The Psalms were written over a long period of time. Moses probably wrote the earliest psalm around 1400 B.C. David and Asaph wrote their psalms between 1020 and 975 B.C. The Korahites may have written their psalms before Jerusalem was destroyed and the Jews were exiled to Babylon in 587 B.C. Psalm 126 appears to come from the period after the exile, which ended in 538 B.C.

What are the Messianic psalms?

Some psalms are called “Messianic psalms.” New Testament writers considered these psalms to prophesy about the Messiah, Jesus Christ. They cited Psalms 2, 8, 16, 22, 34, 40, 41, 45, 68, 69, 89, 102, 109, 110, and 118 at least one time each in the New Testament.

What are superscriptions in the Psalms?

Many psalms give some information called superscriptions before the beginning of the psalm. Some of the expressions in the superscriptions are difficult to understand, so modern versions often have different interpretations of them.

Seventy-three psalms are called “A psalm of David.” This may mean they were written by King David. Or, it could mean someone wrote them for David or in the style that David used when he composed poetry. The superscriptions of some psalms give the historical situations in which they were written.

Some superscriptions give instructions about how they should be played and sung. They tell which instruments, singers, or melodies that should be used for that psalm. Fifty-five psalms are addressed “to the choirmaster” or “chief musician.” The psalmists seem to have meant them to be used in temple worship.

Traditionally, English versions do not give verse numbers to the superscriptions. But many versions in other languages do. Whether or not translators give them verse numbers, they should consider the superscriptions in the Psalms as part of the divinely inspired biblical text.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What are some important ways in which Yahweh is pictured in the Book of Psalms?

The psalmists often pictured Yahweh as:

  • a king who rules over the nation of Israel and over all the nations
  • a shepherd who leads the people of Israel and also the individual psalm writers
  • a “rock,” that is, a high rocky mountain on which people can be completely safe from their enemies
  • a strong warrior who always defeats his enemies.

What is the importance of honor and shame in the Book of Psalms?

When people honor someone, they think well of him and may even admire him. On the other hand, if people shame someone, that person loses honor and is disgraced.

Psalmists often expressed a great desire that Yahweh would be honored by the Israelites and also by the rest of the world.

Also, psalmists often expressed fear that they would be shamed by their enemies. When they felt this way, the psalmists wrote of their trust that Yahweh would not allow this to happen.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Why do the ULT and UST display the Book of Psalms as poetry, but some modern versions do not?

The psalmists wrote the Psalms as Hebrew poetry. The ULT and UST set each line farther to the right on the page than regular text is placed to show that the writing is poetry rather than prose.

This style typically uses pairs of poetic lines that relate to each other in different ways. Usually, poetic lines are said to be “parallel” to each other. A line that is indented farther to the right is paired with the line above it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

Translators will have to decide whether to present the Psalms as poetry or as prose in their own language. Translators will need to consider whether their language has poetic forms that are suitable for expressing the Psalms.

Why do some versions number the Psalms differently than others?

From ancient times, people have numbered the Psalms in different ways. The Jews numbered the Psalms in Hebrew in one way. When they translated the Psalms into Greek, they numbered them in a different way. As a result, the Hebrew numbering and the Greek numbering of Psalms were both passed down through the centuries. They are both still in use today. Translators will probably want to number the Psalms in the same way that most versions in their own country do.

How should the translator view the terms Selah and Higgaion that occur in various psalms?

“Selah” and “Higgaion” seem to be musical terms inserted as directions for singers and musicians. Scholars do not agree as to their meaning. For this reason, translators may decide to transliterate them or leave them out but not try to translate them.

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Psalm 01 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 1 is usually considered to be a “wisdom psalm,” which gives advice to those who hear it read or sung. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Blessed

A main theme in this psalm is what it means to be blessed. Here “blessed” refers to anyone who is well off because of a good relationship to God. The contrasting theme is that there are ungodly people, those who refuse to honor God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]])

People who opposed Yahweh

There are several words in this psalm for those who oppose God: “the wicked” (those who do evil), “sinners” (those who ignore God’s law), and “mockers” (those who mock God and the righteous people). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

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1

1

c8cc

אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי

1

The man described as happy is someone that others admire and desire to be like. Happy here can be a congratulatory term. Alternate translation: “Admirable” or “Praised”

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n9y3

figs-infostructure

אַ֥שְֽׁרֵי־הָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר ׀ לֹ֥א הָלַךְ֮ בַּעֲצַ֪ת רְשָׁ֫עִ֥ים וּבְדֶ֣רֶךְ חַ֭טָּאִים לֹ֥א עָמָ֑ד וּבְמוֹשַׁ֥ב לֵ֝צִ֗ים לֹ֣א יָשָֽׁב

1

In some languages it may be more natural to place the declaration of the state of the man at the end of the verse, after the description of the characteristics that he avoids. However, starting the psalm with the exclamation Happy was an intentional poetic decision by the author intended to set the mood of the psalm. Translators should consider how their language might start the pslam with the same sort of praising exclamation. Alternate translation: “The man who does not walk in the advice of the wicked ones, and stands not in the pathway with sinners, and sits not in the seat of mockers is happy.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])

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PSA

1

1

a5wm

figs-genericnoun

הָאִ֗ישׁ

1

The man here may refer first to the ideal Israelite king while also having a general meaning referring to a typical righteous person. If your readers would not understand the man in a general way you may choose a term that gives a broader interpretation. One possible way to do this may be by not using a definite article. Alternate translation: “is a man” or “is the person” or “is a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

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PSA

1

1

ma8f

figs-metaphor

לֹ֥א הָלַךְ֮ בַּעֲצַ֪ת רְשָׁ֫עִ֥ים

1

Here, walks is a metaphor for a man doing the things that wicked ones suggest that he does. It suggests beginning a pattern of doing wrong. If your readers would not understand that walks in the advice means to listen to advice and then to do what is suggested, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “never does what wicked people suggest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1

1

x0do

לֹ֥א הָלַךְ֮ בַּעֲצַ֪ת רְשָׁ֫עִ֥ים וּבְדֶ֣רֶךְ חַ֭טָּאִים לֹ֥א עָמָ֑ד וּבְמוֹשַׁ֥ב לֵ֝צִ֗ים לֹ֣א יָשָֽׁב

1

It may be helpful to read these three phrases in an inverted way. That way the negative trajectory that the happy man avoids can be more clearly seen. Consider: “Unhappy is the man who walks in the advice of the wicked ones, and then who stands in the pathway of sinners, and then who sits in the seat of scoffers.” The meaning of each of these metaphors is expanded in later notes, but translators should see a downward trajectory of worsening character that a happy man avoids.

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PSA

1

1

aerb

figs-nominaladj

רְשָׁ֫עִ֥ים

1

The author is using the adjective wicked as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. (Note: ones has been supplied in the ULT to mark that this adjective is plural.) Alternate translation: “wicked people” or “people who are wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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PSA

1

1

y9ow

figs-metaphor

וּבְדֶ֣רֶךְ חַ֭טָּאִים לֹ֥א עָמָ֑ד

1

Here, stands not in the pathway of sinners refers to not copying how sinners continually live their lives, that is, their sinful habits. Standing means joining with sinners. The pathway means habits or how they live. Not only does the happy man not do what the wicked say, doing what sinners do does not become how he lives his life. If your readers would not understand that imitating someone’s habitual lifestyle is meant by stands … in the pathway in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “and does not make sinning a habit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1

1

b9ef

figs-metaphor

וּבְמוֹשַׁ֥ב לֵ֝צִ֗ים לֹ֣א יָשָֽׁב

1

Here, sits not in the seat of scoffers means to not become like people who spend their time mocking people, things, and God. By avoiding the previous two progressions towards a sinful life, the happy man avoids this final state where he would be just like the wicked. If your readers would not understand that becoming like scoffing people is meant by sits … in the seat in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “so he never becomes like wicked mockers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1

2

x7b7

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

כִּ֤י אִ֥ם

1

The author uses the word But here to indicate a strong contrast between what the does and does not do. In your translation, indicate this strong contrast in a way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Rather” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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2

zvgc

writing-pronouns

חֶ֫פְצ֥וֹ

1

Here, his refers to the happy man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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fhfk

figs-abstractnouns

חֶ֫פְצ֥וֹ

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of delight, you could express the same idea in another way. Alternate translation: “he delights” or “he rejoices” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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nbop

writing-pronouns

וּֽבְתוֹרָת֥וֹ

1

Here, his refers to Yahweh. That is, Yahweh’s instruction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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2

ikjs

writing-pronouns

יֶהְגֶּ֗ה

1

Here, he refers to the happy man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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1

2

u4ur

figs-idiom

יוֹמָ֥ם וָלָֽיְלָה

1

Here, day and night is used figuratively to mean continually. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “all the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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1

3

q40p

figs-simile

וְֽהָיָ֗ה כְּעֵץ֮ שָׁת֪וּל עַֽל־פַּלְגֵ֫י מָ֥יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר פִּרְי֨וֹ ׀ יִתֵּ֬ן בְּעִתּ֗וֹ וְעָלֵ֥הוּ לֹֽא־יִבּ֑וֹל וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה יַצְלִֽיחַ

1

The point of this verse’s comparison between the happy man and a well-watered tree is that just like the streams of water cause the tree to flourish, learning Yahweh’s instructions cause the man to flourish. (In Hebrew the phrases even sound similar.) Both a positive and negative comparison are given to strengthen the force of the point. The tree, fruit, and leaf references connect both back to Eden and forward to the end of Revelation. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could make the argument a little more explicit as the “Like … so” connection does in the UST. See PSA 92:12-92:14 for another use of this imagry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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ovv7

שָׁת֪וּל

1

The point of the choice of the word transplanted is to emphasize the intentional placement of a tree so that it gets abundant water. Translators could use a word meaning “planted” if their readers would understand that this was intentional. Alternate translation: “deliberately planted” or “cultivated”

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3

bet7

figs-activepassive

שָׁת֪וּל

1

If your language does not use this passive form, you could express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that someone transplanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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3

j6o3

figs-metonymy

וְעָלֵ֥הוּ לֹֽא־יִבּ֑וֹל

1

The author is referring figuratively to the tree dying by association with the way the leaves on a tree wither when a tree is dead or dying. If your readers would misunderstand this, you could state the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “and it will not die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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3

s609

figs-litotes

וְעָלֵ֥הוּ לֹֽא־יִבּ֑וֹל

1

Here the author uses a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “and its leaves are strong and green” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

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3

zo3m

writing-pronouns

וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה יַצְלִֽיחַ

1

Here, both instances of he refer to the happy man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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s4jq

grammar-connect-words-phrases

לֹא־כֵ֥ן

1

The so here refers to everything in the first three verses. The wicked are not in any way like the happy man. If your language has a way to indicate that so refers back not just to the last line about success but to the wider context of the first three verses, consider using it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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as72

translate-unknown

כַּ֝מֹּ֗ץ

1

The word chaff refers to the parts of a wheat or other grain plant that are not food. The husk that surrounds the edible seed is very light and blows away when the wheat is threshed to separate out the edible seed. The stalks are collected and burned. Thus the chaff is with the grain until harvest but then separated and burned or blown away. If your readers would not be familiar with this process you could describe the chaff or use another light and worthless material to describe the wicked. Alternate translation: “like dried seed husks” or “like fallen leaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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evr7

figs-metaphor

כִּ֥י אִם־כַּ֝מֹּ֗ץ אֲֽשֶׁר־תִּדְּפֶ֥נּוּ רֽוּחַ

1

The idea of the wicked as waste material gathered at the harvest that is then eliminated in some way is a common biblical image of God judging the wicked. If your readers would misunderstand this, consider how to make the connection to the next verse show this more clearly, because there the author makes this explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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xo05

grammar-connect-words-phrases

עַל־כֵּ֤ן

1

Thus indicates that the connection between the previous statements and this is one of similarity. Just like the chaff is removed from the good harvest and destroyed, thus the wicked will be removed from Yahweh’s righteous people and destroyed. Alternate translation: “In the same way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

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5

kt0k

figs-idiom

יָקֻ֣מוּ רְ֭שָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט

1

To stand in the judgment is to be innocent. Unlike the man in PSA 24:3-4, the wicked will be judged by Yahweh, and will not rise again as in PSA 140:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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5

h9cj

יָקֻ֣מוּ

1

The word translated stand here is translated as “arise” in PSA 140:10 and in many other places. This hints at resurrection imagery which helps to clarify which judgment is in the mind of the author.

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5

dhfv

figs-abstractnouns

בַּמִּשְׁפָּ֑ט

1

This refers to the time when Yahweh will finally judge the whole world. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea of judgment, you could express the same idea in another way. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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1

5

yb22

figs-ellipsis

וְ֝חַטָּאִ֗ים

1

The author is leaving out some of the words that in many languages a sentence would need in order to be complete. You can supply these words from earlier in the sentence if it would be clearer in your language. Alternate translation: “nor will sinners stand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

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1

5

ys17

figs-nominaladj

צַדִּיקִֽים

1

The author is using the adjective righteous as a noun in order to describe a group of people. Your language may use adjectives in the same way. If not, you could translate this with a noun phrase. (Note: ones has been supplied in the ULT to mark that this adjective is plural.) Alternate translation: “righteous people” or “people who are righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

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6

c4kq

grammar-connect-logic-result

כִּֽי

1

For here introduces an explanation of the contrast throughout this psalm. If possible, use a connector here that can refer back to more than just the immediate context. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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6

pyo9

figs-idiom

יוֹדֵ֣עַ

1

Here, knows refers to Yahweh’s intimate and active involvement in the life of the righteous. Alternate translation: “guards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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2

intro

z14u

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Psalm 02 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 2 is usually considered a royal psalm because it is about the king. It was probably first sung when a new person became the king. It is often thought to be about the Messiah because of verse 6 and 7 reference the Son of God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/christ]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofgod]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s protection

The main theme of this psalm is that God is protecting and empowering the king he has appointed and that it is useless for the foreign nations to oppose God and his king.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

“Today I have begotten you” here is a metaphor meaning that God acknowledges the king as his special person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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1

bht4

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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e4gn

figs-rquestion

0

Why are the nations in turmoil, and why do the peoples make plots that will fail?

These questions are used to show surprise that the people are doing things that are so wrong and foolish. Alternate translation: “The nations are in turmoil and the peoples are making plots that will fail.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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2

1

zq9d

0

are the nations in turmoil

This probably means that the nations were making a noisy and angry commotion.

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1

hd4h

figs-metonymy

0

the nations

This represents either the leaders or the people of the nations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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1

jxy7

0

plots that will fail

These are probably plots against God and his people.

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2

2

ag3k

figs-parallelism

0

The kings of the earth take their stand together … the rulers conspire together

These two clauses have similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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PSA

2

2

pt5v

figs-explicit

0

take their stand together … conspire together

These phrases mean the same thing, implying that the leaders stand together in order to fight against Yahweh and his Messiah. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “gather to fight … plan together to revolt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

43

PSA

2

3

xw9h

figs-metaphor

0

Let us tear off the shackles … throw off their chains

The people of other nations speak of Yahweh and the Messiah’s rule over them as if it were shackles and chains. Alternate translation: “We should free ourselves from their control; we should not let them rule over us any longer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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e8l8

0

He … the Lord

These phrases refer to Yahweh. Yahweh is often called “the Lord” but the words for “Yahweh” and “the Lord” are different.

45

PSA

2

4

t9zx

figs-explicit

0

sits in the heavens

Here sitting represents ruling. What he sits on can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “rules in the heavens” or “sits on his throne in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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PSA

2

4

zyd3

figs-explicit

0

the Lord mocks them

“the Lord mocks those people.” Why he mocks them can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “The Lord mocks them for their foolish plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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PSA

2

5

z631

figs-abstractnouns

0

terrify them in his rage

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word rage, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “furious.” Alternate translation: “he will be furious and terrify them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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PSA

2

5

jjb4

0

terrify

greatly frighten

49

PSA

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6

emc4

0

I myself

Yahweh is emphasizing that he, and not someone else, has anointed his king.

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PSA

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6

v3q9

0

anointed my king

Alternate translation: “appointed my king to rule”

51

PSA

2

7

d5l7

figs-explicit

0

I will announce a decree of Yahweh. He

The person saying this is the king. This can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “The king says, ‘I will announce a decree of Yahweh.’ He” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

52

PSA

2

7

h869

0

He said to me

Alternate translation: “Yahweh said to me”

53

PSA

2

7

qp2j

0

You are my son! This day I have become your father

Among many peoples in that part of the world then, men could decide to legally adopt children, who would become their heirs. Here Yahweh adopts a man and makes him king of Israel. Alternate translation: “I make you my son. This day I have become your father” or “Now you are my son and am your father”

54

PSA

2

8

sy59

0

Connecting Statement:

Yahweh continues speaking to the new king of Israel.

55

PSA

2

8

vjb5

figs-parallelism

0

the nations for your inheritance … the farthermost regions of the earth for your possession

These phrases express very similar ideas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

56

PSA

2

8

cv7i

0

the farthermost regions of the earth

Alternate translation: “the lands that are very far away”

57

PSA

2

9

uaa7

figs-parallelism

0

You will break them with an iron rod; like a jar of a potter, you will smash them to pieces

These phrases express very similar ideas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

58

PSA

2

9

at9u

figs-metaphor

0

You will break them with an iron rod

Defeating the nations is spoken of as breaking them, and his power is spoken of as an iron rod. Alternate translation: “You will defeat them completely by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

59

PSA

2

9

a2x4

figs-metaphor

0

you will smash them to pieces

Destroying nations is spoken of as if they could be smashed like a clay jar. Alternate translation: you will completely destroy them like a clay pot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

60

PSA

2

9

ggd3

translate-unknown

0

a jar of a potter

A potter is a person who makes clay pots and jars. These are fragile and can be broken easily. Alternate translation: “a clay jar” or “a clay pot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

61

PSA

2

10

upx2

figs-parallelism

0

So now, you kings, be warned; be corrected, you rulers of the earth

These two phrases have similar meanings. Alternate translation: “So now, you kings and rulers of the earth, be warned and corrected” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

62

PSA

2

10

j2nx

figs-activepassive

0

be warned

This can be stated with an active form. Alternate translation: “listen to this warning” or “be wise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

63

PSA

2

10

nyh6

figs-activepassive

0

be corrected

This can be stated with an active form. Alternate translation: “listen to this correction” or “take this correction” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

64

PSA

2

12

w4m8

translate-symaction

0

Kiss the son

People would show their king that they were loyal to him by kissing him, perhaps on the feet. Alternate translation: “Show the son that you are truly loyal to him” or “Bow down humbly before his son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

65

PSA

2

12

v3bs

0

you will die in the way

This may refer to dying right there, before the person has a chance to go away. Alternate translation: “you will die immediately”

66

PSA

2

12

l654

figs-metaphor

0

when his anger burns for just a moment

The king’s anger is spoken of as if it were a fire that could burn. Alternate translation: “when he suddenly becomes very angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

67

PSA

2

12

ty9p

figs-metaphor

0

seek refuge in him

Asking the king for protection is spoken of as seeking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “ask the king to protect them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

68

PSA

3

intro

py7j

0

Psalm 03 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 3 is a psalm of deliverance. It is a morning song intended to be sung in the temple accompanied by musical instruments during morning worship. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/temple]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s protection

Although the psalmist has many enemies and is saying he is without help, God is protecting him and delivering him from danger.

69

PSA

3

1

ylp1

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

70

PSA

3

1

g1yb

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

71

PSA

3

1

xp7i

figs-exclamations

0

Yahweh, how many are my enemies!

This exclamation shows that David is afraid of his enemies. Alternate translation: “Oh Yahweh, I have so many enemies!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

72

PSA

3

1

cj3u

figs-idiom

0

have risen against me

Fighting against someone is spoken of as rising against him. Alternate translation: “come against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

73

PSA

3

3

mj2u

figs-metaphor

0

you, Yahweh, are a shield around me

A shield protects a soldier. David speaks as if God were a shield protecting him. Alternate translation: “you, Yahweh, protect me like a shield” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

74

PSA

3

3

llc4

figs-metonymy

0

my glory

“you are my glory.” By calling God his glory, David says that God is the one who gives him glory. Since David has just spoken about his enemies and God being his protector, he probably meant that God gives him glory by giving him victory over his enemies. Alternate translation: “you are the one who gives me glory” or “you are the one who gives me victory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

75

PSA

3

3

hj6j

figs-metaphor

0

the one who lifts up my head

“you are the one who lifts up my head.” Giving someone courage is spoken of as lifting up his head. Alternate translation: “the one who encourages me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

76

PSA

3

4

bz2m

figs-metonymy

0

I lift up my voice

Using one’s voice to cry out is spoken of as lifting up his voice. Alternate translation: “I cry out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

77

PSA

3

6

q7wy

0

have set themselves against me on every side

Alternate translation: “have surrounded me to destroy me”

78

PSA

3

7

zax2

figs-metonymy

0

Rise up

David speaks of starting to do something as getting up. Alternate translation: “Take action” or “Do something” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

79

PSA

3

7

az5m

figs-parallelism

0

hit all my enemies … break the teeth of the wicked

These phrases say very similar things. The phrases “my enemies” and “the wicked” refer to the same group of people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

80

PSA

3

7

r6xe

translate-symaction

0

For you will hit all my enemies on the jaw

This was a way of insulting people. David speaks as if Yahweh would come and physically hit his enemies. Alternate translation: “For you will insult all my enemies like someone hitting them on the jaw” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

81

PSA

3

7

k36i

figs-metaphor

0

you will break the teeth of the wicked

Animals attack with their teeth. Breaking their teeth takes away their power to attack. David speaks as if Yahweh would come and physically fight against the wicked. Alternate translation: “you will make the wicked unable to harm me like someone breaking the teeth of a ferocious animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

82

PSA

3

8

x9bn

figs-abstractnouns

0

Salvation comes from Yahweh

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with the verb “save.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh saves his people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

83

PSA

4

intro

b2qk

0

Psalm 04 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 4 is a psalm of deliverance. It is an evening song, intended to be sung in the temple accompanied by musical instruments during evening worship. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/temple]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Trust

God protects all those who truly trust in him for protection. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

84

PSA

4

1

zjj1

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

85

PSA

4

1

q28k

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

86

PSA

4

1

k7md

0

on stringed instruments

Alternate translation: “people should play stringed instruments with this song”

87

PSA

4

1

f3xk

0

Answer me when I call

Alternate translation: “Respond to me when I call” or “Help me when I call”

88

PSA

4

1

dd31

0

God of my righteousness

Alternate translation: “God, who shows that I am righteous”

89

PSA

4

1

n99c

figs-metaphor

0

give me room when I am hemmed in

Being in danger is spoken of as being in a narrow space. Alternate translation: “rescue me when I am in danger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

90

PSA

4

2

r39v

0

General Information:

David sings this part of the song as if he is speaking to his enemies.

91

PSA

4

2

p3x5

figs-rquestion

0

You people, how long will you turn my honor into shame?

David uses this question to rebuke his enemies. Alternate translation: “You people continually turn my honor into shame!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

92

PSA

4

2

vy7i

0

turn my honor into shame

Shaming him instead of honoring him is spoken of as making his honor become shame. Alternate translation: “shame me instead of honoring me” or “bring me shame when you should be honoring me”

93

PSA

4

2

i8ct

figs-rquestion

0

How long will you love that which is worthless and seek after lies?

David uses this question to rebuke his enemies. Alternate translation: “You continue to love things that are worthless and seek after lies.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

94

PSA

4

2

mvp9

figs-parallelism

0

love that which is worthless … seek after lies

These two phrases are very similar in meaning. The lies are worthless. Alternate translation: “love worthless lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

95

PSA

4

3

w2gh

0

Yahweh has set apart the faithful ones for himself

Alternate translation: “Yahweh chooses godly people for himself”

96

PSA

4

4

api1

figs-explicit

0

Tremble in fear

The relationship between “tremble” and “fear” and who people should fear can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “Fear Yahweh so much that you tremble” or “Stand in awe of Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

97

PSA

4

4

u9p9

0

Tremble

shake from fear

98

PSA

4

4

l67w

figs-metonymy

0

Meditate in your heart

The heart represents a person’s thoughts. Thinking carefully is spoken of as meditating in one’s heart. Alternate translation: “Think carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

99

PSA

4

5

h8tj

0

Offer the sacrifices of righteousness

Alternate translation: “Offer the right sacrifices”

100

PSA

4

5

ul9j

figs-metaphor

0

put your trust in Yahweh

Here “trust” is spoken of as if it were an object that could be put somewhere. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word trust, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “trust in Yahweh” or “trust Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

101

PSA

4

6

k53m

figs-rquestion

0

Who will show us anything good?

This question is used either to ask for something or to express a wish about something that has not happened. Alternate translation: “Please show us something good!” or “We wish someone would show us something good!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

102

PSA

4

6

uvl3

figs-metonymy

0

Who will show us anything good?

This could mean: (1) showing something good represents bringing good things. Alternate translation: “Who will bring good things to us?” or (2) showing something good represents saying that good things have happened. Alternate translation: “Who will say that anything good has happened?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

103

PSA

4

6

stu3

figs-metaphor

0

lift up the light of your face on us

The writer speaks of Yahweh acting favorably towards them as if Yahweh’s face shone a light on them. Alternate translation: “act favorably towards us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

104

PSA

4

7

v4vs

figs-synecdoche

0

You have given my heart more gladness

The heart represents the person. Alternate translation: “You have given me more gladness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

105

PSA

4

7

b9ht

figs-metaphor

0

You have given my heart more gladness than others have

Here “gladness” is spoken of as if it is an object that can be given. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word gladness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “glad.” Alternate translation: “You have made me more glad than others are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

106

PSA

4

7

izx5

figs-metonymy

0

when their grain and new wine abound

“New wine” may represent grapes. Alternate translation: “when they reap plentiful harvests of grain and grapes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

107

PSA

4

8

b57u

figs-metaphor

0

It is in peace that I will lie down and sleep

Peace is spoken of as if it were a place. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word ****, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “I will be peaceful when I lie down and sleep” or “I will not be afraid of danger when I lie down and sleep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

108

PSA

4

8

p2ce

figs-doublet

0

make me safe and secure

The words “safe” and “secure” mean basically the same thing and emphasize complete safety. Alternate translation: “make me completely safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

109

PSA

5

intro

e67h

0

Psalm 05 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 5 is a psalm of deliverance. Notice how the psalmist both praises God and asks Him for help in defeating the wicked. It was intended to be sung accompanied by flutes. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s help

God does not help people who do evil but he blesses those who are good and trust in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

110

PSA

5

1

k92k

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

111

PSA

5

1

q7tu

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

112

PSA

5

1

tu54

0

with wind instruments

Alternate translation: “This song should be accompanied by people who play wind instruments.”

113

PSA

5

1

xts1

figs-explicit

0

Listen to my call to you

This is a call for help. Alternate translation: “Listen to me as I call to you for help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

114

PSA

5

1

i566

0

groanings

low sounds that people make with the voice when they are suffering

115

PSA

5

3

i42x

figs-parallelism

0

in the morning you hear my cry … in the morning I will bring my petition to you

These two phrases are very similar in meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

116

PSA

5

3

q5qw

0

I will bring my petition to you

Alternate translation: “I will make my request” or “I will ask you for what I need”

117

PSA

5

3

rk6n

0

wait expectantly

Alternate translation: “wait, expecting you to do what I ask you to do”

118

PSA

5

6

qjt8

figs-123person

0

Yahweh despises violent and deceitful men

Since David is speaking to God in this psalm, this sentence can be stated with the word “you.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh, you despise violent and deceitful men” or “Yahweh, you hate men who do violent acts and deceive others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

119

PSA

5

7

xxs4

figs-abstractnouns

0

because of your great covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “because you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

120

PSA

5

7

wus9

0

your house

This refers to God’s temple. Alternate translation: “your temple”

121

PSA

5

8

nj5y

figs-metaphor

0

lead me in your righteousness

David speaks of righteousness as if it were a path and of teaching as leading. The phrase “your righteousness” means that God is righteous Alternate translation: “teach me to do what is righteous as you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

122

PSA

5

8

f99i

figs-metaphor

0

make your path straight before me

David speaks of righteousness as if it were a path. A straight path is easy to see or walk on. Alternate translation: “show me clearly how to live in the right way” or “make it easy for me to do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

123

PSA

5

9

vyp8

0

General Information:

David talks about his enemies.

124

PSA

5

9

yu9i

figs-metonymy

0

For there is no truth in their mouth

Truth being in the mouth represents speaking truthfully. Alternate translation: “For they never say what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

125

PSA

5

9

w7sn

figs-metonymy

0

their inward being is wicked

The inward being represents people’s thoughts and desires. Alternate translation: “their thoughts and desires are wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

126

PSA

5

9

t93l

figs-metonymy

0

their throat

The throat represents people’s speech. Alternate translation: “their speech” or “what they say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

127

PSA

5

9

aj6l

figs-metaphor

0

their throat is an open tomb

Their throat is spoken of as if it were an open tomb, ready for dead bodies to put into it. This could mean: (1) “they say that they will kill people” or (2) “What they say kills people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

128

PSA

5

9

c5lk

0

they flatter with their tongue

Alternate translation: “they say nice things about people without really meaning it”

129

PSA

5

9

w8tw

figs-metonymy

0

their tongue

The tongue represents what people say. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

130

PSA

5

10

b8gr

0

may their schemes be their downfall

Alternate translation: “may their schemes cause them to experience disasters” or “may they become less important because of their schemes”

131

PSA

5

10

llj1

0

schemes

plans to harm people

132

PSA

5

10

se86

figs-metaphor

0

downfall

This is something that causes a person to experience disasters or to lose power. Experiencing disaster or becoming less important is spoken of as falling. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

133

PSA

5

11

p2xk

figs-metaphor

0

may all those who take refuge in you rejoice

God is spoken of as if he were a refuge, a place where people can be protected. Alternate translation: “May all those who go to you for protection rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

134

PSA

5

11

w32e

figs-parallelism

0

those who take refuge in you rejoice … shout for joy because you defend them

These two clauses express similar thoughts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

135

PSA

5

11

h7eq

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in you

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to you for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

136

PSA

5

11

jnt7

figs-metonymy

0

those who love your name

God’s name represents him. Alternate translation: “those who love you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

137

PSA

5

12

t1zz

figs-simile

0

you will surround them with favor as with a shield

God’s favor is spoken of as if it were a shield. Alternate translation: “you will favor them and protect them as a soldier protects himself with his shield” or “because you are kind to them, you will protect them (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

138

PSA

6

intro

gpl3

0

Psalm 06 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 6 is a deliverance psalm: a call to God for help. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Trouble

He is in deep trouble and needs God to help him in his difficult situation. But then God hears his prayer and scatters his enemies.

First Person

This psalm is written using first person making its perspective very personal. There are many uses of the first person in this Psalm.

139

PSA

6

1

qy9s

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

140

PSA

6

1

z78f

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

141

PSA

6

1

w19w

0

on stringed instruments

Alternate translation: “people should play stringed instruments with this song”

142

PSA

6

1

p2j3

0

set to the Sheminith style

This may refer to a style of music.

143

PSA

6

2

at9c

figs-synecdoche

0

my bones are shaking

The bones represent the whole body. His body may have been shaking because he was sick or extremely tired. Alternate translation: “my whole body is shaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

144

PSA

6

3

sd1q

0

very troubled

Alternate translation: “terrified” or “worried”

145

PSA

6

3

vw88

figs-rquestion

0

how long will this continue?

David uses this question to show that he does not want to continue feeling weak and troubled. Alternate translation: please, do not let this continue!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

146

PSA

6

4

rce3

figs-metaphor

0

Return, Yahweh

David speaks of God being kind to him as God returning to him. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, come back to me” or “Have mercy on me, Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

147

PSA

6

4

fuw3

figs-abstractnouns

0

Save me because of your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “Save me because you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

148

PSA

6

5

qb7p

figs-parallelism

0

For in death there is no remembrance of you. In Sheol who will give you thanks?

These two sentences express similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

149

PSA

6

5

pn4j

figs-metonymy

0

For in death there is no remembrance of you

Here, remembrance represents praise. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word remembrance, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “For when people die, they no longer praise you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

150

PSA

6

5

mb1j

figs-rquestion

0

In Sheol who will give you thanks?

David uses this question to emphasize that no one in Sheol thanks God. Alternate translation: “No one in Sheol will give you thanks!” or “The dead cannot praise you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

151

PSA

6

6

ge93

figs-metonymy

0

I am weary with my groaning

His groaning represents the pain or distress that he feels. Alternate translation: “I am very tired because of my pain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

152

PSA

6

6

bay4

figs-parallelism

0

I drench my bed with tears; I wash my couch away with my tears

These two sentences express the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

153

PSA

6

6

c1qb

0

I drench my bed with tears

Alternate translation: “I make my bed wet with my tears” or “My bed is very wet because of my tears”

154

PSA

6

6

isr5

0

I wash my couch away with my tears

Alternate translation: “I make my couch wet with my tears”

155

PSA

6

7

fup4

figs-metonymy

0

My eyes grow dim

The ability to see is spoken of in terms of the eyes. Alternate translation: “My vision is blurry” or “I cannot see clearly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

156

PSA

6

7

gny4

figs-metonymy

0

from grief

Grief here represents crying. Alternate translation: “from crying” or “because I cry so much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

157

PSA

6

9

j23z

figs-parallelism

0

Yahweh has heard my appeal for mercy … Yahweh has accepted my prayer

These two lines have very similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

158

PSA

6

9

dq36

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh has accepted my prayer

Being willing to do what David has prayed for is spoken of as accepting his prayer. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will respond to my prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

159

PSA

7

intro

zey1

0

Psalm 07 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 7 is a deliverance psalm. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s protection

The author had not wronged anyone, yet his enemy was trying to attack him. But he knew that God would protect him.

Cush the Benjamite

Note the superscription and the specific circumstances. There is no other reference to this incident in the Scriptures. But there are references to David being opposed by those of the tribe of Benjamin during the time he was serving King Saul.

160

PSA

7

1

wzv4

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

161

PSA

7

1

v239

0

A musical composition of David

Alternate translation: “This is a song that David wrote”

162

PSA

7

1

huv1

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in you!

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to you for protection!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

163

PSA

7

2

rzk1

figs-simile

0

they will rip me apart like a lion, tearing me in pieces

David speaks of his enemies attacking him as if they would rip his body apart and tear it in pieces as a lion would. Alternate translation: “they will violently kill me like a lion ripping apart its victim’s body and tearing it in pieces” or “they will violently kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

164

PSA

7

2

x9fh

0

with no one else able to bring me to safety

Alternate translation: “and no one else will be able to save me”

165

PSA

7

5

ej18

figs-metonymy

0

my life

The life represents the person. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

166

PSA

7

5

us9e

figs-metonymy

0

overtake me

This represents capturing him. Alternate translation: “capture me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

167

PSA

7

5

txr8

figs-metonymy

0

let him trample my life to the ground

Here “my life” represents the writer. Alternate translation: “allow him to destroy me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

168

PSA

7

5

hav6

0

lay my honor in the dust

This refers to lying dead and unburied in disgrace.

169

PSA

7

6

phd3

figs-metonymy

0

Arise, Yahweh, in your anger

Arising represents doing something or taking action. Alternate translation: “Do something in your anger” or “Be angry at my enemies and take action: (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

170

PSA

7

6

a9lp

figs-metonymy

0

stand up against the rage of my enemies

Fighting against people is spoken of as standing up against them. Alternate translation: “fight against the rage of my enemies” or “attack my enemies who rage against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

171

PSA

7

6

q1qt

figs-metonymy

0

the rage of my enemies

Their rage represents their attacks. Alternate translation: “the attacks of my enemies” or “my enemies who attack me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

172

PSA

7

6

x2us

figs-metaphor

0

wake up

Waking up represents starting to do something or take action. Alternate translation: “Take action” or “Do something” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

173

PSA

7

6

sml1

0

for my sake

Alternate translation: “for me” or “to help me”

174

PSA

7

7

pk8y

figs-synecdoche

0

The countries are assembled

Here the word “countries” represents all of the armies that have gathered to attack. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

175

PSA

7

7

rb6b

figs-metaphor

0

take once more your rightful place over them

Ruling people is spoken of as being over them. Yahweh’s rightful place refers either to heaven or to ruling in general. Alternate translation: “Rule over them from heaven” or “Rule over them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

176

PSA

7

8

e8kb

0

vindicate me

Alternate translation: “show them that I am not guilty”

177

PSA

7

9

pw1n

0

establish the righteous people

Alternate translation: “make the righteous people strong” or “make the righteous people prosper”

178

PSA

7

9

zql9

figs-metonymy

0

you who examine hearts and minds

The hearts and minds represent people’s desires and thoughts. Alternate translation: “you who know our inner thoughts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

179

PSA

7

10

c7u4

figs-metaphor

0

My shield comes from God

The word “shield” represents God’s protection. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

180

PSA

7

11

j5zn

figs-explicit

0

a God who is indignant each day

Who God is angry with can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “a God who is angry with the wicked every day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

181

PSA

7

12

y4zk

figs-metaphor

0

God will sharpen his sword and will prepare his bow for battle

In verses 12 and 13, David speaks of God deciding to punish the wicked as if God were a warrior preparing to fight against them with weapons. Alternate translation: “God will take action against him like a warrior who sharpens his sword and prepares his bow for battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

182

PSA

7

14

l54a

figs-metaphor

0

one who is pregnant with wickedness … conceives destructive plans … gives birth to harmful lies

David speaks of the things that a wicked person does as if the person were pregnant and wickedness was the baby. Alternate translation: “the wicked person. He makes plans to destroy people and produces harmful lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

183

PSA

7

16

p524

figs-metaphor

0

His own destructive plans return to his own head, for his violence comes down on his own head

Destruction and violence are spoken of as if they hit a person’s head or fall down on it. Alternate translation: “His own destructive plans destroy him, for his violence attacks him” or “When he plans to destroy others, others destroy him; when he attacks others, others attack him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

184

PSA

8

intro

rs24

0

Psalm 08 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 8 is a psalm of worship and praise to God. This was to be sung by a choir.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s creation

God has made awesome things in the universe and has exalted humans to be rulers over this creation. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/exalt]])

A Little Lower than the Heavenly Beings

Psalms Psalm 8:4-6 is quoted in Hebrews 2:6-8, where it is applied to Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/glory]])

185

PSA

8

1

lk7t

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

186

PSA

8

1

i9hb

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

187

PSA

8

1

ye1p

0

set to the gittith style

This may refer to a style of music.

188

PSA

8

1

hn59

figs-metonymy

0

how magnificent is your name in all the earth

God’s “name” represents his whole being. Alternate translation: “people all over the world know that you are very great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

189

PSA

8

2

u11e

figs-metaphor

0

Out of the mouth of babies and infants you have established praise

This could mean: (1) praise is spoken of as a solid object that God takes out of babies’ mouths and sets up as a defensive wall or (2) God has created the world so that true praise comes to him from babies. Alternate translation: “You have given babies and infants the ability to praise you” or “It is babies and infants who truly praise you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

190

PSA

8

3

uj2i

figs-synecdoche

0

your heavens, which your fingers have made

God’s fingers represent him. Alternate translation: “the heavens which you have made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

191

PSA

8

4

yhh5

figs-rquestion

0

Of what importance is the human race that you notice them, or mankind that you pay attention to them?

These remarks have been expressed in the form of a question to add emphasis. Alternate translation: “It is amazing that you think about people and are concerned about them!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

192

PSA

8

4

k9i2

0

the human race … mankind

Both of these phrases refer to people in general.

193

PSA

8

5

sr48

figs-metaphor

0

have crowned them with glory and honor

Glory and honor are spoken of as if they were crowns. The words “glory” and “honor” are similar in meaning. Alternate translation: “have given them glory and honor” or “have caused them to be like kings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

194

PSA

8

6

x6z3

figs-parallelism

0

You make him to rule over the works … you have put all things under his feet

These two clauses express similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

195

PSA

8

6

rc4e

0

You make him … under his feet

“you make them … under their feet.” The words “him” and “his” here refer to people.

196

PSA

8

6

xti1

figs-metonymy

0

the works of your hands

The hands represent what God has done. Alternate translation: “the things that you made” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

197

PSA

8

6

py2w

figs-metaphor

0

you have put all things under his feet

Having authority to rule others or control things is spoken of as having them under one’s feet. This means God gave people authority over all that he created. Alternate translation: “you have given him authority over all things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

198

PSA

8

9

y339

figs-exclamations

0

how magnificent is your name in all the earth

With this exclamation, David shows his joy and awe about how great God is. Alternate translation: “your name is wonderfully magnificent in all the earth” or “people in all the earth know how magnificent you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

199

PSA

8

9

dvi7

figs-metonymy

0

your name

God’s “name” represents him or his reputation. Alternate translation: “your reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

200

PSA

8

9

bf2u

0

magnificent

excellent, great

201

PSA

9

intro

zq96

0

Psalm 09 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 9 is a psalm of praise.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s protection

God is a protector. He is all-powerful and his enemies cannot withstand him.

Acrostic Psalm

This psalm along with Psalm 10 form an acrostic. Which means that each unit begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

One Psalm or two

This psalm has a superscription but Psalm 10 doesn’t. This fact and the acrostic nature of the two psalms has lead some scholars to believe these two psalms may have originally been written as one psalm.

202

PSA

9

1

xxu5

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

203

PSA

9

1

w9iy

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

204

PSA

9

1

nqw5

0

set to Muth Labben

This may refer to a style of music.

205

PSA

9

1

lr4k

figs-123person

0

I will give thanks to Yahweh with my whole heart

Since this song is addressed to Yahweh, Yahweh can be referred to as “you.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh, I will give thanks to you with all my heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

206

PSA

9

1

f4r1

figs-abstractnouns

0

all your marvelous deeds

The noun “deeds” can be expressed with the verb “do.” Alternate translation: “all the marvelous things you do” or “all the marvelous things you have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

207

PSA

9

2

vh6j

figs-metonymy

0

I will sing praise to your name

Here God’s name represents God. Alternate translation: “I will sing praise to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

208

PSA

9

3

j685

0

turn back

Alternate translation: “retreat” or “flee in fear”

209

PSA

9

4

nvz1

figs-metonymy

0

you sit on your throne, a righteous judge

Kings had authority to judge people, and they would sit on their throne when they judged. David speaks as if God were an earthly king. Alternate translation: “you judge like a king who sits on his throne, and you are righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

210

PSA

9

5

cw1j

figs-metaphor

0

you have blotted out their name forever and ever

Causing people to be forgotten is spoken of as blotting out their name. Alternate translation: “you have caused them to be forgotten as if their name was blotted out” or “no one will ever remember them again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

211

PSA

9

5

bs94

0

blotted out

Alternate translation: “erased”

212

PSA

9

6

dj3h

figs-simile

0

The enemy crumbled like ruins

The enemy is spoken of as if it were a city full of broken down buildings. Alternate translation: “Our enemies were destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

213

PSA

9

6

b9n1

0

when you overthrew their cities

Alternate translation: “when you destroyed their cities”

214

PSA

9

6

pi7j

figs-metaphor

0

All remembrance of them has perished

Here “remembrance” is spoken of as if it were a living being that could die. Alternate translation: “All remembrance of them has stopped” or “There is no longer any remembrance of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

215

PSA

9

6

c6yp

figs-abstractnouns

0

All remembrance of them has perished

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word remembrance, you could express the same idea with the verb “remember.” Alternate translation: “No one remembers them at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

216

PSA

9

7

x7xg

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh remains forever

“Remain” probably represents sitting on the throne as king. Alternate translation: “Yahweh sits on his throne forever” or “Yahweh rules forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

217

PSA

9

7

h8nu

figs-metonymy

0

he has established his throne for justice

The phrase “his throne” represents God’s rule. This could mean: (1) “He rules in order to judge people” or (2) “He rules over people justly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

218

PSA

9

8

pgg5

figs-parallelism

0

He will judge the world with righteousness … he will execute judgment for the nations with fairness

These two clauses express the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

219

PSA

9

8

dz3w

figs-metonymy

0

He will judge the world with righteousness

Here “the world” refers to all the people in the world. Alternate translation: “He will judge all the people of the world righteously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

220

PSA

9

9

y7hd

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh also will be a stronghold for the oppressed

God is spoken of as if he were a place that people could go to for safety. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will also protect the oppressed” or “Yahweh will also provide safety for those who are oppressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

221

PSA

9

10

mb1z

figs-metonymy

0

Those who know your name

Here the words “your name” represent God. Alternate translation: “Those who know you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

222

PSA

9

10

dj61

0

do not abandon

Alternate translation: “do not forsake” or “do not leave”

223

PSA

9

11

nb7x

0

who rules in Zion

Alternate translation: “who lives in Jerusalem”

224

PSA

9

11

i7js

figs-metonymy

0

tell the nations

Here “the nations” represents the people of the nations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

225

PSA

9

12

lcs5

figs-explicit

0

For the God who avenges bloodshed remembers

What he remembers can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “For the God who avenges bloodshed remembers those who were killed” or “For God remembers those who were killed and he punishes the killers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

226

PSA

9

12

wk9a

0

he does not forget the cry

Alternate translation: “He does not ignore the cry”

227

PSA

9

13

j8i9

figs-activepassive

0

see how I am oppressed by those who hate me

This can be expressed in active form. Alternate translation: “see how those who hate me oppress me” or “see how badly my enemies treat me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

228

PSA

9

13

p41p

figs-metaphor

0

you who can snatch me from the gates of death

Death is spoken of as if it were a city that had gates through which people enter it. If someone is near the gates of death, it means that he will die soon. Keeping someone from dying is spoken of as taking him away from the gates of that city. Alternate translation: “you who can rescue me from death” or “you who can keep me from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

229

PSA

9

15

re95

figs-metaphor

0

The nations have sunk down into the pit that they made

People dig pits so they can catch animals that fall into them. Here digging a pit represents making plans to destroy people. Alternate translation: “The nations are like people who dig a pit for others and then fall into it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

230

PSA

9

15

g4gq

figs-metaphor

0

their feet are caught in the net that they hid

People hide nets so they can catch animals that get caught in them. Here hiding a net represents making plans to destroy people. Alternate translation: “they are like people who hide a net and get trapped in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

231

PSA

9

16

fy3r

figs-nominaladj

0

the wicked is ensnared by his own actions

Here “wicked” is a nominal adjective that refers to any wicked person. A wicked person acting to harm other people is spoken of as if the wicked person had made a trap and then fallen into it and been unable to escape. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when a wicked person tries to harm other people, his actions will end up harming him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

232

PSA

9

16

z41t

0

is ensnared

Alternate translation: “is trapped”

233

PSA

9

17

bw3u

0

turned back

Alternate translation: “rejected”

234

PSA

9

17

wmb4

0

all the nations that forget God

This refers to “the wicked.”

235

PSA

9

18

f28n

figs-activepassive

0

For the needy will not always be forgotten

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will not always forget the needy” or “God will remember the needy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

236

PSA

9

18

ln7u

figs-metaphor

0

nor will the hope of the oppressed be forever dashed

Hopes are spoken of as if they were objects that could be broken or destroyed. Hopes being destroyed represents the things that people hope for never happening. Alternate translation: “and the oppressed will not hope forever without results” or “and someday what the oppressed hope for will happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

237

PSA

9

19

zrv7

figs-metonymy

0

Arise

Getting up represents starting to do something. Alternate translation: “Do something” or “Take action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

238

PSA

9

19

dw6d

0

man

people

239

PSA

9

19

f879

figs-metonymy

0

be judged

Here judging represents punishing. Alternate translation: “be punished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

240

PSA

9

19

dca3

figs-metonymy

0

in your sight

Here sight represents presence. Alternate translation: “in your presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

241

PSA

9

19

xin9

figs-activepassive

0

may the nations be judged in your sight

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “judge the nations in your presence” or “take the nations into your presence and punish them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

242

PSA

10

intro

h366

0

Psalm 010 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 10 is a psalm of deliverance. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Evil people

The wicked people are prospering and think that God does not care. They think that he is not involved in these affairs. They destroy the innocent. The godly need God to come to their rescue and to punish the wicked people for the evil that they are doing to the good people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/innocent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]])

Second half of Psalm 9

As noted in the intro to the last psalm, this one is part of an acrostic poem. This psalm covers the last half on the Hebrew alphabet. It also does not have a superscription to introduce it. However, the psalms do separate well on the subjects they address. One addresses thanksgiving and praise whereas Psalm 10 is a lament. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lament]])

243

PSA

10

1

he97

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

244

PSA

10

1

l729

figs-rquestion

0

Why, Yahweh, do you stand far off? Why do you hide yourself in times of trouble?

