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Introduction to 1 Samuel

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of 1 Samuel

  1. Samuel as judge over Israel (1:1–7:17)
    • Samuel as a child (1:1–3:21)
    • Shiloh priesthood; the fall and death of Eli the priest (4:1–22)
    • The ark of God and the war with the Philistines (5:1–6:21)
    • Mizpah; Samuel’s rule over Israel (7:1–17)
  2. Saul and Samuel (8:1–15:35)
    • Samuel lets the people seek a king (8:1–22)
    • Saul anointed king (9:1–10:27)
    • Battle and victory over the Ammonites (11:1–15)
    • Samuel’s farewell (12:1–25)
    • Saul’s weakness and failures (13:1–15:35)
  3. David and his conflicts with Saul (16:1–31:13)
    • God’s choice of David to be king (16:1–23)
    • David fights Goliath (17:1–58)
    • Saul’s jealousy of David; David and Jonathan (18:1–20:42)
    • David in the wilderness; David in Philistia (21:1–30:31)
    • Death of Saul (31:1–13)

What is the Book of 1 Samuel about?

The Book of 1 Samuel is about Samuel, Saul, and David. Samuel was the last of the judges over Israel. Saul was the first king of Israel. Much of the book is about how Saul became king, then how he later sinned against God and died. God chose David to be king after Saul. This book shows how God protected David when Saul tried to kill him.

How should the title of this book be translated?

Translators can use the traditional title “1 Samuel” or “First Samuel.” Or, translators may consider a clearer title such as “The First Book About Samuel, Saul, and David.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

What is the purpose of the Book of 1 Samuel?

The purpose of 1 Samuel is to give an account of the events leading up to David becoming king of Israel. In 1 Samuel, the twelve tribes of Israel unite under the first king of Israel, Saul. But Saul does not obey Yahweh’s commands. So God uses Samuel to choose David as a king who will trust and obey Yahweh.

Who wrote the Book of 1 Samuel?

It is uncertain who wrote 1 Samuel. It may have been someone alive soon after King Solomon died. When Solomon died, the kingdom of Israel split into two kingdoms. The author probably lived in the southern kingdom of Judah. A descendant of David continued to rule over the southern kingdom. The author may have written 1 Samuel to defend David’s right to be king. This would prove that David’s descendant was the rightful king of God’s people.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

Who is “Yahweh’s anointed”?

The writer of 1 Samuel often speaks of “Yahweh’s anointed.” This refers to the one whom Yahweh chose to be the king of his people. Also, the phrase “Yahweh’s anointed” would make later readers think about the future descendant of David who would become king of God’s people. This person who Yahweh chose would be known as the Messiah. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/anoint]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/christ]])

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What are curses, as found in 1 Samuel and elsewhere?

A curse is a strong statement a person makes to cause bad things to happen to the person or thing being cursed. A curse usually has this pattern: “May God do so to you, and even more, if you hide anything from me of all the words that he spoke to you” (1 Sam. 3:17). Other instances of curses in 1 and 2 Samuel are found in 1 Sam 14:44; 20:13; 25:22; 2 Sam 3:9, 35; and 19:13. The translator should represent a curse in the project language in as strong a way as possible.

How is the name “Israel” used in the Bible?

The name “Israel” is used in many different ways in the Bible. Jacob was the son of Isaac. God changed his name to Israel. The descendants of Jacob became a nation also called Israel. Eventually, the nation of Israel split into two kingdoms. The northern kingdom was named Israel. The southern kingdom was named Judah. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/israel]])

The Book of 1 Samuel has two references to Israel and Judah (1 Samuel 17:52, 1 Samuel 18:16). However, these references appear in the text long before the two kingdoms split apart. It seems clear that the references to Israel and Judah are in the text because the author wrote at a time after the kingdoms split. He wanted the readers to understand that all the twelve tribes had supported David.

What is the meaning of the phrase “to this day”?

This phrase was used by the narrator to refer to the time when he was writing. The translator should be aware that “to this day” refers to a time already passed. He must avoid giving the impression that the present day of the translation’s readers is meant. The translator might decide to say, “to this day, at the time when this is being written” or “to this day, at the time of writing.” This phrase occurs in 1 Samuel 5:5; 6:18: 27:6; 30:25.

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1 Samuel 1 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter introduces Samuel. It is the beginning of the section 1, Samuel chapters 1-7, which tell about Samuel, the religious leader of Israel.

Special concepts in this chapter

Two wives

This was a common practice in the ancient Near East. It was against the law of Moses. The men of Israel would have sinned if they married more than one woman. This type of marriage always creates problems because of jealousy. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/jealous]])

“Pay his vow”

It was customary for Israelites to promise God to make a sacrifice to him if God answered special prayers. Making such a sacrifice was called paying one’s vow. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/vow]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Idioms

When Hannah wanted to assure Eli she was telling the truth, she used the idiom “as you live.” This is a type of oath formula meaning “I promise you I am telling the truth.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

The author also uses the phrase “call to mind.” This is a common idiom meaning “remember.”

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xa1t

translate-names

הָרָמָתַ֛יִם

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the Ramathaim

This is the name of a small village possibly located eight kilometers northwest of Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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mwm2

translate-names

צוֹפִ֖ים

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the Zuphites

The phrase the Zuphites refers to the people group that descended from Zuph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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hizk

translate-names

אֶפְרָ֑יִם

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Ephraim

Here, Ephraim refers to the land that was allotted to the people belonging to the Israelite tribe of Ephraim (see Joshua 16:1-9).(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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translate-names

אֶ֠לְקָנָה…יְרֹחָ֧ם…אֱלִיה֛וּא…תֹּ֥חוּ…צ֖וּף

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was Elkanah … Jeroham … Elihu … Tohu … Zuph

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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translate-names

אֶפְרָתִֽי

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an Ephraimite

Here, Ephraimite refers to anyone living in the territory of Ephraim. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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roc0

writing-pronouns

וְלוֹ֙

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And for him

The pronoun him refers to Elkanah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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translate-names

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Hannah ... Peninnah

These are the names of two women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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writing-pronouns

הָאִ֨ישׁ הַה֤וּא

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that man

The word that in the phrase that man is a demonstrative pronoun which refers to Elkanah. Alternate translation: “the man Elkanah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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figs-go

וְעָלָה֩

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And…went up

Here, went up indicates that in order to reach Shiloh, Elkanah had to travel from a lower location to a higher location because Shiloh was located in a mountainous region. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

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j91i

מִיָּמִ֣ים׀ יָמִ֔ימָה

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from days to days

The expression days to days is a Hebrew idiom. Alternate translation: “year by year” or “annually” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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w8se

translate-names

עֵלִ֗י…חָפְנִי֙…וּפִ֣נְחָ֔ס

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Eli, Hophni and Phinehas

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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imlh

מָנֽוֹת

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portions

Here, portions refers to portions of meat. See UST. Alternate translation: “meat portions” or “portions of meat”

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emtw

writing-background

וְנָתַ֞ן

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that he gave

Beginning here and continuing until the middle of verse 7, the author provides background information and explains what took place repeatedly year after year. The author does this to help readers better understand the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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translate-names

וּלְחַנָּ֕ה

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But to Hannah

Hannah is a woman’s name. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 1:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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k5i7

מָנָ֥ה אַחַ֖ת אַפָּ֑יִם

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one portion of two faces

The phrase, one portion of two faces could mean: (1) Elkanah gave Hannah a double portion. Alternate translation: “a double portion” (2) Elkanah gave Hannah especially desirable portions of meat. Alternate translation: “a special portion”

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b7ri

figs-euphemism

סָגַ֥ר רַחְמָֽהּ

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had shut her womb

The phrase shut her womb is used figuratively to mean that Yahweh had not allowed Hannah to become pregnant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use a phrase that would be most natural in your language. Alternative translation: “made her barren” or “prevented her from becoming pregnant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

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translate-unknown

מָנָ֥ה

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portion

Here, portion refers to the portion of meat that God let the people eat from the animal which they sacrificed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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f5cg

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְכִֽעֲסַ֤תָּה צָֽרָתָהּ֙ גַּם־כַּ֔עַס בַּעֲב֖וּר הַרְּעִמָ֑הּ

1

And her rival would provoke her, even with provocation in order to cause her to thunder

This means that Peninnah would intentionally seek ways to humiliate and mock Hannah so that she would feel emotionally disturbed and be greatly troubled in spirit. you could translate this in a way that would be most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “And Peninnah would intentionally provoke Hannah severely, for the purpose of hurting her feelings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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figs-abstractnouns

וְכִֽעֲסַ֤תָּה צָֽרָתָהּ֙ גַּם־כַּ֔עַס

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And her rival would provoke her, even with provocation

The word provocation is an abstract noun. If it would be more natural in your language you may translate this word using a verb phrase or adjective. Alternate translation: “And Peninnah would intentionally provoke Hannah severely” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns)

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mw8a

צָֽרָתָהּ֙

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her rival

Here, her rival refers to Hannah’s rival Peninnah. It is probable that Elkanah took Peninnah as his second wife after Hannah was unable to bear children so that he could have offspring by Penninah. This would result in Hannah and Peninnah viewing each other as rivals. you could use a word or phrase that would be most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “his second wife” or“her co-wife”

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gq73

figs-simile

הַרְּעִמָ֑הּ

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cause her to thunder

The phrase cause her to thunder is a figurative way of saying that Peninnah’s actions caused Hannah to be greatly irritated or troubled. The point of this comparison is that Peninnah would cause Hannah to be greatly bothered and disrupted in a way that is similar to the sky being disrupted to the point of thundering. you could communicate this in a way which would be most natural in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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בְּעַ֥ד רַחְמָֽהּ

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shut up her womb

The phrase shut up her womb is a used figuratively to mean that Yahweh had not allowed Hannah to become pregnant. You can use a phrase that would be most natural in your language. Alternative translation: “made her barren” or “prevented her from becoming pregnant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

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bzk3

figs-go

עֲלֹתָהּ֙

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she went up

Here, went up indicates that in order to reach Shiloh, Elkanah had to travel from a lower location to a higher location because Shiloh was located in a mountainous region. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 1:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

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writing-pronouns

עֲלֹתָהּ֙

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she went up

Here, she refers to Hannah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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nz4v

figs-rquestion

לָ֣מֶה תִבְכִּ֗י וְלָ֨מֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְלִ֔י וְלָ֖מֶה יֵרַ֣ע לְבָבֵ֑ךְ הֲל֤וֹא אָֽנֹכִי֙ ט֣וֹב לָ֔ךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָ֖ה בָּנִֽים

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why do you weep? And why do you not eat? And why is your heart displeased? Am I not better to you than ten sons

These rhetorical questions can be translated as statements, if it would be helpful in your language. Alternate translation: “you should not weep. You should eat, and your heart should be glad because I am better to you than ten sons!” or “you have little reason for sadness. I favor you and that should be enough.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

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tt3y

figs-hyperbole

הֲל֤וֹא אָֽנֹכִי֙ ט֣וֹב לָ֔ךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָ֖ה בָּנִֽים

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Am I not better to you than ten sons

Elkanah is intentionally exaggerating to emphasize what he wants Hannah to understand. Alternate translation: “Am I not better to you than any son could be” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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kgv8

figs-explicit

וַתָּ֣קָם חַנָּ֔ה אַחֲרֵ֛י

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And Hannah rose up after

Here, implicit information can be made explicit. This could mean: (1) Hannah’s tent was next to the tabernacle tent. (2) Hannah walked from her tent to the tabernacle to pray. Alternate translation: “Hannah rose up and went to the house of Yahweh to pray after” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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translate-names

וְעֵלִ֣י

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Now Eli

Now is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here, the author tells about a new person in the story. This person is the priest Eli. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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translate-unknown

הֵיכַ֥ל

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the temple

Here, the temple was actually a tent, but it was where the people worshiped, so it is translated as temple here. You could use an equivalent word or phrase to describe temple in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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figs-explicit

וְהִ֖יא מָ֣רַת נָ֑פֶשׁ וַתִּתְפַּלֵּ֥ל עַל־יְהוָ֖ה וּבָכֹ֥ה תִבְכֶּֽה

1

And she was bitter of spirit, and she prayed to Yahweh and wept abundantly.

Hannah prayed to Yahweh because she was greatly grieved because she was not able to have any children and because Peninnah regularly ridiculed her. If it would be helpful in your language, you could state this explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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k0z1

figs-simile

מָ֣רַת נָ֑פֶשׁ

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was bitter of spirit

The phrase bitter of spirit is a simile. The point of this comparison is that Hannah’s emotional state was very unpleasant and undesirable, comparable to the unpleasant experience of eating something very bitter tasting. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “was greatly distressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

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figs-explicit

וַתִּדֹּ֨ר נֶ֜דֶר

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And she vowed a vow

The phrase vowed a vow is a way of saying that Hannah made a promise. If it would be helpful in your language, you could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “made a promise” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

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writing-quotations

וַתֹּאמַ֗ר

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and said

Here, and said is introducing the authors quotation of Hannah’s prayer. Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “and this is what she prayed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

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writing-quotations

יְהוָ֨ה צְבָא֜וֹת אִם־רָאֹ֥ה תִרְאֶ֣ה׀ בָּעֳנִ֣י אֲמָתֶ֗ךָ וּזְכַרְתַּ֨נִי֙ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁכַּ֣ח אֶת־אֲמָתֶ֔ךָ וְנָתַתָּ֥ה לַאֲמָתְךָ֖ זֶ֣רַע אֲנָשִׁ֑ים וּנְתַתִּ֤יו לַֽיהוָה֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיָּ֔יו וּמוֹרָ֖ה לֹא־יַעֲלֶ֥ה עַל־רֹאשֽׁוֹ

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“Yahweh of hosts, if you will indeed look on the affliction of your female servant and remember me, and not forget your female servant, and give to your female servant a seed of men, then I will give him to Yahweh all the days of his life, and a razor will not go up on his head.”

This portion is the authors quotation of Hannah’s prayer to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])

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ri9r

figs-abstractnouns

בָּעֳנִ֣י אֲמָתֶ֗ךָ

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on the affliction of your female servant

The abstract noun affliction can be translated as a verbal phrase. This could mean: (1) Hannah’s emotional suffering because she was unable to become pregnant. Alternate translation: “on how I am suffering because I cannot become pregnant” (2) Hannah’s emotional suffering because of Peninnah’s frequent insults and taunts. Alternate translation: “on how that woman is afflicting me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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ee3h

figs-doublet

וּזְכַרְתַּ֨נִי֙ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁכַּ֣ח

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and remember me, and not forget

These two phrases mean basically the same thing. The repetition is used for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could combine these two phrases. Alternate translation: “and indeed remember” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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m3wr

figs-hyperbole

וּזְכַרְתַּ֨נִי֙ וְלֹֽא־תִשְׁכַּ֣ח

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and remember me, and not forget

Hannah does not actually think that Yahweh is unaware of her situation or has forgotten about it. Rather, this is an emphatic and urgent way of asking Yahweh to act on her behalf by answering her prayer for a son. Alternate translation: “and give heed to, and act on behalf of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

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y3ce

וּנְתַתִּ֤יו

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then I will give him

This portion of Hannah’s prayer begins her promise to Yahweh. She tells Yahweh that if he gives her, her request for a son, she will dedicate the child to Yahweh all the days of his life and not give him a haircut. She begins her promise with the phrase then I will give. If your language has a specific way that it would introduce a promise in this context, you may consider using it here if it would be natural in your language. Alternative translation: “then I promise I will give him”

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q3g7

figs-idiom

כִּ֣י הִרְבְּתָ֔ה לְהִתְפַּלֵּ֖ל

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when she increased to pray

The phrase increased to pray is a Hebrew idiom. It means that Hannah was continuing in prayer, or making her prayers many. It is used here to show that Hannah was praying for a long time. Alternate translation: “when she continued praying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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ddxz

figs-idiom

לִפְנֵ֣י

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before the face of

The phrase before the face of is a Hebrew idiom. It is used to show that something takes place in front of or in the presence of someone or something else. It is used here to show that Hannah was praying in the presence of Yahweh. Use the term or phrase in your language that would most naturally communicate that something takes place in front of someone or in the presence of someone. Alternate translation: “in the presence of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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js4q

translate-names

וְעֵלִ֖י

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that Eli

Eli was the chief priest, so he was in the tabernacle of God and in charge of it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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ne47

grammar-connect-logic-goal

וְחַנָּ֗ה הִ֚יא מְדַבֶּ֣רֶת עַל־לִבָּ֔הּ רַ֚ק שְׂפָתֶ֣יהָ נָּע֔וֹת וְקוֹלָ֖הּ לֹ֣א יִשָּׁמֵ֑עַ וַיַּחְשְׁבֶ֥הָ עֵלִ֖י לְשִׁכֹּרָֽה

1

Now Hannah, she was speaking to her heart, only her lips were quivering and her voice was not heard. So Eli thought of her as drunk.

If it would be misunderstood in you language, you could arrange the order of events in a way that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Now Hannah was silently praying. And Eli assumed that she was drunk, because she was not making any sound, only her lips were moving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

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sw9f

figs-metaphor

מְדַבֶּ֣רֶת עַל־לִבָּ֔הּ

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was speaking to her heart

Here, heart is used figuratively. Use the term or phrase that would be most natural in your language. If you do not have a figurative way to express this in your language you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. See UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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m16w

figs-rquestion

עַד־מָתַ֖י תִּשְׁתַּכָּרִ֑ין

1

Until when will you make yourself drunk

Eli is stating this in the form of a question for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or as an exclamation. See UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

48

1SA

1

15

dcnb

writing-politeness

אֲדֹנִ֔י

1

my master

The phrase my master is a way of politely or respectfully addressing someone. If you have an equivalent term or phrase in your language, consider using that. Alternate translation: “my lord” or “sir” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-politeness]])

49

1SA

1

15

qnz5

figs-idiom

קְשַׁת־ר֨וּחַ֙

1

difficult of spirit

The phrase difficult of spirit is a Hebrew idiom. Alternative translation: “troubled of spirit” or “very unhappy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

50

1SA

1

15

fzi6

figs-idiom

וָאֶשְׁפֹּ֥ךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁ֖י

1

but I have been pouring out my soul

The phrase pouring out refers to emptying the contents of what is inside something. Here it is used figuratively, and so the phrase pouring out my soul means telling Yahweh one’s troubles or deepest emotions. If it would be helpful in your language, you could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “but I have been telling my troubles” or “but I have been telling my deepest emotions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

51

1SA

1

15

irvy

figs-idiom

לִפְנֵ֥י

1

before the face of

The phrase before the face of is a Hebrew idiom. It is used to show that something takes place in front of or in the presence of someone or something else. It is used here to show that Hannah was praying in the presence of Yahweh. Use the term or phrase in your language that would most naturally communicate that something takes place in front of someone or in the presence of someone. Alternate translation: “in the presence of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

52

1SA

1

16

a5rz

figs-123person

אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔

1

your female servant

Hannah speaks of herself in the third person to show humility. If it would be helpful in your language, you may use a first person pronoun here. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

53

1SA

1

16

wxf5

writing-politeness

אֲמָ֣תְךָ֔

1

your female servant

Here, Hannah calls herself Eli’s female servant as a humble way of showing respect. Hannah was not actually Eli’s servant. If you have an equivalent term or phrase in your language consider using it here if it would be natural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-politeness]])

54

1SA

1

16

lf9r

figs-abstractnouns

מֵרֹ֥ב שִׂיחִ֛י וְכַעְסִ֖י

1

from the abundance of my complaint and my provocation

Here, Hannah tells Eli why she is praying the way that she is. Hannah uses three abstract nouns, abundance, *complaint, and provocation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate these using verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. Alternate translation: “because I am very troubled, and my rival has greatly provoked me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

55

1SA

1

17

a5u2

0

Then Eli answered

Eli was the head priest residing over the tabernacle.

56

1SA

1

18

sl27

figs-123person

0

Let your servant find

Hannah speaks of herself in the second person to show respect for Eli, the head priest. This can be stated in the first person. Alternate translation: “Let me, your servant, find” or “Let me find” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

57

1SA

1

18

tu8x

figs-metonymy

0

find favor in your eyes

Here “find favor” is an idiom that means be approved of or that he is pleased with her. Here the eyes are a metonym for sight, and seeing represents judging or deciding the value of something. Alternate translation: “evaluated me and approve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

58

1SA

1

18

us1u

figs-synecdoche

0

ate; her face was

Here “her face” represents Hannah herself. You can make this a separate sentence, if needed. Alternate translation: “ate. She was” or “ate. People could see that she was” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

59

1SA

1

19

rw2y

figs-euphemism

0

Elkanah knew Hannah

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “Elkanah had sexual relations with Hannah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

60

1SA

1

19

r2kg

0

remembered her

God knew what was happening to Hannah; he had not forgotten her. See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 1:11.

61

1SA

1

20

n484

0

Hannah conceived

Alternate translation: “Hannah became pregnant”

62

1SA

1

21

v7jy

figs-metonymy

0

his house

The word “house” is a metonym for the people who lived in the house. Alternate translation: “his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

63

1SA

1

22

n9zg

0

is weaned

stops drinking milk and starts eating only solid food

64

1SA

1

22

ui7y

0

he may appear before Yahweh and live there forever

Hannah had promised God that she would allow Samuel to live and work with Eli the priest in the temple (1 Samuel 1:11).

65

1SA

1

23

t6a9

0

nursed her son

Alternate translation: “gave her son milk”

66

1SA

1

24

u3ax

translate-bvolume

0

ephah

An ephah is about 22 liters of dry material. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

67

1SA

1

24

dn9w

0

bottle

Wine was kept in animal skins, not glass bottles.

68

1SA

1

26

r835

writing-oathformula

חֵ֥י נַפְשְׁךָ֖

1

As your spirit is alive

The phrase As your spirit is alive is an oath formula. If you have a term or phrase that would be most natural in your language to express an oath in this context, consider using that. Alternative translation: (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-oathformula]])

69

1SA

1

26

lrs1

writing-politeness

בִּ֣י אֲדֹנִ֔י

1

Please, my master

The phrase Please, my master is a respectful way of addressing someone of higher status. Use the term or phrase that would be most natural in your language for addressing someone of higher status in this context. If your language has a specific way that a woman would address a man of higher status consider using that. Alternate translation: “Please, sir” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-politeness]])

70

1SA

1

27

m76r

figs-abstractnouns

0

has given me my petition which I asked of him

The noun “petition” refers to a formal request for another person to do something. It can be translated with a verb. The idiom “to give a petition” means to do what the person requests. Alternate translation: “has agreed to do what I solemnly requested that he do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

71

1SA

1

28

fp77

figs-activepassive

0

he is lent to Yahweh

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “I am loaning him to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

72

1SA

1

28

f1d4

figs-synecdoche

0

he worshiped Yahweh

This could mean: (1) “He” refers to Elkanah or (2) “he” is a synecdoche referring to both Elkanah and his family. Alternate translation: “Elkanah and his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

73

1SA

2

intro

fe7v

0

1 Samuel 2 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with Hannah’s poetic prayer in 2:1-10 .

Special concepts in this chapter

Hannah’s song of praise to God

This song is about how God protects the weak and strengthens them. He humbles the rich, provides for the poor, and defeats his enemies.

Eli’s Sons

Eli, the chief priest, had two sons. They were ungodly priests who continually sinned and did not honor God. Eli corrected them but they did not listen. A prophet warned Eli that God would stop his family from being priests and his sons would both die on the same day. At the same time, Samuel was growing up and serving God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

This chapter has many figures of speech because the first part of the chapter is a song and the last part of the chapter is a prophecy. Songs and prophecy tend to have many figures of speech.

Synecdoches

“My heart” and “my mouth” are synecdoches referencing the speaker. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

Metonymies

Body parts are often used to stand for activities involving that part of the body. “The feet of his faithful people” is a metonym meaning what they are doing or where they are going. Place names are often used for people in that place such as “the ends of the earth” meaning the people living in the ends of the earth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Metaphors

Hannah used many military metaphors: “rock,” representing protection; “the bows of the mighty men are broken,” representing military defeat; “the horn of his anointed,” representing the power of the one that God has chosen to be king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

Rhetorical questions

God used three rhetorical questions to correct and condemn Eli. “Did I not reveal myself to the house of your ancestor, when they were in Egypt in bondage to Pharaoh’s house?” “Why then do you scorn my offerings that I required in the place where I live?” “Why do you honor your sons above me by making yourselves fat with the best of every offering of my people Israel?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

74

1SA

2

1

e9ks

figs-parallelism

0

General Information:

Hannah recites a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

75

1SA

2

1

aq77

0

My heart exults

Alternate translation: “I have great joy”

76

1SA

2

1

j5ts

0

in Yahweh

Alternate translation: “because of who Yahweh is” or “because Yahweh is so great”

77

1SA

2

1

s8ym

figs-metaphor

0

My horn is exalted

A horn is a symbol of strength. Alternate translation: “I am now strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

78

1SA

2

2

v6e5

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

79

1SA

2

2

tvt6

figs-metaphor

0

there is no rock like our God

This is another way of saying that God is strong and faithful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

80

1SA

2

2

xqh2

0

rock

This is a rock large enough to hide behind or to stand on and so be high above one’s enemies.

81

1SA

2

3

k2up

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. She speaks as if other people were listening to her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

82

1SA

2

3

l38w

0

no arrogance

Alternate translation: “no arrogant words”

83

1SA

2

3

tzn5

figs-activepassive

0

by him actions are weighed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he weighs people’s actions” or “he understands why people act as they do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

84

1SA

2

4

v82q

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

85

1SA

2

4

rd1s

0

The bow of the mighty men are broken

This could mean: (1) the bows themselves are broken or (2) the men who carry the bows are prevented from acting. Alternate translation: “Mighty bowmen are kept from acting”

86

1SA

2

4

re5w

figs-activepassive

0

The bow of the mighty men are broken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh breaks the bows of the mighty men” or “Yahweh can make even the strongest of people weak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

87

1SA

2

4

nr6l

figs-metaphor

0

those who stumble put on strength like a belt

This metaphor means they will no longer stumble, but their strength will remain with them as tightly as a belt. Alternate translation: “he will make those who stumble strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

88

1SA

2

4

u785

0

put on … a belt

This is the general term for putting something around one’s waist to prepare for work.

89

1SA

2

5

t7ag

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

90

1SA

2

5

q5su

0

gives birth to seven

Alternate translation: “gives birth to seven children”

91

1SA

2

5

uun5

0

languishes

becomes weak and sad and lonely

92

1SA

2

6

rlw4

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

93

1SA

2

6

wy38

figs-merism

0

Yahweh kills … brings to life … brings down … raises up

Yahweh is in control of everything. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

94

1SA

2

7

rdi6

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

95

1SA

2

7

p7gh

figs-merism

0

makes some people poor … some rich … humbles … lifts up

Yahweh is in control of everything. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

96

1SA

2

8

ui1h

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

97

1SA

2

8

x5qk

figs-metaphor

0

out of the dust … from the ash heap

These are metaphors for the lowest position in society. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

98

1SA

2

8

kfa7

0

the needy

people who do not have the things that they need

99

1SA

2

9

n8u2

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

100

1SA

2

9

qa5r

figs-metonymy

0

guard the feet of his faithful people

Here “feet” is a metonym for the way a person walks, which in turn is a metaphor for the way a person decides how to live his life. Alternate translation: “keep his faithful people from making foolish decisions” or “enable his faithful people to make wise decisions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

101

1SA

2

9

c576

figs-euphemism

0

the wicked will be put to silence in darkness

This polite way of saying that Yahweh will kill the wicked can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will put the wicked to silence in darkness” or “Yahweh will put the wicked in the dark and silent world of the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

102

1SA

2

9

tij9

figs-idiom

0

the wicked will be put to silence

The words “be put to silence” are an idiom for “be made silent.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will make them silent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

103

1SA

2

9

ms18

0

by strength

Alternate translation: “because he is strong”

104

1SA

2

10

mph9

figs-parallelism

0

Hannah continues to recite a song to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

105

1SA

2

10

k6zw

figs-activepassive

0

Those who oppose Yahweh will be broken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will break those who oppose him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

106

1SA

2

10

q5jv

figs-idiom

0

broken to pieces

This idiom means “defeated.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

107

1SA

2

10

zja3

figs-idiom

0

the ends of the earth

This is an idiom that means everywhere. Alternate translation: “the whole earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

108

1SA

2

10

ui4d

figs-metaphor

0

exalt the horn of his anointed

A horn is a symbol of strength. See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 2:1. Alternate translation: “he will make the leader he has chosen stronger than his enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

109

1SA

2

10

zv7z

figs-metaphor

0

his anointed

This speaks of the person that Yahweh chose and empowered for his purposes as if Yahweh had anointed the person with oil. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the one he has anointed” or “the one he has chosen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

110

1SA

2

12

q8jj

0

General Information:

When people would offer animals as sacrifices, they would first burn the animal’s fat and then boil the meat and eat it.

111

1SA

2

12

xbf4

0

did not know Yahweh

Alternate translation: “did not listen to Yahweh” or “did not obey Yahweh”

112

1SA

2

13

j81a

0

custom

A custom is an action that people regularly do.

113

1SA

2

14

pa2z

0

into the pan, or kettle, or cauldron, or pot

These are containers in which food could be cooked. If your language does not have separate words for these items it can be stated more generally. Alternate translation: “into whatever the people were cooking the meat in”

114

1SA

2

14

r3hj

0

pan

a small metal container for boiling and cooking

115

1SA

2

14

ye8t

0

kettle

a large, heavy metal container for boiling and cooking

116

1SA

2

14

y3g8

0

cauldron

a large, heavy metal container for boiling and cooking

117

1SA

2

14

u3la

0

pot

a clay container for cooking

118

1SA

2

15

q7b6

0

General Information:

When people would offer animals as sacrifices, they would first burn the animal’s fat and then boil the meat, give some to the priest, and eat the rest.

119

1SA

2

15

a5zh

0

Worse, before

Alternate translation: “They even did something worse than that. Before”

120

1SA

2

15

j2my

figs-explicit

0

they burned

The person who actually did the burning can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the man who was sacrificing took his sacrifice to the priests and the priests burned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

121

1SA

2

15

f4np

0

Give meat to roast for the priest

Alternate translation: “Give me some meat so I can give it to the priest so he can roast it”

122

1SA

2

15

a5aa

0

roast

cook over a fire

123

1SA

2

15

c19i

0

boiled

cooked in water

124

1SA

2

15

y5r2

0

raw

not cooked

125

1SA

2

17

yx43

0

despised Yahweh’s offering

The young men did not like Yahweh’s instructions regarding the offering and paid no attention to them.

126

1SA

2

20

tc3y

0

because of the request she made of Yahweh

Hannah had asked Yahweh for a baby and promised him that she would give the baby to serve in the temple.

127

1SA

2

21

k1xe

0

before Yahweh

This means where Yahweh could see him and Samuel could learn about Yahweh.

