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Introduction to Exodus

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Exodus

  1. Israel in Egypt; preparing to depart from slavery (1–12)
    • First genealogy (1:1–6)
    • Israel as slaves in Egypt (1:7–22)
    • Moses’ history to the time of the Exodus (2:1–4:26)
    • Israel suffers in Egypt (4:27–6:13)
    • Second genealogy (6:14–27)
    • Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh (6:28–7:25)
    • The plagues (8:1–11:10)
  2. Instructions for celebrating the Passover (12:1–30)
  3. From Egypt to Mount Sinai (12:31–18:27)
    • The Passover; preparing to leave Egypt; leaving Egypt (12:31–50, 13:1–22)
    • Journey from Egypt to Mount Sinai (14:1–18:27)
  4. Mount Sinai and the Law (19-40)
    • Preparing for the covenant (19:1–25)
    • The Ten Commandments (20:1–17)
    • The covenant described (20:18–23:33)
    • The people agree to the covenant; Moses returns to Mount Sinai (24:1–18)
    • Design of the Dwelling and its furnishings; what was required of those who serve in it; dwelling functions (25:1–31:18)
    • The golden calf; Moses prays for the people (32:1–33:22)
    • The covenant described again (34:1–35)
    • Making of the ark and its furnishings (35:1–38:31) and priestly garments (39:1–43, 40:1–33)
    • The cloud (40:34–38)

What is the book of Exodus about?

Exodus continues the story of the previous book, Genesis. The first half of Exodus is about how Yahweh made Abraham’s descendants into a nation. This nation, which would be called “Israel,” was meant to belong to Yahweh and worship him. The second half of Exodus describes how God gave the Israelites his law through Moses. The law of Moses told the Israelites how to obey and worship Yahweh properly.

The book of Exodus tells how the Israelites were to build the Dwelling. The Dwelling was a tent where Yahweh would be among his people. The Israelites worshiped and sacrificed animals to Yahweh at the Dwelling. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lawofmoses]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tabernacle]])

How should the title of this book be translated?

“Exodus” means “exit” or “departure.” Translators may translate this title in a way that can communicate its subject clearly, for example, “About the Israelites Leaving Egypt” or “How the Israelites Left the Land of Egypt.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Who wrote the book of Exodus?

The writers of both the Old and New Testaments present Moses as being very involved with writing the book of Exodus. Since ancient times, both Jews and Christians have thought that Moses wrote Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Why did Moses write so much about God delivering or rescuing the people of Israel?

Moses wrote much about God rescuing his people from the Egyptians to show that Yahweh is very powerful. Egypt was a very powerful nation in the region at that time, but Yahweh was still able to free the Israelites from the Egyptians. Also, by rescuing the Israelites, Yahweh showed that he had chosen them as his people and that they should worship him.

How does the book of Exodus show the fulfillment of the promises given to Abraham?

The book of Exodus shows God beginning to fulfill his promise to Abraham. In Genesis, God promised Abraham that he would have many descendants and that they would become a large nation. When God rescued the Israelites from the Egyptians, he took them to Mount Sinai. There he made a covenant with them, and they became the nation that belonged to Yahweh.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What was the Jewish Passover?

The Jewish Passover was a religious festival. Yahweh commanded the Israelites to celebrate it every year. Passover was a time to remember how God rescued Israel from the Egyptians. The first Passover meal was eaten in the evening just before they left Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/passover]])

What was the law of Moses to the people of Israel?

The law of Moses instructed the people of Israel about what Yahweh required them to do as his people. In the law, God told the people how they should live so that they would honor him. He also instructed them about their need to offer animal sacrifices. God required these sacrifices so that he could forgive their sins and continue living among them. The law also described the duties of the priests and told how to build the Dwelling.

What did it mean that Israel was to be a “kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (19:6 ULT)?

Israel was a holy nation because Yahweh separated them from all other nations to belong to him. They were to honor and worship him only. This made them different from all the other nations of the world; the other nations worshiped many false gods.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

Thus says Yahweh

This phrase is used many times in the Old Testament to introduce Yahweh’s speech. Your team should pick a standard translation. See 4:intro for more.

Pharaoh’s stubborn heart

Between chapters 4 and 14, there are 18 cases where Pharaoh’s heart is described as strong (11x), heavy (6x), or hard (1x), and one case where the Egyptians’ hearts are described as strong. These are metaphors for being stubborn, that is, being unwilling to obey Yahweh or even to do what is clearly in his own and Egypt’s best interest. Many cultures have similar metaphors, but not all will use the same body part. Within these cases, six times there is a neutral description that Pharaoh was stubborn, without saying anyone made him so (7:13, 7:14, 7:22, 8:19, 9:7, 9:35); three times Pharaoh makes himself stubborn (8:15, 8:32, 9:34); and ten times Yahweh makes Pharaoh/the Egyptians stubborn (4:21, 7:3, 9:12, 10:1, 10:20, 10:27, 11:10, 14:4, 14:8, 14:17).

Why are the details of the construction of the Dwelling in Exodus 25–32 repeated in Exodus 35–40?

In Exodus 25–32, God describes exactly how the Dwelling was to be built. The details were repeated in Exodus 35–40 in the description of the actual construction. This showed that the people were careful to do exactly as God commanded.

Are the events in the order that they actually happened?

Most, but not all, of the events in the book of Exodus are told in the order that they actually happened. Translators may need to make it clear when the events are in an unusual order.

What does it mean that God “lived” among his people?

The book of Exodus presents God as living in the Dwelling among the nation of Israel. God is everywhere, but he lived among the Israelites in a special way. God dwelled with the Israelites because they belonged to him. He promised to lead them and bless them. In return, the people were to worship him and honor him.

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Exodus 01 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

This chapter is intended to form a smooth transition from the last chapter of the book of Genesis.

  • v. 1-7: Jacob’s family grows
  • v. 8-22: Pharaoh oppresses the Israelites and tries to limit the Israelites’ growth

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Israel’s growth

Israel grew in number. This was the beginning of God’s fulfilling his promises to Abraham. It also caused the Pharaoh to worry that there would be more Israelites than Egyptians, with the result that the Egyptians would be unable to defend themselves against so many people. Pharaoh tried to kill all of the male babies so they would not become soldiers who fought against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

  • “All of the descendants of Jacob were 70 in number” This number included both Jacob’s children and grandchildren. It may cause confusion, but it is important to remember Jacob only had 12 sons.
  • Starting from verse 7, the terms Hebrews and sons of Israel both refer to the Israelite nation or people group.
  • God blesses the Hebrew midwives for lying to the wicked Pharaoh. Translators should not attempt to hide this. They showed that they feared God by disobeying a wicked order in order to preserve the lives of God’s people. They “acted wisely toward him” (or shrewdly, see 1:10) by lying to foil Pharaoh.
  • Pharaoh is a specifically Egyptian word for their kings (and queens).
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h51f

writing-background

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Verses 1–7 are background information for the story. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

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1

fxbx

figs-go

הַבָּאִ֖ים…בָּֽאוּ

1

The words translated as came in could also be translated as “went in.” Use whichever form is most natural in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

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1

e65z

translate-names

יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל…יַעֲקֹ֔ב

1

Jacob and Israel are two names for the same man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

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1

g89k

figs-metonymy

וּבֵית֖וֹ

1

household

Here, house refers to all of the people who live together, usually a large family with servants. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “and his household” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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uk67

figs-metonymy

וַֽיְהִ֗י כָּל־נֶ֛פֶשׁ יֹצְאֵ֥י יֶֽרֶךְ־יַעֲקֹ֖ב שִׁבְעִ֣ים נָ֑פֶשׁ

1

household

Here, lives refers to people (specifically, men); going out of the loins of Jacob is a reference to these people as being in his seed or semen and produced through his sexual acts–therefore meaning they are his descendants. See also Hebrews 7:9-10. Alternate translation: “And all the male descendants of Jacob numbered 70.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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sh42

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וַיָּ֤מָת

1

They did not die immediately. Jacob and his sons spent the rest of their lives in Egypt and died there. If necessary, use a transition word that conveys that some time passed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

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g5qg

translate-kinship

וְכָל־אֶחָ֔יו

1

all his brothers

All his brothers includes ten older brothers and one younger brother. If your language has different words for those, you can say, “his ten older brothers and his younger brother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

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c368

figs-metonymy

וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל

1

This is the first of many times in this book that sons of Israel refers to the Israelite nation or people. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “And the people of Israel” or “And the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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c7ep

figs-doublet

פָּר֧וּ וַֽיִּשְׁרְצ֛וּ וַיִּרְבּ֥וּ וַיַּֽעַצְמ֖וּ

1

All of these verbs mean similar things; they are used together to emphasize that the Israelites became very numerous. If your language doesn’t have as many words that mean the same thing, you can use fewer words and express the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “had many children and became strong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

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uo65

פָּר֧וּ…וַיִּרְבּ֥וּ…וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ

1

Compare your translation of fruitful … and multiplied … and the land was filled here to Genesis 1:28, 9:1, 9:7, and especially Genesis 35:11 where God renamed Jacob to be called Israel.

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nk2l

figs-metaphor

פָּר֧וּ וַֽיִּשְׁרְצ֛וּ

1

were fruitful

The birth of children to the Israelites is spoken of as if they were plants that were producing fruit and causing new plants to grow around them. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “had many children” or “gave birth to many children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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x97m

figs-abstractnouns

בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד

1

were fruitful

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun greatness in another way. Alternate translation: “and were very great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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r2f1

figs-activepassive

וַתִּמָּלֵ֥א הָאָ֖רֶץ אֹתָֽם

1

the land was filled with them

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language Alternate translation: “and they filled the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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e110

figs-idiom

בִּמְאֹ֣ד מְאֹ֑ד

1

Here the same word is used twice to emphasize how many the Israelite people had become. If your language does not repeat words like this, express the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “with much power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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piq4

writing-pronouns

אֹתָֽם

1

with them

Here, them refers to the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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eu8y

writing-newevent

וַיָּ֥קָם

1

This introduces a new event that happened some time after the events the story has just related. The story does not say how long after those events this new event happened. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

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d20y

writing-participants

מֶֽלֶךְ־חָדָ֖שׁ

1

The story begins with the new king. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

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t6jd

figs-metonymy

וַיָּ֥קָם מֶֽלֶךְ־חָדָ֖שׁ עַל־מִצְרָ֑יִם

1

arose over Egypt

Here, Egypt refers to the place and the people of Egypt. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “And a new king began to rule over the Egyptians and the country of Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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dnkw

figs-metonymy

לֹֽא־יָדַ֖ע אֶת־יוֹסֵֽף

1

Here, Joseph refers to both the person Joseph and to all of the good things that he did for Egypt. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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aku3

figs-exclamations

הִנֵּ֗ה

1

Behold draws special attention to what is about to be said. Use a way of drawing people’s attention that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “Listen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

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9

x65i

figs-possession

עַמּ֑וֹ

1

his people

The people whom the king rules over and who are also part of his group (probably shared ethnicity, tribe, or clan) rather than the Israelite group are spoken of as if they belonged to the king. This is an instance of the possessive of social relationship. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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t7s1

עַמּ֑וֹ

1

There is some ambiguity as to whom exactly Pharaoh was addressing. It could have been: (1) the people who lived in Egypt, the Egyptians or (2) some group of “his people” like his advisors, generals, nobles, or friends and family. Even if option 1 is meant, it is quite possible that he actually spoke to some smaller group of representatives, as in option 2.

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9

jik8

מִמֶּֽנּוּ

1

Use a way that is natural in your language to compare non-specific sizes of groups of people. Alternate translation: “and much greater than us”

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9

njuf

figs-quotemarks

הִנֵּ֗ה

1

Beginning from behold and extending to the end of verse 10 is a direct quotation of what the king said. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening first-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation. There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

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hiq4

figs-exclusive

נִֽתְחַכְּמָ֖ה…שֹׂ֣נְאֵ֔ינוּ…בָּ֖נוּ

1

let us

The word us is inclusive and refers to the king and his people, the Egyptians. Your language may require you to mark these forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

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wkvf

grammar-collectivenouns

ל֑וֹ…יִרְבֶּ֗ה…וְנוֹסַ֤ף…הוּא֙…וְנִלְחַם…וְעָלָ֥ה

1

let us

Here, him, he, and himself refer to the Israelite people. The pronouns agree grammatically with the singular “people” in the original. This occurs in many places in Exodus. If this is confusing in your language, you can use the plural, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

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il4u

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

פֶּן־יִרְבֶּ֗ה וְהָיָ֞ה כִּֽי־תִקְרֶ֤אנָה מִלְחָמָה֙

1

The king suggests a combination of two hypothetical events: 1. There are even more Israelites, 2. There is a battle. These are followed by a series of undesirable consequences: 3. The Israelites join an enemy, 4. The Israelites attack the Egyptians, 5. The Israelites leave Egypt. While the series of consequences is also technically hypothetical, the king’s language indicates that if 1-2 happen, then 3-5 are certain. Use language that makes it clear that the first two events are hypothetical and that the next three are consequences that could be expected if the first two events happen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

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10

jc1h

וְעָלָ֥ה מִן־הָאָֽרֶץ

1

leave the land

Alternate translation: “and he leaves Egypt”

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11

y2mi

שָׂרֵ֣י

1

taskmasters

Overseers were Egyptians whose job it was to force the Israelites to do hard work.

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11

o926

מִסִּ֔ים

1

Here the plural means groups. Alternative translation: “work crews”

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l9lj

לְמַ֥עַן עַנֹּת֖וֹ בְּסִבְלֹתָ֑ם

1

to oppress them with hard labor

Alternate translation: “to force the Israelites to do hard work for the Egyptians”

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pkz4

עָרֵ֤י מִסְכְּנוֹת֙

1

store cities

These were places where the leaders put away food and other important things to keep them safe. Alternative translation: “cities in which to put away things to keep them safe”

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dy34

figs-possession

עָרֵ֤י מִסְכְּנוֹת֙

1

The possessive is objective; storage of goods is what occurs in the cities. Alternate translation: “cities for storing things”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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c1fy

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

וְכַאֲשֶׁר֙ יְעַנּ֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ כֵּ֥ן יִרְבֶּ֖ה וְכֵ֣ן יִפְרֹ֑ץ

1

This sentence expresses a result that is the opposite of what the king expected. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

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12

pdfk

figs-abstractnouns

וַיָּקֻ֕צוּ מִפְּנֵ֖י

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun dread in another way. Alternate translation: “And they were very afraid of the face of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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12

qgzz

figs-metonymy

מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל

1

Here, face figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means that the Egyptians were afraid of the Israelites’ existence in their country. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “of the growing Israelite population” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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j1q6

figs-abstractnouns

וַיַּעֲבִ֧דוּ מִצְרַ֛יִם אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּפָֽרֶךְ

1

made…work rigorously

Here, rigor is a noun used to modify the verb enslaved. Rigor could refer either to how hard the work was or how unkindly the Egyptians treated the Israelites. If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind it in another way. Alternate translation: “And the Egyptians made the sons of Israel work very hard” or “And harshly, the Egyptians made the sons of Israel work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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mx6v

figs-metaphor

וַיְמָרְר֨וּ אֶת־חַיֵּיהֶ֜ם

1

made their lives bitter

The difficult lives of the Israelites are spoken of as if their daily lives were bitter food that was difficult to eat. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “And they made their lives very difficult” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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jre2

figs-abstractnouns

בַּעֲבֹדָ֣ה קָשָׁ֗ה

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind slavery in another way. Alternative translation: “by making them work hard as slaves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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cuq7

translate-unknown

בְּחֹ֨מֶר֙

1

mortar

Mortar is a mixture of lime with cement, sand, and water, used in building to bond bricks or stones. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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h5dx

translate-unknown

וּבִלְבֵנִ֔ים

1

Bricks are blocks made of clay or mud with straw in them. They are hardened in the sun or in another manner before they are used for building.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

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gzq7

אֵ֚ת כָּל־עֲבֹ֣דָתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁר־עָבְד֥וּ בָהֶ֖ם בְּפָֽרֶךְ׃

1

All their required work was hard

See how you translated this in verse 13. Alternate translation: “the Egyptians made them work very hard” or “the Egyptians forced them to work very hard”

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ct02

writing-pronouns

וַיְמָרְר֨וּ…בָהֶ֖ם

1

Here, they and them refer to the Egyptians. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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acj5

writing-pronouns

חַיֵּיהֶ֜ם…עֲבֹ֣דָתָ֔ם…עָבְד֥וּ

1

Here, their and they refer to the Israelites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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tqyl

figs-abstractnouns

בְּפָֽרֶךְ

1

See how you translated rigor in the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

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1

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yoaj

writing-newevent

0

This sentence introduces a new event in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

50

EXO

1

15

hhw1

לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֖ת

1

midwives

Midwives were women who helped a pregnant woman give birth to a baby.