The speaker uses these questions to express his distress that God has not helped him. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, it seems as though you are far away from me and you hide from me whenever I am in trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

245

PSA

10

2

ml6r

0

schemes

evil plans

246

PSA

10

3

hd9r

figs-genericnoun

0

the wicked person

This refers to wicked people in general. Alternate translation: “wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

247

PSA

10

3

lk5v

figs-abstractnouns

0

his deepest desires

The noun “desires” can be expressed with the verb “want. “Alternate translation: “the things that he wants very much to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

248

PSA

10

3

bcd9

0

the greedy

Alternate translation: “greedy people”

249

PSA

10

4

nkz2

figs-genericnoun

0

The wicked man

This refers here to wicked people in general. Alternate translation: “the wicked person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

250

PSA

10

4

es9w

figs-metaphor

0

has a raised face

A raised face represents pride or arrogance. Alternate translation: “has an arrogant attitude” or “is proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

251

PSA

10

4

je9x

figs-metaphor

0

he does not seek God

Here, seeking God could mean: (1) asking God for help or (2) thinking about God and obeying him. Alternate translation: “he does not ask God for help” or “he does not think about God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

252

PSA

10

5

h3lz

0

He is secure at all times

“He is safe at all times.” He is not really safe, but he thinks that he is.

253

PSA

10

5

ee2m

figs-metaphor

0

your righteous decrees are too high for him

Something that is hard to understand is spoken of as if it were too high to reach. Alternate translation: “he cannot understand your righteous decrees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

254

PSA

10

5

bbt7

translate-symaction

0

he snorts at all his enemies

People snort at their enemies when they think that their enemies are weak and worthless. Alternate translation: “he thinks that all his enemies are weak and worthless” or “he sneers at all his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

255

PSA

10

5

dxb3

0

he snorts

This means that he blows air out noisily through his nose.

256

PSA

10

6

j7qk

0

He says

Alternate translation: “The wicked man says”

257

PSA

10

6

xus1

0

throughout all generations

This probably simply means “forever.”

258

PSA

10

6

y26y

figs-metaphor

0

I will not meet adversity

Experiencing adversity is spoken of as meeting it. Alternate translation: “I will not have any troubles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

259

PSA

10

7

d42j

figs-metonymy

0

His mouth is full of curses and lies and oppression

What people say is spoken of as being in their mouth. Alternate translation: “He always curses people, tells lies, and threatens to harm people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

260

PSA

10

7

xj9b

figs-metonymy

0

under his tongue are mischief and evil

Here the tongue represents speaking. Alternate translation: or “what he says injures and destroys people” or “he speaks words that threaten and hurt people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

261

PSA

10

8

x2zt

0

He waits in ambush

The word “he” refers to the wicked man.

262

PSA

10

8

urg9

figs-synecdoche

0

his eyes look for some helpless victim

The eyes represent him. Alternate translation: “he looks for some helpless victim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

263

PSA

10

9

sd5u

figs-simile

0

He lurks in secret like a lion in the thicket

This speaks of the wicked person as if he were a lion. Alternate translation: “He hides while he waits for the weak to walk near him, the same way a lion quietly waits in the bush for the animal it wants to attack” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

264

PSA

10

9

jkf7

0

lurks

This means to hide or wait with intent to harm or kill.

265

PSA

10

9

ug79

0

he lies in wait

Alternate translation: “lies down waiting” or “he hides and waits”

266

PSA

10

9

g5jl

figs-metaphor

0

He catches the oppressed when he pulls in his net

The writer speaks of the wicked person catching people as if he were a hunter using a net to catch animals. Alternate translation: “He catches the oppressed like a hunter that catches an animal in a net and drags it away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

267

PSA

10

10

bcg4

figs-metaphor

0

they fall into his strong nets

The writer continues to speak of the wicked person catching people as if he were a hunter, his plans were nets, and the people were animals that fall into his net. Alternate translation: “his victims are caught by his plans like animals that fall into a hunter’s strong nets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

268

PSA

10

11

y4zx

figs-genericnoun

0

He says

The word “He” refers to the wicked person, and to wicked people in general. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

269

PSA

10

11

ty8w

figs-metaphor

0

God has forgotten

Refusing to pay attention to what people do is spoken of as forgetting. Alternate translation: “God does not pay attention” or “God does not care about what I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

270

PSA

10

11

vdi5

figs-metaphor

0

he covers his face

Refusing to pay attention to what someone does is spoken of as covering one’s face. Alternate translation: “God refuses to see what is happening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

271

PSA

10

11

xd2r

figs-metaphor

0

he will not bother to look

Paying attention to what someone does is spoken of as looking at it. Alternate translation: “he will not bother to pay attention” or “he will not care” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

272

PSA

10

12

l9k2

figs-metaphor

0

Arise

Starting to do something is spoken of as getting up. Alternate translation: “Do something” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

273

PSA

10

12

k3kx

figs-metonymy

0

Lift up your hand

Here lifting the hand to hit someone represents punishing him. Alternate translation: “Hit him hard” or “Punish the wicked person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

274

PSA

10

13

w9gj

figs-rquestion

0

Why does the wicked man reject God and say…“You will not hold me accountable”?

The speaker uses this question to show that he is very sad that wicked people do these things. Alternate translation: “Wicked people are always rejecting God and saying … ‘You will not hold me accountable.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

275

PSA

10

13

tfq6

figs-metonymy

0

You will not hold me accountable

“You will not require me to tell you why I do what I do.” Holding someone accountable here represents punishing him. Alternate translation: “You will not punish me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

276

PSA

10

15

v9ju

figs-metonymy

0

Break the arm of the wicked and evil man

Here “arm” represents power. Alternate translation: “Destroy the power of the wicked and evil man” or “Make the wicked and evil man weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

277

PSA

10

15

z4yy

figs-doublet

0

wicked and evil

These words have the same meaning. You can use one word to express both concepts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

278

PSA

10

15

m5mv

figs-metonymy

0

Make him account for his evil deeds

Making someone account for his evil deeds represents punishing him. Alternate translation: “Punish him for the evil things he has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

279

PSA

10

16

zc2f

figs-activepassive

0

the nations are driven out of his land

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. “Yahweh forces the people of other nations to leave his land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

280

PSA

10

17

d6nx

figs-explicit

0

you have heard the needs of the oppressed

It is implied that the oppressed people cried out to God. Alternate translation: “when oppressed people cried out to you, you listened to them tell you what they need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

281

PSA

10

17

yqz9

figs-metonymy

0

you strengthen their heart

A strong heart represents courage, and making people’s hearts strong represents encouraging them. Alternate translation: “you encourage them” or “you make them confident” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

282

PSA

10

18

w3s1

0

no man … will cause terror again

Alternate translation: “no one … will cause people to be afraid again”

283

PSA

11

intro

zn9r

0

Psalm 011 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 11 is a worship psalm. It tells how great God is and that God delivers the good people from the evil people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Justice

The wicked people try to destroy the good people but God knows everything that is being done and he saves the good people and destroys the evil people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

284

PSA

11

1

t2nr

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

285

PSA

11

1

ca3b

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

286

PSA

11

1

i5j2

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in Yahweh

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to Yahweh for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

287

PSA

11

1

dp1y

figs-rquestion

0

how will you say to me, “Flee like a bird to the mountain”?

This question is asked to provide emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “So do not ask me to run away!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

288

PSA

11

2

lc13

0

For see! The wicked prepare their bows. They make ready their arrows on the strings to shoot in the darkness at the upright in heart

Alternate translation: “Look! the wicked are preparing to attack upright people”

289

PSA

11

2

td66

0

upright in heart

Here “upright in heart” refers to godly or righteous people.

290

PSA

11

3

dyu6

figs-rquestion

0

For if the foundations are ruined, what can the righteous do?

Here “the foundations” may refer to law and order. This rhetorical question is asked to add emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Righteous people cannot do anything when evil people are not punished when they disobey the laws!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

291

PSA

11

4

je8v

figs-synecdoche

0

his eyes watch, his eyes examine the children of mankind

Here Yahweh is represented by his “eyes.” Yahweh is aware of everything that happens. Alternate translation: “He examines all that humanity does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

292

PSA

11

4

u9bt

0

children of mankind

Alternate translation: “humanity”

293

PSA

11

5

ars4

0

Yahweh examines

Alternate translation: “Yahweh watches carefully”

294

PSA

11

5

qa59

0

do violence

Alternate translation: “hurt others”

295

PSA

11

6

t8lu

figs-metaphor

0

He rains burning coals and brimstone upon the wicked; a scorching wind will be their portion from his cup!

God’s punishment is described as if it were burning coals and brimstone from a volcano. Alternate translation: “He punishes the wicked; there will be no relief for them!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

296

PSA

11

6

i1h8

0

brimstone

sulphur

297

PSA

11

7

ai4r

0

see his face

Alternate translation: “be in his presence”

298

PSA

12

intro

c38b

0

Psalm 012 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 12 is a judgment psalm, where the author asks God to judge and punish the wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh saves

There are so many wicked people now and they are proud of their evil. But God will save the poor who call out to him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/call]])

Words

This relatively short psalm focuses on the words people use.

299

PSA

12

1

lrn6

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

300

PSA

12

1

l7ap

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

301

PSA

12

1

d3jh

0

set to the Sheminith

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 6:1.

302

PSA

12

1

w9wb

0

Help, Yahweh

Alternate translation: “Yahweh, come to my aid”

303

PSA

12

1

ckb5

0

those who have integrity have vanished

Alternate translation: “faithful people have all vanished”

304

PSA

12

2

p59u

figs-hyperbole

0

Everyone says … everyone speaks

The two occurrences of “everyone” are exaggerations, used to emphasize that this is true of very many people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

305

PSA

12

2

k6d8

figs-metonymy

0

everyone speaks with flattering lips and a double heart

Here “lips” is a metonym for what people say, and “a double heart” is a metaphor for deception. Alternate translation: “everyone speaks with flattering words and deception” or “everyone praises people falsely and tells lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

306

PSA

12

3

cis2

figs-metaphor

0

cut off all flattering lips

Here “flattering lips” is a metonym for people who flatter others. This could mean: (1) “cut off” is a metaphor for killing. Alternate translation: “kill all who flatter others” or (2) “cut off” is a metaphor for stopping something. Alternate translation: “stop all those who flatter others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

307

PSA

12

3

g9k2

figs-synecdoche

0

every tongue declaring great things

Here “every tongue” represents every person who declares great things. Alternate translation: “every person who boasts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

308

PSA

12

4

j1nx

figs-metonymy

0

With our tongues will we prevail

Here the word “tongues” represents what people say. Alternate translation: “We will prevail because of what we say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

309

PSA

12

4

ay1a

0

will we prevail

Alternate translation: “we will succeed” or “we will win” or “we will be victorious”

310

PSA

12

4

n8z2

figs-synecdoche

0

When our lips speak

Here the “lips” represents the people who speak. Alternate translation: “When we speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

311

PSA

12

4

le51

figs-rquestion

0

who can be master over us?

This rhetorical question is asked to emphasize that they believed no one could rule over them. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “no one can rule over us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

312

PSA

12

5

bgl1

0

groans

These are deep sounds that people make because of pain or some strong emotion.

313

PSA

12

5

qr86

0

I will arise,” says Yahweh

This means Yahweh will do something to help the people.

314

PSA

12

6

jt35

figs-simile

0

like silver purified in a furnace on the earth, refined seven times

Yahweh’s words are compared to silver that has been purified. Alternate translation: “they are without any imperfection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

315

PSA

12

7

txp6

0

You keep them

Alternate translation: “You keep the righteous people safe”

316

PSA

12

8

q4v9

0

walk on every side

Alternate translation: “surround us”

317

PSA

12

8

y7uy

figs-activepassive

0

when evil is exalted among the children of mankind

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when people everywhere are praising evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

318

PSA

12

8

lrt6

0

children of mankind

Alternate translation: “human beings” or “people”

319

PSA

13

intro

nza7

0

Psalm 013 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 13 is a psalm of deliverance because the psalmist is calling on God to deliver him from death and his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/call]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s help

The author needs God to help him because his enemies will rejoice if they are able to defeat him. The string of rhetorical questions is very effective at heightening the fear David is feeling. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fear]])

320

PSA

13

1

vsr8

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

321

PSA

13

1

hwf6

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

322

PSA

13

1

xg9c

figs-rquestion

0

How long, Yahweh, will you keep forgetting about me?

This question is asked to get the reader’s attention and to add emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, it seems that you have forgotten about me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

323

PSA

13

1

v3px

figs-synecdoche

0

How long … face from me?

The words “your face” represent God’s whole being. This rhetorical question is asked to add emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “It seems like you are hiding from me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

324

PSA

13

2

pg6n

figs-rquestion

0

How long will my enemy triumph over me?

This rhetorical question is asked to add emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Surely my enemies will not always defeat me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

325

PSA

13

3

vs9y

0

Look at me and answer me

Alternate translation: “Give me your attention and listen to me”

326

PSA

13

3

x789

figs-idiom

0

Give light to my eyes

This is a way of asking for strength. Alternate translation: “Make me strong again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

327

PSA

13

3

t9hl

figs-euphemism

0

or I will sleep in death

To “sleep in death” means to die. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

328

PSA

13

4

ucm3

0

Do not let my enemy say … so that my enemy may not say

Alternate translation: “Do not let my enemy say about me … so that my enemy may not say about me”

329

PSA

13

4

x5p1

0

when I am brought down

Alternate translation: “when I fall” or “when they defeat me”

330

PSA

13

5

l1in

figs-abstractnouns

0

I have trusted in your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “I have trusted that you are faithful to your covenant” or “I have trusted you because you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

331

PSA

13

5

s3s4

figs-synecdoche

0

my heart rejoices in your salvation

Here “my heart” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I will rejoice because you have rescued me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

332

PSA

14

intro

a269

0

Psalm 014 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 14 is a deliverance psalm because he is trusting God to deliver the poor. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Evil people

Wicked people do not even consider God when they make their plans. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

333

PSA

14

1

ghg8

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

334

PSA

14

1

l8jh

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

335

PSA

14

1

bwz9

figs-idiom

0

A fool says in his heart

This is an idiom that means to say to oneself or to think to oneself. Alternate translation: “A foolish person says to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

336

PSA

14

1

r75x

0

They are corrupt

The word “they” refers to all foolish human beings who say there is no God.

337

PSA

14

2

zm7b

0

children of mankind

This phrase refers to all humans.

338

PSA

14

2

vw7w

figs-metaphor

0

who seek after him

This describes those who desire to know God as if they were actually following him on a path. Alternate translation: “who desire to know him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

339

PSA

14

3

l4ef

figs-metaphor

0

They have all turned away

This describes people who have rejected God as if they had stopped walking on the right path and had gone in another direction. Alternate translation: “They have all turned away from Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

340

PSA

14

4

v11h

figs-rquestion

0

Do they not know anything … who do not call on Yahweh?

This rhetorical question is asked to add emphasis. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “They act as if they do not know anything … who do not call on Yahweh. But they know what they are doing!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

341

PSA

14

4

a11q

figs-abstractnouns

0

those who commit iniquity

The abstract nouns “iniquity” can be stated as “evil deeds.” Alternate translation: “those who do evil deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

342

PSA

14

4

amq1

figs-metaphor

0

those who eat up my people

This refers to those who do evil things and destroy God’s people as if they were eating food. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

343

PSA

14

5

g962

0

They tremble

The word “they” refers to those who do evil things.

344

PSA

14

5

p7fp

figs-explicit

0

God is with the righteous assembly

To say that “God is with” those who are righteous means that he helps them. This can be stated clearly in the translation. Alternate translation: “God helps those who act righteously” or “God helps those who do the right things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

345

PSA

14

6

a6ad

0

You want

The word “you” here refers to the wicked people.

346

PSA

14

6

eb9r

0

to humiliate the poor person

Alternate translation: “to make the person who is poor feel ashamed”

347

PSA

14

6

ysx7

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh is his refuge

This speaks of the protection that Yahweh provides as if he were a shelter that one might seek in a storm. Alternate translation: “Yahweh is like a shelter of protection to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

348

PSA

14

7

uji3

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that the salvation of Israel would come from Zion!

This is an exclamation. The writer is saying what he wishes or longs for God to do. Alternate translation: “I wish so much that the salvation of Israel would come from Zion!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

349

PSA

14

7

xxx6

figs-metonymy

0

Oh, that the salvation of Israel would come from Zion!

Here “the salvation of Israel” is a metonym for Yahweh, the one who saves Israel. Alternate translation: “Oh, that Yahweh would come from Zion and save Israel!” or “I wish that Yahweh would come from Zion and rescue his people Israel!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

350

PSA

14

7

h25q

figs-parallelism

0

then Jacob will rejoice and Israel will be glad

These two phrases mean the same thing. Here both “Jacob” and “Israel” represent the people of Israel. The two phrases can be combined in the translation. Alternate translation: “then all the people of Israel will rejoice greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

351

PSA

15

intro

j6s2

0

Psalm 015 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 15 is a wisdom psalm telling how people who honor God should live. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/life]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Godliness

This psalm outlines a person who is godly and sees others from a godly perspective. There are several good actions mentioned. Such a person treats his neighbor right, does not slander him, does not take a bribe or interest from him, and keeps his promises even when it is difficult to do so. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

Moral Conditions for Worship

Scholars have noted that this psalm contains a list of ten different conditions for those who want to participate in worship at the temple. The list consists of three positives in verse 2, 3 negatives in verse 3, two positives in verse 4, followed by two negatives in verse 5. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/temple]])

352

PSA

15

1

u6j8

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

353

PSA

15

1

sql5

figs-metonymy

0

Who may live on your holy hill?

God’s “holy hill” represents God’s temple, which was on Mount Zion. Alternate translation: “Who may live in your holy place?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

354

PSA

15

2

jg77

0

speaks truth from his heart

Alternate translation: “speaks honestly”

355

PSA

15

3

n4z5

figs-metonymy

0

He does not slander with his tongue

Here “tongue” represents what a person says. The word “he” refers to the “righeous person” (Psalms 15:2). Alternate translation: “He does not slander people with his speech” or “He does not say evil things about innocent people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

356

PSA

15

3

ih3s

0

harm

hurt

357

PSA

15

4

y2jl

0

The worthless person is despised in his eyes, but he honors those who fear Yahweh

Alternate translation: “Righteous people hate those who have rejected God, but they honor those who respect God”

358

PSA

15

4

y1aw

0

The worthless person

Alternate translation: “The wicked person” or “The person who has rejected Yahweh”

359

PSA

15

5

qq63

figs-metaphor

0

will never be shaken

Here “to be shaken” represents not living safely any longer. This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “will live in safety” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

360

PSA

16

intro

hm6c

0

Psalm 016 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 16 is a psalm of praise, thanking God for all his mercies. The New Testament considers this psalm to be a messianic psalm: a psalm about Christ. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/mercy]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/christ]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Messiah

God has been so good to the psalmist, who will worship no other god. The New Testament considers the tenth verse to be about Christ’s resurrection when it says that he is God’s anointed one, and that God will not leave his body in the grave to decay. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/resurrection]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/anoint]])

Superscription

The term “Michtam” is used in the superscription for this psalm. There is much discussion about this term, but in the end no one is certain what it means. So it is easiest to transliterate this word into your language, or you are welcome to translate it as “psalm.”

361

PSA

16

1

m94a

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

362

PSA

16

1

u6cp

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in you

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to you for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

363

PSA

16

3

b6f8

figs-explicit

0

the holy people who are on the earth

Here “holy people” refers to God’s own people who trust him. Alternate translation: “your people who live in this land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

364

PSA

16

4

j4m1

figs-activepassive

0

Their troubles will be … gods

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The troubles of those who seek other gods will increase” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

365

PSA

16

4

b7s4

0

pour out … blood to their gods

Alternate translation: “pour out blood as a sacrifice to their gods”

366

PSA

16

4

xj7h

figs-exmetaphor

0

or lift up their names with my lips

Lifting up their names is a metaphor for praising them, and “lips” is a metonym for what one says. Alternate translation: “or praise them with my words” or “and I will not praise their gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

367

PSA

16

5

v4p8

figs-metaphor

0

my chosen portion

Here David speaks of Yahweh as if he were a portion of land that has been given to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

368

PSA

16

5

b3bh

figs-metaphor

0

my cup

Here David speaks of Yahweh as if he were a cup that contains many blessings. Alternate translation: “the one who blesses me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

369

PSA

16

5

efb4

0

You hold onto my lot

Alternate translation: “You determine my future” or “You control what will happen to me”

370

PSA

16

6

qf7f

figs-metonymy

0

Measuring lines … in pleasant places

Here laying down measuring lines is a metonym for measuring land and giving it to someone, and here this is a metaphor for God blessing David in many great ways. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “You have measured off land for me in pleasant places” or “You have given me land in pleasant places” or “You bless me like one who gives land in pleasant places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

371

PSA

16

6

ag3m

0

Measuring lines

These are ropes that people use to measure a plot of land and mark its boundaries.

372

PSA

16

6

af57

figs-metaphor

0

surely a pleasing inheritance is mine

Here David speaks of Yahweh’s blessings as if they were an inheritance that he has received. Alternate translation: “I am delighted with all the things that he has given me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

373

PSA

16

8

z682

0

I set Yahweh before me at all times

Alternate translation: “I always remember that Yahweh is with me”

374

PSA

16

8

yj9i

figs-activepassive

0

so I will not be shaken from his right hand

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “nothing will take me away from his side” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

375

PSA

16

9

p2bc

figs-metonymy

0

my heart is glad

Here the “heart” represents the speaker’s thoughts and emotions. Alternate translation: “Therefore I am glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

376

PSA

16

9

e6e1

0

my glory is rejoicing

This could mean: (1) the word “glory” represents the honor a person feels. Alternate translation: “I am honored to rejoice in God” or (2) the word translated “glory” really means “liver” and represents the speaker’s emotions. Alternate translation: “I am rejoicing”

377

PSA

16

11

b54u

0

abundant joy

Alternate translation: “great joy” or “a large amount of joy”

378

PSA

16

11

hxq5

figs-personification

0

joy resides in your presence

The writer speaks of “joy” as if it were a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

379

PSA

16

11

v4yr

figs-idiom

0

in your right hand

The words “right hand” indicate being in God’s special presence. Alternate translation: “when I am near you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

380

PSA

17

intro

thd2

0

Psalm 017 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 17 is a prayer for deliverance from all his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Innocence

The psalmist is innocent and needs God to rescue him from these enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/innocent]])

381

PSA

17

1

y32y

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

382

PSA

17

1

z6y3

figs-metaphor

0

Give ear to my prayer from lips without deceit

The phrase “give ear” is a metaphor for listening, and “lips without deceit” is synecdoche for a person who does not lie. Alternate translation: “Listen to my prayer for I speak without deceit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

383

PSA

17

2

k4su

figs-metaphor

0

Let my vindication come from your presence

Vindication coming from God represents God judging someone and declaring him innocent. God’s “presence” is a metonym for God himself. Alternate translation: “Let my vindication come from you” or “Declare that I am innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

384

PSA

17

2

t9kx

figs-synecdoche

0

let your eyes see what is right!

Here “your eyes” is synecdoche for God himself, and “see” is a metaphor for paying attention and firmly deciding to do something. Alternate translation: “please see what is right” or “do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

385

PSA

17

3

pi85

figs-idiom

0

If you test my heart, if you come to me in the night

Here “test my heart” means to examine my thoughts and motives. Alternate translation: “If you examine my thoughts in the night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

386

PSA

17

3

w51q

figs-personification

0

my mouth will not transgress

Here the mouth is spoken of as if it were capable of acting on its own. It also represents the words that a person speaks. Alternate translation: “I will not tell lies or sin with my words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

387

PSA

17

4

u1m8

figs-metonymy

0

it is at the word of your lips that I have kept myself from the ways of the lawless

Here “the word of your lips” is a metonym for God’s instruction, and “the ways of the lawless” is a metaphor for the things that lawless people do. Alternate translation: “it is by obeying your instruction that I have kept myself from doing the things that lawless people do” or “your instruction has caused me to avoid doing wicked things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

388

PSA

17

5

nw8l

figs-parallelism

0

My steps have held firmly to your tracks; my feet have not slipped

Both of these clauses mean the same thing. The repetition adds emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

389

PSA

17

5

ve61

figs-metaphor

0

my feet have not slipped

The writer speaks of his obedience to God as if he were walking on a path. Alternate translation: “I am determined to follow your ways” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

390

PSA

17

6

fh7p

figs-parallelism

0

turn your ear to me … listen when I speak

These phrases mean the same thing. Here “your ear” refers to God’s willingness to hear someone who prays to him. Alternate translation: “pay attention to me … listen when I speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

391

PSA

17

7

m4v2

figs-abstractnouns

0

Show your covenant faithfulness in a wonderful way

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “Show in a wonderful way that you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

392

PSA

17

7

g2x5

figs-metonymy

0

your right hand

The “right hand” refers to God’s power. Alternate translation: “your mighty power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

393

PSA

17

7

ll6h

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in you

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to you for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

394

PSA

17

8

ar64

figs-simile

0

Protect me like the apple of your eye

The “apple of your eye” refers to something that is valuable. Alternate translation: “Protect me as you would something most valuable and precious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

395

PSA

17

8

f3hh

figs-metaphor

0

hide me under the shadow of your wings

David speaks of God’s protection as if he were a bird protecting its young under its wings. Alternate translation: “Keep me safe as a mother bird protects her babies by gathering them under her wing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

396

PSA

17

10

rd6l

figs-synecdoche

0

their mouths speak with pride

Here “their mouths speak” represents his enemies when they speak. Alternate translation: “they speak with pride” or “they are always boasting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

397

PSA

17

11

yzx5

figs-metonymy

0

They have surrounded my steps

Here “surrounded my steps” represents how David’s enemies have followed him everywhere he goes in order to capture him. Alternate translation: “My enemies have surrounded me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

398

PSA

17

12

iq89

figs-parallelism

0

like a lion eager for a victim, like a young lion crouching in hidden places

These two phrases express very similar ideas. The repetition adds intensity. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

399

PSA

17

12

c8wr

figs-simile

0

They are like a lion … like a young lion

The writer feels pursued the way a lion hunts its prey (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

400

PSA

17

13

p2s3

figs-metaphor

0

by your sword

This is a metaphor for Yahweh’s power and for violent death in war. Alternate translation: “by having them die in war” or “by killing them in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

401

PSA

17

14

mf1x

figs-parallelism

0

Rescue me from men by your hand, Yahweh, from men of this world

This clause adds intensity to the words “Rescue my life from the wicked by your sword” (Psalms 17:13). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

402

PSA

17

14

wh2m

figs-metonymy

0

by your hand

These words represent the power of Yahweh and add intensity to the words “by your sword” (Psalms 17:13). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

403

PSA

17

14

xg3n

figs-metaphor

0

You will fill the bellies of your treasured ones with riches

The ancient text is hard to understand. This could mean: (1) “treasured” is a metaphor for loved, and “your treasured ones” refers to the people whom God loves. Alternate translation: “you will fill the bellies of the people you love with riches” or (2) “your treasured ones” refers to treasures that God gives to people, the “men of this world” Alternate translation: “you will fill their bellies with rich treasures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

404

PSA

17

14

knu1

figs-metaphor

0

You will fill the bellies … with riches

Here “fill the bellies … with riches” is a metaphor for giving them many valuable things. This could mean: (1) “You will give many riches to the people you love” or (2) “you will give the men of this world many riches” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

405

PSA

17

15

ck39

figs-synecdoche

0

I will see your face in righteousness

Here “face” represents Yahweh in all of his being. David is confident he will see Yahweh. Alternate translation: “because I act in the right way, I will be with you one day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

406

PSA

17

15

bpx8

figs-explicit

0

I will be satisfied, when I awake, with a sight of you

David believes that after he dies, he will be with Yahweh. This can be made clear in the translation. Alternate translation: “After I die, I will be happy to wake up in your presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

407

PSA

18

intro

enj7

0

Psalm 018 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 18 is a psalm of praise to God for his strengthening David for war.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s power

God has tremendous power and he enabled David to prosper in war. This psalm, and its superscription, also appears in 1 Samuel 22 with some minor differences.

408

PSA

18

1

xfk3

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

409

PSA

18

1

ig1a

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

410

PSA

18

1

vm1x

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

411

PSA

18

1

p2da

0

he sang to Yahweh the words of this song

Alternate translation: “he sang this song to Yahweh”

412

PSA

18

1

rhv3

0

on the day that Yahweh rescued him

Alternate translation: “after Yahweh had rescued him”

413

PSA

18

1

hna8

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand of Saul

Here “hand” stands for the power of Saul. Alternate translation: “from Saul’s power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

414

PSA

18

2

tcf6

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh is my rock

David speaks of Yahweh as if he were a rock. The word “rock” is a picture of a safe place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

415

PSA

18

2

bmi2

figs-doublet

0

my rock, my fortress

Here the words “rock” and “fortress” share similar meanings and emphasize that Yahweh provides safety from enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

416

PSA

18

2

v8xz

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in him

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to him for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

417

PSA

18

2

k49n

figs-metaphor

0

my shield, the horn of my salvation, and my stronghold

David speaks of Yahweh as if he were a “shield,” “the horn” of his salvation, and his “stronghold.” Yahweh is the one who protects him from harm. Here a similar idea is repeated three ways for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

418

PSA

18

3

d5g1

0

I will be saved from my enemies

Alternate translation: “I will be rescued from my enemies”

419

PSA

18

4

fsd4

figs-metaphor

0

The cords of death surrounded me

David speaks of death as if it were a person who could capture him and bind him with ropes. Alternate translation: “I was about to be killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

420

PSA

18

4

m5rx

figs-metaphor

0

rushing waters of worthlessness

David is as helpless as if he were being carried away by a rushing flood of waters. Alternate translation: “I felt completely helpless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

421

PSA

18

5

e9l1

figs-personification

0

The cords of Sheol surrounded me; the snares of death trapped me

Here “Sheol,” the place of the dead, and “death” are spoken of as if they were people who could surround and trap him. These two clauses have similar meanings and the idea is repeated for emphasis. Alternate translation: “I felt trapped and thought I was going to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

422

PSA

18

6

s721

0

In my distress

Alternate translation: “In my great need” or “In my despair”

423

PSA

18

6

jr71

figs-personification

0

my call for help went into his presence

Here David speaks of his “call for help” as if it were a person who could come into the presence of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I prayed to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

424

PSA

18

6

fs4g

figs-parallelism

0

it went into his ears

Here David speaks of how Yahweh heard his cry for help. The idea is repeated for emphasis. Alternate translation: “he heard my appeal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

425

PSA

18

7

dal8

figs-metaphor

0

Then the earth … shaken because God was angry

God’s being angry is spoken of as if the there was a terrible earthquake. Alternate translation: “God was so angry that it was as if the earth … shaken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

426

PSA

18

7

xka3

figs-doublet

0

the earth shook and trembled

The words “shook” and “trembled” mean basically the same thing and emphasize how greatly the earth shook. Alternate translation: “the land moved back and forth” or “the ground moved up and down” or “there was a violent earthquake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

427

PSA

18

7

svs2

figs-activepassive

0

the foundations of the mountains also trembled and were shaken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the foundations of the mountains also trembled and shook” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

428

PSA

18

8

al4i

figs-metaphor

0

Smoke went up from out of his nostrils … Coals were ignited by it

David speaks of Yahweh as if he were breathing fire. This is a picture of how angry God was. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

429

PSA

18

8

zsk4

figs-activepassive

0

blazing fire came out of his mouth. Coals were ignited by it

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “blazing fire came out of his mouth and ignited coals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

430

PSA

18

9

fkd8

0

He opened

The word “He” refers to Yahweh.

431

PSA

18

9

aw5e

figs-personification

0

thick darkness was under his feet

Though Yahweh does not actually have feet, the Psalmist gives him human characteristics. Alternate translation: “thick darkness was beneath him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

432

PSA

18

10

wt4l

figs-personification

0

wings of the wind

Here the Psalmist speaks of the wind as if it had wings like an angel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

433

PSA

18

11

a2gi

0

He made darkness … him

Here the words “He” and “him” refer to Yahweh.

434

PSA

18

11

edg2

figs-metaphor

0

He made darkness a tent

Here darkness is spoken of as if it were a tent. Alternate translation: “He made darkness a covering” or “He made darkness a hiding place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

435

PSA

18

11

jnx8

0

heavy rainclouds

Alternate translation: “clouds heavy with rain” or “thick, dark rainclouds”

436

PSA

18

12

t3xj

0

Hailstones

stones made of ice

437

PSA

18

13

dn6a

figs-simile

0

Yahweh thundered in the heavens

Yahweh’s voice sounded like thunder. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

438

PSA

18

13

dvy3

0

the Most High

“the Most High” refers to Yahweh.

439

PSA

18

14

cw24

figs-parallelism

0

He shot his arrows and scattered his enemies … lightning bolts dispersed them

Both of these clauses have similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

440

PSA

18

14

h2p3

figs-metaphor

0

He shot his arrows and scattered his enemies

Here lighting strikes are being spoken of as if they were arrows (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

441

PSA

18

14

p7tz

0

dispersed them

Alternate translation: “sent them in different directions”

442

PSA

18

15

jfu2

figs-parallelism

0

Then the water channels appeared; the foundations of the world were laid bare

These two clauses have similar meanings. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Then the water channels appeared and the bottom of the ocean became visible; you exposed the foundations of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

443

PSA

18

15

a125

figs-personification

0

at the blast of the breath of your nostrils

Though God does not have human physical characteristics as described here, this pictures his mighty strength. The wind is spoken of here as if it came as a mighty blast from God’s nostrils. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

444

PSA

18

16

m4pi

0

He reached down … he took hold … He pulled me

The word “He” in these verses refers to Yahweh.

445

PSA

18

16

kef1

figs-metaphor

0

surging water

Here the Psalmist speaks of the dangers of his enemies as if they were huge waves or forceful waters, from which Yahweh has rescued him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

446

PSA

18

18

eej1

0

They came against me

Here “They” refers to the strong enemies in verse 17.

447

PSA

18

18

s1sk

figs-abstractnouns

0

They came against me on the day of my distress but Yahweh was my support

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word distress, you could express the same idea with an adjective. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word support, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “protected.” Alternate translation: “Strong enemies attacked me on a day when I was distressed, but Yahweh protected me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

448

PSA

18

20

a3vx

figs-metonymy

0

my hands were clean

Here having clean hands represents being innocent of wrongdoing. Alternate translation: “I was innocent” or “my actions were right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

449

PSA

18

21

y3m6

figs-metaphor

0

I have kept the ways of Yahweh

The laws of Yahweh are spoken of as if they were the paths on which one should walk. Alternate translation: “I have obeyed Yahweh’s laws” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

450

PSA

18

21

tu8a

figs-metaphor

0

have not wickedly turned away from my God

Here being wicked is spoken of as if one left the right path and took the wrong path. Alternate translation: “have not done wickedly by turning away from my God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

451

PSA

18

22

t97s

figs-parallelism

0

For all his righteous decrees … I have not turned away from them

Both of these clauses have similar meanings. The writer repeats these ideas for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

452

PSA

18

22

gtv3

0

have been before me

Alternate translation: “have guided me” or “I have remembered”

453

PSA

18

23

gug9

0

innocent before him

Alternate translation: “innocent according to him”

454

PSA

18

23

gz4q

0

I have kept myself from sin

Alternate translation: “I have not sinned”

455

PSA

18

24

tu18

figs-metonymy

0

my hands were clean

To have “clean hands” means that one is innocent of wrongdoing. See how you translated this in Psalms 18:20: Alternate translation: “I was innocent” or “my actions were right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

456

PSA

18

24

t3bt

figs-synecdoche

0

before his eyes

This refers to God’s presence. Alternate translation: “before him” or “according to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

457

PSA

18

25

tb5y

0

General Information:

The writer speaks to Yahweh.

458

PSA

18

25

h851

figs-explicit

0

To the one who is faithful

Here “faithful” means to do what God commands one to do. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “to those who faithfully obey your commandments” or “to those who faithfully do your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

459

PSA

18

26

cn7t

0

you are clever toward anyone who is twisted

Alternate translation: “you outwit anyone who is not honest”

460

PSA

18

27

v6yq

0

you bring down

Alternate translation: “you humiliate”

461

PSA

18

27

w4ji

figs-idiom

0

with proud, uplifted eyes

This idiom refers to those who are proud. Alternate translation: “who are proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

462

PSA

18

28

w4pi

figs-metaphor

0

For you give light to my lamp; Yahweh my God lights up my darkness

The writer speaks of Yahweh’s presence as if he were a light. These clauses have similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

463

PSA

18

29

jv31

0

For by you I can run over a barricade

Alternate translation: “For with your help I can cross any obstacle”

464

PSA

18

30

v53y

figs-metaphor

0

He is a shield to everyone who takes refuge in him

A shield protects a soldier. David speaks as if God were a shield protecting him. See how you translated this in Psalms 3:3. Alternate translation: “You, Yahweh, protect like a shield everyone who takes refuge in you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

465

PSA

18

31

d8xy

figs-rquestion

0

For who is God except Yahweh? Who is a rock except our God?

The implied answer is no one. Alternate translation: “Only Yahweh is God! Only our God is a rock!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

466

PSA

18

31

xn5i

figs-metaphor

0

a rock

David speaks of Yahweh as if he were a rock that he could climb to get away from his enemies. See how you translated this in Psalms 18:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

467

PSA

18

32

w9ef

figs-simile

0

puts strength on me like a belt

God gives strength to David as if it were a piece of clothing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

468

PSA

18

32

z4ka

figs-metaphor

0

places the blameless person on his path

Here David speaks of living a life that is pleasing to God as if he were being placed on the right path. Alternate translation: “causes the blameless person to live a righteous life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

469

PSA

18

33

w92y

figs-synecdoche

0

makes my feet swift

This refers to enabling a person to run fast. Alternate translation: “makes me run very fast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

470

PSA

18

33

g696

figs-simile

0

like a deer and places me on the heights

The deer is especially quick and stable in the mountains. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

471

PSA

18

34

q1v4

figs-synecdoche

0

He trains my hands

Here “my hands” refers to the person. Alternate translation: “He trains me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

472

PSA

18

34

tq4k

figs-synecdoche

0

my arms

This refers to the person. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

473

PSA

18

35

juz2

figs-metaphor

0

the shield of your salvation

Here the writer speaks of God’s protection as if it were a shield. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with the verb “save.” Alternate translation: “your protection and saved me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

474

PSA

18

35

x6rm

figs-metonymy

0

Your right hand has supported me

Here God’s right hand represents his power. Alternate translation: “Your power has supported me” or “You have supported me by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

475

PSA

18

35

yr5f

figs-metonymy

0

your favor has made me great

Here God’s favor represents him acting according to his favor. Alternate translation: “You have made me great according to your favor” or “By your kindness, you have made me great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

476

PSA

18

36

ui92

figs-metaphor

0

a wide place for my feet beneath me

The writer speaks of the safety that God has provided as if it were a wide place for him to stand. Here “my feet” represent the person. Alternate translation: “a safe place for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

477

PSA

18

36

qhq7

figs-synecdoche

0

my feet have not slipped

Here “my feet” refers to the person. The writer refers to the safety of God’s protection as if he were standing on a place where he will not slip or fall. Alternate translation: “I have not slipped” or “I am doing well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

478

PSA

18

38

v638

0

I smashed them

Alternate translation: “I crushed them” or “I broke them to pieces”

479

PSA

18

38

z8w8

0

unable to rise

Alternate translation: “unable to stand”

480

PSA

18

38

af9q

figs-idiom

0

they have fallen under my feet

This idiom means the Psalmist has defeated his enemies. Alternate translation: “I have defeated all of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

481

PSA

18

39

t3xr

figs-simile

0

put strength on me like a belt

The Psalmist says that Yahweh has given him strength that surrounds and supports him like a belt. See how you translated this in Psalms 18:32. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

482

PSA

18

39

xyh3

figs-idiom

0

you put under me

Here the Psalmist speaks of the defeat of his enemies as if he were standing on them. Alternate translation: “you defeat for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

483

PSA

18

39

xyp2

figs-idiom

0

those who rise up against me

This refers to those who oppose the Psalmist. Alternate translation: “those who are my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

484

PSA

18

40

h5yv

figs-metonymy

0

You gave me the back of my enemies’ necks

This represents God giving David victory over his enemies. Alternate translation: “You gave me victory over my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

485

PSA

18

40

m3tx

figs-metonymy

0

You gave me the back of my enemies’ necks

This represents God giving David victory over his enemies. Possible images are: (1) David could cut his enemies’ heads off at the neck or (2) David could put his foot down on his enemies’ necks or (3) David could see his enemies’ backs when they ran away from him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

486

PSA

18

40

gp8b

0

I annihilated those who hated me

Alternate translation: “I defeated those who hated me” or “I destroyed completely those who hated me”

487

PSA

18

41

whl5

figs-idiom

0

but he did not answer them

This means Yahweh did not provide any help. Alternate translation: “but he did not help them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

488

PSA

18

42

tjm8

figs-simile

0

I beat them into fine pieces like dust before the wind

The psalmists enemies are compared to dust to show how defeated they are. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

489

PSA

18

42

vu6f

figs-simile

0

I threw them out like mud in the streets

The psalmist’s enemies are compared to mud in the streets to show how defeated they are. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

490

PSA

18

43

t95d

0

disputes

disagreements, arguments

491

PSA

18

43

i9s6

figs-metonymy

0

have made me the head over nations

Here “head” represents the ruler. Alternate translation: “appointed me to be the ruler over many nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

492

PSA

18

44

c7dv

figs-activepassive

0

foreigners were forced to bow

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God forced foreigners to bow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

493

PSA

18

45

t4uc

figs-explicit

0

foreigners came trembling

Here “trembling” shows that they were very afraid. This can be stated clearly in the translation. Alternate translation: “foreigners came shaking, showing that they were very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

494

PSA

18

46

w5z5

figs-activepassive

0

may my rock be praised

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he is my rock and he should be praised” or “may people praise my rock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

495

PSA

18

46

mv1z

figs-metaphor

0

my rock

Here the writer speaks of Yahweh’s protection as if he were a rock that prevented his enemies from reaching him. See how you translated this in Psalms 18:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

496

PSA

18

46

h9ey

figs-activepassive

0

May the God of my salvation be exalted

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “May people exalt the God of my salvation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

497

PSA

18

46

xf2h

figs-abstractnouns

0

the God of my salvation

The abstract nouns “salvation” can be stated as “saved” or “rescued.” Alternate translation: “the God who rescued me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

498

PSA

18

47

v7ab

figs-abstractnouns

0

the God who executes vengeance for me

To “execute vengeance” means to punish people for their evil actions. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word ****, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “the God who punishes people for the evil things they have done to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

499

PSA

18

48

l9y3

figs-activepassive

0

I am set free

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has set me free” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

500

PSA

18

48

z54b

figs-metaphor

0

you lifted me above

Yahweh’s protection of the writer is spoken of as if he lifted the writer up so high that his enemies could not reach him to harm him. Alternate translation: “you put me in a safe place high above” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

501

PSA

18

48

k73f

0

who rose against me

Alternate translation: “who attacked me” or “who rebelled against me”

502

PSA

18

48

inl3

0

violent men

Alternate translation: “cruel men” or “savage men”

503

PSA

18

49

f8x9

figs-explicit

0

among the nations

Here the writer means that he will give thanks to Yahweh so that all people will hear of Yahweh’s greatness. Alternate translation: “so all the nations will hear about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

504

PSA

18

49

qvh1

figs-metonymy

0

to your name

Here “name” represents God himself. Alternate translation: “in honor of your name” or “to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

505

PSA

18

50

ggt6

figs-123person

0

victory to his king

By using the words “his king,” David is referring to himself as king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

506

PSA

18

50

sw5u

0

he shows his covenant loyalty to his anointed one … to his descendants forever

Alternate translation: “he faithfully loves me as he promised in his covenant, and he will love my descendants forever”

507

PSA

19

intro

sn29

0

Psalm 019 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 19 is a praise psalm, praising God for his creation and for his law.

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s law

God’s law keeps people from sinning. There are two distinct themes in this psalm. Verses 1-6 are God’s glory in the heavens and the second is praising God for his law. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/glory]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

508

PSA

19

1

s9h1

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

509

PSA

19

1

j4zh

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

510

PSA

19

1

mn6q

0

The heavens declare

The heavens are described as if they were a person. Alternate translation: “The heavens show” or “The heavens look like they declare”

511

PSA

19

1

iz5q

figs-personification

0

the skies make his handiwork known

The skies are described as if they were a teacher. Alternate translation: “The skies seem to make God’s handiwork known to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

512

PSA

19

1

a8iy

0

his handiwork

Alternate translation: “his creation” or “the world that he has made”

513

PSA

19

2

c72h

figs-personification

0

speech pours out

What is beautiful about creation is compared to speaking, as if creation were a person. Then those words are compared to water that flows everywhere. Alternate translation: “creation is like a person speaking to everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

514

PSA

19

3

lmv7

0

There is no speech or spoken words; their voice is not heard

These phrases express clearly that the first two verses were a metaphor. Alternate translation: “There is no real speech or spoken words; no one hears an actual voice with their ears”

515

PSA

19

3

pa4x

0

their voice is not heard

Other translations read “where their voice is not heard,” emphasizing that creation’s “speech” is available everywhere.

516

PSA

19

4

w3s6

0

General Information:

David has just said that creation shows God’s glory.

517

PSA

19

4

c2us

0

their words … their speech

This refers to the unspoken “words” of creation that show God’s glory.

518

PSA

19

4

r4zj

figs-personification

0

their words go out

The words are described as if they were people who go out with a message. Alternate translation: “the words that creation speaks are like people who go out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

519

PSA

19

4

kf9h

figs-ellipsis

0

their speech to the end of the world

The implied words can be included in the translation. Alternate translation: “their speech goes out to the end of the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

520

PSA

19

4

bdz7

figs-metaphor

0

He has pitched a tent for the sun

Here the writer speaks of the place that Yahweh created for the sun as if it were a tent. Alternate translation: “He created a place for the sun” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

521

PSA

19

4

n177

0

among them

The word “them” probably refers to the heavens.

522

PSA

19

5

s244

figs-simile

0

The sun is like a bridegroom coming out of his chamber

The writer speaks of the sun’s coming out as if it were a bridegroom. Alternate translation: “The sun is like a bridegroom walking joyfully toward his bride” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

523

PSA

19

5

xes3

figs-simile

0

like a strong man who rejoices when he runs his race

This compares the sun to an athlete to emphasize the strength and brightness of the sun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

524

PSA

19

5

l7b8

0

a strong man

Alternate translation: “a fast runner”

525

PSA

19

6

tah2

0

horizon

the line where the earth and the sky meet

526

PSA

19

6

wz8h

figs-explicit

0

to the other

Here “other” refers to the other horizon. This can be stated clearly in the translation. Alternate translation: “to the other horizon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

527

PSA

19

6

unx8

figs-doublenegatives

0

nothing escapes its heat

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “everything feels its heat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

528

PSA

19

7

z9pg

figs-synecdoche

0

restoring the soul

The words “the soul” refer to the whole person. Alternate translation: “making a person strong again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

529

PSA

19

7

a789

0

the simple

Alternate translation: “those who have no experience” or “those who have not learned”

530

PSA

19

8

spr1

figs-synecdoche

0

the heart

These words refer to the whole person. Alternate translation: “a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

531

PSA

19

8

nuk1

0

are right

Alternate translation: “are true” or “are correct”

532

PSA

19

8

t8c5

0

bringing light to the eyes

This could mean: (1) “bringing understanding to a person” or (2) “making a person healthy again”

533

PSA

19

9

xac8

0

altogether right

Alternate translation: “completely right”

534

PSA

19

10

x983

figs-metaphor

0

They are of greater value than gold … they are sweeter than honey

Yahweh’s decrees are spoken of as if they could be bought and tasted. Alternate translation: “If you could buy them, they would be of greater value than gold … if you could taste them, they would be sweeter than honey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

535

PSA

19

10

e6s3

figs-ellipsis

0

even more than much fine gold

The word “valuable” is understood from the previous phrase and can be repeated. Alternate translation: “even more valuable than a lot of fine gold” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

536

PSA

19

10

k6x4

0

fine gold

Alternate translation: “pure gold” or “expensive gold”

537

PSA

19

11

y6a9

0

Yes

This word marks that there is more to the truth than what has just been said. Alternate translation: “Moreover”

538

PSA

19

11

s1f4

figs-activepassive

0

by them your servant is warned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “they warn your servant” or “they are a warning for your servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

539

PSA

19

11

e73b

0

by them … in obeying them

The word “them” refers to Yahweh’s righteous decrees.