128

1SA

2

22

lbj3

figs-euphemism

0

they were lying with the women

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “they were having sexual relations with the women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

129

1SA

2

23

tv62

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you do such things?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “It is terrible that you do such things!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

130

1SA

2

25

lkz7

figs-rquestion

0

who will speak for him?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “there is certainly no one who can speak for him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

131

1SA

2

25

eb5j

0

speak for him

Alternate translation: “ask Yahweh to have mercy on him”

132

1SA

2

25

cvx3

figs-synecdoche

0

the voice of their father

Here the father’s “voice” represents the father. Alternate translation: “their father” or “what their father said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

133

1SA

2

27

f6z6

0

man of God

This phrase usually means a prophet of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “a man who hears and tells words from God”

134

1SA

2

27

r882

figs-rquestion

0

Did I not reveal myself … house?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should know that I revealed myself … house.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

135

1SA

2

27

k8sr

figs-metonymy

0

the house of your ancestor

The word “house” is a metonym for the people who lived in the house. Alternate translation: “the family of your ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

136

1SA

2

27

u541

0

your ancestor

Aaron

137

1SA

2

28

z66e

0

to go up to my altar, and to burn incense

This refers to making an offering to Yahweh.

138

1SA

2

28

vv14

figs-metonymy

0

to wear an ephod before me

The words “wear an ephod” are a metonym for the work of the priests who wear the ephod. Alternate translation: “to do what I had commanded the priests to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

139

1SA

2

29

tk44

0

Connecting Statement:

The man of God continues to speak to Eli.

140

1SA

2

29

rx55

figs-rquestion

0

Why, then, do you scorn my sacrifices … live?

This rhetorical question is a rebuke. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not scorn my sacrifices … where I live.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

141

1SA

2

29

ai4j

0

the place where I live

Alternate translation: “the place where my people bring offerings to me”

142

1SA

2

29

en93

0

making yourselves fat with the best of every offering

The best part of the offering was to be burned up as an offering to Yahweh, but the priests were eating it.

143

1SA

2

30

b5d5

figs-metonymy

0

the house of your ancestor

The word “house” is a metonym for the people who lived in the house. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 2:27. Alternate translation: “the family of your ancestor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

144

1SA

2

30

url1

figs-idiom

0

should walk before me

This is an idiom that means “live in obedience to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

145

1SA

2

30

agt3

0

Far be it from me to do this

Alternate translation: “I will certainly not allow your family to serve me forever”

146

1SA

2

30

hd3e

figs-irony

0

those who despise me will be lightly esteemed

The words “lightly esteemed” is an ironic euphemism for “greatly despised.” If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I will lightly esteem those who despise me” or “I will greatly despise those who despise me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

147

1SA

2

31

wg4e

0

See

Alternate translation: “Listen carefully to what I am about to say” or “What I am about to say is very important”

148

1SA

2

31

h1ax

figs-euphemism

0

I will cut off your strength and the strength of your father’s house

The words “cut off … strength” are probably a euphemism for the death of strong, young men; the words “your father’s house” are a metonym for “your family.” Alternate translation: “I will kill you and all strong, young male descendants in your family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

149

1SA

2

31

l1i2

0

be any old man

Alternate translation: “be any old men” or “be any men who grow old”

150

1SA

2

33

l8ta

0

cause your eyes to fail

Alternate translation: “cause you to lose your eyesight” or “cause you to go blind”

151

1SA

2

35

vaw9

figs-idiom

0

I will raise up … a faithful priest

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “I will cause a man to become priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

152

1SA

2

35

i1g2

figs-idiom

0

for myself

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “to serve me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

153

1SA

2

35

zj6d

0

what is in my heart and in my soul

Alternate translation: “what I want him to do and what I tell him to do”

154

1SA

2

35

bg77

figs-idiom

0

I will build him a sure house

Here “house” is an idiom used for “descendants.” Alternate translation: “I will ensure that he always has a descendant who serves as high priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

155

1SA

2

36

tmh4

0

him

the faithful priest whom God will raise up

156

1SA

2

36

y912

figs-synecdoche

0

so I can eat a piece of bread

Here “piece of bread” is used for “food. “Alternate translation: “so I can have something to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

157

1SA

3

intro

riy2

0

1 Samuel 3 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

God speaks to Samuel

God spoke at night to Samuel when he was a small boy, telling him that he would punish Eli’s family. As Samuel grew up, God gave him many messages. People came from all over Israel to find out what God had to say.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metonymy

In order to show respect when talking to God, Samuel calls himself “your servant” when referring to himself. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

Idioms

One characteristic of prophecy is the use of figures of speech. In this passage there are two idioms: “ears will shake,” meaning “will shock everyone who hears” and “carry out,” meaning “do.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

In order to be sure Samuel would tell him the whole truth, Eli used the standard formula for a curse: “may God do to you, and even more, if,” meaning “God will punish severely if the person does what the curse says he will do.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

158

1SA

3

1

w5tu

0

Yahweh’s word was rare

Alternate translation: “Yahweh did not often speak to people”

159

1SA

3

3

vl1e

0

The lamp of God

This is the seven-candle lampstand in the holy place of the tabernacle that burned every day and through the night until it was empty.

160

1SA

3

3

vv3t

0

the temple of Yahweh

The “temple” was actually a tent, but it was where the people worshiped, so it is best to translate the word as “temple” here. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 1:9.

161

1SA

3

6

mt8g

figs-metaphor

0

my son

Eli was not Samuel’s true father. Eli speaks as if he were Samuel’s father to show Samuel that he is not angry but that Samuel needs to listen to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

162

1SA

3

7

s4pa

figs-activepassive

0

nor had any message from Yahweh ever been revealed to him

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “nor had Yahweh ever revealed any message to him” or “and Yahweh had never revealed any message to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

163

1SA

3

9

m2t2

figs-pronouns

0

your servant is

Eli tells Samuel to speak to Yahweh as if Samuel were another person so that Samuel would show respect to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

164

1SA

3

10

tcr3

0

Yahweh came and stood

This could mean: (1) Yahweh actually appeared and stood before Samuel or (2) Yahweh made his presence known to Samuel.

165

1SA

3

10

z33m

figs-pronouns

0

your servant is

Samuel speaks to Yahweh as if Samuel were another person to show respect to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I am” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

166

1SA

3

11

huj9

figs-idiom

0

at which the ears of everyone who hears it will tingle

Here “ears … will tingle” is an idiom that means everyone will be shocked by what they hear. Alternate translation: “that will shock everyone who hears it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

167

1SA

3

11

z6qj

0

tingle

This means to feel like someone is gently poking with small, sharp objects, usually because of the cold or because someone has slapped that body part with their hand.

168

1SA

3

12

z75y

figs-merism

0

from beginning to end

This is a merism for completeness. Alternate translation: “absolutely everything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

169

1SA

3

13

dp7i

0

brought a curse upon themselves

Alternate translation: “did those things which Yahweh had said he would punish those who did them”

170

1SA

3

14

x5qu

figs-activepassive

0

the sins of his house will never be atoned for by sacrifice or offering

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “there is no sacrifice or offering that anyone can offer that will atone for the sins of his house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

171

1SA

3

14

n75w

0

the sins of his house

Alternate translation: “the sins that the people in his family have committed”

172

1SA

3

15

ma13

0

the house of Yahweh

The “house” was actually a tent, but it would be best to translate “house” here.

173

1SA

3

16

p47b

figs-metaphor

0

my son

Eli was not Samuel’s true father. Eli speaks as if he were Samuel’s father to show Samuel that he is not angry but that Samuel needs to answer him. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 1:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

174

1SA

3

17

w2ne

0

the word he spoke

Alternate translation: “the message Yahweh gave”

175

1SA

3

17

s4uq

figs-idiom

0

May God do so to you, and even more

This is an idiom to emphasize how serious Eli is. Alternate translation: “May God punish you the same way he said he will punish me, and even more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

176

1SA

3

19

rz12

figs-metaphor

0

he let none of his prophetic words fall to the ground

Here messages that do not come true are spoken of as if they fell to the ground. This can be stated positively. Alternate translation: “he made all the things he prophesied happen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

177

1SA

3

20

km4x

0

All Israel

Alternate translation: “All the people in Israel”

178

1SA

3

20

q8cs

figs-merism

0

from Dan to Beersheba

This is a merism for “in every part of the land.” Alternate translation: “from one end of the land to the other” or “from Dan in the very north to Beersheba in the very south” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

179

1SA

3

20

v6xm

figs-activepassive

0

Samuel was appointed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh had appointed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

180

1SA

4

intro

a7dh

0

1 Samuel 4 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The Ark of the Covenant in Philistine country

This chapter begins a new section on the Ark and the Philistines. It recounts two battles between Israel and the Philistines. In both battles, Israel was badly defeated and, in the second, the Ark was captured.

Special concepts in this chapter

The Ark is captured

The Philistine army invaded Israel, and Israel’s army went to fight them but was defeated. Israel decided that if they took the Ark into the next battle, God would cause them to win. When Eli’s sons took the Ark into the next battle and the Philistines won the battle, they killed Eli’s two sons and captured the Ark. When Eli heard the Ark was captured, he fell over, broke his neck, and died. Hearing this news, his daughter-in-law named her baby “the glory has departed.”

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical Question

The Philistines expressed their fear using a rhetorical question: “Who will protect us from the strength of this mighty God?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

181

1SA

4

1

ahq8

translate-names

0

Ebenezer … Aphek

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

182

1SA

4

2

in3q

figs-activepassive

0

Israel was defeated by the Philistines, who killed

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “the Philistines defeated the Israelites and killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

183

1SA

4

2

c78l

translate-numbers

0

about four thousand men

Here the number four thousand is a round number. There may have been a few more than that or a few less than that. The word “about” shows that it is not an exact number. Alternate translation: “about 4,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

184

1SA

4

3

v2ec

0

the people

the soldiers who had been fighting the battle

185

1SA

4

3

d9z9

0

Why has Yahweh defeated us today before the Philistines? Let us bring … enemies

The elders truly did not know why Yahweh had defeated them, but they wrongly thought they knew how to make sure it did not happen again, by bringing the ark to be with them.

186

1SA

4

4

s4ks

figs-explicit

0

who sits above the cherubim

You may need to make explicit that the cherubim are those on the lid of the ark of the covenant. The biblical writers often spoke of the ark of the covenant as if it were Yahweh’s footstool upon which he rested his feet as he sat on his throne in heaven above. Alternate translation: “who sits on his throne above the cherubim on the ark of the covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

187

1SA

4

4

vz4l

0

Phinehas

This Phinehas is not the same as the grandson of Aaron in Exodus and Numbers.

188

1SA

4

4

w7gp

0

were there

were in Shiloh

189

1SA

4

5

ym2q

figs-explicit

0

When the ark of the covenant of Yahweh came into the camp

“When the people carried the ark of the covenant of Yahweh into the camp” Some languages may need to add understood information to make the meaning clear. Alternate translation: “The people, along with Hophni and Phinehas, picked up the ark of the covenant of Yahweh and carried it into the camp. When the people carried the ark into the camp” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

190

1SA

4

6

hsc8

0

the ark of Yahweh had come into the camp

Alternate translation: “the people had carried the ark of Yahweh into the camp”

191

1SA

4

7

hw97

0

they said … They said

“they said to themselves … They said to each other” or “they said to each other … They said to each other.” The second clause clearly refers to what the Philistines said to each other. The first clause probably refers to what they thought, though it could also refer to what they said to each other. If possible, avoid stating who was spoken to.

192

1SA

4

7

n37y

figs-pronouns

0

A god has come

The Philistines worshiped many gods, so they probably believed that one of those gods, or one whom they did not worship, had come into the camp. Another possible meaning is that they were speaking the proper name of the God of Israel: “Yahweh has come.” Because 4:8 speaks of “gods,” some translations read, “Gods have come,” that is, “It is gods who have come.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

193

1SA

4

8

xaq3

figs-rquestion

0

Who will protect us from the strength of these mighty gods?

This rhetorical question is an expression of deep fear. It can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “There is no one who can protect us from these mighty gods.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

194

1SA

4

8

rx6y

figs-pronouns

0

these mighty gods … the gods who attacked

Because the word “god” (or “God”) in 4:7 is singular, many translations read “this mighty god … the god who attacked,” referring to any one of many possible gods, or “this mighty God … the God who attacked,” using the proper name of the God of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

195

1SA

4

9

b9tg

figs-idiom

0

be men

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “be strong and fight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

196

1SA

4

10

bt9k

figs-activepassive

0

Israel was defeated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Also, “Israel” refers to the army of Israel. Alternate translation: “they defeated the army of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

197

1SA

4

11

s6sx

figs-activepassive

0

The ark of God was taken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The Philistines also took the ark of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

198

1SA

4

12

x321

0

clothes torn and earth on his head

This is a way to express deep mourning in Israelite culture.

199

1SA

4

13

tx5e

figs-idiom

0

his heart trembled with concern

This is an idiom which means he was very fearful or terribly concerned about something. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

200

1SA

4

13

l3my

figs-metonymy

0

the whole city

This is a metonym for “all the people in the city.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

201

1SA

4

14

p7if

0

The man

Alternate translation: “The man of Benjamin”

202

1SA

4

16

c94p

figs-metaphor

0

my son

Eli was not the other man’s true father. Eli speaks as if he were the man’s father to show the man that he is not angry but that the man needs to answer him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

203

1SA

4

17

q67g

0

Israel fled from the Philistines

This is a general statement about what happened. The rest of the man’s words give details.

204

1SA

4

17

knm8

0

Also, there has been … people. Also, your two sons

Alternate translation: “I will now tell you something worse … I will now tell you something worse” or “Not only has there been … people, but your two sons”

205

1SA

4

17

b1fy

figs-activepassive

0

the ark of God has been taken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the Philistines have taken the ark of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

206

1SA

4

18

li8q

0

When he mentioned

Alternate translation: “When the man of Benjamin mentioned”

207

1SA

4

18

duf3

0

mentioned

Alternate translation: “spoke of”

208

1SA

4

18

gqt1

figs-activepassive

0

His neck was broken

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “His neck broke because he fell” or “He broke his neck when he fell” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

209

1SA

4

19

cm81

0

his daughter-in-law

Eli’s daughter-in-law

210

1SA

4

19

px5m

figs-activepassive

0

the ark of God was captured

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the Philistines had captured the ark of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

211

1SA

4

20

c6ct

0

take what they said to heart

Alternate translation: “pay any attention to what they said” or “allow herself to feel better”

212

1SA

4

21

eja5

translate-names

0

Ichabod

The name is actually a phrase that means “no glory.” The name of a person sometimes reveals information about the person, place, or thing it refers to. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

213

1SA

4

21

b2am

figs-activepassive

0

for the ark of God had been captured

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “for the Philistines had captured the ark of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

214

1SA

4

22

pea3

figs-activepassive

0

the ark of God has been captured

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “because the Philistines have captured the ark of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

215

1SA

5

intro

qnq6

0

1 Samuel 5 General Notes

Structure and formatting

The story of the Ark of the Covenant in Philistia continues.

Special concepts in this chapter

The Ark in the Philistine Cities

The Philistines took the Ark of God to Ashdod and put it in their idol temple, but their idol fell down in front of the Ark and the people got sick with bubonic plague. They took it to Gath next, and the people of Gath began dying of the plague. When they took the Ark to Ekron, the people of Ekron were afraid of it too and did not want it there. Finally they decided to send it back to Israel. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/temple]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Idioms

There are two slightly different idioms used in the same way: the “hand was heavy” and the “hand was hard.” Both idioms mean “was severely punished.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

216

1SA

5

1

r22j

0

Now

This word marks the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a word or phrase that does the same, you could use it here.

217

1SA

5

1

j9ri

0

ark of God

See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 3:3. This is the a same as the “ark of the covenant of Yahweh” in 1 Samuel 4:3.

218

1SA

5

2

ibj1

0

house of Dagon

This refers to the temple of Dagon, the god of the Philistines.

219

1SA

5

3

fn9x

0

behold, Dagon

Alternate translation: “they were very surprised to see that Dagon”

220

1SA

5

3

z1gy

figs-explicit

0

Dagon had fallen facedown on the ground

The reader should understand that Yahweh had caused the statue to fall on its face during the night. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

221

1SA

5

4

jsj6

0

Dagon had fallen

The reader should understand that Yahweh had caused Dagon to fall.

222

1SA

5

4

fww1

0

The head of Dagon and both of his hands were lying cut off

It was as if Yahweh were a soldier who had defeated his enemy and cut off the enemy’s head and hands.

223

1SA

5

5

l4ma

writing-background

0

This is why, even today

The writer is about to give some background information separate from the main story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

224

1SA

5

5

ey39

0

even today

Here “today” means up to the day when the author was writing this book.

225

1SA

5

6

l5he

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh’s hand was heavy upon

This is an idiom. “Yahweh severely judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

226

1SA

5

6

ddj3

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids.

227

1SA

5

6

uhg9

figs-metonymy

0

both Ashdod and its territories

The name of the town is a metonym for the people living in the town. “both the people of Ashdod and the people in the land surrounding Ashdod” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

228

1SA

5

7

y9dm

0

the men of Ashdod realized

Alternate translation: “the men of Ashdod understood”

229

1SA

5

7

l6t8

0

ark of the God of Israel

See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 3:3. This is the a same as the “ark of the covenant of Yahweh” in 1 Samuel 4:3.

230

1SA

5

9

b7z1

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh’s hand was against

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “Yahweh punished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

231

1SA

5

9

buz5

figs-merism

0

both small and great

This could mean: (1) this is a merism that refers to age. Alternate translation: “men of all ages” or (2) this is a merism that refers social class. Alternate translation: “from the poorest and weakest men to the richest and most powerful men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

232

1SA

5

9

sxg1

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:6

233

1SA

5

10

gk7m

figs-explicit

0

cried out

Why they cried out can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “cried out in fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

234

1SA

5

11

cb8i

0

the ark of the God of Israel

See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 3:3. This is the a same as the “ark of the covenant of Yahweh” in 1 Samuel 4:3.

235

1SA

5

11

s7pb

0

the God of Israel

This could mean: (1) they were speaking the proper name of the God of Israel or (2) they believed that Israel worshiped one of many gods, “the god of Israel.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:7.

236

1SA

5

11

se4g

0

there was a deathly panic throughout the city

Alternate translation: “people all over the city were afraid that they were going to die”

237

1SA

5

11

vn4h

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of God was very heavy there

The hand is a metonym for God punishing the people. “Yahweh was punishing the people there very severely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

238

1SA

5

12

djg2

figs-explicit

0

The men who did not die

This implies that many men actually died. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

239

1SA

5

12

u8uu

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:6.

240

1SA

5

12

vm1y

figs-metonymy

0

the cry of the city went up to the heavens

The word “city” is a metonym for the people of the city. This could mean: (1) the words “went up to the heavens” is an idiom for “was very great.” Alternate translation: “the people of the city cried out very loudly” or (2) the words “the heavens” is a metonym for the people’s gods. Alternate translation: “the people of the city cried out to their gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

241

1SA

6

intro

z9kg

0

1 Samuel 6 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter ends the story of the Ark of the Covenant among the Philistines.

Special concepts in this chapter

The Philistines send the Ark back to Israel

The Philistine leaders asked their priests what they should do with the Ark. The priests said to send it off with an offering. The Philistines put the Ark on a cart drawn by cows and let them go wherever they wanted to go. The cows went straight toward Israel. When some people peeked into the Ark, God killed them. Because of this, the people sent the Ark to Kiriath Jearim.

242

1SA

6

2

rk4s

0

the priests and the diviners

These were pagan priests and diviners who worshiped Dagon.

243

1SA

6

2

nd2k

0

Tell us how we should send it

The Philistines wanted to know how to get rid of the ark without angering Yahweh any further.

244

1SA

6

3

gg7q

0

the God of Israel

This could mean: (1) they were speaking the proper name of the God of Israel or (2) they believed that Israel worshiped one of many gods, “the god of Israel.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:7.

245

1SA

6

3

nl22

figs-idiom

0

by all means send him a guilt offering

The words “by all means” are a forceful way of saying something. Alternate translation: “you must send a guilt offering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

246

1SA

6

3

ly3u

0

you will be healed

Alternate translation: “you will no longer be ill”

247

1SA

6

3

r6j5

figs-you

0

you

The pronoun “you” is plural, referring to all of the Philistines. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

248

1SA

6

3

g77h

figs-metonymy

0

why his hand has not been lifted off of you

Here “hand” is a metonym used to represent God’s power to afflict or discipline. Alternate translation: “why he has not relieved your suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

249

1SA

6

4

ej9d

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:6.

250

1SA

6

4

kn78

0

mice

more than one mouse

251

1SA

6

5

b9t4

0

models

A model is something that looks like a real thing.

252

1SA

6

5

jv13

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:6.

253

1SA

6

5

n47l

0

that ravage

Alternate translation: “that are destroying”

254

1SA

6

5

fu6m

0

the God of Israel

This could mean: (1) they were speaking the proper name of the God of Israel or (2) they believed that Israel worshiped one of many gods, “the god of Israel.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:7.

255

1SA

6

5

yp97

figs-metonymy

0

lift his hand from you, from your gods, and from your land

Here “hand” is a metonym used to represent God’s power to afflict or discipline. Alternate translation: “stop punishing you, your gods and your land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

256

1SA

6

6

ix9s

figs-rquestion

0

Why should you harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts?

The priests and diviners use a rhetorical question to urge the Philistines to think very seriously about what will happen if they refuse to obey God. This can be translated as a warning. Alternate translation: “Do not be stubborn like the Egyptians and Pharaoh were!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

257

1SA

6

6

txz5

figs-idiom

0

harden your hearts

This is an idiom that means to be stubborn or unwilling to obey God. Alternate translation: “refuse to obey God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

258

1SA

6

6

qg9r

figs-rquestion

0

did not the Egyptians send away the people, and they left?

This is another rhetorical question used to remind the Philistines how the Egyptians finally sent the Israelites out of Egypt so that God would stop afflicting the Egyptians. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “remember that the Egyptians sent the Israelites out of Egypt.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

259

1SA

6

7

c676

0

two nursing cows

Alternate translation: “two cows that have calves that are still drinking milk”

260

1SA

6

8

d3hf

0

Then send it off and let it go its own way

Normally the two cows would head back home to their calves.

261

1SA

6

9

n756

0

if it goes … to Beth Shemesh, then it is Yahweh

It is unlikely that the cows would choose to wander to Beth Shemesh when their calves are back in the Philistine area.

262

1SA

6

10

vqs4

0

two nursing cows

“two cows that have calves that are still drinking milk” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 6:7.

263

1SA

6

11

l2qq

0

mice

Translated this as in 1 Samuel 6:4.

264

1SA

6

11

hg4l

0

castings of their tumors

Alternate translation: “models of their tumors”

265

1SA

6

11

h2re

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:6.

266

1SA

6

12

d3ub

0

The cows went straight in the direction of Beth Shemesh

Nursing cows would normally return to their calves, but these cows went to Beth Shemesh.

267

1SA

6

12

iv94

0

lowing as they went

Lowing is the noise cows make with their voices.

268

1SA

6

12

kpn8

0

they did not turn aside either to the right or to the left

Alternate translation: “they did not wander off of the highway.” This can be stated positively. Alternate translation: “they stayed on the highway” or “they went straight ahead”

269

1SA

6

13

ha2r

0

Now

The writer is introducing a new part of the story. If your language has a way of marking the beginning of a new part of the story, you could use it here.

270

1SA

6

13

teg5

0

people of Beth Shemesh

These were Israelites.

271

1SA

6

13

f6lw

figs-idiom

0

lifted up their eyes

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “looked up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

272

1SA

6

14

dx59

0

A great stone was there

The people used this stone as an altar when they offered the cows as sacrifices.

273

1SA

6

15

u7kn

0

The Levites took down the ark of Yahweh

This actually happened before they chopped the cart into firewood to use in offering the cows to Yahweh.

274

1SA

6

15

km1p

0

The Levites took down the ark

According to the law of Moses, only the Levites were permitted to handle the ark.

275

1SA

6

15

lq8f

0

the box that was with it, where the golden figures were

Alternate translation: “the box containing the gold models of the rats and the tumors”

276

1SA

6

16

ke9z

0

the five rulers of the Philistines

Alternate translation: “the five Philistine kings”

277

1SA

6

17

rf99

0

tumors

This could mean: (1) painful swelling under the skin or (2) hemorrhoids. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 5:6.

278

1SA

6

18

vv5i

0

mice

Translated this as in 1 Samuel 6:4.

279

1SA

6

18

j566

0

fortified cities

These are cities with high walls around them to protect the people inside from attack by their enemies.

280

1SA

6

18

jy47

figs-personification

0

The great stone … remains a witness

The stone is referred to as if it is a person who can see. Alternate translation: “The great stone … is still there, and people remember what happened on it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

281

1SA

6

18

z1wl

translate-names

0

Joshua

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

282

1SA

6

18

i2ln

translate-names

0

the Bethshemite

This is what a person from Beth Shemesh is called. Alternate translation: “from Beth Shemesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

283

1SA

6

18

ksv7

0

to this day

to the time at which the writer wrote the book

284

1SA

6

19

gl4f

0

they had looked into the ark

The ark was so holy that no one was permitted to look inside it. Only the priests were allowed to even see the ark.

285

1SA

6

19

vv74

translate-numbers

0

50,070 men

“fifty thousand and seventy men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

286

1SA

6

20

zwk1

figs-rquestion

0

Who is able to stand before Yahweh, this holy God?

This could mean: (1) this is a rhetorical question that expresses the people’s fear of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “There is no one who can resist Yahweh because he is so holy!” or (2) this is a question asking for information. The phrase “stand before Yahweh” may refer to priests who serve Yahweh. It is implied that the people were looking for a priest whom Yahweh would permit to handle the ark. Alternate translation: “Is there a priest among us who serves this holy God, Yahweh, and is able to handle this ark?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

287

1SA

6

20

bc1z

figs-explicit

0

To whom will the ark go up from us?

This is a question asking for information. It is implied that the people want Yahweh and the ark to go somewhere else so he will not punish them again. Alternate translation: “Where can we send this ark so that Yahweh will not punish us again?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

288

1SA

6

21

n5gr

translate-names

0

Kiriath Jearim

This was a town in Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

289

1SA

7

intro

hd2a

0

1 Samuel 7 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter completes the section on Samuel leading Israel.

Special concepts in this chapter

Israel begins to worship Yahweh again

Samuel told the people to get rid of all their idols and worship Yahweh alone. The people were obedient. When the Philistines heard the Israelites were all gathered together, the Philistines attacked, but God defeated them. There was a time of peace during which Samuel settled disputes between the people as the judges had done before.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Idioms

Whenever Samuel spoke to a group of people, he used many idioms: “to turn to” means “to worship”; “with your whole heart” means “completely”; and “rescue from the hand” means “rescued from the power.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

290

1SA

7

1

vxi4

translate-names

0

Kiriath Jearim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

291

1SA

7

1

uf4m

translate-names

0

Abinadab … Eleazar

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

292

1SA

7

2

kwf8

translate-numbers

0

twenty years

“20 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

293

1SA

7

3

iz8m

figs-metonymy

0

the entire house of Israel

The word “house” is a metonym for the people who live in the house and their descendants. Alternate translation: “all of the descendants of Israel” or “all of the Israelite people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

294

1SA

7

3

yb5d

figs-idiom

0

return to Yahweh with your whole heart

Here “with your whole heart” is an idiom that means to be completely devoted to something. Alternate translation: “become completely devoted to worshiping and obeying Yahweh only” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

295

1SA

7

5

bsu1

0

all Israel

Alternate translation: “all the people of Israel” or “all the Israelites”

296

1SA

7

6

a817

figs-explicit

0

drew water and poured it out before Yahweh

This could mean: (1) the people denied themselves water as part of fasting or (2) they got water out of a stream or well and poured it on the ground as an outward sign of being sorry for their sin. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

297

1SA

7

7

ey3d

figs-explicit

0

the rulers of the Philistines attacked Israel

It can be stated plainly that it was the army and not the rulers by themselves who attacked Israel. Alternate translation: “the Philistine rulers led their army and attacked Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

298

1SA

7

8

n5ch

figs-metonymy

0

save us from the hand of the Philistines

The “hand” is a metonym for the power of the person. Alternate translation: “save us from the Philistine army” or “keep the Philistine army from harming us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

299

1SA

7

9

b1zp

0

nursing lamb

a lamb that is still drinking its mother’s milk

300

1SA

7

9

w6zg

0

cried out

Alternate translation: “cried out for help”

301

1SA

7

9

plu5

0

Yahweh answered him

Alternate translation: “Yahweh did what Samuel asked him to do”

302

1SA

7

10

k1nw

0

As Samuel … they were routed before Israel

This begins to explain what the writer means by “Yahweh answered him” in (1 Samuel 7:9).

303

1SA

7

10

cd8j

figs-idiom

0

threw them into confusion

The word “confusion” here is used as a casual way of saying the Philistines were unable to think clearly. Alternate translation: “made them unable to think clearly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

304

1SA

7

10

k6pl

figs-activepassive

0

they were routed before Israel

This can be translated in active form. This could mean: (1) “Yahweh routed them before Israel” or (2) “Israel routed them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

305

1SA

7

10

i1ra

0

routed

To rout people is to defeat them before they can cause any harm.

306

1SA

7

11

h1ei

0

The men of Israel … Beth Kar

This finishes explaining what the writer means by “Yahweh answered him” in (1 Samuel 7:9).

307

1SA

7

11

z9iq

translate-names

0

Beth Kar

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

308

1SA

7

12

wsp2

0

took a stone and set it

The Israelites and other peoples in that land would place a large stone where important events had happened as a reminder of God’s help.

309

1SA

7

12

p5qv

translate-names

0

Mizpah … Shen

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

310

1SA

7

13

tts1

0

So the Philistines were subdued

The writer has just finished telling how the Philistines were subdued. If your language has a way of marking the end of a description, you could use it here.

311

1SA

7

13

xt6p

figs-activepassive

0

the Philistines were subdued

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh subdued the Philistines” or “Yahweh kept the Philistines from causing harm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

312

1SA

7

13

xr1h

0

they did not enter the border of Israel

The Philistines did not enter Israel’s border to attack them.

313

1SA

7

13

lb3d

figs-metonymy

0

The hand of Yahweh was against the Philistines

The word “hand” is a metonym for power. Alternate translation: “Yahweh used his power against the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

314

1SA

7

14

li9a

figs-activepassive

0

The towns … from Israel were restored to Israel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) Here “Israel” refers to the “land” of Israel. “Yahweh restored to the land of Israel the towns … from Israel” or (2) “Israel” is a metonym for the people who live there. Alternate translation: “the people of Israel were able to reclaim the towns … from Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

315

1SA

7

16

p2sh

0

went on a circuit

traveled from place to place in a rough circle

316

1SA

7

16

qa19

0

He decided disputes

Disputes are arguments or disagreements between two or more people.

317

1SA

8

intro

ek6j

0

1 Samuel 8 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Saul and Samuel

The section including chapters 8-16 begins a new part of the story. The people wanted a king, and God chose Saul, the man the people wanted, to be their king. He was not the king Yahweh wanted.