51

EXO

1

15

h8f8

translate-names

שִׁפְרָ֔ה…פּוּעָֽה

1

Shiphrah…Puah

Shiphrah and Puah are women’s names. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

52

EXO

1

15

h59t

writing-participants

שִׁפְרָ֔ה…פּוּעָֽה

1

The midwives are introduced here as new participants in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

53

EXO

1

16

t8f5

וַיֹּ֗אמֶר

1

In the UST, the phrase and the king said, is combined with “spoke” from verse 15 (ULT) because the verb for “say” is used twice before he speaks. Having two speech verbs may be strange in some languages. If it would be unnatural to say that the king spoke or said words twice, you may leave one off.

54

EXO

1

16

zfcv

figs-youdual

בְּיַלֶּדְכֶן֙…וּרְאִיתֶ֖ן…וַהֲמִתֶּ֣ן

1

The king is speaking to the two midwives, so the form of you is plural. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual or plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

55

EXO

1

16

h3mb

figs-metonymy

עַל־הָאָבְנָ֑יִם

1

on the birthstool

Women sat on this short stool as they gave birth. Therefore, it was associated with birth. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “in the birthing process” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

56

EXO

1

16

nms7

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

אִם־בֵּ֥ן הוּא֙ וַהֲמִתֶּ֣ן אֹת֔וֹ וְאִם־בַּ֥ת הִ֖יא וָחָֽיָה

1

These two statements are hypothetical conditions (starting at if) with instructions for what the midwives should do in each situation (starting at then). Use a natural form in your language for hypothetical situations connected to instructions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

57

EXO

1

17

gy7k

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

וַתִּירֶ֤אןָ

1

But introduces a contrast to what was expected. Use a natural way in your language for introducing a contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

58

EXO

1

18

y9g5

לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֔ת

1

midwives

Women whose work is to help other woman give birth to a baby are called midwives. See how you translated this in Exodus 1:15.

59

EXO

1

18

y73k

figs-quotations

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֔ן מַדּ֥וּעַ עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ן הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַתְּחַיֶּ֖יןָ אֶת־הַיְלָדִֽים

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could translate this quotation as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “and he asked them why they were letting the sons live.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

60

EXO

1

18

q1sy

מַדּ֥וּעַ עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ן הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַתְּחַיֶּ֖יןָ אֶת־הַיְלָדִֽים

1

Why have you done this, and let the baby boys live?

Alternate translation: “Why have you not killed the baby boys?”

61

EXO

1

18

o97u

figs-youdual

עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ן

1

This you is plural. The king is speaking to the two midwives. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual or plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

62

EXO

1

19

qbvy

grammar-connect-logic-result

כִּ֣י לֹ֧א כַנָּשִׁ֛ים הַמִּצְרִיֹּ֖ת הָֽעִבְרִיֹּ֑ת כִּֽי־חָי֣וֹת הֵ֔נָּה בְּטֶ֨רֶם תָּב֧וֹא אֲלֵהֶ֛ן הַמְיַלֶּ֖דֶת וְיָלָֽדוּ

1

The midwives give a reason, the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, and then they expand on that reason, for they are lively (or energetic), with the result that before the midwife comes to them, they have given birth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

63

EXO

1

19

cxu1

figs-synecdoche

וַתֹּאמַ֤רְןָ הַֽמְיַלְּדֹת֙

1

Here, midwives said means that a midwife spoke representing the thoughts of the group. It may not make sense in your language to say that multiple people said something, so you may need to translate it in the singular (see UST). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

64

EXO

1

19

wl8h

הַֽמְיַלְּדֹת֙

1

These were women who helped a woman give birth to a baby. See how you translated this in Exodus 1:15.

65

EXO

1

20

eh25

לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֑ת

1

midwives

These were women who helped a woman give birth to a baby. See how you translated this in Exodus 1:15.

66

EXO

1

20

fj18

writing-background

וַיִּ֧רֶב הָעָ֛ם וַיַּֽעַצְמ֖וּ מְאֹֽד

1

midwives

This sentence gives background information about the events at the time. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

67

EXO

1

20

h133

figs-doublet

וַיִּ֧רֶב…וַיַּֽעַצְמ֖וּ מְאֹֽד

1

The people increased in numbers

These words mean similar things and are used together to emphasize their numeric growth. If your language doesn’t have as many words that mean the same thing, you can use fewer words and express the emphasis in another way. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

68

EXO

1

20

eo1p

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַיֵּ֥יטֶב אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֑ת

1

This phrase is more logically connected to the statements in verse 21. It describes the result of the midwives fearing God with a general statement. If it would be more natural in your language, you could rearrange verses 20-21 so that the reason (verses 21) comes before both the general and specific results. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

69

EXO

1

21

de53

grammar-connect-logic-result

כִּֽי־יָֽרְא֥וּ הַֽמְיַלְּדֹ֖ת אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים

1

This is the reason for what God did. If it would be more natural in your language, you could rearrange verses 20-21 so that the reason (verses 21) comes before both the general and specific results. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

70

EXO

1

21

pbve

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַיַּ֥עַשׂ לָהֶ֖ם בָּתִּֽים

1

This describes the result of the midwives fearing God with a specific statement. If it would be more natural in your language, you could rearrange verses 20-21 so that the reason (verses 21) comes before both the general and specific results. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

71

EXO

1

21

jx9c

בָּתִּֽים

1

he gave them families

Alternate translation: “households”

72

EXO

1

22

ld1j

figs-explicit

כָּל־הַבֵּ֣ן הַיִּלּ֗וֹד הַיְאֹ֨רָה֙ תַּשְׁלִיכֻ֔הוּ

1

You must throw every son…into the river

This order was given in order to drown the male Hebrew children. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. Alternate translation: “You must dispose of each new baby boy in the river so he will drown” or “Drown each baby boy in the river when he is born” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

73

EXO

1

22

a6b2

figs-quotations

וַיְצַ֣ו פַּרְעֹ֔ה לְכָל־עַמּ֖וֹ לֵאמֹ֑ר כָּל־הַבֵּ֣ן הַיִּלּ֗וֹד הַיְאֹ֨רָה֙ תַּשְׁלִיכֻ֔הוּ וְכָל־הַבַּ֖ת תְּחַיּֽוּן

1

From You shall to the end of the verse is a direct quote of Pharaoh’s speech. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. However, it could be translated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “And Pharaoh commanded all of his people to throw every baby boy into the river, but to let every girl live.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

74

EXO

1

22

stag

figs-youdual

תַּשְׁלִיכֻ֔הוּ…תְּחַיּֽוּן

1

The uses of the word you here refer to all the Egyptians. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

75

EXO

2

intro

rwf3

0

Exodus 02 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  • v. 1-10: Moses’ birth and early life
  • v. 11-15: Moses’ attempted intervention and flight
  • v. 16-22: Moses settles in Midian
  • v. 23-25: God sees the Israelites’ plight

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Covenant

At the end of the chapter, God begins to relate to the Israelites based on his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Identification of participants

  • Moses is the only participant named in most of this chapter. This is because many of the participants play very minor roles and because this part of the story is focusing on Moses’ life.

Moses’ heritage

In the first part of this chapter, Pharaoh’s daughter recognizes Moses as being a Hebrew, but in the last part of this chapter, the Midianites believe him to be an Egyptian.

Ironic situations

  • While Pharaoh tried to diminish the power of the Israelites by killing all of their baby boys, God used Pharaoh’s own daughter to save Moses.
  • Moses believes he is meant to be the rescuer of his people, but they reject him. Ultimately, Moses was correct, but the people rejected him at this point (see Acts 7).
76

EXO

2

1

wvj9

writing-newevent

וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ

1

Now

A new scene begins here. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

77

EXO

2

1

riy7

writing-participants

אִ֖ישׁ…בַּת

1

These are new participants. They remain unnamed until Exodus 6:20 where they are identified as Amram and Jochebed. For now it is best to leave them unnamed in your language, if possible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

78

EXO

2

1

mp7m

figs-idiom

וַיִּקַּ֖ח אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִֽי

1

Here, took a daughter is an idiom for marrying. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

79

EXO

2

2

s49k

ט֣וֹב

1

Alternative translations: “pleasing” or “fine”

80

EXO

2

2

q4c0

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַתֵּ֤רֶא…וַֽתִּצְפְּנֵ֖הוּ

1

Hiding the boy was a result of seeing that he was good. Alternative translation: “Since she saw … she hid him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

81

EXO

2

2

j2es

translate-numbers

שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה

1

3 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

82

EXO

2

3

t2gj

translate-unknown

תֵּ֣בַת גֹּ֔מֶא

1

papyrus basket

The ark is a basket made from a tall grass (papyrus reeds) that grows by the Nile River in Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

83

EXO

2

3

tn3y

figs-explicit

וַתַּחְמְרָ֥ה בַחֵמָ֖ר וּבַזָּ֑פֶת

1

sealed it with bitumen and pitch

You could explicitly state that this was to keep out water. Alternate translation: “and she daubed it with bitumen and with pitch to keep water from getting into it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

84

EXO

2

3

wpb6

translate-unknown

וַתַּחְמְרָ֥ה

1

sealed

This means that she applied a waterproof coating. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

85

EXO

2

3

ym3k

translate-unknown

בַחֵמָ֖ר

1

bitumen

This is a sticky black substance made from oil. It can be used to keep out water. Alternate translation: “with tar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

86

EXO

2

3

v825

translate-unknown

וּבַזָּ֑פֶת

1

pitch

This is a sticky brown or black substance that can be made from tree sap. It too can be used to keep out water. Alternate translation: “and with tar” or “and with resin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

87

EXO

2

3

y8gq

translate-unknown

בַּסּ֖וּף

1

reeds

These reeds were a type of tall grass with wide blades that formed a flat surface when woven together. They grew in flat, wet areas. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

88

EXO

2

4

av8b

וַתֵּתַצַּ֥ב אֲחֹת֖וֹ מֵרָחֹ֑ק

1

at a distance

This means she stood far enough away so that she would not be noticed, but close enough to see the ark. Use a word that expresses this sort of distance in your language.

89

EXO

2

4

uf14

figs-abstractnouns

מֵרָחֹ֑ק

1

This probably means somewhere in the reeds where she could see the basket, but no one would see her. If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun distance in another way. Alternate translation: “not far away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

90

EXO

2

4

ruvb

translate-kinship

אֲחֹת֖וֹ

1

Here, the actions of his sister show that she was older. If your language uses a different term for siblings based on their relative ages or the gender of the siblings or both, use one that means “a boy’s older sister.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

91

EXO

2

4

z1cy

grammar-connect-logic-goal

לְדֵעָ֕ה מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֖ה לֽוֹ

1

This is her purpose in being close by. Use a natural way in your language for indicating purpose. Alternative translation: “in order to learn what would happen to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

92

EXO

2

5

m3i0

figs-go

וַתֵּ֤רֶד

1

Came down may be literal or figurative, as important places are often considered to be in a higher place. This means she came from her home, probably Pharaoh’s palace. If a perspective is required for Pharaoh’s daughter, you may choose go or come as works best in your language. “Come” is better as the scene is at the river and she comes to the scene location. However, you also need to consider your language’s way of introducing new participants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

93

EXO

2

5

y26h

writing-participants

וַתֵּ֤רֶד בַּת־פַּרְעֹה֙

1

The daughter of Pharaoh is introduced here as a new participant. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

94

EXO

2

5

jjke

writing-participants

וְנַעֲרֹתֶ֥יהָ

1

These women are introduced here as new participants; however, they are not mentioned again after this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

95

EXO

2

5

im0d

figs-metaphor

עַל־יַ֣ד הַיְאֹ֑ר

1

Here, hand is a metaphor for side or, as relating to a river, shore. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could simply translate the meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

96

EXO

2

5

bi7s

וְנַעֲרֹתֶ֥יהָ

1

her attendants

These were the young women whose job it was to be with her and make sure nothing bad happened to her.

97

EXO

2

5

am7g

writing-pronouns

וַתִּקָּחֶֽהָ

1

It is not clear who is meant by she here, either Pharaoh’s daughter or the servant. It is likely that Pharaoh’s daughter remains the subject. Alternative translation: “and she took the ark from her slave” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

98

EXO

2

6

g9n6

figs-exclamations

וְהִנֵּה

1

Behold

The word behold signals the surprising information that follows. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

99

EXO

2

6

tyub

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַתַּחְמֹ֣ל עָלָ֔יו

1

The text does not state exactly what caused her to have compassion on the baby. If a reason must be provided in your language, it should be connected to either his crying (this is the better option) or that he was a “good” baby (verse 2). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

100

EXO

2

6

jg0d

figs-quotemarks

מִיַּלְדֵ֥י הָֽעִבְרִ֖ים זֶֽה

1

This is a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. It seems to have been said loud enough for the baby’s sister to hear. There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

101

EXO

2

7

x5ja

וְקָרָ֤אתִי לָךְ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה מֵינֶ֔קֶת מִ֖ן הָעִבְרִיֹּ֑ת

1

This is a suggestive question. The child’s sister is hopeful that Pharaoh’s daughter does not yet have a plan for the baby beyond saving his life. However, it is still a true question, for without Pharaoh’s daughter’s permission, the child’s sister will not be able to fetch the woman. If your language has a way of forming questions that are also suggestions, use it here.

102

EXO

2

7

d7aj

מֵינֶ֔קֶת…וְתֵינִ֥ק

1

nurse

Here, nursing or to nurse means to feed with milk from the breast.

103

EXO

2

7

tqq9

grammar-connect-logic-goal

וְתֵינִ֥ק לָ֖ךְ אֶת־הַיָּֽלֶד

1

This is the purpose of the sister’s proposal. Use a natural way in your language for indicating purpose. Alternative translation: “And she could nurse the infant for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

104

EXO

2

8

ab1m

figs-go

לֵ֑כִי…וַתֵּ֨לֶךְ֙

1

The girl left Pharaoh’s daughter to go to the child’s mother. The girl was almost certainly on foot. Use verbs of motion that express this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

105

EXO

2

9

u554

writing-participants

לָ֣הּ

1

The child’s mother is reintroduced as a participant. Use the natural form in your language for reintroducing a character. Alternative translation: “to the baby’s mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

106

EXO

2

9

mogg

שְׂכָרֵ֑ךְ

1

This refers to payment that Pharaoh’s daughter would give to the mother in exchange for her service of nursing the baby.