540

PSA

19

11

nk1k

figs-123person

0

your servant is warned

David calls himself “your servant” when speaking to God as a sign of respect. Alternate translation: “I am warned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

541

PSA

19

12

uj5e

figs-rquestion

0

Who can discern all his own errors?

This appears in the form of a question to add emphasis and can be translated as a strong statement. Alternate translation: No one can be aware of his own errors!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

542

PSA

19

12

gsx9

0

from hidden faults

Alternate translation: “from secret mistakes I have made”

543

PSA

19

13

j82u

figs-idiom

0

Keep your servant also from

This idiom pictures the servant as being removed from the sins he does not wish to commit. Alternate translation: “Also, protect your servant from doing” or “Also, make sure that I do not commit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

544

PSA

19

13

z1tt

figs-123person

0

your servant

David calls himself “your servant” when speaking to God as a sign of respect. See how you translated this in Psalms 19:11. Alternate translation: “I” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

545

PSA

19

13

b3bd

figs-personification

0

let them not rule over me

Sins are described as if they were a king that could rule over someone. Alternate translation: “do not let my sins become like a king who rules over me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

546

PSA

19

13

axe2

0

innocent from many transgressions

Alternate translation: “innocent of rebelling against you” or “innocent of committing many sins”

547

PSA

19

14

l16r

figs-metonymy

0

the words of my mouth and the thoughts of my heart

These expressions taken together describe everything a person says and thinks. Alternate translation: “the things I say and the things I think about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

548

PSA

19

14

t28d

0

be acceptable in your sight

Alternate translation: “receive approval in your sight” or “be pleasing to you”

549

PSA

19

14

bu1w

figs-metaphor

0

in your sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “in your judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

550

PSA

19

14

vn8k

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh, my rock

The writer speaks of God as if he were a rock that one could climb and be protected from his enemies. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, you are like my rock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

551

PSA

20

intro

h99t

0

Psalm 020 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 20 is a royal psalm. It is probably a prayer for the king, perhaps when he first became king.

Special concepts in this chapter

Trust

Trusting God is much better than trusting in military might. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

552

PSA

20

1

v6pl

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This Psalm begins with a group of people speaking to the king of Israel. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

553

PSA

20

1

h9gw

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

554

PSA

20

1

vrb5

0

help you

The word “you” in this Psalm is singular and refers to the king.

555

PSA

20

1

pt3b

0

in the day of trouble

Alternate translation: “in times of trouble” or “when you are in trouble”

556

PSA

20

1

dp3k

figs-metonymy

0

may the name of the God of Jacob protect you

This could mean: (1) here “name” is a metonym for God’s power. Alternate translation: “may the power of the God of Jacob protect you” or “may the God of Jacob protect you by his power” or (2) here “name” is a metonym for God himself. Alternate translation: “may the God of Jacob protect you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

557

PSA

20

2

b9ek

figs-metaphor

0

send help from the holy place

God helping from his holy place is spoken of as if God were sending help. Alternate translation: “may Yahweh help you from his holy place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

558

PSA

20

2

y51h

figs-doublet

0

holy place … Zion

Both of these refer to God’s temple in Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

559

PSA

20

3

yz44

figs-idiom

0

May he call to mind

The phrase “call to mind” is a way of saying “remember.” It does not mean God forgot. It means to consider or think about. Alternate translation: “May he remember” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

560

PSA

20

3

kyh3

0

May he

The word “he” refers to Yahweh.

561

PSA

20

4

r6y3

0

May he grant

Alternate translation: “May he give”

562

PSA

20

4

wht8

figs-synecdoche

0

your heart’s desire

Here “heart” stands for the entire person. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word desire, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “what you desire” or “what you want” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

563

PSA

20

4

u619

figs-abstractnouns

0

fulfill all your plans

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word plans, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “may he help you to accomplish everything that you plan to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

564

PSA

20

5

h4h3

figs-exclusive

0

we will rejoice in your victory

Here “we” refers to the people. They will rejoice in the king’s victory. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

565

PSA

20

5

bw3j

figs-metonymy

0

in the name of our God

Here “name” represents honor or reputation. Alternate translation: “in honor of our God” or “for the reputation of our God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

566

PSA

20

5

p9n1

translate-symaction

0

we will raise banners

“we will raise victory flags.” They would do this to show that they were praising God because he gave their king victory over his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

567

PSA

20

5

k3dy

0

grant all your petitions

Alternate translation: “give you everything you request from him”

568

PSA

20

6

zm9a

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the psalm. It transitions from the people speaking to the king speaking.

569

PSA

20

6

nu7b

0

I know

The word “I” probably refers to the king who is speaking in this section.

570

PSA

20

6

d8xz

figs-123person

0

his anointed one … answer him … rescue him

The king is speaking about himself in the third person. This can be stated in first person. Alternate translation: “me, his anointed one … answer me … rescue me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

571

PSA

20

6

bd3g

0

from his holy heaven

God dwells in heaven as well as in the temple in Jerusalem (Psalms 20:2).

572

PSA

20

6

xcm6

figs-metonymy

0

with the strength of his right hand that can rescue him

God’s right hand represents his power. Alternate translation: “with his great strength he will rescue him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

573

PSA

20

7

f9cd

figs-metonymy

0

Some trust in chariots and others in horses

Here “chariots” and “horses” represent a king’s army. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

574

PSA

20

7

xr24

figs-ellipsis

0

others in horses

The word “trust” is understood. Alternate translation: “other trust in horses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

575

PSA

20

7

mwu6

figs-exclusive

0

we call

Here “we” refers to the writer and the readers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

576

PSA

20

8

e7uq

figs-exclusive

0

we will rise

Here “we” refers to the writer and the readers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

577

PSA

20

8

q1tp

figs-activepassive

0

They will be brought down and fall

The word “They” refers to the people who trust in chariots and horses. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will bring them down and make them fall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

578

PSA

20

8

g7uv

figs-doublet

0

brought down and fall

Both these verbs mean basically the same thing. Both of these stand for losing in battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

579

PSA

20

8

y7lr

figs-doublet

0

we will rise and stand upright

“we will get up and stand up straight.” These two phrases mean basically the same thing. Both of these stand for victory in battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

580

PSA

20

9

c5i4

0

Yahweh, rescue the king

This could mean: (1) the people ask God to protect the king or (2) the king continues to speak about himself in the third person.

581

PSA

20

9

brk5

0

the king; help us when we call

Some translations understand the Hebrew differently. Some translate it as the people speaking to Yahweh their king. Alternate translation: “King, help us when we call you”

582

PSA

21

intro

mq8x

0

Psalm 021 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 21 is a royal psalm. The king is praying for victory. Victory in war comes from the power and help from God.

Special concepts in this chapter

Pronouns

There is a shift in pronouns in this psalm. In verses 1-6 the psalm addresses Yahweh in second person but in verse 7 the psalmist uses third person before moving back to second person in the latter part.

583

PSA

21

1

k12k

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

584

PSA

21

1

h69b

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

585

PSA

21

1

bt8s

0

in your strength, Yahweh

It is implied that this is strength Yahweh has given the king to defeat his enemies. Alternate translation: because you, Yahweh, have made him strong enough to defeat his enemies”

586

PSA

21

1

bka2

0

How greatly he rejoices

Alternate translation: “He rejoices greatly”

587

PSA

21

1

r5nd

figs-explicit

0

in the salvation you provide

It is implied that God has saved the king from his enemies. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “because you have saved him from his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

588

PSA

21

2

cey2

figs-synecdoche

0

his heart’s desire

“his heart’s wish.” Here “heart” stands for the whole person. Alternate translation: “his desire” or “what he wished for” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

589

PSA

21

2

gez6

figs-doublenegatives

0

have not held back

“have not refused him.” This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “you have given him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

590

PSA

21

2

f8dh

figs-synecdoche

0

the request of his lips

Here “lips” stands for the whole person. Alternate translation: “his request” or “what he requested of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

591

PSA

21

3

q3ts

figs-abstractnouns

0

you bring him rich blessings

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word blessings, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “bless” or “good things.” Alternate translation: “you bless him greatly” or “you give him many good things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

592

PSA

21

3

px6p

translate-symaction

0

you placed on his head a crown of purest gold

To place a crown on a person’s head is a symbol of making him a king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

593

PSA

21

3

za3g

0

a crown of purest gold

Here “purest gold” represents the great honor given to the king.

594

PSA

21

4

yzs5

figs-abstractnouns

0

He asked you for life; you gave it to him

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word life, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “He asked that you cause him to live for a long time; you caused it to happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

595

PSA

21

4

y4ml

figs-idiom

0

the length of his days forever and ever

The idiom “the length of his days” refers to the duration of his life. Alternate translation: “a long life that lasts forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

596

PSA

21

5

i6i4

0

His glory

Alternate translation: “The king’s honor” or “The king’s fame”

597

PSA

21

5

k3gt

figs-metaphor

0

you have bestowed on him splendor and majesty

“you have placed on him splendor and majesty.” Causing the king to be wealthy and powerful is spoken of as if splendor and majesty are objects that are placed on him. Alternate translation: “you have made him wealthy and powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

598

PSA

21

6

w2zk

0

you grant him

Alternate translation: “you allow him to have” or “you agree to give him”

599

PSA

21

6

rf4f

0

lasting blessings

Alternate translation: “a blessings that will last” or “a blessings that will stay”

600

PSA

21

6

v3m2

0

the joy of your presence

Alternate translation: “the joy of being in your presence” or “the joy that comes from you being near to you”

601

PSA

21

7

mbf3

figs-abstractnouns

0

through the covenant faithfulness of the Most High

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “because the Most High is faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

602

PSA

21

7

j1gh

figs-activepassive

0

he will not be moved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one will remove him as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

603

PSA

21

8

w7ck

figs-metonymy

0

Your hand will seize

Here “hand” represents power. Alternate translation: “Your power will seize” or “You will powerfully seize” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

604

PSA

21

8

irz4

0

Your hand … hate you

Possible meaning of all occurrences of your and you are: (1) they refer to the king or (2) they refer to God.

605

PSA

21

8

yew7

figs-parallelism

0

your right hand will seize those who hate you

This means the same thing as the first part of the sentence. It emphasizes that God will give the king the power to stop his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

606

PSA

21

9

lmc9

0

At the time of your anger

Alternate translation: “When you are angry and begin to act”

607

PSA

21

9

hhy3

0

your anger … you will burn

The words your and you refers to either: (1) God or (2) the king.

608

PSA

21

9

xdq2

figs-metaphor

0

you will burn them up as in a fiery furnace

Yahweh or the king destroying their enemies is spoken of as if their enemies are wood and Yahweh or the king will throw them into a furnace. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

609

PSA

21

9

fc6d

figs-parallelism

0

Yahweh will consume them in his wrath, and the fire will devour them

Both clauses mean basically the same thing. Yahweh completely destroying his enemies is spoken of as if his wrath is a fire that completely burns up his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

610

PSA

21

10

wsu5

0

You will destroy

The word you refers to either: (1) God or (2) the king.

611

PSA

21

10

i3zy

figs-parallelism

0

from the earth … from among the human race

Both phrases mean the same thing. They emphasize that absolutely none of their enemies will survive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

612

PSA

21

11

fhu8

0

they intended

“they planned.” The word “they” refers to the enemies of God and the king.

613

PSA

21

11

z63c

0

evil against you

Alternate translation: “to do evil things to you”

614

PSA

21

11

h29d

0

they conceived a plot

Alternate translation: “they made a plan” or “they created a scheme”

615

PSA

21

12

bsd1

figs-metaphor

0

For you will turn them back; you will draw your bow before them

Possible meanings for your and you are: (1) they refer to the king or (2) they refer to God and speak about him as if he were a warrior with a bow and arrows. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

616

PSA

21

12

ti25

figs-idiom

0

you will turn them back

This is a way of saying that God and the king will defeat their enemies in battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

617

PSA

21

12

ge87

figs-explicit

0

you will draw your bow before them

This implies that he actually shoots his arrows at his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

618

PSA

21

13

aul7

0

Be exalted, Yahweh, in your strength

This could mean: (1) “Yahweh, show us that you are very strong” or (2) “Yahweh, because you are strong we will exalt you”

619

PSA

21

13

w52b

figs-doublet

0

we will sing and praise your power

The words “sing” and “praise” share similar meanings. Here the word “power” represents God and his power. Alternate translation: “with singing we will praise you because you are powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

620

PSA

22

intro

y7hl

0

Psalm 022 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 22 is a messianic psalm. It contains references to events during the crucifixion of Christ. It is also a psalm of individual lament and praise. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/christ]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/crucify]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lament]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Messiah

Christ was despised and taunted by his enemies; but finally people all over the earth will bow down to him.

New Testament usage

This psalm is quoted in different places in the New Testament. Verse 1a is cited in Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34 as the words of Christ on the cross. Many of the events in the narratives of the crucifixion are mentioned in this psalm. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/cross]])

621

PSA

22

1

lw3l

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

622

PSA

22

1

k951

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

623

PSA

22

1

ux16

0

The rhythm of the deer

This may refer to a style of music.

624

PSA

22

1

smt9

0

My God, my God

The writer repeats “My God” to emphasize that he is desperate for God to hear him.

625

PSA

22

1

a733

figs-rquestion

0

my God, why have you abandoned me?

The writer uses a question to emphasize that he feels like God has abandoned him. It may be best to leave this as a question. It can also be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “my God, I feel like you have abandoned me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

626

PSA

22

1

z48u

0

you abandoned me

Alternate translation: “you left me all alone”

627

PSA

22

1

fnk8

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you so far from saving me and far from the words of my anguish?

Again the writer uses a question to emphasize that he feels like God is far away from him. It may be best to leave this as a question. It can also be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You are far from saving me and far from the words of my anguish!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

628

PSA

22

1

y7ec

figs-metaphor

0

far from the words of my anguish

The writer feeling like God is not listening to him is spoken of as if God were far from his words of anguish. Alternate translation: “why do you not listen when I speak to you about the anguish I feel” or “I have told you about my suffering but you do not come to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

629

PSA

22

2

dzu2

figs-merism

0

in the daytime … at night

The writer uses the words “daytime” and “night” to mean he prays to God all the time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

630

PSA

22

2

j5c4

figs-litotes

0

I am not silent

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “I still speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

631

PSA

22

3

zle3

figs-metaphor

0

you sit as king with the praises of Israel

“the praises of Israel are the throne on which you sit as king.” The praises of Israel are described as if they are a throne upon which God can sit and rule, or as a house in which God can live. Alternate translation: “you are king and the people of Israel praise you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

632

PSA

22

3

viy1

figs-metonymy

0

of Israel

Here “Israel” represents the people of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

633

PSA

22

5

u4pd

figs-activepassive

0

were not disappointed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you did not disappoint them” or “you did not fail them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

634

PSA

22

5

vjq8

figs-doublenegatives

0

were not disappointed

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “you saved them” or “you did for them what they needed you to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

635

PSA

22

6

m3yz

figs-metaphor

0

I am a worm and not a man

The writer speaks of himself as if he were a worm. This emphasizes that he feels worthless or that the people treat him as if he were worthless. Alternate translation: “But it is like I am a worm and not a man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

636

PSA

22

6

xml4

figs-parallelism

0

disgrace to humanity and despised by the people

Both of these phrase mean basically the same thing. The phrase “despised by the people” can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “everyone thinks I am worthless and the people hate me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

637

PSA

22

7

gq6v

figs-parallelism

0

taunt me; they mock me; they shake their heads at me

These three phrases share similar meanings and emphasize how much people disrespect him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

638

PSA

22

7

nu8j

translate-symaction

0

they shake their heads at me

This describes an action used to mock someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

639

PSA

22

8

v7ta

figs-irony

0

He trusts in Yahweh … delights in him

The people are saying this to mock the writer. They do not really believe Yahweh will rescue him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

640

PSA

22

8

ip8x

0

Let him rescue him

Alternate translation: “Let Yahweh rescue him”

641

PSA

22

8

h2ys

0

for he delights in him

This could mean: (1) “for Yahweh delights in him” or (2) “for he delights in Yahweh”

642

PSA

22

9

lz9a

figs-explicit

0

For you

The writer uses the word “For” to begin explaining why he is confused and asking God why he is not coming to help. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

643

PSA

22

9

g6i1

figs-idiom

0

you brought me from the womb

This is a way of saying “you caused me to be born.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

644

PSA

22

9

h37n

figs-idiom

0

when I was on my mother’s breasts

This means that he has been trusting in Yahweh since he was very young. Alternate translation: “even from the time that I drank milk from my mother’s breasts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

645

PSA

22

10

ua28

figs-idiom

0

I have been thrown on you from the womb

The phrase “have been thrown on” is a way of saying that Yahweh has taken care of him as if Yahweh had adopted him as his own child. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “It was as though you had adopted me right when I was born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

646

PSA

22

10

qi4n

figs-explicit

0

you are my God

This implies that Yahweh has always taken care of the writer. Alternate translation: “you, God, have taken care of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

647

PSA

22

10

bd6c

0

since I was in my mother’s womb

Alternate translation: “since before I was born”

648

PSA

22

11

tz1y

figs-litotes

0

Do not be far away from me

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “Come close to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

649

PSA

22

11

mc7w

figs-metaphor

0

for trouble is near

The writer speaks about “trouble” as if it were an object that is near him. Alternate translation: “for my enemies are near me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

650

PSA

22

11

sub2

0

there is no one to help

Alternate translation: “there is no helper”

651

PSA

22

12

e14p

figs-metaphor

0

Many bulls surround me; strong bulls of Bashan surround me

The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were bulls. This emphasizes how dangerous and powerful his enemies are. Alternate translation: “I have many enemies and they are like bulls that surround me; they are like strong bulls from Bashan that surround me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

652

PSA

22

13

tfu9

figs-metaphor

0

They open their mouths wide against me

The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were lions with the mouths open ready to eat him. His enemies may be speaking lies to discredit him. Or they may be threatening him and attacking him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

653

PSA

22

13

qv8i

figs-simile

0

like a roaring lion ripping its victim

The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were lions. This emphasizes how powerful and dangerous his enemies are. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

654

PSA

22

14

q64m

figs-activepassive

0

I am being poured out like water

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “It is like someone is pouring me out like water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

655

PSA

22

14

d2h5

figs-simile

0

I am being poured out like water

The writer speaks about feeling completely exhausted and weak as if he were water being poured out of a jar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

656

PSA

22

14

pjf3

figs-metaphor

0

all my bones are dislocated

“all my bones are out of place.” It is possible the writer is in some kind of physical pain. Or he may be speaking of his emotional pain as if it were physical pain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

657

PSA

22

14

ws5l

figs-simile

0

My heart is like wax … inner parts

The writer speaks about no longer having courage as if his heart melted like wax. Here “heart” represents “courage.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

658

PSA

22

14

y32r

0

wax

a soft substance that melts at a relatively low temperature

659

PSA

22

14

k6ki

0

within my inner parts

Alternate translation: “inside of me”

660

PSA

22

15

fpb6

figs-simile

0

My strength has dried up like a piece of pottery

The writer speaks about feeling weak as if his strength were like a dry piece of pottery that can easily break. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

661

PSA

22

15

w7be

0

piece of pottery

an object made of baked clay that can be used in the house

662

PSA

22

15

g95x

figs-metaphor

0

my tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth

“my tongue sticks to the top of my mouth.” The writer may be describing his extreme thirst. Or he may be continuing to speak about being weak as if he were completely dry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

663

PSA

22

15

z793

figs-metaphor

0

You have laid me in the dust of death

Possible meanings for dust of death are: (1) it refers to a person turning to dust after they die. Alternate translation: “You are about to let me die and become dust” or (2) it is a way of speaking about the grave, which would mean God is causing the writer to die. Alternate translation: “You have laid me in my grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

664

PSA

22

15

m487

figs-you

0

You have laid me

The “you” is singular and refers to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

665

PSA

22

16

un7f

figs-metaphor

0

dogs have surrounded me

The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were dogs. His enemies are coming close to him like wild dogs do to a dying animal. Alternate translation: “my enemies are like dogs that have surrounded me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

666

PSA

22

16

np5i

0

a company of evildoers

Alternate translation: “a group of evildoers” or “a gang of evildoers”

667

PSA

22

16

i2n1

0

encircled

stood in a circle

668

PSA

22

16

x42c

figs-metaphor

0

they have pierced my hands and my feet

This continues the dog metaphor. The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were dogs that are biting and piercing his hands and feet with their teeth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

669

PSA

22

16

ai5d

0

pierced

stabbed through something with a sharp object

670

PSA

22

17

est5

figs-metaphor

0

I can count all my bones

This could mean: (1) the writer is so thin that he can see his bones. Alternate translation: “I can see all of my bones” or “I can feel each of my bones” or (2) this continues the dog metaphor and the writer can see his bones after the dogs have ripped his flesh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

671

PSA

22

17

ce23

figs-doublet

0

look and stare at me

The words “look” and “stare” mean basically the same thing and emphasize that people look at him awkwardly and make fun of him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

672

PSA

22

18

fb7u

0

my garments

Alternate translation: “my clothes”

673

PSA

22

19

v12t

figs-litotes

0

Do not be far away

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “Be very close” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

674

PSA

22

19

y71k

figs-metonymy

0

my strength

Here “strength” represents Yahweh who gives him strength. Alternate translation: “you who give me strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

675

PSA

22

20

ly82

figs-synecdoche

0

Rescue my soul

Here “soul” stands for the whole person. Alternate translation: “Rescue me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

676

PSA

22

20

a8wk

figs-metonymy

0

the sword

The sword is a common way of referring to a violent enemy. Alternate translation: “those who want to kill me” or “my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

677

PSA

22

20

li5b

0

my only life

Alternate translation: “my precious life” or “the only life I have”

678

PSA

22

20

a1qv

figs-metaphor

0

claws of wild dogs

The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were dogs to emphasize how dangerous his enemies are. Also, the claws stand for the animals as a whole in a synecdoche. The writer emphasizes this part of the animal because it is what the animals would use to kill someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

679

PSA

22

20

h8vu

0

wild dogs

The word “wild” here means that no one has captured and tamed the animal.

680

PSA

22

21

vl96

figs-metaphor

0

lion’s mouth … horns of the wild oxen

The writer speaks about his enemies as if they were lions and wild oxen to emphasize how dangerous his enemies are. Also, the mouth and horns stand for the animals as a whole in a synecdoche. The writer emphasizes these parts of the animals because they are what the animals would use to kill someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

681

PSA

22

21

wgw6

0

wild oxen

The word “wild” here means that no one has captured and tamed the animal.

682

PSA

22

22

vq9v

figs-metonymy

0

I will declare your name

“I will make known your name.” Here “name” stands for God’s character or reputation. Alternate translation: “I will talk about your character” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

683

PSA

22

22

k6ii

0

my brothers

Here “brothers” means “my fellow Israelites” or “my fellow worshipers of Yahweh”

684

PSA

22

22

t5p8

0

in the midst of the assembly

Alternate translation: “when my fellow Israelites and I gather together” or “when I am surrounded by my fellow worshipers of Yahweh”

685

PSA

22

23

wl3v

figs-you

0

You who fear

Here “You” is plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

686

PSA

22

23

yc8l

figs-parallelism

0

you descendants of Jacob … you descendants of Israel

Both of these refer to the same group of people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

687

PSA

22

23

rs9u

0

Stand in awe of him

Alternate translation: “Be full of awe for him” or “Let God’s power amaze you”

688

PSA

22

24

t6pw

0

he has not despised or abhorred the suffering of the afflicted one

This could mean: (1) he has not despised the afflicted one because he is suffering or (2) he has not belittled the suffering of the afflicted one

689

PSA

22

24

q54x

figs-doublet

0

despised or abhorred

These two words mean basically the same thing and emphasize that God has not forgotten the one who is afflicted and suffering. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

690

PSA

22

24

w7tf

0

despised

strongly disliked or hated

691

PSA

22

24

h5t5

figs-metonymy

0

he has not … abhorred the suffering of the afflicted one

Here, suffering is a metonym for the person who suffers. To abhor something is to think of it as horrible. Alternate translation: “he has not … thought of the afflicted one who suffers as horrible” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

692

PSA

22

24

y2dq

figs-genericnoun

0

the suffering of the afflicted one … from him … the afflicted one cried

This could mean: (1) the author was speaking about how God treats people who are suffering. Alternate translation: “those who suffer … from them … those who are suffering cried” or (2) the author was speaking specifically about how God treated him. Alternate translation: “my suffering because of my affliction … from me … I cried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

693

PSA

22

24

r4zy

figs-metaphor

0

has not hidden his face from him

Hiding one’s face from someone represents ignoring him. Alternate translation: “has not turned his attention away from him” or “has not ignored him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

694

PSA

22

24

fci1

figs-explicit

0

he heard

“he listened.” It is implied that he responded when he heard their cry. Alternate translation: “he answered” or “he helped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

695

PSA

22

25

q298

figs-you

0

because of you

Here “you” refers to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

696

PSA

22

25

w4ny

figs-explicit

0

I will fulfill my vows

This refers to sacrifices the writer promised to offer to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

697

PSA

22

25

zq18

figs-123person

0

before those who fear him

Here “him” refers to Yahweh. It can be stated as “you.” Alternate translation: “in the presence of those who fear you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

698

PSA

22

26

fhl9

figs-explicit

0

The oppressed will eat and be satisfied

This refers to the fellowship meal which occurs after the writer offers to God the sacrifices that he promised. He will invite those who were suffering to eat a part of the animal he sacrificed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

699

PSA

22

26

jvb2

figs-metaphor

0

those who seek Yahweh

Those who want to know Yahweh and please him are spoken of as if they are literally seeking to find Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

700

PSA

22

26

x7ys

figs-synecdoche

0

May your hearts live forever

Here “hearts” represent the whole person. Alternate translation: “May you live forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

701

PSA

22

26

lv3f

figs-you

0

May your hearts

Here “your” is plural and refers to the oppressed people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

702

PSA

22

27

sti4

figs-metaphor

0

will remember and turn to Yahweh

Starting to obey Yahweh is spoken of as if the people physically turn toward Yahweh. Alternate translation: “will remember Yahweh and obey him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

703

PSA

22

27

s5k2

figs-parallelism

0

all the families of the nations will bow down before you

This means the same thing as the first part of the sentence. The writer is emphasizing that everyone from every place will worship and obey Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

704

PSA

22

27

ves3

translate-symaction

0

will bow down before you

This is a sign of giving honor and respect to someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

705

PSA

22

27

n554

figs-you

0

before you

Here “you” refers to Yahweh. It can be translated in the third person to match the first part of the sentence. Alternate translation: “before him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

706

PSA

22

28

yp9r

figs-metonymy

0

For the kingdom is Yahweh’s

“For the kingdom belongs to Yahweh.” Here “kingdom” represents God’s rule as king. Alternate translation: “For Yahweh is king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

707

PSA

22

28

y3zn

figs-metonymy

0

he is the ruler over the nations

Here “nations” represents the people of the nations. Alternate translation: “he rules the people of the nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

708

PSA

22

29

pb3y

0

will feast

The people will eat together at the feast. Alternate translation: “will eat together” or “will eat a festive meal together”

709

PSA

22

29

b7d2

figs-parallelism

0

all those who are descending into the dust … those who cannot preserve their own lives

Both phrases refers to the same group. They both refer to all people because all people will die. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

710

PSA

22

29

fkt1

figs-metonymy

0

those who are descending into the dust

Here “dust” represents the grave. The phrase “descending into the dust” is a way of referring to someone dying. Alternate translation: “those who are dying” or “those who die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

711

PSA

22

29

wbb7

0

those who cannot preserve their own lives

Alternate translation: “those who cannot save their own lives” or “those who cannot keep themselves from dying”

712

PSA

22

30

tak2

figs-metonymy

0

A generation to come

Here “A generation” represents the people of a generation. The phrase “to come” speaks about a future time as if it were something that travels and arrives somewhere. Alternate translation: “People in the future generations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

713

PSA

22

30

l73k

figs-metonymy

0

the next generation

Here “generation” represents the people of that generation. Alternate translation: “the people of the next generation” or “their children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

714

PSA

22

30

j95t

0

of the Lord

Alternate translation: “about the Lord” or “about what the Lord has done”

715

PSA

22

31

lt28

figs-abstractnouns

0

tell of his righteousness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word righteousness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “tell of the righteous things he has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

716

PSA

23

intro

r1f6

0

Psalm 023 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 23 is a psalm of praise to God for his continued care and protection. The psalmist praises God for always being with him and for caring for him.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

Psalm 23 is an extended metaphor speaking of God as if he were a shepherd, and of the psalmist as if he were a sheep. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

717

PSA

23

1

h1x8

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

In much of this psalm, David writes as if he were a sheep and the Lord were his shepherd. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

718

PSA

23

1

t39n

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh is my shepherd

The writer speaks about Yahweh as if he were a shepherd. This emphasizes how God cares for people as a shepherd cares for his sheep. Alternate translation: “Yahweh is like a shepherd to me” or “Yahweh cares for me as a shepherd cares for his sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

719

PSA

23

1

gb7q

figs-litotes

0

I will lack nothing

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “I have everything that I need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

720

PSA

23

2

ez87

figs-metaphor

0

He makes me to lie down in green pastures

The writer speaks about himself as if he were a sheep, and he speaks about Yahweh as if he were a shepherd. Alternate translation: He gives me rest like a shepherd who leads his sheep to lie down in green pastures” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

721

PSA

23

2

p2p4

figs-metaphor

0

he leads me beside tranquil water

The writer speaks about himself as if he were a sheep, and he speaks about Yahweh as if he were a shepherd. Alternate translation: “he provides what I need like a shepherd who leads his sheep beside tranquil water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

722

PSA

23

2

l7sx

0

tranquil water

“calm water” or “water that flows gently.” This water is safe to drink.

723

PSA

23

3

ic3m

0

He brings back my life

This means God makes a person who is weak and tired to be strong and rested again.

724

PSA

23

3

nx5d

figs-metaphor

0

he guides me along right paths

Showing a person how to live in a way that pleases God is spoken of as if it were a shepherd showing a sheep the right path to take. Alternate translation: “He shows me how to live right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

725

PSA

23

3

ta7y

figs-metonymy

0

for his name’s sake

The phrase “his name” here refers to his reputation. Alternate translation: “for his reputation” or “so that people will honor him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

726

PSA

23

4

fi66

figs-metaphor

0

Even though I walk through a valley of darkest shadow

The writer describes a person experiencing terrible trouble as if he were a sheep walking through a dark and dangerous valley. There a sheep could get lost or attacked by a wild animal. Alternate translation: “Though my life is like walking through a dark and dangerous valley” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

727

PSA

23

4

me3c

figs-abstractnouns

0

I will not fear harm

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word harm, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “I will not be afraid of something harming me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

728

PSA

23

4

hqa2

figs-you

0

you are with me

Here “you” refers to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

729

PSA

23

4

yre6

figs-metonymy

0

your rod and your staff comfort me

The rod and staff represent protection because shepherds use them to protect their sheep from danger. Alternate translation: “I am not afraid because you protect me like a shepherd who protects his sheep with his rod and staff” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

730

PSA

23

5

ksk5

figs-exmetaphor

0

General Information:

Now the writer tells how God is like someone who welcomes a guest into his home and protects him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exmetaphor]])

731

PSA

23

5

nqn4

figs-metonymy

0

You prepare a table

A table represents a feast because people would put all the food on a table. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

732

PSA

23

5

b3bs

0

in the presence of my enemies

The meaning here is that the writer is not worried about his enemies because he is an honored guest of the Lord and therefore protected from harm. Alternate translation: “despite the presence of my enemies”

733

PSA

23

5

hh1r

0

anointed my head with oil

People sometimes put oil on their guests’ heads in order to honor them.

734

PSA

23

5

w1iw

figs-idiom

0

my cup runs over

Here a cup of wine that overflows represents many blessings. Alternate translation: “You fill my cup so much that it overflows” or “You give me many blessings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

735

PSA

23

6

y8zc

figs-metaphor

0

Surely goodness and covenant faithfulness will pursue me

Yahweh being good and faithful to a person is spoken of as if goodness and covenant faithfulness are things that pursue after a person. The abstract nouns “goodness” and “faithfulness” can be translated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “Surely you will be good and faithful to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

736

PSA

23

6

ep2g

figs-abstractnouns

0

all the days of my life

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word life, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “as long as I live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

737

PSA

23

6

u2bl

0

the house of Yahweh

This could mean: (1) this refers to Yahweh’s eternal home, or (2) this refers to Yahweh’s temple in Jerusalem. If possible, translate it so that both meanings could be understood.

738

PSA

23

6

u53m

figs-idiom

0

for the length of my days

This idiom refers to the duration of his life. Alternate translation: “as long as I live” or “forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

739

PSA

24

intro

cw5j

0

Psalm 024 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 24 is a psalm of praise to God as the almighty God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/almighty]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Righteous people

Only the righteous come to worship God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical Questions

The psalmists uses several rhetorical questions. Each question forms a unit with a response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

740

PSA

24

1

nne9

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

741

PSA

24

1

hma5

figs-abstractnouns

0

its fullness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word fullness, you could express the same idea with the verb “fills.” Alternate translation: “everything that fills it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

742

PSA

24

2

v6lt

figs-parallelism

0

For he has founded it upon the seas and established it on the rivers

Here “founded it upon the seas” and “established it on the rivers” mean basically the same thing. The Hebrews of that time believed their land was supported by the oceans and deep underground rivers. Alternate translation: For he formed its foundation on the seas and built it on the deep waters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

743

PSA

24

2

d2bq

0

the seas … the rivers

These phrases are used together to refer to the huge deep ocean below the earth.

744

PSA

24

2

h6kl

0

on the rivers

Alternate translation: “the water that is deep below”

745

PSA

24

3

e3ya

figs-parallelism

0

Who will ascend the mountain … in his holy place?

Both of these questions mean basically the same thing. The speaker is asking about who is allowed to go and worship Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

746

PSA

24

3

bda3

0

will ascend

Alternate translation: “will go up” or “will climb”

747

PSA

24

3

mz8v

0

the mountain of Yahweh

This refers to Mount Zion in Jerusalem.

748

PSA

24

3

vj27

0

his holy place

This refers Yahweh’s temple. His temple is on Mount Zion in Jerusalem.

749

PSA

24

4

g1lm

figs-genericnoun

0

He who has … who has … and has not

Here “He” does not refer to a specific person. Alternate translation: “Those who have … who have … and have not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

750

PSA

24

4

vsk8

figs-metonymy

0

who has clean hands

The word “hands” represents what a person does. For his “hands” to be clean means he does what is right. Alternate translation: “who does what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

751

PSA

24

4

ikc9

figs-metonymy

0

a pure heart

Here “heart” represents a person’s thoughts or motives. Alternate translation: “thinks good thoughts” or “does not think about doing what is wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

752

PSA

24

4

u76e

figs-metonymy

0

who has not lifted up a falsehood

Here “falsehood” represents a false idol. To “lift up” means to worship. Alternate translation: “who has not worshiped an idol” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

753

PSA

24

5

z3wj

figs-genericnoun

0

He will receive a blessing from Yahweh

The word “he” does not refer to a specific person. It refers to the ones with pure hearts mentioned in previous verse. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word blessing, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will bless them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

754

PSA

24

5

bc4f

figs-abstractnouns

0

righteousness from the God of his salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word righteousness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “righteously.” And, “salvation” can be stated as “save.” Alternate translation: “God will deal righteously with him and save him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

755

PSA

24

6

n5aj

figs-metonymy

0

Such is the generation of those who seek him

Here “generation” represents people in general. Alternate translation: “The people who seek him are like this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

756

PSA

24

6

h9nq

figs-parallelism

0

those who seek him, those who seek the face of the God of Jacob

Both statements mean the same thing. They both refer to those who go to the temple to worship God. Alternate translation: “the ones who approach God, they are the ones who may worship God, the one we Israelites worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

757

PSA

24

6

fbc7

figs-metaphor

0

those who seek him

Going to the temple to worship Yahweh is spoken of as if the person is literally seeking to find him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

758

PSA

24

6

tsi7

figs-synecdoche

0

the face of the God of Jacob

Here “face” stands for the whole person. Alternate translation: “the God of Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

759

PSA

24

7

yi4r

figs-parallelism

0

Lift up your heads, you gates; be lifted up, everlasting doors

The two phases are very similar in meaning. The words “gates” and “doors” refer to the gates of the temple. The writer is speaking to the gates as if they were a person. A gatekeeper would be the one to open the gates. Alternate translation: “Open up, you ancient gates” or “Open these ancient gates” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

760

PSA

24

7

z61a

figs-synecdoche

0

Lift up your heads

It is uncertain what specific part of the gate is the “head.” But, it stands for the gate as a whole. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

761

PSA

24

8

bp2e

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh, strong and mighty; Yahweh, mighty in battle

The writer speaks about Yahweh as if he were a mighty warrior who fights in battles. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

762

PSA

24

9

hl69

figs-parallelism

0

Lift up your heads, you gates; be lifted up, everlasting doors

The two phases are very similar in meaning. The words “gates” and “doors” refer to the gates of the temple. The writer is speaking to the gates as if they were a person. A gatekeeper would be the one to open the gates. See how you translated this in Psalms 24:7. Alternate translation: “Open up, you ancient gates” or “Open these ancient gates” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

763

PSA

24

9

fk49

figs-synecdoche

0

Lift up your heads

It is uncertain what specific part of the gate is the “head.” But, it stands for the gate as a whole. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

764

PSA

25

intro

utp4

0

Psalm 025 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 25 is a prayer for God’s help.

Special concepts in this chapter

The humble

God is very good to humble people who seek to obey him.

765

PSA

25

1

sq2m

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

766

PSA

25

1

z3ls

figs-metaphor

0

I lift up my life

The phrase “lift up my life” is a metaphor. This could mean: (1) the writer is giving himself to Yahweh, which means he is completely depending on Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I give myself to you” or (2) he is offering prayer and adoration to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I worship and adore you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

767

PSA

25

2

m2b6

figs-activepassive

0

Do not let me be humiliated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Do not let my enemies humiliate me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

768

PSA

25

2

ff1t

figs-idiom

0

rejoice triumphantly over me

“rejoice in triumph over me.” The phrase “over me” implies that his enemies have defeated him and stand above in victory. Alternate translation: “defeat me and rejoice about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

769

PSA

25

3

jw7y

figs-explicit

0

May no one who hopes in you be disgraced

“Do not let those who hope in you be disgraced.” Disgrace could come from being defeated by their enemies. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Do not let enemies defeat those who hope in you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

770

PSA

25

3

haz8

0

who hopes in you

Alternate translation: “who trusts you”

771

PSA

25

3

r1zd

0

act treacherously

Alternate translation: “act deceitfully” or “act with trickery”

772

PSA

25

3

le6f

0

without cause

Alternate translation: “without a reason”

773

PSA

25

4

a1rg

figs-parallelism

0

Make known to me your ways, Yahweh; teach me your paths

Both statements mean the same thing. God teaching a person how they should behave is spoken of as if he were showing a person the correct path on which a person should travel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

774

PSA

25

5

ji5y

0

I hope in you

Alternate translation: “I depend on you” or “I wait patiently for you”

775

PSA

25

5

t3bw

figs-doublet

0

Guide me into your truth and teach me

Guide and teach mean the same thing, to give instruction. Alternate translation: “Instruct me to conduct my life by obeying your truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

776

PSA

25

5

zz1y

figs-abstractnouns

0

the God of my salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “saves.” Alternate translation: “the one who saves me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

777

PSA

25

6

f922

figs-idiom

0

Call to mind

This is an idiom. This does not mean God forgot something. The writer is asking God to think about and consider his acts of compassion and faithfulness. Alternate translation: “Remember” or “Think about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

778

PSA

25

6

uw7b

figs-abstractnouns

0

your acts of compassion and of covenant faithfulness

The abstract nouns “compassion” and “faithfulness” can be stated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “how you have been compassionate and faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

779

PSA

25

6

y7a2

figs-personification

0

for they have always existed

Here “they” personifies God’s compassion and covenant faithfulness. Alternate translation: “for that is how you have always been” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

780

PSA

25

7

ym66

figs-abstractnouns

0

Do not think about the sins of my youth

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word sins, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “sinned.” Alternate translation: “Do not think about how I sinned against you when I was young” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

781

PSA

25

7

ayg8

figs-abstractnouns

0

or my rebelliousness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word rebelliousness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “rebelled.” Alternate translation: or about how I have rebelled against you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

782

PSA

25

7

rmx6

figs-idiom

0

Call me to mind

This is an idiom. This does not mean God forgot something. The writer is asking God to think about him. Alternate translation: “Remember me” or “Think about me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

783

PSA

25

7

dzp2

figs-abstractnouns

0

with covenant faithfulness because of your goodness

The abstract nouns “faithfulness” and “goodness” can be stated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “and be faithful to me because of your covenant, because you are good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

784

PSA

25

8

fe3c

figs-metaphor

0

the way

How God wants a person to behave is spoken of as if it were a way or path on which a person travels. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

785

PSA

25

9

sd77

figs-nominaladj

0

the humble

This nominal adjective can be stated as an adjective. Alternate translation: “humble people” or “those who are humble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

786

PSA

25

9

g5rh

figs-metaphor

0

his way

How God wants a person to behave is spoken of as if it were a way or path on which a person travels. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

787

PSA

25

10

y1ce

figs-metaphor

0

All the paths of Yahweh are steadfast love and faithfulness

The word “paths” is a metaphor for ways. Alternate translation: “Yahweh always loves us because of his covenant and he is always trustworthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

788

PSA

25

11

i29u

figs-metonymy

0

For your name’s sake

The phrase “your name” here refers to Yahweh’s reputation. Alternate translation: “For your reputation” or “So that people will honor you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

789

PSA

25

11

zdw5

figs-abstractnouns

0

pardon my sin, for it is great

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word sin, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “sinned.” Alternate translation: “please forgive me, for I have sinned much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

790

PSA

25

12

uen3

figs-rquestion

0

Who is the man who fears Yahweh?

This question introduces “the man who fears Yahweh” as a new topic. Alternate translation: “I will tell you about the man who fears Yahweh.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

791

PSA

25

12

r5gg

figs-genericnoun

0

is the man who fears … instruct him … he should

These words refer to any person who fears Yahweh, not a specific person. Alternate translation: “are those who fear … instruct them … they should” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

792

PSA

25

12

e57l

figs-metaphor

0

The Lord will instruct him in the way that he should choose

Yahweh teaching people how they should behave is spoken of as if Yahweh were teaching the people what way or path they should travel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

793

PSA

25

13

vwm7

figs-genericnoun

0

His life … his descendants

These words refer to any person who fears Yahweh, not a specific person. Alternate translation: “Their lives … their descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

794

PSA

25

13

f8pb

0

His life will go along in goodness

Alternate translation: “God will cause him to prosper” or “God will cause them to prosper”

795

PSA

25

14

m7sj

0

The friendship of Yahweh is for those

“Yahweh is a friend to those.” Some translate it as “Yahweh confides in those.” His confiding in them shows the intimate friendship he has with them.

796

PSA

25

15

utj9

figs-metonymy

0

My eyes are always on Yahweh

Here “eyes” represents looking. It is implied that he looks to Yahweh for help. Alternate translation: “I always look to Yahweh to help me” or “I always depend on Yahweh to help me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

797

PSA

25

15

mb6a

figs-metaphor

0

for he will free my feet from the net

A net is a trap. A person who is in danger is spoken of as if their feet are tangled in a net. Alternate translation: He will rescue me from danger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

798

PSA

25

16

jm85

figs-metaphor

0

Turn toward me

Yahweh paying attention to a person and considering him is spoken of as if Yahweh were physically turning towards the person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

799

PSA

25

17

lu85

figs-metonymy

0

The troubles of my heart are enlarged

Here “heart” represents a person’s emotions. Alternate translation: “I feel more and more troubled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

800

PSA

25

17

t6l8

figs-metaphor

0

draw me out from my distress

“bring me out of my distress.” This speaks of distress as if it were a place that a person can be brought out of. Alternate translation: “rescue me from my distress” or “relieve me of my distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

801

PSA

25

17

px9i

figs-abstractnouns

0

my distress

The word “distress” is an abstract noun. Alternate translation: “the things that distress me” or “the things that cause me to be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

802

PSA

25

18

gp57

0

See my affliction

Alternate translation: “Notice my affliction”

803

PSA

25

18

kwp4

figs-abstractnouns

0

my affliction

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word affliction, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “the things that afflict me” or “how afflicted I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

804

PSA

25

18

my25

figs-abstractnouns

0

my toils

The word “toils” is an abstract noun. Alternate translation: “the things that trouble me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

805

PSA

25

19

it1s

0

they hate me with cruel hatred

Alternate translation: “they hate me cruelly” or “they hate me fiercely”

806

PSA

25

20

zk7e

figs-activepassive

0

do not let me be humiliated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Do not let my enemies humiliate me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

807

PSA

25

20

y36b

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in you!

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to you for protection!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

808

PSA

25

21

b36j

figs-personification

0

May integrity and uprightness preserve me

This speaks about “integrity” and “uprightness” as if they were persons who could keep another person safe. These abstract nouns can be stated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “May being honest and doing what is right preserve me” or “Preserve me, Lord, because I am honest and do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

809

PSA

25

21

d4fj

0

preserve me

Alternate translation: “keep me safe”

810

PSA

25

22

vj9z

0

Rescue Israel

Alternate translation: “Save Israel” or “Redeem Israel”

811

PSA

25

22

msf4

figs-metonymy

0

Israel … his troubles

Here “Israel” represents the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel … our troubles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

812

PSA

26

intro

q9dz

0

Psalm 026 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 26 is a teaching psalm; showing people how they should live by the example of the psalmsist.

Special concepts in this chapter

Praise

The psalmist delights in praising God and doing good deeds. It is striking how this psalm uses the first person pronoun. This is an individual psalm of petition. Each of the four petitions are accompanied with various claims. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/works]])

813

PSA

26

1

h9z4

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

814

PSA

26

1

b9cq

figs-metaphor

0

I have walked

The word “walked” is a metaphor for behavior. Alternate translation: “I have behaved” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

815

PSA

26

1

am7u

figs-123person

0

in Yahweh

The third person use of “Yahweh” can be stated in the second person. Alternate translation: “in you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

816

PSA

26

1

a4v9

figs-metaphor

0

without wavering

Doubting is spoken of as if it were losing balance and waving back and forth. Alternate translation: “without doubting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

817

PSA

26

2

zxg5

0

Examine me

Alternate translation: “Try me”

818

PSA

26

2

iqe7

figs-doublet

0

test the purity of my inner parts and my heart

Here “inner parts” and “heart” mean motives. Alternate translation: “test whether my motives are good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

819

PSA

26

3

qc7g

figs-metaphor

0

For your covenant faithfulness is before my eyes

Here “eyes” represent a person’s thoughts and having something before one’s eyes represents being aware of that thing. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “For I am always aware of your covenant faithfulness” or “For I am always aware that you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

820

PSA

26

3

am2g

figs-metaphor

0

I walk about in your faithfulness

The word “walk” is a metaphor for behavior. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “I conduct my life according to your faithfulness” or “I behave the way I do because you are faithful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

821

PSA

26

4

b17j

0

I do not associate with

Alternate translation: “I do not keep company with” or “I do not sit with”

822

PSA

26

4

j2s7

0

with deceitful people

Alternate translation: “with those who deceive others”

823

PSA

26

4

u6k2

figs-parallelism

0

nor do I mingle with dishonest people

This means the same as the first part of the sentence. Alternate translation: “and I do not join with dishonest people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

824

PSA

26

4

t3xy

0

dishonest people

Alternate translation: “hypocrites” or “those who lie to others”

825

PSA

26

5

hc11

0

the assembly of evildoers

Alternate translation: “those who gather to do evil”

826

PSA

26

5

ees1

figs-nominaladj

0

the wicked

This is a nominal adjective. Alternate translation: “wicked people” or “those who are wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

827

PSA

26

6

idg7

translate-symaction

0

I wash my hands in innocence

This seems to refer to a ritual washing of hands in water to symbolize freedom from sin and guilt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

828

PSA

26

6

u7rx

0

I go around your altar

This was an action of worship that the Israelites were accustomed to doing.

829

PSA

26

8

ywm8

0

the house where you live

This could mean: (1) if a person wrote this after the time of David, then the writer is referring to the temple in Jerusalem or (2) if David wrote this, then this refers to the tent that God told his people to set up so that they could worship him there.