Special concepts in this chapter

The people want a king

When Samuel was old, he appointed his sons to be judges. They were corrupt and took bribes, so the people came and asked Samuel to appoint a king for them. Samuel asked God, who gave them a king but warned them what a king would be like. Despite Samuel’s warning that a king would oppress them, the people still wanted a king. This was sinful because they were rejecting God as their king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/appoint]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oppress]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

318

1SA

8

3

d1qv

figs-metaphor

0

chased after dishonest gain

The writer speaks of money that people would give Samuel’s sons as if it were a person or animal running away from Samuel’s sons, and he speaks of Samuel’s sons as if they were physically chasing that person or animal. Alternate translation: “they worked hard to gain money by being dishonest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

319

1SA

8

3

pt6z

0

perverted justice

Alternate translation: “judged in favor of those who did evil”

320

1SA

8

5

rx69

figs-idiom

0

do not walk in your ways

The way a person lives is spoken of as walking on a path. Alternate translation: “do not do the things you do” or “do not do what is just the way you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

321

1SA

8

5

qj8f

0

Appoint for us a king to judge us like all the nations

This could mean: (1) “Appoint for us a king like the kings of all the nations so that he can judge us” or (2) “Appoint for us a king who will judge us the way the kings of the nations judge them”

322

1SA

8

5

jwe4

0

Appoint for us a king to judge us

The leaders wrongly believed that a king, and his sons after him, would rule justly.

323

1SA

8

6

z6je

0

But it displeased Samuel … Give us a king to judge us

Samuel was unhappy that the people did not just want him to remove his corrupt sons and to appoint honest judges, but they wanted a king to rule over them like other countries had.

324

1SA

8

7

lz95

figs-metonymy

0

Obey the voice of the people

Here “the voice” is a metonym for the will or the desire of the people. Alternate translation: “Do what the people say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

325

1SA

8

7

a4k7

0

but they have rejected me

Yahweh knew that the people were not just rejecting corrupt judges, but they were rejecting Yahweh as their king.

326

1SA

8

8

xfk7

0

I brought them out of Egypt

This refers to Yahweh freeing the Israelites from slavery in Egypt many years before.

327

1SA

8

9

dmf6

0

Now listen to them

Alternate translation: “Now do what they are asking you to do”

328

1SA

8

9

c3yq

0

warn them solemnly

Alternate translation: “be very serious as you warn them”

329

1SA

8

11

lsu4

0

This will be the practice … He will take

The practice of the king will be to take. This begins the list of things he will take.

330

1SA

8

11

ah6l

figs-abstractnouns

0

This will be the practice of the king who will reign over you

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word practice, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “This is how the king who will reign over you will act” or “This is what the king who will reign over you will do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

331

1SA

8

11

s2yh

0

appoint them to his chariots

Alternate translation: “have them drive chariots in battle”

332

1SA

8

11

w2k2

0

be his horsemen

They will ride horses into battle.

333

1SA

8

13

d6m4

0

Connecting Statement:

Samuel continues to tell what things the king will take.

334

1SA

8

13

m3k5

0

to be perfumers

Alternate translation: “to make good-smelling oils to put on his body”

335

1SA

8

14

uib2

0

olive orchards

Alternate translation: “fields of olive trees”

336

1SA

8

15

bsk5

translate-fraction

0

a tenth of your grain

They will have to divide their grain into ten equal parts and give one of those parts to the king’s officers and servants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

337

1SA

8

15

l9c7

translate-fraction

0

a tenth … of your vineyards

They will have to divide the wine that they produce in their vineyards into ten equal parts and give one of those parts to the king’s officers and servants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

338

1SA

8

15

bsq9

0

officers

These are the leaders of the king’s army.

339

1SA

8

16

eii9

0

Connecting Statement:

Samuel continues to tell what things the king will take.

340

1SA

8

17

yl2b

translate-fraction

0

the tenth of your flocks

They will have to divide their flocks into ten equal parts and give one of those parts to the king’s officers and servants. See how you translated “tenth” in 1 Samuel 8:15. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

341

1SA

8

17

t81y

0

you will be his slaves

Alternate translation: “you will feel as if you are his slaves”

342

1SA

8

18

l9mn

0

you will cry out

This could mean: (1) the people will ask Yahweh to rescue them from the king or (2) the people will ask the king to stop treating them so badly .

343

1SA

8

21

mk43

figs-synecdoche

0

he repeated them in the ears of Yahweh

Here “the ears of Yahweh” refers to Yahweh. Samuel prayed to Yahweh repeating all that the people said. Alternate translation: “he repeated them to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

344

1SA

8

22

d8pw

figs-metonymy

0

Obey their voice

Here the metonym “their voice” refers to the will of the people. Alternate translation: “Obey the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

345

1SA

8

22

s4b6

0

cause someone to be king for them

“make someone king over them.” Use the common term in your language for making someone king.

346

1SA

8

22

vjc2

0

go to his own city

Alternate translation: “go home”

347

1SA

9

intro

kus3

0

1 Samuel 9 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Samuel chooses Saul to be their king

When the donkeys of Saul’s father strayed away, Saul went looking for them. When he could not find them, he asked Samuel to ask God where they were. Samuel said the donkeys had been found. He invited Saul as the guest of honor to a feast and gave him a place to sleep for the night.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

Saul uses two rhetorical questions to convince Samuel he is not important: “Am not I a Benjamite, from the smallest of the tribes of Israel? Is not my clan the least of all the clans of the tribe of Benjamin?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

348

1SA

9

1

y487

writing-background

0

General Information:

If your language has a way of telling the reader that the writer is giving background information in these verses, you could use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

349

1SA

9

1

k9kq

0

a man of influence

This could mean: (1) he was a wealthy man or (2) he was a nobleman or (3) he was a mighty and brave man.

350

1SA

9

1

sxy3

translate-names

0

Kish … Abiel … Zeror … Bekorath … Aphiah

These are names of the men of Saul’s family line. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

351

1SA

9

1

q9zb

0

Benjamite

A Benjamite is someone who belongs to the tribe of Benjamin.

352

1SA

9

2

b5il

0

handsome

someone who looks good

353

1SA

9

2

vg77

0

From his shoulders upward he was taller than any of the people

The other tall people in Israel did not even come up to his shoulders.

354

1SA

9

3

cd5a

0

Now

The writer has ended the background information that began in (1 Samuel 9:1) and starts a new main part of the story.

355

1SA

9

3

f2dz

0

arise and go

Alternate translation: “stop what you are doing and go”

356

1SA

9

4

z5qc

translate-names

0

the hill country of Ephraim … the land of Shalishah … the land of Shaalim … the land of the Benjamites

These are all areas in Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

357

1SA

9

4

kh3y

0

did not find them … they were not there … did not find them

The words “them” and “they” all refer to the donkeys.

358

1SA

9

5

sqm4

translate-names

0

land of Zuph

This is an area in Israel just north of Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

359

1SA

9

6

vuh9

0

man of God

This phrase usually means a prophet of Yahweh. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 2:27. Alternate translation: “a man who hears and tells words from God”

360

1SA

9

6

bwk4

0

which way we should go on our journey

Alternate translation: “which way we should go to find the donkeys”

361

1SA

9

7

mr9g

0

what can we bring the man?

Giving a gift is a sign of respect for the man of God.

362

1SA

9

7

mnj1

0

man of God

This phrase usually means a prophet of Yahweh. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 2:27. Alternate translation: “a man who hears and tells words from God”

363

1SA

9

8

hwa8

translate-bmoney

0

one-fourth of a shekel

“1/4 of a shekel.” A shekel is a type of money used in the Old Testament. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])

364

1SA

9

9

d7ht

writing-background

0

Formerly in Israel … seer

This is cultural information added by the Hebrew author. If it is not natural in your language to state this information here, it can be moved to the end of verse 11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

365

1SA

9

9

ejv4

0

For today’s prophet was formerly called a seer

Alternate translation: “Seer is the old name for what we call a prophet today”

366

1SA

9

12

lk9k

0

the people are sacrificing today

These are likely the feast or first-fruit sacrifices, not the sin sacrifices, which must be held at the tabernacle.

367

1SA

9

14

uw7s

0

to go up to the high place

This is a place that the people had designated as holy to make sacrifices and offerings to Yahweh. The writer writes as though it were outside the wall that was around the city.

368

1SA

9

15

uxs4

writing-background

0

General Information:

The writer stops telling the story and gives background information so the reader can understand what happens next. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

369

1SA

9

16

gzr8

figs-euphemism

0

you will anoint him to be prince

The term prince is used here instead of king. This is the man whom God has chosen to be king of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

370

1SA

9

16

r7na

0

the land of Benjamin

Alternate translation: “the land where people from the tribe of Benjamin live”

371

1SA

9

16

d7jm

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand of the Philistines

Here the word “hand” is a metonym for control. Alternate translation: “from the control of the Philistines” or “so the Philistines will no longer control them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

372

1SA

9

16

q8ng

0

For I have looked on my people with pity

Alternate translation: “My people are suffering and I want to help them”

373

1SA

9

17

g1vw

0

Yahweh told him

Alternate translation: “Yahweh told Samuel”

374

1SA

9

18

pwf2

0

the seer

Alternate translation: “the prophet of Yahweh”

375

1SA

9

20

fdy4

figs-rquestion

0

Then on whom are all the desires of Israel set? Is it not on you and all your father’s house?

These questions are an expression of deep conviction that Saul is the one whom Yahweh wants to be the king that the Israelites are looking for. The questions can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “You should know that it is on you that all the desires of Israel are set. They are set on you and your father’s family.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

376

1SA

9

21

z2ng

figs-rquestion

0

Am not I a Benjamite … of Israel? Is not my clan … Benjamin? Why then have you spoken to me in this manner?

Saul is expressing surprise because Benjamin was the smallest tribe in Israel, and other Israelites considered the tribe unimportant. Also, Benjamites considered the clan of which Saul was a member as unimportant. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express the idea behind these questions as statements. Alternate translation: “I am from the tribe of Benjamin, the least important of all tribes. And my clan is the least important clan in our tribe. I do not understand why you are saying that the Israelite people want me and my family to do something important.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

377

1SA

9

22

wn3v

0

the hall

The writer assumes that the reader knows that near the place where they would offer sacrifices there was a large building in which people would eat together.

378

1SA

9

22

rw25

0

head place

This is the seat of honor.

379

1SA

9

22

tpy7

translate-numbers

0

thirty people

“30 people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

380

1SA

9

24

s46f

0

what was on it

This could mean: (1) the other food that Saul was to eat along with the meat or (2) other parts of the bull.

381

1SA

9

24

v2sc

0

Then Samuel said

In the original language it is not clear who is speaking. It is possible that the cook is speaking to Saul. Alternate translation: “Then the cook said”

382

1SA

9

25

i36v

0

on the rooftop

This is a normal place for family and guests to eat, visit, and sleep. It tends to be cooler in the evening and at night than the inside of the house.

383

1SA

9

26

r8sh

figs-explicit

0

Samuel called to Saul on the rooftop and said

What Saul was doing on the rooftop can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “while Saul was sleeping on the rooftop, Samuel called to him and said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

384

1SA

9

27

yp6k

0

ahead of us”—and he went ahead—”but you must stay

It is possible that Samuel speaks all of these words. Alternate translation: “ahead of us, and when he has gone ahead, you must stay”

385

1SA

9

27

e7zg

0

that I may announce the message of God to you

Alternate translation: “so that I can tell you God’s message for you”

386

1SA

10

intro

abca

0

1 Samuel 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This is the first chapter about King Saul.

Special concepts in this chapter

Saul as the New King

Samuel told Saul that God had chosen him to be king, and on the way home he would meet some prophets. Saul would then begin prophesying and God would give him the Holy Spirit to help him to know what to do. Samuel told everyone to come to Mizpah where he announced that God had chosen Saul to be their king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyspirit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

This chapter uses rhetorical questions to express different ideas: to state a fact (“Has not Yahweh anointed you to be a ruler over his inheritance?”), to express surprise (“And who is their father?”), to say he is someone very special (“Do you see the man that Yahweh has chosen?”), and to express contempt (“How can this man save us?”). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

Idioms

Samuel frequently uses idioms when prophesying: “going to God” means “going to worship God”; “take it from their hands” means “accept their gift”; “rush upon you” means “control you”; “hand finds to do” means “what you think you should do”; “God is with you” means “God is directing you”; “another heart” means “a different way of thinking”; “came to pass” means “happened”; “before Yahweh” means “to do work for Yahweh”; and “hearts God had touched” means “God had made them want to help Saul.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

387

1SA

10

1

y1dk

0

took a flask of oil, poured it on Saul’s head

In Israelite culture, when a prophet poured oil on someone’s head, that person received a blessing from Yahweh.

388

1SA

10

1

df9v

0

flask

a small container made from baked clay

389

1SA

10

1

m8gx

figs-rquestion

0

Has not Yahweh anointed you to be a ruler over his inheritance?

Samuel knows the answer to his question. He is reminding Saul that Yahweh has chosen him to be king of Israel. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has certainly anointed you to be a ruler over his inheritance.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

390

1SA

10

2

ndv7

translate-names

0

Zelzah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

391

1SA

10

2

f21q

0

What should I do about my son?

Saul’s father is now concerned about Saul and wants to find him.

392

1SA

10

3

nc4k

translate-names

0

Tabor

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

393

1SA

10

4

my71

figs-synecdoche

0

take from their hands

The hands are a synecdoche for the person. “take from them” or “accept” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

394

1SA

10

5

ha8h

translate-unknown

0

tambourine

This is a musical instrument with a head like a drum that can be hit and with pieces of metal around the side that sound when the instrument is shaken. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

395

1SA

10

6

q8hj

figs-idiom

0

The Spirit of Yahweh will rush upon you

The phrase “rush upon” means that Yahweh’s Spirit will influence Saul. In this case it means it means he will make Saul prophesy and act like a different person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

396

1SA

10

7

drt6

figs-personification

0

do whatever your hand finds to do

Here Samuel speaks of Saul’s hand as if it were a person trying to find things. Alternate translation: “do whatever you think is right to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

397

1SA

10

9

ifw6

figs-idiom

0

God gave him another heart

God enabled Samuel to think differently from the way he had thought before. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

398

1SA

10

10

lyd4

figs-personification

0

the Spirit of God rushed upon him

Samuel speaks as if the Spirit of Yahweh were a person running up to Saul and taking complete control of him. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 10:6. Alternate translation: “the Spirit of Yahweh took complete control of him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

399

1SA

10

11

myw8

figs-rquestion

0

What has happened to the son of Kish?

This could mean: (1) the people are asking for information or (2) this is a rhetorical question that means Saul is not important. Alternate translation: “Kish is not an important person, so it cannot be true that his son has become a prophet!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

400

1SA

10

11

us3j

0

the son of Kish

Alternate translation: “Saul, the son of Kish”

401

1SA

10

12

g5tt

figs-rquestion

0

Then who is their father?

This man uses a rhetorical question to remind people that being a prophet has nothing to do with who one’s parents are. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “It does not matter who the parents of these other prophets are. What matters is that, amazingly, Saul is speaking messages from God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

402

1SA

10

12

v7kp

writing-proverbs

0

Because of this, it became a saying, “Is Saul also one of the prophets?”

This became a proverb among the Israelites. Apparently people said this to express surprise when a person unexpectedly did something that he had not done before. The implied meaning of the question can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “And that is why, when people cannot believe some report, they think about what happened to Saul and say, ‘Is Saul really one of the prophets?’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

403

1SA

10

14

kwk6

0

Then Saul’s uncle said to him

Alternate translation: “Then the brother of Saul’s father said to Saul”

404

1SA

10

16

t8y5

0

he did not tell him about the matter of the kingdom

Alternate translation: “Saul did not tell his uncle that God had appointed him to be the king of Israel”

405

1SA

10

18

j92a

figs-metonymy

0

I brought up Israel out of Egypt

The name “Israel” is a metonym for the people of Israel. “I brought the people of Israel out of Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

406

1SA

10

18

yy7r

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of the Egyptians … the hand of all the kingdoms

The word “hand” is a metonym for power. Alternate translation: “the power of the Egyptians … the power of all the kingdoms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

407

1SA

10

19

x7u7

0

today

Samuel is speaking of the time since Israel had begun to reject God, not only the time since the sun had last set.

408

1SA

10

19

r9bd

0

Set a king over us

Alternate translation: “Give us a king to rule us”

409

1SA

10

19

ut8y

0

present yourselves before Yahweh by your tribes and by your clans

Alternate translation: “gather together by tribes and clans and come to stand before Yahweh”

410

1SA

10

20

qbp1

figs-activepassive

0

the tribe of Benjamin was chosen

This can be translated in active form. It is probably best not to say how the people knew whom Yahweh had chosen. Alternate translation: “Yahweh chose the tribe of Benjamin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

411

1SA

10

21

f8p3

figs-activepassive

0

the clan of the Matrites was chosen … Saul son of Kish was chosen

This can be translated in active form. It is probably best not to say how the people knew whom Yahweh had chosen. Alternate translation: “Yahweh chose the clan of the Matrites … Yahweh chose Saul son of Kish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

412

1SA

10

23

ab3b

0

he was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upward

The other tall people in Israel did not even come up to his shoulders. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 9:2.

413

1SA

10

25

v52k

figs-abstractnouns

0

the customs and rules of kingship

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word kingship, you can express the same idea with a noun clause. Alternate translation: “the customs and rules that a king would be required to follow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

414

1SA

10

26

re4y

figs-idiom

0

whose hearts God had touched

God touching a person’s heart is an idiom that means God put something in their mind or moved them to do something. Alternate translation: “who wanted to go with Saul because God had changed their thinking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

415

1SA

10

27

u77f

figs-rquestion

0

How can this man save us?

This is a rhetorical question that is used to express sarcasm. Alternate translation: “This man has no power to save us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

416

1SA

10

27

qwt6

0

despised

strongly disliked or hated

417

1SA

11

intro

abcb

0

1 Samuel 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter continues the story of King Saul by telling of his first victory in war.

Special concepts in this chapter

Saul rescues the people of Jabesh Gilead

Nahash, king of the Ammonites, and his army surrounded the Israeli town of Jabesh Gilead. When the city’s leaders asked for peace terms, Nahash demanded the right to poke out one eye of every man in order to show Israel their weakness. When Saul heard this, he called for all of Israel to help save this city. Many people came to help Saul’s army. Israel was victorious and everyone wanted Saul as their king. At this time, Israel was not a truly unified country, even though it is often spoken of as one country. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Idioms

The idioms in this chapter explain the effect God has on his people: “rushed upon him” means “empowered him”; “terror … fell” means “they became afraid”; “as one man” means “they all agreed”; and “put to death” means “kill.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

418

1SA

11

1

q5a1

translate-names

0

Nahash

This is a man from Ammon, a descendent of Lot, Abraham’s nephew. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

419

1SA

11

1

y34w

translate-names

0

Jabesh Gilead

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

420

1SA

11

2

ztl3

0

I gouge out

Alternate translation: “I cut out” or “I pluck out”

421

1SA

11

2

pi9x

0

bring disgrace on

Alternate translation: “bring shame on” or “bring a bad reputation to”

422

1SA

11

3

hcg1

translate-numbers

0

seven days

“7 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

423

1SA

11

4

xw6v

translate-names

0

Gibeah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

424

1SA

11

6

xw9g

0

the Spirit of God rushed upon him

The phrase “rushed upon” means Yahweh’s Spirit influenced Saul. In this case he enabled Saul to cause the people to fearfully respect him as their king and to join his army. See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 10:6.

425

1SA

11

7

j26n

0

does not come out after

Saul was calling all the men of Israel to come fight against Nahash and the Ammonites.

426

1SA

11

7

wi7p

0

Then the terror of Yahweh fell on the people

Yahweh enabled people to fearfully respect Saul as their king. The result was that the men rallied together with Saul at Bezek.

427

1SA

11

8

r5l1

translate-names

0

Bezek

This is the name of a town near Jabesh Gilead. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

428

1SA

11

8

zr4f

translate-numbers

0

the people of Israel were three hundred thousand, and the men of Judah thirty thousand

“the people of Israel were 300,000, and the men of Judah were 30,000” ( See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

429

1SA

11

9

gxn1

0

They said to the messengers

“They” refers to Samuel and Saul.

430

1SA

11

9

li2q

0

by the time the sun is hot

Alternate translation: “before the hottest part of the day” or “before noon”

431

1SA

11

9

lst9

0

Jabesh Gilead … Jabesh

These are the names of places. See how you translated them in 1 Samuel 11:1.

432

1SA

11

10

h3ne

0

Nahash

This is the name of a king. See how you translated this name in 1 Samuel 11:1.

433

1SA

11

11

d6lh

0

the morning watch

This was before dawn when most people in the camp were still asleep.

434

1SA

11

15

anj5

0

made Saul king before Yahweh

Alternate translation: “made Saul king while Yahweh watched”

435

1SA

11

15

y7hb

0

There they sacrificed peace offerings before Yahweh

Part of Samuel’s service to Yahweh is to offer sacrifices even though he is not from the line of Aaron or Levi.

436

1SA

12

intro

abcc

0

1 Samuel 12 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Samuel’s farewell address

This chapter serves as a type of farewell address. This is a way for leaders to give instructions to their followers before they leave or die. Samuel first established his holiness before calling on the people to repent of their desire to have a king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

It is common in Scripture to use Israel’s history to show how faithful God has been. This gives the readers evidence to trust in Yahweh in their current situation. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faithful]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

437

1SA

12

2

jw1v

figs-idiom

0

the king walking before you … I have walked before you

These expressions mean that people can actually see the kind of lives Saul and Samuel are living. Alternate translation: “the king’s life was seen … My life was seen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

438

1SA

12

3

y8su

figs-explicit

0

Here I am; testify against me before Yahweh and before his anointed one

By this statement, Samuel is challenging the people to speak up if he has done anything wrong to anyone. Alternate translation: “I stand in front of you now. I ask you to speak in front of Yahweh and his anointed king if I have done you any wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

439

1SA

12

3

zf3n

figs-rquestion

0

Whose ox have I taken? Whose donkey have I taken?

Samuel uses rhetorical questions to remind the people that he has never stolen their animals. Alternate translation: “I have never stolen a prized animal from anyone.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

440

1SA

12

3

ui7w

figs-rquestion

0

Whom have I defrauded?

Samuel uses another rhetorical question to say he has always been honest. Alternate translation: “I have never cheated or bribed any man.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

441

1SA

12

3

xi9r

0

Testify against me, and I will restore it to you

Alternate translation: “If I have done any of these evil things, speak now, and I will pay back what I owe. I will make right any wrong”

442

1SA

12

4

w6u5

figs-euphemism

0

from any man’s hand

This phrase means what a person possesses or what they have done to obtain favor from others. This is a polite way of saying he has not stolen, nor has he given or taken bribes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

443

1SA

12

5

s4uv

figs-euphemism

0

in my hand

This phrase means what a person possesses or what they have done to obtain favor from others. This is a polite way of saying he has not stolen, nor has he given or taken bribes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

444

1SA

12

7

p1jp

0

all of the righteous deeds of Yahweh

Samuel is calling their attention to the history of Yahweh’s dealing with Israel, which has been filled with goodness and purpose.

445

1SA

12

8

hds1

translate-names

0

Jacob … Moses … Aaron

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

446

1SA

12

9

s9g1

0

into the hand of Sisera … Philistines … king of Moab

Alternate translation: “into the power of Sisera … Philistines … king of Moab”

447

1SA

12

9

yb45

translate-names

0

Sisera

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

448

1SA

12

9

db38

translate-names

0

Hazor

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

449

1SA

12

9

tqv1

0

he sold them

This is an expression for God giving them over to their enemies to be their slaves.

450

1SA

12

10

s6ua

0

They cried out to Yahweh

“They” refers to the nation of Israel.

451

1SA

12

10

k54u

figs-metonymy

0

have served the Baals and the Ashtoreths

Serving here is referring to acting worshipful towards the false gods. Alternate translation: “have worshiped false gods and goddesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

452

1SA

12

10

rl36

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of our enemies

This statement is using “hand” to refer to power. Alternate translation: “the power or control of our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

453

1SA

12

11

frh4

0

Jerub Baal

This is sometimes translated Jerubbaal. This is a name of godly honor and strength to fight the false god.

454

1SA

12

11

zc87

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh sent … and gave you victory

Samuel is telling the story of what God did after the people’s confession of sin and plea for help. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

455

1SA

12

11

uy4l

translate-names

0

Jerub Baal, Bedan, Jephthah, and Samuel

These are the names of some judges that God raised up. Samuel included himself in this list. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

456

1SA

12

13

b1z6

figs-parallelism

0

whom you have chosen, whom you have asked for

These two phrases have similar meanings and emphasize that this is the king whom the people wanted. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

457

1SA

12

14

qrk5

figs-parallelism

0

fear … serve … obey … not rebel

These similar words are used to emphasize how important this is. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

458

1SA

12

15

qw1k

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh’s hand will be against you, as it was against your ancestors

This speaks of Yahweh punishing the people as his “hand” being against them. The word “hand” here represents Yahweh’s power and control. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will punish you, just as he punished your ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

459

1SA

12

16

p8gu

figs-synecdoche

0

before your eyes

The word “eyes” here represents the people of the nation of Israel. Alternate translation: “out in the open where all of the nation of Israel may see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

460

1SA

12

17

y9za

figs-rquestion

0

Is it not the wheat harvest today?

Samuel knows it is harvest time. He is using a rhetorical question to emphasize that it does not usually rain at this time so the people will know that the rain that will ruin their harvest is a judgment from Yahweh. Alternate translation: “It is harvest time and does not usually rain at this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

461

1SA

12

17

kyk2

0

he may send thunder and rain

Samuel is asking Yahweh to punish Israel for asking for a king by sending a rainstorm during the harvest which will ruin the grain.

462

1SA

12

19

ec4y

0

so that we do not die

The ultimate punishment for sin is death. The nation of Israel had seen Yahweh destroy the nations that had oppressed them. They were concerned that they had become “dedicated for destruction” like those nations.

463

1SA

12

20

fej7

figs-explicit

0

Do not be afraid

The people did evil and were afraid of God destroying them. Alternate translation: “Do not be afraid that God will be angry and destroy you because of this sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

464

1SA

12

21

ek55

0

turn away after empty things

Alternate translation: “pursue worship of false gods”

465

1SA

12

22

shb6

figs-metonymy

0

For the sake of his great name

Here “name” refers to the reputation of Yahweh. Alternate translation: “So that people will continue to honor and respect Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

466

1SA

12

23

jh36

figs-explicit

0

far be it from me that I should sin against Yahweh by ceasing to pray for you

The people are filled with fear because of the rain and thunder that Yahweh sent when Samuel prayed. Some people may believe Samuel would use his prayers to harm them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

467

1SA

13

intro

abcd

0

1 Samuel 13 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter is the beginning of a story about Jonathan’s victory over the Philistines.

Special concepts in this chapter

Preparation for the battle

Saul sent most of his army home before Jonathan attacked and defeated a Philistine garrison. This attack made the Philistines very angry, and they brought a huge army into Israel and camped at the top of a hill. Most of Saul’s army ran away in fear and hid from the Philistines. There are many aspects of this story that give the reader the impression that Israel was unprepared for battle.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Hyperbole

Wanting to express the vast number of enemy soldiers, the author uses a hyperbole: “as numerous as the sand on the seashore,” meaning “too many to count.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

468

1SA

13

1

xn4d

0

General Information:

Samuel has renewed Saul’s kingdom at Gilgal and Samuel has reminded the people to follow the Lord.

469

1SA

13

1

cyx8

0

Saul was thirty years old … over Israel

The text of this verse in ancient copies seems to have been mutilated, so modern versions have many different translations. They are all attempts to represent the most probable meaning of the original text.

470

1SA

13

2

gep7

translate-numbers

0

chose three thousand men

“chose 3,000 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

471

1SA

13

2

z3qf

translate-numbers

0

Two thousand were with him

“2,000 men were with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

472

1SA

13

2

gq8s

translate-names

0

Michmash

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

473

1SA

13

2

p5jv

0

Gibeah of Benjamin

Gibeah is a town. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 10:26.

474

1SA

13

2

esc4

0

The rest of the soldiers he sent home

Alternate translation: “He sent the rest of the soldiers home”

475

1SA

13

3

j52z

0

garrison of the Philistines

Alternate translation: “military base of the Philistines” or “military camp of the Philistines”

476

1SA

13

3

ia2v

translate-names

0

Geba

This is the name of the town that the Philistine garrison was stationed in. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

477

1SA

13

4

m9rj

0

All Israel heard that Saul had defeated

This could mean: (1) Saul was taking responsibility for Jonathan’s actions or (2) Saul was taking credit for Jonathan’s actions.

478

1SA

13

4

mef1

figs-metaphor

0

Israel had become a rotten smell to the Philistines

The Philistines hating the Israelites is spoken of as if the Israelites had become a bad smell that offended the Philistines. Alternate translation: “the Philistines hated the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

479

1SA

13

4

en9q

figs-activepassive

0

the soldiers were summoned together to join Saul at Gilgal

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Saul called the soldiers together to join him at Gilgal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

480

1SA

13

5

ez1f

translate-numbers

0

three thousand … six thousand

“3,000…6,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

481

1SA

13

5

ilg1

figs-hyperbole

0

troops as numerous as the sand on the seashore

This is an exaggeration that means a group of soldiers so large that it was difficult to count them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

482

1SA

13

5

xgl1

translate-names

0

Michmash

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

483

1SA

13

5

m7kg

translate-names

0

Beth Aven

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

484

1SA

13

6

a5jv

0

General Information:

The Philistines had gathered together to fight against Israel.

485

1SA

13

6

p712

0

the people

This phrase refers to the nation of Israel.

486

1SA

13

6

u7b9

0

the people were distressed

Alternate translation: “the people worried greatly”

487

1SA

13

7

q9n6

0

followed him trembling

The people were greatly afraid.

488

1SA

13

8

r3fs

0

the time Samuel had set

Alternate translation: “according to the time Samuel had told them he would come”

489

1SA

13

8

i6u1

figs-activepassive

0

the people were scattering from Saul

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the people had started to leave Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

490

1SA

13

9

p5s8

0

Then he offered the burnt offering

Only the line of Aaron was permitted to perform the burnt offering sacrifice to God.

491

1SA

13

11

r1c1

figs-rquestion

0

What have you done

Samuel was not really asking a question, but giving a rebuke to Saul. Saul sought to defend his actions even though they were wrong. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

492

1SA

13

11

r1ii

0

Michmash

Michmash is the name of a place. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 13:2.

493

1SA

13

13

wtr2

0

You have not kept the command of Yahweh

Saul was to wait for Samuel to come and sacrifice the burnt offering to God. He was not to perform the sacrifice himself.

494

1SA

13

13

cmq5

0

established your rule

Alternate translation: “set up your rule” or “authorized your rule” or “appointed your rule”

495

1SA

13

14

v5qb

figs-litotes

0

your rule will not continue

This is a litotes that can be stated in the positive form. Alternate translation: “your rule will end soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

496

1SA

13

14

qa5w

figs-metonymy

0

a man after his own heart

Here “heart” represents Yahweh’s desire or will. The phrase “man after his own heart” is an idiom that means to be a person who does what Yahweh desires. Alternate translation: “a man who is the kind of person he wants” or “a man who will obey him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

497

1SA

13

15

rlp2

figs-idiom

0

Samuel arose and went up

This is an idiom for “Samuel left and went up.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

498

1SA

13

15

t3ur

0

went up from Gilgal

Gilgal is a city. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 7:15.

499

1SA

13

15

by5i

0

Gibeah of Benjamin

Gibeah is a town. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 10:26.