107

EXO

2

9

hqsa

figs-explicit

וַתִּקַּ֧ח…וַתְּנִיקֵֽהוּ

1

The mother’s acceptance of the deal is implied. You could make it explicit, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

108

EXO

2

10

zj8h

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וַיִגְדַּ֣ל הַיֶּ֗לֶד וַתְּבִאֵ֨הוּ֙

1

she brought him

And the child grew older marks an unspecified amount of time. He would have stayed with his mother at least until he was weaned (no longer feeding on his mother’s milk). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

109

EXO

2

10

j7n1

וַֽיְהִי־לָ֖הּ לְבֵ֑ן

1

he became her son

Alternate translation: “and he became the adopted son of Pharaoh’s daughter”

110

EXO

2

10

h7to

grammar-connect-time-simultaneous

וַֽיְהִי־לָ֖הּ לְבֵ֑ן וַתִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמוֹ֙ מֹשֶׁ֔ה

1

These events were likely simultaneous, because her act of naming him may have been what made him become as a son to her. Consider using a conjunction that does not make a great separation between these events. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])

111

EXO

2

10

nh2m

מֹשֶׁ֔ה וַתֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י מִן־הַמַּ֖יִם מְשִׁיתִֽהוּ

1

Because I drew him from the water

Translators may add a footnote that says, “The name Moses sounds like the Hebrew word that means ‘draw out.’”

112

EXO

2

10

ityq

figs-quotations

וַתֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י מִן־הַמַּ֖יִם מְשִׁיתִֽהוּ

1

For begins a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “because she said she drew him out of the water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

113

EXO

2

11

tyol

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיִּגְדַּ֤ל מֹשֶׁה֙ וַיֵּצֵ֣א

1

A significant amount of time has passed; later texts state that Moses was 40 years old at this point. Alternative translation: “Many years later, once Moses was grown, he went out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

114

EXO

2

11

p7gx

writing-newevent

וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗

1

This introduces a new event in the story. In your language, use a phrase that indicates a new event occurring after significant time has passed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

115

EXO

2

11

uy39

figs-go

וַיֵּצֵ֣א

1

The UST supplies a probable location that he went out from; it could also have been simply out from the Egyptian area or out to the work area or cities. Use go or come as appropriate in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

116

EXO

2

11

swn3

מַכֶּ֥ה אִישׁ־עִבְרִ֖י

1

striking a Hebrew

Alternate translation: “hitting a Hebrew” or “beating a Hebrew”

117

EXO

2

12

m9bn

figs-merism

וַיִּ֤פֶן כֹּה֙ וָכֹ֔ה

1

He looked this way and that way

These two opposite directions have the combined meaning of “everywhere.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “He looked all around” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

118

EXO

2

12

rmgn

figs-explicit

וַיַּךְ֙

1

The context makes clear that Moses struck the Egyptian hard enough or repeatedly until Moses killed him. Consider using a word that indicates a deadly blow. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

119

EXO

2

13

qn45

figs-go

וַיֵּצֵא֙

1

He went out

See how you translated this in Exodus 2:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

120

EXO

2

13

wqrm

translate-ordinal

הַשֵּׁנִ֔י

1

The ordinal number here could mean “the next day” (UST) or simply on some day following the events of the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

121

EXO

2

13

rgn1

figs-exclamations

וְהִנֵּ֛ה

1

behold

Here, behold shows that Moses was surprised by what he saw. You can use a word in your language that will give this meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

122

EXO

2

13

i4d6

לָֽרָשָׁ֔ע

1

the one who was in the wrong

Based on Moses’ question, this means the aggressor or the man wrongfully attacking his neighbor. Alternate translation: “the man who was guilty of starting the fight”

123

EXO

2

14

qb2n

figs-rquestion

מִ֣י שָֽׂמְךָ֞ לְאִ֨ישׁ שַׂ֤ר וְשֹׁפֵט֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ

1

Who made you a leader and judge over us?

The man is not asking a question, he is using this question to rebuke Moses for intervening in the fight. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You are not our leader and have no right to judge us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

124

EXO

2

14

k6s5

figs-irony

הַלְהָרְגֵ֨נִי֙ אַתָּ֣ה אֹמֵ֔ר כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרַ֖גְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִ֑י

1

Are you planning to kill me as you killed that Egyptian?

The man used a question here to be sarcastic. Alternate translation: “We know that you killed an Egyptian yesterday. You had better not kill me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

125

EXO

2

14

l62d

figs-rquestion

הַלְהָרְגֵ֨נִי֙ אַתָּ֣ה אֹמֵ֔ר כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָרַ֖גְתָּ אֶת־הַמִּצְרִ֑י

1

Again, the man asks a question that is intended to make a statement. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Do you think you could kill me without anyone finding out? We know what you did to the Egyptian” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

126

EXO

2

14

d2ja

הַלְהָרְגֵ֨נִי֙ אַתָּ֣ה אֹמֵ֔ר

1

Alternate translation: “Are you planning to kill me” or “Are you threatening to kill me”

127

EXO

2

14

lyqh

figs-aside

וַיֹּאמַ֔ר

1

Certainly the thing is known was likely something Moses said to himself, that is, he thought it to himself rather than speaking to the men in front of him. If this would be confusing in your language, you might introduce it as a thought. Alternate translation: “and thought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-aside]])

128

EXO

2

14

vfw5

figs-quotations

וַיֹּאמַ֔ר אָכֵ֖ן נוֹדַ֥ע הַדָּבָֽר

1

It may be clearer to present what was likely a thought Moses had as an indirect quotation. Alternative translation (as indirect quotation): “because he thought that everyone knew what he had done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

129

EXO

2

15

yutr

וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ לַהֲרֹ֣ג אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֑ה

1

Pharaoh most likely delegated this task. Alternative translation: “and he sought to have Moses killed” (note that the passive form will not work in every language)

130

EXO

2

15

l5rc

figs-metonymy

מִפְּנֵ֣י

1

His face means his presence. Alternate translation: “from” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

131

EXO

2

15

otsl

וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב…וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב

1

In Hebrew, these are the same verb. In English, they could be translated as “settle,” which can mean to dwell in a certain place, but it can also mean to lower one’s body into a seated position. This could mean: (1) Moses lived in Midian. He sat by this well one day. This may have been the well for the town he lived in. (2) Moses lived in Midian. His home was by this well. (3) Moses was a wanderer. He was in Midian and sat by this well when the next event occurred.

132

EXO

2

16

shg5

writing-background

וּלְכֹהֵ֥ן מִדְיָ֖ן שֶׁ֣בַע בָּנ֑וֹת

1

Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters

This sentence is background information. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

133

EXO

2

16

pjzc

writing-newevent

וּלְכֹהֵ֥ן מִדְיָ֖ן שֶׁ֣בַע בָּנ֑וֹת

1

This sentence marks a scene transition. However, the last clause of the previous verse (“and he sat down by a well”) seems to be related to this new scene, so you may want to make your transition before that, as is done in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

134

EXO

2

16

cfe5

writing-participants

בָּנ֑וֹת

1

The daughters are new participants. Use the natural form in your language for introducing new characters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

135

EXO

2

16

sm8f

figs-go

וַתָּבֹ֣אנָה

1

The perspective of the narrative is set at the well. The daughters came from elsewhere to the well. They were probably on foot. Here each language will need to choose the appropriate motion word. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

136

EXO

2

16

esdm

translate-numbers

שֶׁ֣בַע

1

7 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

137

EXO

2

16

i2jh

וַתִּדְלֶ֗נָה

1

drew water

This means that they brought up water from a well.

138

EXO

2

16

g1e6

translate-unknown

הָ֣רְהָטִ֔ים

1

troughs

The troughs were long, narrow, open containers for animals to eat or drink out of. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

139

EXO

2

17

k5yc

figs-go

וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ

1

A group of men came. They may not have been far away before coming and driving the women away. Use an appropriate form of moving verb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

140

EXO

2

17

zksv

writing-participants

הָרֹעִ֖ים

1

These are new characters only seen briefly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

141

EXO

2

17

z17m

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

וַיָּ֤קָם

1

helped them

Use an expression that communicates that what Moses did was unexpected. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

142

EXO

2

18

omzv

figs-go

וַתָּבֹ֕אנָה

1

The daughters came from the well to their father, probably on foot. You can use either come or go, whichever is more natural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

143

EXO

2

18

t78y

translate-names

רְעוּאֵ֖ל

1

Reuel, a name or perhaps a title, is used of the man only here and in Numbers 10:29. He is otherwise called “Jethro.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

144

EXO

2

18

juqu

writing-participants

רְעוּאֵ֖ל

1

The priest of Midian was mentioned in v. 16 in a background statement but is a new character starting here. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

145

EXO

2

18

lukb

figs-quotations

וַיֹּ֕אמֶר מַדּ֛וּעַ מִהַרְתֶּ֥ן בֹּ֖א הַיּֽוֹם

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “and he asked how they were able to return so quickly that day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

146

EXO

2

18

hq6y

figs-go

בֹּ֖א

1

Alternative translation: “in returning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

147

EXO

2

19

w57e

אִ֣ישׁ מִצְרִ֔י

1

Jethro’s daughters assume Moses was Egyptian. When you translate it, you should be clear that this refers to Moses.

148

EXO

2

19

hvb4

figs-metonymy

מִיַּ֣ד

1

Here, hand figuratively refers to the power, control, or actions of the shepherds. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternative translation: “from the strength of” or “from the harm of” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

149

EXO

2

19

a7v2

figs-idiom

דָּלֹ֤ה דָלָה֙

1

This expresses surprise or emphasizes the magnitude of Moses’ act of kindness to the women. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

150

EXO

2

20

x9yb

figs-rquestion

וְאַיּ֑וֹ לָ֤מָּה זֶּה֙ עֲזַבְתֶּ֣ן אֶת־הָאִ֔ישׁ

1

Why did you leave the man?

These questions are a mild rebuke to the daughters for not inviting Moses into their home according to the normal hospitality of that culture. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You should not have left this man at the well!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

151

EXO

2

20

mb8w

writing-pronouns

ל֖וֹ

1

Here, him refers to Moses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

152

EXO

2

20

hal8

figs-synecdoche

לָֽחֶם

1

Here, bread is used to refer to food in general. If this would be misunderstood in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your culture or plain language. Alternative translation: “food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

153

EXO

2

21

zvr1

וַיּ֥וֹאֶל מֹשֶׁ֖ה לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ

1

Moses agreed to stay with the man

Alternate translation: “Moses agreed to live with Reuel”

154

EXO

2

21

y3q7

translate-names

צִפֹּרָ֥ה

1

Zipporah

Zipporah is Reuel’s (Jethro’s) daughter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

155

EXO

2

22

l3xg

figs-quotemarks

גֵּ֣ר הָיִ֔יתִי בְּאֶ֖רֶץ נָכְרִיָּֽה

1

Only this portion is a quotation. As a possibility for clarity, the UST includes both speech events as one quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

156

EXO

2

22

f76m

translate-names

גֵּרְשֹׁ֑ם

1

His name, Gershom, sounds somewhat like the Hebrew for “a stranger here.” You may consider using a footnote to explain that. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

157

EXO

2

22

q7d8

גֵּ֣ר הָיִ֔יתִי בְּאֶ֖רֶץ נָכְרִיָּֽה

1

resident in a foreign land

Alternate translation: “stranger in a foreign land”

158

EXO

2

23

fjkt

writing-newevent

וַיְהִי֩ בַיָּמִ֨ים הָֽרַבִּ֜ים הָהֵ֗ם וַיָּ֨מָת֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מִצְרַ֔יִם

1

This introduces a new section and series of events. A large amount of time went by. According to Stephen’s sermon in Acts 7:30, Moses was in Midian 40 years. Alternative translation: “This is what happened during the many days Moses was in Midian. The king of Egypt died.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

159

EXO

2

23

ym88

writing-background

0

Verses 23-25 give a summary of what happened in Egypt and with the Israelites and God while Moses was in exile. These verses give background information to set the scene. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

160

EXO

2

23

csg2

וַיֵּאָנְח֧וּ

1

groaned

They groaned because of their sorrow and misery. Alternate translation: “sighed deeply”

161

EXO

2

23

x84a

figs-personification

וַתַּ֧עַל שַׁוְעָתָ֛ם אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים

1

their pleas went up to God

The plea of the Israelites are spoken of as if they were a person and were able to travel up to where God is. If this might be confusing for your readers, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “and God heard their pleading” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

162

EXO

2

24

sja4

figs-idiom

וַיִּזְכֹּ֤ר אֱלֹהִים֙

1

God called to mind his covenant

This a common biblical way of saying that God thought about what He had promised. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language. Alternate translation: “and God recalled” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

163

EXO

3

intro

n6ze

0

Exodus 03 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

This chapter is one conversation in which Yahweh begins to commission and send Moses to rescue the Israelites.

This chapter records one of the most important events in the history of the Israelite people: the revelation of the name Yahweh at the burning bush. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/reveal]])

Special Concepts in this Chapter

God’s holiness

God is so holy that people can not look upon him without dying. This is why Moses covered his eyes. It is also why he took off his shoes. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Yahweh

The name Yahweh is the personal name of God, which he revealed to Moses. Yahweh is probably related to the phrase “I am” which he tells Moses in verse 14. Some translations use all capitals to set this apart: “I AM.” Great care must be taken in translating the phrase “I am that I am.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/yahweh]])

Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Participants

“The angel of Yahweh,” “Yahweh,” and “God” all appear to be speaking to Moses and interacting with him from the burning bush. Furthermore, God says that his name is “I AM.” (See note above on Yahweh and I AM.) Yahweh and God are the same, while there is speculation about who the angel of Yahweh is.

164

EXO

3

1

gqvh

writing-newevent

וּמֹשֶׁ֗ה הָיָ֥ה רֹעֶ֛ה

1

This phrase brings the story focus back to Midian and Moses. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

165

EXO

3

1

oqcr

writing-background

0

Verse 1 provides immediate background context, setting the scene for Moses’ interaction with Yahweh. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

166

EXO

3

1

l7x6

figs-possession

כֹּהֵ֣ן מִדְיָ֑ן

1

This is a possessive of social relationship. Jethro is a priest who serves the Midianites. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

167

EXO

3

1

v97t

figs-go

וַיָּבֹ֛א אֶל

1

Alternate translation: “and he arrived at” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

168

EXO

3

1

p27s

figs-possession

הַ֥ר הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים

1

This is an associative possessive. This mountain was associated with God in some way. In Exodus 3:12 God tells Moses that he and the Israelites will serve him on this mountain. Later in the story, this promise is fulfilled, and it is where God makes his covenant with Israel and gives them the 10 Commandments. So it may have been called the mountain of God in retrospect (as Moses probably wrote this book sometime after the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness). However, it is possible that the mountain was already somehow associated with God’s presence or worship before Moses went there with the flock. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

169

EXO

3

2

p0nt

וַ֠יֵּרָא מַלְאַ֨ךְ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֵלָ֛יו בְּלַבַּת־אֵ֖שׁ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַסְּנֶ֑ה

1

This is a summary of what happened. The next few verses tell the story of how this happened and how Moses discovered what was happening.