830

PSA

26

8

adz5

figs-metonymy

0

the place where your glory lives

Here “glory” represents the presence and power of God, which is similar to a very bright light. Alternate translation: “the place where people can see the glorious light of your presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

831

PSA

26

9

k89i

figs-metaphor

0

Do not sweep me away with sinners

“Sweep away” here is a metaphor for destruction. Alternate translation: “Do not destroy me along with sinners” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

832

PSA

26

9

gb7w

figs-ellipsis

0

or my life

The word “sweep” is understood. Alternate translation: “or sweep my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

833

PSA

26

9

dsi8

figs-metonymy

0

people who are bloodthirsty

The word “bloodthirsty” represents wanting to kill people. Alternate translation: “people who are eager to shed others’ blood” or “murderers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

834

PSA

26

10

gku4

figs-synecdoche

0

in whose hands

“Hands” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “people in which” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

835

PSA

26

10

g7rx

0

a plot

Alternate translation: “a wicked plan”

836

PSA

26

11

qm5d

0

But as for me

This phrase shows that the writer is changing from speaking about wicked people to talking about himself.

837

PSA

26

11

vu5m

figs-metaphor

0

I will walk in integrity

“Walk” here is a metaphor for behavior. Alternate translation: “I will behave with integrity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

838

PSA

26

12

xe4n

figs-synecdoche

0

My foot stands

Here “foot” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I stand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

839

PSA

26

12

apj3

figs-metaphor

0

level ground

Here, level ground could mean: (1) a safe place or (2) right behavior (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

840

PSA

26

12

p8c6

0

in the assemblies will I bless Yahweh

Alternate translation: “when I gather with the people of Israel I will praise you”

841

PSA

27

intro

ru1e

0

Psalm 027 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 27 is a psalm of praise to God because God keeps the psalmist safe from all his enemies.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s help

Because of God’s help, he has nothing to fear, no matter what happens. The psalmist shows his confidence in God; he also asks God for help.

842

PSA

27

1

cx3f

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

843

PSA

27

1

pgd5

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh is my light

Here “light” represents life. Alternate translation: “Yahweh is the source of my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

844

PSA

27

1

f2iu

figs-rquestion

0

whom should I fear?

This question emphasizes that there is no one that David should fear. Alternate translation: “I will not be afraid of anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

845

PSA

27

1

gdw7

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh is my life’s refuge

This speaks about Yahweh as if he were a place where people can go for safety. Alternate translation: “Yahweh is the one who keeps me safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

846

PSA

27

1

b7ym

figs-rquestion

0

whom should I dread?

This question emphasizes that there is no one that David should be afraid of. Alternate translation: “I will not dread anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

847

PSA

27

2

b8ta

figs-metaphor

0

to devour my flesh

Destroying someone completely is spoken of as if it were devouring a person’s flesh. He did not mean that they wanted to eat his body. Alternate translation: “to destroy me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

848

PSA

27

2

afd9

figs-doublet

0

my adversaries and my enemies

These words mean the same thing. These are the evildoers who came near to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

849

PSA

27

2

gj21

figs-metaphor

0

stumbled and fell

This represents the writer’s enemies failing to fulfill their plans to harm the writer. Alternate translation: “did not succeed” or “failed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

850

PSA

27

3

a7hp

0

Though an army encamps against me

Alternate translation: “though an army surrounds me” or “though an army puts its tents around me”

851

PSA

27

3

nqv6

figs-synecdoche

0

my heart will not fear

Here “heart” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I will not be afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

852

PSA

27

3

bf9y

figs-metaphor

0

though war rises up against me

The writer’s enemies are spoken of as if they themselves were a war. Alternate translation: “though my enemies come to fight against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

853

PSA

27

3

z488

0

I will remain confident

Alternate translation: “I will continue to trust God to help me”

854

PSA

27

4

p5pc

0

have I asked of Yahweh

Alternate translation: “I have asked Yahweh to let me do”

855

PSA

27

4

vpq5

figs-metaphor

0

I will seek that

A person really wanting something and continually asking God for it is spoken of as if he were seeking to find something. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

856

PSA

27

4

gb9g

figs-metaphor

0

to see the beauty of Yahweh

The wonderful character of God is spoken of as if it were physical beauty. Alternate translation: “to see how wonderful Yahweh is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

857

PSA

27

4

c2a9

0

to meditate in his temple

This could mean: (1) “to ask God what he wants me to do” or (2) “to think carefully about God in his temple.”

858

PSA

27

5

cv9f

0

in the day of trouble

Alternate translation: “in times of trouble” or “when I have troubles”

859

PSA

27

5

vjd7

0

he will hide me

Alternate translation: “he will protect me”

860

PSA

27

5

cc6r

figs-parallelism

0

his shelter … his tent

Both of these refer to the tabernacle where the writer is worshiping God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

861

PSA

27

5

mz3d

0

in the cover of his tent

The word “cover” represents something that hides and protects.

862

PSA

27

5

j6tu

figs-metaphor

0

He will lift me high on a rock

God keeping the writer safe from his enemies is spoken of as if God were placing him on a high rock where his enemies cannot reach him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

863

PSA

27

6

a3t2

figs-metonymy

0

my head will be lifted up above my enemies

This represents the writer receiving pride or honor when he defeats his enemies. It can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “people will honor me when I win the fight against my enemies” or “God will honor me by enabling me to defeat my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

864

PSA

27

7

p3lq

figs-metonymy

0

Hear, Yahweh, my voice

The “voice” often represents a person who speak or calls out. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, hear me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

865

PSA

27

7

q1ev

figs-explicit

0

answer me

This implies that Yahweh hears the writer’s prayer and Yahweh will do what the writer asks. Alternate translation: “answer my prayer” or “do what I request of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

866

PSA

27

8

jx52

figs-metonymy

0

My heart says

Here “heart” represents a person’s mind or thoughts. Alternate translation: “In my heart I say” or “I say to myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

867

PSA

27

8

kc98

figs-metaphor

0

Seek his face

A person going to the temple to pray to Yahweh is spoken of as if the person were seeking to find Yahweh. Here “face” represents all of God. Alternate translation: “Go and pray to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

868

PSA

27

8

lv4r

figs-metaphor

0

I seek your face, Yahweh

A person going to the temple to pray to Yahweh is spoken of as if the person were seeking to find Yahweh. Here “face” represents all of God. Alternate translation: “I will come to your temple to pray to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

869

PSA

27

9

uv72

figs-metonymy

0

Do not hide your face from me

The face here represents Yahweh’s attention, and hiding the face represents rejecting someone. Alternate translation: “Do not reject me” or “Do not stop taking care of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

870

PSA

27

9

n49l

figs-123person

0

do not turn your servant away in anger

David said “your servant” to refer to himself in a humble way. Alternate translation: “do not be angry with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

871

PSA

27

9

p7vh

figs-doublet

0

forsake me or abandon me

The words “forsake” and “abandon” mean the same thing. The writer is emphasizing that he does not want God to leave him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

872

PSA

27

9

j546

figs-ellipsis

0

or abandon me

The words “and do not” are understood. Alternate translation: “and do not abandon me” or “and do not leave me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

873

PSA

27

9

sm12

figs-abstractnouns

0

God of my salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “saves.” Alternate translation: God who saves me” or “because you are the God who saves me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

874

PSA

27

10

w897

figs-hypo

0

Even if my father and my mother forsake me

“Even if my father and my mother were to forsake me.” He is not saying that they actually have done this or that they would do it. His point is that even if they did that, God would not abandon him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

875

PSA

27

10

n75n

0

Yahweh will take me in

Alternate translation: “Yahweh will keep me” or “Yahweh will take care of me”

876

PSA

27

11

z7b8

figs-metaphor

0

Teach me your way

How a person should behave is spoken of as if it were a way or path that person should travel. Alternate translation: “Teach me how you want me to live” or “Teach me to do what you want me to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

877

PSA

27

11

r72j

figs-metaphor

0

Lead me on a level path

Yahweh keeping the writer safe from his enemies is spoken of as if Yahweh leads the writer on a level path where he will not stumble and fall. Alternate translation: “Keep me safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

878

PSA

27

12

gs3s

figs-abstractnouns

0

Do not give me up to the desires of my enemies

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word desires, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “Do not let my enemies do to me what they desire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

879

PSA

27

12

s7ry

figs-idiom

0

have risen up against me

“Risen up” here is an idiom meaning that a witness stood in court to present testimony. Alternate translation: “have stood up in order to speak against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

880

PSA

27

12

ez4n

figs-metaphor

0

they breathe out violence

Here violence is spoken for as if it was something a person could breathe out. Alternate translation: “they say that they will do violent things to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

881

PSA

27

13

ts3j

figs-rquestion

0

What would have happened to me

This rhetorical question can be stated positively. Alternate translation: “Something bad would have happened to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

882

PSA

27

13

c72l

figs-abstractnouns

0

the goodness of Yahweh

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word goodness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “the good things that Yahweh does” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

883

PSA

27

13

wld8

figs-idiom

0

in the land of the living

This refers to being alive. Alternate translation: “while I am alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

884

PSA

27

14

g4pq

0

Wait for Yahweh … Wait for Yahweh!

This verse may be: (1) the writer speaking to himself or (2) the writer speaking to others or (3) someone speaking to the writer.

885

PSA

27

14

m8gs

figs-synecdoche

0

let your heart be courageous

Here “heart” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “be courageous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

886

PSA

27

14

yng1

0

Wait for Yahweh!

This line is repeated at the end of the psalm as a way of ending the psalm.

887

PSA

28

intro

a18t

0

Psalm 028 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 28 is a psalm of prayer to God that he is not be punished along with the wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Trust

The psalmist trusted God completely and God rescued him. This is similar to psalm 7 and 17 because it is an individual lament psalm. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lament]])

888

PSA

28

1

p6ea

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

889

PSA

28

1

t7sd

0

I cry out

Alternate translation: “I call out loudly”

890

PSA

28

1

vx2c

figs-metaphor

0

my rock

This is a metaphor for strength. Alternate translation: “my strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

891

PSA

28

1

y82h

0

do not ignore me

Alternate translation: “do not be silent to me” or “do not leave me alone”

892

PSA

28

1

y255

figs-metaphor

0

I will join those who go down to the grave

People who die are spoken of as if they are going down into the grave. Alternate translation: “I will die like those who are in the grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

893

PSA

28

2

i4h9

figs-metonymy

0

Hear the sound of my pleading

Here “sound” refers to the content of his request. Alternate translation: “Hear my strong request” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

894

PSA

28

2

t7ig

translate-symaction

0

I lift up my hands toward your most holy place

Lifting up hands is a symbol of worship. The writer is not worshiping the holy place, but Yahweh who lives in the holy place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

895

PSA

28

2

a92a

0

your most holy place

This could mean: (1) if David wrote this, then this refers to the tent that God told his people to set up so that they could worship him there, or (2) if a person wrote this after the time of David, then the writer is referring to the temple in Jerusalem.

896

PSA

28

3

r4t6

figs-metaphor

0

Do not drag me away

God punishing people is spoken of as if he physically drags them away. In this metaphor Yahweh may be dragging them to prison, exile, or death. Alternate translation: “Do not remove me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

897

PSA

28

3

y9zp

0

who speak peace with their neighbors

Here “neighbors” refers to people in general. Alternate translation: “who speak peacefully with other people”

898

PSA

28

3

y46g

figs-metonymy

0

but have evil in their hearts

Here “hearts” represents a person’s mind or thoughts. Alternate translation: “but are thinking something evil about them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

899

PSA

28

4

g3b9

figs-parallelism

0

Give them what their deeds deserve … repay them what their wickedness demands

These two phrases mean the same thing. They are used together to emphasize that they deserve for God to punish them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

900

PSA

28

4

z39d

figs-metonymy

0

the work of their hands

Here “hands” represent what the person has done. Alternate translation: “the things they have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

901

PSA

28

4

d21y

0

render to them their due

Alternate translation: “give them what they deserve”

902

PSA

28

5

vma7

0

Because they do not understand … never rebuild them

This could mean: (1) David is confident about what God will do to wicked people or (2) David is asking God to destroy the wicked people.

903

PSA

28

5

b1cw

figs-explicit

0

they do not understand the deeds of Yahweh

It is implied that “do not understand” means they ignore or do not honor Yahweh’s works. Alternate translation: “they do not regard with honor what Yahweh has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

904

PSA

28

5

a757

figs-metonymy

0

the work of his hands

Here “hands” represents what Yahweh has done or created. Alternate translation: “what he has created” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

905

PSA

28

5

uqh3

figs-metaphor

0

he will tear them down and never rebuild them

The punishment of the wicked people is spoken of as if they were a building or a city that God would destroy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

906

PSA

28

6

jfr4

figs-metonymy

0

he has heard the sound of my pleading

Here “sound” represents what the writer said. Alternate translation: “has heard what I said when I pleaded to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

907

PSA

28

7

g4ne

figs-abstractnouns

0

Yahweh is my strength

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word strength, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “strong.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh makes me strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

908

PSA

28

7

vh7h

figs-metaphor

0

my shield

This represents Yahweh’s protecting the writer. Alternate translation: “he protects me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

909

PSA

28

7

r9jp

figs-synecdoche

0

my heart trusts

Here “heart” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I trust” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

910

PSA

28

7

bl9l

figs-activepassive

0

I am helped

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he helps me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

911

PSA

28

7

uts5

figs-synecdoche

0

my heart greatly rejoices

Here “heart” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I greatly rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

912

PSA

28

8

pd6u

figs-abstractnouns

0

Yahweh is the strength of his people

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word strength, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “strong.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh makes his people strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

913

PSA

28

8

vd99

figs-metaphor

0

he is the saving refuge of his anointed one

Yahweh keeping the king safe is spoken of as if Yahweh were a place that the king could go for safety. Alternate translation: “he keeps safe the one he appointed to be king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

914

PSA

28

8

yh2k

figs-metonymy

0

his anointed one

The represents the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

915

PSA

28

9

at1a

figs-metaphor

0

your inheritance

This speaks about the people of God as if they were something God inherited. Alternate translation: “your possession” or “those who belong to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

916

PSA

28

9

e7e7

figs-metaphor

0

Be their shepherd and carry them forever

The writer speaks about Yahweh as if he were a shepherd and the people are his sheep. A shepherd would carry a sheep if it needed help or protection. Alternate translation: “Be like their shepherd and protect them forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

917

PSA

29

intro

b4tt

0

Psalm 029 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 29 is a worship psalm. It tells how Yahweh rules all nature.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s power

God is powerful. All he has to do is to speak in order to control nature.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metonymy

The voice of the Yahweh stands for Yahweh himself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

918

PSA

29

1

kq7e

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

919

PSA

29

1

bc7z

figs-idiom

0

you sons of God

The phrase “sons of” is a way of saying “having the characteristics of.” Alternate translation: “you mighty men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

920

PSA

29

1

i354

figs-abstractnouns

0

ascribe to Yahweh glory and strength

The abstract nouns “glory” and “strength” can be stated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “praise Yahweh because he is glorious and strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

921

PSA

29

2

yv1p

figs-abstractnouns

0

Ascribe to Yahweh the glory his name deserves

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word glory, you could express the same idea with a verb or adjective. Alternate translation: “Honor Yahweh just as his name deserves” or “Proclaim that Yahweh is glorious just as his name deserves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

922

PSA

29

2

rcj6

figs-metonymy

0

his name deserves

The phrase “his name” refers to Yahweh or his reputation. Alternate translation: “as is proper because of who he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

923

PSA

29

2

e4f6

figs-explicit

0

Bow down to Yahweh

The implied information is that the people were to bow down in worship. Alternate translation: “Bow down to worship Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

924

PSA

29

2

da1b

figs-abstractnouns

0

in the splendor of holiness

The abstract nouns “splendor” and “holiness” can be translated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “because he is gloriously beautiful and holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

925

PSA

29

3

dml8

0

General Information:

The psalm shows Yahweh’s power and glory.

926

PSA

29

3

t9g6

figs-activepassive

0

The voice of Yahweh is heard over the waters

God’s voice is louder and clearer than all other sounds and noises. It can be heard over other loud sounds such as the sound of the waters. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “When Yahweh speaks his voice is louder than the sound of the sea” or “Yahweh shouts louder than the sound of the waters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

927

PSA

29

3

z58f

0

over the waters

This refers to the seas or the oceans. These waters make a very loud noise as the waves rise and fall.

928

PSA

29

3

u41c

figs-metonymy

0

The voice of Yahweh

All occurrences of “voice” here represent Yahweh speaking. The writer is emphasizing that when Yahweh speaks, the sound is so loud it is heard over the waters, and it is so powerful it can destroy the largest trees. Alternate translation: “When Yahweh speaks, his voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

929

PSA

29

3

b7zk

figs-metaphor

0

the God of glory thunders

This speaks about God speaking as if it were the sound of thunder. Just like the sound of thunder, Yahweh’s voice can be heard over large distances. Alternate translation: “The voice of the glorious God is loud like thunder” or “When the glorious God speaks it rumbles like thunder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

930

PSA

29

3

srk7

0

over many waters

Alternate translation: “over the large bodies of water”

931

PSA

29

6

s8av

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer continues describing the power of God’s voice.

932

PSA

29

6

kdn3

figs-simile

0

He makes Lebanon skip like a calf

The ground of Lebanon shaking is spoken of as if it were a young calf skipping. This emphasizes that when Yahweh speaks, the power of his voice shakes the ground. Alternate translation: “He makes the land of Lebanon shake like a calf skipping” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

933

PSA

29

6

y9uu

0

skip

jump lightly back and forth

934

PSA

29

6

war4

figs-ellipsis

0

Sirion like a young ox

The words “he makes” and “skip” are understood from the first phrase. They can be repeated here. The ground of Sirion shaking is spoken of as if it were a young ox skipping. This emphasizes that when Yahweh speaks, the power of his voice shakes the ground. Alternate translation: “he makes Sirion skip like a young ox” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

935

PSA

29

6

n725

translate-names

0

Sirion

This is a mountain in Lebanon. It is also called Mount Hermon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

936

PSA

29

7

wk16

figs-metonymy

0

The voice of Yahweh sends out flames of fire

All occurrences of “voice” here represent Yahweh speaking. Alternate translation: “When Yahweh speaks he causes lightning to flash in the sky” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

937

PSA

29

7

rc8c

0

flames of fire

This refers to lightning.

938

PSA

29

9

ht1n

figs-metonymy

0

The voice of Yahweh causes

Here “voice” represents Yahweh speaking. Alternate translation: “When Yahweh speaks, the sound causes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

939

PSA

29

9

sqa7

0

the oaks to twist

Alternate translation: “the large trees to shake”

940

PSA

29

9

f33q

figs-metaphor

0

strips the forests bare

Removing the leaves of the trees is spoken of as if it was removing their clothing. Alternate translation: “strips off the leaves from the trees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

941

PSA

29

10

mk7u

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh sits as king

This means that Yahweh rules. Alternate translation: “Yahweh rules” or “Yahweh is king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

942

PSA

29

10

b6k6

0

over the flood

Here “flood” refers to waters that cover the earth.

943

PSA

29

11

vm7e

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh blesses his people with peace

The word “peace” is an abstract noun. Alternate translation: “Yahweh blesses his people by causing them to prosper and to live peacefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

944

PSA

30

intro

eee3

0

Psalm 030 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 30 is a psalm of praise and thanksgiving to God. The psalmist was near death but God rescued him.

Special concepts in this chapter

The psalmist’s death

If he had died, it would not have been a help to God. But since God rescued him he can praise God.

945

PSA

30

1

iaj9

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

946

PSA

30

1

e8py

0

a song at the dedication of the temple

Alternate translation: “This song was sung when the temple was dedicated”

947

PSA

30

1

ig1t

figs-metaphor

0

you have raised me up

The writer speaks of God rescuing him and keeping him from dying as if God had drawn him up from a deep well. Alternate translation: “you rescued me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

948

PSA

30

3

gel6

figs-metonymy

0

brought up my soul from Sheol

Since “Sheol” was the place where dead people go, it refers to death. Alternate translation: “kept me from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

949

PSA

30

3

sw64

figs-synecdoche

0

brought up my soul

Here “my soul” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “brought me up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

950

PSA

30

3

ryd7

figs-metonymy

0

from going down to the grave

The “grave” represents death. Alternate translation: “from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

951

PSA

30

4

jui4

figs-abstractnouns

0

Give thanks when you remember his holiness

The abstract nouns “thanks” and “holiness” can be stated as “thank” and “holy.” Alternate translation: “Remember that God is holy and thank him” or “Remember what God has done because he is holy and thank him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

952

PSA

30

5

n3py

figs-abstractnouns

0

his anger is only for a moment

“his anger lasts only a moment.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word anger, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “angry.” Alternate translation: “he is angry for only a moment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

953

PSA

30

5

ls29

figs-metonymy

0

a moment

Here “moment” represents a short amount of time. Alternate translation: “a short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

954

PSA

30

5

zm7v

figs-abstractnouns

0

but his favor is for a lifetime

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word favor, you could express the same idea with an adjective such as “good.” Alternate translation: “but he is good to us all of our lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

955

PSA

30

5

vw11

figs-metaphor

0

Weeping comes for a night, but joy comes in the morning

This speaks about “weeping” and “joy” as if they were something that travels and arrives at a certain time. Alternate translation: “We may cry during the night, but the next morning we will be joyful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

956

PSA

30

6

v3a5

figs-abstractnouns

0

In confidence

The word “confidence” is an abstract noun. The writer recalls a time when he was prospering and felt confident and safe. Alternate translation: “When I was confident” or “When I felt safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

957

PSA

30

6

p1kl

figs-metaphor

0

I will never be shaken

The word “shaken” is a metaphor for defeat. Alternate translation: “No one will defeat me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

958

PSA

30

7

d155

figs-abstractnouns

0

by your favor

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word favor, you could express the same idea with the verb “favored” or the adjective “kind.” Alternate translation: “when you favored me” or “when you were kind to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

959

PSA

30

7

m53d

figs-metaphor

0

you established me as a strong mountain

The writer’s security is spoken of as if he were a strong mountain. Alternate translation: “you made me as secure as a high mountain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

960

PSA

30

7

q4uk

figs-idiom

0

when you hid your face

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “when you stopped helping me” or “when you rejected me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

961

PSA

30

7

y2rt

0

I was troubled

Alternate translation: “I was fearful” or “I was worried”

962

PSA

30

8

m69p

figs-metaphor

0

sought favor from my Lord

The phrase “sought favor” means to ask for help. Alternate translation: “I pleaded for you to help me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

963

PSA

30

8

n1hs

figs-123person

0

from my Lord

The writer is referring to Yahweh in third person. It can be stated in second person. Alternate translation: “from you, my Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

964

PSA

30

9

npv8

figs-rquestion

0

What advantage is there in my death, if I go down to the grave?

The writer uses this question to emphasize that he would be of no value to God if he were dead. Alternate translation: “There is no advantage if I die and go down to the grave.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

965

PSA

30

9

h9v9

figs-rquestion

0

Will the dust praise you? Will it declare your trustworthiness?

The writer uses these questions to emphasize that his dead and decayed body cannot praise God. Alternate translation: “The dust will certainly not praise you or tell others about how trustworthy you are.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

966

PSA

30

9

ds6c

figs-metonymy

0

the dust

This refers to the body of the writer which will decay and become dust when he is dead. Alternate translation: “my decayed body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

967

PSA

30

11

fh4q

figs-abstractnouns

0

You have turned my mourning into dancing

It was customary for the Jews to dance when they were very happy. The abstract nouns “mourning” and “dancing” can be stated as verbs. Alternate translation: “You have caused me to stop mourning and to dance with joy instead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

968

PSA

30

11

y5wj

figs-metonymy

0

you have removed my sackcloth

Sackcloth was associated with mourning and sorrow. Alternate translation: “You have caused me to no longer be sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

969

PSA

30

11

l9jm

figs-metaphor

0

clothed me with gladness

The writer speaks of gladness as if it were a garment that he could put on. Alternate translation: “caused me to be glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

970

PSA

30

12

b717

figs-synecdoche

0

my glory will sing praise to you

Here “my glory” refers to the writer’s soul or heart or inner being. This represents the entire person of the writer, who worships God because God has made him glad. Alternate translation: “I will sing praise to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

971

PSA

31

intro

j2an

0

Psalm 031 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 31 is a psalm of deliverance. The psalmist’s enemies thought they had defeated him, but God protected him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Abandonment

Even though everyone deserted and despised the psalmist, God did not abandon him.

972

PSA

31

1

ggk4

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

973

PSA

31

1

yu4y

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

974

PSA

31

1

fs4i

figs-metaphor

0

In you, Yahweh, I take refuge

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “I go to you, Yahweh, for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

975

PSA

31

1

f8jw

figs-activepassive

0

never let me be humiliated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “do not let others humiliate me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

976

PSA

31

2

x6bw

figs-parallelism

0

be my rock of refuge, a stronghold to save me

The phrase “be my rock of refuge” is a request for protection. The second phrase emphasizes the first phrase. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

977

PSA

31

2

tq1e

figs-metaphor

0

my rock of refuge

Yahweh is spoke of as if he were a huge rock that would protect the writer from attack. Alternate translation: “like a huge rock on which I can be safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

978

PSA

31

2

p9xb

figs-metaphor

0

a stronghold to save me

Yahweh is spoken of as if he were a strong fortress in which the writer would be protected from his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

979

PSA

31

3

m5q1

figs-metaphor

0

my rock

Yahweh is spoke of as if he were a huge rock that would protect the writer from attack. Alternate translation: “like a huge rock on which I can be safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

980

PSA

31

3

d9h8

figs-metaphor

0

my fortress

Yahweh is spoken of as if he were a strong fortress in which the writer would be protected from his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

981

PSA

31

3

kti8

figs-metonymy

0

for your name’s sake

In this phrase “name” represents Yahweh. Alternate translation: “so that your name may be honored” or “so that I may worship you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

982

PSA

31

3

nm5d

figs-doublet

0

lead and guide me

The words “lead” and “guide” mean basically the same thing and strengthen the request that Yahweh lead him. Alternate translation: “lead me where you want me to go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

983

PSA

31

4

xp2k

figs-metaphor

0

Pluck me out of the net that they have hidden for me

The writer is spoken of as if he were a bird caught in a hidden net, and waiting for Yahweh to free him from the trap. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

984

PSA

31

4

pg5z

figs-metaphor

0

you are my refuge

Yahweh is spoken of as if he is a place where the writer can hide from people who are attacking him. Alternate translation: “you always protect me” or “you give me constant protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

985

PSA

31

5

e3hz

figs-personification

0

Into your hands

God is spirit, but he is here spoken of as if he has hands. Here “your hands” refers to Yahweh’s care. Alternate translation: “Into your care” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

986

PSA

31

5

ez3i

figs-synecdoche

0

I entrust my spirit

Here “my spirit” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “I place myself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

987

PSA

31

5

m7ux

0

God of trustworthiness

Alternate translation: “you are a God I can trust”

988

PSA

31

6

d1f4

figs-distinguish

0

I hate those who serve worthless idols

Here the word “worthless” refers to all idols. This can be clarified in translation. Alternate translation: “Idols are worthless. I hate those who serve them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

989

PSA

31

7

z4ew

figs-doublet

0

I will be glad and rejoice in your covenant faithfulness

The words “glad” and “rejoice” share similar meanings and emphasize the intensity of joy. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “I will be very glad because you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

990

PSA

31

7

x1wl

figs-parallelism

0

you saw my affliction … you knew the distress of my soul

Both of these phrases express the idea that God knows about the writer’s troubles. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

991

PSA

31

7

ji14

figs-synecdoche

0

the distress of my soul

Here “my soul” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “my distress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

992

PSA

31

8

x76g

figs-synecdoche

0

You have set my feet

Here “my feet” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “You have set me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

993

PSA

31

8

d4bb

figs-metaphor

0

a wide open place

The Hebrews thought of wide open spaces as a metaphor for safety and freedom. Alternate translation: “a place where I am free” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

994

PSA

31

9

iv54

0

I am in distress

Alternate translation: “I am suffering greatly”

995

PSA

31

9

amp8

figs-synecdoche

0

my soul and my body

The terms “soul” and “body” are used to describe the complete person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

996

PSA

31

10

p8pm

figs-metonymy

0

For my life is weary

Here “my life” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “I have become very weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

997

PSA

31

10

nw2b

0

with sorrow … with groaning

Alternate translation: “because of my sorrow … because of my groaning”

998

PSA

31

10

l7fj

figs-ellipsis

0

my years with groaning

The phrase “is weary” is missing, but is implied. Alternate translation: “my years are weary with groaning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

999

PSA

31

10

a1r3

figs-metonymy

0

My strength fails

Here “My strength” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “I have become weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1000

PSA

31

10

b5c7

figs-metonymy

0

my bones are wasting away

Here “my bones” refers to the physical health of the writer. Alternate translation: “my health is failing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1001

PSA

31

11

n8g3

0

people disdain me

Alternate translation: “people insult me”

1002

PSA

31

11

w86t

0

are appalled at my situation

Alternate translation: “are shocked at my condition”

1003

PSA

31

12

w6b3

figs-simile

0

as a dead man whom no one thinks about

People do not think about dead people. The writer does not think people think about him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1004

PSA

31

12

dnb7

figs-simile

0

like a broken pot

The writer speaks of himself as if he was completely useless. “as useless as a broken pot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1005

PSA

31

13

ll6r

figs-ellipsis

0

the whispering of many

It is implied that “many” refers to people. Alternate translation: “many people talking about me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1006

PSA

31

13

pf7q

0

terrifying news from every side

Alternate translation: “scary reports from many sources”

1007

PSA

31

13

d84i

figs-idiom

0

take away my life

This idiom means to kill someone. Alternate translation: “kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1008

PSA

31

15

pr1h

figs-metonymy

0

My times are in your hand

Here “your hand” refers to Yahweh’s power. Alternate translation: “You have the power to decide my future” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1009

PSA

31

15

c577

0

from those who pursue me

Alternate translation: “from people who try to capture me”

1010

PSA

31

16

x22n

figs-metaphor

0

Make your face shine on your servant

The writer speaks of Yahweh acting favorably towards him as if Yahweh’s face shone a light on him. Alternate translation: “Act favorably towards your servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1011

PSA

31

16

hjf7

figs-abstractnouns

0

save me in your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “save me because you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1012

PSA

31

17

fg5c

figs-activepassive

0

Do not let me be humiliated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Do not let others make me feel ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1013

PSA

31

17

vud9

0

May the wicked be humiliated!

Alternate translation: “I wish that God would disgrace wicked people!”

1014

PSA

31

17

mw8m

figs-nominaladj

0

the wicked

This refers to “wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1015

PSA

31

17

n96w

figs-metonymy

0

May they be silent in Sheol

Here “in Sheol” represents death. Alternate translation: “Let them die so they cannot speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1016

PSA

31

18

rvr4

figs-activepassive

0

May lying lips be silenced

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “May someone make these lying lips silent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1017

PSA

31

18

jqf6

figs-metonymy

0

lying lips

These represent lying people. Alternate translation: “people who lie” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1018

PSA

31

18

dig8

figs-nominaladj

0

that speak against the righteous defiantly

Here “the righteous” refers to people who are righteous. Alternate translation: “that say terrible things about righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1019

PSA

31

18

r22l

0

with arrogance and contempt

These terms have similar meanings. Alternate translation: “with a complete lack of respect”

1020

PSA

31

19

c7i2

figs-abstractnouns

0

is your goodness

This can be expressed with a verb. Alternate translation: “are the good things you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1021

PSA

31

19

dge4

figs-metaphor

0

that you have stored up

Yahweh’s goodness is spoken of as if it was something that could be stored up like a harvest. Alternate translation: “that you are keeping ready to use” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1022

PSA

31

19

ld4z

0

those who revere you

Alternate translation: “those who respect you greatly”

1023

PSA

31

19

iu38

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in you

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. See how you translated this in Psalms 31:1. Alternate translation: “those who go to you for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1024

PSA

31

20

q6pa

figs-parallelism

0

In the shelter of your presence, you hide them … You hide them in a shelter

These phrases both mean that God protects them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1025

PSA

31

20

v252

figs-metaphor

0

In the shelter

Yahweh’s presence is spoken of as if it is a strong building where the writer would be safe. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1026

PSA

31

20

dx2q

figs-metonymy

0

You hide them in a shelter

Here a “shelter” represents a safe place. Alternate translation: “You provide a safe place for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1027

PSA

31

20

jre5

figs-metonymy

0

from the violence of tongues

Here “tongues” refer to the people who are speaking violent things against the writer. Alternate translation: “where their enemies cannot speak evil at them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1028

PSA

31

21

jkp6

figs-abstractnouns

0

he showed me his marvelous covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “he showed me that he is wonderfully faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1029

PSA

31

22

uq2j

figs-activepassive

0

I am cut off from your eyes

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “You have removed me from your presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1030

PSA

31

22

aku2

figs-synecdoche

0

your eyes

Here Yahweh is represented by his “eyes.” Alternate translation: “you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1031

PSA

31

22

pa4l

figs-abstractnouns

0

you heard my plea for help

Here “plea” can be expressed with a verb. Alternate translation: “you heard me plead for help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1032

PSA

31

23

a8kd

figs-nominaladj

0

the faithful

This refers to the faithful people. Alternate translation: “the people who are faithful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1033

PSA

31

23

el6y

figs-idiom

0

he pays back the arrogant in full

Here “pay back” is an idiom that refers to punishment. Alternate translation: “he gives the proud people all of the punishment that they deserve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1034

PSA

32

intro

le2f

0

Psalm 032 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 32 is a psalm of confession of sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/confess]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Confession of sin

This psalm tells of the sorrow of unconfessed sin; it also tells of the blessing of confession and of receiving God’s forgiveness. It is such a blessing when God forgives sin. Trouble comes when sin is hidden and not confessed. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/forgive]])

1035

PSA

32

1

w4yz

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1036

PSA

32

1

tgw8

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

1037

PSA

32

1

pzp9

figs-parallelism

0

whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered

These phrases have similar meanings. They can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “who God forgives his transgression and covers his sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1038

PSA

32

1

sch5

figs-metaphor

0

whose sin is covered

Here sin that is forgiven is spoken of as if it were covered so that it can not be seen. Alternate translation: “whose sin is ignored” or “whose sin is deliberately forgotten” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1039

PSA

32

2

k682

figs-activepassive

0

to whom Yahweh reckons no guilt

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “whom Yahweh sees as innocent” or “who is not guilty according to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1040

PSA

32

2

m29u

figs-synecdoche

0

in whose spirit there is no deceit

Here “spirit” refers to the person. Alternate translation: “in whom there is not deceit” or “who is completely honest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1041

PSA

32

3

s6cx

figs-synecdoche

0

my bones were wasting away

Here “my bones” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “I was wasting away” or “I was getting weaker” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1042

PSA

32

3

svq8

figs-idiom

0

all day long

This idiom means “continually.” Alternate translation: “all the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1043

PSA

32

4

j9jl

figs-merism

0

day and night

These extremes include everything in between. Alternate translation: “all the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1044

PSA

32

4

xw1r

figs-synecdoche

0

your hand was heavy upon me

Here “hand” refers to Yahweh. The entire phrase is an idiom that means “you afflicted me.” Alternate translation: “you made me suffer greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1045

PSA

32

4

fkc1

figs-simile

0

My strength withered as in summer drought

David’s strength is compared to a small, green plant that turns brown and crumbles in the dry season. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1046

PSA

32

6

rpw8

0

at a time of great distress

Alternate translation: “when they are in great trouble.”

1047

PSA

32

6

yl7l

figs-metaphor

0

When the surging waters overflow, the waters will not reach them

Difficulties are spoken of as if they were a flood of water. Alternate translation: “Then when difficulties come like a flood of water, those people will be safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1048

PSA

32

7

r54z

figs-metaphor

0

You are my hiding place

Yahweh is spoken of as if he was a safe place from the attacks of the writer’s enemies. Alternate translation: “You are like a place where I can hide myself from my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1049

PSA

32

7

u3z7

figs-metaphor

0

You will surround me with the songs of victory

This metaphor apparently means that Yahweh’s protection of the writer is the cause for songs of victory to be sung. Alternate translation: “Because of you I will sing songs of victory” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1050

PSA

32

8

x1lw

figs-doublet

0

I will instruct you and teach you in the way

The words “instruct” and “teach” mean basically the same thing and emphasize careful instruction. Alternate translation: “I will teach you everything about the way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1051

PSA

32

8

mh9j

0

I will instruct

Here the “I” is probably Yahweh who talks directly to David.

1052

PSA

32

8

s74m

figs-metaphor

0

in the way which you should go

Living in the correct way is spoken of as if it were a path that the writer should walk. Alternate translation: “how you should live your life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1053

PSA

32

8

lj3f

figs-metonymy

0

with my eye upon you

Here “my eye” refers to Yahweh’s attention. Alternate translation: “and direct my attention to you” or “and watch over you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1054

PSA

32

9

ry6h

figs-simile

0

Do not be like a horse … no understanding

The writer compares people with no understanding to horses and mules. This could mean: (1) the writer is speaking Yahweh’s words to his readers, “You all must not be like a horse … no understanding” or (2) Yahweh is speaking to the writer as though to a group of people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1055

PSA

32

9

g1b3

0

bridle and bit

Two tools that are used by people to guide horses and mules go where the rider wants them to go.

1056

PSA

32

9

cv6w

0

where you want them to

“where anyone wants them to go.” The “you” here is singular and refers to no one in particular.

1057

PSA

32

10

ann9

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness will surround the one who trusts in him

Yahweh being faithful to a person and protecting that person is spoken of as if Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness surrounded the person. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “Because Yahweh is faithful to his covenant, he will protect the one who trusts in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1058

PSA

32

11

zxp2

figs-idiom

0

Be glad in Yahweh

Here “in Yahweh” refers to what Yahweh has done for them. “Be glad because of what Yahweh has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1059

PSA

32

11

n71r

figs-nominaladj

0

you righteous

This refers to people. Alternate translation: “you righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1060

PSA

32

11

gs62

0

shout for joy

Alternate translation: “shout joyfully” or “shout because of joy”

1061

PSA

32

11

ame7

figs-synecdoche

0

who are upright in heart

Here “heart” refers to the person. Alternate translation: “people who are upright” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1062

PSA

33

intro

m4ih

0

Psalm 033 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 33 is a worship song. It tells how great God is.

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s power

God is the creator and also the God of his people, Israel. Whatever he plans works out. He alone provides safety in battle.

1063

PSA

33

1

b979

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1064

PSA

33

1

x3gc

figs-idiom

0

Rejoice in Yahweh

Here “in Yahweh” refers to what Yahweh has done for them. “Rejoice because of what Yahweh has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1065

PSA

33

1

jn1l

0

praise is appropriate for the upright

Alternate translation: “to praise Yahweh is appropriate for upright people”

1066

PSA

33

4

mcg5

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

Each verse consists of two lines that have very similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1067

PSA

33

4

t8rm

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh’s word is upright

Here “upright” is used as a metaphor for something that is true. Alternate translation: “Yahweh always does what he says that he will do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1068

PSA

33

5

n6zg

figs-abstractnouns

0

He loves righteousness and justice

These abstract nouns can be stated as actions. Alternate translation: “He loves doing what is right and just” or “He loves those who do what is right and just” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1069

PSA

33

5

e631

figs-metaphor

0

The earth is full of Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness

People everywhere in the world being able to see evidence of Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness is spoken of as if his covenant faithfulness filled the earth. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word covenant faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “People everywhere on earth can see that Yahweh is faithful to his covenant” or “Throughout the earth, there is evidence that Yahweh is faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1070

PSA

33

6

qhw8

figs-activepassive

0

By the word of Yahweh the heavens were made

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “By using his word, Yahweh made the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1071

PSA

33

6

bb33

figs-metonymy

0

by the breath of his mouth

This refers to Yahweh’s word. Alternate translation: “by his word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1072

PSA

33

7

xt7h

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

Each verse consists of two lines that have very similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1073

PSA

33

7

k6ey

figs-simile

0

like a heap

“like behind a dam.” The writer describes the creation of the sea as if God piles up all the waters together. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1074

PSA

33

7

eg5a

figs-metaphor

0

he puts the oceans in storehouses

The writer describes the creation of the oceans as if God put them in a storehouse. Alternate translation: “he puts the oceans in their place, just like a man puts grain in a storehouse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1075

PSA

33

8

vc67

figs-metonymy

0

Let the whole earth

This refers to the people on the earth. Alternate translation: “Let everyone on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1076

PSA

33

8

ame6

figs-idiom

0

stand in awe of him

Here “stand in awe” is an idiom that means “be in awe.” Alternate translation: “honor him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1077

PSA

33

9

c3h8

figs-idiom

0

stood in place

Here “stood in place” is an idiom that means “was created.” Alternate translation: “started to exist” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1078

PSA

33

10

x22s

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

Each verse consists of two lines that have very similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1079

PSA

33

10

zp3d

0

Yahweh frustrates

Alternate translation: “Yahweh destroys” or “Yahweh breaks”

1080

PSA

33

10

r5ri

figs-metonymy

0

the alliances of nations

Here “nations” refers to the people of these nations. Alternate translation: “the alliances of the people of different nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1081

PSA

33

10

sn2l

0

alliances

An alliance is an agreement between two or more nations to support each other in a war against a common enemy.

1082

PSA

33

10

evm2

0

the plans of the peoples

Alternate translation: “the evil plans of the peoples”

1083

PSA

33

11

gp8c

figs-idiom

0

stand forever

Here “stand” is an idiom that means “endure.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1084

PSA

33

11

ww4p

figs-ellipsis

0

the plans of his heart for all generations

The missing term “stand” is implied. Alternate translation: “the plans of his heart stand for all generations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1085

PSA

33

11

vhg2

figs-synecdoche

0

the plans of his heart

Here “his heart” refers to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “his plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1086

PSA

33

11

lea7

figs-idiom

0

for all generations

“for all future generations.” This is an idiom that means “forever.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1087

PSA

33

12

w4nk

figs-metonymy

0

Blessed is the nation

Here “the nation” refers to the people of the nation. Alternate translation: “Blessed are the people of the nation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1088

PSA

33

12

ph21

0

whose God is Yahweh

Alternate translation: “who worship Yahweh as God”

1089

PSA

33

12

k4jm

figs-metaphor

0

as his own inheritance

The people Yahweh has chosen to worship him are described here as if they were an inheritance that he has received. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1090

PSA

33

14

r7tm

figs-metaphor

0

he looks down

The place where Yahweh lives is spoken of as if it is above the earth where people live. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1091

PSA

33

15

ch4n

figs-metonymy

0

shapes the hearts of them all

Here “hearts” refers to the thinking of these people. The writer speaks of Yahweh guiding the thinking of the people as if he were a potter who was shaping a bowl. Alternate translation: “guides their thinking as a potter shapes a bowl” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1092

PSA

33

16

w54n

figs-activepassive

0

No king is saved by a vast army

This could be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “A large army is not what saves a king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1093

PSA

33

17

hgn8

figs-synecdoche

0

A horse is a false hope for victory

Here “a horse” represents the strongest part of the army. Alternate translation: “Having an army with strong horses does not provide security” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1094

PSA

33

18

v87c

0

See

This word shows that a new theme begins in this Psalm. Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

1095

PSA

33

18

fy9c

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh’s eye

Here “eye” refers to Yahweh’s attention. Alternate translation: “Yahweh’s attention” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1096

PSA

33

18

y8yf

figs-idiom

0

those who hope in his covenant faithfulness

The idiom to “count on” means to “wait for” or to “expect.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adverb. Alternate translation: “those who expect him to act faithfully because of his covenant” or “those who wait for him to act because he is faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1097

PSA

33

19

z5yv

figs-synecdoche

0

to deliver their lives from death

Here “their lives” refers to the people. Alternate translation: “to keep them from dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1098

PSA

33

20

j64c

figs-idiom

0

We wait for Yahweh

Here “wait” is an idiom that refers to trust. Alternate translation: “We trust in Yahweh” or “We hope in Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1099

PSA

33

20

l55j

figs-metaphor

0

he is our help and our shield

Here Yahweh is spoken of as if he is a shield that protects soldiers in battle. Alternate translation: “he is our helper and protects us like a shield” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1100

PSA

33

21

ujv3

figs-synecdoche

0

Our hearts rejoice

Here “hearts” refer to the people. Alternate translation: “We rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1101

PSA

33

21

eu9i

figs-metonymy

0

in his holy name

Here “holy name” refers to Yahweh’s holy character. Alternate translation: “in his holy character” or “in him because he is holy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1102

PSA

33

22

nn9g

figs-metaphor

0

Let your covenant faithfulness, Yahweh, be with us

Yahweh acting faithfully towards the people is spoken of as if Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness were with them. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adverb. Alternate translation: “May you always act faithfully towards us because of your covenant, Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1103

PSA

33

22

jye8

0

as we put our hope in you

Alternate translation: “as we hope for your help”

1104

PSA

34

intro

az5s

0

Psalm 034 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 34 is a teaching psalm and includes thanksgiving. It teaches that living right leads to a good life. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/life]])

The psalm does not relate directly to the superscription given about Abimelech.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s help

Good people can have problems, but God brings them through these. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]])

1105

PSA

34

1

p9iv

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1106

PSA

34

1

w9ay

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

1107

PSA

34

1

j36y

0

pretended to be insane

Alternate translation: “acted like a crazy person”

1108

PSA

34

1

m4gs

figs-explicit

0

before Abimelech

This refers to a specific historical event that the Hebrews knew well. Alternate translation: “when he was in Abimelech’s house” or “when he was Abimelech’s prisoner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1109

PSA

34

1

klk3

figs-metonymy

0

his praise will always be in my mouth

Here “in my mouth” refers to David speaking about Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I will always praise him out loud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1110

PSA

34

2

rk7h

figs-nominaladj

0

the oppressed

This refers to people who are oppressed. Alternate translation: “the oppressed people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1111

PSA

34

3

me7c

0

Praise Yahweh with me

The verb “praise” is a command to a group. Alternate translation: “Everyone should praise Yahweh with me”

1112

PSA

34

3

n56p

figs-idiom

0

lift up his name

Here “lift up” is an idiom that refers to exalting Yahweh. Alternate translation: “tell people how great he is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1113

PSA

34

3

hjw1

figs-metonymy

0

his name

Here “his name” refers to Yahweh’s character. Alternate translation: “his character” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1114

PSA

34

4

def1

figs-metaphor

0

I sought Yahweh

Here “sought Yahweh” means David was asking Yahweh for help. Alternate translation: “I prayed to Yahweh” or “I asked Yahweh for help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1115

PSA

34

5

t6s5

figs-metaphor

0

Those who look to him

Here “look to” represents seeking help from him. Alternate translation: “Those who look at him for help” or “those who expect help only from him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1116

PSA

34

5

ndy9

figs-idiom

0

are radiant

This idiom refers to their appearance as being joyful. Alternate translation: “are joyful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1117

PSA

34

5

caz9

figs-synecdoche

0

their faces are not ashamed

Here “their faces” refers to the people who look to Yahweh. It can also be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “they are not ashamed” or “they are proud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1118

PSA

34

6

cib3

figs-123person

0

This oppressed man

David describes himself as an oppressed man. Alternate translation: “I was oppressed and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1119

PSA

34

6

qw3c

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh heard him

Here “heard” means that Yahweh helped him. Alternate translation: “Yahweh heard me” or “Yahweh helped him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1120

PSA

34

7

qu9z

figs-metaphor

0

camps around

The angel of Yahweh is spoken of as if he were an army that camps around someone in order to protect them. Alternate translation: “guards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1121

PSA

34

8

qed8

figs-metaphor

0

Taste and see that Yahweh is good

Yahweh’s goodness is spoken of as something that can be tasted and seen. Alternate translation: “Try and experience that Yahweh is good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1122

PSA

34

8

j8ma

figs-metaphor

0

takes refuge

Yahweh is spoken of as if he were a place where people can hide for protection from their enemies. Alternate translation: “trust him to protect them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1123

PSA

34

9

vv95

figs-litotes

0

There is no lack for those who fear him

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “Those who fear him will always have what they need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1124

PSA

34

10

ch59

figs-litotes

0

will not lack anything good

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “will always have the good things they need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1125

PSA

34

11

ge81

0

sons

Here this does not refer to literal sons of the writer, but to the people he is teaching about Yahweh. Alternate translation: “my students”

1126

PSA

34

12

gmc4

figs-rquestion

0

What man is there who desires life and loves many days, that he may see good?