500

1SA

13

15

mg2e

translate-numbers

0

six hundred men

“600 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

501

1SA

13

16

yzn9

0

Geba of Benjamin

Geba is a town. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 13:3.

502

1SA

13

16

gre7

0

Philistines camped at Michmash

Michmash is the name of a place. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 13:2.

503

1SA

13

17

h5tq

0

Raiders came

Raiders are normally military people who attack enemy villages for their food and other supplies.

504

1SA

13

17

plh5

translate-names

0

Ophrah, to the land of Shual

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

505

1SA

13

18

jd1r

translate-names

0

Beth Horon … Valley of Zeboyim

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

506

1SA

13

19

nlg3

0

General Information:

The narrative shifts to background information regarding blacksmiths in Israel.

507

1SA

13

19

fqi8

figs-activepassive

0

No blacksmith could be found

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “No one could find a blacksmith” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

508

1SA

13

19

v3wd

0

blacksmith

Here “blacksmith” refers to someone who made or sharpened metal tools and weapons.

509

1SA

13

20

u2vp

0

sharpen his plow points

The words “plow points” refer to the point of a metal tool used for digging up the ground for planting crops.

510

1SA

13

20

gyk2

0

mattock … ax … sickle

These are common garden tools.

511

1SA

13

20

rk53

0

mattock

A “mattock” is a broad-bladed axe, with a horizontal blade that is used for breaking up hard soil.

512

1SA

13

20

rc73

0

sickle

a curved blade for cutting grasses and grain stalks

513

1SA

13

21

wv2t

translate-bmoney

0

two-thirds of a shekel

The shekel is divided into 3 parts, 2 of 3 parts are given. “2/3 of a shekel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])

514

1SA

13

21

e1et

0

straightening the goads

Alternate translation: “taking out the bend and making the ox goad straight again so it could be used”

515

1SA

13

22

lcm6

0

there were no swords or spears

This explains in part why Saul’s army was afraid. They did not have any weapons to fight.

516

1SA

14

intro

abce

0

1 Samuel 14 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter completes the story of Jonathan’s victory over the Philistines.

Special concepts in this chapter

The battle against the Philistines

Jonathan took his armor bearer to where the Philistines were on the top of the hill. He said God could use a few people just as easily as he could use many people to win his battles. He and his armor bearer started killing the Philistines, and suddenly the Philistines began fighting each other or running away. The rest of Israel, who had hidden, came and chased the Philistines. Even though Israel had a king, God was still in control of the nation of Israel.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Special reference

The people of Israel often used the term “uncircumcised” to refer to Gentiles. Here it is used to mean the Philistines. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/circumcise]])

517

1SA

14

1

m1uz

0

General Information:

Jonathan begins his second raid on the Philistines’ army.

518

1SA

14

1

kea8

0

his young armor bearer

a teenage boy who is responsible for caring for his master’s weapons of war

519

1SA

14

1

s7kb

0

Philistines’ garrison

This is an outpost staffed by the Philistine army.

520

1SA

14

2

r25g

translate-names

0

Gibeah

This is the name of a hill north of Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

521

1SA

14

2

z13e

0

under the pomegranate tree

a tree whose fruit is thick skinned, round, red and has many seeds to eat

522

1SA

14

2

j9pi

translate-names

0

that is in Migron

“Migron” is the name of a place north of Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

523

1SA

14

2

l18h

translate-numbers

0

six hundred men were with him

“600 men were with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

524

1SA

14

3

ms8f

translate-names

0

son of Ahitub (Ichabod’s brother)

“Ahitub” and “Ichabod” are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

525

1SA

14

3

ihr7

0

Phinehas son of Eli

Phinehas was one of the priests. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 1:3.

526

1SA

14

4

r7in

translate-names

0

One rocky cliff was called Bozez

A “cliff” is a rocky height with a steep drop. The cliff was well-known and given the name “Bozez.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

527

1SA

14

4

g7r2

translate-names

0

the other rocky cliff was called Seneh

This was the name of the other cliff. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

528

1SA

14

5

t2qr

translate-names

0

Michmash … Geba

towns north of Jerusalem (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

529

1SA

14

6

zb4m

0

his young armor bearer

This was a teenage boy who was responsible for caring for his master’s weapons of war. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 14:1.

530

1SA

14

6

v7vs

0

uncircumcised fellows

a derogatory term used for non-Jewish men

531

1SA

14

6

i4mm

0

work on our behalf

Alternate translation: “work for our support” or “help us”

532

1SA

14

6

zt56

figs-doublenegatives

0

nothing can stop Yahweh from saving

This double negative can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh can save” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

533

1SA

14

6

s2bp

figs-merism

0

by many or by few people

These extremes also include everything in between. Alternate translation: “by any number of people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

534

1SA

14

7

k14h

figs-metonymy

0

everything that is in your heart

Here “heart” refers to Jonathan’s desires. Alternate translation: “everything that you desire to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

535

1SA

14

9

np7k

0

will not cross over to them

Alternate translation: “will not go over to the other side of the valley where the Philistines are”

536

1SA

14

10

d8qx

figs-metonymy

0

has given them into our hand

Here “hand” refers to the power to defeat them. Alternate translation: “will enable us to defeat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

537

1SA

14

10

le8f

0

This will be the sign to us

Alternate translation: “This will confirm that the Lord will be with us”

538

1SA

14

11

gw4e

0

revealed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines

Alternate translation: “allowed the Philistine soldiers to see them”

539

1SA

14

11

nz3b

0

the garrison

the army camp

540

1SA

14

11

mw3e

figs-metaphor

0

coming out of the holes where they have hidden themselves

The Philistines implied that the Hebrews had been hiding in holes in the ground like animals. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

541

1SA

14

12

d753

figs-idiom

0

we will show you something

This is an idiom that means “we will teach you a lesson.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

542

1SA

14

12

ead2

figs-metonymy

0

has given them into the hand of Israel

Here “hand” refers to power to defeat the Philistines. Alternate translation: “will enable Israel to defeat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

543

1SA

14

13

wcb3

figs-explicit

0

Jonathan climbed up on his hands and feet

He did this because it was very steep. This could be made explicit. Alternate translation: “So Jonathan climbed up, using his hands and his feet because it was very steep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

544

1SA

14

13

hb6a

figs-activepassive

0

The Philistines were put to death before Jonathan

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Jonathan killed the Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

545

1SA

14

13

h93x

0

his armor bearer put some to death behind him

Alternate translation: “Jonathan’s armor bearer followed him and also killed Philistine soldiers”

546

1SA

14

15

r2ci

figs-abstractnouns

0

There was a panic in the camp, in the field, and among the people

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word panic, you can express the same idea with a verb or as an adjective. Alternate translation: “The Philistine soldiers in the camp and in the field, and all the people with them, panicked” or “The Philistine soldiers in the camp and in the field, and all the people with them, became very afraid” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

547

1SA

14

15

lmj6

0

the raiders

the Philistines who were raiding Israelite cities

548

1SA

14

15

ety8

figs-explicit

0

The earth quaked

It may be helpful to state the cause. Alternate translation: “God caused the ground to shake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

549

1SA

14

16

y56n

translate-names

0

Gibeah

This was the town where Saul was born. Translated “Gibeah” as in 1 Samuel 10:26. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

550

1SA

14

16

fxf9

figs-parallelism

0

was dispersing … going here and there

These two phrases share similar meanings and emphasize that the soldiers were running away in every direction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

551

1SA

14

18

b8k3

translate-textvariants

0

Bring the ark of God here

A few versions have “ephod” here instead of “ark of God.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])

552

1SA

14

19

f1gk

0

commotion

great noise and confusion

553

1SA

14

19

db4u

figs-idiom

0

Withdraw your hand

This seems to be an idiom the means “Stop what you are doing.” Saul did not want Ahijah to continue to use the ark to ask God for direction. Alternate translation: “Do not bring the sacred chest at this time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

554

1SA

14

20

v4kx

0

the people who were with him

the remnant of the Israelite army that remained with Saul

555

1SA

14

20

j27w

figs-personification

0

Every Philistine’s sword was against his fellow countrymen

The swords are spoken of as if they were living people. Alternate translation: “The Philistine soldiers were striking each other with their swords” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

556

1SA

14

22

pz4l

figs-explicit

0

the men of Israel who had hidden themselves in the hills

This does not refer to an ambush. These soldiers were hiding because they were afraid of the Philistines. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Israelite soldiers who were afraid and had hidden themselves in the hills” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

557

1SA

14

23

y4b7

translate-names

0

Beth Aven

This is a place in Israel. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 13:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

558

1SA

14

24

h5cu

0

So none of the troops tasted food

It was understood by the troops that no refreshment was permitted under Saul’s oath.

559

1SA

14

25

k9ql

0

the people entered the forest

The Philistine soldiers fled through the forests and the Israelite soldiers followed them there.

560

1SA

14

26

y6qu

figs-hyperbole

0

the honey flowed

This is an exaggeration to emphasize how much honey there was in the forest. Alternate translation: “there was a lot of honey everywhere” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

561

1SA

14

26

u6dd

figs-metonymy

0

no one put his hand to his mouth

Here putting one’s “hand to his mouth” is a metonym that means to eat. Alternate translation: “no one ate any” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

562

1SA

14

26

ll4l

figs-metonymy

0

the people feared the oath

The people were not afraid of the oath, but of the punishment that was associated with breaking the oath. Alternate translation: “the people were afraid of what Saul would do to them if they broke his oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

563

1SA

14

27

jdr1

0

General Information:

Jonathan learns of his father’s oath.

564

1SA

14

27

tpk8

figs-metaphor

0

bound the people with an oath

Here the obligation to obey an oath is spoken of as if the people were bound with ropes. Alternate translation: “commanded that the people obey his oath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

565

1SA

14

27

bpc5

figs-metonymy

0

He raised his hand to his mouth

Here “hand to his mouth” is a metonym that means to eat. Alternate translation: “He ate some honey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

566

1SA

14

27

m3rq

figs-idiom

0

his eyes brightened

This idiom means that he was strengthened. Alternate translation: “he regained his strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

567

1SA

14

29

cip2

figs-metonymy

0

for the land

This is a metonym that represents the nation of Israel. Alternate translation: “for Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

568

1SA

14

29

z3xa

figs-idiom

0

my eyes have become brightened

This idiom means that he was strengthened. Alternate translation: “I regained my strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

569

1SA

14

30

v75u

figs-rquestion

0

How much better if the people … that they found?

Jonathan uses this hypothetical question to state that the people should have been allowed to eat. This can be a statement. Alternate translation: “Our victory would have been better if the people had eaten freely today of the plunder that they took from their enemies.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

570

1SA

14

30

m8aj

0

plunder

This word refers to the things the people had taken from the battle with their enemy.

571

1SA

14

30

v717

0

Because now the slaughter has not been great

Because the troops were not able to eat during the battle, as the day progressed, they became weaker. Because of this, they were not able to kill as many of the Philistines.

572

1SA

14

31

f2fj

0

General Information:

Jonathan’s words lead the army to sin against God in their great hunger.

573

1SA

14

31

z8g4

0

Michmash

This is the name of a town. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 13:2.

574

1SA

14

31

w4i2

translate-names

0

Aijalon

a place in Zebulun in Israel (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

575

1SA

14

31

lb94

0

The people

This refers to the Israelites.

576

1SA

14

32

g2ur

figs-explicit

0

ate them with the blood

The were so hungry they did not drain the blood first before eating. This was a violation of the Law which was given to Moses for the nation of Israel. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “ate them without draining the blood first as required by the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

577

1SA

14

33

pqy9

figs-explicit

0

by eating with the blood

This was a violation of the Law which was given to Moses for the nation of Israel. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “by eating meat without draining the blood first as required by the law” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

578

1SA

14

33

ing6

figs-hyperbole

0

You have acted unfaithfully

Saul is accusing his whole army of acting unfaithfully though this is a generalization because not every soldier acted unfaithfully. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

579

1SA

14

33

d9xa

figs-explicit

0

Now, roll a big stone here to me

The stone would hold the animals up and make it easier to drain the blood from them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

580

1SA

14

34

v1tn

0

kill them here, and eat

This would allow Saul to observe if the blood was properly drained from the animals.

581

1SA

14

35

l562

0

General Information:

Saul had told the people to bring their animals to a big stone to kill and eat.

582

1SA

14

35

y6xn

0

Saul built an altar to Yahweh

It is unclear if Saul built this altar with the large stone that the people brought to him in 1 Samuel 14:33.

583

1SA

14

36

vwb8

0

General Information:

Saul seeks to continue the fight against the Philistines.

584

1SA

14

36

qd4e

figs-litotes

0

let us not leave one of them alive

This is stated in a negative way to emphasize the slaughter. It can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “let us kill every one of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

585

1SA

14

36

j8bk

0

Do whatever seems good to you

Saul had the support of his army to continue the fight.

586

1SA

14

36

eu41

figs-metonymy

0

Let us approach God here

Here “approaching God” is associated with asking him counsel. Alternate translation: “Let us ask God what we should do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

587

1SA

14

37

e4l1

figs-metonymy

0

give them into the hand of Israel

Here “hand” refers to the power to defeat them. Alternate translation: “enable us to defeat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

588

1SA

14

37

tdl4

0

But God did not answer him that day

This implies that God was not willing to help Saul.

589

1SA

14

38

vy5y

0

the people

This refers to the Israelites.

590

1SA

14

38

wp75

0

learn and see how this sin has happened

Alternate translation: “find who sinned”

591

1SA

14

39

t91s

figs-hypo

0

even if it is in Jonathan my son, he will surely die

Saul stated this as a hypothetical situation because he did not believe that Jonathan was guilty. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

592

1SA

14

39

dce3

figs-explicit

0

But none of the men among all the people answered him

The people remained silent because most of them knew that Jonathan had broken Saul’s oath. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “His men knew who was guilty, but none of them said anything to Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

593

1SA

14

40

vud3

figs-hyperbole

0

Then he said to all Israel

This was a generalization since only the Israelite soldiers were present. Alternate translation: “Then he said to the Israelite soldiers who were there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

594

1SA

14

41

f92v

figs-explicit

0

give the Thummim

The Israelites at that time used special stones called the Urim and the Thummim to receive direction from God. Alternate translation: “Show us by means of the Thummim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

595

1SA

14

41

rk8v

translate-transliterate

0

Thummim

This is a borrowed word from the original language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

596

1SA

14

41

as11

figs-activepassive

0

Jonathan and Saul were taken by lot, but the army was exonerated

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “The lots indicated that either Jonathan or Saul was guilty, but the army was not guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

597

1SA

14

42

rw4a

figs-activepassive

0

Then Jonathan was taken by lot

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Then the lot indicated that Jonathan was guilty” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

598

1SA

14

43

am45

0

General Information:

The lots had just showed that Jonathan had sinned.

599

1SA

14

43

h3ee

0

Tell me what you have done

Alternate translation: “Tell me how you have sinned” or “Tell me what you have done that was wrong”

600

1SA

14

43

yi96

0

I will die

This could mean: (1) “I am willing to die” or (2) “do I deserve to be executed because of doing that?”

601

1SA

14

44

bhu1

0

God do so and more also to me, if you do not die, Jonathan

Saul makes a second foolish oath in less than one day. Alternate translation: “May God kill me if I do not kill you, Jonathan”

602

1SA

14

45

sym5

0

General Information:

The Army defends and protects Jonathan from Saul.

603

1SA

14

45

q95l

figs-rquestion

0

Should Jonathan die, who has accomplished this great victory for Israel? Far from it!

The people scold Saul. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Jonathan has just accomplished this great victory for Israel. He should surely not die.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

604

1SA

14

45

et5x

0

As Yahweh lives

The people were expressing their certainty that they would not let anything happen to Jonathan.

605

1SA

14

45

cdg3

figs-hyperbole

0

not one hair of his head will fall to the ground

This exaggeration shows how the people of Israel would protect Jonathan and keep him safe. This litotes can be stated in a positive form. Alternate translation: “we will protect him from any harm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

606

1SA

14

47

at51

0

General Information:

For a brief period Saul served with great courage in defeating Israel’s enemies.

607

1SA

14

47

q2xh

figs-metonymy

0

Israel

This is a metonym that represents the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

608

1SA

14

47

vkj9

figs-metonymy

0

Moab

This refers to the people of Moab. Alternate translation: “the Moabites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

609

1SA

14

47

lm9l

figs-metonymy

0

Edom

This refers to the people of Edom. Alternate translation: “the Edomites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

610

1SA

14

47

wyv4

0

Wherever he turned

Alternate translation: “Wherever he sent his army”

611

1SA

14

48

kxf5

figs-metonymy

0

out of the hands

The word “hand” represents control. Alternate translation: “out of the control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

612

1SA

14

49

t582

0

General Information:

This is background information on Saul’s family.

613

1SA

14

49

tt1b

translate-names

0

Ishvi … Malki-Shua

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

614

1SA

14

49

f4ri

translate-names

0

Merab … Michal

These are names of women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

615

1SA

14

50

qv1q

translate-names

0

Ahinoam

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

616

1SA

14

50

rvk7

translate-names

0

Ahimaaz … Abner … Ner

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

617

1SA

14

51

eci8

translate-names

0

Kish … Ner … Abner … Abiel

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

618

1SA

14

52

e8ef

0

all the days of Saul

Alternate translation: “all of Saul’s life”

619

1SA

14

52

ezp3

0

he attached him to himself

Alternate translation: “he forced him to join his army”

620

1SA

15

intro

abcf

0

1 Samuel 15 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This is the end of the section on Saul and Samuel (8-15).

Special concepts in this chapter

God wants total obedience

Samuel told Saul that God wanted him to completely destroy the Amalekite people and animals. Saul fought the Amalekites and killed all the people except the king. He destroyed the animals that were not very good but saved the best animals. Saul told Samuel he had obeyed God’s command. Samuel asked him about the animals Saul had. Saul said he had saved them for a sacrifice to God. God said that obedience was better than sacrifice. Because Saul had disobeyed him, God had chosen someone else to become king.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Idiom

“He has turned back from following me” is an idiom meaning “he has stopped obeying me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

Rhetorical questions

When Saul insisted that he had obeyed God, Samuel rebuked him with these rhetorical questions: “What then is this bleating of sheep in my ears, and the lowing of the oxen that I hear?”; “Though you are little in your own sight, were you not made the head of the tribes of Israel?”; “Why then did you not obey the voice of Yahweh, but instead you seized the booty and did what was evil in the sight of Yahweh?”; and “Has Yahweh as much delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of Yahweh?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

621

1SA

15

1

t4nn

0

the words of Yahweh

Alternate translation: “the message of Yahweh”

622

1SA

15

3

q1vz

figs-parallelism

0

completely destroy all that they have … kill both man and woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey

These two phrases mean the same thing. The second phrase gives specific details about what they are to destroy completely. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

623

1SA

15

3

ik1k

figs-litotes

0

Do not spare them

This negative statement emphasizes the completeness of the destruction. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

624

1SA

15

4

m856

0

the people

Alternate translation: “the army”

625

1SA

15

4

sp3s

0

numbered them

Alternate translation: “counted them”

626

1SA

15

4

ppw8

translate-numbers

0

two hundred thousand men on foot, and ten thousand men of Judah

“200,000 men on foot, and 10,000 men of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

627

1SA

15

6

stl7

translate-names

0

Kenites

a nomad people group that had always been friendly to the nation of Israel (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

628

1SA

15

7

t6tl

translate-names

0

Havilah … Shur

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

629

1SA

15

8

n8xb

0

General Information:

Yahweh had told Saul to destroy everything, but here Saul disobeys Yahweh’s command.

630

1SA

15

8

ey6y

figs-synecdoche

0

he took Agag

Here Saul represents himself accompanied by his army. Alternate translation: “Saul and his army took Agag” or “Saul and his army captured Agag” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

631

1SA

15

8

kfl9

figs-synecdoche

0

he completely destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword

The “edge of the sword” represents the swords and other weapons that soldiers used in battle. Here Saul represents himself accompanied by his army. Alternate translation: “they completely destroyed all of the people with their swords” or “they killed all of the people with their swords” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

632

1SA

15

9

ln2i

0

Saul … spared Agag

Saul disobeyed God by letting Agag live.

633

1SA

15

9

nh2u

0

as well as the best of the sheep

Saul disobeyed God by keeping the best of the livestock.

634

1SA

15

10

w6bp

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came to Samuel, saying,

The idiom “the word of Yahweh came to” is used to introduce a special message from God. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message to Samuel. He said,” or “Yahweh spoke this message to Samuel:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

635

1SA

15

11

u8i3

0

It grieves me

Alternate translation: “I am sorry”

636

1SA

15

11

fu9h

figs-metaphor

0

he has turned back from following me

Saul not obeying Yahweh is spoken of as if Saul had physically turned away from walking behind God. Alternate translation: “he has stopped following me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

637

1SA

15

11

zml2

0

has not performed my commandments

“has not obeyed what I commanded him to do.” Saul was to completely destroy everything and everyone. God had placed a ban on the Amalekites. But Saul permitted some livestock to live.

638

1SA

15

11

uwz4

0

Samuel was angry

This could mean: (1) Samuel was angry with Saul for his disobedience or (2) Samuel was disturbed.

639

1SA

15

12

g77w

0

Samuel was told

Alternate translation: “Someone told Samuel”

640

1SA

15

12

hh8y

0

he set up a monument to himself

Saul was full of pride.

641

1SA

15

12

fp2t

0

down to Gilgal

Gilgal was lower in elevation than Carmel.

642

1SA

15

13

wpf4

0

I have fulfilled the command of Yahweh

It is not clear if Saul understood that he had not fully obeyed God’s command to completely destroy the Amalekites.

643

1SA

15

14

g3x7

0

General Information:

Samuel questions why Saul did not utterly destroyed the Amalekites.

644

1SA

15

14

kf8w

0

bleating of sheep … lowing of the oxen

These are the sounds that these animals make. Your language may have different terms for these.

645

1SA

15

14

cme2

figs-parallelism

0

in my ears … that I hear

These two phrases mean the same thing. Here “in my ears” refers to hearing. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

646

1SA

15

15

ks4s

0

They have brought … the people spared

The word “they” and the phrase “the people” here both represent Saul’s army. Saul is blaming the people rather than himself.

647

1SA

15

15

vin9

0

to sacrifice to Yahweh your God

Saul is arguing that animals for sacrifice were an exception to Yahweh’s command to destroy everything.

648

1SA

15

15

a6ie

0

Yahweh your God

Saul here does not describe Samuel’s God as his own God.

649

1SA

15

17

a18m

figs-metaphor

0

in your own sight

Here sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “in your own opinion” or “in your judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

650

1SA

15

17

a7ji

figs-rquestion

0

were you not made the head of the tribes of Israel?

Samuel uses this question to remind Saul of now much God had given him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Yahweh made you the ruler of the tribes of Israel!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

651

1SA

15

19

yu1z

figs-rquestion

0

Why did you not obey … Yahweh?

Samuel asks this question to rebuke Saul for disobeying Yahweh. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should have obeyed … Yahweh!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

652

1SA

15

19

w3n7

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of Yahweh

Here “voice” refers to the commands that Yahweh spoke. Alternate translation: “the things that Yahweh commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

653

1SA

15

19

x74v

0

but instead you seized the booty

Samuel is accusing Saul of direct disobedience. Yahweh commanded Saul to completely destroy everything belonging to the Amalekites, and not to bring anything back to camp.

654

1SA

15

19

b9eg

0

the booty

Alternate translation: “the plunder” or “the possessions you took from the enemy”

655

1SA

15

19

qxl6

figs-metaphor

0

what was evil in the sight of Yahweh

Here “sight” refers to Yahweh’s thoughts or opinion. Alternate translation: “what Yahweh considers to be evil” or “what is evil in Yahweh’s judgement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

656

1SA

15

20

k3f4

0

I have indeed obeyed the voice of Yahweh

This is an emphatic statement. It is unclear if Saul thought this was true, or if he was simply making excuses for his sin.

657

1SA

15

20

j3h2

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of Yahweh

Here “voice” refers to the commands that Yahweh spoke. Alternate translation: “the things that Yahweh commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

658

1SA

15

20

w1jd

translate-names

0

Agag

This is the name of the king of the Amalekites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

659

1SA

15

21

v64h

0

But the people took

This appears to be shifting the blame to the people.

660

1SA

15

21

kvf4

0

things devoted to destruction

Alternate translation: “animals that Yahweh commanded them to destroy”

661

1SA

15

21

li5g

translate-names

0

Gilgal

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

662

1SA

15

22

dp67

figs-rquestion

0

Has Yahweh as much delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of Yahweh?

Samuel asks this question to emphasize that obedience is much more important than sacrifice. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Yahweh does not delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices as much as in obeying his voice!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

663

1SA

15

22

f8kc

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of Yahweh

Here “voice” refers to the commands that Yahweh spoke. Alternate translation: “the things that Yahweh commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

664

1SA

15

22

wen9

0

Obedience is better than sacrifice

God wanted Saul’s complete obedience in the destruction of the Amalekites. Nothing in the land was fit for sacrifice.

665

1SA

15

22

u1dg

0

better than the fat of rams

Alternate translation: “better than to sacrifice the fat of rams as a burnt offering”

666

1SA

15

23

m9ce

figs-abstractnouns

0

rebellion is like the sin of divination

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word rebellion, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “to rebel is as sinful as practicing divination” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

667

1SA

15

23

xz9b

figs-abstractnouns

0

stubbornness is like wickedness and iniquity

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word stubbornness, you can express the same idea with a verb. If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word wickedness, you can express the same idea with an adjective. Alternate translation: “being stubborn is as bad as doing wicked things and practicing iniquity” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

668

1SA

15

23

cx9p

0

the word of Yahweh

Alternate translation: “Yahweh’s message” or “Yahweh’s command”

669

1SA

15

23

n8ey

0

rejected you from being king

Alternate translation: “decided that you will no longer be king”

670

1SA

15

24

g1fl

figs-idiom

0

I have broken Yahweh’s commandment

This is an idiom that means he had disobeyed the commandment. Alternate translation: “I have disobeyed what Yahweh commanded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

671

1SA

15

24

t7ez

0

because I was afraid of the people

This is the reason Saul gives for not obeying God. Alternate translation: “because I was afraid of the soldiers”

672

1SA

15

24

f7vn

figs-metonymy

0

obeyed their voice

Here “voice” refers to what the soldiers asked Saul to do. Alternate translation: “did what they asked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

673

1SA

15

25

bb4i

0

return with me

Saul and Samuel were apparently talking in private away from the other people.

674

1SA

15

26

qdh9

0

for you have rejected the word of Yahweh

Samuel made it clear that Saul understood that he was disobeying God at the time when he spared the best animals and did not kill Agag.

675

1SA

15

26

h622

figs-explicit

0

rejected the word of Yahweh

“rejected Yahweh’s command” or “rejected Yahweh’s message.” This means that he refused to obey Yahweh’s command. Alternate translation: “refused to obey Yahweh’s command” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

676

1SA

15

27

jy4w

figs-explicit

0

Saul took hold of the hem of his robe

Saul did this to try to stop Samuel from leaving. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “Saul tried to stop him by grabbing the edge of Samuel’s robe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

677

1SA

15

27

p8lr

0

the hem of his robe

Alternate translation: “the edge of his robe” or “the fringe of his robe”

678

1SA

15

28

m2mh

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh has torn the kingdom of Israel

This refers back to when Saul tore Samuel’s robe in 1 Samuel 15:27. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Just as you tore my robe, Yahweh has torn the kingdom of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

679

1SA

15

28

h7h8

0

has given it to a neighbor of yours, one who is better than you

God had already decided who would be the next king after Saul.

680

1SA

15

29

el2n

figs-idiom

0

the Strength of Israel

Here Yahweh is referred to as “the Strength of Israel” because he gives strength to the Israelites. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, who is the strength of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

681

1SA

15

29

f3ca

figs-litotes

0

will not lie nor change his mind

This is stated as a negative to emphasize that God tells the truth. This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “will always tell the truth and do what he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

682

1SA

15

29

lt8w

figs-metonymy

0

his mind

This refers to his thoughts and decisions. Alternate translation: “what he has decided to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

683

1SA

15

29

cud6

figs-litotes

0

he is not a man, that he should change his mind

This is stated as a negative to emphasize that God is trustworthy. This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “he is God, and will do what he says he will do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

684

1SA

15

30

x7z1

0

But please honor me now before the elders

Saul may have been more interested in being honored by the people than in actually worshipping God.

685

1SA

15

30

ruq1

figs-metonymy

0

before the elders of my people and before Israel

Here “Israel” refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “before the people of Israel and the elders who lead them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

686

1SA

15

30

au2s

0

Turn again with me

Alternate translation: “Come back with me” or “Return with me”

687

1SA

15

31

evb6

0

So Samuel turned again after Saul

This implies that Samuel changed his mind, and that they went together to where the people were. Alternate translation: “So Samuel finally agreed to do that, and they went together back to where the people were”

688

1SA

15

32

n2tg

0

Agag came to him confined with chains and said

Alternate translation: “They brought Agag to him bound by chains and Agag said”

689

1SA

15

32

u9hs

figs-idiom

0

Surely the bitterness of death has past

This idiom appears to mean that Agag no longer thought he would be killed. Alternate translation: “Surely I am no longer in danger or dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

690

1SA

15

33

dqu4

figs-parallelism

0

As your sword has made women childless, so shall your mother be childless among women

Both of these phrases have similar meaning and may be intended to be in poetic form. Alternate translation: “Since you have killed people, you will also be killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

691

1SA

15

33

z9kf

figs-euphemism

0

made women childless, so shall your mother be childless

This is a polite way of referring to killing people. Alternate translation: “killed the sons of other women, so shall I kill your mother’s son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

692

1SA

15

33

lwq9

0

Then Samuel chopped Agag to pieces

Samuel is the one who completed this task that Yahweh commanded Saul to do. Alternate translation: “Then Samuel cut Agag into pieces with his sword”

693

1SA

15

34

p6j7

translate-names

0

Ramah … Gibeah

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

694

1SA

15

34

wed2

0

went up to his house at Gibeah

Gibeah was higher in elevation than Gilgal where Saul and Samuel had been talking.

695

1SA

15

35

hha6

0

Samuel did not see Saul until the day of his death

Alternate translation: “Samuel did not see Saul again for as long as he lived”

696

1SA

16

intro

abcg

0

1 Samuel 16 General Notes

Structure and formatting

1 Samuel 16-31 Saul and David

Chapter 16 establishes God’s choice of David to be the next king. David receives the Holy Spirit to empower and guide him as the king. This chapter also records the Holy Spirit leaving Saul because of his disobedience. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyspirit]])

Special concepts in this chapter

David chosen to be the next king

Humans judge others by what they look like, but God judges people by their true inner character. God rejected David’s older brothers in favor of David, who truly loved and obeyed him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/love]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical Question

God scolds Samuel with this rhetorical question for his unwillingness to accept God’s decision: “How long will you mourn for Saul, since I have rejected him from being king over Israel?” It was wrong to mourn because it was God’s punishment of Saul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

697

1SA

16

1

ib7t

figs-rquestion

0

How long will you mourn for Saul, since I have rejected him from being king over Israel?