170

EXO

3

2

x5ci

יְהֹוָ֥ה

1

Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

171

EXO

3

2

d3tf

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

וְהִנֵּ֤ה הַסְּנֶה֙ בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֔שׁ וְהַסְּנֶ֖ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ אֻכָּֽל

1

behold

The word behold here shows that Moses saw something that was very different from what he expected. He expected the bush to be burnt up completely by the fire. Consider using an interjection in your language that expresses that what follows is a surprise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

172

EXO

3

2

jmz0

figs-metonymy

אֻכָּֽל

1

Here, being consumed means being eaten completely until gone. In the case of fire, this is a metonym for burning completely until gone. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “destroyed by the fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

173

EXO

3

3

fpww

figs-quotemarks

אָסֻֽרָה־נָּ֣א וְאֶרְאֶ֔ה אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶ֥ה הַגָּדֹ֖ל הַזֶּ֑ה מַדּ֖וּעַ לֹא־יִבְעַ֥ר הַסְּנֶֽה

1

This is a direct quote. It’s not specified who Moses spoke to; he may have been alone or with a group of shepherds or his family. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes unless there is something unique about them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

174

EXO

3

3

jbue

figs-abstractnouns

אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶ֥ה הַגָּדֹ֖ל

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for something strange that someone sees, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun sight in another way. Alternate translation: “unusual thing that I see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

175

EXO

3

4

ue8v

יְהוָ֖ה…אֱלֹהִ֜ים

1

These terms both refer to the same being, since God’s name is Yahweh.

176

EXO

3

5

prv9

grammar-connect-logic-result

כִּ֣י הַמָּק֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ עוֹמֵ֣ד עָלָ֔יו אַדְמַת־קֹ֖דֶשׁ הֽוּא

1

set apart

This is the reason Moses must stop coming close to the burning bush and take off his sandals. If it would be more natural in your language, you could put the reason before the commands, as in, “The place on which you are standing, it is holy ground, so you must not come close to here. Take your sandals off from on your feet.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

177

EXO

3

6

sxk8

אָנֹכִי֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵאלֹהֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֑ב

1

the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob

All of these men worshiped the same God. Alternate translation: “the God of your father, of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob”

178

EXO

3

6

fgym

figs-quotemarks

אָנֹכִי֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י אָבִ֔יךָ אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵאלֹהֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֑ב

1

This a direct quotation. The UST continues the quotation from verse 5 rather than including an additional “he said.” This may be more natural in some languages. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate the direct quotation with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

179

EXO

3

6

l5sy

אָבִ֔יךָ

1

your father

This could mean (1) “your father,” if it means “your father,” then it refers to Moses’ own father (2) “your ancestor,” if it means “your ancestor,” then the phrases following it clarify who “your father” refers to: it refers to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. In most cases, it will be best to translate it as “your father,” i.e. Amram, Moses’ father.

180

EXO

3

6

lfbb

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַיַּסְתֵּ֤ר מֹשֶׁה֙ פָּנָ֔יו כִּ֣י יָרֵ֔א מֵהַבִּ֖יט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִֽים

1

Reason: for he was afraid from staring toward God Result: And Moses hid his face If it would be more natural in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the result that the first phrase describes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]] and Exodus 33:20)

181

EXO

3

7

nl33

figs-quotemarks

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה

1

After this phrase, a direct quote begins that continues through the end of verse 10. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening first-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

182

EXO

3

7

xoz0

figs-idiom

רָאֹ֥ה רָאִ֛יתִי

1

The Hebrew practice of verb repetition for intensification cannot be directly translated into English. Here, “see” is repeated in Hebrew. This expresses the intensity, certainty, or clarity of Yahweh’s having seen how his people were suffering. Use a natural form of strengthening a verb from your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

183

EXO

3

7

tpk0

figs-possession

אֶת־עֳנִ֥י עַמִּ֖י

1

There are two possessives here: (1) “affliction of … people”: This is an event-related possessive where the people are the objects of affliction. They are treated badly as slaves. (2) “my people”: This one is more difficult as it involves both ownership and the possessive of social relationship. God views his people as his possession, and he is also in relationship with them as their God because they are descended from Abraham, though at this time they may not know God as theirs. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

184

EXO

3

7

nbft

figs-abstractnouns

עֳנִ֥י עַמִּ֖י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun affliction in another way. Alternate translation: “how my people who are in Egypt are afflicted” or “how the Egyptians afflict my people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

185

EXO

3

7

p3tx

figs-metonymy

מִפְּנֵ֣י נֹֽגְשָׂ֔יו

1

Here, faces refers to the whole person or the presence of the person(s) who were oppressing the Israelites. If this image is used in your language, you may translate it. If a similar image is used, you may consider using it. If neither is the case, you may omit the word “face” and translate the meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

186

EXO

3

7

xx7r

נֹֽגְשָׂ֔יו

1

taskmasters

Alternate translation: “his oppressors”

187

EXO

3

7

ofxt

כִּ֥י

1

Here, surely is intensifying the expression of Yahweh’s knowledge. Your translation should express Yahweh’s knowing with certainty or strength.

188

EXO

3

7

mfn2

grammar-collectivenouns

נֹֽגְשָׂ֔יו…מַכְאֹבָֽיו

1

These pronouns, him and his, refer to the Israelites as a group in the singular. They agree with “people” as a collective noun in 3:6. Some languages may have to use plural pronouns. Others may have to match the pronoun’s gender to the grammatical gender of the word for “people” in their language. If necessary, change “him” to “them” or change “his” to “hers” or “its” (depending on grammatical gender of “people.”) Alternate translation: “those who oppress them … their anguish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

189

EXO

3

7

hkcj

figs-possession

מַכְאֹבָֽיו

1

This is an event-related possessive where the people (as a group: his) are the subjects of anguish. Your translation should express that they are deeply distressed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

190

EXO

3

7

ui28

figs-explicit

מַכְאֹבָֽיו

1

It is implied that they are deeply distressed because they are treated badly as slaves. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. Alternate translation: “his anguish from his slavery” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

191

EXO

3

7

zth8

figs-abstractnouns

מַכְאֹבָֽיו

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun anguish in another way. Alternate translation: “how distressed they are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

192

EXO

3

8

a1yv

grammar-connect-logic-result

0

Verse 8 contains God’s intended result from his acts of seeing and hearing, expressed in both verses 7 and 9. You may need to expressly mark this, for instance by introducing verse 8 with something like “Therefore,” and verse 9 with something like “Again, because.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

193

EXO

3

8

xy36

figs-go

וָאֵרֵ֞ד

1

God is figuratively expressing that he is descending from heaven to earth to intervene. God is always everywhere, but this phrase means that his special attention will be directed to this situation. Use whatever form of come or go is appropriate in your language for this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

194

EXO

3

8

nahb

grammar-collectivenouns

לְהַצִּיל֣וֹ…וּֽלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ֮

1

Here, him refers in the singular to the Israelites as a group. It is agreeing with “people” as a collective noun in 3:6. Some languages may have to use plural pronouns. Others may have to match the pronoun’s gender to the grammatical gender of the word for “people” in their language. See what you did in the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

195

EXO

3

8

bi4e

figs-metaphor

מִיַּ֣ד

1

Someone’s hand is a common Biblical metaphor for power and control. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

196

EXO

3

8

djbz

figs-possession

מִיַּ֣ד מִצְרַ֗יִם

1

This is a possessive where the Egyptians are the subject of the hand, which means power. The Egyptians used their power and control to oppress the Israelites. Use a phrase in your language that expresses the idea of a group of people having power. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

197

EXO

3

8

mqyp

figs-parallelism

אֶל־אֶ֤רֶץ טוֹבָה֙ וּרְחָבָ֔ה אֶל־אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ

1

There are multiple levels of parallelism here. First, the statements, to a good and wide land and to a land flowing with milk and honey are in parallel with each other. Within each of those, good and wide are in parallel with each other, and milk and honeyare in parallel with each other. Each of these levels is meant to reinforce and expand upon one another. These are not examples of synonymous parallelism, and each part of the statement should be translated. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

198

EXO

3

8

xs87

figs-metonymy

חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ

1

Here, milk is a metonym for domestic animals and the food products obtained from them; honey is a metonym for the food obtained from growing plants. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. The next note explains further. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

199

EXO

3

8

pxy8

figs-metaphor

אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָ֑שׁ

1

a land flowing with milk and honey

God spoke of the land being good for animals and plants as if the milk and honey from those animals and plants were flowing through the land. If this metaphor makes sense in your language, you may translate it. If your language has metaphors that mean a land is good for producing healthy livestock and good crops, you may consider using those. If neither is the case, you may translate the meaning. See UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

200

EXO

3

8

dtz9

זָבַ֥ת

1

flowing with

Alternate translation: “full of” or “with an abundance of”

201

EXO

3

8

q94i

figs-metonymy

חָלָ֖ב

1

milk

Since milk comes from cows and goats, this represents food produced by livestock. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “food from livestock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

202

EXO

3

8

l1as

figs-metonymy

וּדְבָ֑שׁ

1

honey

Since honey is produced from flowers, this represents food from crops. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “food from crops” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

203

EXO

3

9

a2kf

figs-parallelism

0

This verse parallels verse 7. Yahweh is restating that the Israelite’s plight has gotten his attention. This creates emphasis and connection to what Yahweh will do with what Moses will do as Yahweh’s appointed leader. If this repetition would confuse your readers consider a paragraph break at the start of this verse to separate the two parallel statements or use some other strategy of emphasis and connection that is natural in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

204

EXO

3

9

tp2v

figs-exclamations

הִנֵּ֛ה

1

This is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. If there is not a good way to translate this term in your language, this term can be omitted from the translation, or you can use an alternate translation like “certainly.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

205

EXO

3

9

uup9

figs-personification

צַעֲקַ֥ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בָּ֣אָה אֵלָ֑י

1

the shouts of the people of Israel have come to me

Here, the cry is spoken of as if it were a person who is capable of moving on his own. If this might be confusing for your readers, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “I have heard the cries of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

206

EXO

3

9

gwou

figs-abstractnouns

רָאִ֨יתִי֙ אֶת־הַלַּ֔חַץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִצְרַ֖יִם לֹחֲצִ֥ים אֹתָֽם

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun oppression in another way. Alternate translation: “I have seen how the Egyptians are oppressing them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

207

EXO

3

10

y4m1

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְעַתָּ֣ה

1

And now functions as a discourse marker expressing logical conclusion. “So then,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

208

EXO

3

11

y8cr

figs-rquestion

מִ֣י אָנֹ֔כִי כִּ֥י אֵלֵ֖ךְ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה וְכִ֥י אוֹצִ֛יא אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם

1

Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh…Egypt?

Moses uses this question to tell God that he, Moses, is not the right person for the task. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

209

EXO

3

12

xugf

figs-youdual

תַּֽעַבְדוּן֙

1

If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

210

EXO

3

13

lqms

grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical

הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֣י בָא֮ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְאָמַרְתִּ֣י לָהֶ֔ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם וְאָֽמְרוּ־לִ֣י מַה־שְּׁמ֔וֹ

1

Moses presents God with a hypothetical situation here. The three events (go, say, say) are part of one hypothetical event. You should translate this in a way that makes it clear that this is a future, not-yet-real event. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical]])

211

EXO

3

13

jq42

הִנֵּ֨ה

1

Behold is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. In this case, Moses uses it to introduce what he views as a probable future occurrence. Alternative translation: “Now”

212

EXO

3

13

e03n

figs-go

בָא֮

1

In your language, use go or “come” as makes most sense for Moses’ hypothetical action of going from the mountain to where the Israelites are. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

213

EXO

3

13

m9uy

figs-quotesinquotes

אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם

1

This is a second-level quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with second-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation inside a quotation. However, you may also choose to translate it as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “that the God of their fathers has sent me to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

214

EXO

3

13

ru0a

figs-metonymy

אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֖ם

1

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “The God of your ancestors” or “The God whom your ancestors worshiped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

215

EXO

3

13

bkei

grammar-connect-logic-result

מָ֥ה אֹמַ֖ר אֲלֵהֶֽם

1

Moses is asking God what he should do as a result of the hypothetical situation he presented. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

216

EXO

3

14

cli8

אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה

1

God said to Moses, “I AM THAT I AM.”

This is God’s response to Moses’ question about God’s name. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “God said to Moses, ‘Tell them that God says his name is “I AM THAT I AM.”’”

217

EXO

3

14

b6vk

אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה

1

I AM THAT I AM

This could mean: (1) this whole sentence is God’s name or (2) God is not telling his name but something about himself. By saying this, God is teaching that he is eternal; he has always lived and always will live.

218

EXO

3

14

s62u

אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה…אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה…אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה

1

I AM

Languages that do not have an equivalent to the verb “am” may need to render this as “I LIVE” or “I EXIST.”

219

EXO

3

14

t745

וַיֹּ֗אמֶר

1

This indicates that God is still speaking. It may make more sense to omit this in some languages.

220

EXO

3

14

vigc

figs-quotesinquotes

אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה שְׁלָחַ֥נִי אֲלֵיכֶֽם

1

This is a second-level quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with second-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation inside a quotation. However, you may also choose to translate it as an indirect quotation, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

221

EXO

3

15

ubw7

וַיֹּאמֶר֩ ע֨וֹד אֱלֹהִ֜ים אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה

1

As God is still speaking, it may make more sense to omit this in some languages.

222

EXO

3

15

i6lg

figs-quotemarks

אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה

1

After this phrase, a direct quotation begins that continues until the end of chapter 3 at verse 22. This section contains four levels of quotations as God tells Moses to tell the Israelite elders a specific message from God. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening first-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

223

EXO

3

15

l962

figs-quotesinquotes

יְהוָ֞ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֗ם אֱלֹהֵ֨י אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֛ק וֵאלֹהֵ֥י יַעֲקֹ֖ב שְׁלָחַ֣נִי אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם זֶה־שְּׁמִ֣י לְעֹלָ֔ם וְזֶ֥ה זִכְרִ֖י לְדֹ֥ר דֹּֽר

1

This is a second-level quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening second-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation within a quotation. It may be possible to translate it as an indirect quotation, but you will need to be careful to correctly change the pronoun persons. Alternative translation: “You must tell the Israelites that Yahweh, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, sent you to them. This is his name forever, and this is his memorial from generation to generation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

224

EXO

3

15

d91k

figs-metonymy

אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֗ם

1

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “the God of your ancestors” or “the God whom your ancestors worshiped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

225

EXO

3

15

ixcb

figs-merism

לְדֹ֥ר דֹּֽר

1

The repetition of generation is indicating “to each and every generation” which figuratively means “for all people at all times.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

226

EXO

3

16

ec3v

figs-quotemarks

יְהוָ֞ה

1

General Information:

This begins a second-level quotation that continues until the end of verse 17. It contains a third-level quotation that begins at “I have certainly” and also continues to the end of verse 17. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening second-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation within a quotation. The closing marks for both the second and third-level quotations should not occur until the end of verse 17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

227

EXO

3

16

usas

figs-metonymy

אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹֽתֵיכֶם֙

1

Here, fathers figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “the God of your ancestors” or “the God whom your ancestors worshiped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

228

EXO

3

16

xqy9

אַבְרָהָ֛ם יִצְחָ֥ק וְיַעֲקֹ֖ב

1

the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were three of the Israelites’ ancestors. They all worshiped the same God.