The implicit answer to this question is “every man.” If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “Every man desires life and desires to live many days and have a good life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1127

PSA

34

13

h79u

figs-parallelism

0

keep your tongue from evil … keep your lips from speaking lies

These two phrases refer to the same thing and it is said in different ways to emphasize its importance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1128

PSA

34

13

jy3g

figs-synecdoche

0

Then keep your tongue from evil

Here “tongue” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “Therefore, do not speak evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1129

PSA

34

13

d237

figs-synecdoche

0

keep your lips from speaking lies

Here “lips” refers to the person speaking. Alternate translation: “do not speak lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1130

PSA

34

14

l778

figs-metaphor

0

Turn away from evil

Here “Turn away” is a metaphor for avoiding evil. Alternate translation: “Refuse to do evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1131

PSA

34

14

sjg9

figs-metaphor

0

Seek peace

Here “seek” means to be concerned about peace. Alternate translation: “Try hard to live in peace with other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1132

PSA

34

15

x87w

figs-metonymy

0

The eyes of Yahweh are on the righteous

Here “the eyes of Yahweh” refer to his careful watching. “The righteous” is a reference to righteous people. Alternate translation: “Yahweh carefully watches over the righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1133

PSA

34

15

ihz6

figs-synecdoche

0

his ears are directed toward their cry

Here Yahweh is represented by his “ears.” To be directed toward something means to pay attention to it. Alternate translation: “he pays attention to their cry” or “he answers their cry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1134

PSA

34

16

b3yv

figs-metaphor

0

to cut off the memory of them from the earth

Yahweh will cause people to so completely forget them when they die that it is as if he used a knife to cut off any memory of them. Alternate translation: “so that when they are dead, people will forget them completely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1135

PSA

34

17

ib9f

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh hears

Here “hears” means that Yahweh desires to respond to them. Alternate translation: “Yahweh pays attention to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1136

PSA

34

18

ers6

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh is close

Here “is close” means “ready to help.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh is always ready to help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1137

PSA

34

18

km9m

figs-metaphor

0

the brokenhearted

This is a nominal adjective that refers to people who are brokenhearted. Deep sadness is spoken of as if the person’s heart is broken. Alternate translation: “people who are very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1138

PSA

34

18

zhw6

figs-metaphor

0

those who are crushed in spirit

People who are deeply discouraged are spoken of as if their spirits are crushed. Alternate translation: “people who are deeply discouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1139

PSA

34

19

s9nw

figs-nominaladj

0

the righteous

This refers to people who are righteous. Alternate translation: “the righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1140

PSA

34

20

p78v

figs-synecdoche

0

He keeps all his bones, not one of them will be broken

Here “all his bones” is literal, but it also implies that Yahweh takes care of the entire person. Alternate translation: “He provides complete protection for him, he will not be harmed in any way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1141

PSA

34

21

zrq9

figs-personification

0

Evil will kill the wicked

Evil is described as if it were a man who can kill people. Alternate translation: “The evil deeds of wicked people will kill them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1142

PSA

34

21

rj4c

figs-nominaladj

0

the wicked

This refers to wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1143

PSA

34

21

v5tb

figs-activepassive

0

Those who hate the righteous will be condemned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will condemn those who hate the righteous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1144

PSA

34

21

a6li

figs-nominaladj

0

the righteous

This refers to righteous people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1145

PSA

34

22

pl7j

figs-activepassive

0

None of those who take refuge in him will be condemned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. It can also be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will forgive everyone who takes refuge in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1146

PSA

34

22

wb23

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in him

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to him for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1147

PSA

35

intro

d3ln

0

Psalm 035 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 35 is a prayer for deliverance. His enemies are coming against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Enemies

When his enemies were sick, he tried to comfort them, but when he was in trouble his enemies use this as a time to attack him.

1148

PSA

35

1

u6dy

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1149

PSA

35

2

uj8w

figs-metaphor

0

Grab your small shield and large shield

The writer describes God as a warrior who is preparing himself for battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1150

PSA

35

2

f9eb

0

small shield and large shield

these are defensive weapons

1151

PSA

35

3

e4ia

figs-metaphor

0

Use your spear and battle ax

The writer describes God as a warrior who is preparing himself for battle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1152

PSA

35

3

qr78

0

spear and battle ax

these are offensive weapons

1153

PSA

35

3

z8vr

figs-metaphor

0

those who chase me

This could mean: (1) these enemies are literally chasing the writer or (2) this is a metaphor for people who are enemies of the writer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1154

PSA

35

3

k4rj

figs-synecdoche

0

say to my soul

This refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “say to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1155

PSA

35

3

wz6p

figs-abstractnouns

0

I am your salvation

This can be stated without the abstract noun. Alternate translation: “I am your savior” or “I will save you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1156

PSA

35

4

w6yz

figs-activepassive

0

May those who seek my life be shamed and dishonored

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “May Yahweh shame and dishonor those who seek my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1157

PSA

35

4

pv5x

0

May those

Alternate translation: “I desire that”

1158

PSA

35

4

s62m

figs-metaphor

0

who seek my life

Here “seek my life” means they desire to kill the writer. The writer is represented by his “life.” Alternate translation: “who are trying to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1159

PSA

35

4

fq9w

figs-activepassive

0

May those who plan to harm me be turned back and confounded

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “May Yahweh turn back and confound those who plan to harm me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1160

PSA

35

4

g34u

figs-metaphor

0

be turned back

“be turned back” here is a metaphor for being unable to accomplish their goal. Alternate translation: “be unsuccessful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1161

PSA

35

4

mks4

0

confounded

Alternate translation: “confused”

1162

PSA

35

5

wp56

figs-simile

0

as chaff before the wind

The writer’s enemies are spoken of as if they are chaff that is easily blown away. Alternate translation: “blown away by the wind like chaff” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1163

PSA

35

6

ayu2

figs-metonymy

0

their way

Here “their way” refers to their lives. Alternate translation: “their lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1164

PSA

35

6

w5gp

figs-metaphor

0

dark and slippery

This refers to a way that is hidden and dangerous. Alternate translation: “hidden and full of dangers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1165

PSA

35

6

ehs5

figs-metaphor

0

chases them

This refers to the angel of Yahweh being opposed to the writer’s enemies. Alternate translation: “works against them” or “opposes them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1166

PSA

35

7

h8ne

figs-metaphor

0

they set their net for me

The schemes of the wicked are spoken of as if they were a net that they set to catch the writer. Alternate translation: “they want to catch me in a net like a small animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1167

PSA

35

7

j68b

figs-metaphor

0

they dug a pit for my life

The schemes of the wicked are spoken of as if they were a pit that they dug to catch the writer. Alternate translation: “they wanted to capture me in a pit like a big animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1168

PSA

35

7

kw8m

figs-synecdoche

0

my life

This refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1169

PSA

35

8

iq5p

figs-personification

0

Let destruction overtake them by surprise

Destruction is spoken of as if it was a dangerous animal that would suddenly attack them. Alternate translation: “Let them be destroyed suddenly” or “Let them be surprised because you destroy them suddenly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1170

PSA

35

8

d6rv

figs-metaphor

0

the net that they have set

The schemes of the wicked are spoken of as if they were a net that they place to catch the writer. Alternate translation: “the net that they placed in order to capture me like an animal and harm me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1171

PSA

35

8

e9d9

figs-metaphor

0

Let them fall into it

This is the same metaphor as in verse 7. The net is intended to catch the writer. Alternate translation: “Let them fall into the pit that they dug for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1172

PSA

35

8

n85r

0

fall into it

This could mean: (1) fall into the pit of verse 7 or (2) fall into destruction.

1173

PSA

35

8

q1k1

figs-abstractnouns

0

to their destruction

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word destruction, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “so that they will be destroyed” or “that is how you should destroy them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1174

PSA

35

9

gv3z

figs-abstractnouns

0

in his salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “because you save me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1175

PSA

35

10

dy1n

figs-metonymy

0

All my bones

Here “bones” refers to the deepest inner being of a person. Alternate translation: “My whole inner being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1176

PSA

35

10

fcx1

figs-rquestion

0

Yahweh, who is like you … those who try to rob them?

The implicit answer to this question is that no one is like Yahweh. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, there is no one like you … those who try to rob them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1177

PSA

35

10

kuz3

figs-doublet

0

the poor and needy

The words “poor” and “needy” mean basically the same thing and emphasize that Yahweh saves many who need his help. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1178

PSA

35

11

j8nd

figs-idiom

0

rise up

This means they testify in a trial. Alternate translation: “volunteer to give a testimony” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1179

PSA

35

12

ns9v

figs-metaphor

0

They repay me evil for good

This is a metaphor which means they give back evil in exchange for the good they have received. Alternate translation: “In return for my doing good things for them, they do evil things to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1180

PSA

35

12

j7e3

figs-abstractnouns

0

evil … good

These abstract nouns can be stated in other forms. Alternate translation: “evil things … good things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1181

PSA

35

12

v5ej

0

I am sorrowful

Alternate translation: “I am extremely sad”

1182

PSA

35

13

jiu2

0

when they were sick

The word “they” refers to the “unrighteous witnesses” (Psalms 35:11).

1183

PSA

35

13

t4yd

0

I wore sackcloth

Alternate translation: “I showed that I was sad”

1184

PSA

35

13

gt7d

translate-symaction

0

with my head bowed on my chest

This was a symbol of prayer. “with my head bent down in prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1185

PSA

35

14

zuy5

figs-simile

0

in grief as for my brother

The writer was as sad as if his own brother had died. Alternate translation: “grieving as if my own brother was ill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1186

PSA

35

14

kn9w

figs-simile

0

I bent down in mourning as for my mother

The writer mourned as if his own mother had died. Alternate translation: “I mourned as if my own mother had died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1187

PSA

35

14

zqf9

translate-symaction

0

I bent down

This was a symbol of pain and suffering. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1188

PSA

35

15

ff5f

0

gathered together

Alternate translation: “assembled together” or “came together”

1189

PSA

35

15

w4hv

figs-idiom

0

against me

This means they came together for the purpose of attacking the writer. Alternate translation: “to make plans against me” or “to plan my destruction” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1190

PSA

35

15

qu3u

figs-metaphor

0

They tore at me

Here the treated the writer as if he were a piece of cloth that they could tear to pieces. Alternate translation: “They attacked me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1191

PSA

35

16

l7dx

0

With no respect at all they mocked me

(1) “With the worthless people they ridiculed me” or (2) “Without respect they made fun of me”

1192

PSA

35

16

j13z

translate-symaction

0

they grind their teeth at me in rage

This is a sign of anger and hate. “they made grinding noises with their teeth at me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1193

PSA

35

17

x3er

figs-rquestion

0

how long will you look on?

This rhetorical question indicates that the writer wants God to stop simply looking on and to start to help him. Alternate translation: “how long will you only watch them doing this?” or “when will you help me?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1194

PSA

35

17

te6n

figs-synecdoche

0

Rescue my soul

Here “soul” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “Rescue me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1195

PSA

35

17

ygg1

figs-ellipsis

0

my life from the lions

The word “save” is implied. Alternate translation: “save my life from the lions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1196

PSA

35

17

kep3

figs-synecdoche

0

my life

This refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1197

PSA

35

17

d2a8

figs-metaphor

0

from the lions

Here the writer speaks of his enemies as if they were vicious lions. Alternate translation: “from my enemies who attack me like wild animals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1198

PSA

35

19

p53g

0

Do not let my deceitful enemies

Alternate translation: “Do not let my enemies, who tell lies about me,”

1199

PSA

35

19

a7lv

0

their wicked schemes

Alternate translation: “their evil plans”

1200

PSA

35

20

pjw3

figs-abstractnouns

0

they do not speak peace

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word peace, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “peacefully.” Alternate translation: “they do not speak peacefully to people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1201

PSA

35

20

sg2n

0

devise deceitful words

Alternate translation: “look for ways to tell lies”

1202

PSA

35

20

e21a

0

those in our land who live in peace

Alternate translation: “those who live peacefully in our land”

1203

PSA

35

20

p638

figs-abstractnouns

0

live in peace

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word peace, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “live peacefully with others” or “do no harm to anyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1204

PSA

35

21

vvg2

figs-explicit

0

They open their mouths wide against me

The reason they open their mouths is to accuse the writer. Alternate translation: “They shout at me in order to accuse me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1205

PSA

35

21

b5wt

figs-exclamations

0

Aha, Aha

This is something an excited person says when he has suddenly seen or understood something, especially something other people did not expect him to see. It emphasizes the statement that follows. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1206

PSA

35

21

s32p

figs-synecdoche

0

our eyes have seen it

Here “our eyes” refers to the enemies’ eyes. It is implied that they are saying they saw the writer do something wrong. Alternate translation: “we have seen it” or “we saw the wrong things that you did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1207

PSA

35

22

gn7x

figs-explicit

0

You have seen it

Here “it” refers to the false accusations of the writer’s enemies. Alternate translation: “You have seen how they falsely accused me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1208

PSA

35

22

tt5p

figs-litotes

0

do not be silent

“do not ignore what they did” This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “judge them because of what they did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1209

PSA

35

22

a6yk

figs-litotes

0

do not be far from me

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “be very close to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1210

PSA

35

23

hkj2

figs-metaphor

0

Arouse yourself and awake

This does not mean that God is actually asleep. The writer wants God to intervene. Both words mean basically the same thing and emphasize the urgency of this request. Alternate translation: “I feel like you are sleeping! Wake up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1211

PSA

35

23

g2zc

figs-abstractnouns

0

to my defense

This abstract noun “defense” can be stated as “defend.” Alternate translation: “to defend me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1212

PSA

35

23

qri7

figs-metonymy

0

my cause

This refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1213

PSA

35

24

h9ku

0

do not let them rejoice over me

Alternate translation: “do not let them be glad because I am suffering”

1214

PSA

35

25

g22z

figs-idiom

0

say in their heart

This is an idiom that means to say to oneself. Alternate translation: “say to themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1215

PSA

35

25

lj61

figs-exclamations

0

Aha

This is an exclamation that is used when something is suddenly seen or understood. It emphasizes what follows. Alternate translation: “Yes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1216

PSA

35

25

vuc2

figs-explicit

0

we have what we wanted

It is implied that the writer’s enemies wanted him to be declared guilty. Alternate translation: “he has been declared guilty just as we desired” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1217

PSA

35

25

p58l

figs-metaphor

0

We have devoured him

The writer’s enemies speak of his destruction as if they were wild animals who had eaten him. Alternate translation: “We have swallowed him up” or “We have destroyed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1218

PSA

35

26

fck7

0

May they be put to shame and may they be confounded who rejoice at my distress

Alternate translation: “May those who rejoice at my distress be put to shame and confounded”

1219

PSA

35

26

p6id

0

May they be put to shame

Alternate translation: “May they feel shame”

1220

PSA

35

26

m9cp

0

may they be confounded

Alternate translation: “may they be confused” or “may they be humiliated”

1221

PSA

35

26

q1m6

figs-activepassive

0

May those who exalt themselves over me be clothed with shame and dishonor

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “May you clothe with shame and dishonor those who exalt themselves over me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1222

PSA

35

26

y2xu

0

exalt themselves over me

Alternate translation: “consider themselves better than I am” or “think they have the right to treat me badly”

1223

PSA

35

26

j7j7

figs-abstractnouns

0

clothed with shame and dishonor

Here shame and dishonor are spoken of as if they were shameful clothes that the writer could wear. These abstract nouns can be stated as verbs. Alternate translation: “shamed and dishonored” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1224

PSA

35

26

he8a

figs-doublet

0

shame and dishonor

These terms mean about the same thing and are used to emphasize how degraded they will be. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1225

PSA

35

27

ywv7

0

my vindication

Here “vindication” refers to Yahweh proclaiming or judging the psalmist innocent.

1226

PSA

35

27

f434

0

may they say continually

Alternate translation: “may they always say”

1227

PSA

35

27

zr5u

figs-activepassive

0

Yahweh be praised

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Let us praise Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1228

PSA

35

27

l9kp

0

who delights in

Alternate translation: “who is happy with” or “who is glad for”

1229

PSA

35

27

ra7f

0

welfare

well-being, happiness

1230

PSA

35

28

b4q3

figs-abstractnouns

0

tell of your justice

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word justice, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “right.” Alternate translation: “proclaim that you act in the right way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1231

PSA

36

intro

a634

0

Psalm 036 General Notes

Formatting in this chapter

Psalm 36 is a psalm of praise. It speaks of how good God is to those who love him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/love]])

Special concepts in this chapter

God and man

Evil people do not think about God; but he is such a pleasure to all who honor him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

1232

PSA

36

1

d19d

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1233

PSA

36

1

hw62

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1234

PSA

36

1

eg5r

figs-genericnoun

0

An evil man

This does not refer to a specific man, but to evil people in general. Alternate translation: “Evil people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1235

PSA

36

1

pzl6

figs-metonymy

0

from deep in his heart

Here “heart” refers to the inner being of a person. Alternate translation: “from his inner being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1236

PSA

36

1

zm16

figs-synecdoche

0

in his eyes

Here “eyes” refers to the wicked person. Alternate translation: “in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1237

PSA

36

2

fd1w

0

he comforts himself, thinking

Alternate translation: “he prefers to believe” or “he wants to think”

1238

PSA

36

2

z7qc

figs-activepassive

0

his sin will not be discovered and be hated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will not discover and hate his sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1239

PSA

36

3

v6yt

0

His words are

Alternate translation: “What he says is”

1240

PSA

36

3

pir7

0

do good

Alternate translation: “do things that are good”

1241

PSA

36

4

d3zz

figs-metaphor

0

he sets out on an evil way

The sinful actions of the man are spoken of as if he was walking along a path that was evil. Alternate translation: “he begins to do evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1242

PSA

36

4

w34n

figs-abstractnouns

0

he does not reject evil

Here “evil” can be stated in another form. Alternate translation: “he does not reject evil behavior” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1243

PSA

36

5

wiw8

figs-metaphor

0

Your covenant faithfulness … reaches to the heavens

The greatness of God’s covenant faithfulness is spoken of as if it were an object that reached as high as the heavens. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “Your covenant faithfulness … is very great” or “You … are as faithful to your covenant as the heavens are high above the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1244

PSA

36

5

m314

figs-metaphor

0

reaches to the clouds

The greatness of God’s loyalty is spoken of as if it was very high. Alternate translation: “is as high as the clouds” or “is enormously great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1245

PSA

36

6

s49q

figs-simile

0

like the mountains of God … like the great deep

These phrases describe the greatness of God’s righteousness and judgments as if they were very high and deep. Alternate translation: “as high as the highest mountains … as deep as the deepest sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1246

PSA

36

6

e8gt

0

you preserve

Alternate translation: “you help” or “you save”

1247

PSA

36

7

vs32

figs-abstractnouns

0

How precious is your covenant faithfulness

The word “precious” refers to how greatly the writer values Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “I greatly value how you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1248

PSA

36

8

vy98

figs-metaphor

0

They feast upon the abundance of your house

Eating much food as guests in a house is a metaphor for God providing all his people need. Alternate translation: “They will have all they need because you will provide it to them” or “You have plenty to give, and you will provide them with all they need” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1249

PSA

36

8

mw7h

figs-metaphor

0

you let them drink from the river of your delights

There are two metaphors here. God’s abundant blessings are spoken of as if they are the water in a flowing river. Also, those who receive those blessings are spoken of as if they are drinking them like water. Alternate translation: “your precious blessings are like a river from which you will let them drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1250

PSA

36

9

wc6m

0

fountain of life

Alternate translation: “source of life”

1251

PSA

36

9

f7u5

figs-metaphor

0

in your light we will see light

Here “light” is a metaphor for true knowledge. Alternate translation: “when you enlighten us, we will know the truth” or “your light is what enables us to know the truth about you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1252

PSA

36

10

d1ua

figs-metaphor

0

Extend your covenant faithfulness fully to those who know you

The writer speaks of Yahweh continuing to act faithfully towards the people as if Yahweh were to extend his covenant faithfulness or make it longer. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adverb. Alternate translation: “Continue to act faithfully to those who know you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1253

PSA

36

10

jtd4

figs-abstractnouns

0

your defense to the upright of heart

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word defense, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. “Continue” is implied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “Continue to protect the upright of heart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1254

PSA

36

10

qms7

figs-synecdoche

0

the upright of heart

Here “heart” refers to the people. Alternate translation: “the upright” or “people who act righteously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1255

PSA

36

11

z9yf

figs-synecdoche

0

the foot of the arrogant man … the hand of the wicked

Here “foot” and “hand” refer to the evil people. These are not specific men. This refers to evil people in general. Alternate translation: “arrogant people … wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1256

PSA

36

11

a5wg

0

drive me away

Alternate translation: “send me away” or “make me leave my place”

1257

PSA

36

12

mm9r

figs-metaphor

0

evildoers have fallen; they are knocked down and are not able to get up

All three phrases describe the evildoers as defeated. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1258

PSA

36

12

q7yf

figs-activepassive

0

they are knocked down

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you have knocked them down” or “you have destroyed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1259

PSA

36

12

bmn7

0

are not able to get up

Alternate translation: “cannot get up”

1260

PSA

37

intro

tv7e

0

Psalm 037 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 37 is a teaching psalm. It provides guidance about how to live a moral and God-fearing life. It teaches that evil people do not prosper in the future. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Envy

Do not envy evil people. Although it appears as though they prosper, soon they will be destroyed and the good people will continue on living. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/good]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/life]])

1261

PSA

37

1

bd2s

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1262

PSA

37

1

a1ye

0

Do not be irritated because of evildoers

Alternate translation: “Do not let wicked people upset you” or “Do not be bothered by what wicked people do”

1263

PSA

37

2

y2vk

figs-simile

0

dry up as the grass … wither as the green plants

Evildoers are spoken of as if they are grass and plants that dry up and die in the hot weather. These two similes both mean they will die. Alternate translation: “die” or “come to an end” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1264

PSA

37

3

eb2r

figs-metaphor

0

graze in faithfulness

Faithfulness is spoken of as if it was an animal that would be strengthened by feeding in good pasture. Alternate translation: “nourish faithfulness” or “increase your faithfulness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1265

PSA

37

4

pbq2

figs-metonymy

0

the desires of your heart

Here “heart” represents the person’s inner being and thoughts. Alternate translation: “your deepest, inner desires” or “the things that you desire the most” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1266

PSA

37

5

wt82

figs-idiom

0

Give your ways to Yahweh

Here “give your ways” is an idiom that means to ask Yahweh to control your life. Alternate translation: “Ask Yahweh to guide your actions in life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1267

PSA

37

5

i61n

figs-idiom

0

act on your behalf

This is to represent another in legal issues. Here, when one trusts in Yahweh, he will defend that person and grant justice to that person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1268

PSA

37

6

lt22

figs-parallelism

0

like the daylight … like the day at noon

Both of these phrases mean about the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1269

PSA

37

6

n8jl

figs-simile

0

like the daylight

This means “in full view of everyone.” Alternate translation: “as clear to see as the light of day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1270

PSA

37

6

jt1t

figs-simile

0

like the day at noon

This means “as visible as the noon sun.” Alternate translation: “as visible as the light at the brightest time of day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1271

PSA

37

7

vgp6

0

Be still

Alternate translation: “Be quiet”

1272

PSA

37

9

qq5y

figs-metaphor

0

will be cut off

The destruction of the wicked is spoken of as if they were a branch of a plant that was cut off and thrown away. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1273

PSA

37

9

ijv6

0

but those who wait for Yahweh

Alternate translation: “but those who trust in Yahweh”

1274

PSA

37

9

rvq6

figs-metaphor

0

will inherit the land

The possession of the land is spoken of as if it will be received as an inheritance. Alternate translation: “will receive the land as their own possession” or “will live safely in the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1275

PSA

37

10

zbl4

figs-idiom

0

will disappear

This idiom refers to the death of the evil man. Alternate translation: “will die and you will no longer see him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1276

PSA

37

11

ma58

figs-nominaladj

0

the meek

This refers to the people who are meek. Alternate translation: “the meek people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1277

PSA

37

11

bs1x

figs-metaphor

0

will inherit the land

The possession of the land is spoken of as if it will be received as an inheritance. See how you translated this in Psalms 37:9. Alternate translation: “will receive the land as their own possession” or “will live safely in the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1278

PSA

37

12

vej2

figs-genericnoun

0

The wicked man

This does not refer to a specific man. It refers to wicked people in general. Alternate translation: “The wicked person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1279

PSA

37

12

k2zu

figs-nominaladj

0

the righteous

This does not refer to specific people. This refers to people who are righteous. Alternate translation: “the righteous person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1280

PSA

37

12

y9px

writing-symlanguage

0

grinds his teeth

The wicked man hates the righteous person so much that he grinds his teeth together to show his anger. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1281

PSA

37

13

g21a

figs-explicit

0

his day is coming

It is implied that “his day” will be a day of judgment. Alternate translation: “the day is coming when Yahweh will judge and punish him” or “the day is coming when Yahweh will judge and punish the wicked person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1282

PSA

37

14

wde8

figs-nominaladj

0

The wicked

This refers to the wicked people. Alternate translation: “The wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1283

PSA

37

14

yet9

figs-synecdoche

0

have drawn out their swords … have bent their bows

Both “swords” and “bows” are weapons used to attack people. The fact that they are “drawn” and “bent” means they are ready to start attacking. Alternate translation: “have prepared their weapons in order to attack” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1284

PSA

37

14

f2i7

figs-metaphor

0

to cast down

This destruction of the needy people is spoken of as if they were clay pots that would break into pieces when thrown down on the ground. Alternate translation: “to destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1285

PSA

37

14

r9uh

figs-doublet

0

the oppressed and needy

These terms both refer to people who are powerless to defend themselves. Alternate translation: “people who are not able to resist them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1286

PSA

37

15

p5xq

figs-synecdoche

0

Their swords will pierce their own hearts

Swords are examples of weapons and “hearts” represent the people. To “pierce the heart” is an idiom that means “to kill.” Alternate translation: “Their weapons will be turned against them and they will kill themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1287

PSA

37

16

d3e8

0

Better is the little that the righteous has than the abundance of many wicked people

Alternate translation: “It is better to be poor and righteous than to be wicked with great wealth”

1288

PSA

37

16

brs7

figs-nominaladj

0

Better is the little that the righteous has

The nominal adjective “the little” refers to few possessions. The nominal adjective “the righteous” refers to a righteous person. Alternate translation: “Better are the few possessions that a righteous person has” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1289

PSA

37

16

w4rb

figs-nominaladj

0

the abundance

This refers to the wealth of the wicked people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1290

PSA

37

17

psr9

figs-metonymy

0

For the arms of the wicked people will be broken

Here “arms” represent the strength of the wicked people. Breaking their arms represents taking away their power. This could be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “For Yahweh will remove the strength of the wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1291

PSA

37

18

f64m

figs-idiom

0

watches over the blameless

To “watch over” means to protect someone. Here “the blameless” refers to the blameless people. Alternate translation: “protects the blameless people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1292

PSA

37

18

ck1b

figs-idiom

0

day by day

This is an idiom that means “continually.” Alternate translation: “every day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1293

PSA

37

19

itw1

figs-idiom

0

when times are bad

This phrase refers to disasters, such as famine. Alternate translation: “when calamities occur” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1294

PSA

37

20

y7p7

figs-simile

0

Yahweh’s enemies will be like the glory of the pastures

The writer compares Yahweh’s enemies to the flowers blooming in the fields. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1295

PSA

37

20

c5yy

figs-metaphor

0

be consumed and disappear in the smoke

The writer speaks of the destruction of the wicked as if they were weeds or wilted flowers in the field that are burned off after the harvest. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will destroy them as fire turns the weeds of the field into smoke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1296

PSA

37

21

bz3p

figs-doublet

0

is generous and gives

These mean the same thing and emphasize the generosity of the righteous. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1297

PSA

37

22

u3r4

figs-parallelism

0

Those who are blessed by God will inherit the land; those who are cursed by him will be cut off

This is a contrastive form of Parallelism. Those who are blessed by God in contrast to those who are cursed by God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1298

PSA

37

22

bf1j

figs-activepassive

0

Those who are blessed by God

This can be stated as active. Alternate translation: “Those whom God blesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1299

PSA

37

22

tev2

figs-metaphor

0

will inherit the land

The possession of the land is spoken of as if it had been received as an inheritance. See how you translated this in Psalms 37:9. Alternate translation: “will receive the land as their own possession” or “will be allowed to live safely in the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1300

PSA

37

22

u6uk

figs-activepassive

0

those who are cursed by him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “those whom Yahweh curses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1301

PSA

37

22

n6u3

figs-metaphor

0

will be cut off

The destruction of the wicked is spoken of as if they were a branch of plant that was cut off and thrown away. See how you translated this in Psalms 37:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1302

PSA

37

23

cq19

figs-activepassive

0

It is by Yahweh that a man’s steps are established … commendable in God’s sight

These can be stated to show the logical connection and clarify the passive clause. Alternate translation: “If a man lives in a commendable way in Yahweh’s sight, Yahweh will establish his steps” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1303

PSA

37

23

fba1

figs-activepassive

0

It is by Yahweh that a man’s steps are established

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh is the one who enables a man to be successful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1304

PSA

37

23

c8pu

figs-genericnoun

0

a man … the man

This does not refer to a specific man, but to people in general. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1305

PSA

37

23

na5m

figs-metonymy

0

a man’s steps

Steps represent the way a person lives. Alternate translation: “the way a man lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1306

PSA

37

24

c1m3

figs-metaphor

0

Though he stumbles, he will not fall down

Here “stumble” and “fall” refer to the man’s reaction to difficult times. Alternate translation: “Though he has difficult times, he will not utterly fail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1307

PSA

37

24

k1r7

figs-metonymy

0

holding him with his hand

Here “his hand” refers to Yahweh’s power, and “holding him” refers to protecting him. Alternate translation: “protecting him with his power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1308

PSA

37

25

g5w1

figs-activepassive

0

the righteous person abandoned

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh forsake the righteous person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1309

PSA

37

25

nq7e

figs-genericnoun

0

the righteous person

This does not refer to a specific person. It is a general statement. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1310

PSA

37

25

rv2w

figs-synecdoche

0

begging for bread

Here “bread” represents food in general. Alternate translation: begging for food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1311

PSA

37

26

jp6j

figs-idiom

0

All the day long he is

This idiom means this action is a habit of his life. Alternate translation: “He is always (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1312

PSA

37

26

iry2

0

his children become a blessing

Alternate translation: “his children grow up to bless others”

1313

PSA

37

27

v1dr

figs-metaphor

0

Turn away from

To stop doing something is spoken of as if the person turned away from it. Alternate translation: “Stop doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1314

PSA

37

28

ybg7

figs-activepassive

0

They are preserved forever

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will protect them forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1315

PSA

37

28

ga2f

figs-metaphor

0

will be cut off

The destruction of the wicked is spoken of as if they were a branch of plant that was cut off and thrown away. See how you translated this in Psalms 37:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1316

PSA

37

29

t6ic

figs-metaphor

0

will inherit the land

The possession of the land is spoken of as if it had been received as an inheritance. See how you translated this in Psalms 37:9. Alternate translation: “will receive the land as their own possession” or “will be allowed to live safely in the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1317

PSA

37

30

u8ut

figs-nominaladj

0

the righteous

This refers to the people who are righteous. Alternate translation: “the righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1318

PSA

37

30

w34s

figs-synecdoche

0

The mouth of the righteous person

Here “mouth” represents the whole person who speaks. Alternate translation: “The righteous person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1319

PSA

37

30

hy67

figs-abstractnouns

0

speaks wisdom

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wisdom, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “wise.” Alternate translation: “gives wise advice to others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1320

PSA

37

30

xy8u

figs-abstractnouns

0

increases justice

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word justice, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “encourages other people to live rightly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1321

PSA

37

31

bga8

figs-metonymy

0

The law of his God is in his heart

Here “in his heart” refers to his deepest inner being. Alternate translation: “He treasures the commands of his God in his inner being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1322

PSA

37

31

nf23

figs-metaphor

0

his feet will not slip

Here failure to obey Yahweh is spoken of as slipping off a safe path and falling. Alternate translation: “he will walk safely in the way God wants him to walk” or “he will safely do the things God wants him to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1323

PSA

37

32

jz23

figs-genericnoun

0

The wicked person … the righteous person

These words refer to any wicked or righteous person or to wicked and righteous people in general, not to specific people. Alternate translation: “Wicked people … righteous people” or “Any wicked person” or “any righteous person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1324

PSA

37

32

w8bk

figs-explicit

0

watches the righteous person

Here the watching implies observing the righteous in order to do them harm. Alternate translation: “waits in ambush for the righteous person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1325

PSA

37

33

ea9s

figs-genericnoun

0

the evil person’s hand

These words refer to the hand of any evil person, not of any specific person. Here “hand” represents power or control. Alternate translation: “evil people’s hands” or “the power of the evil person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1326

PSA

37

33

z9fb

figs-activepassive

0

when he is judged

This refers to Yahweh judging the righteous man. Alternate translation: “When Yahweh judges him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1327

PSA

37

34

eu5a

figs-metaphor

0

he will raise you up to possess the land

Here “raise you up” refers to God giving honor to those who wait for him. Alternate translation: “he will honor you by giving you the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1328

PSA

37

34

lj8c

figs-nominaladj

0

the wicked

This refers to wicked people. Alternate translation: “the wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1329

PSA

37

34

k2fq

figs-metaphor

0

are cut off

The destruction of the wicked is spoken of as if they were a branch of a plant that was cut off and thrown away. See how you translated a similar phrase in Psalms 37:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1330

PSA

37

35

ec1h

figs-genericnoun

0

the wicked and terrifying person

This does not refer to a specific person. It is a general statement. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1331

PSA

37

35

d6gn

figs-simile

0

spread out like a green tree in its native soil

Here the prosperity of the wicked man is spoken of as if he were a healthy tree growing in good soil. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1332

PSA

37

36

lz97

figs-activepassive

0

he could not be found

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I could not find him” or “Yahweh had taken him away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1333

PSA

37

37

pn9i

figs-genericnoun

0

the man of integrity

This does not refer to a specific person. It is a general statement. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1334

PSA

37

37

cy8i

0

mark the upright

Alternate translation: “note carefully the good people” or “notice the good people”

1335

PSA

37

38

dqj8

figs-activepassive

0

the future for the wicked man is cut off

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will end his family line” or “he will not have any descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1336

PSA

37

38

pn38

figs-metonymy

0

the future

This refers to his descendants. Alternate translation: “his descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1337

PSA

37

38

al71

figs-genericnoun

0

the wicked man

This does not refer to a specific person. It is a general statement. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

1338

PSA

37

38

a22i

figs-metaphor

0

is cut off

The destruction of the wicked is spoken of as if they were a branch of a plant that was cut off and thrown away. See how you translated a similar phrase in Psalms 37:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1339

PSA

37

39

m69g

figs-abstractnouns

0

Salvation of the righteous comes from Yahweh

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word Salvation, you could express the same idea with an action. Alternate translation: “Yahweh rescues the righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1340

PSA

37

39

rjp3

figs-nominaladj

0

the righteous

This refers to the righteous people. Alternate translation: “the righteous people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1341

PSA

37

40

jus5

figs-parallelism

0

helps … rescues … saves

This same idea is repeated in several different ways to emphasize that Yahweh is dependable and able to give aid. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1342

PSA

37

40

qwg7

figs-metaphor

0

they have taken refuge in him

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “they have gone to him for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1343

PSA

38

intro

ysy3

0

Psalm 038 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 38 is a confession of sin and a prayer for deliverance. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/confess]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Author’s sickness

The author was very sick and his enemies were seeking ways to destroy him.

1344

PSA

38

1

nsf9

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1345

PSA

38

1

n1x9

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

1346

PSA

38

1

nd38

figs-parallelism

0

do not rebuke me in your anger … do not punish me in your wrath

These phrases mean basically the same thing and the idea is repeated for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1347

PSA

38

2

z5x4

figs-metaphor

0

your arrows pierce me

The severity of Yahweh’s punishment of the writer is spoken of as if Yahweh had shot arrows into the writer. Alternate translation: “Your punishment is as painful as if you had shot arrows into me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1348

PSA

38

2

w3fq

figs-metaphor

0

your hand presses me down

Yahweh’s punishment of the writer is spoken of as if Yahweh was smashing the writer with his hand. Here, “hand” refers to Yahweh’s power. Alternate translation: “your power knocks me down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1349

PSA

38

3

m6l5

figs-synecdoche

0

there is no health in my bones because of my sin

Here “my bones” represents the body of the writer. Alternate translation: “my whole body is diseased because of my sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1350

PSA

38

4

m7wm

figs-metaphor

0

my iniquities overwhelm me

The writer’s iniquities are spoken of as if they are a flood of water that covers him. Alternate translation: “my iniquities cover me like a flood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1351

PSA

38

4

p4hm

figs-metaphor

0

they are a burden too heavy for me

The writer’s iniquities are spoken of as if they are a heavy load that he cannot lift. Alternate translation: “they are like a load that is too heavy for me to lift” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1352

PSA

38

5

yf37

figs-explicit

0

My wounds are infected and smell

Here “smell” refer to his sores having a bad smell that is associated with rotting flesh. Alternate translation: “My wounds are infected and stink as they rot” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1353

PSA

38

6

z27f

figs-metaphor

0

I am stooped over

The pain of the writer’s wounds have caused him to be bent over as if he were an old, feeble man. Alternate translation: “I am bent over in pain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1354

PSA

38

7

b2u7

figs-metaphor

0

I am filled with burning

The writer’s is so sick with fever that it is as if he is burning inside. Alternate translation: “My body is burning with fever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1355

PSA

38

7

a9kv

figs-synecdoche

0

there is no health in my flesh

Here “my flesh” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “I am completely sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1356

PSA

38

8

zm7m

figs-metaphor

0

utterly crushed

The writer’s illness is so severe that it is as if a huge weight is pressing down on him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1357

PSA

38

8

z68c

figs-synecdoche

0

anguish of my heart

Here “my heart” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “my anguish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1358

PSA

38

9

f3ph

figs-synecdoche

0

my heart’s deepest yearnings

Here “my heart” refers to the writer. It may be helpful to state that the writer desires good health. Alternate translation: “My strongest desires” or “that I desire you to heal me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1359

PSA

38

9

dqp9

figs-activepassive

0

my groanings are not hidden from you

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you are able to see all my moans of sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1360

PSA

38

10

ifg6

figs-idiom

0

My heart pounds

This idiom means his heart beats intensely. Alternate translation: “My heart beats loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1361

PSA

38

10

xnw5

0

my strength fades

Alternate translation: “I become very weak”

1362

PSA

38

10

e7ld

0

my eyesight dims

Alternate translation: “I can no longer see well”

1363

PSA

38

12

bt4z

figs-metaphor

0

lay snares for me

The plots of the writer’s enemies are spoken of as if they were traps that they had set to catch him like an animal. Alternate translation: “set traps to catch me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1364

PSA

38

12

xc5c

figs-parallelism

0

speak destructive words and say deceitful words

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize the hurtful nature of what these people say. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1365

PSA

38

13

z4gn

figs-simile

0

I am like a deaf man … hear nothing

The writer does not listen to what his enemies are saying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1366

PSA

38

13

hm4h

figs-simile

0

I am like a mute man … says nothing

The writer does not speak evil words to or about his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1367

PSA

38

13

s5pm

0

a mute man

a person who cannot speak

1368

PSA

38

14

th66

0

does not hear

The writer does not listen to what his enemies are saying. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile)

1369

PSA

38

14

ir1x

0

has no reply

The writer does not speak evil words to or about his enemies. (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile)

1370

PSA

38

15

px8y

0

you will answer

This could mean: (1) “you will answer me” or (2) “you will answer my enemies.”

1371

PSA

38

16

gan3

0

will not gloat over me

Alternate translation: “will not delight over my trouble”

1372

PSA

38

16

bq5f

figs-synecdoche

0

If my foot slips

Here “my foot” represents the writer. The slipping of his foot is a metaphor that refers to the writer’s troubles and misfortunes. Alternate translation: “If I make mistakes that cause me trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1373

PSA

38

17

s48p

figs-metaphor

0

I am about to stumble

This metaphor could mean: (1) “I am so sick that I am about to die” or (2) “I will soon be ruined.” It may be best not to interpret the metaphor in the text. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1374

PSA

38

17

sbz5

0

I am in constant pain

Alternate translation: “I am always in pain”

1375

PSA

38

19

ie1w

figs-parallelism

0

But my enemies are numerous … are many

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1376

PSA

38

20

ca7b

figs-metaphor

0

They repay me evil for good

The actions of the writer’s enemies are spoken of as a financial transaction where they gave him evil things in exchange for good things. The abstract nouns “evil” and “good” can be stated as adjectives. Alternate translation: “They do evil thing to me after I was good to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1377

PSA

38

20

ai9q

figs-metaphor

0

hurl accusations at me

The way the writer’s enemies accuse him is spoken of as if they were throwing accusations at him like rocks. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1378

PSA

38

20

bbb4

figs-metaphor

0

pursued what is good

The writers desire for what is good is spoken of as if he were running after good things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1379

PSA

38

21

czy3

figs-parallelism

0

Do not abandon me … do not stay far away from me

These two phrases have very similar meanings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1380

PSA

38

21

nrs8

figs-metaphor

0

do not stay far away from me

Because Yahweh has not yet answered the writer’s request, he speaks of Yahweh as if Yahweh were standing far away from the writer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1381

PSA

38

22

zv2x

figs-metaphor

0

Come quickly to help me

God is spoken of as if he is running to the writer to help him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1382

PSA

38

22

a3xa

figs-abstractnouns

0

my salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “you are the one who saves me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1383

PSA

39

intro

z1zc

0

Psalm 039 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 39 is a psalm of deliverance from sickness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Life

Life on earth is short. The psalmist wanted God’s healing so he can enjoy the rest of his life. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/life]])

This psalm shares some characteristics of another wisdom book called Ecclesiastes or Koheleth but is more positive.

1384

PSA

39

1

lx3e

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1385

PSA

39

1

rc8d

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship,”

1386

PSA

39

1

br39

translate-names

0

Jeduthun

One of David’s chief musicians had this same name. This may refer to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1387

PSA

39

1

dv6b

figs-idiom

0

I will watch what I say

Here “watch” is an idiom that mean “pay attention to.” Alternate translation: “I will pay attention to the things that I say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1388

PSA

39

1

s4wx

figs-metonymy

0

so that I do not sin with my tongue

Here “tongue” refers to the writer’s speech. Alternate translation: “so that I do not speak an offense against Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1389

PSA

39

1

e8kh

figs-metaphor

0

muzzle

To “muzzle” means to keep a mouth shut. Here David means that he will not speak while he is with an evil person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1390

PSA

39

2

fa7x

figs-doublet

0

I kept silent; I kept back my words

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize that the writer did not speak at all. Alternate translation: “I was completely silent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1391

PSA

39

2

k9fs

0

I kept back my words

Alternate translation: “I did not speak”

1392

PSA

39

3

u5ie

figs-synecdoche

0

My heart became hot … it burned like a fire

Here “heart” represents the whole person. The anxious thoughts of the writer are spoken of as if they were a fire burning inside him. Alternate translation: “I became very anxious when I thought about these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1393

PSA

39

4

vey1

figs-parallelism

0

the end of my life … the extent of my days

These phrases mean basically the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1394

PSA

39

4

bac9

0

Show me how transient I am

Alternate translation: “Show me how brief my life is” or “Show me how soon I will die”

1395

PSA

39

5

in3w

figs-metaphor

0

only the width of my hand

The writer speaks of his lifespan is if it could be measured by the width of his hand. Alternate translation: “only a very short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1396

PSA

39

5

ej3j

figs-simile

0

my lifetime is like nothing before you

This simile states that the length of the writer’s life is so short that it does not exist. This is an exaggeration to stress how short it is. Alternate translation: “the length of my life is barely any time at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1397

PSA

39

5

l7in

figs-metaphor

0

Surely every man is a single breath

Life is short, and the psalmist speaks of it here as if it were only as long as the time it takes for a person to breathe one breath. Alternate translation: “The time that humans live is as short as a single breath of a person” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1398

PSA

39

6

wkn8

figs-simile

0

Surely every man walks about like a shadow

The lives of people are spoken of as if they are as insignificant as shadows. Alternate translation: “Everyone disappears like shadows do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1399

PSA

39

6

i78f

figs-explicit

0

although they do not know who will receive them

Here it is implied that they do not know what will happen to their wealth after they die. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1400

PSA

39

7

y9ll

figs-rquestion

0

Now, Lord, for what am I waiting?

The writer asks this question to emphasize that people cannot help him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “So now, Yahweh, I can expect to receive nothing from anyone else.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1401

PSA

39

9

ll7d

figs-parallelism

0

I am silent … cannot open my mouth

These phrases mean basically the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1402

PSA

39

9

whi2

0

because it is you who has done it

Alternate translation: “because my punishment comes from you”

1403

PSA

39

10

kf2h

figs-metaphor

0

Stop wounding me

God’s punishment of the writer is spoken of as if God was wounding him with a weapon. Alternate translation: “Please stop punishing me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1404

PSA

39

10

hd77

0

I am overwhelmed

Alternate translation: “I am defeated completely”

1405

PSA

39

10

n2ex

figs-metaphor

0

the blow of your hand

God’s punishment of the writer is spoken of as if God was striking him with his fist. Here “hand” represents God’s judgment. Alternate translation: “your judgment on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1406

PSA

39

11

skf5

figs-simile

0

consume the things they desire like a moth

God will take away the things they value in the same way as a moth eats a piece of cloth. Alternate translation: “consume the things they desire like a moth eats away at clothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1407

PSA

39

11

uzd7

figs-metaphor

0

all people are nothing but vapor

The writer speaks of the frailty of people as if they were mist that disappears quickly. Alternate translation: “everyone is completely fragile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1408

PSA

39

12

rx3j

figs-parallelism

0

Hear my prayer … listen to me … listen to my weeping

These three phrases mean basically the same thing and show how strongly the writer wants God to respond to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1409

PSA

39

12

ae4r

figs-metaphor

0

Do not be deaf to me

The writer speaks of Yahweh’s lack of response to him as if Yahweh was deaf. Alternate translation: “Do not ignore me as if you could not hear me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1410

PSA

39

12

nnj1

figs-simile

0

I am like a foreigner with you, a refugee

The writer speaks of Yahweh’s lack of response as if Yahweh considered him to be a total stranger to him. Alternate translation: “I am like a complete stranger to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1411

PSA

39

13

k2nr

figs-metonymy

0

Turn your gaze from me

Here “your gaze” represents Yahweh’s punishment. Alternate translation: “Please stop punishing me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1412

PSA

39

13

kfn1

figs-metonymy

0

so that I may smile again

Here “smile” is associated with being happy. Alternate translation: “so that I can be happy again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1413

PSA

40

intro

ik39

0

Psalm 040 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 40 is a psalm of praise. Many also see it as a messianic psalm, a psalm about Christ. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/christ]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Sacrifices

God is not interested in sacrifices but wants people to obey him and fulfill his plans for them.

1414

PSA

40

1

k46g

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1415

PSA

40

1

q9w4

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1416

PSA

40

1

yu4m

0

I waited patiently for Yahweh

This means the writer was waiting for Yahweh to help him.

1417

PSA

40

1

j6iw

figs-doublet

0

he listened to me … heard my cry

These mean the same thing, and can be combined into one statement. Alternate translation: “he listened to me when I called out to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1418

PSA

40

2

jcv4

figs-parallelism

0

out of a horrible pit, out of the miry clay

These two metaphors mean the same thing. The writer’s danger is spoken of as if it was a deadly pit full of mud. This emphasizes the danger. Alternate translation: “from being trapped in a horrible pit full of sticky mud” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1419

PSA

40

2

yav8

figs-synecdoche

0

he set my feet on a rock

Here “my feet” refers to the writer, and “a rock” refers a place of safety. Alternate translation: “he provided safety for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1420

PSA

40

3

kgu6

0

He has put a new song in my mouth

This could mean: (1) “He has taught me the words to a new song” or (2) “He has given me a new reason to sing.”

1421

PSA

40

3

bl9j

figs-synecdoche

0

in my mouth

Here “my mouth” refers to the writer. Alternate translation: “in me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1422

PSA

40

3

n4gq

figs-abstractnouns

0

praise to our God

The noun “praise” can be stated as a verb. Alternate translation: “a song to praise our God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1423

PSA

40

3

z44r

figs-metonymy

0

Many will see it

Here “see it” refers to hearing the writer sing his song about what God has done for him. Alternate translation: “Many people will hear me tell what Yahweh has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1424

PSA

40

4

cal5

0

Blessed is the man who makes Yahweh his trust

Alternate translation: “Blessed is the man who trusts in Yahweh” or “Those who trust in Yahweh are blessed”

1425

PSA

40

4

z621

figs-nominaladj

0

the proud

This refers to the people who are proud. Alternate translation: “proud people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1426

PSA

40

4

f9yc

0

to lies

The Hebrew word is unclear. This could mean: (1) “lies” or (2) “false gods.”