This rhetorical question is a rebuke from God and can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “Stop mourning that I rejected Saul from being king over Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

698

1SA

16

1

aav1

0

Fill your horn with oil

The term “horn” was sometimes used to refer to a “flask” that was shaped like a horn and was used for holding water or oil. A flask of oil was used for anointing a king.

699

1SA

16

2

msu1

figs-rquestion

0

How can I go?

Samuel uses a question to emphasize that he is worried about going to Bethlehem. Alternate translation: “I cannot go!” or “I am afraid to go.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

700

1SA

16

2

a4gl

figs-ellipsis

0

with you and say

You can state the understood information. Alternate translation: “with you to Bethlehem and say to the people there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

701

1SA

16

2

t5yc

figs-quotesinquotes

0

say, ‘I have come to sacrifice to Yahweh.’

This has a quotation within a quotation. The direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “say to the people there that you have come to sacrifice to Yahweh.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

702

1SA

16

4

ead8

figs-explicit

0

The elders of the city were trembling as they came to meet him

It seems the elders were trembling because they were worried that Samuel came to rebuke them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

703

1SA

16

5

tt5t

figs-ellipsis

0

In peace

This can be stated as a complete sentence. Alternate translation: “Yes, I have come in peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

704

1SA

16

5

a67l

0

to set … apart

To set someone apart means to get that person ready for Yahweh’s purposes by making sure that person is ritually clean according to the law of Moses.

705

1SA

16

6

jj6a

0

When they came

Here “they” refers to Jesse and his sons.

706

1SA

16

6

tns5

0

he looked at Eliab

Here “he” refers to Samuel.

707

1SA

16

6

ug8f

translate-names

0

Eliab

This is the name of Jesse’s oldest son. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

708

1SA

16

6

lj9m

0

standing before him

Here “him” refers to Yahweh.

709

1SA

16

7

hbc3

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh does not see as man sees

Here “see” means to evaluate something. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

710

1SA

16

7

v16l

figs-123person

0

For Yahweh does not see … Yahweh looks

Yahweh is speaking about himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “For I, Yahweh, do not see … I, Yahweh, look” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

711

1SA

16

7

s3tv

figs-metonymy

0

on the heart

Here “heart” represents a person’s inner being. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

712

1SA

16

8

k8wq

translate-names

0

Abinadab

This is the name of one of Jesse’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

713

1SA

16

8

qht8

0

made him pass before Samuel

Alternate translation: “told him to go to Samuel”

714

1SA

16

9

ex3x

figs-ellipsis

0

Jesse then made Shammah pass by

It is understood that Shammah passed by Samuel. Alternate translation: “Jesse then made Shammah pass before Samuel” or “Jesse then told Shammah to go to Samuel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

715

1SA

16

9

xzq5

translate-names

0

Shammah

This is the name of one of Jesse’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

716

1SA

16

11

j3g3

0

There remains yet the youngest

Alternate translation: “There is still my youngest son”

717

1SA

16

11

r1tl

figs-ellipsis

0

we will not sit down

It is understood that they were waiting to sit down and eat. Alternate translation: “we will not sit down to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

718

1SA

16

12

ie4h

0

Now … appearance

The word “Now” is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the narrator tells about a new person in the story.

719

1SA

16

12

ev69

0

this son was ruddy

The word “ruddy” means David was healthy looking.

720

1SA

16

13

gsz8

0

the horn of oil

The term “horn” was sometimes used to refer to a “flask” that was shaped like a horn and was used for holding water or oil. A flask of oil was used for anointing a king. See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 16:1.

721

1SA

16

13

r2qg

figs-explicit

0

Samuel rose up and went

It is implied that he rose up after they sat down to eat. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

722

1SA

16

13

e73i

0

The Spirit of Yahweh rushed on David

The phrase “rushed on” means Yahweh’s Spirit influenced David. In this case it means he enabled David to fulfill whatever Yahweh wanted him to do. See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 10:6.

723

1SA

16

14

a48s

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the narrator starts to tell a new part of the story.

724

1SA

16

14

thd3

0

harmful spirit

This may refer to either a “spirit that causes trouble” or an “evil spirit.”

725

1SA

16

16

y7wp

figs-123person

0

Let our master now command

The servants refer to Saul in the third person as “our master.” Alternate translation: “We ask that you, our master, command” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

726

1SA

16

16

qwf8

figs-123person

0

command your servants who are before you to look

The servants refer to themselves in the third person as “your servants.” Alternate translation: “command us, your servants who attend to you, to look” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

727

1SA

16

16

u14z

0

is on you

Alternate translation: “troubles you”

728

1SA

16

18

jui1

0

a strong, courageous man

This could mean: (1) “a great warrior” or (2) “a very brave man.”

729

1SA

16

18

bp1w

0

one prudent in speech

Alternate translation: “one wise in speech” or “one who speaks wisely”

730

1SA

16

18

l27k

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh is with him

Here “with him” means Yahweh helps and blesses David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

731

1SA

16

21

g496

figs-go

0

David came to Saul

Here “came” can be translated as “went.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

732

1SA

16

21

i2aj

figs-abstractnouns

0

entered his service

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word service, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “began to serve him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

733

1SA

16

21

pq6t

0

he became his armor bearer

Alternate translation: “David became Saul’s armor bearer”

734

1SA

16

22

mk1a

figs-idiom

0

Let David stand before me

Here “stand before me” is an idiom that means to continue in Saul’s service. Alternate translation: “Let David stay in my service” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

735

1SA

16

22

b5l4

figs-metonymy

0

he has found favor in my eyes

Here “eyes” are a metonym for sight, and “my sight” represents how Saul judges or evaluates David. Alternate translation: “he has found favor in my judgment” or “I am pleased with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

736

1SA

16

23

c6ip

0

harmful spirit

Here “harmful spirit” may refer to either a “spirit that causes trouble” or an “evil spirit.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 16:14.

737

1SA

16

23

hnb5

0

was upon Saul

Alternate translation: “troubled Saul”

738

1SA

16

23

pxe5

figs-activepassive

0

Saul would be refreshed and well

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “the music would refresh Saul and make him well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

739

1SA

17

intro

abch

0

1 Samuel 17 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter introduced David as a soldier, a skill that will be important for the rest of his life.

Special concepts in this chapter

David kills Goliath

Trust in God is more powerful than physical might or military training and equipment. David, trusting in the Lord and armed only with a sling, defeats Goliath who is well-armed and physically strong but who did not believe in Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])

Uncircumcised

The people of Israel often used the term “uncircumcised” to refer to Gentiles. Here it is used to describe the Philistines. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/circumcise]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

David uses rhetorical questions to state his desire to fight the giant: “What will be done for the man who kills this Philistine and takes away the disgrace from Israel? Who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

His brother uses rhetorical questions to show his disdain for his younger brother, whom he thinks is pretending to be bigger than he really is: “Why did you come down here? With whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness?” David defends himself with some questions: “What have I done now? Was it not just a question?”

Goliath also uses a rhetorical question to show his contempt for young David: “Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?”

740

1SA

17

2

z3hp

translate-names

0

the Valley of Elah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

741

1SA

17

4

q4bx

translate-bdistance

0

six cubits and a span

A cubit is a unit of measurement equal to about 46 centimeters. A span is a unit of measurement equal to about 23 centimeters. Alternate translation: “about 3 meters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

742

1SA

17

5

n5rl

figs-activepassive

0

he was armed with a coat of chainmail

A “coat of chainmail” is a flexible piece of body armor covered with protective scales or small plates. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he protected himself by wearing a coat of chainmail” or “he wore a coat of chainmail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

743

1SA

17

5

c1ze

translate-bweight

0

five thousand shekels

A shekel is a unit of weight equal to about 11 grams. Alternate translation: “about 55 kilograms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

744

1SA

17

6

g2bi

0

a javelin of bronze

A “javelin” is a small spear that is meant to be thrown.

745

1SA

17

7

mlr9

0

staff of his spear

Alternate translation: “the handle of his spear”

746

1SA

17

7

ddd9

0

loop of cord

Alternate translation: “rope rolled up into a circle”

747

1SA

17

7

yeq5

0

His spear’s head

Alternate translation: “The point of his spear”

748

1SA

17

7

ww8c

translate-bweight

0

six hundred shekels of iron

A shekel is a unit of weight equal to about 11 grams. Alternate translation: “about 7 kilograms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

749

1SA

17

8

xz35

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you come out to draw up for battle?

“Why have you come to fight in battle against us?” Goliath uses this question to mock the Israelites. Alternate translation: “You are fools if you think you can fight in battle against us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

750

1SA

17

8

sj9b

figs-rquestion

0

Am not I a Philistine, and are you not servants of Saul?

Goliath uses this question to mock the Israelites. When he says that he is a Philistine, he is implying that he is strong. Alternate translation: “I am a great Philistine, and you are merely servants of Saul.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

751

1SA

17

10

na9z

0

I challenge the ranks of Israel

Alternate translation: “I challenge the army of Israel”

752

1SA

17

11

p19l

0

all Israel

This refers to the Israelite soldiers who were there.

753

1SA

17

11

su45

figs-doublet

0

they were discouraged and greatly afraid

The words “discouraged” and “greatly afraid” mean basically the same thing and emphasize the intensity of their fear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

754

1SA

17

12

pz4w

0

He had eight sons

“He” refers to Jesse.

755

1SA

17

12

apl3

figs-parallelism

0

Jesse was an old man … very old among men

The two phrases mean basically the same thing and are combined for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

756

1SA

17

13

a3gr

0

second to him Abinadab, and the third Shammah

“Abinadab the second born, and Shammah the third born.” This phrase shows birth order.

757

1SA

17

14

kp25

figs-explicit

0

The three oldest

The implied information is that these are the sons of Jesse. Alternate translation: “The three oldest sons of Jesse” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

758

1SA

17

16

wi92

translate-numbers

0

For forty days

“For 40 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

759

1SA

17

16

vf87

0

to present himself for battle

Alternate translation: “to show that he was ready to fight”

760

1SA

17

17

t66s

translate-bvolume

0

ephah

An ephah is a unit of measurement equal to about 22 liters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

761

1SA

17

18

n9tr

translate-numbers

0

the captain of their thousand

“the captain of your brothers’ thousand.” This could mean: (1) the word “thousand” represents the exact amount of soldiers that this captain led. Alternate translation: “the captain of your brothers’ unit of 1,000 soldiers” or (2) the word translated as “thousand” does not represent exact number, but is the name of a large military division. Alternate translation: “the captain of your brothers’ military division” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

762

1SA

17

18

ms2j

0

See how your brothers are doing

Alternate translation: “Check and find out how your brothers are doing”

763

1SA

17

19

i8wt

0

all the men of Israel

Alternate translation: “all the soldiers of Israel”

764

1SA

17

19

fa7e

translate-names

0

the Valley of Elah

This is the name of a place. See how you translated it in 1 Samuel 17:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

765

1SA

17

23

xd5y

0

Goliath by name

Alternate translation: “whose name was Goliath”

766

1SA

17

23

e3lh

0

came out of the ranks of the Philistines

Alternate translation: “stepped forward from the Philistines’ battle line”

767

1SA

17

25

nx3g

figs-rquestion

0

Have you seen this man who has come up?

The soldiers were saying this to draw one another’s attention to the man Goliath. Alternate translation: “Look at this man who has come up!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

768

1SA

17

25

i1j1

figs-explicit

0

The king

This refers to the king of Israel. Alternate translation: “Our king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

769

1SA

17

25

h9r9

0

his daughter

This refers to the king’s daughter.

770

1SA

17

25

nt1f

0

to him … his father’s house

The words “him” and “his” refer to the man who kills Goliath.

771

1SA

17

25

d62y

figs-metonymy

0

will make his father’s house free from taxation in Israel

The word “house” refers to the household or family. Alternate translation: “will no longer require his family to pay taxes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

772

1SA

17

26

ys91

figs-abstractnouns

0

takes away the disgrace from Israel

This can be expressed with the verb “disgrace.” Alternate translation: “stops Israel from being disgraced” or “stops him from disgracing Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

773

1SA

17

26

vrc8

figs-rquestion

0

Who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God?

David said this to show his anger that this Philistine was defying God’s army. Alternate translation: “This uncircumcised Philistine certainly has no power that he should defy the armies of the living God!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

774

1SA

17

26

uay2

0

this uncircumcised Philistine

This phrase is an insult and indicates that Goliath does not belong to the living God.

775

1SA

17

28

tmc9

figs-metaphor

0

Eliab’s anger was kindled against David

Here anger is spoken of as if it were a fire that could be kindled. Alternate translation: “Eliab became angry with David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

776

1SA

17

28

f8iy

figs-rquestion

0

Why did you come down here?

Eliab uses this question to show that he is angry that David came down. He was probably implying that David did not have a good reason for coming. Alternate translation: “You had no good reason to come here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

777

1SA

17

28

k8hg

figs-rquestion

0

With whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness?

Eliab uses this question to insult David by making his work seem unimportant and by accusing him of not taking care of his father’s sheep. Alternate translation: “You simply had the responsibility of watching over a few sheep in the wilderness. You could not even carry out that simple responsibility!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

778

1SA

17

28

aj1w

figs-parallelism

0

your pride, and the mischief in your heart

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and are combined for emphasis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

779

1SA

17

29

m8dz

figs-rquestion

0

What have I done now? Was it not just a question?

David used these questions to express his frustration and to justify himself. Alternate translation: “I have done nothing wrong. I was only asking a question!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

780

1SA

17

30

yyw8

0

He turned away from him

“He” refers to David and the word “him” refers to Eliab.

781

1SA

17

31

q448

figs-activepassive

0

When the words that David said were heard

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “When the soldiers heard what David said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

782

1SA

17

32

h5di

figs-metonymy

0

Let no man’s heart fail

The heart failing represents being terrified and losing confidence. Alternate translation: “Do not let anyone be terrified” or “Do not let anyone lose their confidence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

783

1SA

17

32

h1gz

figs-123person

0

your servant will go

David spoke of himself as “your servant” to show respect to Saul. Alternate translation: “I, your servant, will go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

784

1SA

17

34

ing5

figs-123person

0

Your servant used to keep his father’s sheep

David spoke of himself as “your servant” to show respect to Saul. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 17:32. Alternate translation: “I, your servant, used to keep my father’s sheep” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

785

1SA

17

34

vkk8

0

used to keep his father’s sheep

Alternate translation: “used to take care of his father’s sheep”

786

1SA

17

34

nm8r

0

a bear

A bear is a large animal with thick fur and long claws and that walks on four legs but can stand on two legs as a person does.

787

1SA

17

35

n7yn

0

chased after him and attacked him

Here “him” refers to the lion or bear. Some languages would use the word “it” instead of “him.”

788

1SA

17

35

nu94

0

rescued it out of his mouth

Here “it” refers to the lamb.

789

1SA

17

35

tq7y

figs-idiom

0

he rose up against me

Here “rose up against” is an idiom that refers to attacking. Alternate translation: “it attacked me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

790

1SA

17

35

n1vn

0

caught him by his beard

The “beard” refers to the lion’s mane or the hair on the bear’s face.

791

1SA

17

36

r5kx

0

Connecting Statement:

David continues speaking to King Saul.

792

1SA

17

36

q3g3

0

This uncircumcised Philistine

This phrase is an insult and indicates that Goliath does not belong to the living God. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 17:26.

793

1SA

17

36

dhp4

0

will be like one of them

David is saying that he will be able to kill the Philistine just as he was able to kill the lion and bear.

794

1SA

17

37

hb63

figs-metonymy

0

from the paw of the lion and from the paw of the bear

Bears and lions use their paws when they attack, so the word “paw” represents the attack. Alternate translation: “from the attack of the lion and from the attack of the bear” or “from the lion and the bear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

795

1SA

17

37

p2u2

figs-metonymy

0

the hand of this Philistine

The Philistine’s hand represents his power in fighting. Alternate translation: “the power of this Philistine” or “the Philistine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

796

1SA

17

38

zp21

0

coat of chainmail

a flexible piece of body armor covered with protective scales or small plates

797

1SA

17

39

vaf6

0

his sword on his armor

Alternate translation: “Saul’s sword on the armor”

798

1SA

17

40

lb74

0

his staff in his hand

Here “his” refers to David.

799

1SA

17

40

hp45

0

His sling was in his hand

A sling is a weapon for throwing stones.

800

1SA

17

41

n9t4

0

with his shield bearer in front of him

Alternate translation: “and his shield bearer walked in front of him”

801

1SA

17

42

u9pv

0

he despised him

Alternate translation: “he hated him”

802

1SA

17

42

mb55

0

and ruddy

Alternate translation: “and healthy looking”

803

1SA

17

43

tz3r

figs-metaphor

0

Am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks?

Here a dog represents a small animal that a person can easily kill. The word “sticks” refers to David’s staff and shows Goliath’s opinion that it is not a good weapon. Goliath uses this question to accuse David of insulting him. Alternate translation: “You insult me by coming at me with mere sticks as if I were just a dog!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

804

1SA

17

44

cc8i

figs-metaphor

0

I will give your flesh to the birds of the heavens and to the beasts of the field

Goliath speaks of killing David and leaving his body on the ground for the animals to eat it as if he were to give David’s body to the animals. Alternate translation: “I will kill you, and the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field will eat your body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

805

1SA

17

44

gkd1

0

birds of the heavens

Alternate translation: “birds of the sky” or “birds”

806

1SA

17

44

np2h

0

beasts of the field

Alternate translation: “wild animals”

807

1SA

17

45

aq63

figs-metonymy

0

in the name of Yahweh

Here “name” represents God’s power or authority. Alternate translation: “with the power of Yahweh” or “with the authority of Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

808

1SA

17

45

pku5

0

whom you have defied

Alternate translation: “whom you have provoked” or “whom you have insulted”

809

1SA

17

46

a7g6

0

Connecting Statement:

David continues speaking to Goliath.

810

1SA

17

46

mcz7

figs-metaphor

0

I will give the dead bodies … to the birds … and to the wild beasts of the earth

David speaks of leading the Israelites in killing the Philistines and leaving their bodies on the ground for the animals to eat them as if he were to give their bodies to the animals. Alternate translation: “We Israelites will kill the Philistine army, and the birds of the heavens and the wild beasts of the earth will eat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

811

1SA

17

46

h6s8

figs-metonymy

0

all the earth may know

The word “earth” refers to the people on earth. Alternate translation: “all the people of the earth may know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

812

1SA

17

47

mfy6

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh does not give victory with sword or spear

Swords and spears are examples of battle weapons. They represent human ways of fighting. Alternate translation: “The victory that Yahweh gives does not depend on sword and spear” or “when Yahweh gives us victory, he does not depend on how we fight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

813

1SA

17

47

duh1

figs-metonymy

0

the battle is Yahweh’s

Winning the battle is spoken of as owning the battle. Alternate translation: “Yahweh always wins the battle” or “the victory belongs to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

814

1SA

17

47

n39p

figs-metonymy

0

he will give you into our hand

Giving the Philistines into Israel’s hand represents helping Israel to defeat the Philistines in battle. Alternate translation: “he will help us defeat you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

815

1SA

17

50

kd4h

0

David defeated … He hit … killed … There was no sword in David’s hand

Verse 50 is a summary of David’s amazing victory over Goliath. The details about how he hit and killed Goliath are in 1 Samuel 17:49 and 17:51. Some languages do not use summary statements like this. In those situations, translators may restructure the verses as they are in the UST.

816

1SA

17

51

ifn9

0

Then David ran and stood over the Philistine

David did this after Goliath fell to the ground in 1 Samuel 17:49.

817

1SA

17

51

k64x

0

took his sword

“took the Philistine’s sword.” Here the word “his” refers to Goliath.

818

1SA

17

52

c1ad

figs-explicit

0

The dead Philistines lay along the way to Shaaraim

It can be stated clearly that the Israelites were killing the Philistines as they chased them. Alternate translation: “And they killed the Philistines as they chased them, and the bodies of the dead Philistines were on the ground along the way to Shaaraim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

819

1SA

17

53

sb83

0

they plundered their camp

Alternate translation: “the Israelites plundered the Philistines’ camp”

820

1SA

17

54

gxy4

0

he put his armor in his tent

Alternate translation: “he put Goliath’s armor in his own tent”

821

1SA

17

55

wk2v

figs-events

0

When Saul saw David

The conversation in 17:55-56 happened before David killed Goliath. Alternate translation: “When Saul had seen David” or “Earlier when Saul saw David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

822

1SA

17

55

y16z

0

go out against the Philistine

Alternate translation: “go to fight against the Philistine”

823

1SA

17

55

ynx5

0

whose son is this youth

Alternate translation: “who is this youth’s father”

824

1SA

17

55

y7mj

0

As you live

This was a way of swearing that what he was about to say was true.

825

1SA

17

56

nt66

0

whose son the boy is

Alternate translation: “who the boy’s father is”

826

1SA

17

57

xp4u

0

in his hand

Here “his” refers to David.

827

1SA

17

58

k63k

0

Whose son are you

Alternate translation: “Who is your father”

828

1SA

17

58

k634

0

I am the son of your servant Jesse the Bethlehemite

Alternate translation: “My father is your servant Jesse, the Bethlehemite”

829

1SA

17

58

g6vb

0

your servant Jesse

David referred to his father as “your servant” to show that his father was faithful to King Saul.

830

1SA

18

intro

abci

0

1 Samuel 18 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This is the first chapter of a section explaining why Saul wants to kill David.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetic song in 18:7.

Special concepts in this chapter

Saul is jealous of David’s popularity

Saul’s son, Jonathan, loves David. David is successful in battling the Philistines, and Saul is happy until the women give David more attention than they give him. He fears that David will replace him as king. This is potentially confusing because the author has already established that David will be the next king. It is probably that Saul feared David would kill him in order to be the next king sooner, or that he did not really believe David would be the next king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/love]])

Jonathan’s love of David

Some scholars believe Jonathan loved David as a man loves his wife. There is no reason to translate this as if Jonathan were a homosexual. Instead, treat this as a brotherly type of love.

831

1SA

18

1

w8c4

figs-metaphor

0

the soul of Jonathan was bound to the soul of David

Very close friendship is spoken of as if it were binding together the souls of two people. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Jonathan felt a strong affection towards David” or “Jonathan committed himself to David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

832

1SA

18

1

k383

figs-synecdoche

0

Jonathan loved him as his own soul

Here “loved” refers to the love between friends, not romantic love. The word “soul” represents the person or the person’s life. Alternate translation: “Jonathan loved David as much as he loved himself” or “Jonathan loved David as he loved his own life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

833

1SA

18

3

l8pd

figs-synecdoche

0

Jonathan loved him as his own soul

Here “loved” refers to the love between friends, not romantic love. The word “soul” represents the person or the person’s life. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 18:1. Alternate translation: “Jonathan loved David as much as he loved himself” or “Jonathan loved David as he loved his own life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

834

1SA

18

5

vcr9

0

he succeeded

Alternate translation: “he prospered”

835

1SA

18

5

w4mv

figs-metaphor

0

This was pleasing in the eyes of all the people and also in the sight of Saul’s servants

The phrases “in the eyes of” and “in the sight of” mean the same thing. The opinion of the people is spoken of as something that they view as either good or bad. Alternate translation: “This was pleasing in the opinions of all the people and of Saul’s servants” or “This pleased all the people and Saul’s servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

836

1SA

18

6

v9fv

figs-hyperbole

0

from all the cities of Israel

This is generalization that emphasizes the great number of women who came from many cities. Alternate translation: “from many of the cities throughout Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

837

1SA

18

6

k1rh

0

with tambourines, with joy, and with musical instruments

Alternate translation: “joyfully playing tambourines and other musical instruments”

838

1SA

18

6

qct5

0

with tambourines

A “tambourine” is a small handheld drum.

839

1SA

18

7

ii5a

figs-ellipsis

0

David his ten thousands

The verb may be supplied from the previous line. Alternate translation: “David has killed his ten thousands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

840

1SA

18

8

lp8i

0

They have ascribed

Alternate translation: “They have credited”

841

1SA

18

8

xi13

figs-rquestion

0

What more can he have but the monarchy?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “The only thing left for him to have is the kingship.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

842

1SA

18

10

iyh1

0

a harmful spirit from God

Here “harmful spirit” may refer to either “a spirit that causes trouble” or “an evil spirit.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 16:15.

843

1SA

18

10

c8qe

0

a harmful spirit from God rushed upon Saul

The phrase “rushed upon” means the harmful spirit influenced Saul. In this case it means it caused Saul to be troubled and act crazy. See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 10:6.

844

1SA

18

10

me9n

0

he raved

Alternate translation: “he acted crazy”

845

1SA

18

12

d2h6

0

Yahweh was with him

Alternate translation: “Yahweh was with David”

846

1SA

18

13

a354

0

So Saul removed him from his presence

Alternate translation: “So Saul removed David from his presence”

847

1SA

18

13

uwr1

translate-numbers

0

a commander of a thousand

This could mean: (1) the word “thousand” represents the exact amount of soldiers that he would lead. Alternate translation: “a commander of 1,000 soldiers” or (2) the word translated as “thousand” does not represent exact number, but is the name of a large military division. Alternate translation: “a commander of a large military division” See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 17:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

848

1SA

18

13

zlq6

figs-idiom

0

David went out and came in before the people

Here “the people” refers to the soldiers under David’s command. The phrases “went out” and “came in” are idioms that refer to leading the people into battle and leading them home from battle. Alternate translation: “David led his soldiers into battle and led them home from battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

849

1SA

18

15

cml9

figs-idiom

0

he stood in awe of him

Here “stood in awe” is an idiom that means to fear. Alternate translation: “he feared David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

850

1SA

18

16

bgb3

figs-metonymy

0

all Israel and Judah loved David

Here “Israel and Judah” represent the people of all of the tribes. Alternate translation: “all the people in Israel and Judah loved David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

851

1SA

18

16

c9ce

figs-idiom

0

went out and came in before them

The phrases “went out” and “came in” are idioms that refer to leading the people into battle and leading them home from battle. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 18:13. Alternate translation: “led his soldiers into battle and led them home from battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

852

1SA

18

17

ptz6

figs-metaphor

0

Let not my hand be on him, but let the hand of the Philistines be on him

Harming someone is spoken of as if it were placing one’s hand on that person. Here, Saul is referring to killing David. Alternate translation: “I will not be the one to kill him; I will let the Philistines kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

853

1SA

18

18

ij43

figs-rquestion

0

Who am I, and who are my relatives, or my father’s clan in Israel … to the king?

David uses this rhetorical question to emphasize that he is not worthy of being Saul’s son-in-law. Alternate translation: “I am nobody and neither my relatives nor my father’s family are important enough in Israel … to the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

854

1SA

18

18

hga5

0

son-in-law to the king

Alternate translation: “husband of the king’s daughter”

855

1SA

18

19

imc2

figs-activepassive

0

when Merab, Saul’s daughter, should have been given to David

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “when Saul should have given his daughter Merab to David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

856

1SA

18

19

vdc5

figs-activepassive

0

she was given to Adriel

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Saul gave her to Adriel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

857

1SA

18

20

hv3f

0

Michal … loved David

Here “loved” means she had romantic feelings for David.

858

1SA

18

20

vz4x

0

They told Saul

Here “they” refers to people who found out about Michal’s feelings, not to David and Michal.

859

1SA

18

21

dd2e

figs-metaphor

0

that the hand of the Philistines may be against him

Harming someone is spoken of as if it were placing one’s hand on that person. Here, Saul is referring to killing David. See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 18:17. Alternate translation: “so that the Philistines may kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

860

1SA

18

21

q35l

0

You will be my son-in-law

Alternate translation: “You will be the husband of my daughter”

861

1SA

18

22

q87c

0

all his servants love you

Alternate translation: “all of his servants admire you”

862

1SA

18

22

vvh8

0

Now then

Alternate translation: “For these reasons you should”

863

1SA

18

23

eps5

figs-rquestion

0

Is it a small matter to you to be the king’s son-in-law, since I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed?

David asks this rhetorical question to emphasize that he is not worthy to be the king’s son-in-law. Alternate translation: “It is a great matter to be the king’s son-in-law, and I am too poor and unimportant for that.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

864

1SA

18

25

a18a

figs-ellipsis

0

The king does not desire any price for the bride except a hundred foreskins

The verb for the second phrase may be supplied from the first. Alternate translation: “The king does not desire any price for the bride; he desires only that you bring to him 100 foreskins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

865

1SA

18

25

x1iw

0

foreskins

The foreskin is a fold of skin on a man’s private part that is removed during circumcision.

866

1SA

18

25

wjv8

figs-activepassive

0

to be avenged from the king’s enemies

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “to get revenge on the king’s enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

867

1SA

18

25

a2us

figs-euphemism

0

to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines

Here “fall” means to die. The phrase “by the hand” is an idiom that tells us the means by which something will happen, in this case, David will be killed by the Philistines. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “to have the Philistines kill David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

868

1SA

18

27

f14u

translate-numbers

0

two hundred Philistines

This can be rendered numerically. Alternate translation: “200 Philistines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

869

1SA

18

27

pz31

0

they gave them in full number to the king

Alternate translation: “David and his men gave all of them to the king”

870

1SA

18

28

rjc2

figs-doublet

0

Saul saw, and he knew

Here the words “saw” and “knew” share similar meanings and emphasize that Saul knew with certainty. Alternate translation: “Saul recognized” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

871

1SA

18

28

ct4a

0

Michal, Saul’s daughter, loved him

Here “loved” means she had romantic feelings for David.

872

1SA

18

30

z7de

figs-metonymy

0

so that his name was highly regarded

Here “name” is a metonym for David. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “so that people greatly respected David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

873

1SA

19

intro

abcj

0

1 Samuel 19 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

God protects David

Jonathan persuades Saul not to kill David, but Saul again becomes jealous and orders his servants to bring David to him to be killed. God uses Michal to save David. David flees to Samuel and they begin prophesying. When Saul sends servants to capture David, they begin prophesying. This causes Saul to go himself and he begins to prophesy. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/jealous]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/save]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

874

1SA

19

1

zd9j

0

to all his servants

Here “his” refers to Saul.

875

1SA

19

1

u5h5

0

took great pleasure in David

Jonathan greatly enjoyed being with David.

876

1SA

19

4

rf2u

figs-pronouns

0

Do not let the king sin against his servant

Jonathan speaks as if Saul is another person to show Saul that Jonathan respects Saul. Alternate translation: “Do not sin against your servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

877

1SA

19

5

z29d

figs-idiom

0

he took his life in his hand

Here “life in his hand” is an idiom that refers to risking his life. Alternate translation: “he risked his life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

878

1SA

19

5

q7ya

figs-rquestion

0

Why would you sin against innocent blood by killing David for no reason?

Jonathan asks this question to rebuke Saul. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not sin against innocent blood and kill David without cause.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

879

1SA

19

5

ep2k

figs-metonymy

0

sin against innocent blood

Here “blood” is a metonym for the life of an innocent person. Alternate translation: “commit the sin of murder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

880

1SA

19

6

mg7b

figs-activepassive

0

he will not be put to death

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I will not put him to death” or “I will not kill him” or “I will certainly keep him alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

881

1SA

19

7

zv18

0

he was in his presence

David was in Saul’s presence.

882

1SA

19

9

bfj9

0

A harmful spirit from Yahweh

Here “harmful spirit” may refer to either “a spirit that causes trouble” or “an evil spirit.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 16:14.