229

EXO

3

16

dvsz

figs-quotemarks

פָּקֹ֤ד פָּקַ֨דְתִּי֙

1

This begins a third-level quotation that continues until the end of verse 17. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening third-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation within a quotation that is within a quotation. The closing marks for both the second-level and third-level quotations should not occur until the end of verse 17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

230

EXO

3

16

efhh

figs-idiom

פָּקֹ֤ד פָּקַ֨דְתִּי֙

1

The word translated attended often means God is coming to take action. Translate this phrase in a way that communicates God’s focused, caring observation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

231

EXO

3

16

p258

figs-idiom

פָּקֹ֤ד פָּקַ֨דְתִּי֙

1

Here, attended is repeated in Hebrew. The Hebrew practice of verb repetition for intensification cannot be directly translated into English. This expresses the intensity, certainty, or clarity of Yahweh’s having attended to how his people were suffering. Use a natural form of strengthening a verb from your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

232

EXO

3

16

fv77

figs-youdual

אֶתְכֶ֔ם

1

I have indeed observed you

The word you refers to the people of Israel. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

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q4en

figs-activepassive

הֶעָשׂ֥וּי

1

The focus of this passive is the mistreatment being done to the Israelites, not on who is doing it. In fact, in Egypt further dissociates the actors from this sentence. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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16

johw

figs-metonymy

בְּמִצְרָֽיִם

1

The phrase in Egypt is a metonym for the Egyptian oppressors. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternative translation: “by the Egyptians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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eloj

figs-quotemarks

0

If you are using direct quotations, at the end of this verse you should have three closing markers. In English, it looks like ’ ” ’ (without spaces). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

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c54k

figs-quotesinquotes

אַעֲלֶ֣ה אֶתְכֶם֮ מֵעֳנִ֣י מִצְרַיִם֒ אֶל־אֶ֤רֶץ הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַפְּרִזִּ֔י וְהַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י אֶל־אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ

1

This is a fourth-level quotation. It should be marked in some manner that distinguishes it from the outer three levels. Alternatively, it can be translated as an indirect quotation, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

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3

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r8mg

figs-idiom

אַעֲלֶ֣ה

1

Regardless of the geographic realities, to bring up does not primarily have a literal meaning. Rather, it means to bring the Israelites into a better situation. God promised to bring them up from their low status as slaves to a place where they would be the masters of a good land. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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3

17

x1o0

figs-abstractnouns

מֵעֳנִ֣י

1

See how you translated affliction in 3:7. Alternate translation: “from being afflicted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

239

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3

17

wyvt

figs-metonymy

חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ

1

Here, milk is a metonym for domestic animals and the food products obtained from them; honey is a metonym for the food obtained from growing plants. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. The next note explains further. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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3

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pwn5

figs-metaphor

אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ

1

a land flowing with milk and honey

God spoke of the land being good for animals and plants as if the milk and honey from those animals and plants were flowing through the land. See how you translated this in Exodus 3:8. Alternate translation: “a land that is excellent for raising livestock and growing crops” or “a land where milk and honey flow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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17

za9l

זָבַ֥ת

1

flowing with

Alternate translation: “full of” or “with an abundance of”

242

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3

17

rtr5

figs-metonymy

חָלָ֖ב

1

milk

Since milk comes from cows and goats, this represents food produced by livestock. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “food from livestock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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3

17

msf8

figs-metonymy

וּדְבָֽשׁ

1

honey

Since honey is produced from flowers, this represents food from crops. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “food from crops” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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EXO

3

18

cy2z

figs-idiom

וְשָׁמְע֖וּ לְקֹלֶ֑ךָ

1

Listen often means “hear and do/obey.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language. Alternative translation: “And they will pay attention to your voice” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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3

18

j24k

writing-pronouns

לְקֹלֶ֑ךָ…אַתָּה֩

1

They will listen to you

Here, your and you refers to Moses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

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3

18

w742

figs-synecdoche

לְקֹלֶ֑ךָ

1

This phrase means the elders will listen to the message Moses brings from God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate the meaning plainly. Alternative translation: “to your message” or “to my message which you tell them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

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3

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r74o

figs-possession

וְזִקְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל

1

This is a possessive of social relationship. Alternative translation: “elders in charge of the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

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3

18

eep7

grammar-collectivenouns

יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל

1

Israel is a collective noun that refers to all the Israelites. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternative translation: “the Israelites” or “the Israelite people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

249

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3

18

ot9r

figs-metonymy

מִצְרַ֗יִם

1

Here, Egypt refers to the Egyptian nation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the Egyptians” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

250

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3

18

idp7

figs-youdual

וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֤ם

1

General Information:

If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

251

EXO

3

18

i47o

figs-exclusive

עָלֵ֔ינוּ…נֵֽלֲכָה…וְנִזְבְּחָ֖ה

1

These instances of us are exclusive; they include Moses, the elders, and all the Israelites, but exclude the king of Egypt. Your language may require you to mark these forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

252

EXO

3

18

d85b

translate-numbers

שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת

1

Alternate translation: “3” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

253

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3

19

qf46

figs-metonymy

וְלֹ֖א בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה

1

unless his hand is forced

The word hand is a metonym for the power of the owner of the hand. There are two further difficulties: (1) Whose hand (power) is being referred to, (2) does the negative mean “not unless” or “not even?” Possible meanings include: (1) “only if he sees that he has no power to do anything else,” where the hand belongs to Pharaoh (2) “only if I force him to let you go,” where the hand belongs to Yahweh, taking “not unless” for the negative (3) “not even if I force him to let you go,” where the hand belongs to Yahweh, taking “not even” for the negative (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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3

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nuzx

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְשָׁלַחְתִּ֤י

1

God says this will be a result of the king of Egypt’s stubbornness. Alternate translation: “Therefore, I will send out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

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3

20

yds5

figs-metonymy

וְשָׁלַחְתִּ֤י אֶת־יָדִי֙

1

I will reach out with my hand and attack

Here, hand refers to God’s power. Alternate translation: “I will use my strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

256

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3

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dzsp

figs-metonymy

מִצְרַ֔יִם

1

Egypt refers to both the land and the people group, and then, by extension, to Pharaoh as well. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

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c9a3

מִצְרַ֔יִם…בְּקִרְבּ֑וֹ

1

Here, him refers to Egypt as a collective.

258

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3

20

g0i9

figs-abstractnouns

נִפְלְאֹתַ֔י

1

If your language does not use an abstract noun for this idea, you can express the idea behind the abstract noun wonders in another way. Alternate translation: “my amazing acts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

259

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3

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sqmt

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵ֖ן

1

Here the sequential nature of these happenings is emphasized. Consider using a stronger sequential connective term than usual here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

260

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3

20

ay53

writing-pronouns

יְשַׁלַּ֥ח

1

Here, he refers to the Pharaoh, the king of Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

261

EXO

3

20

awxs

figs-youdual

אֶתְכֶֽם

1

Here, you refers to the Israelites. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

262

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3

21

btwc

figs-idiom

חֵ֥ן…בְּעֵינֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם

1

In the eyes of the Egyptians is an idiom for the Egyptian’s feelings. Favor means those feelings are positive. Taken together, this means that when the Egyptians see the Israelites (Hebrews) leaving Egypt, they will gladly help them (because they want them to leave so badly due to the Egyptians suffering under God’s judgment). If your language has the same or a similar idiom, you can translate or use it. Otherwise, you can translate the meaning. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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3

21

hfrr

figs-possession

בְּעֵינֵ֣י מִצְרָ֑יִם

1

This is a part-whole possessive. Also, if your language uses a specific form of the possessive for things one cannot lose, it would be appropriate to use that form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

264

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3

21

s45u

הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה

1

Alternate translation: “you”

265

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3

21

uz3c

figs-youdual

תֵֽלֵכ֔וּן…תֵלְכ֖וּ

1

If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

266

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3

21

wymx

figs-go

תֵֽלֵכ֔וּן…תֵלְכ֖וּ

1

Alternate translation: “leave” or “go out” or “come out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

267

EXO

3

21

j9qz

figs-doublenegatives

לֹ֥א…רֵיקָֽם

1

The double negative, not … emptily is used to mean “full.” If this double negative would be misunderstood in your language, you could translate it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “[go] with many things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

268

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3

21

kt7b

figs-litotes

לֹ֥א תֵלְכ֖וּ רֵיקָֽם

1

will not go empty-handed

Here Yahweh uses a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “you will go with your hands full of good things” or “you will go with many valuable things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

269

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3

22

w2av

וּמִגָּרַ֣ת בֵּיתָ֔הּ

1

any women staying in her neighbors’ houses

The word, sojourning means living somewhere other than one’s native land, usually temporarily. It is unclear both who the sojourning (visiting) women are and in whose house they are sojourning, leaving several possibilities. Most translations which make a decision about who they are identify both the temporary resident and her host home as Egyptian. This makes sense as the Israelites will be plundering the Egyptians. If it is possible to leave this ambiguous in your translation, that would be best.

270

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3

22

fmfu

figs-youdual

וְשַׂמְתֶּ֗ם עַל־בְּנֵיכֶם֙ וְעַל־בְּנֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְנִצַּלְתֶּ֖ם

1

Each of these is a plural you. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

271

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3

22

h38j

figs-quotemarks

מִצְרָֽיִם

1

After this phrase, the direct quote of Yahweh’s word which started in verse 15 ends. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with a closing first-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the end of a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

272

EXO

4

intro

kap5

0

Exodus 04 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  • v. 1-17: Moses hesitates to obey so Yahweh gives Moses signs to prove his commission
  • v. 18-28: Moses goes back to Egypt
  • v. 29-31: Moses and Aaron meet with the Israelite leaders and tell them what Yahweh said

Potential Translation Issues

Quotations

  • There is a difficult transition between 4:4 and 4:5 because the quotation stops in the middle to inject a bit of narrative. When it resumes in 4:5,the sentence seems incomplete (even if merged directly with the quotation fragment in 4:4). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])* Yahweh’s instructions to Moses are complex, and there are up to four levels of quotations in this chapter. Translators will need to decide if some of these need to become indirect quotations (if that is possible in their language) and take great care to use the proper quotation markings in the proper locations.

Order of events

  • The order of events is not always clear. In 4:14 Yahweh tells Moses that Aaron is coming to meet him, but Yahweh telling Aaron to go meet Moses in the wilderness is not recorded until 4:27.
  • The timing of the events in 4:18\-4:27, especially verses 18-19 and 27 in relation to the rest of the events of the chapter, is unclear.

Thus says Yahweh

The first of over 400 occurrences throughout the Old Testament of a standard phrase used to introduce direct, authoritative instruction from Yahweh occurs in 4:22. It occurs ten times in the book of Exodus; nine of these are between chapters 4–11. It would be good for your team to have a standard way to translate this that makes it clear that the words that come next are directly from God. If your language has a standard way of introducing a new message from your leader that alerts the hearers that these are the words of the leader, that would be a good phrase to consider.

Yahweh’s attempt to kill someone

The encounter recorded from 4:24 to 4:26 is one of the strangest and most difficult passages in the entire book. Difficulties include:

  • To whom do the pronouns refer? Masculine pronouns are used throughout the section, but there are two possible antecedents, Moses (who is not named in the narrative) and Zipporah’s son (who was presumably also Moses’ son, but this is how he is referred to in this text. For why, see below on why Yahweh did this). Most commentators believe the pronouns refer to Moses.
  • Circumcision is described in fairly graphic detail. Different cultures will need to approach this differently. Some may have terms for circumcision, while others may be comfortable translating mostly literally, and others will need to use euphemisms or other strategies to translate. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/circumcise]])
  • The meaning of the phrase a bridegroom of blood (ULT) is unknown.
  • Why did Yahweh attack Moses? Many commentators conclude that Moses had neglected to circumcise one of his sons because it displeased Zipporah, and Yahweh was holding Moses responsible before he returned to lead the Israelites (who should have been circumcised). When Zipporah repented by circumcising the son herself and touching the foreskin to Moses’ feet, Yahweh relents. These conclusions should help inform translation but should not be made explicit in the text.

Study Concepts in this Chapter

Children of God

This chapter introduces the concept that Israel, the people group, is the chosen people of God and God’s firstborn son. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/elect]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/firstborn]])

Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart

Scholars are divided over how to understand this statement. There is debate over how Pharaoh has an active or passive role in the hardening of his own heart. Translators should simply follow the text. In Exodus 4-14 there are ten statements that Yahweh hardens Pharaoh’s heart, and ten statements that Pharaoh hardens his own heart. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

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4

1

j4yg

וַיַּ֤עַן מֹשֶׁה֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר

1

if they do not believe

Here, answered and said is a Hebrew expression which does not convey any extra information. Unless your language naturally uses a similar structure, it is better to translate one verb and omit the other. Alternate translation: “Moses answered”

274

EXO

4

1

b3xv

figs-quotemarks

וְהֵן֙ לֹֽא־יַאֲמִ֣ינוּ לִ֔י וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמְע֖וּ בְּקֹלִ֑י כִּ֣י יֹֽאמְר֔וּ לֹֽא־נִרְאָ֥ה אֵלֶ֖יךָ יְהוָֽה

1

This is a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation.There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes unless there is something unique about them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

275

EXO

4

1

pq8x

figs-metonymy

בְּקֹלִ֑י

1

See 3:18. Alternate translation: “to what I say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

276

EXO

4

1

neto

figs-quotesinquotes

לֹֽא־נִרְאָ֥ה אֵלֶ֖יךָ יְהוָֽה

1

This is a second-level quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with second-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation within a quotation. However, you could translate it as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “that Yahweh has not appeared to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

277

EXO

4

1

fu2x

וְהֵן֙

1

This is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. If there is not a good way to translate this term in your language, this term can be omitted from the translation, or you can use an alternate translation like “Listen to me.”

278

EXO

4

2

qmvk

writing-pronouns

אֵלָ֛יו…וַיֹּ֖אמֶר

1

Here, him and he refer to Moses. Alternate translation: “to Moses … And Moses said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

279

EXO

4

3

zycd

figs-metonymy

מִפָּנָֽיו

1

Here, “face” figuratively represents the snake itself. Alternative translation: “from the snake” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

280

EXO

4

4

g6bk

וֶאֱחֹ֖ז בִּזְנָב֑וֹ

1

take it by the tail

Alternate translation: “and pick it up by the tail” or “and grasp it by the tail”

281

EXO

4

4

bzmp

grammar-connect-time-sequential

שְׁלַח֙ יָֽדְךָ֔ וֶאֱחֹ֖ז בִּזְנָב֑וֹ

1

This direct quotation is interrupted by Moses obeying Yahweh. This is probably a tightly ordered sequence of events where Yahweh paused and then continued speaking immediately after Moses obeyed. The quote resumes in verse 5, and there is more discussion there about how to translate the quotation resumption. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

282

EXO

4

4

m86n

וַיְהִ֥י לְמַטֶּ֖ה

1

became a staff

Alternate translation: “and it turned into a rod” or “and it changed into a staff”

283

EXO

4

5

l4tn

figs-quotemarks

לְמַ֣עַן יַאֲמִ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־נִרְאָ֥ה אֵלֶ֛יךָ יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתָ֑ם אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵאלֹהֵ֥י יַעֲקֹֽב

1

This continues the direct quotation from the first part of verse 4. It may be more natural to reorganize verses four and five to keep the quote together. If you rearrange like this, Moses picking up the snake/staff should come after the full quotation. However, it is better to do something similar to the UST, which restates that Yahweh is speaking and provides some implied directives from Yahweh to make a complete sentence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

284

EXO

4

5

m4fk

figs-ellipsis

לְמַ֣עַן יַאֲמִ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־נִרְאָ֥ה אֵלֶ֛יךָ יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתָ֑ם אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵאלֹהֵ֥י יַעֲקֹֽב

1

This quote is not a complete sentence; the UST provides a clarification. If it would be helpful in your language, you could supply these words from the context. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

285

EXO

4

5

zbfr

writing-pronouns

יַאֲמִ֔ינוּ…אֲבֹתָ֑ם

1

Here, them and their refer either to the Israelites or to the Israelite elders. God had instructed Moses to gather and speak to the elders; if you make this participant explicit, elders is a better option. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

286

EXO

4

5

oqi5

writing-pronouns

אֵלֶ֛יךָ

1

Here, you refers to Moses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

287

EXO

4

5

jr8m

אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבֹתָ֑ם אֱלֹהֵ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִצְחָ֖ק וֵאלֹהֵ֥י יַעֲקֹֽב

1

the God of their ancestors, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were three of their ancestors. They all worshiped the same God.