1427

PSA

40

5

x7v4

figs-activepassive

0

your thoughts which are about us cannot be numbered

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “no one can count all the things you think about us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1428

PSA

40

5

kzt9

figs-parallelism

0

cannot be numbered … more than could be counted

These phrases mean essentially the same thing. The first is stated in negative form, and the second is stated in positive form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1429

PSA

40

6

z1vh

figs-hyperbole

0

You have no delight in sacrifice or offering

This is an exaggeration to express that other things are much more important to God. Alternate translation: “Sacrifices and other offerings are not the things that delight you most” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1430

PSA

40

6

xz9n

figs-metonymy

0

you have opened my ears

Here “ears” refers to the ability to hear. Alternate translation: “you have enabled me to hear your commands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1431

PSA

40

6

mi62

figs-hyperbole

0

you have not required burnt offerings or sin offerings

This is an exaggeration to show that these things were not the most important to God. Alternate translation: “animals burned on the altar and other offerings for our sins are not what you require most” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1432

PSA

40

7

jn6f

figs-explicit

0

the scroll of the document

This refers to a scroll on which was written the word of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “the written scroll” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1433

PSA

40

8

va1l

figs-metonymy

0

your laws are in my heart

Here “my heart” refers to the inner being of the writer. Alternate translation: “I am always thinking about your laws within my inner being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1434

PSA

40

9

k2b6

0

I have proclaimed good news of your righteousness in the great assembly

Alternate translation: “I have told a large assembly of people the good news of your righteousness.”

1435

PSA

40

9

epq1

figs-ellipsis

0

good news of your righteousness

This refers to the good news that God rescues his people. Alternate translation: “good news that because you are righteous, you rescue your people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1436

PSA

40

9

gk2t

figs-metonymy

0

my lips have not kept back from doing this

Here “my lips” represents the writer, emphasizing his speech. Alternate translation: “I have not stopped myself from proclaiming these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1437

PSA

40

10

vb9c

figs-litotes

0

I have not concealed your righteousness in my heart

“I have not kept your righteousness a secret.” This can also be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “I have openly told every one about your righteousness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1438

PSA

40

10

am3c

figs-metonymy

0

in my heart

Here this refers to the writer’s inner being. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1439

PSA

40

10

cn4q

figs-litotes

0

I have not concealed your covenant faithfulness or your trustworthiness from the great assembly

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “I have told everyone in the great assembly about your covenant faithfulness or your trustworthiness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1440

PSA

40

10

bp5z

figs-abstractnouns

0

your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “faithful.” Alternate translation: “how faithful you are to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1441

PSA

40

10

u78d

figs-abstractnouns

0

your trustworthiness

This abstract noun “trustworthiness” can be stated as “trustworthy.” Alternate translation: “how trustworthy you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1442

PSA

40

11

qc48

figs-personification

0

let your covenant faithfulness and your trustworthiness always preserve me

Here “covenant faithfulness” and “trustworthiness” are spoken of as if they were living people who could protect the writer. Alternate translation: “I want your covenant faithfulness and your trustworthiness to always preserve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1443

PSA

40

12

c6b2

figs-metaphor

0

Troubles that cannot be numbered surround me

Here troubles are spoken of as if they were objects that surround and trap the speaker. Alternate translation: “there are more troubles around me than I can count” or “more troubles come to me than I can count” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1444

PSA

40

12

ra9w

figs-litotes

0

that cannot be numbered

This is stated in negative form to intensify the number.See how you translated this in Psalms 40:5. Alternate translation: “that are vast in number” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1445

PSA

40

12

ff9r

figs-metonymy

0

my iniquities

This refers to the consequences of his sin. Alternate translation: “the consequences of my iniquities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1446

PSA

40

12

qng1

figs-personification

0

have caught up with me

The writer’s iniquities are spoken of as if they were his enemies who were harming him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1447

PSA

40

12

x56q

0

I am no longer able to see anything

Versions differ in how to understand this difficult passage. It may mean that the speaker is crying so much that he cannot see anything because of his tears.

1448

PSA

40

12

ixl8

figs-metonymy

0

my heart has failed me

Here “heart” refers to the writer’s inner confidence. Alternate translation: “I am very discouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1449

PSA

40

14

hl37

figs-activepassive

0

Let them be ashamed and completely disappointed who pursue my life to take it away

This can be reordered and stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Let those who pursue my life to take it awy be ashamed and completely disappointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1450

PSA

40

14

l9j5

0

Let them be ashamed and completely disappointed

Alternate translation: “Please make them ashamed and completely disappointed”

1451

PSA

40

14

ff5k

figs-metaphor

0

who pursue my life to take it away

Here “pursue my life” means they desire to kill the writer. The writer is represented by his “life.” Alternate translation: “who are trying to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1452

PSA

40

14

knx2

figs-activepassive

0

Let them be turned back and brought to dishonor, those who delight in hurting me

This can be reordered and stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Let those who delight in hurting me be turned back and brought to dishonor” or “Please have someone turn back those who delight in hurting me and bring them to dishonor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1453

PSA

40

14

k5tz

0

turned back

Alternate translation: “unable to continue”

1454

PSA

40

15

fqa6

0

Let them be shocked because of their shame, those who say to me, “Aha, aha!”

Alternate translation: “Let those who say to me, ‘Aha, aha!’ be shocked because of their shame”

1455

PSA

40

15

i1aw

0

Let them be shocked because of their shame

Alternate translation: “I hope that they will be shocked when you shame them”

1456

PSA

40

15

rbg9

figs-exclamations

0

Aha, aha!

These words indicate that the speaker has seen the hearer doing evil that the hearer did not think anyone knew about. You can use here words in your language that mean the same thing but sound different. See how this is translated in Psalms 35:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1457

PSA

40

16

az21

figs-doublet

0

rejoice and be glad

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize the intensity of joy. Alternate translation: “be very joyful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1458

PSA

40

16

yq7n

figs-abstractnouns

0

loves your salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “love you because you saved them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1459

PSA

40

17

v567

figs-doublet

0

poor and needy

These words mean the same thing and emphasize how helpless the writer is. Alternate translation: “very needy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1460

PSA

40

17

ep4r

0

the Lord thinks about me

Alternate translation: “the Lord cares for me”

1461

PSA

40

17

a8vb

figs-parallelism

0

You are my help … you come to my rescue

These phrases mean the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1462

PSA

40

17

g2mh

0

You are my help

Alternate translation: “You are the one who helps me”

1463

PSA

40

17

zf6l

0

you come to my rescue

Alternate translation: “you come to save me”

1464

PSA

40

17

c1t7

figs-litotes

0

do not delay

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “respond quickly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1465

PSA

41

intro

q9l9

0

Psalm 041 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 41 is a psalm of deliverance. The author’s friends had become his enemies who wanted to see him die but he trusted God to rescue him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Enemies

The author’s best friend had become an enemy. His enemies were happy because they were sure his sickness would result in death.

1466

PSA

41

1

y6js

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1467

PSA

41

1

ay4z

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1468

PSA

41

1

bd73

0

he who is concerned for the weak … rescue him

The words “he” and “him” refer to anyone who is concerned for the weak.

1469

PSA

41

1

glk5

0

the weak

Alternate translation: “weak people” or “poor people”

1470

PSA

41

2

j2lj

0

he … him … his

These words refer to anyone who is concerned for the weak.

1471

PSA

41

3

lt8b

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh will support him on the bed of suffering

The phrase “the bed of suffering” refers to when a person lies in bed because he is sick. Alternate translation: “When he is sick and in bed, Yahweh will support him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1472

PSA

41

3

ygd6

figs-metonymy

0

you will make his bed of sickness into a bed of healing

The phrase “a bed of healing” refers to when a person rests in bed and recovers from his sickness. Alternate translation: “you, Yahweh, will heal him of his sickness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1473

PSA

41

5

yg22

figs-ellipsis

0

his name perish

If a person’s name dies, it means that people forget that he had ever lived. Alternate translation: “when will his name perish” or “when will people forget about him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1474

PSA

41

6

evn1

0

If my enemy comes to see me

The words “my enemy” refers to any enemy in general, and not to one specific enemy.

1475

PSA

41

6

m4zm

figs-idiom

0

he says worthless things

This could mean: (1) “he says meaningless things” or (2) his enemies say things to make him think that they are his friends when they are not. Alternate translation: “he says deceitful things” or “they pretend to be concerned about me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1476

PSA

41

6

c5vp

figs-synecdoche

0

his heart gathers up my disaster for itself

His enemies try to learn all of the bad things about him. Here the word “heart” refers the whole person. Bad circumstances are spoken of as if they were objects that can be gathered. Alternate translation: “he tries to learn about all of my disasters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1477

PSA

41

7

sq8r

0

against me they hope for my hurt

This could mean: (1) “they hope that very bad things will happen to me” or (2) “they are planning to hurt me.”

1478

PSA

41

8

l22y

figs-personification

0

An evil disease … to him

His enemies speak of “disease” as if it were a person who has captured him. Alternate translation: “He is sick with a fatal disease” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1479

PSA

41

8

hfg4

0

An evil disease

This could mean: (1) “A fatal disease” or (2) “Something evil”

1480

PSA

41

8

cay3

figs-explicit

0

now that he is lying down, he will rise up no more

Here the words “lying down” refer to lying in bed because of illness. That he will not “rise up” means that he will continue to lie down, which is a euphemism for death. Alternate translation: “now that he is sick in bed, he will die there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1481

PSA

41

9

jzy3

figs-idiom

0

has lifted up his heel against me

This is an idiom that means his friend betrayed him. Alternate translation: “has betrayed me” or “has turned against me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1482

PSA

41

10

r3b3

figs-declarative

0

But you, Yahweh, have mercy on me and raise me up

This is a request. Alternate translation: “Please, Yahweh, have mercy on me and raise me up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-declarative]])

1483

PSA

41

10

cz3d

figs-idiom

0

raise me up

This means to raise him up from his bed, or to make him recover from his disease. Alternate translation: “make me well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1484

PSA

41

10

h6l4

figs-metaphor

0

so that I may pay them back

The writer speaks of revenge on his enemies as if it were paying to them what he owes. Alternate translation: “so that I may take revenge on them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1485

PSA

41

11

m2j9

figs-events

0

By this I know that you delight in me, for my enemy does not triumph over me

The word “this” refers to what the writer will say next. For clarity, the clauses may be reversed. Alternate translation: “Because my enemy does not triumph over me, I know that you delight in me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

1486

PSA

41

11

h7zl

figs-explicit

0

By this I know that you delight in me, for my enemy does not triumph over me

This can also be translated in future tense, since Yahweh has not yet healed him. Alternate translation: “If you enable me to do that, with the result that my enemies do not defeat me, I will know that you are pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1487

PSA

41

12

dfw3

0

you support me in my integrity

Alternate translation: “you support me because of my integrity”

1488

PSA

41

12

jj35

figs-metaphor

0

will keep me before your face

The writer speaks of being in Yahweh’s presence as being in a place where Yahweh can see him and he can see Yahweh’s face. Alternate translation: “will keep me with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1489

PSA

41

13

s4va

0

General Information:

This verse is more than the end of this psalm. It is the closing statement for all of Book 1 of the Psalms, which starts at Psalm 1 and ends with Psalm 41.

1490

PSA

41

13

xi7f

figs-merism

0

from everlasting to everlasting

This refers to two extremes and means for all time. Alternate translation: “for all eternity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1491

PSA

41

13

d4ws

figs-doublet

0

Amen and Amen

The word “Amen” is repeated to emphasize approval of what has been said. Alternate translation: “May it certainly be so” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1492

PSA

42

intro

mu68

0

Psalm 042 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 42 is a psalm of praise for all that God has done and a prayer for deliverance from the psalmist’s enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s deliverance

The psalmist praises God as he remembers what God has done for him in the past, and he puts his trust in him. He needs rescuing from his enemies. Scholars believe that this psalm is about a man in exile longing for Jerusalem.

Psalm 42 and Psalm 43

Some scholars believe that these two psalms were originally written together as one psalm.

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil of the sons of Korah.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1493

PSA

42

1

t39i

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1494

PSA

42

1

rt7c

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1495

PSA

42

1

c3mx

0

A maschil

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 32:1.

1496

PSA

42

1

h2nj

0

As the deer pants after streams of water, so I thirst for you, God

The author compares his desire for God to the desire of a thirsty deer for water.

1497

PSA

42

1

mi8s

0

pants

heavy breathing from an animal or person that is very tired or thirsty

1498

PSA

42

1

flj9

figs-metaphor

0

I thirst for you, God

The author speaks of his strong desire for God as if it were a strong thirst for water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1499

PSA

42

2

xe9q

figs-metaphor

0

I thirst for God

The author speaks of his strong desire for God as if it were a strong thirst for water. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1500

PSA

42

2

bsl8

figs-rquestion

0

when will I come and appear before God?

The author does not ask this question to get an answer but to show his strong desire to be before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1501

PSA

42

3

mfk4

figs-metaphor

0

My tears have been my food

The author refers to his tears as if they are food that he eats. This means that he is so sad that he cannot eat. Alternate translation: “My tears are like my food and I eat nothing else” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1502

PSA

42

3

nw17

figs-merism

0

day and night

This phrase refers to the entire day by referring to both its beginning and end. Alternate translation: “all day long” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1503

PSA

42

3

hy3m

figs-hyperbole

0

my enemies are always saying to me

This is an exaggeration. His enemies are not saying this constantly; they are saying it often. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1504

PSA

42

3

sa8l

figs-rquestion

0

Where is your God?

The author’s enemies use this question to mock him and to express that they do not see his God helping him. Alternate translation: “Your God is not here to help you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1505

PSA

42

4

d12n

figs-idiom

0

call to mind

This is an idiom that means to remember or think about something. Alternate translation: “remember” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1506

PSA

42

4

k59b

figs-metonymy

0

I pour out my soul

Here the word “soul” refers to the emotions. The author speaks of his soul as if it is a liquid that he pours out. The phrase means that he is expressing his emotional grief. Alternate translation: “I express my sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1507

PSA

42

4

c6f8

0

the throng

Alternate translation: “the crowd of people”

1508

PSA

42

4

gv3q

figs-hendiadys

0

joy and praise

This phrase uses two different words to express one idea. Alternate translation: “joyful praise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1509

PSA

42

5

xs1j

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you bowed down, my soul? Why are you upset within me?

The author refers to his inner self as his “soul,” which represents himself. He asks these questions to rebuke himself. Alternate translation: “I should not be bowed down. I should not be worried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1510

PSA

42

5

cc84

figs-metaphor

0

bowed down

The writer speaks of depression or discouragement as if it were his soul being bent over. Alternate translation: “discouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1511

PSA

42

5

fyf2

figs-imperative

0

Hope in God

The writer continues to speak to his own soul and commands it to trust God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1512

PSA

42

6

lp5z

0

My God, my soul

The writer begins to speak to God about his soul.

1513

PSA

42

6

s443

figs-idiom

0

I call you to mind

This phrase means to remember or to think about something. Alternate translation: “I think of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1514

PSA

42

6

u6xn

figs-explicit

0

the land of the Jordan

This is probably a reference to northern Israel, where the Jordan river originates. Alternate translation: “the land where the Jordan river begins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1515

PSA

42

6

ka3s

0

peaks

mountain tops

1516

PSA

42

6

xh39

translate-names

0

hill of Mizar

This is the name of a hill at the base of Mount Hermon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1517

PSA

42

7

c6aq

figs-personification

0

Deep calls to deep at the noise of your waterfalls

The word “deep” refers to deep waters, which here are likely the streams rushing down Mount Hermon. The writer speaks of them as if they are people calling out to one another as they hear the sound of their own descent from the mountain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1518

PSA

42

7

exq2

figs-metaphor

0

all your waves … have gone over me

The author speaks of his great misfortune and sadness as if they are deep waters that drown him with one wave after another. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1519

PSA

42

7

d5k7

figs-doublet

0

your waves and your billows

The word “billows” is another word for “waves.” Together the two words emphasize the greatness of the waves. Alternate translation: “all of your great waves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1520

PSA

42

8

ef4n

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh will command his covenant faithfulness in the daytime

The writer speaks of Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness as if it were a person whom he commands to be with him. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will show me his covenant faithfulness in the daytime” or “Yahweh will show me in the daytime how faithful he is to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1521

PSA

42

8

jsc8

0

his song

This could mean: (1) “the song that he gives me” or (2) “the song about him”

1522

PSA

42

8

xm7t

0

the God of my life

Alternate translation: “the God who gives me life”

1523

PSA

42

9

si6j

figs-metaphor

0

I will say to God, my rock

The writer speaks of God as if he were a huge rock that would provide protection from enemy attack. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1524

PSA

42

9

b1ik

0

Why do I go mourning

To “go mourning” is to perform customs related to being very sad.

1525

PSA

42

10

bp1m

figs-simile

0

As with a sword in my bones

The writer describes his adversaries’ rebukes as his receiving a fatal wound. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1526

PSA

42

10

r4wg

figs-hyperbole

0

they always say to me

This is an exaggeration; his enemies are not saying this constantly but are saying it often. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1527

PSA

42

10

ae82

figs-rquestion

0

Where is your God?

The writer’s enemies use this question to mock him and to express that they do not see God helping him. Alternate translation: “Your God is not here to help you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1528

PSA

42

11

evd8

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you bowed down, my soul? Why are you upset within me?

The author refers to his inner self as his “soul,” which represents himself. He asks these questions to rebuke himself. See how you translated this in Psalms 42:5. Alternate translation: “I should not be bowed down, I should not be worried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1529

PSA

42

11

wp6h

figs-metaphor

0

bowed down

The writer speaks of depression or discouragement as if it were his soul being bent over. See how you translated this in Psalms 42:5. Alternate translation: “discouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1530

PSA

42

11

ghd7

figs-imperative

0

Hope in God

The writer continues to speak to his own soul and commands it to trust God. See how you translated this in Psalms 42:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1531

PSA

43

intro

x44y

0

Psalm 043 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 43 is a psalm of deliverance. It is a plea for rescue from the psalmist’s enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Encouragement

The author should not be discouraged because he trusts in God to deliver him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Psalm 42 and Psalm 43

Some scholars believe that these two psalms were originally written together as one psalm.

1532

PSA

43

1

il4d

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1533

PSA

43

2

quk8

0

the God of my strength

This could mean: (1) “the God who protects me” or (2) “the God who gives me strength.”

1534

PSA

43

2

a96e

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you rejected me? Why do I go about in mourning because of the oppression of the enemy?

The writer asks these questions in order to complain to God and express his emotions, not to receive an answer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1535

PSA

43

2

cpw2

0

Why do I go about in mourning

To “go about in mourning” is to perform customs related to being very sad.

1536

PSA

43

2

d84h

figs-abstractnouns

0

because of the oppression of the enemy

The word “oppression” can be translated as a verb. Alternate translation: “because my enemy oppresses me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1537

PSA

43

3

e7jd

figs-metaphor

0

send out your light and your truth

The writer speaks of God’s deliverance as if it were a light that shows him the way and truth that teaches him how to live. Alternate translation: “guide me with your light and truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1538

PSA

43

3

uhy4

figs-metonymy

0

holy hill

This refers to the hill in Jerusalem where the temple is located and thus to the temple itself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1539

PSA

43

3

rr6l

0

to your dwelling

Alternate translation: “to the place where you live”

1540

PSA

43

4

r8lp

0

God my exceeding joy

Alternate translation: “God who is my very great joy” or “God who gives me very great joy”

1541

PSA

43

5

qb88

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you bowed down, my soul? Why are you upset within me?

The author refers to his inner self as his “soul,” which represents himself. He asks these questions to rebuke himself. See how you translated this in Psalms 42:5. Alternate translation: “I should not be bowed down. I should not be worried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1542

PSA

43

5

wn18

figs-metaphor

0

bowed down

The writer speaks of depression or discouragement as if it were his soul being bent over. See how you translated this in Psalms 42:5. Alternate translation: “discouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1543

PSA

43

5

z1zd

figs-imperative

0

Hope in God

The writer continues to speak to his own soul and commands it to trust God. See how you translated this in Psalms 42:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1544

PSA

43

5

dgl5

figs-doublet

0

my salvation and my God

The phrase “my salvation” refers to God. If necessary the two phrases can be combined. Alternate translation: “my God who saves me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1545

PSA

44

intro

cu7e

0

Psalm 044 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 44 is a deliverance psalm. It is a prayer for God’s help against enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Enemies

When Israel entered the Promised Land, God fought for them and drove out their enemies. Since their enemies have now defeated them, they are in need of God’s help. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promisedland]])

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1546

PSA

44

1

gi44

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1547

PSA

44

1

n2t8

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1548

PSA

44

1

vwd3

0

A psalm of the sons of Korah

Alternate translation: “This is a psalm that the sons of Korah wrote.”

1549

PSA

44

1

d1rs

figs-idiom

0

We have heard with our ears, God

The word “ears” adds emphasis to the statement that they have heard and understood the things that the writer is about to describe. The writer addresses this statement to God. Alternate translation: “God, we have heard clearly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1550

PSA

44

1

ifj6

figs-parallelism

0

in their days, in the days of old

Both of these phrases use the word “days” to refer to the time period when the ancestors of the people of Israel were alive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1551

PSA

44

2

rd1l

0

You drove out the nations

Alternate translation: “You forced the people from other nations to leave”

1552

PSA

44

2

w5ar

figs-metonymy

0

with your hand

Here the word “hand” refers to God’s power. Alternate translation: “by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1553

PSA

44

2

sst2

figs-metaphor

0

you planted our people

The writer speaks of God’s causing the Israelites to live in the land as if he were planting them in the soil like he would a tree. Alternate translation: “you caused our people to live there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1554

PSA

44

3

f15t

figs-metonymy

0

by their own sword

The word “sword” refers to military power. Alternate translation: “by fighting with their own swords” or “by their own army’s strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1555

PSA

44

3

ixc7

figs-metonymy

0

their own arm

Here the word “arm” refers to power. Alternate translation: “their own power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1556

PSA

44

3

cr9y

figs-ellipsis

0

the light of your face

You may supply a verb for this phrase. Alternate translation: “the light of your face obtained the land for their possession” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1557

PSA

44

3

ekr9

figs-metonymy

0

your right hand, your arm

Here the words “hand” and “arm” both refer to God’s power. Combined, they emphasize the greatness of God’s power. Alternate translation: “your great power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1558

PSA

44

3

a1dc

figs-metaphor

0

the light of your face

The writer speaks of Yahweh looking with favor upon them and being kind to them as if Yahweh’s face shone a light on them. Alternate translation: “your kindness” or “your good favor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1559

PSA

44

4

md4f

figs-metonymy

0

victory for Jacob

The people of Israel are referred to by the name of their ancestor “Jacob.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1560

PSA

44

5

cn87

0

Through you … through your

Alternate translation: “By you … by your”

1561

PSA

44

5

l9n9

figs-metaphor

0

push down … tread them under … rise up

The writer speaks of his enemies’ defeat as if they are “down” and of their preparing to fight as if they are “up.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1562

PSA

44

5

u2c5

figs-metonymy

0

through your name

Here the word “name” refers to God’s power and authority. Alternate translation: “by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1563

PSA

44

5

ze87

0

tread them under

Alternate translation: “tread them under our feet” or “walk on top of them”

1564

PSA

44

8

ql57

figs-abstractnouns

0

we have made our boast

The word “boast” can be translated with a verb. Alternate translation: “we have boasted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1565

PSA

44

8

qb7z

figs-metonymy

0

we will give thanks to your name

Here the word “name” refers to God, himself. Alternate translation: “we will give thanks to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1566

PSA

44

9

tw86

figs-metaphor

0

thrown us off

The writer speaks of God’s rejection of Israel as if he were discarding an unwanted piece of clothing. Alternate translation: “rejected us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1567

PSA

44

10

bc8x

0

spoil

resources and treasures that an army collects after winning a battle

1568

PSA

44

11

cmt5

figs-simile

0

You have made us like sheep to be slaughtered

The writer compares the Israelites to sheep that people kill and eat. As sheep are helpless before those who kill them, so the Israelites are helpless before their enemies. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “You have allowed our enemies to kill us like they would kill a sheep and eat it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1569

PSA

44

11

k8qj

0

scattered us among the nations

Alternate translation: “caused us to live in many different nations”

1570

PSA

44

12

zm14

figs-metaphor

0

sell your people for nothing

The writer speaks of Yahweh allowing Israel’s enemies to conquer them as if he were selling the people of Israel to their enemies but does not require any payment from their enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1571

PSA

44

13

j3ej

figs-parallelism

0

You make us a rebuke to our neighbors, scoffed and mocked by those around us

These two phrases are parallel emphasizing how the people among whom they live mock them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1572

PSA

44

13

ys4c

figs-abstractnouns

0

You make us a rebuke to our neighbors

The word “rebuke” can be translated as a verb. Alternate translation: “You make us something that our neighbors rebuke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1573

PSA

44

13

z6rm

figs-activepassive

0

scoffed and mocked by those around us

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “those around us scoff at us and mock us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1574

PSA

44

14

d6zg

figs-parallelism

0

an insult among … a shaking of the head

These phrases are parallel emphasizing how intensely the nations around them mock them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1575

PSA

44

14

cf7w

figs-abstractnouns

0

You make us an insult among the nations

The word “insult” can be translated as a verb. Alternate translation: “You make the nations around us insult us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1576

PSA

44

14

l1b9

figs-abstractnouns

0

a shaking of the head among the peoples

The phrase “a shaking of the head” can be translated in verbal form. Alternate translation: “something at which the peoples shake their heads” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1577

PSA

44

14

d7ze

0

a shaking of the head

This was a gesture that people used to show scorn to others.

1578

PSA

44

15

lk1b

figs-metaphor

0

my dishonor is before me

The writer speaks of his dishonor as if it were an object that is always in front of him for him to see. The phrase means that he is always thinking about his dishonor. Alternate translation: “I think about my dishonor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1579

PSA

44

15

l48m

figs-metaphor

0

the shame of my face has covered me

The writer speaks of his shame as if it is an object that covers him like a blanket would cover him. Alternate translation: “the shame of my face has overwhelmed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1580

PSA

44

15

w1hq

0

the shame of my face

“the shame that shows on my face.” This refers to his facial expressions that his shame causes.

1581

PSA

44

16

p8lw

figs-synecdoche

0

because of the voice of him who rebukes and insults

Here the words “the voice” represents the person insulting him. Alternate translation: “because of what the person says who rebukes and insults me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1582

PSA

44

16

s49c

figs-doublet

0

rebukes and insults

These words have similar meanings and emphasize the harsh nature of what this person says. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1583

PSA

44

18

qi6w

figs-parallelism

0

Our heart has not turned back … have not gone from your way

These two phrases are parallel. The writer speaks of loyalty to God as if it were following him, and disloyalty as if it were turning away from him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1584

PSA

44

18

mf97

figs-metonymy

0

Our heart has not turned back

Here the word “heart” refers to the emotions, and specifically to loyalty and devotion. Alternate translation: “We have not stopped being loyal to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1585

PSA

44

19

d4u4

figs-metaphor

0

you have severely broken us

The writer speaks of God’s punishment as if it were breaking a fragile object. Alternate translation: “you have punished us severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1586

PSA

44

19

dfs9

figs-metaphor

0

in the place of jackals

The writer speaks of Israel after God’s punishment as if it were a wild, uninhabitable place. Alternate translation: “and made our land like a place where jackals live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1587

PSA

44

19

c511

0

jackals

a type of wild dog

1588

PSA

44

19

v695

figs-metaphor

0

covered us with the shadow of death

The writer speaks of death as if it is an object that casts a shadow over those who are about to die. Alternate translation: “made us so that we are about to die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1589

PSA

44

20

k5hu

figs-metonymy

0

If we have forgotten the name of our God

Here the word “name” refers to God, himself. To forget God is to stop worshiping him. This is something that did not happen. Alternate translation: “If we had forgotten our God” or “If we had stopped worshiping our God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1590

PSA

44

20

g9jv

translate-symaction

0

spread out our hands to a strange god

Spreading out the hands is a gesture that people used to worship and pray to a god. Alternate translation: “worshiped a strange god” or “prayed to a strange god” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1591

PSA

44

21

rv5k

figs-rquestion

0

would not God search this out?

The writer uses this question to express that God would know if they worshiped another god. Alternate translation: “God would certainly find out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1592

PSA

44

21

ih8n

figs-metonymy

0

he knows the secrets of the heart

Here the word “heart” refers to the mind and thoughts. Alternate translation: “he knows what a person secretly thinks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1593

PSA

44

22

mxt3

figs-hyperbole

0

we are being killed all day long

The phrase “all day long” is an exaggeration to emphasize that their people are being killed frequently. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “we are always in danger of people killing us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1594

PSA

44

22

exg2

figs-activepassive

0

we are considered to be sheep for the slaughter

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people consider us to be sheep for the slaughter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1595

PSA

44

22

vl87

figs-metaphor

0

sheep for the slaughter

The writer compares the Israelites to sheep that people kill and eat. As sheep are helpless before those who kill them, so the Israelites are helpless before their enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1596

PSA

44

23

b9h3

figs-rquestion

0

Awake, why do you sleep, Lord?

This does not mean that God is actually asleep. The writer speaks of God’s seeming inactivity as if God is sleeping. He asks the question to rebuke God for appearing not to be concerned about their troubles. Alternate translation: “Wake up! I feel like you are sleeping, Lord!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1597

PSA

44

23

z7sm

figs-metaphor

0

do not throw us off

The writer speaks of God’s rejection of Israel as if he were discarding an unwanted piece of clothing. See how you translated a similar phrase in Psalms 44:9. Alternate translation: “do not reject us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1598

PSA

44

24

h91h

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you hide your face … our oppression?

The writer uses this question to complain that God appears to be ignoring them. Alternate translation: “Do not hide your face … our oppression.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1599

PSA

44

24

hj18

figs-metaphor

0

hide your face

The writer speaks of God ignoring them as if God were hiding his face so that he could not see them. Alternate translation: “ignore us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1600

PSA

44

24

jb65

figs-abstractnouns

0

forget our affliction and our oppression

The words “affliction” and “oppression” mean basically the same thing and emphasize the severity of their affliction. These words may also be translated as verbs. Alternate translation: “forget that people afflict us and oppress us” or “forget that people greatly afflict us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1601

PSA

44

25

rzd7

figs-parallelism

0

For we have sunk down into the dust; our bodies cling to the earth

These parallel phrases share similar meanings. The writer describes his people as lying on the ground in a posture of defeat and humiliation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1602

PSA

44

25

f1gv

figs-metaphor

0

For we have sunk down into the dust

The writer speaks of their humiliation as if their bodies were objects, such as ice, that melt and soak into the dirt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1603

PSA

44

25

q4te

figs-metaphor

0

our bodies cling to the earth

The writer speaks of their humiliation as if their bodies were stuck to the ground and they could not raise themselves up. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1604

PSA

44

26

gbh3

figs-idiom

0

Rise up

This is a command to stand. This phrase refers to beginning to act on something. Alternate translation: “Take action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1605

PSA

44

26

uu4n

figs-abstractnouns

0

for the sake of your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “to show that you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1606

PSA

45

intro

hk23

0

Psalm 045 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 45 is a royal psalm written for the king’s wedding day.

Special concepts in this chapter

Beauty

The king has a beautiful palace, and his bride is also beautiful.

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1607

PSA

45

1

v3sl

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1608

PSA

45

1

p8j6

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

1609

PSA

45

1

f1a1

0

set to Shoshannim

This may refer to a style or the tune of the music. Sometimes it is translated as “set to the tune of ‘Lilies.’”

1610

PSA

45

1

ty3v

0

A psalm of the sons of Korah

Alternate translation: “This is a psalm that the sons of Korah wrote.”

1611

PSA

45

1

tug8

0

A maschil

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 32:1.

1612

PSA

45

1

c73i

figs-metaphor

0

My heart overflows on a good subject

The writer speaks of his heart as if it were a container that overflows with liquid. The word “heart” represents his emotions, which are excited by the song that he sings. Alternate translation: “My emotions are excited about a good subject” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1613

PSA

45

1

puh2

0

a good subject

“a noble theme” or “a beautiful word.” This refers to the song that he has written.

1614

PSA

45

1

w2cc

0

composed

to have written or created a song

1615

PSA

45

1

chy8

figs-metaphor

0

my tongue is the pen of a ready writer

The writer speaks of his tongue as if it were a pen. He speaks words as skillfully as an experienced writer writes words. Alternate translation: “my tongue is like the pen of person who writes well” or “I speak words as skillfully as an experienced writer can write words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1616

PSA

45

2

x1mq

figs-hyperbole

0

You are fairer than the children of mankind

This phrase is an exaggeration that emphasizes that the king is better looking than anyone else. The phrase “children of mankind” is an idiom and refers to all humans. Alternate translation: “You are more handsome than any other man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1617

PSA

45

2

an93

figs-metaphor

0

grace is poured onto your lips

The writer speaks of grace as if it were oil that someone has used to anoint the king’s lips. The word “lips” refers to the king’s speech. The phrase means that the king speaks eloquently. Alternate translation: “it is as if someone has anointed your lips with oil” or “you speak eloquently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1618

PSA

45

3

y2u2

figs-explicit

0

Put your sword on your side

Warriors carried their swords in a sheath that hung from a belt around their waist. The sword would rest against their side. This phrase describes an action of someone preparing for battle. Alternate translation: “Prepare yourself for battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1619

PSA

45

4

cyr3

0

ride on triumphantly

The writer tells the king to ride his horse or chariot to victory.

1620

PSA

45

4

s46i

figs-abstractnouns

0

because of trustworthiness, meekness, and righteousness

The abstract nouns “trustworthiness,” “meekness,” and “righteousness” can be stated as adjectives. This could mean: (1) these are qualities of the mighty one. Alternate translation: “because you are trustworthy, meek, and righteous” or (2) these are virtues that he fights to uphold for the people whom he rules. Alternate translation: “in order to fight for what is trustworthy, meek, and right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1621

PSA

45

4

td7g

figs-metonymy

0

your right hand will teach you fearful things

Most soldiers held their swords with their right hands when they fought. Here, the phrase “right hand” refers to his ability to fight, which the writer speaks of as if it were a person who can teach the king through the experience he gains in battle. Alternate translation: “You will learn to accomplish great military feats by fighting in many battles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1622

PSA

45

4

ij55

0

fearful things

“awesome deeds.” This refers to military victories that cause his enemies to fear him and his allies to revere him.

1623

PSA

45

5

k74n

0

the peoples fall under you

This phrase refers to the king defeating his enemies. This could mean: (1) “the peoples fall at your feet in surrender” or (2) “the peoples fall dead at your feet.”

1624

PSA

45

5

zn7a

0

your arrows are in the hearts of the king’s enemies

“your arrows have pierced the hearts of your enemies.” The writer speaks to the king while referring to the king in the third person.

1625

PSA

45

6

d479

figs-metonymy

0

Your throne … is forever and ever

The word “throne” represents the kingdom and rule of the king. Alternate translation: “Your kingdom … is forever and ever” or “You will reign … forever and ever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1626

PSA

45

6

mh74

0

Your throne, God

Possible meanings are that the word God: (1) is a title for the king, who is God’s representative or (2) modifies the word “throne” and means “Your kingdom that God has given you.”

1627

PSA

45

6

h2tn

figs-metonymy

0

a scepter of justice is the scepter of your kingdom

The word “scepter” represents the king’s authority to rule his kingdom. Alternate translation: “you rule your kingdom with justice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1628

PSA

45

7

w1rj

figs-metaphor

0

God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness

The writer speaks of gladness as if it were an oil that God used to anoint the king. That God has anointed him is a symbolic action that represents God’s choosing him to be king. Alternate translation: “when God appointed you as king, he made you very glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1629

PSA

45

8

s741

0

General Information:

Here the writer begins to describe what appears to be the wedding ceremony of the king and his bride.

1630

PSA

45

8

ggv6

translate-unknown

0

myrrh, aloes, and cassia

These are aromatic plant substances that people used to make perfumes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1631

PSA

45

8

mam8

0

ivory palaces

Ivory is a hard white substance that forms animal’s tusks. This phrase describes a palace with walls and furniture that people have decorated with ivory.

1632

PSA

45

8

ldy1

figs-metonymy

0

stringed instruments have made you glad

The words “stringed instruments” refers to the music that people make by playing the stringed instruments. Alternate translation: “the music of stringed instruments has made you glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1633

PSA

45

9

at3w

0

honorable women

These women are wives of the king who receive his approval.

1634

PSA

45

9

bvd2

figs-explicit

0

the queen

This is a reference to the woman who will become queen. Alternate translation: “your bride, the queen” or “your bride, who will be the queen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1635

PSA

45

9

w8kb

translate-names

0

Ophir

This is the name of a place that had a reputation for its fine gold. The location is unknown. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1636

PSA

45

10

d768

0

Listen, daughter

The writer begins to speak to the queen and refers to her as “daughter” because she is a young woman.

1637

PSA

45

10

z8va

figs-metaphor

0

incline your ear

The writer speaks of listening carefully to something as if it were bending one’s ear towards the person who is speaking. Alternate translation: “listen carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1638

PSA

45

10

u572

figs-metaphor

0

forget your own people

The writer speaks of the queen no longer following the beliefs and customs of her native people as if it were forgetting them. Alternate translation: “no longer follow the customs of your people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1639

PSA

45

10

zi39

figs-metonymy

0

your father’s house

Here the word “house” refers to family. Alternate translation: “your relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1640

PSA

45

11

vj28

0

In this way

Alternate translation: “and” or “so”

1641

PSA

45

11

tyk3

figs-euphemism

0

the king will desire your beauty

This is a polite way to say that the king will want to sleep with the queen as his wife. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1642

PSA

45

12

b5qz

figs-metaphor

0

The daughter of Tyre

The writer speaks of the people who live in Tyre as if they are Tyre’s children. Alternate translation: “The people of Tyre” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1643

PSA

45

13

z961

figs-explicit

0

The royal daughter

This is a reference to the woman whom the king will marry. Alternate translation: “The king’s bride” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1644

PSA

45

13

fc31

0

all glorious

“very beautiful.” This refers to the woman’s appearance.

1645

PSA

45

13

aze7

figs-activepassive

0

her clothing is worked with gold

Her clothing is decorated or embroidered with gold. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “she wears clothing that someone has embroidered with golden thread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1646

PSA

45

14

v2p3

figs-activepassive

0

She will be led to the king in embroidered dress

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “People will lead her to the king as she wears an embroidered dress” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1647

PSA

45

14

mrv3

0

embroidered

a design made by sewing colored threads into cloth

1648

PSA

45

14

ji2m

figs-activepassive

0

the virgins, her companions who follow her, will be brought to you

Here the word “you” refers to the king. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “people will bring to you the virgins, her companions who follow her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1649

PSA

45

15

j9m5

figs-personification

0

They will be led by gladness and rejoicing

This phrase describes “gladness and rejoicing” as a person who leads others to celebrate. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Gladness and rejoicing will lead them” or “They will proceed with gladness and rejoicing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1650

PSA

45

15

jxe5

figs-doublet

0

gladness and rejoicing

These two words mean basically the same thing and emphasize the intensity of gladness. Alternate translation: “great gladness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1651

PSA

45

16

x1cw

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer continues to address the king.

1652

PSA

45

16

jy9e

0

In the place of your fathers will be your children

This means that the king’s sons will replace him as king, just as he replaced his ancestors as king.

1653

PSA

45

16

wu3k

figs-hyperbole

0

you will make princes in all the earth

The phrase “in all the earth” is an exaggeration to emphasize that they will rule over many nations. Alternate translation: “you will make rulers over many nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1654

PSA

45

17

n62l

figs-metonymy

0

I will make your name to be remembered in all generations

Here the word “I” refers to the writer. The word “name” refers to the king’s character and reputation. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I will cause people in every generation to know about your greatness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1655

PSA

46

intro

w4ye

0

Psalm 046 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 46 is a psalm of praise to God.

Special concepts in this chapter

God is all-powerful, controls nature, and protects his people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]])

1656

PSA

46

1

pye4

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1657

PSA

46

1

b2mp

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1658

PSA

46

1

t2j8

0

A psalm of the sons of Korah

Alternate translation: “This is a psalm that the sons of Korah wrote”

1659

PSA

46

1

q7sv

translate-unknown

0

set to Alamoth

This may refer to a style of music. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1660

PSA

46

1

sf97

figs-metaphor

0

God is our refuge and strength

The writer speaks of God as if he were a place where people can go for safety. Alternate translation: “God gives us safety and strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1661

PSA

46

2

d2ga

figs-metaphor

0

the mountains should be shaken into the heart of the seas

The writer speaks of the deepest part of the sea as if it were the sea’s heart. Here he describes an earthquake that causes the mountains to crumble and fall into the sea. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the mountains should shake so violently that they fall into the depths of the sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1662

PSA

46

3

nvd8

0

though its waters roar and rage

“though the waters of the sea roar and rage.” The words “roar” and “rage” describe the violent movements of the sea during a strong storm.

1663

PSA

46

3

v7sn

figs-explicit

0

mountains tremble with their swelling

The phrase “their swelling” refers to the waters of the sea as they rise and crash against the mountains. Alternate translation: “the swelling waters cause the mountains to tremble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1664

PSA

46

4

x5va

writing-symlanguage

0

There is a river whose streams make the city of God happy

The imagery of a running river symbolizes peace and prosperity for the city of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1665

PSA

46

4

n4fc

figs-metonymy

0

make the city of God happy

The phrase “the city of God” refers to Jerusalem, and represents the people who live in that city. Alternate translation: “make the people who live in Jerusalem happy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1666

PSA

46

4

ft9r

figs-explicit

0

the holy place where the Most High dwells

This phrase describes “the city of God.” Alternate translation: “the holy place where the Most High lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1667

PSA

46

5

v4ku

0

in the middle of her; she will not be moved … help her

The words “her” and “she” refer to “the city of God.”

1668

PSA

46

5

kf8d

figs-metaphor

0

she will not be moved

Here, the word “moved” is the same word translated as “shaken” in Psalms v. 2. The writer speaks of the destruction of Jerusalem by armies as if an earthquake were to destroy it. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “nothing will be able destroy her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1669

PSA

46

6

ese7

figs-metaphor

0

The nations raged

Here, the word “raged” is the same word that the writer used in Psalms v. 3 to describe the waters of the sea. The writer speaks of the fear of the nations as if it was the violent movements of the sea during a strong storm. Alternate translation: “The nations are terrified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1670

PSA

46

6

m4wd

figs-metaphor

0

the kingdoms were shaken

Here, the word “shaken” is the same word that the writer used in Psalms v. 2 to describe the effect of an earthquake on the mountains. The writer speaks of the overthrow of kingdoms by armies as if an earthquake were to destroy them. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “armies overthrew the kingdoms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1671

PSA

46

6

hp6t

figs-metaphor

0

he lifted up his voice

“God lifted up his voice.” The writer speaks of the “voice” as an object that a person can pick up and raise into the air. This means that the voice becomes louder. Alternate translation: “God shouted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1672

PSA

46

6

p2kl

figs-metonymy

0

the earth melted

The writer speaks of the earth as an object, such as ice, that can melt. Here “the earth” represents mankind, and to melt represents fear. Alternate translation: “the people of the earth tremble with fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1673

PSA

46

7

lc6w

figs-metaphor

0

the God of Jacob is our refuge

The writer speaks of God as if he were a place where people can go for safety. Alternate translation: “the God of Jacob gives us safety” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1674

PSA

46

7

nkp6

figs-metonymy

0

the God of Jacob

This could mean: (1) “the God whom Jacob worshiped” or (2) “Jacob” is a metonym for the nation of Israel and means “the God of Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1675

PSA

46

9

lwa3

0

He makes wars cease

Alternate translation: “He makes nations stop fighting wars”

1676

PSA

46

9

b5gh

figs-idiom

0

to the ends of the earth

This is an idiom that refers to everywhere in the word. Alternate translation: “everywhere in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1677

PSA

46

9

v24c

0

he breaks the bow … burns up the shields

One way in which Yahweh will make all wars to cease is by destroying the weapons that the armies use to fight one another.

1678

PSA

46

9

gst2

translate-textvariants

0

shields

Some versions understand this Hebrew word as “chariots.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

1679

PSA

46

10

y22y

0

Be quiet and know that I am God

Here, God begins to speak.

1680

PSA

46

10

ua4x

figs-explicit

0

Be quiet

In this context, these words are likely a command to the nations to stop their wars. Alternate translation: “Stop fighting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1681

PSA

46

10

u2j9

0

know that I am God

Here the word “know” means to understand and to confess that Yahweh is the true God.

1682

PSA

46

10

ssq3

figs-parallelism

0

I will be exalted among the nations; I will be exalted on the earth

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize that the people of every nation in the world will exalt God. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “People from every nation will exalt me; people all over the earth will exalt me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1683

PSA

46

11

gl4e

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge

The writer speaks of God as if he were a place where people can go for safety. See how you translated these lines in Psalms 46:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1684

PSA

47

intro

j9a7

0

Psalm 047 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 47 is a psalm of praise to God.

Special concepts in this chapter

Yahweh’s power

God is powerful over all the nations in the world.

1685

PSA

47

1

l66j

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1686

PSA

47

1

xf2n

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

1687

PSA

47

1

uqb5

figs-explicit

0

Clap your hands

Clapping your hands is associated with celebration. Alternate translation: “Clap your hands in celebration” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1688

PSA

47

1

n5aa

0

shout to God with the sound of triumph

“shout to God with joyful voices.” Here the word “triumph” refers to the joy associated with victory.

1689

PSA

47

3

bqu5

figs-parallelism

0

He subdues peoples under us and nations under our feet

These two phrases are parallel and mean that God enabled Israel to conquer their enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1690

PSA

47

3

j5mi

0

subdues

to conquer and place under the authority of another

1691

PSA

47

3

sa4s

figs-metaphor

0

under us … under our feet

The writer speaks of conquering other nations as if it were putting those nations underneath their feet. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1692

PSA

47

4

p3vm

figs-metaphor

0

He chooses our inheritance for us

The writer speaks of the land of Israel as if it were an inheritance that God has given the people as a permanent possession. Alternate translation: “He chooses this land as an inheritance for us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1693

PSA

47

4

e7vk

figs-metonymy

0

the glory of Jacob

Here the word “glory” refers to a source of pride and represents the land that God has given to his people as an inheritance. Alternate translation: “the land in which Jacob takes pride” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1694

PSA

47

4

qvz6

figs-metonymy

0

Jacob whom he loved

The word “Jacob” refers to the nation of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1695

PSA

47

5

y2zq

figs-metaphor

0

God has gone up with a shout

The writer speaks of God’s conquering the nations as if God were a king ascending his throne, which was located in the temple. Alternate translation: “God has gone up into the temple as people shouted” or “God has ascended to his throne as people shouted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1696

PSA

47

5

z2zz

figs-parallelism

0

Yahweh with the sound of a trumpet

This phrase parallels the previous phrase. The verb may be supplied for clarity. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has gone up as people blew trumpets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1697

PSA

47

6

wn5w

figs-parallelism

0

Sing praises to God, sing praises; sing praises to our King, sing praises

The phrase “sing praises” is repeated for emphasis. You may omit the repetition if it is awkward in your language. Alternate translation: “Sing, sing praises to God; sing, sing praises to our King” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1698

PSA

47

9

vxi7

0

The princes of the peoples

Alternate translation: “The rulers of all the nations”

1699

PSA

47

9

kg5b

0

gathered together to the people

Possible meanings are that the rulers of the nations: (1) “gather in front of the people” or (2) “gathered together with the people” so that all may worship God as king.

1700

PSA

47

9

eew2

figs-metaphor

0

the shields of the earth belong to God

Possible meanings are that shields: (1) refers to instruments of war. Alternate translation: “God has more power than the weapons of all the kings on the earth” or (2) refers to the rulers of the nations who are spoken of as shields who protect their nations. Alternate translation: “the kings of the earth are subject to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1701

PSA

48

intro

wfx3

0

Psalm 048 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 48 is a psalm of praise for Jerusalem.

Special concepts in this chapter

Jerusalem

Jerusalem has mighty defenses. Foreign nations will be amazed. It is something to remember and testify about. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/testimony]])

It is helpful to know that “Mount Zion” is often used to refer to the city of Jerusalem.