883

1SA

19

10

gmw1

0

pin David to the wall with the spear

throw his spear so it would go through David and into the wall

884

1SA

19

11

di9d

0

he might kill him

Alternate translation: “Saul might kill David”

885

1SA

19

11

gt2f

0

Michal … told him

Michal told David

886

1SA

19

11

zcu4

figs-idiom

0

If you do not save your life

Here “save your life” is an idiom that refers to escape. Alternate translation: “If you do not escape” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

887

1SA

19

11

www7

figs-activepassive

0

you will be killed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “someone will kill you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

888

1SA

19

12

rx5e

0

General Information:

Michal helps David escape King Saul. She uses a household idol to make David’s bed look like he is sleeping in it.

889

1SA

19

13

pt3r

0

she put a pillow of goats’ hair at its head, and covered it with the clothes

This could mean: (1) the head of the idol was lying on the goat’s hair pillow and Michal dressed the idol in David’s clothes or (2) Michal used David’s clothes as a blanket to completely cover the idol and made the “pillow” of goat’s hair look like David’s hair sticking out from under the blanket of clothes.

890

1SA

19

14

bsi6

0

General Information:

Saul acts out his desire to kill David.

891

1SA

19

14

ar16

0

take David

Alternate translation: “take David back to Saul”

892

1SA

19

14

er9p

0

she said

Here “she” refers to Michal.

893

1SA

19

15

uu8k

figs-explicit

0

Bring him up to me in the bed

The reason why the men thought David was in bed can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “If he really is too sick to come to me, bring me the bed with him in it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

894

1SA

19

16

gw7d

0

pillow of goats’ hair

See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 19:13.

895

1SA

19

16

mmv5

0

behold

The word “behold” here shows that the messengers were surprised by what they saw.

896

1SA

19

17

gw6j

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you deceived me and let my enemy go, so that he has escaped?

This could mean: (1) Saul really wants to know why Michal did what she did or (2) Saul uses this question to rebuke Michal. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not have deceived me and let my enemy go, so that he has escaped.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

897

1SA

19

17

g47n

figs-rquestion

0

Let me go. Why should I kill you?

Although David did not actually say this, Michal tells Saul that David threatened her with this question. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I will kill you if you do not help me to escape.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

898

1SA

19

18

e48b

0

General Information:

David flees to Samuel.

899

1SA

19

18

hj2z

0

Now

This word is used here to show that the writer has started to tell a new part of the story.

900

1SA

19

19

v5b7

figs-activepassive

0

It was told to Saul

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone told Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

901

1SA

19

19

tg6x

0

See

Alternate translation: “Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

902

1SA

19

20

a8aj

figs-metonymy

0

standing as head over them

Here “head” refers to a position of authority. Alternate translation: “acting as their leader” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

903

1SA

19

21

nrq8

figs-activepassive

0

When Saul was told this

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “When someone told Saul this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

904

1SA

19

22

l3p8

translate-names

0

Ramah … Seku … Naioth

These are place names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

905

1SA

19

24

tj4i

writing-proverbs

0

This is why they ask, “Is Saul also among the prophets?”

This became a proverb among the Israelites. Apparently people said this to express surprise when a person unexpectedly did something that he had not done before. The implied meaning of the question can be stated explicitly. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 10:12. Alternate translation: “That is the reason that when people see someone doing something that is very unexpected, they say, ‘Is Saul also a prophet?’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

906

1SA

19

24

knd8

0

they ask

Here “they” refers to people in general. The question became a proverb among the people.

907

1SA

20

intro

abck

0

1 Samuel 20 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Jonathan warns David

David tells Jonathan that Saul is still trying to kill him. Jonathan promises to find out if this is true. When David misses dinner two consecutive days, Saul asks about him. Jonathan says that David went home for an annual sacrifice. Saul gets angry at Jonathan, telling him he will never be king unless they kill David. Saul throws his spear at Jonathan. Jonathan warns David to run away, but first they both promise to always be friends. It was usually a king’s son who became king after his death in the ancient Near East. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Metaphor

David uses a powerful metaphor and an oath to impress Jonathan with the danger he is in: “But as truly as Yahweh lives, and as you live, there is but a step between me and death.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

908

1SA

20

1

tia6

figs-parallelism

0

What have I done? What is my iniquity? What is my sin before your father, that he seeks to take my life?

These three questions mean basically the same thing. David uses them to emphasize that he has done nothing wrong to Saul. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I have done nothing wrong. I have not committed any iniquity. I have not sinned against your father. He has no reason to take my life.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

909

1SA

20

1

g2ib

figs-idiom

0

that he seeks to take my life?

Here “take my life” is an idiom for “kill me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

910

1SA

20

2

e1je

figs-idiom

0

Far from it

Here “far from it” is an idiom that refers to that it is not true. Alternate translation: “This is certainly not true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

911

1SA

20

2

jbn3

figs-merism

0

nothing either great or small

The words “great or small” include everything in between. Alternate translation: “nothing at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

912

1SA

20

2

w2w8

figs-rquestion

0

Why should my father hide this thing from me?

Jonathan uses this question to emphasize that Saul would have told him if he planned to kill David. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “My father has no reason to hide this thing from me!” or “If this thing were true, my father would certainly let me know!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

913

1SA

20

2

rpv2

0

It is not so

Alternate translation: “It is not true”

914

1SA

20

3

kn7z

figs-metaphor

0

I have found favor in your eyes

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “I have pleased you” or “you consider me favorably” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

915

1SA

20

3

t6cz

figs-activepassive

0

he will be grieved

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “this will grieve him” or “he will be very sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

916

1SA

20

3

thq7

figs-idiom

0

there is but a step between me and death

Here “step between me and death” is an idiom that refers to being very close to death. Alternate translation: “I am very close to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

917

1SA

20

4

npf4

0

General Information:

David proposes a test against King Saul to Jonathan.

918

1SA

20

5

pnc8

0

Tomorrow is the new moon

On the first of every month the people would celebrate and offer sacrifices to God.

919

1SA

20

5

unn4

0

until the third day at evening

Alternate translation: “until the evening of the day after tomorrow”

920

1SA

20

6

f9fa

0

Connecting Statement:

David’s continues to describe the test he proposes.

921

1SA

20

6

a9bs

0

asked leave of me

Alternate translation: “asked me if I would allow him to leave”

922

1SA

20

7

t7n5

0

he says … he is … he has decided

The word “he” refers to Saul.

923

1SA

20

7

x3iw

figs-pronouns

0

your servant will have peace

David speaks of himself as if he were another person to show that he respects Jonathan. Alternate translation: “I, your servant, will have peace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

924

1SA

20

8

v33p

0

Connecting Statement:

David continues speaking to Jonathan.

925

1SA

20

8

avp9

figs-pronouns

0

with your servant … have brought your servant

David speak of himself in the third person as a form of humility. Alternate translation: “with me, your servant … have brought me, your servant” or “with me … have brought me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

926

1SA

20

8

ap89

figs-explicit

0

you have brought your servant into a covenant of Yahweh with you

What it was that the two men agreed on can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Yahweh heard you when you made a solemn agreement with me that you and I will always be good friends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

927

1SA

20

8

hbz6

figs-rquestion

0

for why then should you bring me to your father?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “then there would be no reason for you to bring me to your father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

928

1SA

20

9

ge5b

figs-idiom

0

Far be it from you!

This is an idiom that means it will never happen to you. Alternate translation: “This will never happen to you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

929

1SA

20

9

lt9v

figs-rquestion

0

would I not tell you?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I would certainly tell you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

930

1SA

20

12

vx7n

0

see

Alternate translation: “look” or “listen” or “pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

931

1SA

20

12

ld4i

0

if there is good will

Alternate translation: “if my father wants to do good things for you”

932

1SA

20

12

y3r1

figs-rquestion

0

will I not then send to you and make it known to you?

Jonathan uses this question to emphasize that he will tell David if Saul intends to harm him. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “then I will certainly send to you and make it known to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

933

1SA

20

13

yn8n

figs-idiom

0

may Yahweh do to Jonathan and more also

This is an idiom. Jonathan uses this oath for emphasis and speaks of himself as if he were another person. Alternate translation: “may Yahweh do to me whatever harm my father intends to do to you, and even more than that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

934

1SA

20

14

q3ac

0

General Information:

Jonathan asks David not to completely kill all his offspring so that a remnant will remain.

935

1SA

20

14

az7y

figs-rquestion

0

will you not show me the covenant faithfulness of Yahweh, that I may not die?

Jonathan asks this question to confirm that David will do this. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “please show me the covenant faithfulness of Yahweh, that I may not die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

936

1SA

20

14

q324

figs-abstractnouns

0

show me the covenant faithfulness of Yahweh

The abstract noun faithfulness can be stated as faithful. Here, of Yahweh could mean: (1) “be faithful to me as Yahweh is faithful” or (2) “be faithful to me as Yahweh requires” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

937

1SA

20

16

n5b7

figs-metonymy

0

house of David

The word “house” is a metonym for the people who live in the house. Alternate translation: “David’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

938

1SA

20

16

wvm6

figs-synecdoche

0

May Yahweh require an accounting from the hand of the enemies of David

The hand is a synecdoche for the person. This could mean: (1) “May Yahweh use David’s enemies to punish David if David breaks this promise” or (2) “May Yahweh destroy the enemies of David.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

939

1SA

20

17

l3uj

figs-synecdoche

0

he loved him as he loved his own soul

Here “his own soul” refers to himself. Alternate translation: “Jonathan loved David as much as he loved himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

940

1SA

20

18

f5bi

figs-activepassive

0

You will be missed

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “My father will miss you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

941

1SA

20

19

ki6m

figs-idiom

0

when the business was in hand

Here “business was in hand” is an idiom that refers to when everything happened. Alternate translation: “when everything happened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

942

1SA

20

19

h78l

translate-names

0

the stone Ezel

“Ezel” was the name of the stone. Alternate translation: “the stone that people call Ezel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

943

1SA

20

20

dvu1

0

Connecting Statement:

Jonathan continues to speak to David.

944

1SA

20

20

q6e9

0

to the side of it

Here the word “it” refers to the stone by which David was to hide.

945

1SA

20

21

z7dp

0

my young man … the young boy

These refer to the same person.

946

1SA

20

21

qr7r

0

Look

Alternate translation: “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

947

1SA

20

21

qbg1

0

then come

Alternate translation: “then you, David, come”

948

1SA

20

22

ch37

0

Connecting Statement:

Jonathan continues to speak to David.

949

1SA

20

23

r1jg

0

see, Yahweh

This could mean: (1) “we know that Yahweh” or (2) “pay attention because this is important: Yahweh.”

950

1SA

20

23

hmt6

0

Yahweh is between you and me

This could mean: (1) “Yahweh is a witness between you and me” or “Yahweh will be watching how we treat each other” or (2) “May Yahweh be a witness between you and me” or “May Yahweh watch how we treat each other”

951

1SA

20

25

upz8

translate-manuscripts

0

Jonathan stood up

Some ancient copies have “Jonathan sat across from him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-manuscripts]])

952

1SA

20

26

j8dr

0

He is not clean; surely he is not clean

According to the law of Moses, a person who is ceremonially unclean is not to participate in the feast until the priest declares that he is clean. Saul repeats this phrase as if he is trying to convince himself.

953

1SA

20

28

e5rh

0

asked permission from me to go

Alternate translation: “asked me to allow him to go”

954

1SA

20

29

h84j

figs-metaphor

0

if I have found favor in your eyes

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 20:3. Alternate translation: “I have pleased you” or “you consider me favorably” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

955

1SA

20

29

j146

figs-pronouns

0

the king’s table

Jonathan speaks of Saul as if he is another person to show that he respects Saul. Alternate translation: “your table” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

956

1SA

20

30

yn6q

figs-metonymy

0

Saul’s anger burned against Jonathan

Here “anger burned” is a metonym that refers to becoming very angry. Alternate translation: “Saul became very angry with Jonathan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

957

1SA

20

30

vv24

figs-idiom

0

You son of a perverse, rebellious woman!

This is an idiom. Saul uses this phrase as a harsh rebuke to Jonathan and his concern for David. Alternate translation: “You stupid son of a prostitute” or “You stupid traitor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

958

1SA

20

30

yr6n

figs-rquestion

0

Do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse … mother’s nakedness?

Saul uses this question to emphasize that he knows that Jonathan and David are friends. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I know that you have chosen the son of Jesse … mother’s nakedness.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

959

1SA

20

30

g94g

figs-idiom

0

to the shame of your mother’s nakedness

Here “mother’s nakedness” is an idiom that refers to the mother who gave birth to you. Alternate translation: “to the shame of your mother who gave birth to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

960

1SA

20

31

zl6b

figs-activepassive

0

neither you nor your kingdom will be established

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “you will not become king and will not establish your kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

961

1SA

20

32

ux46

figs-rquestion

0

For what reason should he be put to death? What has he done?

Jonathan is trying to get Saul to think carefully about what he is doing. This can be translated as a statement, and the words “should he be put to death” can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “You have no good reason to put him to death. He has done nothing wrong.” or “You have no good reason to kill him. He has done nothing wrong.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

962

1SA

20

34

uth1

translate-ordinal

0

the second day of the month

This “second” is an ordinal number which refers to two. Alternate translation: “the second day of the new moon festival” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

963

1SA

20

34

brk4

figs-activepassive

0

he was grieved over David

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “he was grieving over David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

964

1SA

20

34

c5bw

0

had dishonored him

Here “him” refers to David.

965

1SA

20

35

nwk2

0

a young man was with him

Here “him” refers to Jonathan.

966

1SA

20

36

l8ci

0

he shot an arrow beyond him

Alternate translation: “Jonathan shot an arrow beyond the young man”

967

1SA

20

37

d85z

figs-rquestion

0

Is not the arrow beyond you?

Jonathan uses this question to emphasize that the arrow is farther ahead of the young man. The uses of litotes also emphasizes this. The rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should know that the arrow is beyond you.” or “The arrow is far beyond you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

968

1SA

20

38

s42f

0

called after the young man, “Hurry

Alternate translation: “called out to the young man, who was running away from him, ‘Hurry”

969

1SA

20

41

b73c

0

the mound

It seems that David had hidden behind a pile of earth or stones.

970

1SA

20

41

pg9k

0

lay facedown on the ground, and bowed himself three times.

David bowed before Jonathan, who was still the King’s son, worthy of such respect. Also, this was the last time David met with Jonathan.

971

1SA

20

42

t28c

0

May Yahweh be between you and me

This could mean: (1) “Yahweh is a witness between you and me” or “Yahweh will be watching how we treat each other” or (2) “May Yahweh be a witness between you and me” or “May Yahweh watch how we treat each other.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 20:23.

972

1SA

21

intro

abcl

0

1 Samuel 21 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetic song in 21:11.

Special concepts in this chapter

David and the chief priest

David visits the chief priest and lies to him about being on a special mission for the king. He asks for food, weapons, and prayer. The chief priest gives him some sacred bread and Goliath’s sword and prays for him.

David and the king of Gath

David flees to Gath. The advisers to the king tell him that David is almost the king of Israel. David becomes afraid of the king and pretends to be insane.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical questions

The king of Gath’s advisers use two rhetorical questions to warn him about how dangerous David could be: “Is not this David the king of the land? Did they not sing to one another about him in dances, ‘Saul has killed his thousands, and David his ten thousands?’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

973

1SA

21

1

sxr5

translate-names

0

Nob

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

974

1SA

21

1

lxn7

translate-names

0

Ahimelech

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

975

1SA

21

1

xz59

0

trembling

shaking in fear

976

1SA

21

2

lr5b

0

on a mission

Alternate translation: “to do work for him”

977

1SA

21

2

hbb3

0

I have directed the young men to a certain place

Alternate translation: “I have told the young men to go to another place, and I will meet them there later”

978

1SA

21

3

y8wx

0

Now then

David is starting a new part of the conversation.

979

1SA

21

3

q67h

figs-metonymy

0

what do you have on hand?

Here “on hand” is a metonym meaning “available.” Alternate translation: “What food do you have that you can give me?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

980

1SA

21

3

r1wi

0

Give me five loaves of bread

This is a polite request.

981

1SA

21

4

v42j

0

ordinary bread

bread that the priests have not used in worship

982

1SA

21

4

a4hh

figs-ellipsis

0

if the young men have kept themselves from women

This can be translated as a complete sentence. Alternate translation: “Your men may eat it if they have not slept with women recently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

983

1SA

21

5

u5gt

figs-activepassive

0

women have been kept from us

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “we have kept ourselves from women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

984

1SA

21

5

n9cf

translate-numbers

0

three days

“3 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

985

1SA

21

5

bl9z

0

when I set out

Alternate translation: “when I begin a journey”

986

1SA

21

5

xaa6

figs-activepassive

0

The things belonging to the men have been set apart

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “The men have set what belongs to them apart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

987

1SA

21

5

hx9a

figs-activepassive

0

How much more today will what they have be set apart

This is a statement, not a question. It can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “It is especially true today that they will set apart what they have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

988

1SA

21

6

u4vn

figs-activepassive

0

the bread that was set apart

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “the bread that the priests had set apart” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

989

1SA

21

6

vbr7

figs-activepassive

0

which was removed from before Yahweh, in order to put

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “which the priests had removed from before Yahweh so that they could put” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

990

1SA

21

7

tmz8

figs-activepassive

0

detained before Yahweh

This could mean: (1) Doeg had some religious work regarding Yahweh to do there. Alternate translation: “for some work before Yahweh” or (2) Yahweh detained Doeg there. Alternate translation: “because Yahweh had detained him there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

991

1SA

21

7

z642

figs-explicit

0

Doeg … herdsmen

You may need to say clearly that Doeg saw what David did. Alternate translation: “Doeg … herdsmen, and he saw what Ahimelech did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

992

1SA

21

7

zg8g

translate-names

0

Doeg the Edomite

This is the name of a man from the land of Edom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

993

1SA

21

7

ye4p

0

herdsmen

the keepers and protectors of a herd, especially of cattle or sheep

994

1SA

21

8

xr45

figs-metonymy

0

Now is there not here on hand any spear or sword?

Here “on hand” is a metonym meaning “available.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 21:3. Alternate translation: “Do you have a spear or sword that you can give me?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

995

1SA

21

8

wb13

0

weapons

a general name for such things as swords, knives, bows and arrows, and spears

996

1SA

21

9

rpf7

translate-names

0

Valley of Elah

This is the name of a place in Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

997

1SA

21

11

zg9d

figs-hyperbole

0

Is not this David, the king of the land?

They were probably exaggerating when they said that David was king of the land. They used this question to imply that David was a powerful enemy and Achish should not let him stay there. Alternate translation: “You know that this is David, who is as dangerous as the king of the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

998

1SA

21

11

sc99

figs-rquestion

0

Did they not sing to one another about him in dances, ‘Saul … thousands?’

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You know that when the people of the land were dancing, they sang to each other about him, ‘Saul … thousands.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

999

1SA

21

12

rqg7

figs-metonymy

0

David took these words to heart

Here “took … to heart” is a metonym to think seriously about what was said. Alternate translation: “David thought seriously about what the servants said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1000

1SA

21

13

ai6n

figs-synecdoche

0

in their hands

Here “hands” are a synecdoche for the person. Alternate translation: “in their presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1001

1SA

21

14

w6kd

figs-rquestion

0

Why have you brought him to me?

This could mean: (1) Achish demands that his servants explain why they have brought David to him or (2) Achish is scolding them with a rhetorical question. Alternate translation: “You should have known not to bring him to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1002

1SA

21

15

kl34

figs-rquestion

0

Do I lack madmen, so that you have brought this fellow to behave like one in my presence?

This rhetorical question is a rebuke. Alternate translation: “There are enough madmen here who waste my time. You should not have brought this fellow to behave like one in my presence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1003

1SA

21

15

k152

figs-rquestion

0

Will this fellow really come into my house?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Do not allow this fellow to enter my house.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1004

1SA

22

intro

abcm

0

1 Samuel 22 General Notes

Structure and formatting

There are two stories in this chapter: David gathering a group of followers and Saul having all the priests and their families killed. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/priest]])

Special concepts in this chapter

David assembles a force of unhappy people

David hides in the wilderness, and people in trouble come to him. Soon he has a force of 500 men. The prophet then tells him to leave the wilderness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/prophet]])

Saul and the chief priest’s family

Doeg tells Saul that Ahimelech the priest gave David food and a sword and prayed for him. Saul accuses the priests of encouraging David to rebel. This is a serious accusation because the priests are God’s representatives and are rebelling against God’s king if the accusation is true. Saul has the priests and all their families killed except those who escape to David. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/highpriest]])

1005

1SA

22

1

wbc2

0

cave

a hollow space under the ground, generally opening into the side of a hill, large enough for people to enter

1006

1SA

22

1

h42f

translate-names

0

Adullam

This is the name of a town near the city of Gath. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1007

1SA

22

1

mjh9

0

heard it

heard that David had gone to hide in the cave

1008

1SA

22

2

x1s9

figs-hyperbole

0

Everyone who was in distress … everyone who was discontented

This is a generalization. Alternate translation: “Many people who were distressed … many people who were unhappy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1009

1SA

22

2

w6kr

0

captain

military officer who leads soldiers

1010

1SA

22

2

nik2

translate-numbers

0

four hundred

“400” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1011

1SA

22

3

n6gm

0

Then David went from there

Alternate translation: “Then David went from the cave at Adullam”

1012

1SA

22

3

tgn5

translate-names

0

Mizpah

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1013

1SA

22

3

p6t8

0

go out with you

David wanted his parents to live with the king of Moab so that King Saul would not be able to harm them. Translators can express his basic meaning by using the ideas of “come to stay with you,” “stay with you,” or “live here with you,” as in the UST.

1014

1SA

22

5

ir3x

0

go into the land of Judah

Alternate translation: “go to your home land of Judah”

1015

1SA

22

5

xg56

translate-names

0

Hereth

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1016

1SA

22

6

jvw8

figs-activepassive

0

David had been discovered, along with the men who were with him

Saul was most interested in David, so the writer mentions the other men separately. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “someone had discovered where David and all the men who were with him were hiding” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1017

1SA

22

6

yk86

translate-unknown

0

the tamarisk tree

This is a type of tree. Alternate translation: “a large shade tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1018

1SA

22

6

bpn2

0

in Ramah

Ramah is the name of a place in Gibeah. The name means “high place.” This could mean: (1) it refers here to the place called Ramah, or (2) it refers to any high place. Alternate translation: “on a hill”

1019

1SA

22

7

h9sv

figs-rquestion

0

Will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards?

Saul uses a question to emphasize that David, who is from the tribe of Judah, does not desire to do this for the people of the tribe of Benjamin. Alternate translation: “The son of Jesse will not give you fields or vineyards.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1020

1SA

22

7

ft1b

figs-explicit

0

Will the son of Jesse give

The time when he will give can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “When the son of Jesse becomes king, will he give” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1021

1SA

22

7

fhn5

0

the son of Jesse

Alternate translation: “David”

1022

1SA

22

7

p8rr

figs-rquestion

0

Will he make you all captains of thousands and captains of hundreds

Saul uses a question to emphasize that David, who is from the tribe of Judah, does not desire to do this for the people of the tribe of Benjamin. Alternate translation: “He will not make you captains of thousands and captains of hundreds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1023

1SA

22

7

hy7f

figs-explicit

0

Will he make you all captains

You may need to make explicit when he will make them captains. Alternate translation: “When he becomes king, will he make you all captains” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1024

1SA

22

7

ktw6

translate-numbers

0

captains of thousands and captains of hundreds

This could mean: (1) these numbers represent the exact amount of soldiers that these captains led. Alternate translation: “captains of 1,000 soldiers and captains of 100 soldiers” or (2) the words translated as “thousands” and “hundreds” do not represent exact numbers, but are the names of larger and smaller military divisions. Alternate translation: “captains of large military divisions and captains of smaller military divisions” See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 17:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1025

1SA

22

8

r9wd

0

Connecting Statement:

This continues what Saul said to his servants.

1026

1SA

22

9

e96p

translate-names

0

Doeg the Edomite

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 21:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1027

1SA

22

9

mj61

translate-names

0

Nob … Ahimelech

This is a place name and the name of a man. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 21:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1028

1SA

22

9

kcg3

translate-names

0

Ahitub

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1029

1SA

22

10

p71d

0

He prayed to Yahweh that he might help him, and he gave him

Ahitub prayed to Yahweh that Yahweh might help David, and Ahitub gave David

1030

1SA

22

13

vs5z

0

in that you have given

Alternate translation: “by giving”

1031

1SA

22

13

rp7f

0

rise up

Alternate translation: “rebel” or “fight”

1032

1SA

22

14

mme1

figs-rquestion

0

Who among all your servants is so faithful as David … house?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “None of your servants is as faithful as David … house.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1033

1SA

22

14

iy7u

0

bodyguard

a person or group of people who protect someone

1034

1SA

22

14

aui9

figs-metonymy

0

is honored in your house

The word “house” is a metonym for the family that lives in the house. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “whom your family honors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1035

1SA

22

15

sq72

figs-rquestion

0

Is today the first time I have prayed to God to help him?

Ahimelech asks himself this question before Saul can ask it, then immediately answers it. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “This is not the first time I have prayed to God to help David.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1036

1SA

22

15

aw6l

figs-idiom

0

Far be it from me!

This idiom means “Absolutely not!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1037

1SA

22

15

zpx3

figs-123person

0

Do not let the king impute anything to his servant or to all the house of my father. For your servant knows nothing

Ahimelech speaks of himself in the third person as the “servant.” Ahimelech also refers to Saul in the third person as “the king.” Ahimelech speaks this way to show respect to Saul. Alternate translation: “Please, King Saul, do not consider me, your servant, or anyone in the house of my father to be guilty. For I know nothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1038

1SA

22

15

a249

0

impute

to consider someone guilty

1039

1SA

22

15

qbw3

figs-metonymy

0

to all the house of my father

Here “house” represents “family.” Alternate translation: “to all my father’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1040

1SA

22

16

kbw6

figs-metonymy

0

your father’s house

The word “house” is a metonym for the family that lives in the house. Alternate translation: “your father’s family” or “your father’s descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1041

1SA

22

17

g1gd

0

the guard that stood around him

Alternate translation: “the soldiers standing nearby to protect him”

1042

1SA

22

17

dgp5

figs-idiom

0

Turn and kill

Here “Turn” means to turn around or turn away from the king. Alternate translation: “Go and kill” or “Kill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1043

1SA

22

17

nr49

figs-synecdoche

0

their hand also is with David

The word “hand” is a metonym for the work done with the hand. Alternate translation: “they also help David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1044

1SA

22

17

gd4u

figs-metonymy

0

would not put out their hand to kill

The word “hand” is a metonym for the work done with the hand. Alternate translation: “did not do anything to kill” or “refused to kill” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1045

1SA

22

18

kxa2

figs-idiom

0

Turn and kill the priests … turned and attacked the priests

Here “Turn” means to turn around or turn away from the king. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 22:17. Alternate translation: “Go and kill the priests … went and attacked” or “Kill the priest … attacked the priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1046

1SA

22

18

g41e

figs-explicit

0

Doeg the Edomite turned and attacked … he killed

This could mean: (1) Doeg killed all the priests himself or (2) the word “Doeg” is a synecdoche for Doeg and the men who went with him. Alternate translation: “Doeg the Edomite and his men turned and attacked … they killed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1047

1SA

22

18

lsc1

translate-names

0

Doeg the Edomite

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 21:7. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1048

1SA

22

18

c5xv

translate-numbers

0

eighty-five persons

“85 men” or “85 priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1049

1SA

22

19

qi5d

figs-explicit

0

He also put to the sword … he put to the sword

This could mean: (1) Doeg killed all the priests himself or (2) the word “Doeg” is a synecdoche for Doeg and the men who went with him. Alternate translation: “They also put to the sword … they put to the sword” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1050

1SA

22

19

eh6l

0

put to the sword

Alternate translation: “killed with the sword”

1051

1SA

22

19

ru75

translate-names

0

Nob

Nob is the name of a city. Here the name “Nob” represents the people of that city. Alternate translation: “the people in the city of Nob” or “the people of Nob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1052

1SA

22

20

g9ps

translate-names

0

Abiathar

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1053

1SA

23

intro

abcn

0

1 Samuel 23 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Saul chases David

Saul wants to kill David, but David trusts in God who keeps rescuing him. David rescues the town of Keilah from the Philistines who are stealing their harvest. Saul goes to Keilah to capture David, but David flees to the wilderness near Ziph. When David goes deeper into the wilderness, Saul follows but he has to leave to fight the Philistines who have invaded the land. Saul’s pursuit of David shows that Saul cares more about killing his enemies than pleasing God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Synecdoche

Jonathan strengthens David with a synecdoche: “For the hand of Saul my father will not find you.” This helps to strengthen David’s faith. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

1054

1SA

23

1

by75

translate-names

0

fighting against Keilah

“Keilah” is the name of a town. Here “Keilah” represents the people who live there. Alternate translation: “fighting against the people of Keilah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1055

1SA

23

1

g4uk

0

threshing

separating the grain or seeds, generally from a cereal plant or wheat by some mechanical means

1056

1SA

23

3

e1kx

figs-rquestion

0

How much more then if we go to Keilah against the armies of the Philistines?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “We will be even more fearful if we go to Keilah to fight the armies of the Philistines.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1057

1SA

23

5

ij1x

figs-synecdoche

0

went … fought … led … struck … saved

The writer pays the most attention to David, so these words are all singular, though David’s men helped him do all these things. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1058

1SA

23

6

jj3s

translate-names

0

Ahimelech

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 21:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1059

1SA

23

7

fhu9

figs-activepassive

0

Saul was told

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone told Saul” or “They told Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1060

1SA

23

8

rz5t

0

summoned

officially called. The reader should understand that Saul probably told his officials to gather the soldiers. He did not call with a loud voice to get them to come.

1061

1SA

23

8

wdl8

0

all his forces

Alternate translation: “all his soldiers”

1062

1SA

23

10

f699

0

David said

Alternate translation: “David asked” or “David prayed”

1063

1SA

23

10

g8im

figs-pronouns

0

your servant has indeed heard

David speaks as if he were someone else to show his respect for Yahweh. Alternate translation: “I have indeed heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1064

1SA

23

10

cg3l

0

destroy the city

make the city so no one could live in it and kill all the people who live there

1065

1SA

23

11

m2bi

figs-pronouns

0

as your servant has heard … tell your servant

David speaks as if he were someone else to show his respect for Yahweh. Alternate translation: “as I have heard … tell me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1066

1SA

23

11

dwu8

figs-metonymy

0

surrender me into his hand

Here “hand” represents power or control. Alternate translation: “give me over to Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1067

1SA

23

12

p7uu

0

David said

or “David asked” or “David prayed”

1068

1SA

23

12

w6q4

figs-metonymy

0

surrender me and my men into the hand of Saul

Here “hand” represents power or control. Alternate translation: “give me and my men over to Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1069

1SA

23

13

e3rt

translate-numbers

0

six hundred

“600” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1070

1SA

23

13

wu5t

figs-activepassive

0

It was told Saul

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone told Saul” or “They told Saul” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1071

1SA

23

13

zwp4

0

had escaped

Alternate translation: “had run away from”

1072

1SA

23

14

xlb4

translate-names

0

wilderness of Ziph

This is the name of a deserted area near the city of Ziph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1073

1SA

23

14

h9gh

figs-metonymy

0

did not give him into his hand

The word “hand” is a metonym for power. Alternate translation: “did not allow Saul to have power over David” or “did not allow Saul to do as he desired with David” or “did not allow Saul to capture David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1074

1SA

23

15

mvb2

figs-idiom

0

seek his life

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “try to kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1075

1SA

23

15

gv8p

translate-names

0

Horesh

This is the name of city near Ziph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1076

1SA

23

16

c2id

figs-idiom

0

strengthened his hand in God

This is an idiom. AT “encouraged him to trust in God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1077

1SA

23

17

lm7k

figs-metonymy

0

For the hand of Saul my father will not find you

Here “hand” is a metonym for Saul and his power. Alternate translation: “For Saul my father will not find you” or “For Saul my father will never be able to have power over you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1078

1SA

23

19

zz5k

translate-names

0

Ziphites

This is the name of the people group from Ziph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1079

1SA

23

19

t8kp

figs-rquestion

0

Is not David hiding among us in … Jeshimon?