288

EXO

4

6

ep52

figs-exclamations

וְהִנֵּ֥ה

1

behold

This word, behold, is used to create an exclamation, showing surprise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

289

EXO

4

6

pw7g

figs-simile

כַּשָּֽׁלֶג

1

as white as snow

The word like (ULT) or “as” (UST) here is used to compare how Moses’ hand looked. You may not have a word for snow in your language. If so, consider an alternative that describes something very white. You may need to make the whiteness explicit. Alternate translation: “that made it look white like wool” or “that made it look white like the sand on the beach” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

290

EXO

4

7

prr9

figs-exclamations

וְהִנֵּה

1

This word is used to create an exclamation, showing surprise. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

291

EXO

4

8

well

figs-personification

וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְע֔וּ לְקֹ֖ל הָאֹ֣ת הָרִאשׁ֑וֹן וְהֶֽאֱמִ֔ינוּ לְקֹ֖ל הָאֹ֥ת הָאַחֲרֽוֹן

1

Here each sign is spoken of as if it had a voice with which it could speak. If this might be confusing for your readers, you could express this meaning in a non-figurative way that makes explicit that the signs are meant to be proof that God sent Moses. Alternative translation: “and are not convinced that God has appeared to you by seeing the first sign, then they will be convinced by seeing the second sign.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

292

EXO

4

8

gxlg

writing-pronouns

יַאֲמִ֣ינוּ…יִשְׁמְע֔וּ…וְהֶֽאֱמִ֔ינוּ

1

Here, they refers either to the Israelites or to the Israelite elders. God had instructed Moses to gather and speak to the elders; if you make this participant explicit, elders is the better option, but be sure to do the same as you did in verse 5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

293

EXO

4

8

lsb3

לֹ֣א יַאֲמִ֣ינוּ…וְהֶֽאֱמִ֔ינוּ

1

pay attention

Alternate translation: “they do not acknowledge … then they will acknowledge” or “they do not accept … then they will accept”

294

EXO

4

9

q82r

writing-pronouns

יַאֲמִ֡ינוּ…יִשְׁמְעוּן֙

1

Here, they refers either to the Israelites or to the Israelite elders. God had instructed Moses to gather and speak to the elders; if you make this participant explicit, elders is the better option, but be sure to do the same as you did in verse 5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

295

EXO

4

9

jsvb

figs-metonymy

לְקֹלֶ֔ךָ

1

See 3:18. Alternate translation: “to what you say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

296

EXO

4

10

t8i9

בִּ֣י

1

This word is used by a speaker to beg a superior to allow him to speak. Alternate translation: “Please”

297

EXO

4

10

w12a

לֹא֩ אִ֨ישׁ דְּבָרִ֜ים אָנֹ֗כִי גַּ֤ם מִתְּמוֹל֙ גַּ֣ם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁ֔ם

1

have never been eloquent

Alternate translation: “I have never been an excellent speaker, not now, not before”

298

EXO

4

10

opes

אִ֨ישׁ דְּבָרִ֜ים

1

This expression means “a man who uses words well,” in other words, an eloquent man who can speak well and convincingly.

299

EXO

4

10

pk0l

figs-merism

גַּ֤ם מִתְּמוֹל֙ גַּ֣ם מִשִּׁלְשֹׁ֔ם

1

These phrases simply mean “in the past.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

300

EXO

4

10

wsl4

figs-123person

עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ

1

Moses refers to himself as God’s servant to lower his status before God (and perhaps by doing so to make his argument of inability stronger). If this is confusing in your language, you can make who he means plain. Alternate translation: “me, your servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

301

EXO

4

10

bv64

figs-doublet

כְבַד־פֶּ֛ה וּכְבַ֥ד לָשׁ֖וֹן

1

I am slow of speech and slow of tongue

These phrases mean basically the same thing. Moses uses them to emphasize that he is not a good speaker. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “not good at public speaking”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

302

EXO

4

10

zm3y

figs-metonymy

לָשׁ֖וֹן

1

slow of tongue

Here, tongue refers to Moses’ ability to speak. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “speech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

303

EXO

4

11

ks2m

figs-rquestion

מִ֣י שָׂ֣ם פֶּה֮ לָֽאָדָם֒

1

Who is it who made man’s mouth?

Yahweh uses this question to emphasize that he is the Creator who makes it possible for people to speak. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Is it not I, Yahweh, who created the human mouth and the ability to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

304

EXO

4

11

e1y6

figs-rquestion

מִֽי־יָשׂ֣וּם אִלֵּ֔ם א֣וֹ חֵרֵ֔שׁ א֥וֹ פִקֵּ֖חַ א֣וֹ עִוֵּ֑ר

1

Who makes a man mute or deaf or seeing or blind?

Yahweh uses this question to emphasize that he is the one who decides if people can speak and hear, and if they can see. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “make people able to speak or hear or to see or to be blind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

305

EXO

4

11

uq7j

figs-rquestion

הֲלֹ֥א אָנֹכִ֖י יְהוָֽה

1

Is it not I, Yahweh?

Yahweh uses this question to emphasize that he alone makes these decisions. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “I, Yahweh, am the one who does this!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

306

EXO

4

12

kkr1

figs-metonymy

וְאָנֹכִי֙ אֶֽהְיֶ֣ה עִם־פִּ֔יךָ

1

I will be with your mouth

Here, mouth refers to Moses’ ability to speak. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “I will give you the ability to speak” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

307

EXO

4

13

brer

בִּ֣י

1

This word is used by a speaker to beg a superior to allow him to speak. See what you did in verse 10. Alternate translation: “Please”

308

EXO

4

13

s8nl

שְֽׁלַֽח־נָ֖א בְּיַד־תִּשְׁלָֽח

1

In translating this phrase, it is important to make clear that Moses is asking Yahweh to send someone else. Here he is not accepting Yahweh’s commission.

309

EXO

4

13

y4a7

figs-synecdoche

בְּיַד

1

This phrase means “by a person.” The figure is of a person taking Yahweh’s message in his hand to the Israelites and Pharaoh. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate the meaning plainly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

310

EXO

4

14

uy2v

figs-idiom

וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֨ף יְהוָ֜ה

1

This means that Yahweh is angry. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “Yahweh became angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

311

EXO

4

14

ifax

writing-pronouns

וַיֹּ֨אמֶר֙

1

Here, he refers to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “and Yahweh said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

312

EXO

4

14

okko

figs-rquestion

הֲלֹ֨א אַהֲרֹ֤ן אָחִ֨יךָ֙ הַלֵּוִ֔י

1

Yahweh uses this rhetorical question to suggest an alternative to Moses. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternative translation: “I know you have a brother, Aaron the Levite.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

313

EXO

4

14

e0js

translate-kinship

אָחִ֨יךָ֙

1

Aaron is older than Moses. If your language uses a different term for the sibling relationship based on gender and age order, choose the appropriate one. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

314

EXO

4

14

y5ed

figs-idiom

דַבֵּ֥ר יְדַבֵּ֖ר

1

In Hebrew, the word speak is repeated. This means he speaks well. English cannot convey this by doubling, so the meaning of the repetition was translated in the ULT in this case. If your language can say something like “speaking speaks” to mean “speaks well,” consider it; otherwise, translate the meaning similarly to the ULT or UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

315

EXO

4

14

c51y

הִנֵּה

1

Here, behold is used to draw attention to surprising information that follows. If your language has a term that functions in that way (“Listen!” or “Look!” or “Pay Attention!”), use it here.

316

EXO

4

14

ettp

figs-go

יֹצֵ֣א

1

Yahweh says Aaron is coming from Egypt to Midian to find Moses. He is probably on foot. Depending on the language, the required form of go or come may vary. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

317

EXO

4

14

tfsa

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְשָׂמַ֥ח

1

Aaron will be glad because he sees Moses. Consider a conjunction or other form that expresses result, as in the UST or alternative translation: “and because he sees you, he will have joy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

318

EXO

4

14

ew4h

figs-metonymy

בְּלִבּֽוֹ

1

he will be glad in his heart

Here, heart refers to inner thoughts and emotions. If the heart is not a body part your culture uses to refer to a person’s thoughts and emotions, consider using whichever organ your culture would use for this image. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

319

EXO

4

15

u97f

figs-metaphor

הַדְּבָרִ֖ים

1

put the words to say into his mouth

Words here are spoken of as if they were something that can be physically placed in a person’s mouth. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “the message that he is to repeat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

320

EXO

4

15

q9cf

figs-metonymy

וְאָנֹכִ֗י אֶֽהְיֶ֤ה עִם־פִּ֨יךָ֙ וְעִם־פִּ֔יהוּ

1

I will be with your mouth

The word mouth here represents Moses’ and Aaron’s choice of words. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “And I will be with you as you speak and with him as he speaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

321

EXO

4

15

v57x

figs-youdual

אֶתְכֶ֔ם…תַּעֲשֽׂוּן

1

with his mouth

These refer to Moses and Aaron. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual form if you have one or, if not, use a plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

322

EXO

4

16

mnsp

figs-simile

לְפֶ֔ה

1

This phrase compares Aaron to a mouth because he will be the one to actually vocalize to the Israelites and Pharaoh what Moses tells him to say. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “the one to say what you tell him to say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

323

EXO

4

16

gn5v

figs-simile

תִּֽהְיֶה־לּ֥וֹ לֵֽאלֹהִֽים

1

you will be to him like me, God

The word like here means Moses would represent the same authority to Aaron as God did to Moses. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent comparison or express this meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “you will speak to Aaron with the same authority with which I speak to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

324

EXO

4

17

hm47

figs-explicit

הַמַּטֶּ֥ה הַזֶּ֖ה

1

Yahweh assumes that Moses will know that by this staff, he means the one that Moses said he had in his hand in verse 2 and with which God told him to do a miracle in verses 3-4. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

325

EXO

4

18

j2ix

writing-participants

יֶ֣תֶר

1

Jethro is reintroduced as a participant in the narrative here. Use the natural form in your language for reintroducing a character.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

326

EXO

4

18

cbop

figs-go

וַיֵּ֨לֶךְ

1

Because the setting has shifted back to Jethro’s home, some languages may need to use “come” here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

327

EXO

4

18

b6mf

translate-kinship

חֹֽתְנ֗וֹ

1

father-in-law

This refers to the father of Moses’ wife. If your language uses a different term for the husband’s or wife’s father use the one for wife’s father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

328

EXO

4

18

wlit

writing-pronouns

וַיֹּ֤אמֶר

1

Here, he refers to Moses. Alternate translation: “and Moses said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

329

EXO

4

18

g1h1

writing-pronouns

לוֹ֙

1

Here, him refers to Jethro. Alternate translation: “to Jethro” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

330

EXO

4

18

urt0

figs-metonymy

אַחַ֣י

1

Here the term brothers refers more broadly to all of Moses’ people group, those he is related to. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “my relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

331

EXO

4

18

gq2g

figs-idiom

וְאֶרְאֶ֖ה הַעוֹדָ֣ם חַיִּ֑ים

1

Later in the Bible we are told that Moses was in Midian for 40 years. Moses’ request may have been literal or an idiom that meant he wanted to know how they were doing. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

332

EXO

4

18

yay3

translate-blessing

לֵ֥ךְ לְשָׁלֽוֹם

1

This is a phrase of assent and blessing. It may be necessary for some languages to explicitly add, “Yes,” to the beginning of Jethro’s response. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])

333

EXO

4

19

wwr8

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֤ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה֙

1

The timing and situation for Yahweh speaking to Moses here is not specified. Some conjecture that it was part of the narrative of the encounter with Yahweh from the previous verses but placed after his request to Jethro for an unknown reason. Another speculation is that Moses delayed returning to Egypt (either by his own choice, Yahweh’s instructions, or someone else delaying him) and Yahweh came and told him again (the UST explicitly offers this optional translation). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

334

EXO

4

19

clfj

הַֽמְבַקְשִׁ֖ים אֶת־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ

1

This means they were seeking to end his life, that is, to kill him.

335

EXO

4

20

fua6

figs-extrainfo

בָּנָ֗יו

1

Moses’ second son is not introduced until 18:4 but had already been born before they left Midian. It is not necessary to make this explicit here, if it would confuse your readers you could add a footnote. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-extrainfo]])

336

EXO

4

20

zi5m

figs-123person

וַיָּ֖שָׁב אַ֣רְצָה מִצְרָ֑יִם

1

It is clear from verse 24 and 25 that Moses’ family went with him. If this is confusing in your language, you may need to change from he to “they” returned. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

337

EXO

4

20

a1s5

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וַיָּ֖שָׁב אַ֣רְצָה מִצְרָ֑יִם

1

After the incident on the road in verses 24-26. Moses’ family is not mentioned again until 18:2, which says that Moses sent them back, so it may be better to make a translation similar to the UST, which only commits to the family starting on the way to Egypt. This option has the further benefit of allowing for the several events that happen before Moses gets to Egypt. The ULT’s toward is another way of giving space in the translation for the next several events. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

338

EXO

4

20

f26l

figs-explicit

מַטֵּ֥ה הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים

1

The phrase the staff of God refers to the staff that God told Moses to take with him in verse 17. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

339

EXO

4

20

m4uj

figs-explicit

מַטֵּ֥ה הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים

1

The book describes this staff as the staff of God because God appointed it as his instrument so that Moses could do miraculous works through it. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Make sure your translation does not lead people to think the staff was a magic wand or shaman’s staff that had its own power or power from Moses or that the staff gave Moses the ability to command God. In every instance where miracles happened, first God told Moses to do something with the staff, then Moses obeyed, and then God caused a miracle. Alternate translation: “the staff that God had told him to bring because God intended to work powerfully through it when Moses stretched it out.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

340

EXO

4

21

lva8

figs-quotemarks

בְּלֶכְתְּךָ֙

1

This begins a direct quotation that continues to the end of 4:23. It contains up to fourth-level quotations. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening first-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

341

EXO

4

21

oajf

רְאֵ֗ה

1

Most translations and interpretations of the verb see take it to mean something like “see that you do.”