1702

PSA

48

1

s5c1

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a song about Jerusalem being God’s dwelling place. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1703

PSA

48

1

az4y

figs-activepassive

0

greatly to be praised

This can be stated in active from. Alternate translation: “people are to praise him greatly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1704

PSA

48

1

az2x

0

the city of our God on his holy mountain

This is a reference to Jerusalem, which was built on Mount Zion.

1705

PSA

48

1

dj9j

0

the city of our God

This could mean: (1) “the city where our God lives” or (2) “the city that belongs to our God”

1706

PSA

48

2

nl3f

0

Beautiful in elevation

“Beautiful and high.” The word “elevation” refers to how high mount Zion is.

1707

PSA

48

2

y3e3

figs-metonymy

0

the joy of the whole earth, is Mount Zion

Here the word “earth” refers to everyone living on the earth. The word “joy” may be translated as a verb. Alternate translation: “Mount Zion gives joy to everyone on earth” or “everyone on earth rejoices because of Mount Zion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1708

PSA

48

2

r8gx

0

on the sides of the north

Possible meanings are that this phrase: (1) refers to the direction of the north or (2) is another name for Mount Zion meaning “the mountain of God.”

1709

PSA

48

3

qb5z

figs-metaphor

0

God has made himself known in her palaces as a refuge

The writer speaks of God as if he were a place where people can go for safety. Alternate translation: “God has made himself known as one who gives safety to the people in Mount Zion’s palaces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1710

PSA

48

4

lw4p

0

see

The word “see” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

1711

PSA

48

4

fnx9

figs-metonymy

0

assembled themselves

Here the kings represent their armies. Alternate translation: “assembled their armies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1712

PSA

48

4

yk23

0

they passed by together

Alternate translation: “together they passed by Jerusalem”

1713

PSA

48

5

q1px

0

They saw it

Alternate translation: “They saw Jerusalem”

1714

PSA

48

5

k5fi

0

dismayed

greatly troubled

1715

PSA

48

6

xy4p

figs-personification

0

Trembling took hold of them there

The writer speaks of the kings’ fear as if it were a person who caused the kings and their armies to tremble. Alternate translation: “There they trembled with fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1716

PSA

48

6

ees5

figs-metaphor

0

pain as when a woman is in labor

The writer speaks of the kings’ fear as if it were the pain that a woman experiences in childbirth and speaks of that pain as if it were a person. The verb may be supplied from the previous clause. Alternate translation: “pain took hold of them, as when a woman is in labor” or “they became afraid, like a woman is afraid of experiencing labor pains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1717

PSA

48

7

e8iv

figs-metaphor

0

With the east wind you break the ships of Tarshish

This could mean: (1) this is a metaphor in which the author describes the kings being afraid as if they were ships that shake because God destroys them with a strong wind. Alternate translation: “They shook with fear, as the ships of Tarshish shake when you break them with the east wind” or (2) this is an apostrophe in which the author describes God’s great power. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

1718

PSA

48

7

qp44

0

the east wind

This could mean: (1) “a wind blowing from the east” or (2) “a strong wind.”

1719

PSA

48

7

n4q7

0

the ships of Tarshish

This could mean: (1) ships that sail to or are built in the city of Tarshish or (2) any large ocean-going ship.

1720

PSA

48

8

b3ds

figs-explicit

0

As we have heard

It is implied that what they have heard is the great things that God has done in the past. Alternate translation: “As we have heard about the great things that God has done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1721

PSA

48

8

g7aa

figs-explicit

0

so have we seen

This means that they have seen the proof that the things that they have heard are true. Alternate translation: “so we have seen God do great things now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1722

PSA

48

8

pr7i

figs-parallelism

0

in the city of Yahweh of hosts, in the city of our God

Both of these phrases refer to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “in the city of our God, Yahweh of hosts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1723

PSA

48

8

pa6r

0

establish it

“make it secure.” Here the word “establish means to preserve and make something secure.

1724

PSA

48

9

fec8

figs-abstractnouns

0

your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “how faithful you are to your covenant” or “how faithful you are to us because of your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1725

PSA

48

9

wf6y

0

in the middle of your temple

Alternate translation: “as we are in your temple”

1726

PSA

48

10

wrg5

figs-metonymy

0

As your name is … so is your praise to the ends of the earth

Here the word “name” represents God’s character and reputation. The two phrases compare the greatness of God’s reputation with how greatly people praise him. Alternate translation: “Your name is very great … and so people throughout the world praise you greatly” or “People all throughout the world have heard of you … so people throughout the world praise you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1727

PSA

48

10

qf2g

figs-idiom

0

to the ends of the earth

This is an idiomatic expression that means everywhere in the word. See how you translated this in Psalms 46:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1728

PSA

48

10

w3p6

figs-metaphor

0

your right hand is full of righteousness

The writer speaks of righteousness as if it were an object that God could hold in his hand. Here the word “hand” refers to God’s power and authority to rule. Alternate translation: “you rule with righteousness” or “you are righteous as you rule” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1729

PSA

48

11

w7c2

figs-personification

0

Let Mount Zion be glad

The writer speaks of Mount Zion as if it were a person who could be glad. The phrase refers to the people who live in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “Let those who live on Mount Zion be glad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1730

PSA

48

11

csq8

figs-metaphor

0

let the daughters of Judah rejoice

The writer speaks of the towns in Judah as if they were Judah’s children. The phrase refers to the people who live in those towns. Alternate translation: “let the people who live in the cities of Judah rejoice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1731

PSA

48

12

r196

figs-parallelism

0

Walk around Mount Zion, go round about her

These two phrases are parallel. Alternate translation: “Walk all the way around Mount Zion” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1732

PSA

48

13

d5xm

0

notice well

Alternate translation: “notice in detail”

1733

PSA

48

14

wub8

figs-abstractnouns

0

he will be our guide

The word “guide” can be translated as a verb. Alternate translation: “he will guide us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1734

PSA

48

14

rmz8

0

to death

This could mean: (1) “until we die” or (2) “forever.”

1735

PSA

49

intro

r9r3

0

Psalm 049 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 49 is a wisdom psalm. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Riches

Riches do not last forever. They cannot save a person from death, and they cannot be taken from a person at death. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/eternity]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

1736

PSA

49

1

wm6j

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1737

PSA

49

1

f4gj

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

1738

PSA

49

1

a8dr

figs-parallelism

0

Hear this, all you peoples; give ear, all you inhabitants

These two phrases are parallel. Together they strengthen the command for all people to listen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1739

PSA

49

1

ski6

figs-idiom

0

give ear

This idiomatic expression means to use one’s ears to listen. Alternate translation: “listen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1740

PSA

49

2

f6b7

figs-metaphor

0

both low and high

The writer speaks of people who are weak or insignificant in society as being low and of people who are important and powerful as being high. Together, the words “low” and “high” represent all people. Alternate translation: “both important people and unimportant people” or “people of every social class” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1741

PSA

49

2

cq6d

figs-merism

0

rich and poor together

Together the words “rich” and “poor” refer to all people, regardless of wealth. Alternate translation: “all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1742

PSA

49

3

r7z1

figs-synecdoche

0

My mouth will speak wisdom

Here the word “mouth” refers to the whole person who speaks. Alternate translation: “I will speak wise words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1743

PSA

49

3

hx37

figs-metonymy

0

the meditation of my heart will be of understanding

Here the word “heart” represents the mind and thoughts. The abstract nouns “meditation” and “understanding” can be translated as verbs. Alternate translation: “the thoughts upon which I meditate will help you to understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1744

PSA

49

4

wva9

figs-metaphor

0

incline my ear

The writer speaks of listening carefully to something as if it were bending one’s ear towards the person who is speaking. Alternate translation: “listen carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1745

PSA

49

4

ge9u

0

with the harp

Alternate translation: “as I play the harp”

1746

PSA

49

5

yhr6

figs-rquestion

0

Why should I fear … heels?

The writer asks this question to emphasize that he has no reason to fear when bad things happen. Alternate translation: “I have no reason to fear … heels.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1747

PSA

49

5

vu7z

0

the days of evil

“when evil things happen.” Here the word “days” refers to general periods of time.

1748

PSA

49

5

ug31

figs-metaphor

0

when iniquity surrounds me at my heels

This could mean: (1) the writer speaks of the evil desires of his enemies as if it were a predator ready to overtake him. Alternate translation: “when the iniquity of sinful men is ready to overcome me” or (2) the writer’s enemies surround him as they commit their iniquity. Alternate translation: “when my enemies surround me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1749

PSA

49

6

z2gn

figs-explicit

0

those who trust in their wealth

These people trust their wealth will keep them from having to suffer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1750

PSA

49

6

w369

0

about the amount of their riches

a large amount of something

1751

PSA

49

7

mmh3

0

It is certain that no one

Alternate translation: “There is no way that any of them can” or “No one can”

1752

PSA

49

7

cj1n

figs-explicit

0

no one can redeem his brother or give God a ransom for him

Both of these phrases express that a person cannot give God enough money to be able to avoid death. Alternate translation: “no one can pay money to God so that their brother will not die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1753

PSA

49

8

n5rb

figs-abstractnouns

0

the redemption of one’s life is costly

The word “redemption” can be translated with a verb. Alternate translation: “it costs too much to redeem a person’s life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1754

PSA

49

9

nw4t

0

so that his body should not decay

This refers to the body decomposing in the grave.

1755

PSA

49

10

q1ib

figs-metaphor

0

he will see decay

The writer speaks of experiencing something as if it were seeing that thing. Alternate translation: “he will die and his body will decay” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1756

PSA

49

10

v4i4

figs-merism

0

Wise men die; the fool and the brute alike perish

The author refers to all people by referring to those who have the most and least wisdom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1757

PSA

49

10

vpc1

0

brute

This means a person who is stupid or unintelligent.

1758

PSA

49

11

lu71

0

Their inner thought

Alternate translation: “Their belief”

1759

PSA

49

11

brb9

figs-ellipsis

0

the places where they live, to all generations

The verb may be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “the places where they live will continue to all generations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1760

PSA

49

11

zu1i

figs-idiom

0

they call their lands after their own names

“they name their lands after themselves.” This phrase expresses ownership. Alternate translation: “they own their own lands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1761

PSA

49

12

ma8l

0

But man, having wealth

Alternate translation: “But man, even if he has wealth”

1762

PSA

49

13

chs8

figs-metaphor

0

This, their way, is their folly

The writer speaks of the fate of fools as if it is the destination at the end of the path on which they walk. Alternate translation: “This is the fate of those who practice folly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1763

PSA

49

13

aze6

0

yet after them

Alternate translation: “yet after they die”

1764

PSA

49

14

yp7j

figs-simile

0

Like sheep

The writer compares people who will all die to a flock of sheep. Just as sheep cannot escape when the butcher decides to slaughter them, so men will not escape when it is their time to die. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1765

PSA

49

14

le72

figs-activepassive

0

they are appointed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God has appointed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1766

PSA

49

14

jp6p

figs-personification

0

death will be their shepherd

The writer speaks of men dying by personifying death as a shepherd who leads them into the grave. Alternate translation: “death will take them away as a shepherd leads away sheep to be slaughtered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1767

PSA

49

14

fu5c

figs-metaphor

0

in the morning

Here the word “morning” is a metaphor that refers to a time when God will vindicate righteous people and save them from evil people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1768

PSA

49

14

xwx2

figs-personification

0

their bodies will be consumed in Sheol

The writer speaks of Sheol, the place of the dead, as if it were a person or animal. He speaks of the decay of dead bodies as if Sheol were eating them. Alternate translation: “their bodies will decompose in the grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1769

PSA

49

15

hdm9

figs-personification

0

God will redeem my life from the power of Sheol

The writer speaks of Sheol as if it were a person who has power over those who die. From the context, it is implied that this power refers to consuming the bodies of the dead. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1770

PSA

49

15

vf45

figs-synecdoche

0

God will redeem my life

Here the word “life” refers to the whole person. Alternate translation: “God will redeem me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1771

PSA

49

16

gm8v

0

the glory of his house increases

The word “glory” here refers to wealth or riches. This could mean: (1) “when he gains more wealth in his house” or (2) “when his family becomes richer.”

1772

PSA

49

17

a1l5

0

he will take nothing away

Alternate translation: “he will take nothing with him to the grave”

1773

PSA

49

17

cz54

figs-euphemism

0

his glory will not go down after him

The phrase “go down” refers to when the man dies. Alternate translation: “his glory will not go along with him when he dies” or “he will not keep his reputation when he dies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1774

PSA

49

18

eq9c

figs-synecdoche

0

He blessed his soul

Here the word “soul” refers to the whole person. This phrase means that he considered himself to be happy and successful because of his riches. Alternate translation: “He congratulated himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1775

PSA

49

19

hq9g

figs-euphemism

0

he will go to the generation of his fathers

“he will go to where his fathers’ generation is.” This is a euphemism that means that the rich man will die and join his ancestors in the grave. Alternate translation: “he will join his ancestors in the grave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1776

PSA

49

19

dvh8

figs-metaphor

0

they will never see the light again

The word “they” refers to the rich man and his ancestors. The word “light” may refer to the sun or be a metaphor for life. Alternate translation: “they will never see the sun again” or “they will never live again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1777

PSA

50

intro

cbd7

0

Psalm 050 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 50 is a wisdom psalm. It tells what pleases God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Sacrifices

God does not need animal sacrifices; he does not eat meat or drink blood. The world and everything in it belong to God. He wants people to be thankful and to depend on him. God rejects evil people who reject his covenant. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/blood]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

1778

PSA

50

1

v4hj

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a song that teaches people. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1779

PSA

50

1

wpn8

0

The Mighty One, God, Yahweh

The author uses three different names to speak of God.

1780

PSA

50

1

s58x

figs-metonymy

0

called the earth

Here the word “earth” refers to the people who live on the earth. Alternate translation: “called all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1781

PSA

50

1

ycf8

figs-merism

0

from the rising of the sun to its setting

This phrase refers to the directions east, where the sun rises, and west, where the sun sets. The writer uses these two extremes to represent everywhere on earth. Alternate translation: “everywhere on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1782

PSA

50

2

k7vg

0

Zion, the perfection of beauty

This could mean: (1) “Zion, whose beauty is perfect” or (2) “Zion, the most beautiful city.”

1783

PSA

50

2

k22a

figs-metaphor

0

God has shone

The writer speaks of God as if he were a light that shines. This refers to God causing people to know about his glory. Alternate translation: “God’s glory shines like a light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1784

PSA

50

3

ymh5

figs-litotes

0

does not stay silent

The writer uses this negative statement to emphasize the positive. Alternate translation: “speaks so that everyone can hear him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1785

PSA

50

3

m31d

figs-metaphor

0

a fire devours before him

The writer speaks of a fire burning things as if it were eating them. Alternate translation: “a fire burns in front of him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1786

PSA

50

3

pw8f

0

it is very stormy around him

Alternate translation: “there is a great storm around him”

1787

PSA

50

4

d22v

figs-metonymy

0

He calls to the heavens above and to the earth

This could mean: (1) God is calling on all who live in heaven and on earth to be witnesses as he judges his people or (2) God is speaking to heaven and earth as if they are people, and he is calling them to be witnesses as he judges his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1788

PSA

50

6

fxq3

figs-metonymy

0

The heavens will declare

This could mean: (1) the writer uses the word “heavens” to refer to the angels who live there or (2) the writer speaks of “the heavens” as if they are a person who testifies about God’s righteousness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1789

PSA

50

8

ef2a

0

I will not reprove you for your sacrifices

“I will reprove you, but not for your sacrifices.” God explains that their sacrifices are not the reason that he is reproving them.

1790

PSA

50

8

s2pk

0

reprove

tell someone he is guilty of doing wrong

1791

PSA

50

8

m19c

figs-idiom

0

your burnt offerings are always before me

This explains why God is not rebuking them for their sacrifices. The phrase “are always before me” refers to being in God’s presence and means that his people are always sacrificing their burnt offerings to him. Alternate translation: “you are always sacrificing burnt offerings to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1792

PSA

50

9

a3jw

0

folds

areas surrounded by walls in which sheep and goats are kept

1793

PSA

50

10

sbr7

figs-hyperbole

0

the cattle on a thousand hills

The phrase “on a thousand hills” does not represent the total number of cattle that God owns. The number is an exaggeration that emphasizes that God owns all of the cattle in the world. The verb may be supplied from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “all the cattle in the world are mine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1794

PSA

50

10

f9vg

translate-numbers

0

thousand hills

“1,000 hills” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1795

PSA

50

11

dx4m

figs-idiom

0

I know all the birds

Here the word “know” implies ownership. Alternate translation: “I own all the birds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1796

PSA

50

12

gaw2

figs-hypo

0

If I were hungry

This describes something that could not happen, since God does not get hungry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1797

PSA

50

13

ybv9

figs-rquestion

0

Will I eat the flesh of bulls or drink the blood of goats?

God asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that he does not do these things and so has no need for their sacrifices. Alternate translation: “I do not eat the flesh of bulls or drink the blood of goats.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1798

PSA

50

14

tja9

figs-123person

0

Offer to God

Here God refers to himself. Alternate translation: “Offer to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1799

PSA

50

14

hz6p

figs-metaphor

0

pay your vows to the Most High

The writer speaks of “vows” as if they are currency which a person pays to God. Alternate translation: “fulfill your vows to the Most High” or “do what you have promised the Most High to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1800

PSA

50

15

si2v

figs-idiom

0

in the day of trouble

Here the word “day” refers to any period of time. Alternate translation: “whenever you have troubles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1801

PSA

50

16

ab6c

figs-123person

0

But to the wicked God says

Here God is still speaking and speaks of himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “But to the wicked I say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1802

PSA

50

16

ww85

figs-nominaladj

0

to the wicked

The word “wicked” refers to wicked people in general. Alternate translation: “to wicked people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1803

PSA

50

16

mat4

figs-metaphor

0

have taken my covenant in your mouth

God speaks of wicked people reciting the words of his covenant as if they are putting the covenant in their mouth. Alternate translation: “talk about my covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1804

PSA

50

17

zuf2

figs-rquestion

0

since you hate instruction and throw my words away

This is the end of the rhetorical question begun with the words “What have you to do” (Psalms 50:16). God uses this question to rebuke wicked people. This question can be turned into a statement: “It is not right for you to declare my statutes and my covenant, since you hate instruction and throw my words away.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1805

PSA

50

17

l69z

figs-metaphor

0

throw my words away

God speaks of the wicked people rejecting what he says as if they were throwing away trash. Alternate translation: “reject what I say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1806

PSA

50

18

v2nw

figs-idiom

0

you agree with him

This could mean: (1) that they approve of the thief’s actions. Alternate translation: “you approve or him” or (2) that they join the thief in their actions. Alternate translation: “you join him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1807

PSA

50

19

p5te

figs-metaphor

0

You give your mouth to evil

God speaks of a person speaking evil things as if that person’s mouth is a messenger whom the person sends to do evil things. Alternate translation: “You are always saying evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1808

PSA

50

19

eu22

figs-synecdoche

0

your tongue expresses deceit

The word “tongue” represents the person who is speaking. Alternate translation: “you are always telling lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1809

PSA

50

20

zjx3

figs-parallelism

0

You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son

These two phrases have the same meaning but use different words. God accuses them of speaking falsely against members of their own family. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1810

PSA

50

20

ea7a

figs-idiom

0

You sit and speak

To “sit and speak” against someone implies that this person deliberately thinks of bad things to say about someone. Alternate translation: “You always think of ways to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1811

PSA

50

21

br29

figs-explicit

0

you thought that I was someone just like yourself

Since God had kept silent and not yet rebuked the wicked people for their actions, they thought that God approved of what they did. Alternate translation: “you thought that I was someone who acts just like you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1812

PSA

50

21

w99y

0

reprove

tell someone he is guilty of doing wrong

1813

PSA

50

21

j3hc

figs-idiom

0

bring up … all the things you have done

God speaks of listing all of the evil things that they have done. Alternate translation: “list … all the things you have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1814

PSA

50

21

pf7h

figs-idiom

0

right before your eyes

Here, to be “before your eyes” means that it is in a place where they can see. This means that they will not be able to deny the charges that God brings against them. Alternate translation: “right in front of you” or “so that you can not deny them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1815

PSA

50

22

jz7u

figs-metaphor

0

you who forget God

God speaks of the wicked rejecting him as if they have forgotten him. He speaks of himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “you who reject me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1816

PSA

50

22

ql5f

figs-metaphor

0

I will tear you to pieces

God speaks of destroying the wicked as if he were a lion eating its prey. Alternate translation: “I will destroy you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1817

PSA

50

23

u8xr

figs-metaphor

0

plans his path in the right way

God speaks of a the way a person lives as if it were a path that the person travels. Alternate translation: “lives his life the right way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1818

PSA

50

23

u5xv

figs-abstractnouns

0

I will show God’s salvation

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word salvation, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “save.” God refers to himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “I will save him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1819

PSA

51

intro

uij8

0

Psalm 051 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 51 is a psalm of repentance from sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Repentance

The psalmist is truly sorry for having sinned. He repented and God forgave his sins. God wants true sorrow for having sinned, not sacrifices. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/true]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/forgive]])

Author of Psalm

Scholars are divided over whether this psalm was authored by King David as is mentioned by the superscription. If nothing else, we can assume the last two verses were added later since Jerusalem is intact with well-built walls during King David’s reign.

1820

PSA

51

1

v8pw

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. In this psalm David asks God for forgiveness. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1821

PSA

51

1

rl6b

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1822

PSA

51

1

ia5j

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

1823

PSA

51

1

sf45

figs-explicit

0

when Nathan the prophet came to him

It can be stated clearly what Nathan did when he came to David, because this psalm is in response to that. Alternate translation: “when Nathan the prophet came to David and rebuked him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1824

PSA

51

1

dlr2

figs-abstractnouns

0

because of your covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “because you are faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1825

PSA

51

1

pm2w

0

for the sake of the multitude of your merciful actions

Alternate translation: “because you do so many merciful things”

1826

PSA

51

1

jan2

figs-metaphor

0

blot out my transgressions

Forgiving sins is spoken of as either: (1) blotting them out or (2) erasing a written record of the sins. Alternate translation: “forgive my sins like someone wiping something away” or “forget my sins like someone who erases a record of sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1827

PSA

51

2

rtj9

figs-parallelism

0

Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity … cleanse me from my sin

These two phrases mean the same thing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1828

PSA

51

2

q5ks

figs-metaphor

0

Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity

Being acceptable to God is spoken of as being clean. God makes people acceptable by forgiving their sins. Alternate translation: “Wash away all my sin” or “Forgive all my sins so that I will be acceptable to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1829

PSA

51

2

h3by

0

thoroughly

completely, totally

1830

PSA

51

2

ja25

figs-metaphor

0

cleanse me from my sin

Being acceptable to God is spoken of as being clean. God makes people acceptable by forgiving their sins. Alternate translation: “Make me clean from my sin” or “forgive me for my sin so that I will be clean” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1831

PSA

51

3

qpz2

figs-metaphor

0

my sin is always before me

Not being able to forget his sins is spoken of as if they were always in front of him where he can see them. Alternate translation: “I am always aware of my sins” or “I cannot forget my sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1832

PSA

51

4

t9px

figs-metaphor

0

what is evil in your sight

The word “sight” here represents judgment. Yahweh saw and did not approve of David’s actions. Alternate translation: “what you judge to be evil” or “what you consider to be evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1833

PSA

51

5

j8f9

figs-metaphor

0

I was born in iniquity

Being a sinner is spoken of as being in iniquity. Alternate translation: “I was already a sinner when I was born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1834

PSA

51

5

i2cz

figs-metaphor

0

as soon as my mother conceived me, I was in sin

Being a sinner is spoken of as being in sin. Alternate translation: “even when my mother conceived me, I was a sinner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1835

PSA

51

6

w9f4

0

See, you desire trustworthiness

The use of “See” here draw our attention to the contrast between this sentence and “See, I was born in iniquity” (verse 5). “Truly I was born in iniquity … But you desire trustworthiness”

1836

PSA

51

6

kqg1

figs-metonymy

0

you desire trustworthiness in my inner self

The inner self represents either: (1) the person’s desires or (2) the whole person. Alternate translation: “you want me to desire trustworthiness” or “you want me to be trustworthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1837

PSA

51

7

fc52

figs-metaphor

0

Purify me … I will be clean … wash me … I will be whiter than snow

Being acceptable to God is spoken of as being clean or white. God makes people acceptable by forgiving their sins. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1838

PSA

51

7

v7q2

figs-metaphor

0

Purify me with hyssop

The writer speaks of God as if God were a priest who would sprinkle water on him to make him acceptable to God. Alternate translation: “Make me acceptable by sprinkling water on me with hyssop” or “Forgive me for my sins so that I will be acceptable to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1839

PSA

51

7

im87

translate-unknown

0

hyssop

This is a plant that the priests used to sprinkle water or blood on people or things to make them ceremonially clean, that is, acceptable to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1840

PSA

51

7

l5n6

figs-simile

0

whiter than snow

Not having sin is spoken of as being white. Alternate translation: “very, very white” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1841

PSA

51

8

g7v8

figs-doublet

0

joy and gladness

These two words mean basically the same thing and emphasize his desire to hear joyful things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1842

PSA

51

8

p4ef

figs-metaphor

0

so that the bones that you have broken may rejoice

Feeling terrible sadness is spoken of as if his bones were broken. Alternate translation: “for you have caused me terrible sadness in my inner being. Let me rejoice again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1843

PSA

51

9

gs6c

figs-metaphor

0

Hide your face from my sins

Thinking about someone’s sins is spoken of as seeing them. Forgiving or refusing to think about the sins is spoken of as choosing not to see them. Alternate translation: “Do not look at my sins” or “Do not remember my sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1844

PSA

51

9

b3jc

figs-metaphor

0

blot out all my iniquities

Here, forgiving or refusing to think about someone’s sins could mean: (1) blotting them out or (2) erasing a written record of the sins. Alternate translation: (1) “forgive my sins like someone wiping something away” or (2) “forget my sins like someone who erases a record of sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1845

PSA

51

10

q6ng

figs-metonymy

0

Create in me a clean heart

Here the “heart” represents the feelings and desires. Being completely devoted and obedient to God is spoken of as having a clean heart. Alternate translation: “Make me completely devoted to you” or “Make me want to obey you always” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1846

PSA

51

10

bn5a

figs-metonymy

0

renew a right spirit within me

Here “spirit” represents the attitude and desires of a David. Alternate translation: “make my attitude right” or “make me always want to do what is right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1847

PSA

51

11

v6gj

figs-metaphor

0

Do not drive me away from your presence

“Do not force me to go away from you.” Being rejected by God is spoken of as being forced to go away from him. Alternate translation: “Do not reject me as one of your people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1848

PSA

51

12

t5fh

0

sustain me

Alternate translation: “hold me up” or “assist me”

1849

PSA

51

13

az4f

0

your ways

Alternate translation: “the way you want people to live” or “what you want people to do”

1850

PSA

51

13

tzw4

0

transgressors … sinners

These two words refer to the same people here.

1851

PSA

51

14

i5mg

figs-metonymy

0

shedding blood

This phrase refers to killing another person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1852

PSA

51

15

mb7z

figs-synecdoche

0

Lord, open my lips, and my mouth will express your praise

Here the person is represented by his “mouth.” Being able to talk is spoken of as the lips being open. Here not being able to speak is a symbol of being guilty of sin and not being able to make a defense. Alternate translation: “Lord, make me able to speak, and I will praise you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1853

PSA

51

16

rlr8

figs-explicit

0

you do not delight in sacrifice … you have no pleasure in burnt offerings

This means that God wants something more important than these things. Alternate translation: “A sacrifice is not enough to please you … you want something more than burn offerings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1854

PSA

51

17

ib5d

0

The sacrifices of God

Alternate translation: “The sacrifices that please God”

1855

PSA

51

17

e3fd

figs-metaphor

0

a broken spirit

A broken spirit represents a humble attitude. Alternate translation: “humility” or “a person who becomes humble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1856

PSA

51

17

r49l

figs-metonymy

0

a broken and a contrite heart

Being humble and sorry for one’s sin is spoken of as having a broken and contrite heart. The heart represents the emotions and will. Alternate translation: “sorrow and humility” or “a person who is sorry for his sin and humble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1857

PSA

51

18

sl4i

figs-metaphor

0

rebuild the walls of Jerusalem

The walls of a city protect the city and the people in it. This could mean: (1) “enable us to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem” or (2) “protect Jerusalem and make it strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1858

PSA

51

19

qe3h

0

our people will offer bulls on your altar

A bull is an adult male cow. Bulls were often used as sacrificial animals, according to God’s instruction.

1859

PSA

52

intro

gx5r

0

Psalm 052 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 52 is a wisdom psalm. It teaches that God will destroy evil people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Evil people

Although the evil people feel secure with their wealth and evil deeds, God will destroy them. But people who do good are secure because God protects them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/works]])

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil of David.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1860

PSA

52

1

xe8m

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

In this psalm the word “you” refers to Doeg. When Saul wanted to kill David, Doeg told Saul where David was so that Saul could find him. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1861

PSA

52

1

eve8

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship.”

1862

PSA

52

1

px5f

0

A maschil

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 32:1.

1863

PSA

52

1

iv91

translate-names

0

Doeg … Ahimelech

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1864

PSA

52

1

gv61

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you proud of making trouble, you mighty man?

This question shows how angry David was at the one who made trouble. Alternate translation: “You should not be so proud of making trouble, you mighty man.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1865

PSA

52

1

tc43

figs-irony

0

you mighty man

David may have been using irony when he called Doeg this. Alternate translation: “you, who think you are so mighty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

1866

PSA

52

1

u3iv

figs-metaphor

0

The covenant faithfulness of God comes every day

David speaks of God’s covenant faithfulness as if it were something that could come. David was probably referring to God’s promises to protect his people from wicked people. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective or an adverb. Alternate translation: “Every day, God is faithful to keep the promises of his covenant” or “Every day, God faithfully protects his people from wicked people like you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1867

PSA

52

2

yc5s

0

a sharp razor

a sharp blade

1868

PSA

52

2

hlt7

figs-simile

0

Your tongue plans destruction like a sharp razor, working deceitfully

Here the tongue is compared to a sharp razor which is capable of causing great harm. Alternate translation: “Your tongue harms people like a sharp razor does, when you plan destruction and deceive others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1869

PSA

52

2

mc21

figs-synecdoche

0

Your tongue

Here “your tongue” refers to the person David is speaking to. Alternate translation: “You” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1870

PSA

52

3

n4c1

0

Connecting Statement:

David continues speaking to the “mighty man” of Psalms 5:1

1871

PSA

52

3

u7f1

0

lying rather than speaking righteousness

Alternate translation: “you love lying more than speaking what is right”

1872

PSA

52

4

c8a7

figs-metaphor

0

words that devour others

Here words that harm others are spoken of as if they were animals that devour people. Alternate translation: “words that harm others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1873

PSA

52

4

brj2

figs-synecdoche

0

you deceitful tongue

This refers to the person the author is speaking to. Alternate translation: “you speaker of deceit” or “you liar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1874

PSA

52

5

b3i7

figs-parallelism

0

take you up … pluck you … root you

All three of these phrases are different ways of saying “remove you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1875

PSA

52

5

r2bt

figs-metaphor

0

root you out of the land of the living

Being alive on earth is spoken of as if people are plants with roots in the ground. God killing someone is spoken of as digging up the plant’s roots and taking it out of the ground. Alternate translation: “he will take you out the land of the living” or “He will kill you so that you will no longer be on earth with living people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1876

PSA

52

5

cdy6

translate-transliterate

0

Selah

This may be a musical term that tells people how to sing or play their instruments here. Some translations write the Hebrew word, and some translations do not include it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

1877

PSA

52

6

mke5

0

The righteous will also see it and fear

Alternate translation: “The righteous will also see God remove him and they will fear”

1878

PSA

52

7

edv2

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

1879

PSA

52

7

qv2z

figs-metonymy

0

did not make God his refuge

Here “refuge” represents a protector. Alternate translation: “did not make God his protector” or “did not ask God to protect him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1880

PSA

52

8

u1wy

0

a green olive tree

Green olive trees are strong and secure. They do not fall over.

1881

PSA

52

8

e2xz

figs-simile

0

I am like a green olive tree in God’s house

Being safe and secure is spoken of as being like a strong tree. Alternate translation: “I am strong in God’s house, like a green olive tree” or “Because I worship in God’s house, I am secure like a green olive tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1882

PSA

52

8

ydi4

0

in God’s house

This refers to God’s temple.

1883

PSA

52

8

bgx6

figs-abstractnouns

0

I will trust in the covenant faithfulness of God forever and ever

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “I will trust in God forever and ever because he is faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1884

PSA

52

9

cj6z

figs-metonymy

0

I will wait for your name, because it is good

God’s name represents God himself. Waiting for God represents waiting for God to help him. Alternate translation: “I will wait for you, because you are good” or “I will wait for you to help me, because you are good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1885

PSA

53

intro

u3hp

0

Psalm 053 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 53 is a wisdom psalm. It warns people who do evil that God will judge them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s watching mankind

God looks down from heaven and sees that all humans are evil and corrupt. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil of David.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1886

PSA

53

1

btc5

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1887

PSA

53

1

kkk8

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

1888

PSA

53

1

a9tq

translate-transliterate

0

set to Mahalath

This may refer to a style of music. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

1889

PSA

53

1

c5we

0

A maschil

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 32:1.

1890

PSA

53

2

cmh4

0

the children of mankind

This refers to all people.

1891

PSA

53

2

dy8r

figs-metaphor

0

who seek after him

Seeking God as a person would look for someone is spoken of as “seeking” God. This could mean: (1) wanting to know God. Alternate translation: “who want to know him” or (2) worshiping God. Alternate translation: “who worship him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1892

PSA

53

3

ki3t

figs-metaphor

0

They have all turned away

Rejecting God and what is right is spoken of as turning away. Alternate translation: “They have all turned away from doing what is right” or “They have all rejected God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1893

PSA

53

4

l2u4

figs-rquestion

0

Do those who commit iniquity have no understanding—those … God?

This question is used to show the shock that the writer feels because the people are so sinful. It can be written as two statements. “Those who commit iniquity act as though they do not know anything. They devour my people as if they were eating bread, and they do not call on God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1894

PSA

53

4

l75m

figs-metaphor

0

those who devour my people as if they were eating bread

Destroying people is spoken of as devouring them. Doing it as if they were eating bread implies that they did it very easily or without feeling guilty about it. Alternate translation: “those who destroy my people as freely as if they were eating bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1895

PSA

53

5

q6fe

figs-metonymy

0

God will scatter the bones of whoever will camp against you

Scattering people’s bones represents killing them and allowing their bones to remain wherever they have died and not be buried properly. “God will completely destroy whoever will camp against you, and their bones will lie scattered on the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1896

PSA

53

5

pl76

figs-metonymy

0

whoever will camp against you

Camping against people represents attacking them. Enemy armies would travel and set up camps to live in temporarily near the people they wanted to attack. Alternate translation: “whoever will attack you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1897

PSA

53

6

mle3

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, that the salvation of Israel would come

The word “Oh” here introduces an exclamation that expresses a hope or prayer. Alternate translation: “I hope that the salvation of Israel will come” or “I pray that the salvation of will come” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1898

PSA

53

6

awk5

figs-metonymy

0

the salvation of Israel would come from Zion

The salvation represents God, the savior, whose temple is in Zion. Alternate translation: “the savior of Israel would come from Zion” or “God would come from Zion and save Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1899

PSA

53

6

hj3c

0

When God brings back his people from the captivity

Alternate translation: “When God saves his captive people”

1900

PSA

53

6

fw2j

figs-parallelism

0

Jacob will rejoice and Israel will be glad!

These two phrases have the same meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1901

PSA

53

6

xbm3

figs-metonymy

0

Jacob

Here “Jacob” refers to the descendants of Jacob, the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1902

PSA

54

intro

vvf3

0

Psalm 054 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 54 is a deliverance psalm. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Rescue

Evil people want to kill David; but God has rescued him in the past and he trusts God to rescue him again. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil of David.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1903

PSA

54

1

fa4h

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a prayer for help. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1904

PSA

54

1

s1kh

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

1905

PSA

54

1

nwg2

0

on stringed instruments

Alternate translation: “people should play stringed instruments with this song”

1906

PSA

54

1

w9pi

0

A maschil

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 32:1

1907

PSA

54

1

ql33

translate-names

0

Ziphites

people from the city of Ziph in the Judean mountains, southeast of Hebron. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1908

PSA

54

1

db2i

figs-metonymy

0

Save me, God, by your name

Here God’s name represents his character. It may represent specifically his power or his justice. Alternate translation: “Save me, God, by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1909

PSA

54

1

jb6d

figs-metonymy

0

judge me in your might

Judging David here represents showing people that David is not guilty. When God uses his might to save David, people will know that God has judged him as not guilty. Alternate translation: “In your might, show people that I am not guilty” or “Show people that I am not guilty by using your power to rescue me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1910

PSA

54

2

r9er

figs-metonymy

0

give ear to the words

Giving one’s ear represents listening. Alternate translation: “listen to the words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1911

PSA

54

2

mc9y

figs-synecdoche

0

the words of my mouth

Here the speaker is represented by his mouth. Alternate translation: “my words” or “what I am saying to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1912

PSA

54

3

u6zz

figs-metonymy

0

have risen up against me

Rising up against someone represents preparing to attack him or actually attacking him. Alternate translation: “have prepared to attack me” or “are attacking me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1913

PSA

54

3

n85b

0

pitiless men

Alternate translation: “men who have no mercy”

1914

PSA

54

3

uub9

figs-metonymy

0

have sought after my life

Seeking after someone’s life represents trying to kill him. Alternate translation: “have tried to kill me” or “want to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1915

PSA

54

3

qx9n

figs-metonymy

0

they have not set God before them

Setting God before them represents paying attention to God. Alternate translation: “they do not pay attention to God” or “they ignore God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1916

PSA

54

4

f6wz

figs-metaphor

0

who upholds me

Defending David and keeping him safe is spoken of as upholding or supporting him. Alternate translation: “who defends me” or “who keeps me safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1917

PSA

54

5

gch4

figs-metaphor

0

He will repay my enemies with evil

Punishment is spoken as if it were payment. Alternate translation: “He will do the evil to my enemies that they have done to me” or “He will cause the evil that my enemies have done to me to be done to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1918

PSA

54

5

y135

0

in your faithfulness, destroy them

Here David changes from talking about God to talking to God. Alternate translation: “God, destroy them because you are faithful to me”

1919

PSA

54

6

kq3s

figs-synecdoche

0

I will give thanks to your name, Yahweh, for it is good

Yahweh’s name represents him. Alternate translation: “I will give thanks to you, Yahweh, for you are good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1920

PSA

54

7

q8mm

figs-synecdoche

0

my eye has looked

The eye represents the person. Alternate translation: “I have looked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1921

PSA

54

7

z3ih

figs-metonymy

0

my eye has looked in triumph on my enemies

This could mean: (1) seeing that his enemies have been defeated. Alternate translation: “I have seen that my enemies have been defeated” or (2) defeating his enemies. Alternate translation: “I have defeated my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1922

PSA

55

intro

fx5e

0

Psalm 055 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 55 is a deliverance psalm. The psalmist is praying that God will deliver him from his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Betrayal

The author wishes he could get far away from his enemies after his best friend betrayed him. He asks God to completely destroy his enemies. He is trusting God to save him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

Superscription

This psalm is called “a Maschil of David.” The word “Maschil” in the original language has caused scholars to have various opinions about its meaning. Some say it means to instruct, while others say that the word is referring to the skill used in creating the psalm. Still others think it means that meditation should be used in reading this psalm.

1923

PSA

55

1

gsm2

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1924

PSA

55

1

v48i

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

1925

PSA

55

1

y5nc

0

on stringed instruments

Alternate translation: “people should play stringed instruments with this song”

1926

PSA

55

1

lzt7

0

A maschil

This may refer to a style of music. See how you translated this in Psalms 32:1

1927

PSA

55

1

v59z

figs-metonymy

0

Give ear to my prayer

Giving one’s ear represents listening. Alternate translation: “Listen to my prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1928

PSA

55

1

v8bq

figs-metaphor

0

do not hide yourself from my plea

Refusing to pay attention to his plea is spoken of as hiding himself from it. Alternate translation: “do not ignore my plea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1929

PSA

55

3

ag8m

figs-metonymy

0

because of the voice of my enemies

Here “voice” represents what they say. Alternate translation: “because of what my enemies say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1930

PSA

55

3

iqu1

figs-metaphor

0

they bring trouble on me

Causing trouble is spoken of as bringing trouble. Alternate translation: “they cause me to have great troubles” or “they do wicked things to me and so I suffer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1931

PSA

55

4

z3pk

figs-metonymy

0

My heart trembles within me

Here, “heart trembles” refers to his emotional pain and suffering. This suffering is because of fear. Alternate translation: “I am suffering because I am so afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1932

PSA

55

4

jr4q

figs-metaphor

0

the terrors of death have fallen on me

Becoming very afraid, or terrified, is spoken of as if terror is a thing that falls on a person. Alternate translation: “I am very much afraid that I will die” or “I am terrified that I will die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1933

PSA

55

5

spg6

figs-metaphor

0

Fearfulness and trembling have come on me

Becoming fearful and trembling is spoken of as if fearfulness and trembling are things that come on a person. Alternate translation: “I have become very fearful and I tremble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1934

PSA

55

5

lr6z

figs-metaphor

0

horror has overwhelmed me

Feeling horror is spoken of as if horror were a thing that can cover people. Alternate translation: “I feel terrible horror” or “I am extremely afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1935

PSA

55

6

xih1

figs-exclamations

0

Oh, if only I had wings like a dove!

This exclamation expresses something the writer wishes for very much. Alternate translation: “I wish very much that I had wings like a dove” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

1936

PSA

55

6

dd1u

0

Then would I fly away

Alternate translation: “If I did have wings, I would fly away”

1937

PSA

55

7

kwx9

0

See, then I would wander

Alternate translation: “I would do that and more: I would wander”

1938

PSA

55

8

kzu3

0

General Information:

The writer finishes telling about what he had said.

1939

PSA

55

8

v8vq

0

tempest

a strong storm

1940

PSA

55

9

rlv7

figs-metaphor

0

Devour them

Destroying something is spoken of as eating all of it. Possible meanings are “Destroy my enemies’ plans” or “Destroy my enemies.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1941

PSA

55

9

xsb3

figs-metonymy

0

confuse their language

“Language” here represents what the people were saying to each other, and probably refers specifically to them talking about plans to do evil. Confusing it represents making the people unable to understand each other. Alternate translation: “confuse them when they speak to each other” or “confuse their plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1942

PSA

55

10

adq2

figs-personification

0

they go about on its walls

“violence and strife go about on her walls” (Psalms 55:9). Violence and strife are spoken of as if they were people. This can be expressed by telling about the people who cause violence and strife. Alternate translation: “people walk about on the city’s walls, being violent and fighting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1943

PSA

55

10

mjb4

0

on its walls

“along the tops of the city walls.” Cities had thick walls around them to protect them from enemies. People could walk along the tops of the walls to see if any enemies were coming to the city.

1944

PSA

55

10

wnf2

figs-personification

0

wickedness and trouble are in the middle of it

Wickedness and trouble are spoken of as if they were people. This can be expressed by telling about the people who do wickedness and trouble. Alternate translation: “people do wickedness and cause trouble in the middle of the city” or “people do sinful things and cause trouble in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1945

PSA

55

11

r85i

figs-personification

0

Wickedness is in the middle of it

Wickedness is spoken of as if it were a person. This can be expressed by telling about the people who do wicked things. Alternate translation: “People do wicked things in the middle of the city” or “people destroy things in the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1946

PSA

55

11

c726

figs-personification

0

oppression and deceit do not leave its streets

Oppression and deceit are spoken of as if they were people. This can be expressed by telling about the people who oppress and deceive others. Alternate translation: “People oppress and deceive others in the city streets, and they do not leave” or “People are always oppressing and deceiving others in the city streets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1947

PSA

55

11

av8t

0

its streets

This may refer to the marketplaces in the city.

1948

PSA

55

12

fkh4

figs-metaphor

0

I could have borne it

Tolerating or enduring a rebuke is spoken of as bearing or carrying it. Alternate translation: “I could have tolerated the rebuke” or “I would not be so sad about the rebuke” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1949

PSA

55

12

sl4f

figs-metaphor

0

raised himself up against me

Being proud of oneself and insulting another is spoken of as raising oneself up against another. Alternate translation: “insulted me” or “despised me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1950

PSA

55

13

q1xj

figs-apostrophe

0

But it was you

The psalmist speaks as though the person who had rebuked and taunted him were there listening to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-apostrophe]])

1951

PSA

55

13

h4d4

0

myself, my companion and my close friend

This can be divided and a new sentence begun. Alternate translation: “myself. You were my companion and my close friend”

1952

PSA

55

14

uy9r

0

We

The word “we” refers to the psalmist and his friend.

1953

PSA

55

14

jnv2

0

with the throng

This could mean: (1) “together” or (2) “with the crowd.”

1954

PSA

55

15

a7kh

figs-personification

0

Let death come suddenly on them

Death is spoken of as if it were a person that could attack people. Alternate translation: “Let my enemies die suddenly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1955

PSA

55

15

v19n

figs-metaphor

0

let them go down alive to Sheol

Dying suddenly is spoken of as if people were to go to Sheol so fast that they do not even die first. Alternate translation: “let them suddenly go to Sheol” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1956

PSA

55

15

wv2z

figs-metaphor

0

wickedness is where they live

Wickedness is spoken of as if it were a thing that could be in a certain place. The habitual wickedness of his enemies is spoken of as if wickedness were with them or near them. Alternate translation: “they always do wicked things where they live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1957

PSA

55

15

ngt3

figs-metaphor

0

right among them

This phrase intensifies the idea of wickedness being very near them. Here wickedness is spoken of as being not only in their homes, but right where they are. Alternate translation: “They always do wicked things wherever they are” or “wherever they are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1958

PSA

55

16

v37m

0

As for me

This phrase shows that the writer has stopped talking about one thing and is now about to talk about himself. Alternate translation: “But I”

1959

PSA

55

17

wtr4

0

moan

the sound people and animals make when they are in pain

1960

PSA

55

17

jq8f

figs-synecdoche

0

he will hear my voice

Here, voice represents either: (1) the psalmist or (2) the psalmist’s complaints and moans. Alternate translation: “he will hear me” or “he will hear my moaning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1961

PSA

55

18

g4qm

figs-metonymy

0

my life

Here “my life” represents the psalmist. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1962

PSA

55

18

t38c

0

for those who fought against me were many

Alternate translation: “for many people fought against me”

1963

PSA

55

19

hz58

0

will hear them

Some versions say “will hear me.” Alternate translation: “will hear my enemies” or “will hear what my enemies say”

1964

PSA

55

19

tum6

figs-explicit

0

humiliate them

How God will humiliate them can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “will defeat and humiliate them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1965

PSA

55

20

c1lx

figs-metonymy

0

has raised his hands against those

Raising the hand against people represents attacking them. This may be a metaphor for saying things that put people in danger or cause them trouble. Alternate translation: “has attacked those” or “has betrayed those” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1966

PSA

55

21

s648

figs-metonymy

0

His mouth

Someone’s “mouth” represents what he says. Alternate translation: “What my friend said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1967

PSA

55

21

r2m2

figs-simile

0

His mouth was smooth as butter

Speech that is pleasant or nice to hear is spoken of as if it were smooth and easy to swallow. Alternate translation: “What he said was pleasant like smooth butter” or “He said nice things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1968

PSA

55

21

qub5

0

was hostile

Alternate translation: “was mean” or “was hateful”

1969

PSA

55

21

xd9f

0

his words

Alternate translation: “what he said”

1970

PSA

55

21

xz3a

figs-simile

0

his words were softer than oil

People put oil on their skin to make it feel nice, and they put it on wounds to help them heal. Speech that is kind or helpful is spoken of as if it were soft or soothing. Alternate translation: “what he said was kind and soothing like oil” or “he said kind things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1971

PSA

55

21

h4sa

figs-metaphor

0

they were actually drawn swords

Speech that causes people trouble is spoken of as if it were swords that wound people. Alternate translation: “what he said wounded people as drawn swords do” or “what he said caused people trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1972

PSA

55

21

b32u

0

drawn swords

The word “drawn” here means that the swords were pulled out of their covers and ready to be used.

1973

PSA

55

22

r4ww

0

Place your burdens

Here the psalmist is speaking to other godly people.