This rhetorical question can be translated as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “David is hiding among us in … Jeshimon!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1080

1SA

23

19

f1lt

translate-names

0

the hill of Hakilah

This is the name of a hill in the wilderness of Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1081

1SA

23

19

n8vj

translate-names

0

Jeshimon

This is the name of a desert area near the Dead Sea. It can also be translated as “the Judean Wilderness” or “the wasteland.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1082

1SA

23

20

tx3q

figs-pronouns

0

surrender him into the king’s hand

The word “hand” is a metonym for power. The Ziphites speak to Saul as if he were another man to show him that they respect him. Alternate translation: “give David to you so you can do whatever you desire with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1083

1SA

23

21

udu8

figs-activepassive

0

May you be blessed by Yahweh

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “I hope that Yahweh blesses you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1084

1SA

23

21

yr45

figs-abstractnouns

0

you have had compassion on me

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word compassion, you can express the same idea with an adjective such as “kind.” Saul says this because they had told him about David and they were willing to help Saul capture David. Alternate translation: “you have been kind to me” or “you have kindly told this to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1085

1SA

23

22

vg7r

figs-doublet

0

Learn and find out

These two words mean almost the same thing and can be translated as one phrase. Alternate translation: “Know for sure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1086

1SA

23

22

ln65

0

who has seen him

Alternate translation: “who saw him”

1087

1SA

23

22

i9bi

figs-activepassive

0

It is told to me

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “People tell me” or “I have heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1088

1SA

23

23

iy51

figs-idiom

0

among all the thousands of Judah

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “even if I have to arrest every man in Judah” or “among all the clans of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1089

1SA

23

24

jfx8

0

Then they rose up

They stopped what they had been doing. The reader should not believe that they were sitting or lying.

1090

1SA

23

24

dx6t

0

Then they

Alternate translation: “Then the Ziphites”

1091

1SA

23

24

lp4y

0

Ziph

This is the name of a place. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 23:14.

1092

1SA

23

24

q42a

translate-names

0

Jeshimon

This is the name of a desert area near the Dead Sea. It can also be translated as “the Judean Wilderness” or “the wasteland.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 23:19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1093

1SA

23

24

ij6r

translate-names

0

the wilderness of Maon

This is the name of the deserted area around the city of Maon in southern Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1094

1SA

23

25

wnj2

figs-activepassive

0

David was told of it

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone told David that they were coming” or “David learned that they were coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1095

1SA

23

25

r4x5

0

rocky hill

a hill covered with many rocks or boulders

1096

1SA

23

27

j8yv

figs-hendiadys

0

Hurry and come

The words “hurry” and “come” can be combined into one idea. Alternate translation: “Come quickly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1097

1SA

23

28

fy6k

0

pursuing David

Alternate translation: “chasing David, trying to catch him”

1098

1SA

23

28

qaa2

0

Rock of Escape

a memorial or marker of David’s escape from Saul

1099

1SA

24

intro

abco

0

1 Samuel 24 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Even though Saul tries again and again to kill David, David does not avenge himself on Saul because God had chosen Saul as king. This is meant to contrast with Saul’s treatment of David, the future king. Saul represents the king the people wanted, a selfish man. David is the king God wanted, a godly man. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/avenge]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/elect]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/godly]])

1100

1SA

24

1

li61

figs-activepassive

0

he was told

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “someone told him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1101

1SA

24

1

b363

0

wilderness of Engedi

Engedi is a place in Israel west of the Dead Sea where there is water with dry land all around it.

1102

1SA

24

2

fgt3

translate-numbers

0

three thousand

3,000 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1103

1SA

24

2

wu59

0

chosen men

men whom he had chosen because of their superior military abilities

1104

1SA

24

3

i1mn

0

sheep pens

Alternate translation: “sheep corrals” or “sheep enclosures”

1105

1SA

24

3

n5xb

figs-euphemism

0

cover his feet

This is a euphemism for “relieve himself” or “defecate” or “empty his intestines.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1106

1SA

24

3

d5rh

0

cave

generally a natural hole under the ground, often with an opening in the side of a hill or cliff

1107

1SA

24

4

g5sy

figs-idiom

0

David arose and quietly crept

The word “arose” is an idiom for taking action. Alternate translation: “David took action; he quietly crept” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1108

1SA

24

4

q3ls

0

crept

approached slowly, carefully or quietly

1109

1SA

24

5

c41t

figs-idiom

0

David’s heart afflicted him

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “David was sad because he had done something wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1110

1SA

24

6

w1fa

0

Yahweh’s anointed

Alternate translation: “the one whom Yahweh has chosen to lead his people” or “the one Yahweh has made king”

1111

1SA

24

6

p9l3

figs-metonymy

0

to put out my hand against him

The hand is a metonym for the ability to cause harm. Alternate translation: “to harm him in any way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1112

1SA

24

9

n22d

figs-rquestion

0

Why do you listen to the men who say, ‘See, David is seeking your harm?

This is a rhetorical question. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not listen to the men who say, ‘See, David is seeking to harm you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1113

1SA

24

10

v731

figs-synecdoche

0

your eyes have seen

Here “your eyes” represent King Saul. Alternate translation: “you have seen with your own eyes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1114

1SA

24

10

xib3

figs-metonymy

0

put you into my hand

The word “hand” is a metonym for control. Alternate translation: “put you where I could kill you or allow you to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1115

1SA

24

11

t3q9

0

my father

Saul was not David’s real father. David calls him “father” to show that he respects Saul.

1116

1SA

24

11

dhu3

figs-metaphor

0

there is no evil or treason in my hand

David speaks as if evil and treason were physical objects he could hold in his hand. Here “hand” represents a person acting or doing something. Alternate translation: “I have done no evil deed against you, nor have I rebelled against you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1117

1SA

24

12

f9tq

figs-metonymy

0

my hand shall not be against you

The hand is a metonym for the ability to cause harm. See how you translated a similar phrase in 1 Samuel 24:6. Alternate translation: “I will not harm you in any way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1118

1SA

24

13

wss6

figs-nominaladj

0

ancients

This nominal adjective can be translated as a noun phrase. Alternate translation: “people who lived long ago” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1119

1SA

24

14

ng1t

figs-rquestion

0

After whom has the king of Israel come out? After whom do you pursue?

These rhetorical questions can be translated as statements. When David asks the questions, he knows that he will answer the questions himself. Alternate translation: “Let me tell you who the king of Israel has come out after. Let me tell you who it is that you are pursuing.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1120

1SA

24

14

jfp1

figs-metaphor

0

After a dead dog

The words “dead dog” are a metaphor for a powerless person. This sentence can be made complete. Alternate translation: “You are pursuing a person who is as powerless as a dead dog” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1121

1SA

24

14

u7sh

figs-metaphor

0

After a flea

The word “flea” is a metaphor for a person whom others do not consider important. Alternate translation: “You are pursuing a person who is as unimportant as a flea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1122

1SA

24

15

cbv2

0

see to it, and plead my cause

This could mean: (1) “do what is right, and plead my cause” or (2) “see that my cause is right and fight for me.”

1123

1SA

24

15

g89c

figs-metonymy

0

from your hand

The word “hand” is a metonym for power. Alternate translation: “so that you have no power over me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1124

1SA

24

16

wzm1

figs-metaphor

0

my son David

Saul speaks as if David were his son to show David that he loves him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1125

1SA

24

16

jg3p

figs-metaphor

0

lifted up his voice and wept

The writer writes as if a voice were something a person could lift up with his hands. Alternate translation: “wept loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1126

1SA

24

18

vh22

0

you have done good to me

Saul acknowledges that David did show that he supported King Saul and was loyal to him by not killing him.

1127

1SA

24

18

p931

0

for you did not kill me when Yahweh had put me at your mercy

Saul acknowledges that David chose to show mercy and demonstrated his loyalty to King Saul as Yahweh’s anointed.

1128

1SA

24

19

s8ie

figs-rquestion

0

For if a man finds his enemy, will he let him go safely?

A rhetorical question with the answer included in the question. Alternate translation: “For if a man finds his enemy, he will not let him go safely.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1129

1SA

24

19

p5v5

0

For if a man finds his enemy, will he let him go safely?

Where Saul had believed David was his enemy, he learns that even though David will be king, David will not take over the throne from Saul by force, but will wait for Yahweh’s appointed time.

1130

1SA

24

20

j61i

figs-activepassive

0

the kingdom of Israel will be established in your hand

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. This could mean: (1) David will cause the kingdom of Israel to prosper through his power as king. Alternate translation: “the kingdom of Israel will prosper as you rule the Israelite people” or (2) Yahweh will cause David to have complete control over the kingdom of Israel. Alternate translation: “you will have complete rule over the kingdom of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1131

1SA

24

20

ge3u

figs-metonymy

0

in your hand

The word “hand” is a metonym that represents power or control. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1132

1SA

24

21

lj2i

0

you will not cut off my descendants after me

“you will not kill my sons and their families.” It was common for a new king who was not from the previous family line to kill off all the children of the former king to prevent any of them from challenging him for the throne.

1133

1SA

24

21

hr5u

figs-metonymy

0

you will not destroy my name out of my father’s house

It is important for each family in Israel to have descendants from generation to generation carrying on the family name and land inheritance. Alternate translation: “you will not destroy my family and descendants” or “you will allow my family to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1134

1SA

24

22

yhv6

0

David and his men

Alternate translation: “David and his army”

1135

1SA

25

intro

abcp

0

1 Samuel 25 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Revenge

When David decides to kill all of the men in Nabal’s household, Abigail convinces David not to avenge himself but to leave revenge to God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/avenge]])

1136

1SA

25

1

nvn1

figs-hyperbole

0

All Israel gathered together and mourned for him

This is likely a generalization. A large number of the people of Israel were probably there, but some were probably unable to attend. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1137

1SA

25

1

xdb3

0

gathered together

Alternate translation: “met together”

1138

1SA

25

1

n1il

0

buried him in his house at Ramah

This could mean that they buried Samuel: (1) in his home town of Ramah or (2) on his family’s land in Ramah but not physically in the house or (3) in his house in Ramah.

1139

1SA

25

1

l3mw

0

David rose and went down

Alternate translation: “David and his men moved on and they went down”

1140

1SA

25

2

na8t

0

There was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel. The man was very wealthy.

Some translators may need to put the ideas in these verses in a different order. Alternate translation: “There was a very wealthy man in Maon whose possessions were in Carmel.”

1141

1SA

25

2

alm4

translate-names

0

Maon

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1142

1SA

25

2

l859

translate-names

0

Carmel

This is the name of a town. This is different from Mount Carmel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1143

1SA

25

2

v9dy

translate-numbers

0

three thousand

3,000 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1144

1SA

25

2

h7hv

translate-numbers

0

one thousand

1,000 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1145

1SA

25

2

e5y9

0

shearing his sheep

Alternate translation: “shaving the wool off his sheep”

1146

1SA

25

3

b2de

0

The man’s name was Nabal, and the name of his wife was Abigail. The woman was intelligent and beautiful in appearance. But the man was harsh and evil in his dealings. He was a descendant of the house of Caleb.

This verse give some background information about the man Nabal and his character. Some translators may need to put the ideas in this verse in a different order. Alternate translation: “Now the man was a descendant of the house of Caleb. His name was Nabal, and the name of his wife was Abigail. She was intelligent and beautiful in appearance. But the man was harsh and evil in his dealings.”

1147

1SA

25

3

h65t

translate-names

0

Nabal

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1148

1SA

25

3

s9ja

translate-names

0

Abigail

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1149

1SA

25

3

r2tp

figs-metonymy

0

He was a descendant of the house of Caleb

Here “house” represents family. Alternate translation: “He was a descendant of the family of Caleb” or “He was a descendant of Caleb” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1150

1SA

25

4

j27u

0

shearing his sheep

Alternate translation: “shaving the wool off his sheep”

1151

1SA

25

5

lq45

0

greet him in my name

Alternate translation: “greet him as I would greet him if I were there”

1152

1SA

25

6

n38g

figs-abstractnouns

0

Live in prosperity

“I desire that you may live in prosperity.” If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word prosperity, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “I desire that you possess many good things as long as you live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1153

1SA

25

6

x8p8

0

Peace to you and peace to your house, and peace be to all that you have

Alternate translation: “I desire that peace may come to you, your household and your possessions”

1154

1SA

25

7

u29d

0

you have shearers

“your shearers are working” or “your shearers have sheep to shear.” David wants his men to speak so that Nabal understands that his sheep were well because David’s men helped guard them.

1155

1SA

25

7

d9si

figs-litotes

0

we did them no harm, and they missed nothing

David is pointing out how he and his men offered protection to Nabal’s servants and flocks. This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “we kept them and all their property from harm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1156

1SA

25

8

yvj1

figs-metaphor

0

let my young men find favor in your eyes

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “may you be pleased with my young men” or “may you consider my young men favorably” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1157

1SA

25

8

kzp8

0

to your servants

David was expressing respect toward Nabal by calling his men Nabal’s servants.

1158

1SA

25

8

z6jm

0

your son David

David spoke as if he were Nabal’s son to show that he respected Nabal, who was an older man.

1159

1SA

25

9

k52k

0

David’s young men

Alternate translation: “David’s army”

1160

1SA

25

9

am5l

0

said all of this to Nabal on David’s behalf

Alternate translation: “gave Nabal David’s complete message”

1161

1SA

25

10

zp6r

figs-rquestion

0

Who is David, and who is the son of Jesse?

Nabal used questions to emphasize that he had no reason to help Daved. These two rhetorical questions can be translated as statements. Alternate translation: “This David son of Jesse you speak of—I do not know him.” or “I do not know who this David is, so I will not do as he says. I do not know who Jesse is, so I do not care what happens to his son.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1162

1SA

25

10

aj23

0

breaking away from

Alternate translation: “running away from” or “rebelling against”

1163

1SA

25

11

c5xd

figs-idiom

0

my bread

Here “bread” is an idiom for any kind of food. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1164

1SA

25

11

f631

0

men who come from I do not know where

Alternate translation: “men when I do not know where they have come from” or “men whom I do not know”

1165

1SA

25

12

b8ir

figs-activepassive

0

that was said

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “that Nabal had said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1166

1SA

25

13

lxp6

0

said to his men

Alternate translation: “said to his army”

1167

1SA

25

13

pbs3

figs-metonymy

0

“Every man strap on his sword.” So every man strapped on his sword. David also strapped on his sword

If swords are not known in your language, you can treat “strap on his sword” as a metonym meaning to prepare for war. Alternate translation: “‘Every man, prepare for war.’ And every man prepared for war. David also prepared for war” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1168

1SA

25

13

gl14

translate-numbers

0

four hundred

400 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1169

1SA

25

13

j4qd

translate-numbers

0

two hundred

200 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1170

1SA

25

13

h5qa

0

stayed by the baggage

They remained at their base camp to prevent other raiders from stealing their possessions.

1171

1SA

25

14

y9qi

figs-explicit

0

But one of the young men told Abigail, Nabal’s wife

You may need to make explicit what the young man did before he spoke with Abigail. Alternate translation: “One of Nabal’s servants found out what David and his men were planning to do, so he went to Nabal’s wife Abigail” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1172

1SA

25

15

pr5i

figs-activepassive

0

We were not harmed

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Nobody harmed us” or “We were safe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1173

1SA

25

15

p6bs

0

did not miss anything as long as we went with them

“we did not lose anything when we were with them.” David’s men kept wild animals and other people from stealing Nabal’s flocks.

1174

1SA

25

16

ibg5

figs-metaphor

0

They were a wall

David’s men were like a wall around a city that protects the people in the city from their enemies. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1175

1SA

25

17

r8ec

figs-activepassive

0

evil is plotted against our master

The speaker is careful not to name the one plotting the evil. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “someone is plotting to do evil things to our master” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1176

1SA

25

17

gu63

figs-pronouns

0

our master

The speaker speaks of David as if David were another person to show that he respects David. Alternate translation: “you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1177

1SA

25

18

y9ci

translate-numbers

0

two hundred

200 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1178

1SA

25

18

av2l

figs-explicit

0

loaves

A loaf is like a cake. You may need to make explicit what the loaves consisted of. Alternate translation: “loaves of bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1179

1SA

25

18

b23p

0

already prepared

Alternate translation: “that someone had already cooked” or “ready for someone to cook”

1180

1SA

25

18

pl3f

translate-bvolume

0

measures

This is a generic term as none is given. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

1181

1SA

25

18

e7nf

0

parched grain

Alternate translation: “grain that someone had cooked”

1182

1SA

25

18

twx7

0

clusters of raisins

Alternate translation: “cakes of raisins” or “masses of raisins”

1183

1SA

25

20

d3l8

0

David and his men

Alternate translation: “David and his army”

1184

1SA

25

20

wcs5

0

by the cover of the mountain

This could mean: (1) into a low, narrow stream bed or (2) to where the men were hiding.

1185

1SA

25

21

h5uv

writing-background

0

The writer gives background information before he continues with the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1186

1SA

25

21

nzw1

0

Now David had said, “Surely … for good.

The reader needs to understand that David had said these things before he said, “Every man strap on his sword” in 1 Samuel 25:13.

1187

1SA

25

21

vv7p

0

Now David

The word “Now” shows that the writer has stopped writing about Abigail and started writing about David.

1188

1SA

25

21

n566

figs-litotes

0

nothing was missed of all that belonged to him

This can be stated positively and in active form. Alternate translation: “he still has everything that was his” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1189

1SA

25

22

zn6m

0

May God do so to me … belong to him

The reader needs to understand that David had said these things before he said, “Every man strap on his sword” in 1 Samuel 25:13.

1190

1SA

25

22

cg4h

0

May God do so to me, David

The Hebrew text has “May God strike the enemies of David,” and some versions follow this. However, the reading of the ULT follows the main Greek tradition of the Old Testament, as some other modern versions do.

1191

1SA

25

22

l2bk

0

all who belong

Alternate translation: “all the people who belong to him” or “those in his family”

1192

1SA

25

23

l6e2

writing-background

0

The writer has finished giving background information, so he continues the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1193

1SA

25

23

l5ga

0

lay before David facedown and bowed herself to the ground

Abigail was being humble and showing that she would obey David because he was a powerful leader.

1194

1SA

25

24

c4nh

0

listen to

Alternate translation: “hear”

1195

1SA

25

24

ljp8

figs-pronouns

0

my master … your servant … words of your servant

“David … me … my words.” Abigail speaks of herself and David as if they are two other people, to show that she respects David. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1196

1SA

25

25

zt8e

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail continues to advise David not to take revenge.

1197

1SA

25

25

q94v

figs-pronouns

0

Let not my master regard … I your servant … the young men of my master

Abigail speaks of herself and David as if they are other people to show that she respects David. Alternate translation: “Do not regard … I…your young men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1198

1SA

25

25

zwq8

figs-explicit

0

But I … did not see … whom you sent

You may need to make explicit what Abigail would have done. Alternate translation: “But if I … had seen … whom you sent, I would have given them food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1199

1SA

25

26

b9lx

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail continues to advise David not to take revenge.

1200

1SA

25

26

tc8r

figs-pronouns

0

my master … my master

Abigail speaks of David as if he is another person to show that she respects David. Alternate translation: “David … you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1201

1SA

25

26

j7ne

0

bloodshed

murder

1202

1SA

25

26

j55q

figs-metonymy

0

avenging yourself with your own hand

The hand is a metonym for what a person does with the hand. Abigail assumes that David should allow Yahweh to take vengeance for him. Alternate translation: “taking vengeance yourself instead of letting Yahweh do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1203

1SA

25

26

p12k

figs-explicit

0

let your enemies … be like Nabal

Abigail speaks as if Yahweh has already punished Nabal. Alternate translation: “I hope that Yahweh will punish your enemies … as he will punish Nabal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pastforfuture]])

1204

1SA

25

27

s1mh

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail continues to tell David not to be angry.

1205

1SA

25

27

lh33

figs-activepassive

0

let this present that your servant has brought to my master be given to the young men

Abigail uses the passive to show her respect for David. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “please give this present, which your servant has brought to my master, to the young men” or “please let my master give this present, which your servant has brought to my master, to the young men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1206

1SA

25

27

ew7h

0

this present

“these gifts.” The “present” was actually many different things.

1207

1SA

25

27

yj2z

figs-pronouns

0

your servant has … my master … my master

Abigail speaks of herself and David as if they are two other people to show that she respects David. Alternate translation: “I have … you … you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1208

1SA

25

28

lg88

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail continues to reason with David.

1209

1SA

25

28

m9sh

figs-pronouns

0

the trespass of your servant … my master … my master is

Abigail speaks of herself and David as if they are two other people, to show that she respects David. Alternate translation: “my trespass … you … you are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1210

1SA

25

28

iqt4

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh will certainly make my master a sure house

Here “house” is an idiom used for “descendants.” Alternate translation: “Yahweh will ensure that my master always has a descendant who serves as king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1211

1SA

25

28

qq1m

0

fighting the battles of Yahweh

Alternate translation: “fighting against Yahweh’s enemies”

1212

1SA

25

28

cd6h

figs-activepassive

0

evil will not be found in you

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “no one will ever see you do any evil thing” or “you will never do anything evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1213

1SA

25

29

k6qw

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail continues to reason with David.

1214

1SA

25

29

aql5

0

pursue

chase and try to catch

1215

1SA

25

29

pf24

figs-metaphor

0

the life of my master will be bound in the bundle of the living by Yahweh your God

Abigail speaks of David’s life as if it were a long and thin object that a person could put with other long and thin objects and then tie together into a bundle with a rope. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh your God will bind the life of my master in the bundle of the living” or “Yahweh your God will keep you alive with those who are alive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1216

1SA

25

29

tyz3

figs-pronouns

0

the life of my master

Abigail speaks of herself and David as if they are two different people to show that she respects David. Alternate translation: “your life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1217

1SA

25

29

m3ub

figs-metaphor

0

he will sling away the lives of your enemies, as from the pocket of a sling

Abigail speaks of David’s enemies’ lives as if they were small objects like a stone that could be put in a sling and shot a long distance. Alternate translation: “he will kill your enemies as easily as a man slings a stone a long distance” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1218

1SA

25

29

mm76

0

a sling

a piece of animal skin with long cords at both ends in which a person can put a stone or other small, hard object and throw it a long distance

1219

1SA

25

30

u6qu

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail continues to reason with David.

1220

1SA

25

30

m21u

figs-pronouns

0

my master

Abigail speaks of David as if he is another person, to show that she respects David. Alternate translation: “you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1221

1SA

25

31

lm3s

0

Connecting Statement:

Abigail finishes reasoning with David.

1222

1SA

25

31

wg25

figs-litotes

0

This will not be a staggering burden for you—that you have poured out innocent blood, or because my master attempted to rescue himself

Abigail is stating that if David chooses not to take revenge he will have a clear conscience when Yahweh makes him king of Israel. This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “You will always be glad you acted as you did-that you have not poured out innocent blood, or because my master did not attempt to rescue himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1223

1SA

25

31

bql2

figs-pronouns

0

my master … himself … my master … your servant

Abigail speaks of herself and David as if they are two other people, to show that she respects David. “you … yourself … you … me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1224

1SA

25

31

m9fd

0

when Yahweh will do good for my master

That is, when Yahweh actually makes him king after Saul’s reign is over.

1225

1SA

25

32

i5t4

0

General Information:

David accepts Abigail’s counsel and gifts.

1226

1SA

25

32

ze7a

figs-activepassive

0

May Yahweh … be blessed, he who

This can be translated in active form. This could mean: (1) “I praise Yahweh … who” or (2) “May all people praise Yahweh … who.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1227

1SA

25

33

xel2

figs-activepassive

0

Your wisdom is blessed and you are blessed, because

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “I thank Yahweh because he has blessed you by making you wise and because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1228

1SA

25

33

m4g6

0

bloodshed

murder. The same word appears in 1 Samuel 25:26.

1229

1SA

25

33

er78

figs-metonymy

0

with my own hand

The word “hand” here is a metonym for the action taken by the hand. Alternate translation: “by my own actions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1230

1SA

25

34

hb7b

0

General Information:

David accepts Abigail’s gifts and agrees to do as she has advised him.

1231

1SA

25

34

wl4x

figs-activepassive

0

there would certainly have not been left to Nabal so much as one male baby

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “I would not have left to Nabal even one male baby” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1232

1SA

25

35

d94h

figs-idiom

0

received from her hand

This is an idiom. Abigail did not unload all gifts from the donkeys herself. Alternate translation: “accepted all the gifts that she had brought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1233

1SA

25

35

uy5n

figs-metonymy

0

have listened to your voice

The word “voice” is a metonym for the message the person speaks and a synecdoche for the person who speaks. Alternate translation: “have listened to what you have told me” or “will do as you have advised me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1234

1SA

25

36

n4cq

0

morning light

dawn

1235

1SA

25

36

l1ya

0

Nabal’s heart was merry within him

Nabal was very happy

1236

1SA

25

37

l6bf

0

General Information:

Yahweh’s judgment on Nabal

1237

1SA

25

37

u2tf

0

the wine had gone out of Nabal

Nabal was no longer drunk and so was no longer feeling happy.

1238

1SA

25

37

g4h6

0

his heart died within him

Nabal was unable to move because was so afraid that he was no longer physically healthy, probably because he had suffered a stroke.

1239

1SA

25

39

y8vj

0

General Information:

David offers to protect Abigail by marrying her.

1240

1SA

25

39

ir6z

figs-activepassive

0

May Yahweh be blessed

This can be translated in active form. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 25:32. This could mean: (1) Alternate translation: “I praise Yahweh” or (2) Alternate translation: “May all people praise Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1241

1SA

25

39

j9hl

figs-idiom

0

has taken up the cause of my insult from the hand of Nabal

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “has defended me after Nabal insulted me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1242

1SA

25

39

n5td

figs-activepassive

0

has taken up the cause of my insult

The abstract nouns “cause” and “insult” can be translated as verbs. This could mean: (1) Alternate translation: “has shown that what I was doing was right by punishing Nabal for insulting me” or (2) Alternate translation: “has acted, when Nabal insulted me, as if Nabal had insulted him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1243

1SA

25

39

w9kj

figs-pronouns

0

has kept back his servant from evil

David speaks as if he were another person to show his respect for Yahweh. Alternate translation: “has kept me back from doing evil deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1244

1SA

25

39

cq6p

figs-abstractnouns

0

has turned Nabal’s evil action back on his own head

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word action, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “has done to Nabal what Nabal planned to do to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1245

1SA

25

39

lb46

figs-synecdoche

0

on his own head

The head is a synecdoche for the person. Alternate translation: “on him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1246

1SA

25

39

ci9p

figs-ellipsis

0

sent and spoke to Abigail, to take her to himself as wife

You may make clear the understood information. Alternate translation: “sent men to speak to Abigail and tell her that David wanted to take her to be his wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1247

1SA

25

41

nmv3

figs-metonymy

0

She arose, bowed herself

Abigail responded by bowing. The reader should understand that she was probably already standing when the men were talking to her in 1 Samuel 25:40, and so the word “arose” is a metonym for deciding to bow down. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1248

1SA

25

41

iqu6

figs-pronouns

0

See, your female servant is a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my master

Abigail speaks as if she were another person to show that she is humble. She shows that she desires to be David’s new wife by offering to wash the feet of David’s servants. Alternate translation: “See, I will serve you, the servants of my master David, by washing your feet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1249

1SA

25

42

ays4

figs-explicit

0

hurried and arose, and rode

You may need to make explicit what Abigail did after she arose and before she rode. Alternate translation: “quickly did what she needed to do to prepare for the journey, and then she rode” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1250

1SA

25

42

hv4c

0

five servant girls of hers who followed her

Abigail was riding a donkey, but the servant girls were walking.

1251

1SA

25

43

qn8t

writing-background

0

Now David had also taken Ahinoam

This event took place before David married Abigail. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1252

1SA

25

43

fx9v

translate-names

0

Ahinoam

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1253

1SA

25

44

t45u

writing-background

0

Saul had given Michal

This event took place before David married Abigail. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1254

1SA

25

44

eld8

translate-names

0

Michal

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1255

1SA

25

44

rm51

translate-names

0

Paltiel … Laish

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1256

1SA

25

44

qbi9

translate-names

0

Gallim

This is a town north of Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1257

1SA

26

intro

abcq

0

1 Samuel 26 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Vengeance

David has another opportunity to kill Saul but he refuses to kill the one God had chosen as king. This contrasts with Saul, who tried to find David and kill him. Saul came to admit that David was more righteous than he was because he did not kill his enemy. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/elect]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical question

David put his reason for not killing Saul in a rhetorical question: “Do not destroy him; for who can extend his hand against Yahweh’s anointed one and be guiltless?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1258

1SA

26

1

xrk7

figs-rquestion

0

Is not David hiding … Jeshimon?

This rhetorical question can be translated as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “David is hiding … Jeshimon!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1259

1SA

26

1

u73j

0

before Jeshimon

Alternate translation: “from which we can see Jeshimon”

1260

1SA

26

1

x3kj

translate-names

0

Jeshimon

This is the name of a desert area near the Dead Sea. It can also be translated as “the Judean Wilderness” or “the wasteland.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 23:19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1261

1SA

26

2

xlu2

figs-idiom

0

Then Saul arose and went

The word “arose” is an idiom for taking action. Alternate translation: “Then Saul took action and he went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1262

1SA

26

2

bq6i

translate-numbers

0

three thousand

3,000 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1263

1SA

26

2

em7t

0

chosen men

men whom he had chosen because of their superior military abilities

1264

1SA

26

3

bg6j

0

before Jeshimon

Alternate translation: “from which they could see Jeshimon”

1265

1SA

26

3

x3ka

translate-names

0

Jeshimon

This is the name of a desert area near the Dead Sea. It can also be translated as “the Judean Wilderness” or “the wasteland.” See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 23:19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1266

1SA

26

5

m1dq

0

David arose and went

Alternate translation: “David took action and he went”

1267

1SA

26

5

m7ex

translate-names

0

Abner … Ner

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1268

1SA

26

6

zm97

translate-names

0

Ahimelech … Abishai

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1269

1SA

26

6

kzq7

translate-names

0

Zeruiah

These are the names of women. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1270

1SA

26

6

fp9z

0

go down … to

David and his men were probably on higher ground than Saul.