342

EXO

4

21

paos

figs-metaphor

כָּל־הַמֹּֽפְתִים֙ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֣מְתִּי בְיָדֶ֔ךָ

1

Here the miracles are spoken of as if they were items Moses could carry. In part, this may be because the three signs already given to Moses involved the use of his hand. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternative translation: “all the wonders I have authorized you to perform” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

343

EXO

4

21

kdsb

figs-metonymy

לִפְנֵ֣י פַרְעֹ֑ה

1

This time, while before the face of still has the standard figurative meaning of “in the presence of,” it is a much more literal use here. Moses is to actually do the miracles in front of Pharaoh so he can see them. Alternative translation: “so Pharaoh can see them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

344

EXO

4

21

ovma

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

וַאֲנִי֙ אֲחַזֵּ֣ק

1

Referring to himself in the opening of this sentence serves to emphasize a contrast between what might normally be expected and what will actually happen. Translate this in a way that clearly contrasts the performance of miracles before Pharaoh (which might be expected to lead to him releasing the Israelites) with what Yahweh says Pharaoh will do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

345

EXO

4

21

uvoh

figs-metaphor

וַאֲנִי֙ אֲחַזֵּ֣ק אֶת־לִבּ֔וֹ

1

This means that God will make him stubborn. His stubborn attitude is spoken of as if his heart would be made stronger. If the heart is not the body part your culture uses to refer to a person’s will, consider using whichever organ your culture would use for this image. Alternate translation: “But as for me, I will cause Pharaoh to be stubborn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

346

EXO

4

21

uudz

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְלֹ֥א יְשַׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־הָעָֽם

1

Make it clear in your translation that this is a result of God hardening Pharaoh’s heart. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

347

EXO

4

22

ftde

כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה

1

This is the first of hundreds of occurrences throughout the Old Testament of a standard phrase, Thus says Yahweh, used to introduce direct, authoritative instruction from Yahweh. It would be good for your team to have a standard way to translate this that makes it clear that the words that come next are directly from God. If your language has a standard way of introducing a new message from your rulers that alerts the hearers that these are the words of the rulers, that would be a good phrase to consider.

348

EXO

4

22

teyy

figs-quotesinquotes

כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה

1

This begins a second-level quotation that continues until the end of 4:23. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening second-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation within a quotation. However, you may want to translate this as an indirect quotation in order to reduce the levels of quotations in this passage. Alternative translation: “that Yahweh says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

349

EXO

4

22

kud7

figs-quotemarks

בְּנִ֥י בְכֹרִ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃

1

This is the beginning of a third-level quotation that continues until the end of 4:23. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening third-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation within a quotation within a quotation. (If you chose to translate, “Thus says Yahweh,” as an indirect quote, this will be a second- level quotation.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

350

EXO

4

22

gr2d

figs-metaphor

בְּנִ֥י

1

Yahweh expresses his affection for the Israelites by calling them his son. Some languages may need to change the metaphor here into a simile. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

351

EXO

4

22

pt4n

grammar-collectivenouns

יִשְׂרָאֵֽל

1

Israel is my son

The word Israel here represents all the people of Israel as a group. It is important to keep the singular reference to Israel as son rather than change it to something like ‘the Israelites are my children,’ because God is making a particular contrast here between his son and Pharaoh’s son. Some languages may not be able to use “Israel” as a collective noun and may need to choose a translation like “the nation of Israel” or “the Israelite nation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

352

EXO

4

22

nbn7

figs-metonymy

יִשְׂרָאֵֽל

1

The Israelite nation is often referred to simply by the name of the patriarch. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “The Israelites are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

353

EXO

4

23

syar

figs-quotemarks

שַׁלַּ֤ח אֶת־בְּנִי֙ וְיַֽעַבְדֵ֔נִי

1

This is a fourth-level quotation. It should be marked in some manner that distinguishes it from the outer levels. (If you chose to translate “Thus says Yahweh” as an indirect quote, this will be a third-level quotation.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

354

EXO

4

23

yyuo

figs-quotations

וָאֹמַ֣ר אֵלֶ֗יךָ שַׁלַּ֤ח אֶת־בְּנִי֙ וְיַֽעַבְדֵ֔נִי וַתְּמָאֵ֖ן

1

The fourth-level quotation here may be a good one to translate as an indirect quotation in order to reduce the levels of quotations in this passage. Alternative translation: “and I told you to let my son go that he may serve me. But you have refused” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

355

EXO

4

23

k7mh

figs-metaphor

בְּנִי֙

1

you have refused to let him go

Yahweh continues to metaphorically speak of Israel as my son. See how you translated it in the previous verse. Alternative translation: “the Israelite nation, which is like a son to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

356

EXO

4

23

u825

figs-pronouns

וְיַֽעַבְדֵ֔נִי…לְשַׁלְּח֑וֹ

1

The pronouns he and him agree with “son.” What you use may depend on how you translated son in the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

357

EXO

4

23

ot2b

הִנֵּה֙

1

This is used to draw attention to surprising information that follows. Alternative translation: “Know this”

358

EXO

4

23

re11

בִּנְךָ֖

1

I will certainly kill your son, your firstborn

Here, your son refers to the actual son of Pharaoh.

359

EXO

4

23

ubcw

figs-quotemarks

בִּנְךָ֖ בְּכֹרֶֽךָ

1

After this phrase, the three levels of direct quotations end, bringing a complete close to all quotations that started in verses 21 and 22. If you are using direct quotations, at the end of this verse you should have three closing markers: third level, second level and first level. In English, it looks like ” ’ ” (without spaces). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

360

EXO

4

24

sp6h

writing-newevent

וַיְהִ֥י

1

Yahweh met Moses and tried to kill him

This introduces a new event. Mark the transition in a natural way in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

361

EXO

4

24

p820

writing-pronouns

וַיִּפְגְּשֵׁ֣הוּ…הֲמִיתֽוֹ

1

Here, it is not clear who him refers to. Most commentators believe it refers to Moses, but it could refer to the son, though that is less likely. If it is necessary to choose for your translation, use Moses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

362

EXO

4

24

qeo5

writing-pronouns

וַיְבַקֵּ֖שׁ

1

Here, he refers to Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

363

EXO

4

25

m1la

translate-names

צִפֹּרָ֜ה

1

Zipporah

Zipporah is the name of Moses’ wife. See how you translated it in 2:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

364

EXO

4

25

sftg

writing-participants

צִפֹּרָ֜ה

1

Zipporah is introduced here as a new character. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

365

EXO

4

25

a36h

translate-unknown

צֹ֗ר

1

flint knife

This was a flake or a sharp piece of a hard gray rock that was used as a knife.. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

366

EXO

4

25

nkxn

translate-unknown

עָרְלַ֣ת

1

Theforeskin is the retractable fold of skin which covers and protects the end of the penis. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

367

EXO

4

25

l6sr

figs-euphemism

לְרַגְלָ֑יו

1

to his feet

It is possible that the word feet may have been a more respectful way to refer to the genital area of the body. However, that possibility is not high enough that you should translate it either literally as genitals or with another euphemism meaning genitals in your language. If you have a word that means primarily feet or legs, but could in some cases also euphemistically mean genitals, you may consider it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

368

EXO

4

25

b2t3

figs-metaphor

כִּ֧י חֲתַן־דָּמִ֛ים אַתָּ֖ה לִֽי

1

you are a bridegroom to me by blood

The meaning of this metaphor is unclear. It was probably a known saying in that culture. Alternate translation: “You are related to me by this blood” or “You are my husband because of blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

369

EXO

4

26

ceqk

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַיִּ֖רֶף

1

God relented as a result of Zipporah’s action. Consider a conjunction or other form that expresses result, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

370

EXO

4

26

o4zt

writing-pronouns

וַיִּ֖רֶף

1

Here, he refers to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “Yahweh relented” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

371

EXO

4

26

k136

writing-pronouns

מִמֶּ֑נּוּ

1

As in 4:24, him could refer to either Moses or the son, but most commentators think it is still Moses. The UST uses “anyone” to preserve ambiguity. Alternative translation: “from Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

372

EXO

4

26

r8hj

figs-quotations

חֲתַ֥ן דָּמִ֖ים

1

This is a unique quotation because Zipporah probably does not speak again; rather, the quotation refers back to her statement in 4:25. Use a form from your language for quoting a portion of what someone previously said. If it would be more natural in your language, you could express this as an indirect quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

373

EXO

4

26

abmg

figs-quotemarks

חֲתַ֥ן דָּמִ֖ים לַמּוּלֹֽת

1

It is not clear if the quotation includes because of the circumcision or if that is a comment explaining the quotation. Translations are divided in where they end the quotation, but most exclude because of the circumcision, and it is best to follow that unless a locally respected translation includes it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

374

EXO

4

27

xk6b

writing-newevent

וַיֹּ֤אמֶר

1

Yahweh said to Aaron

You may want to add a word that marks the beginning of a new part of the story, as the UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

375

EXO

4

27

qxpc

writing-participants

אַהֲרֹ֔ן

1

Aaron is introduced as a new participant. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

376

EXO

4

27

wy4n

figs-possession

בְּהַ֥ר הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים

1

at the mountain of God

See how you translated this in 3:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-possession]])

377

EXO

4

27

tfn2

translate-symaction

וַיִּשַּׁק

1

This was a traditional way of greeting which showed love. You can make this explicit, as in the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

378

EXO

4

28

ad9x

שְׁלָח֑וֹ…צִוָּֽהוּ

1

These are a bit awkward to translate in English, so the UST adds more information. Other languages may not have the same difficulty.

379

EXO

4

28

b429

writing-pronouns

שְׁלָח֑וֹ…צִוָּֽהוּ

1

he had sent him to say

Here, the pronoun he refers to Yahweh, and him refers to Moses. Alternative translation: “Yahweh sent Moses … Yahweh commanded Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

380

EXO

4

29

y8o3

writing-newevent

וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ

1

This begins a new event which you may need to mark in your translation with a transitional word like the UST’s “When.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

381

EXO

4

30

bm2x

figs-metonymy

לְעֵינֵ֥י הָעָֽם

1

in the sight of the people

Here, before the eyes means he did the signs so they could see them. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternative translation: “in their sight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

382

EXO

4

30

x1v3

הָעָֽם

1

Context suggests that people refers to the leaders gathered in 4:29.

383

EXO

4

31

glp2

הָעָ֑ם

1

Context suggests that people refers to the leaders gathered in 4:29.

384

EXO

4

31

q1er

פָקַ֨ד…בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל

1

had observed the Israelites

Alternate translation: “saw the Israelites” or “was concerned about the Israelites”

385

EXO

4

31

g83a

translate-symaction

וַֽיִּקְּד֖וּ וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲוּֽוּ

1

they bowed their heads

This action was an expression of thankful worship. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express that explicitly. Alternative translations: “they bowed their heads in awe” or “they bowed down low in reverence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

386

EXO

5

intro

kea2

0

Exodus 05 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  • v. 1-5: Moses gives Pharaoh Yahweh’s message
  • v. 6-21: Pharaoh makes the Israelites work harder
  • v. 22-23: Moses asks Yahweh why things went badly
387

EXO

5

1

q0zv

writing-newevent

וְאַחַ֗ר בָּ֚אוּ מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹ֔ן וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה

1

The time phrase, and afterward, marks a transition in the narrative. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternative translation: “After that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

388

EXO

5

1

q9kn

grammar-connect-time-sequential

וְאַחַ֗ר בָּ֚אוּ מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹ֔ן וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה

1

After these things happened

It is unclear how long Moses and Aaron waited before they went to see Pharaoh. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

389

EXO

5

1

cudx

figs-go

בָּ֚אוּ

1

In this instance, depending on how they have to set scenes, some languages may need to use “came in.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

390

EXO

5

1

tsnv

writing-participants

פַּרְעֹ֑ה

1

Pharaoh is reintroduced as a participant in the narrative for the first time since chapter two. Use the natural form in your language for reintroducing a character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

391

EXO

5

1

jarm

figs-quotemarks

כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־עַמִּ֔י וְיָחֹ֥גּוּ לִ֖י בַּמִּדְבָּֽר

1

This is a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. There is a second-level quotation fully contained within this portion which is addressed elsewhere. There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes unless there is something unique about them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

392

EXO

5

1

lu3i

כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙

1

This quotation formula is used to introduce commands from Yahweh. See 4:intro for more information.

393

EXO

5

1

u2vt

וְיָחֹ֥גּוּ

1

festival for me

This is a celebration to worship Yahweh. Alternative translation: “so they can worship me with eating and drinking”

394

EXO

5

2

v4c1

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר

1

Why should I…let Israel go?

The result here is exactly as God has said; therefore, a contrastive transition word is reasonable but not required, given the immediate human context. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

395

EXO

5

2

lqwt

מִ֤י יְהוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶשְׁמַ֣ע בְּקֹל֔וֹ לְשַׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל

1

This is not a rhetorical question, though Pharaoh may have spoken with contempt. Pharaoh would have considered himself a god. The Egyptians had several gods, and most people groups were assumed to have their own gods. Therefore, Pharaoh had truly not heard of Yahweh (who has just revealed his name to Moses).

396

EXO

5

2

wpff

grammar-collectivenouns

יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל…יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל

1

Here the nation is spoken of as an individual. If your language does not use singular nouns in that way, you can use a different expression. Alternative translation: “the nation of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-collectivenouns]])

397

EXO

5

2

c653

figs-metonymy

בְּקֹל֔וֹ

1

listen to his voice

Here, his voice represent the words God spoke. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “to what he says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

398

EXO

5

2

ma6b

וְגַ֥ם

1

This functions to strengthen Pharaoh’s statement about his decision. Alternative translation: “and most definitely”

399

EXO

5

3

dt39

figs-123person

וַיֹּ֣אמְר֔וּ

1

It may not make sense in all languages for multiple people to speak. Since Aaron was appointed as Moses’ spokesman, consider the alternative translation: “Aaron replied” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

400

EXO

5

3

y9ip

אֱלֹהֵ֥י הָעִבְרִ֖ים

1

God of the Hebrews

This term, The God of the Hebrews, is also used for Yahweh, the Israelites’ God.

401

EXO

5

3

kclj

figs-exclusive

עָלֵ֑ינוּ נֵ֣לֲכָה…וְנִזְבְּחָה֙…יִפְגָּעֵ֔נוּ

1

Here, us (or “we” in UST) refers to the Hebrew people (the Israelites). It excludes Pharaoh and his people. Your language may require you to mark these forms. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

402

EXO

5

3

gfs5

figs-metonymy

בֶחָֽרֶב

1

or with the sword

Here, sword represents war or an attack by enemies. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “cause our enemies to attack us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

403

EXO

5

4

kl1i

figs-rquestion

לָ֚מָּה מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹ֔ן תַּפְרִ֥יעוּ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם מִמַּֽעֲשָׂ֑יו

1

why are you taking the people from their work?

Pharaoh uses this rhetorical question to express his anger toward Moses and Aaron for taking the Israelites away from their work. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Stop distracting the people from doing their work!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

404

EXO

5

4

fiw9

figs-youdual

לְכ֖וּ לְסִבְלֹתֵיכֶֽם

1

This your could refer to Moses and Aaron, or it could mean “all you Israelite people.” The second meaning is more likely. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual or plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

405

EXO

5

5

xm4z

grammar-connect-words-phrases

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֔ה

1

It is unusual for the same speaker to be reintroduced like this. Some translations omit the repetition, but there is another option. This statement may be more connected to the next couple of verses, so it might be appropriate to make a minor break before this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

406

EXO

5

5

nqbe

figs-aside

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר פַּרְעֹ֔ה הֵן־רַבִּ֥ים עַתָּ֖ה עַ֣ם הָאָ֑רֶץ וְהִשְׁבַּתֶּ֥ם אֹתָ֖ם מִסִּבְלֹתָֽם

1

This statement by Pharaoh may have been him commenting to himself, or he may have only thought this statement silently; either way, it led to his next actions. If this would be confusing in your language, consider stating it in a way that clarifies that his statement or thoughts here impacted his next actions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-aside]])

407

EXO

5

5

todi

הֵן

1

Behold is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say.