1974

PSA

55

22

es9t

figs-metaphor

0

Place your burdens on Yahweh

Here troubles are spoken of as if they were burdens that people have to carry. Trusting God to help us when we have troubles is spoken of as putting our burdens on him so that he can carry them for us. Alternate translation: “Give Yahweh your problems” or “Trust God to help you with all your troubles like someone who trusts a stronger person to carry his load” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1975

PSA

55

22

vk43

0

he will sustain you

Taking care of someone or helping someone when he has troubles is spoken of as supporting him. Alternate translation: “he will take care of you” or “he will help you”

1976

PSA

55

22

x43r

figs-metaphor

0

he will never allow a righteous person to totter

A person who is about to be severely harmed by some sort of disaster is spoken of as if he is tottering or swaying and is about to fall down. Alternate translation: “he will not let a righteous person sway and fall down” or “he will not let a righteous person to be destroyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1977

PSA

55

23

el52

0

But you, God

The author speaks to God now.

1978

PSA

55

23

b5vk

0

the pit of destruction

This probably refers to the grave or hell.

1979

PSA

55

23

u8sz

figs-metonymy

0

will bring the wicked down into the pit of destruction

This represents causing people to die. Alternate translation: “will cause the wicked to die” or “will cause wicked people to die and go to the place where dead people are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1980

PSA

55

23

kab2

0

bloodthirsty and deceitful men

Alternate translation: “people who lie and who want to kill others” or “deceitful murderers”

1981

PSA

55

23

pe8d

0

even half as long as others

Alternate translation: “even half as long as other people live”

1982

PSA

56

intro

h1w3

0

Psalm 056 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 56 is a psalm of deliverance. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Fear

Although the psalmist’s enemies are trying to harm him, he is not afraid because God is protecting him.

Superscription

The word “Michtam” is used in the superscription for this psalm. There is much discussion about this word but, in the end, no one is certain what it means. It is easiest to transliterate this word into your language, or you can simply translate it as “psalm.”

1983

PSA

56

1

xsm1

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1984

PSA

56

1

by4v

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship;”

1985

PSA

56

1

azv1

0

set to Jonath elem rehokim

This probably tells what musical style or tune to use when singing this psalm. Alternate translation: “Sing this psalm using the tune of ‘Jonath elem rehokim’” or “Sing this using the Jonath elem rehokim style”

1986

PSA

56

1

urm9

translate-unknown

0

Jonath elem rehokim

This may mean “Dove on Distant Oak Trees.” Translators may either write the meaning or copy the Hebrew words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

1987

PSA

56

1

y6cg

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

1988

PSA

56

1

q2la

0

A michtam

The meaning of the word “michtam” is uncertain. You may use the word “psalm” instead. This can be written as: “This is a psalm that David wrote.” See how you translated this in Psalms 16:1.

1989

PSA

56

1

sz95

0

press their assault

Alternate translation: “come closer and closer in order to attack me”

1990

PSA

56

2

e4w9

figs-metaphor

0

My enemies trample me

The enemies’ fierce attack is spoken of as if they were crushing his body by marching on it. Alternate translation: “My enemies attack me severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1991

PSA

56

3

zht6

0

you

The word “you” refers to God.

1992

PSA

56

4

ggu8

figs-rquestion

0

what can mere man do to me?

Here a question is used to show that the psalmist is not afraid of people, because they cannot seriously harm him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “mere man can do nothing to me!” or “mere man cannot harm me badly!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1993

PSA

56

4

x7n4

0

mere man

“just humans” or “people.” This implies that people are not powerful, but God is powerful.

1994

PSA

56

5

n8j3

0

All the day long

Alternate translation: “All the time”

1995

PSA

56

5

fnl7

figs-metaphor

0

they twist my words

Repeating what someone says but changing it a little so that it means something different is spoken of as twisting their words. Alternate translation: “they say that I said things than I did not say” or “they claim that I said things, but they lie” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1996

PSA

56

5

q7xi

0

all their thoughts are against me for evil

Alternate translation: “they always have evil thoughts against me” or “they always think of evil things to do to me”

1997

PSA

56

6

gh4r

figs-metaphor

0

they mark my steps

Watching what a person does in order to see how to cause him trouble is spoken of as watching his steps, just as someone who wants to capture a person watches where that person walks. Alternate translation: “they watch everything I do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1998

PSA

56

6

u2v9

figs-metonymy

0

just as they have waited for my life

Waiting to kill someone is spoken of as waiting for his life. Alternate translation: “as they wait to kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1999

PSA

56

7

huf5

figs-explicit

0

Do not let them escape doing iniquity

What they might escape can be sued clearly. Alternate translation: “Do not let them escape your punishment for their iniquity” or “Do not let them escape when you punish them for the wicked things they do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2000

PSA

56

7

p8t9

figs-metaphor

0

Bring down the peoples

Defeating the enemies is spoken of as bringing them down. Alternate translation: “Defeat the peoples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2001

PSA

56

8

anm7

figs-metaphor

0

You number my wanderings

God’s concern for the psalmist is spoken of as if God counted each time that the psalmist has walked in sadness and with no place to go for comfort. Alternate translation: “You care about all the times that I have been wandering alone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2002

PSA

56

8

m8ng

figs-metaphor

0

put my tears into your bottle

God’s concern for the psalmist is spoken of as if God saved the psalmist’s tears in a bottle. The tears represent crying. Alternate translation: “you know how much I have cried and you care about me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2003

PSA

56

8

yv3x

figs-metaphor

0

are they not in your book?

God’s concern for the psalmist is spoken of as if he wrote the number of the psalmist’s tears in his book. This question is used to remind God about how greatly he cares for the psalmist. Alternate translation: “you have written about them in your book!” or “you remember my cries!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2004

PSA

56

9

rvm7

0

will turn back

Alternate translation: “will retreat” or “will turn and run away”

2005

PSA

56

9

ui3x

figs-explicit

0

God is for me

This means that God favors him. In this context it implies that God fights against the psalmist’s enemies in order to protect him. Alternate translation: “God is fighting for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2006

PSA

56

11

an7m

figs-rquestion

0

What can anyone do to me?

Here a question is used to show that the psalmist is not afraid of people, because they cannot seriously harm him. If your readers would misunderstand this question, you can express it as a statement. Alternate translation: “People can do nothing to me!” or “People cannot harm me badly!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2007

PSA

56

12

mw9n

figs-metaphor

0

The duty to fulfill my vows to you is on me

Being obligated to do something is spoken of as if the duty to do something is on a person. Alternate translation: “I must fulfill my vows to you” or “I must do what I promised you I would do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2008

PSA

56

13

y3b3

figs-synecdoche

0

you have kept my feet from falling

The feet here represent the person. Falling here probably represents being killed by his enemies. Alternate translation: “you have kept me from falling” or “you have kept me from being killed by my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2009

PSA

56

13

y78t

figs-metaphor

0

so that I may walk before God

Living and being seen by God is spoken of as walking before God. Alternate translation: “so that I may live in God’s presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2010

PSA

56

13

npe7

figs-metonymy

0

in the light of the living

Here “the light of the living” probably represents God’s enabling people to live. Alternate translation: “with the life that you give” or “because you enable me to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2011

PSA

57

intro

hv64

0

Psalm 057 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 57 is a psalm of deliverance. It praises God for the many times he has delivered David. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Fear

Since God is protecting the psalmist, he has nothing to fear from his enemies.

Superscription

The word “Michtam” is used in the superscription for this psalm. There is much discussion about this word but, in the end, no one is certain what it means. It is easiest to transliterate this word into your language, or you can simply translate it as “psalm.”

2012

PSA

57

1

i8s5

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2013

PSA

57

1

ga1f

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2014

PSA

57

1

s96j

0

set to Al Tashheth

This probably tells what musical style or tune to use when singing the psalm. Alternate translation: “sing this psalm using the tune of ‘Al Tashheth’” or “sing this using the Al Tashheth style”

2015

PSA

57

1

yl31

translate-unknown

0

Al Tashheth

This means “Do Not Destroy.” Translators may either write the meaning or copy the Hebrew words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

2016

PSA

57

1

g4tb

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

2017

PSA

57

1

jt8t

0

A michtam

The meaning of the word “michtam” is uncertain. You may use the word “psalm” instead. This can be written as: “This is a psalm that David wrote.” See how you translated this in Psalms 16:1.

2018

PSA

57

1

wv56

figs-metaphor

0

I take refuge in you

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “I go to you for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2019

PSA

57

1

yn99

figs-metaphor

0

I stay under your wings for protection

The psalmist speaks of God as if he were a mother bird that protects its babies by huddling them under its wings. Alternate translation: “I trust you to protect me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2020

PSA

57

1

s371

figs-abstractnouns

0

until this destruction is over

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word destruction, you could express the same idea with a verbal form such as “destructive.” Alternate translation: “until this destructive storm is over” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2021

PSA

57

2

r2mu

0

who does all things for me

This explains why he will cry out to God. It can be translated with “because.” Alternate translation: “because he does all things for me”

2022

PSA

57

3

k9zh

figs-metaphor

0

those who crush me

The enemies’ fierce attack is spoken of as if they were crushing his body by marching on it. Alternate translation: “those who attack me severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2023

PSA

57

3

t1vd

figs-metaphor

0

God will send me his loving kindness and his faithfulness

God’s being kind and faithful is spoken of as if he were sending his kindness and faithful. The abstract nouns “kindness” and “faithfulness” can be stated as “kind” and “trustworthy.” Alternate translation: “God will be kind to me and trustworthy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2024

PSA

57

4

v2nz

figs-metaphor

0

My life is among lions

The psalmist speaks of his enemies as if they were lions. Alternate translation: “I live among fierce enemies” or “Fierce enemies surround me like lions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2025

PSA

57

4

e5fn

figs-metaphor

0

those who are ready to devour me

Destroying is spoken of as devouring or eating something up. Some versions understand the Hebrew text to mean “fiery beasts.” Both images speak of his enemies as if they were wild beasts. Alternate translation: “those who are ready to destroy me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2026

PSA

57

4

j2hr

figs-metaphor

0

people whose teeth are spears and arrows

The enemies’ spears and arrows are spoken of as if they were lions’ teeth. The psalmist continues to speak of his enemies as if they were lions. Alternate translation: “people who kill others with spears and arrows as lions kill with their sharp teeth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2027

PSA

57

4

zdv3

figs-doublet

0

spears and arrows

Since both of these terms are weapons, if your culture knows only one, it is acceptable to use it alone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

2028

PSA

57

4

nz7w

figs-metaphor

0

whose tongues are sharp swords

The tongue represents what someone says, and the enemies’ cruel words are spoken of as if they were swords. Alternate translation: “whose cruel words are like sharp swords” or “who cause terrible trouble for me by what they say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2029

PSA

57

5

t2dt

figs-metaphor

0

Be exalted, God, above the heavens

The psalmist is asking God to show that he is exalted. Being exalted above the heavens represents being great. Alternate translation: “God, show that you are exalted above the heavens” or “God, show that you are great in the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2030

PSA

57

5

ij37

0

let your glory be above all the earth

The psalmist is asking God to show his glory. Alternate translation: “show your glory over all the earth”

2031

PSA

57

6

ywr3

figs-metaphor

0

They spread out a net for my feet

His enemies’ plans to capture him are spoken of as if they had spread out a net on the ground to trap him. Alternate translation: “It is as though my enemies have spread a net out to trap me” or “They planned to capture me like people who spread out a net to trap an animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2032

PSA

57

6

pp5u

figs-metaphor

0

They dug a pit in front of me

His enemies’ plans to capture him are spoken of as if they had dug a pit for him to fall into. Alternate translation: “It is as though they dug a pit for me to fall into” or “They planned to capture me like people who dig a hole in the ground to trap an animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2033

PSA

57

6

cj6r

figs-metaphor

0

They themselves have fallen into the middle of it

The harm that came to his enemies when they tried to capture him is spoken of as if they fell into the trap that they had made for him. Alternate translation: “They themselves fell into the pit they had dug for me” or “But they themselves were hurt by what they planned to do to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2034

PSA

57

7

mvj7

figs-metonymy

0

My heart is fixed, God, my heart is fixed

Being confident is spoken of as one’s heart being firm rather than shaken or easily moved. The phrase is repeated to show that he has complete confidence in God and will not change. Alternate translation: “I am completely confident in you, God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2035

PSA

57

7

gt62

figs-explicit

0

I will sing praises

Who he will sing to can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “I will sing praises to you, God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2036

PSA

57

8

z1em

figs-explicit

0

Wake up, my honored heart

It can be stated clearly that the purpose of waking up is to sing praises to God. Waking up may be a metaphor for starting or preparing to do something. The heart represents the psalmist or his emotions. Alternate translation: “Wake up, my honored heart, to sing praises to God” or “I will prepare my honored heart to sing praises to God” or “I am honored to wake up and sing praises to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2037

PSA

57

8

yl5r

figs-explicit

0

wake up, lute and harp

It can be stated clearly that the purpose of waking up is to sing praises to God. The psalmist speaks as though the lute and harp were people who could wake up to sing praises to God. Alternate translation: “Wake up, lute and harp, and sing praises to God” or “I will play the lute and harp while I sing praises to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2038

PSA

57

8

hr4g

figs-personification

0

I will wake up the dawn

The dawn is spoken of as if it were alive, and getting up before dawn happens is spoken of as waking it up. The purpose of getting up before dawn is to praise God. Alternate translation: “I will get up before dawn” or “I will get up before the sun rises” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2039

PSA

57

10

vaa3

figs-parallelism

0

For great is your unfailing love, reaching to the heavens … your faithfulness to the clouds

These two phrases are very similar in meaning. The greatness of God’s unfailing love and the greatness of his faithfulness are spoken of as if they could be measured in distance. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2040

PSA

57

10

tna7

figs-metaphor

0

For great is your unfailing love, reaching to the heavens

The greatness of God’s unfailing love is spoken of as if it could be measured in distance. Alternate translation: “Your unfailing love is as great as the distance from the earth to the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2041

PSA

57

10

ywg7

figs-ellipsis

0

your faithfulness to the clouds

The words “great is your” and “reaching” are understood from the previous phrase. Alternate translation: “great is your faithfulness, reaching to the clouds” or “your faithfulness is as great as the distance from the earth to the clouds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2042

PSA

57

11

yyx8

figs-metaphor

0

Be exalted, God, above the heavens

The psalmist is asking God to show that he is exalted. Being exalted above the heavens represents being great. Alternate translation: “God, show that you are exalted above the heavens” or “God, show that you are great in the heavens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2043

PSA

57

11

n64e

0

may your glory be exalted over all the earth

The psalmist is asking God to show his glory. Alternate translation: “show your glory over all the earth”

2044

PSA

58

intro

dhx6

0

Psalm 058 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 58 is a deliverance psalm. It asks God for deliverance from the unjust rulers. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/justice]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Deliverance

Although the leaders are very evil and unfair, God can deliver his people from their oppression. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oppress]])

Superscription

The word “Michtam” is used in the superscription for this psalm. There is much discussion about this word but, in the end, no one is certain what it means. It is easiest to transliterate this word into your language, or you can simply translate it as “psalm.”

2045

PSA

58

1

qfv5

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a song about wicked people. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2046

PSA

58

1

d8qb

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2047

PSA

58

1

zc3z

0

set to Al Tashheth

This probably tells what musical style or tune to use when singing the psalm. See how you translated this in Psalms 57:1.

2048

PSA

58

1

x97c

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

2049

PSA

58

1

xu51

figs-rquestion

0

Do you rulers speak righteousness?

The author uses this question to rebuke the rulers because they do not speak righteously. Alternate translation: “You rulers do not say what is right!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2050

PSA

58

1

f3j3

figs-rquestion

0

Do you judge uprightly, you people?

The author uses this question to rebuke the judges who do not judge uprightly. Alternate translation: “You people never judge people uprightly!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2051

PSA

58

2

n278

figs-you

0

you … your

The words “you” and “your” refer to the mighty men who are judges (Psalm 58:1) and so is plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

2052

PSA

58

2

c5jn

0

No

The author answers the two questions he had just asked.

2053

PSA

58

2

d1u5

figs-metonymy

0

you commit wickedness in your heart

The heart refers to the people’s thoughts or plans. Alternate translation: “you commit wickedness in your thoughts” or “you think about doing wicked things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2054

PSA

58

2

fc72

figs-metaphor

0

you distribute violence throughout the land with your hands

Doing violence in various places throughout the land is spoken of as distributing or spreading the violence throughout the land, as if violence were some kind of stuff or things. Alternate translation: “you yourselves do violent deeds everywhere in the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2055

PSA

58

3

e66x

figs-parallelism

0

The wicked go astray even when they are in the womb … they go astray from birth

This is the same idea expressed in two different ways. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2056

PSA

58

3

d7k2

figs-metaphor

0

they go astray

Doing wrong things is spoken of as if people are walking on a road, and they turn off and go the wrong way. Alternate translation: “they do wrong things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2057

PSA

58

4

mff7

figs-metaphor

0

Their poison is like a snake’s poison

The wicked things people say are spoken of as if they were poison. Alternate translation: “Their wicked words cause trouble as a snake’s poison harms people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2058

PSA

58

4

f4ca

figs-simile

0

they are like a deaf adder that stops up its ears

Wicked people who do not listen to advice or rebukes are spoken of as if they were snakes that do not respond to a charmer’s music. Alternate translation: “they refuse to listen like a deaf adder that stops up its ears” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2059

PSA

58

4

tt5a

figs-personification

0

a deaf adder that stops up its ears

An adder that does not respond to a charmer’s music is spoken of as if it could put something in its ears so that it will not hear. Alternate translation: “an adder that does not listen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2060

PSA

58

4

w1f7

0

adder

a kind of poisonous snake

2061

PSA

58

5

b6id

0

charmers

people who play or sing music in order to control snakes

2062

PSA

58

5

hi9v

figs-explicit

0

no matter how skillful they are

What the snake charmers were skillful at can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “no matter how skillful the charmers are at controlling snakes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2063

PSA

58

6

ptb3

0

General Information:

The author lists things that he would like God to do to wicked people.

2064

PSA

58

6

x2zu

figs-parallelism

0

Break their teeth … break out the great teeth of the young lions

In both of these phrases, the wicked people are spoken of as if they were lions, and making them powerless to kill people is spoken of as breaking their teeth. Alternate translation: “Take away their power to kill. Make them powerless like young lions whose teeth have been broken and fallen out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2065

PSA

58

7

na9t

figs-metaphor

0

Let them melt away as water that runs off

The wicked people are spoken of as if they were ice or water. No longer existing is spoken of as melting or draining away into the dry ground. Alternate translation: “Make them disappear like water that runs off” or “Make them vanish like ice that melts and drains into the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2066

PSA

58

7

c9dm

0

let them be as though they had no points

Alternate translation: “let their arrows be as though they had no points”

2067

PSA

58

8

hb5w

figs-simile

0

Let them be like a snail that melts and passes away

No longer existing is spoken of as melting and disappearing. Alternate translation: “Let the wicked vanish like a snail that melts and no longer exists” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2068

PSA

58

8

hi5z

0

snail

small animal that the Israelites considered unclean and that looks like it is melting as it moves by sliding over slime it has produced

2069

PSA

58

8

uu2z

figs-simile

0

like the untimely-born child of a woman that never sees the sunlight

Not existing is spoken of as being like a baby that is born dead. Alternate translation: “like a baby who is born too early too live and see the sunlight” or “like a baby that was born dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2070

PSA

58

9

ut8v

figs-metaphor

0

Before your pots can feel the thorn’s burning heat … the green thorns and the burning thorns alike

The wicked are spoken of as if they were thornbush branches, and God’s swift punishment of them is spoken of as if he were to quickly blow them away or sweep them away. Alternate translation: “God will destroy wicked people faster than a whirlwind can blow away thornbush branches that have been put under a cooking pot and lit with fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2071

PSA

58

9

khw3

figs-you

0

your

David is speaking to God’s people, so this is plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

2072

PSA

58

9

ka8t

0

the thorn’s burning heat … the green thorns and the burning thorns

Alternate translation: “the heat from the burning thorn branches … the green thorn branches and the burning thorn branches”

2073

PSA

58

10

wz3e

figs-genericnoun

0

The righteous will rejoice when he sees

The phrase “the righteous” refers to righteous people in general. Alternate translation: “Righteous people will rejoice when they see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-genericnoun]])

2074

PSA

58

10

gi2k

figs-metaphor

0

he will wash his feet in the blood of the wicked

Getting one’s feet wet by walking on blood is spoken of as washing the feet in blood. Alternate translation: “the righteous will make their feet wet in the blood of the wicked” or “the righteous will march on the blood of the wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2075

PSA

58

10

ll57

figs-metaphor

0

he will wash his feet in the blood of the wicked

This exaggeration expresses that a great number of wicked people will die. Alternate translation: “so many wicked people will die that when the righteous march on their blood, it will seem as if they could wash their feet in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

2076

PSA

59

intro

zf27

0

Psalm 059 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 59 is a deliverance psalm. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Protection

The author prays for God to defeat his enemies. God is his protector. Therefore, he will praise God.

Superscription

The word “Michtam” is used in the superscription for this psalm. There is much discussion about this word but, in the end, no one is certain what it means. It is easiest to transliterate this word into your language, or you can simply translate it as “psalm.”

2077

PSA

59

1

w4sd

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2078

PSA

59

1

p57e

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2079

PSA

59

1

me33

0

set to Al Tashheth

This probably tells what musical style or tune to use when singing the psalm. See how you translated this in Psalms 57:1.

2080

PSA

59

1

il5y

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

2081

PSA

59

1

ks3t

0

A michtam

The meaning of the word “michtam” is uncertain. You may use the word “psalm” instead. This can be written as: “This is a psalm that David wrote.” See how you translated this in Psalms 16:1.

2082

PSA

59

1

hk4w

figs-metonymy

0

set me on high

A high place represents a safe place where his enemies cannot reach him. Alternate translation: “put me in a safe place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2083

PSA

59

1

rjh7

figs-metonymy

0

rise up against me

Rising up against someone represents attacking him. Alternate translation: “attack me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2084

PSA

59

2

ica6

figs-idiom

0

bloodthirsty men

The word “bloodthirsty” contains “blood,” which refers to murder and “thirsty,” which refers to desire. Alternate translation: “people who desire to kill” or “people who like to kill people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2085

PSA

59

3

c6a4

figs-idiom

0

they wait in ambush to take my life

David’s enemies are in hiding and are waiting quietly for the time when they can attack him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2086

PSA

59

4

zre5

figs-idiom

0

awake

Deciding to do something and beginning to do it is spoken of as waking up. Alternate translation: “do something” or “take action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2087

PSA

59

4

b239

figs-explicit

0

and see

What he wants God to see can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “and see what is happening to me” or “and see what they are doing to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2088

PSA

59

5

shi6

figs-idiom

0

arise

Deciding to do something and beginning to do it is spoken of as getting up. Alternate translation: “do something” or “take action” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2089

PSA

59

5

t4a1

figs-metonymy

0

all the nations

The word “nations” here represents the people of the nations that do not honor God. Alternate translation: “the people of all the nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2090

PSA

59

6

aej6

0

They return at evening

The word “they” refers to the wicked transgressors.

2091

PSA

59

6

r2ww

figs-simile

0

they howl like dogs

The psalmist speaks of his enemies threatening to attack people as if they were dogs howling, growling, or barking at people. Alternate translation: “they threaten to attack people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2092

PSA

59

6

fcr7

figs-explicit

0

go around the city

Why they go around the city can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “go around the city to attack anyone they find” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2093

PSA

59

7

i5i6

0

See

Here the word “See” is being used to draw attention to something. Alternate translation: “Hear”

2094

PSA

59

7

rh1u

figs-metaphor

0

they belch out with their mouths

Saying terrible things is spoken of as belching. These terrible things may have been insults or threats. Alternate translation: “they say terrible things” or “they shout out terrible words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2095

PSA

59

7

q9fv

0

belch

burp loudly; allow air from the stomach to come out of the mouth with a loud, rude noise

2096

PSA

59

7

vs38

figs-metaphor

0

swords are in their lips

The cruel things that the wicked people were saying are spoken of as if they were swords. Alternate translation: “they say cruel things that cause people trouble as much as swords destroy people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2097

PSA

59

7

d23a

figs-rquestion

0

Who hears us?

This question is used to show that they believed that God would not hear and punish them. Alternate translation: “No one can hear us!” or “Your God does not hear us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2098

PSA

59

8

k3ws

0

laugh at them

“laugh at them scornfully” or “mock them.” God would laugh at them because they are worthless and powerless.

2099

PSA

59

8

x3cx

0

you hold all the nations in derision

Alternate translation: “you ridicule all the nations” or “you know that the people of the nations are fools”

2100

PSA

59

8

tjt6

0

derision

ridicule

2101

PSA

59

9

av6p

figs-metonymy

0

my strength

God’s being the psalmist’s strength represents God protecting him. Alternate translation: “you are my strength” or “you are my protector” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2102

PSA

59

9

mi4w

figs-metaphor

0

you are my high tower

A high tower is a place that people could go to for shelter from their enemies. The psalmist speaks of God protecting him as if God were a strong, safe shelter. Alternate translation: “you protect me like a high tower” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2103

PSA

59

10

v7d9

figs-explicit

0

My God will meet me with his covenant faithfulness

This phrase implies that God will come to him in order to save him. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “My God, who is faithful to his covenant, will come to save me” or “My God will come to save me because he is faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2104

PSA

59

10

tb7v

figs-abstractnouns

0

my desire on my enemies

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word desire, you could express the same idea with the verb “want.” Alternate translation: “what I want to happen to my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2105

PSA

59

11

c9tk

0

Scatter them

Alternate translation: “Cause them to wander around”

2106

PSA

59

11

yf94

figs-metonymy

0

our shield

God’s protecting the righteous is spoken of as if God were a shield. Alternate translation: “our protector” or “the one who protects us like a shield” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2107

PSA

59

12

iz4q

figs-metonymy

0

For the sins of their mouths and the words of their lips

The mouths and lips represent the things people say. Alternate translation: “Because they sin by what they say” or “Because of the sinful things they say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2108

PSA

59

12

a3ed

figs-activepassive

0

let them be captured in their pride

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “let people capture them because of their pride” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2109

PSA

59

12

xb2v

0

that they express

Alternate translation: “that they say”

2110

PSA

59

13

u1ga

figs-metaphor

0

Consume them in wrath, consume them so that they will be no more

Destroying them completely is spoken of either as burning them up or eating them. Alternate translation: “Be angry with them and destroy them completely so there will be no more of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2111

PSA

59

13

h4zf

figs-metonymy

0

in Jacob

Jacob here refers to Israel. Alternate translation: “in Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2112

PSA

59

13

ct9i

figs-metonymy

0

to the ends of the earth

“to even the most distance places on earth.” This represents all places on earth. Alternate translation: “everywhere on earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2113

PSA

59

14

v4xe

figs-simile

0

howling like dogs

The psalmist speaks of his enemies threatening to attack people as if they were dogs howling, growling, or barking at people. Alternate translation: “threatening to attack us” or “threatening to attack us like wild dogs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2114

PSA

59

15

w18t

0

satisfied

content, having everything they want

2115

PSA

59

16

a9we

figs-metaphor

0

you have been my high tower and a refuge

High towers and refuges are places that people can go to for shelter from their enemies. The psalmist speaks of God protecting him as if God were a strong, safe shelter. Alternate translation: “you have protected me like a high tower and a refuge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2116

PSA

59

16

vmt2

0

in the day of my distress

Alternate translation: “whenever I have had troubles”

2117

PSA

59

17

q7yw

figs-sentences

0

To you, my strength, I will sing praises

“To you, my strength” can be combined as one clause. Alternate translation: “You are my strength, so I will sing praises to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-sentences]])

2118

PSA

59

17

g4db

figs-metonymy

0

my strength

God’s being the psalmist’s strength represents God protecting him. Alternate translation: “my protector” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2119

PSA

59

17

m2u5

figs-metaphor

0

for God is my high tower

High towers are places that people can go to for shelter from their enemies. The psalmist speaks of God protecting him as if God were a strong, safe shelter. Alternate translation: “you have protected me like a high tower” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2120

PSA

59

17

shn4

figs-abstractnouns

0

the God of covenant faithfulness

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. This can be expressed in a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “He is the God who is faithful to his covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2121

PSA

60

intro

wza8

0

Psalm 060 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 60 is a psalm of war.

Special concepts in this chapter

Protection

God has preserved the land of Israel, and now he will give them victory over the countries of Moab and Edom.

2122

PSA

60

1

ev3m

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2123

PSA

60

1

usc3

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2124

PSA

60

1

vsl6

0

set to Shushan Eduth

This probably tells what tune or musical style to use when singing the psalm. Alternate translation: “sing this psalm using the tune of ‘Shushan Eduth’” or “sing this using the Shushan Eduth style”

2125

PSA

60

1

m8be

translate-unknown

0

Shushan Eduth

This means “Lily of the Promise.” Translators may either write the meaning or copy the Hebrew words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

2126

PSA

60

1

tb2l

0

A michtam

The meaning of the word “michtam” is uncertain. You may use the word “psalm” instead. This can be written as: “This is a psalm that David wrote.” See how you translated this in Psalms 16:1.

2127

PSA

60

1

x59t

translate-names

0

Aram Naharaim … Aram Zobah

“Aram of the two rivers … the Aramean nation of Zobah.” These are places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2128

PSA

60

1

xt5a

figs-synecdoche

0

Joab

This refers to Joab and the army that he led. Alternate translation: “Joab and his army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2129

PSA

60

1

uk1f

translate-numbers

0

twelve thousand Edomites

“12,000 Edomites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2130

PSA

60

1

jey3

figs-metaphor

0

you have cast us off

God’s rejecting people is spoken of as if he had thrown them away. Alternate translation: “you have rejected us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2131

PSA

60

1

tsh1

figs-metonymy

0

you have broken through our defenses

God’s allowing Israel’s enemies to break through their defenses is spoken of as God himself had done it. Alternate translation: “you have allowed our enemies to break through our defenses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2132

PSA

60

2

cda8

0

Connecting Statement:

The psalmist continues speaking to God.

2133

PSA

60

2

rmg6

figs-metaphor

0

You have made the land tremble; you have torn it apart

The psalmist speaks of the disaster in his country as if it were an earthquake. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2134

PSA

60

2

qsa7

figs-metaphor

0

heal its fissures

Making the people strong again is spoken of as repairing the fissures in the ground or walls. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2135

PSA

60

2

n526

0

fissures

large cracks in the ground or walls

2136

PSA

60

3

k155

figs-metonymy

0

You have made your people see difficult things

Here “see” represents “experience” or “suffer.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2137

PSA

60

3

m2ay

figs-metaphor

0

drink the wine of staggering

Being helpless is spoken of as staggering around, barely able to stand upright. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word staggering, you could express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “the wine that makes us stagger” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2138

PSA

60

4

fj97

figs-metaphor

0

you have set up a banner

God’s guiding his people in battle is spoken of as if God were a human king or commander who had set up a banner for the army. Alternate translation: “you are like a king who sets up a banner” or “you command us in battle like a king who raises up a banner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2139

PSA

60

4

f9q6

0

banner

“battle flag.” This is a flag that a king or commander would raise up on a pole to show that the army should gather.

2140

PSA

60

4

xr7x

figs-activepassive

0

to be displayed against those who carry the bow

This can be stated with an active clause. However some versions have different interpretations of this phrase. Alternate translation: “to display against those who carry the bow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2141

PSA

60

4

pya3

figs-metonymy

0

to be displayed against those who carry the bow

The phrase “those who carry the bow” refers to the enemy soldiers in battle. Alternate translation: “to display when he takes his army into battle against your enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2142

PSA

60

5

lb5k

figs-metonymy

0

with your right hand

God’s right hand represents his power. Alternate translation: “by your power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2143

PSA

60

5

p226

figs-metonymy

0

answer me

Answering here represents responding to his request. Alternate translation: “respond to my request” or “answer my prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2144

PSA

60

7

ft6i

figs-metaphor

0

Ephraim also is my helmet

God speaks of the tribe of Ephraim as if it were his army. The helmet symbolizes equipment for war. Alternate translation: “Ephraim is like a helmet I have chosen” or “the tribe of Ephraim is my army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2145

PSA

60

7

d6zr

0

helmet

a hard hat that soldiers wear to protect their heads from injury

2146

PSA

60

7

c5sk

figs-metaphor

0

Judah is my scepter

God chose men from the tribe of Judah to be the kings of his people, and he speaks of that tribe as if it were his scepter. Alternate translation: “the tribe of Judah is like my scepter” or “Judah is the tribe through whom I rule my people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2147

PSA

60

8

k3r4

figs-metaphor

0

Moab is my washbasin

God speaks of Moab being unimportant as if Moab were a washbasin or a lowly servant. Alternate translation: “Moab is like a bowl that I use for washing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2148

PSA

60

8

lax6

figs-metaphor

0

over Edom I will throw my shoe

God was probably speaking of taking ownership of Edom as if he were symbolically throwing his shoe onto that land to show that he owns it. However some versions have other interpretations. Alternate translation: “I take ownership of the land of Edom” or “I throw my shoe onto the land of Edom to show that it is mine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

2149

PSA

60

10

ika5

figs-rquestion

0

But you, God, have you not rejected us?

The psalmist uses this question to express his sadness that it seems that God has rejected them. Alternate translation: “But God, it seems like you have rejected us.” or “God, you seem to have abandoned us.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2150

PSA

60

10

v89k

figs-metaphor

0

You do not go into battle with our army

The psalmist speaks of God helping their army as if God were to go and fight with them. Alternate translation: “you do not help our army when we go into battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2151

PSA

60

11

sm5b

0

is futile

Alternate translation: “is worthless”

2152

PSA

60

12

x5wt

0

will triumph

Alternate translation: “will defeat our enemies”

2153

PSA

60

12

i34s

figs-metaphor

0

he will trample down our enemies

The psalmist speaks of God helping their army defeat their enemies as if God were to trample down the enemies. Alternate translation: “he will enable us to trample down our enemies” or “he will make us able to defeat our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2154

PSA

61

intro

is6k

0

Psalm 061 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 61 is a psalm of praise.

Special concepts in this chapter

Vow

The author has vowed to praise God every day of his life because God has blessed him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/vow]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]])

2155

PSA

61

1

u44c

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This is a song about God’s faithfulness. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2156

PSA

61

1

y257

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2157

PSA

61

1

w7m6

0

on a stringed instrument

Alternate translation: “people should play a stringed instrument with this song”

2158

PSA

61

1

dkq1

figs-doublet

0

Hear my cry, God; attend to my prayer

These clauses have a similar meaning. Alternate translation: “God, listen to me and answer my prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

2159

PSA

61

2

z96p

figs-metaphor

0

lead me to the rock that is higher than I

Here the writer speaks of God as if he were a high rock that he could climb for protection. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2160

PSA

61

4

fq5b

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge under the shelter of your wings

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Here there is a second metaphor that speaks of Yahweh’s protection as if he was a hen protecting her baby chicks under her wings. Alternate translation: “go to you for protection as a chick is safe under the wings of its mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2161

PSA

61

5

yk96

figs-metaphor

0

you have given me the inheritance

The writer speaks of God’s blessings as if they were an inheritance that he has received. Alternate translation: “you have given to me the blessings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2162

PSA

61

5

jwf1

figs-metonymy

0

who honor your name

Here “your name” means God himself. Alternate translation: “who honor you” or “who have an awesome respect for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2163

PSA

61

6

f381

figs-parallelism

0

You will prolong … many generations

These two clauses have similar meanings. The idea is repeated for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2164

PSA

61

6

m1j7

0

You will prolong the king’s life

Alternate translation: “You will extend the king’s life” or “You will cause the king’s life to last a long time”

2165

PSA

61

6

dq7t

figs-metonymy

0

his years will be like many generations

Here “years” refers to how long the king will live. Alternate translation: “he will live for many generations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2166

PSA

61

7

j14f

figs-explicit

0

He will remain before God forever

Here “to remain before God” means to be in God’s presence or to be with God. This can be stated clearly in the translation. Alternate translation: “God will be with him forever” or “God will be with the king forever” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2167

PSA

61

8

ut6s

figs-metonymy

0

I will sing praise to your name forever

Here “name” stands for God himself. Alternate translation: “I will always sing praise to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2168

PSA

61

8

yd7n

0

my vows

These refer to the promise to offer sacrifices to God every day.

2169

PSA

62

intro

dc2q

0

Psalm 062 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 62 is a psalm of deliverance. It expresses trust that God will save the psalmist from his enemies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Trust

Although the psalmist’s enemies have attacked him when he was feeling weak, he trusts in God to deliver him. God is powerful and kind.

2170

PSA

62

1

fc8k

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a song about God’s faithfulness. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2171

PSA

62

1

a4ay

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2172

PSA

62

1

zun4

translate-names

0

Jeduthun

One of David’s chief musicians had this same name. This may refer to him. See how you translated this in Psalms 39:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2173

PSA

62

1

l5l8

0

my salvation comes from him

Alternate translation: “he is the one who rescues me” or “he is the one who saves me”

2174

PSA

62

2

hy6d

figs-metaphor

0

He alone is my rock and my salvation

The writer speaks of God’s ability to protect him as if God were a rock. Alternate translation: “He is the only one who can protect and rescue me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2175

PSA

62

2

ngh3

figs-metaphor

0

he is my high tower

The writer speaks of God’s ability to protect him as if God were a high tower. Alternate translation: “he keeps me away from the grasp of my enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2176

PSA

62

2

s4ie

figs-activepassive

0

I will not be greatly moved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “nothing can ever move me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2177

PSA

62

3

b6ts

0

all of you

Alternate translation: “my enemies” or “all my enemies”

2178

PSA

62

3

z326

figs-rquestion

0

How long … will you attack a man … or a shaky fence?

David uses a rhetorical question to express his frustration. No answer is expected. Alternate translation: “It seems like my enemies will never stop attacking me. I feel that I am as weak against you as a leaning wall or a broken-down fence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2179

PSA

62

3

c4q6

0

attack a man

Alternate translation: “attack me”

2180

PSA

62

4

n82a

0

They consult with him only to

Alternate translation: “They intend to” or “They plan to”

2181

PSA

62

4

a18i

0

consult with him … bring him … bless him … curse him

In these verses, David is referring to himself by “him.”

2182

PSA

62

4

j3uz

figs-metonymy

0

with their mouths

This refers to their speech or their words. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2183

PSA

62

4

zqm3

figs-metonymy

0

in their hearts

This refers to their thoughts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2184

PSA

62

5

nl4l

0

my hope is set on him

Alternate translation: “for I place my hope in him”

2185

PSA

62

6

fy6x

figs-metaphor

0

He alone is my rock and my salvation; he is my high tower

The writer speaks of God as if he were a rock and a high tower. Both of these metaphors show how God provides protection from one’s enemies. Here “salvation” means that God rescues the writer. See how you translated this in Psalms 62:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2186

PSA

62

6

izy6

figs-activepassive

0

I will not be moved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “nothing can move me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2187

PSA

62

7

c9fh

figs-metaphor

0

the rock of my strength and my refuge are in God

The writer speaks of God as if he were a rock that keeps one safe from his enemies. He also speaks of God as if he were a shelter that provides protection. Alternate translation: “God always gives me strength and protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2188

PSA

62

8

yq3j

figs-idiom

0

pour out your heart

This refers to telling God your inner feelings as if you were pouring out a liquid. Alternate translation: “give your deepest concerns to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2189

PSA

62

8

ss3p

figs-exclusive

0

refuge for us

The word “us” refers to David and the people he is speaking to. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2190

PSA

62

9

zu93

figs-merism

0

men of low standing … men of high standing are a lie

This refers to men of all levels of wealth and importance. The phrases “are vanity” and “are a lie” have the same meaning. One cannot confidently trust in anyone. Alternate translation: “you cannot place your trust in men, no matter how important they are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2191

PSA

62

9

ckm7

0

weighed together, they are lighter than nothing

If you put all of these kinds of men together on a scale, they would have no weight. This means that they have no real value to you.

2192

PSA

62

10

ubx1

figs-doublet

0

oppression or robbery

These two words have basically the same meaning. You cannot trust in money that you get by taking it from other people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

2193

PSA

62

10

eu3d

figs-metaphor

0

for they will bear no fruit

The writer speaks of riches as if they were trees or vines that could bear fruit. Alternate translation: “for they will provide nothing good for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2194

PSA

62

10

j6sj

figs-idiom

0

do not fix your heart on them

Here “fix your heart” is an idiom that means to desire something greatly. Alternate translation: “do not desire them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2195

PSA

62

11

x8ts

0

God has spoken once, twice have I heard this

This means that God has said this more than once.

2196

PSA

62

11

kc1v

figs-metaphor

0

power belongs to God

God being characterized by power is spoken of as if power belonged to him. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word power, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “God is powerful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2197

PSA

62

12

n56f

figs-metaphor

0

Also to you, Lord, belongs covenant faithfulness

God being characterized by covenant faithfulness is spoken of as if covenant faithfulness belonged to him. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “You, Lord, are also faithful to your covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2198

PSA

62

12

gl1p

figs-metaphor

0

for you pay back every person for what he has done

The writer speaks of God’s rewards as if he were paying a wage for work. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2199

PSA

63

intro

py5b

0

Psalm 063 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 63 is a psalm of praise.

Special concepts in this chapter

Praise

The author praises God for who he is and for having protected him.

2200

PSA

63

1

rct4

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2201

PSA

63

1

jrr4

0

A psalm of David

This could mean: (1) David wrote the psalm or (2) the psalm is about David or (3) the psalm is in the style of David’s psalms.

2202

PSA

63

1

d7d1

0

earnestly

sincerely

2203

PSA

63

1

c3we

figs-parallelism

0

my soul thirsts for you, and my flesh longs for you

These two clauses have basically the same meaning and are used together to emphasize how greatly the writer desires to be with God. Alternate translation: “my whole being greatly desires to be with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2204

PSA

63

1

x4mg

0

dry and weary land

Alternate translation: “hot, dry desert”

2205

PSA

63

3

w2ui

figs-abstractnouns

0

Because your covenant faithfulness is better than life, my lips

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word faithfulness, you could express the same idea with an adverb and If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word life, you could express the same idea with a verbal phrase. Alternate translation: “I value you being faithful to your covenant more than I value living, so my lips” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2206

PSA

63

3

cx75

figs-synecdoche

0

my lips will praise you

Here “my lips” represents the whole person. Alternate translation: “I will praise you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2207

PSA

63

4

vx4a

figs-metonymy

0

I will lift up my hands in your name

Here “in your name” means “to you.” Alternate translation: “I will worship you and pray to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2208

PSA

63

5

x5ky

figs-simile

0

It will be as if I ate a meal of marrow and fatness

Here the writer speaks of knowing and worshiping God as being more satisfying than eating a good meal. Alternate translation: “I will be happier than a person who eats a meal of fat and choice food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2209

PSA

63

5

y596

figs-synecdoche

0

with joyful lips my mouth will praise you

Here “with joyful lips my mouth” represents the whole person who will praise God joyfully. Alternate translation: “I will praise you joyfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2210

PSA

63

6

a4ez

figs-parallelism

0

when I think about you on my bed … in the night hours

These two clauses have the same meaning. The ideas are repeated to emphasize how much the writer thinks about God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2211

PSA

63

7

ca2e

figs-metaphor

0

in the shadow of your wings I rejoice

The writer speaks of God as if he were a bird protecting its young under his wings. Alternate translation: “I rejoice because you protect me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2212

PSA

63

8

y8gh

0

I cling to you

Alternate translation: “I need you” or “I depend on you”

2213

PSA

63

8

ua1a

figs-metonymy

0

your right hand supports me

Here, the right hand is used as a symbol of strength and power. Alternate translation: “you support me” or “you lift me up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2214

PSA

63

9

tm7l

figs-explicit

0

will go down into the lowest parts of the earth

This means they will die and go to the place of the dead. This can be stated clearly in the translation. Alternate translation: “will die and descend into the place of the dead” or “will die and go down into the place of the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2215

PSA

63

10

y78j

figs-metonymy

0

they will be given over to those whose hands use the sword

Here “the sword” represents death in battle, and “those whose hands use the sword” refers to enemies who kill them in battle. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will cause them to die in battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2216

PSA

63

10

i1md

figs-explicit

0

they will become food for the jackals

Here “they” refers to the corpses of those who die in battle. Alternate translation: “jackals will eat their dead bodies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2217

PSA

63

10

ru7l

0

the jackals

“jackals” here are a kind of long-legged wild dog. They feed on carrion, game, and fruit.

2218

PSA

63

11

q4st

figs-explicit

0

the king will

David is speaking about himself. This can be stated clearly in the translation. Alternate translation: “I, the king of Israel, will” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2219

PSA

63

11

lcq4

0

swears by him … proud of him

The word “him” refers to “God.”

2220

PSA

63

11

a434

figs-synecdoche

0

but the mouth of those who speak lies will be stopped up

Here “the mouth” represents the whole person. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “but God will silence the liars” or “but God will silence those who lie” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2221

PSA

64

intro

t6rs

0

Psalm 064 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 64 is a psalm of deliverance. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/deliverer]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Plotting of enemies

The author’s enemies have plotted against him but God has saved him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]])

2222

PSA

64

1

b1fk

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a prayer for help. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2223

PSA

64

1

j144

0

For the chief musician

Alternate translation: “This is for the director of music to use in worship”

2224

PSA

64

1

y5d6

0

preserve

save

2225

PSA

64

2

aj26

figs-metonymy

0

Hide me from the secret plotting of evildoers

Here “Hide” represents protecting, and “the secret plotting of evildoers represents” represents the harm that evildoers secretly plan to do to David. Alternate translation: “Protect me from the harm that evil doers secretly plan to do to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2226

PSA

64

2

czb5

figs-ellipsis

0

from the commotion

The words “hide me” are understood from the previous phrase and can be repeated here. Alternate translation: “hide me from the commotion” or “protect me from the commotion”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

2227

PSA

64

2

u721

0

the commotion of the doers of iniquity

Here, commotion could mean: (1) a noisy disturbance. Alternate translation: “the noisy disturbance that the doers of iniquity make” or (2) a crowd that makes a noisy disturbance. Alternate translation: “the noisy crowd of doers of iniquity”

2228

PSA

64

3

zhn8

figs-simile

0

They have sharpened their tongues like swords

The writer speaks of his enemies’ tongues as if they were as sharp as swords. Here “tongues” represents the harsh words that the enemies speak. Alternate translation: “The harsh things that they say hurt me like a sharp sword” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2229

PSA

64

3

ugs8

figs-metaphor

0

arrows, bitter words

The writer speaks of his enemies’ bitter words as if they were arrows being shot at him. Alternate translation: “bitter words which pierce me like arrows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2230

PSA

64

5

blg6

figs-rquestion

0

Who will see us?

The evildoers do not expect an answer to their question because they think no one will see them. Alternate translation: “No one will see what we are doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2231

PSA

64

6

jn8k

figs-metaphor

0

The inner thoughts and hearts of man are deep

The writer speaks of man’s “inner thoughts” and “hearts of man” as if they were a deep body of water that no one can explore all the way to the bottom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2232

PSA

64

6

mfc5

figs-doublet

0

inner thoughts … hearts of man

Both of these phrases refer to man’s private or inner thoughts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

2233

PSA

64

7

a77p

figs-metaphor

0

But God will shoot them … with his arrows

The writer speaks of God’s punishment of the evildoers as if God were shooting arrows at them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2234

PSA

64

8

xs48

figs-metaphor

0

They will be made to stumble

The writer speaks of God’s causing the evildoers’ plans to fail as if God were making them stumble in their paths. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “God will make them stumble” or “God will cause their plans to fail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2235

PSA

64

8

f4zp

figs-metonymy

0

since their own tongues are against them

Here “tongues” represents the words that they say. Alternate translation: “since the words that they say are against them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2236

PSA

64

9

gv21

0

what he has done

Alternate translation: “what God has done”

2237

PSA

64

10

v64d

figs-metaphor

0

take refuge in him

Going to Yahweh for protection is spoken of as taking refuge in him. Alternate translation: “go to him for protection” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2238

PSA

64

10

pzy4

figs-idiom

0

all the upright in heart will take pride in him

Here “upright in heart” is an idiom that means godly or righteous. Alternate translation: “all the people who are godly will praise him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2239

PSA

65

intro

zl1t

0

Psalm 065 General Notes

Type of psalm

Psalm 65 is a psalm of praise to God.

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s power

God answered prayers and gave the people justice and hope. God created nature and controls it, sending rain so the grain and pastures grow well.

2240

PSA

65

1

g299

writing-poetry

0

General Information:

This psalm is a song of praise. Parallelism is common in Hebrew poetry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pa