1271

1SA

26

6

n7u2

0

I! I will go down

Alternate translation: “I want to be the one who goes down”

1272

1SA

26

8

m51q

figs-metonymy

0

God has put your enemy into your hand

Abishai speaks as if the enemy were a small object that God had put into David’s hand. The word “hand” is a metonym for the power the hand can wield. Alternate translation: “God has given you complete control over your enemy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1273

1SA

26

8

lze4

figs-metonymy

0

pin him to the ground with the spear

This is a metonym that refers to “kill with a spear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1274

1SA

26

8

n3y8

0

I will not strike him a second time

Alternate translation: “I will kill him the first time I strike him” or “I will not need to strike him a second time”

1275

1SA

26

9

ph1t

figs-rquestion

0

who can extend his hand against Yahweh’s anointed one and be guiltless?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. This can also be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “No one can strike Yahweh’s anointed one and be without guilt.” or “Anyone who strikes Yahweh’s anointed one will be guilty of murder.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1276

1SA

26

10

c39s

0

As Yahweh lives

Alternate translation: “as certainly as Yahweh lives” or “as surely as Yahweh lives”

1277

1SA

26

10

s6yk

0

his day will come to die

Alternate translation: “he will die a natural death”

1278

1SA

26

11

gt6b

figs-metonymy

0

extend my hand against

The hand is a metonym for the harm a hand can do. Alternate translation: “do anything to harm” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1279

1SA

26

11

q6ty

figs-exclusive

0

let us go

David includes Abishai, so the word “us” here is inclusive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1280

1SA

26

12

mj5c

0

a deep sleep from Yahweh had fallen on them

Yahweh had caused them to sleep deeply.

1281

1SA

26

14

qg15

figs-rquestion

0

Do you not answer, Abner?

David uses a question to shame Abner into answering. If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “Answer me, Abner!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1282

1SA

26

14

i2zz

0

David shouted

“David spoke as loudly as he could” so Saul and his men could hear him

1283

1SA

26

15

e3xd

figs-rquestion

0

Are not you a courageous man?

David uses a question to rebuke Abner for not guarding Saul. Alternate translation: “You are a very brave man.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1284

1SA

26

15

it27

figs-rquestion

0

Who is like you in Israel?

David uses a question to rebuke Abner for not guarding Saul. Alternate translation: “You are the greatest soldier in Israel.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1285

1SA

26

15

b9q7

figs-rquestion

0

Why then have you not kept watch over your master the king?

This could mean: (1) this is a real question and David wants Abner to answer him or (2) this is a rhetorical question and David is rebuking Abner. Alternate translation: “Therefore you should have kept watch over your master the king!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1286

1SA

26

17

d5y6

figs-metaphor

0

my son

Saul was not David’s true father. Saul speaks as if he were David’s father to show David that he wants David to trust and respect him as David would trust and respect his own father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1287

1SA

26

18

n2yf

figs-rquestion

0

Why does my master pursue his servant?

This could mean: (1) David really does want Saul to answer the question or (2) If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “My master has no reason to pursue his servant.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1288

1SA

26

18

ah3m

figs-123person

0

Why does my master pursue his servant?

Here David speaks of Saul in third person calling him “my master,” and he speaks of himself in third person calling himself “his servant.” David speaks this way to show respect to Saul. Alternate translation: “Why are you, my master, pursuing me, your servant?” or “Why are you pursuing me?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1289

1SA

26

18

ljv3

figs-rquestion

0

What have I done?

This could mean: (1) David really does want Saul to answer the question or (2) If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You know that I have done nothing to harm you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1290

1SA

26

18

q2fg

figs-metonymy

0

What evil is in my hand?

This speaks of evil as if it were an object that is held in the hand. Here “hand” represents a person acting or doing something. This could mean: (1) David really does want Saul to answer the question. Alternate translation: “What have I done wrong?” or (2) If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I have done nothing wrong!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1291

1SA

26

19

xsj9

figs-pronouns

0

you, let my master the king listen to the words of his servant

David speaks as if he and the king were other people to show respect to Saul. Alternate translation: “you my king, listen to my words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1292

1SA

26

19

xi81

0

stirred you up against me

Alternate translation: “caused you to be angry with me”

1293

1SA

26

19

sn5d

figs-explicit

0

let him accept an offering

You may need to make explicit the reason he will give an offering. Alternate translation: “I will give him an offering so he will no longer cause you to be angry with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1294

1SA

26

19

t9dx

figs-activepassive

0

may they be cursed in the sight of Yahweh

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “may Yahweh decide to punish them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1295

1SA

26

19

fre1

0

for they have today driven me out, that I should not cling to the inheritance of Yahweh; they have said to me, ‘Go worship other gods.’

Alternate translation: “for they have today driven me out. It is as if they want me to stop clinging to the inheritance of Yahweh. It is as if they have said to me, ‘Go worship other gods.’”

1296

1SA

26

19

h828

0

that I should not cling to the inheritance of Yahweh

Alternate translation: “so that I will no longer trust that Yahweh will give me what he has promised me”

1297

1SA

26

20

r1qc

figs-pronouns

0

the king of Israel has

David speaks as if the king was another person to show respect to Saul. Alternate translation: “you have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1298

1SA

26

20

dm6i

figs-euphemism

0

do not let my blood fall to the earth

This is a polite way of saying “do not kill me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1299

1SA

26

20

km1g

figs-metaphor

0

the one flea

David uses the word “flea” as a metaphor for a person, himself, who cannot do any great harm. Alternate translation: “this single flea” or “me, and I cannot harm you any more than one flea can” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1300

1SA

26

20

ua6e

figs-simile

0

as when one hunts a partridge in the mountains

Saul is chasing David as if he were hunting a valuable wild bird. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1301

1SA

26

21

w8jk

0

Return

This could mean: (1) “Return to serve me in my palace” or (2) “Return to your home.”

1302

1SA

26

21

l7a6

figs-metaphor

0

my son

Saul was not David’s true father. Saul speaks as if he were David’s father to show David that he wants David to trust and respect him as David would trust and respect his own father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1303

1SA

26

21

sy9u

figs-metaphor

0

my life was precious in your eyes today

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “today you have considered my life to be very valuable” or “today you showed me that you really do respect me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1304

1SA

26

21

zs9x

0

played the fool

Alternate translation: “been very foolish”

1305

1SA

26

23

sdp3

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh put you into my hand today

The word “hand” is a metonym for the person’s power. “Yahweh gave me an opportunity to attack you today” or “Yahweh placed me where I could easily have killed you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1306

1SA

26

23

x1fy

0

pay each man

Alternate translation: “give what is proper to each man””

1307

1SA

26

23

h11d

figs-pronouns

0

his anointed

David speaks as if Saul were another person to show that he respects Saul because Saul is king. Alternate translation: “the one he has chosen to be king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1308

1SA

26

24

wtj8

figs-metaphor

0

your life was precious in my eyes today

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 26:21. Alternate translation: “I have considered your life to be very valuable” or “I showed you today that I really do respect you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1309

1SA

26

24

tf9s

figs-metaphor

0

so may my life be much valued in the eyes of Yahweh

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “so may Yahweh consider my life very valuable as well” or “so may Yahweh value my life as much as I have valued your life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1310

1SA

26

25

r7dp

figs-activepassive

0

May you be blessed

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “May Yahweh bless you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1311

1SA

26

25

ct8y

figs-metaphor

0

my son

Saul was not David’s true father. Saul speaks as if he were David’s father to show David that he wants David to trust and respect him as David would trust and respect his own father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1312

1SA

27

intro

abcr

0

1 Samuel 27 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This begins a section about David living with the Philistines.

Special concepts in this chapter

David’s move

David is afraid Saul will someday catch him and kill him, so he moves to the Philistine city of Gath. This is a type of exile David creates for himself out of fear. It is caused by his lack of trust in God. This is the same reason his descendants would come to be exiled. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

1313

1SA

27

1

vu4l

figs-synecdoche

0

David said in his heart

Here “his heart” is a metonym that means to himself. Alternate translation: “David thought to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1314

1SA

27

1

j9tl

figs-synecdoche

0

escape out of his hand

The word “hand” is a synecdoche for the person. Alternate translation: “escape from him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1315

1SA

27

2

cr5x

0

David arose and passed over

Alternate translation: “David took action; he passed over”

1316

1SA

27

2

jn4b

0

passed over

Alternate translation: “passed over the border between Israel and Philistia”

1317

1SA

27

2

yjn5

translate-numbers

0

six hundred men

600 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1318

1SA

27

2

y8hn

translate-names

0

Achish

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 21:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1319

1SA

27

2

ik5p

translate-names

0

Maok

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1320

1SA

27

3

q6ib

translate-names

0

Ahinoam

This is the name of a woman. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 14:50. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1321

1SA

27

3

f557

translate-names

0

Abigail

This is the name of a woman. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 25:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1322

1SA

27

3

qmd3

translate-names

0

Nabal

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 25:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1323

1SA

27

4

zdd9

figs-activepassive

0

Saul was told

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can state this in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Someone told Saul” or “Saul heard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1324

1SA

27

5

zt35

figs-metaphor

0

If I have found favor in your eyes

Here the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 20:3. Alternate translation: “If I have pleased you” or “If you consider me favorably” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1325

1SA

27

5

mj6y

figs-metonymy

0

let them give me a place

Since Achish was the one who would “give,” this is a metonym for “please give me a place.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1326

1SA

27

5

ib99

0

one of the cities in the country

Alternate translation: “one of the outlying towns” or “one of the towns outside the city”

1327

1SA

27

5

as8d

figs-rquestion

0

Why should your servant live in the royal city with you?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “I do not need to live in the city with you.” or “I am not important enough to live here with you in the royal city.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1328

1SA

27

5

qss2

figs-pronouns

0

your servant

David speaks as if he were another person to show that he respected Achish. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1329

1SA

27

6

d2xd

translate-names

0

Ziklag

This is the name of a city in the southwest part of Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1330

1SA

27

8

k2mv

figs-idiom

0

making raids on

attacking and taking property many times (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1331

1SA

27

8

mj2i

translate-names

0

Girzites

A people group who apparently lived somewhere between Philistia and Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1332

1SA

27

8

c2xz

figs-pronouns

0

as you go to Shur

Here “you” is being used as an indefinite pronoun that refers to anyone. Alternate translation: “on the way most people travel to Shur” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1333

1SA

27

8

y3iy

translate-names

0

Shur

region on the northeast border of Egypt (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1334

1SA

27

9

vg2y

figs-pronouns

0

Achish

the king of Gath (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1335

1SA

27

10

ylp3

translate-names

0

Achish

the king of Gath (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1336

1SA

27

10

l4n3

translate-names

0

Jerahmeelites

a clan from the tribe of Judah (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1337

1SA

27

10

qt6s

translate-names

0

Kenites

a people group who lived in the land of Midian (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1338

1SA

27

11

x7vm

translate-names

0

Gath

one of five Philistine city-states. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1339

1SA

27

12

g4e6

figs-pronouns

0

Achish

the king of Gath (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1340

1SA

28

intro

abcs

0

1 Samuel 28 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Talking to the dead

Talking to the dead was against the law of Moses. God or the Holy Spirit left Saul because of his sin and would not help him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/death]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holyspirit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Rhetorical question

Samuel uses a rhetorical question to say it was useless to ask his advice since there was no way Saul could be successful with God against him: “What then do you ask me, since Yahweh has left you, and he has become your enemy?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1341

1SA

28

1

u8jp

0

host

large assembly of armies

1342

1SA

28

2

au3y

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

So you will know … So I will

The word “so” shows that the speaker agrees with what the other person has just said. Alternate translation: “Yes, I will go with you so that you will know … Very well, I will” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1343

1SA

28

2

a7g3

0

you will know what your servant can do

David probably wanted Achish to think that David would kill many Israelites, but “what your servant can do” could also mean that David was planning to kill Philistines instead. Try to translate so that the reader can see both of these possible meanings.

1344

1SA

28

2

b6jy

figs-pronouns

0

your servant

David speaks as if he is another person so that Achish will think David respects him. Alternate translation: “I” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1345

1SA

28

2

m1je

figs-pronouns

0

make you

The word “you” refers to David and so is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1346

1SA

28

2

ltp1

0

bodyguard

a person who protects another person

1347

1SA

28

3

v29c

writing-background

0

Now Samuel … with spirits

The writer provides background information to prepare the reader for the events that follow. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1348

1SA

28

3

k6lf

0

banned from the land

officially removed from the country or region, or prevented from entering Alternate translation: “expel from Israel”

1349

1SA

28

3

x928

0

those who talked with the dead or with spirits

The words “those who talked with the dead” translate as one word in the original language, and the words “those who … talked with spirits” also translate as one word in the original language. If your language has one word for those who talk with the dead and one word for those who talk with spirits, or if your language has only one word for those who talk with the dead and with spirits, you should use those words here.

1350

1SA

28

4

jp42

0

Then the Philistines gathered

after David and Achish spoke (1 Samuel 28:2)

1351

1SA

28

4

gv6k

0

gathered all Israel together

Alternate translation: “gathered all his armies in Israel together”

1352

1SA

28

4

nut5

translate-names

0

Shunem … Gilboa

these are names of places (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1353

1SA

28

5

bi99

figs-synecdoche

0

he was afraid, and his heart trembled very much

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize the intensity of his fear. Here Saul is referred to by his “heart.” Alternate translation: “he was terrified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1354

1SA

28

6

l97l

0

Urim

The high priest carried the sacred lots called Urim and Thummin in his breastplate, in a marked pouch, next to his heart.

1355

1SA

28

7

p66e

0

who talks with the dead

These words translate as one word in the original language. If your language has one word for a person who talks to the dead, you should use it here. See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 28:3.

1356

1SA

28

7

iy9x

translate-names

0

Endor

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1357

1SA

28

8

q4zi

0

Saul disguised himself … and went … to the woman by night

Saul disguised himself because the way from Gilboa (1 Samuel 28:4) to Endor (1 Samuel 28:7) was through land that the Philistines were living in. He traveled all day and reached the woman after the sun had gone down.

1358

1SA

28

8

by4s

0

disguised

changed his usual appearance no one would know who he was

1359

1SA

28

8

mj1t

0

Divine for me … with a spirit

Alternate translation: “Talk to the dead for me”

1360

1SA

28

9

qv53

0

those who talk with the dead or with spirits

The words “those who talk with the dead” translate as one word in the original language, and the words “those who … talk with spirits” also translate as one word in the original language. If your language has one word for those who talk with the dead and one word for those who talk with spirits, or if your language has only one word for those who talk with the dead and with spirits, you should use those words here. See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 28:3.

1361

1SA

28

9

fdu8

figs-synecdoche

0

my life

The word “life” represents the person. Alternate translation: “me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1362

1SA

28

13

bz39

0

a god

Other This could mean: (1) “one like God” or (2) “a judge” (1 Samuel 7:15).

1363

1SA

28

17

wpr2

figs-metaphor

0

torn the kingdom out of your hand

Samuel speaks as if the kingdom were a physical object that could be held in the hand and grabbed out by another person. Alternate translation: “made you so you are no longer king” or “made another person king in your place” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1364

1SA

28

19

wl9u

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh will give Israel along with you into the hand of the Philistines

Samuel speaks as if the people of Israel were a small object that Yahweh would give to the Philistines, whom he speaks of as if they were one person. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will allow the Philistines to do whatever they want to do to you and the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1365

1SA

28

19

i48b

figs-euphemism

0

will be with me

This is a polite way to say that Saul will die. Alternate translation: “will be dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1366

1SA

28

19

y24l

figs-metaphor

0

Yahweh will also give the army of Israel into the hand of the Philistines

Samuel speaks as if the army of Israel were a small object that Yahweh would give to the Philistines, whom he speaks of as if they were one person. Alternate translation: “Yahweh will allow the Philistines to do whatever they want to do to the army of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1367

1SA

28

20

gyg8

0

he had eaten no food all that day, neither that whole night

Saul had not eaten during the night before he traveled from Gilboa (1 Samuel 28:4) to Endor (1 Samuel 28:7), nor during the day as he journeyed, nor during the night on which he visited the woman.

1368

1SA

28

21

t8lw

figs-idiom

0

I have put my life in my hand and have listened

This is an idiom. “I could die because I listened” or “Someone could kill me because I listened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1369

1SA

28

22

cf3l

figs-pronouns

0

the voice of your woman servant

The woman speaks as if she is another person to show that she respects Saul. She refers to herself by her “voice” to emphasize what she says. Alternate translation: “my voice” or “me speak to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]] or [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1370

1SA

28

23

yci7

0

Saul refused

Alternate translation: “Saul would not do what they asked”

1371

1SA

28

23

htn7

0

compelled him

Alternate translation: “forced him”

1372

1SA

28

24

x7b9

0

fatted calf

a calf that has been grown and fed to be available for a special feast

1373

1SA

28

24

zn9w

0

she … kneaded it

She mixed flour and oil, working and rolling the mixture thoroughly with her hands to produce dough for baking.

1374

1SA

29

intro

abct

0

1 Samuel 29 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetic song in 29:5.

Other possible translation difficulties

It is unclear whether David wanted to go into battle with the Philistines. He would have been fighting against Saul, but he also would have been fighting against Israel’s soldiers. It is probably best to see that David is conflicted over this issue, but some scholars believe that David planned on turning against the Philistines in the battle.

1375

1SA

29

1

w2gw

0

spring

a small stream of water flowing naturally from the Earth

1376

1SA

29

2

tq6l

0

passed on by hundreds and by thousands

Alternate translation: “divided their men into groups; some groups had one hundred soldiers and some groups had one thousand soldiers”

1377

1SA

29

2

j1vs

translate-numbers

0

hundreds … thousands

100s…1,000s (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1378

1SA

29

2

vft1

0

David and his men passed on in the rear guard with Achish

The groups of hundreds and thousands passed on first, then Achish and his helpers, and then David, his men, and the other Philistine soldiers, who were guarding Achish.

1379

1SA

29

3

s77q

figs-rquestion

0

What are these Hebrews doing here?

Possible ways to translate this rhetorical question as a statement are Alternate translation: (1) “You should not have allowed these Hebrews, our enemies, to be here with us.” or (2) “Tell us who these Hebrews are.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1380

1SA

29

3

sj73

figs-rquestion

0

Is not this David … these years, and I have found … this day?

Another possible translation is “Is not this David,…these years? I have found … this day.” The rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should know that this is David … these years. I have found … this day.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1381

1SA

29

3

ri13

figs-litotes

0

I have found no fault with him

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “I know of nothing that he has done wrong” or “I am very pleased with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1382

1SA

29

4

i611

figs-synecdoche

0

He will not go down with us into battle

The person here is a synecdoche for the army he commands. Alternate translation: “Do not let his army join with our army against our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1383

1SA

29

4

vr1n

figs-rquestion

0

For how else could he make himself acceptable to his master than by taking the heads of our own men?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Here “taking the heads” is a metonym for killing. Alternate translation: “The best way for David to make peace with his master would be by killing our soldiers!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1384

1SA

29

5

ce4n

figs-rquestion

0

Is this not David of whom they sang one to another in dances, saying, ‘Saul … ten thousands’?

If it would be helpful in your language, you could express this question as a statement. Alternate translation: “You should not trust David—he is the one of whom they sang one to another in dances, saying, ‘Saul … ten thousands’!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1385

1SA

29

5

e1pv

translate-numbers

0

thousands … ten thousands

“1,000s…10,000s” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1386

1SA

29

6

pw9s

figs-idiom

0

As Yahweh lives

This is an idiom. “As certainly as Yahweh lives” or “This is a true statement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1387

1SA

29

6

tzt2

0

your going out and your coming in with me in the army is good

Alternate translation: “I am happy to have you go out and come in with me and my army” or “It is good that you go everywhere with me and my army”

1388

1SA

29

8

p5pg

figs-pronouns

0

my master the king

David speaks as if Achish were another person so that Achish will think David respects him. Alternate translation: “you, my master and king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

1389

1SA

29

9

tse5

0

nevertheless, the princes

Alternate translation: “even though that is true, this is more important: the princes” or “however, the princes”

1390

1SA

29

10

xd7w

0

your master

The reader should understand that Achish is speaking of Saul.

1391

1SA

29

10

r3uy

0

have light

Alternate translation: “can see with the morning sun”

1392

1SA

30

intro

abcu

0

1 Samuel 30 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

David fights the Amalekites

When David and his men arrive home, they find the Amalekites have raided Ziklag and taken everything. They catch and destroy them and bring back all of their goods and families. Then David sends gifts to all the cities in Judah through which they had traveled.

1393

1SA

30

1

u6dp

0

Ziklag

Ziklag is a city in the southern part of Judah. This was where David and his men kept their families.

1394

1SA

30

2

i8bg

0

they

the Amalekites

1395

1SA

30

2

l5au

0

both small and great

This could mean: (1) “both unimportant people and important people” or (2) “both physically small and physically large.”

1396

1SA

30

3

tr67

0

their wives … sons … daughters

belonging to David and his men

1397

1SA

30

3

hh3k

figs-activepassive

0

it was burned, and their wives … daughters were taken captive

This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “they saw that someone had burned it and taken their wives … captive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1398

1SA

30

4

i5ts

0

the people that were with him

These were mainly his army of men.

1399

1SA

30

5

nc5k

0

General Information:

David finds strength in Yahweh after the raid.

1400

1SA

30

5

z5m8

0

Ahinoam the Jezreelite woman

Alternate translation: “Ahinoam from Jezreel”

1401

1SA

30

5

hq7z

0

Nabal the Carmelite

Alternate translation: “Nabal the man from Carmel”

1402

1SA

30

5

acw2

translate-names

0

Ahinoam … Abigail

women’s names (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1403

1SA

30

6

e6z1

0

distressed

suffering

1404

1SA

30

6

q4yw

figs-synecdoche

0

all the people were bitter in spirit

The word “bitter” is a metaphor for the desire to rebel. The word “spirit” is a synecdoche for the person. Alternate translation: “all the people were ready to rebel against David” or “all the people were very unhappy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1405

1SA

30

6

plf4

0

David strengthened himself in Yahweh, his God

This could mean: (1) “David took courage because he knew Yahweh his God would help him” or (2) “Yahweh his God made David strong.”

1406

1SA

30

7

na36

0

General Information:

David seeks Yahweh’s direction in dealing with the raid on his people.

1407

1SA

30

8

l4pe

figs-abstractnouns

0

David prayed to Yahweh for direction

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word direction, you can express the same idea with a clause. Alternate translation: “David prayed that Yahweh would tell David what David should do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1408

1SA

30

8

a2ps

0

pursue

chase and try to catch

1409

1SA

30

9

f5ck

translate-numbers

0

six hundred men

600 men (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1410

1SA

30

9

n8t4

0

brook

small stream

1411

1SA

30

10

gxs6

0

kept pursuing

Alternate translation: “kept chasing them, trying to catch them”

1412

1SA

30

10

she5

translate-numbers

0

four hundred men

400 men (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1413

1SA

30

10

c9v7

translate-numbers

0

two hundred

200 men (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1414

1SA

30

10

jle5

0

who were so weak

They were tired from their own raids and now in pursuit of the Amalekites. They no longer had the strength to continue.

1415

1SA

30

11

wy3y

0

an Egyptian in a field

He was left there to die from the Amalekite raiding party.

1416

1SA

30

12

l4q1

0

clusters of raisins

Alternate translation: “clusters of dried grapes”

1417

1SA

30

13

a3bt

0

David said to him

David questioned the Egyptian slave.

1418

1SA

30

13

g59g

0

three days ago

Alternate translation: “three days in the past”

1419

1SA

30

13

lrz8

translate-numbers

0

three days

3 days (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1420

1SA

30

14

z8mp

0

a raid

an attack on a town to take property

1421

1SA

30

15

rpy7

0

raiding party

a group of armed warriors who attack people or places unexpectedly

1422

1SA

30

15

ln2l

figs-metonymy

0

you will not … betray me up into the hands of my master

Here “hands” refers to control. Alternate translation: “you will not … violate the trust I have in you by allowing my master to control me again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1423

1SA

30

16

tp7i

0

booty

the goods they had stolen in the raid

1424

1SA

30

17

ac8n

0

twilight

the time just after the sun goes down until the sky is dark

1425

1SA

30

17

uap2

translate-numbers

0

four hundred

400 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1426

1SA

30

18

gv1e

0

recovered … rescued

“got back … got back.” These two words translate the same Hebrew word. Your language may also have a word for a person getting his own property back from the person who stole it that is different from the word for a person getting his wife back from those who have captured her.

1427

1SA

30

18

zen4

0

rescued his two wives

Alternate translation: “got his two wives back” or “saved his two wives from danger”

1428

1SA

30

19

f95n

0

Nothing was missing

Alternate translation: “None of the items the Amalekites had stolen were lost”

1429

1SA

30

19

h16q

0

neither small nor great

This could mean: (1) “neither unimportant people nor important people” or (2) “neither physically small nor physically large.” See how you translated similar words in 1 Samuel 30:2.

1430

1SA

30

19

we47

0

booty

goods that the Amelekites had stolen. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 30:16.

1431

1SA

30

21

r2q2

translate-numbers

0

two hundred

200 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1432

1SA

30

21

e3fw

translate-names

0

the brook Besor

a small stream or creek named Besor. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 30:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1433

1SA

30

21

l3p7

0

greeted them

spoke to them in a friendly way

1434

1SA

30

22

jt6r

0

the booty

the goods they had taken from the enemy in battle. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 30:16.

1435

1SA

30

22

n8ra

0

we have recovered

Alternate translation: “we have regained” or “we have gotten back”

1436

1SA

30

24

n8h7

figs-rquestion

0

Who will listen to you in this matter?

This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement: Alternate translation: “No one will listen to you in this matter.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1437

1SA

30

24

sv97

figs-abstractnouns

0

as the share is for anyone who goes

If your language does not use an abstract noun for the idea behind the word share, you can express the same idea with a verbal form. Alternate translation: “as what belongs to anyone who goes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1438

1SA

30

24

xyy4

0

anyone who goes into battle

the warriors who actually fought the enemy in war

1439

1SA

30

24

ff29

0

will share and share alike

Alternate translation: “will make sure that all receive the same amount”

1440

1SA

30

24

jdd3

0

anyone who waits by the baggage

the people who supported the warriors by managing and guarding their supplies

1441

1SA

30

24

q69h

0

baggage

belongings that the soldiers left behind when they went into battle

1442

1SA

30

26

w4a8

translate-names

0

Ziklag

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1443

1SA

30

26

l1ll

0

booty

goods that David had taken from the Amalekites after the battle. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 30:16.

1444

1SA

30

26

ies7

0

a present

Alternate translation: “a gift”

1445

1SA

30

27

j2r9

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer begins a list of towns whose elders received gifts from David.

1446

1SA

30

27

rha5

translate-names

0

Bethel … Jattir

These are names of towns. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1447

1SA

30

28

qm9t

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer continues the list that began in 1 Samuel 30:27 of towns whose elders received gifts from David.

1448

1SA

30

28

r7zx

translate-names

0

Aroer … Siphmoth … Eshtemoa

These are names of towns. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1449

1SA

30

29

xiz3

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer continues the list that began in 1 Samuel 30:27 of towns whose elders received gifts from David.

1450

1SA

30

29

v2kd

translate-names

0

Rakal

This is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1451

1SA

30

29

a93e

translate-names

0

Jerahmeelites … Kenites

These are the names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1452

1SA

30

30

re7a

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer continues the list that began in 1 Samuel 30:27 of towns whose elders received gifts from David.

1453

1SA

30

30

n9nu

translate-names

0

Hormah … Bor Ashan … Athak

These are names of towns. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1454

1SA

30

31

k11c

0

Connecting Statement:

The writer finishes the list that began in 1 Samuel 30:27 of towns whose elders received gifts from David.

1455

1SA

31

intro

abcv

0

1 Samuel 31 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This is the end of the section on Saul, but the book continues in 2 Samuel 1.

Special concepts in this chapter

Saul’s punishment

Saul receives his punishment from God: death for his disobedience and resisting the will of God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/willofgod]])

1456

1SA

31

1

k1fi

0

Now the Philistines fought against Israel

This battle was the result of the conflict between David and the Philistines in 1 Samuel 29:11. The writer has finished telling the story of David that began in 1 Samuel 30:1, and now he tells about the battle between the Israelites and the Philistines.

1457

1SA

31

1

mg5w

figs-metonymy

0

against Israel

“Israel” refers to the people who live there. Alternate translation: “against the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1458

1SA

31

1

u5ii

translate-names

0

Mount Gilboa

This is the name of a mountain (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1459

1SA

31

2

kg9r

0

closely pursued Saul and his sons

Alternate translation: “chased Saul and three of his sons”

1460

1SA

31

2

f33r

translate-names

0

Abinadab, and Malki-Shua

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1461

1SA

31

3

g8f6

figs-idiom

0

The battle went heavily against Saul

This is an idiom. “Saul’s army began to lose the battle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1462

1SA

31

4

pe6q

0

armor bearer

The armor bearer carried the large shield of his commanding officer and other weapons. He protected the commanding officer during a battle.

1463

1SA

31

4

nl61

figs-nominaladj

0

these uncircumcised

The nominal adjective “uncircumcised” can be translated as an adjective. Not being circumcised is a metonym for being foreigners. Alternate translation: “these men who have not been circumcised” or “these non-Israelite men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1464

1SA

31

4

w39y

figs-ellipsis

0

would not

The ellipsis can be filled in. Alternate translation: “would not do what Saul had told him to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1465

1SA

31

4

u2fu

0

took his own sword and fell on it

Alternate translation: “killed himself with his own sword”

1466

1SA

31

6

a6ky

0

that same day

Alternate translation: “on that one day”

1467

1SA

31

7

b1z1

0

lived in them

lived in the cities the men of Israel had left

1468

1SA

31

8

v9ln

0

strip the dead

take the armor and weapons off the dead Israelites’ bodies

1469

1SA

31

8

d9b8

translate-names

0

Mount Gilboa

a mountain range overlooking the Valley of Jezreel in northern Israel, south of Nazareth (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1470

1SA

31

9

w7af

0

the land of the Philistines throughout

Alternate translation: “all areas of the land of the Philistines”

1471

1SA

31

9

xcw5

0

to carry the news to their idols’ temples and to the people

Alternate translation: “to speak the news inside the temples and to the people”

1472

1SA

31

9

j17p

0

their idols’ temples

the buildings where they worshiped their idols

1473

1SA

31

10

e3nj

0

Ashtoreths

ancient false goddesses and idols, also called “Asherah” or “Astarte”

1474

1SA

31

10

z423

0

fastened

attached, probably with a large spike or nail

1475

1SA

31

10

qu6k

translate-names

0

Beth Shan

the name of a city (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1476

1SA

31

11

e9d6

translate-names

0

Jabesh

This is the name of a town. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 11:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1477

1SA

31

11

e2e5

0

what the Philistines had done to Saul

Alternate translation: “how the Philistines had dishonored Saul”

1478

1SA

31

12

myv9

0

all night

Alternate translation: “throughout the whole night”

1479

1SA

31

13

enk8

translate-unknown

0

a tamarisk tree

This is a type of tree. See how you translated this in 1 Samuel 22:6. Alternate translation: “a large shade tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])