408

EXO

5

5

c53k

figs-youdual

וְהִשְׁבַּתֶּ֥ם

1

Here, you means Moses and Aaron. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual form if you have one, or if not, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

409

EXO

5

6

ar9m

וַיְצַ֥ו פַּרְעֹ֖ה…אֶת־הַנֹּגְשִׂ֣ים בָּעָ֔ם וְאֶת־שֹׁטְרָ֖יו לֵאמֹֽר

1

Pharaoh may have sent a messenger or messengers to the taskmasters and officers or spoken to one or a few representatives of them at his court rather than speaking to them directly. Alternative translation: “And … Pharaoh gave an order to the taskmasters among the people and officers. He said,”

410

EXO

5

6

zd4m

הַנֹּגְשִׂ֣ים

1

taskmasters

Taskmasters were Egyptians whose job it was to force the Israelites to do hard work. These are probably the same as the “overseers” of labor gangs from Exodus 1:11, but here the term is harsher. Alternative translation: “oppressors”

411

EXO

5

6

gsdx

שֹׁטְרָ֖יו

1

Officers were probably Israelite slaves who were in charge of the other Israelites but who answered to the Egyptian taskmasters.

412

EXO

5

6

dxih

לֵאמֹֽר

1

Here, saying is a way of introducing a direct quotation in Hebrew; most translations can omit it without harm.

413

EXO

5

7

k6io

figs-youdual

לֹ֣א תֹאסִפ֞וּן

1

This command was given to multiple people; if your language distinguishes between singular and plural forms when giving commands, make sure this is a plural form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

414

EXO

5

7

p9nx

figs-idiom

כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֑ם

1

you must no longer give

This is a Hebrew idiom meaning “in the past.” If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternative translation: “as you used to do” or “as was done previously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

415

EXO

5

8

izkf

figs-youdual

תָּשִׂ֣ימוּ

1

If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

416

EXO

5

8

ro25

translate-unknown

הַלְּבֵנִ֜ים

1

Bricks are blocks made of clay or mud with straw in them. They are hardened in the sun or in another manner before they are used for building. See how you translated in 1:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

417

EXO

5

8

dlzx

figs-idiom

תְּמ֤וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם֙

1

This is a Hebrew idiom meaning “in the past.” See how you translated this in 5:7 Alternative translation: “before” or “previously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

418

EXO

5

9

xca1

figs-idiom

וְאַל־יִשְׁע֖וּ בְּדִבְרֵי־שָֽׁקֶר

1

Here words are spoken of as if they could be looked upon. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternative translation: “and not listen to words that are lies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

419

EXO

5

10

ozzn

writing-newevent

וַיֵּ֨צְא֜וּ

1

This begins a new scene, which may need to be marked in a certain way in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

420

EXO

5

10

x4bi

נֹגְשֵׂ֤י

1

taskmasters

Taskmasters were Egyptians whose job was to force the Israelites to do hard work. See how you translated this in 5:6.

421

EXO

5

10

zvxx

כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר פַּרְעֹ֔ה

1

This is the same quotation introduction as is used when Yahweh gives a direct command. See 4:intro for more information.

422

EXO

5

10

c12s

figs-quotations

וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ אֶל־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר כֹּ֚ה אָמַ֣ר פַּרְעֹ֔ה

1

It might be helpful in some languages to translate thus says Pharaoh as an indirect quote so that his conveyed command is not a quote within a quote. Alternate translation: “and told the people that Pharaoh says” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

423

EXO

5

10

mkom

figs-quotesinquotes

אֵינֶ֛נִּי

1

This is the beginning of a second-level quotation that continues until the end of verse 11. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening second-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the start of a quotation within a quotation. However, you could also translate this as an indirect quote. See UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])

424

EXO

5

10

ad73

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

אֵינֶ֛נִּי נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֖ם תֶּֽבֶן

1

The structure of this phrase and the one that opens the next verse create a strong contrast between what I (Pharaoh) and you (you all, the Israelites) will do. Translate this in a way that emphasizes, if possible, the contrast between I and you. Alternative translation: “It is not I who will give you straw.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

425

EXO

5

10

si2e

figs-metonymy

אֵינֶ֛נִּי נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶ֖ם תֶּֽבֶן

1

Pharaoh uses I to refer to his ownership and commands. Pharaoh does not physically give the Israelites straw. Rather, he had commanded his servants to take straw that belonged to Pharaoh and give it to the Israelites. Now he told his servants to stop providing straw. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “My servants will no longer give you my straw” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

426

EXO

5

10

gb4d

figs-youdual

לָכֶ֖ם

1

I will no longer give you

Youis plural and refers to the Israelite people. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

427

EXO

5

11

ewg6

grammar-connect-logic-contrast

אַתֶּ֗ם לְכ֨וּ קְח֤וּ לָכֶם֙ תֶּ֔בֶן מֵאֲשֶׁ֖ר תִּמְצָ֑אוּ

1

The structure of this phrase serves as the opposing side of the contrast Pharaoh sets up in the last phrase. By explicitly using a pronoun with a command, he is emphasizing who will go get straw. If possible, translate this in a way that emphasizes the contrast between I and you. See the previous verse. Alternative translation: “Rather, it is you yourselves who must go get straw from wherever you might find it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])

428

EXO

5

11

xe4i

figs-youdual

אַתֶּ֗ם

1

you can find…your workload

Here, you is plural and refers to the Israelite people. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

429

EXO

5

11

w918

figs-rpronouns

אַתֶּ֗ם…לָכֶם֙

1

You yourselves must go

The repetition of you (as your) emphasizes that the Egyptians will no longer help the slaves. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

430

EXO

5

11

g5vb

figs-doublenegatives

כִּ֣י אֵ֥ין נִגְרָ֛ע מֵעֲבֹדַתְכֶ֖ם דָּבָֽר

1

your workload will not be reduced

If this double negative would be misunderstood in your language, you could translate it as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “for you must continue to make the same number of bricks as before” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

431

EXO

5

12

s9dk

figs-hyperbole

בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם

1

throughout all the land of Egypt

This is a generalization used to show the extra effort Israel made to meet Pharaoh’s demands. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression from your language that means many places. Alternate translation: “to many places throughout Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

432

EXO

5

12

q7y7

translate-unknown

קַ֖שׁ

1

stubble

Stubble is the part of a plant that is left over after harvest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

433

EXO

5

13

th6x

וְהַנֹּגְשִׂ֖ים

1

taskmasters

Taskmasters were Egyptians whose job it was to force the Israelites to do hard work. See how you translated this in Exodus 5:6.

434

EXO

5

13

ikkf

writing-participants

וְהַנֹּגְשִׂ֖ים

1

The change of subject is emphasized here. If your language has a way of specifically focusing on the actor in a narrative, use it here. See the UST for how that is done in English. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

435

EXO

5

13

a5ja

דְּבַר־י֣וֹם בְּיוֹמ֔וֹ

1

Day by day means “daily.” Alternative translation: “the daily task”

436

EXO

5

14

h4uo

נֹגְשֵׂ֥י

1

Taskmasters are Egyptians whose job it was to force the Israelites to do hard work. See how you translated this in Exodus 5:6.

437

EXO

5

14

unbc

figs-activepassive

וַיֻּכּ֗וּ שֹֽׁטְרֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל

1

The text does not specify who beat the officers. It was probably either the taskmasters or someone the taskmasters ordered to beat the officers. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “And the taskmasters beat the officers of the sons of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

438

EXO

5

14

eq22

figs-rquestion

מַדּ֡וּעַ לֹא֩ כִלִּיתֶ֨ם חָקְכֶ֤ם לִלְבֹּן֙ כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם גַּם־תְּמ֖וֹל גַּם־הַיּֽוֹם

1

Why have you not produced all the bricks required of you…in the past?

The taskmasters used this question to show they were angry with the lack of bricks. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You are not producing enough bricks, either yesterday or today, as you did in the past!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

439

EXO

5

14

oh6o

figs-youdual

כִלִּיתֶ֨ם חָקְכֶ֤ם

1

Here, you and your are plural. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

440

EXO

5

14

emq7

figs-synecdoche

לֹא֩ כִלִּיתֶ֨ם חָקְכֶ֤ם

1

cried out

Here, you and your do not simply refer to the officers; they refer to the groups of Israelite workers the officers are in charge of. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “have your teams not finished their required” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

441

EXO

5

14

liz8

figs-idiom

כִּתְמ֣וֹל שִׁלְשֹׁ֔ם

1

This is a Hebrew idiom meaning “in the past.” Here it specifically refers to the time before the Egyptians stopped giving the Israelites straw. See how you translated this in 5:7 Alternative translation: “before” or “previously” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

442

EXO

5

14

zklg

גַּם־תְּמ֖וֹל גַּם־הַיּֽוֹם

1

This time expression refers to more recent days, ones since the Egyptians stopped providing the straw to the Israelites.

443

EXO

5

15

bk9h

writing-newevent

וַיָּבֹ֗אוּ

1

This begins a new scene, which may need to be marked in a certain way in your language. The officers have gone to where Pharaoh is. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

444

EXO

5

15

thlj

figs-go

וַיָּבֹ֗אוּ

1

You will need to decide if go or come is the better translation in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

445

EXO

5

15

m2nz

figs-123person

לַעֲבָדֶֽיךָ

1

Here, the Israelite officers use the term your servants to refer to themselves in the third person as a way of showing humility. It is also possible that they mean to include all the Israelites. Either option is valid if your language must state who is meant by “your servants.” Alternate translation: “to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

446

EXO

5

16

yeql

figs-activepassive

תֶּ֗בֶן אֵ֤ין נִתָּן֙ לַעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ

1

The text does not specify who is not giving them straw. From the context, the taskmasters and, by implication, Pharaoh himself are the ones not doing this. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternative translation: “You are not giving your servants any straw.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

447

EXO

5

16

qp5j

figs-123person

לַעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ…עֲבָדֶ֛יךָ

1

Here, the Israelite officers use the term your servants to refer to themselves in the third person as a way of showing humility. It is also possible that they mean to include all the Israelites. Either option is valid if your language must state who is meant by “your servants.” Alternate translation: “to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

448

EXO

5

16

hsa6

writing-pronouns

אֹמְרִ֥ים

1

they are still telling us, ‘Make bricks!’

Here, they refers to the Egyptian taskmasters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

449

EXO

5

16

m0go

וְהִנֵּ֧ה

1

And behold is used to draw attention to surprising information that follows.

450

EXO

5

16

xrly

figs-activepassive

עֲבָדֶ֛יךָ מֻכִּ֖ים

1

The text does not specify who beat the officers. It was probably either the taskmasters or someone the taskmasters ordered to beat the officers. If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

451

EXO

5

16

ff2k

figs-euphemism

וְחָטָ֥את עַמֶּֽךָ

1

The Israelites are indirectly accusing Pharaoh of doing wrong. To translate this, consider polite or indirect ways of making accusations in your culture. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

452

EXO

5

16

l7sn

וְחָטָ֥את

1

Alternate translation: “but it is the wrongdoing of”

453

EXO

5

17

cw5u

figs-youdual

אַתֶּ֖ם…אַתֶּ֣ם

1

These uses of you are plural. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

454

EXO

5

17

zlkc

figs-exclamations

נִרְפִּ֥ים אַתֶּ֖ם נִרְפִּ֑ים

1

Pharaoh repeats himself for emphasis. In your translation, make sure the idea of laziness or idleness is repeated or strengthened in a way that is natural. Alternative translation: “You are extremely lazy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])

455

EXO

5

17

a8o2

figs-quotemarks

נֵלְכָ֖ה נִזְבְּחָ֥ה לַֽיהוָֽה

1

Here the king is quoting another person’s speech. This is a second-level quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with second-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation within a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

456

EXO

5

18

x9j7

figs-activepassive

וְתֶ֖בֶן לֹא־יִנָּתֵ֣ן לָכֶ֑ם

1

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. The subject could be “I” (as in Pharaoh) or “we” (as in the Egyptians or Pharaoh and his taskmasters) or “my people.” See UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

457

EXO

5

18

z6wt

figs-youdual

לָכֶ֑ם…תִּתֵּֽנּוּ

1

Here, you means all the Israelites or the officers as representatives of all the Israelites. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

458

EXO

5

19

x6pp

grammar-connect-logic-result

וַיִּרְא֞וּ שֹֽׁטְרֵ֧י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֹתָ֖ם בְּרָ֣ע לֵאמֹ֑ר לֹא־תִגְרְע֥וּ מִלִּבְנֵיכֶ֖ם דְּבַר־י֥וֹם בְּיוֹמֽוֹ

1

If it would be more natural in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the result that the first phrase describes. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

459

EXO

5

19

l9d2

figs-rpronouns

אֹתָ֖ם

1

when they were told

Here the officers are both the subject and object, because they are thinking about their own situation. Use a way that is natural in your language to indicate this. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

460

EXO

5

19

j6f9

וַיִּרְא֞וּ…אֹתָ֖ם בְּרָ֣ע לֵאמֹ֑ר

1

Alternate translation: “knew that they were in trouble, because the king said” or “perceived themselves to be in danger, because the king said”

461

EXO

5

20

ve3z

writing-newevent

וַֽיִּפְגְּעוּ֙

1

palace

A new scene begins here, which may need to be marked in a certain way in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

462

EXO

5

20

s9d2

writing-pronouns

וַֽיִּפְגְּעוּ֙…לִקְרָאתָ֑ם בְּצֵאתָ֖ם

1

Here, they and them refer to the officers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])

463

EXO

5

21

kv0v

יֵ֧רֶא יְהוָ֛ה עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם וְיִשְׁפֹּ֑ט

1

The Israelite officers used this form to curse Moses and Aaron.

464

EXO

5

21

vfit

figs-youdual

עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם וְיִשְׁפֹּ֑ט

1

You refers to Moses and Aaron. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual or plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

465

EXO

5

21

j3zp

figs-metaphor

הִבְאַשְׁתֶּ֣ם אֶת־רֵיחֵ֗נוּ בְּעֵינֵ֤י פַרְעֹה֙ וּבְעֵינֵ֣י עֲבָדָ֔יו

1

you have made us offensive

The Egyptians responded to the Israelites the same way they would respond to a foul odor. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “you have caused Pharaoh and his servants to hate us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

466

EXO

5

21

d592

figs-metonymy

חֶ֥רֶב בְּיָדָ֖ם

1

have put a sword in their hand to kill us

Here, a sword into their hand is a metonym for “a reason in their mind.” The Israelites are afraid that the Egyptians will feel that they are doing the right thing if they kill the Israelites, because Moses and Aaron are making demands to the king and because the Egyptians view the Israelites as lazy and dangerous. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “them a reason to think they would be right” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

467

EXO

5

22

g4d5

figs-rquestion

לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה שְׁלַחְתָּֽנִי

1

Lord, why have you caused trouble for this people?

This question shows how disappointed Moses was that the Egyptians were treating the Israelites even more harshly now. He is expressing that he thinks God has caused the opposite of what he promised to happen. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “I thought you sent me to rescue them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

468

EXO

5

23

v2k2

figs-metonymy

בִּשְׁמֶ֔ךָ

1

to speak to him in your name

Here, in your name indicates that Moses delivers Yahweh’s message. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “for you” or “your message for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

469

EXO

5

23

fzir

figs-idiom

וְהַצֵּ֥ל לֹא־הִצַּ֖לְתָּ

1

In Hebrew, rescued is repeated for emphasis. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

470

EXO

6

intro

we5k

0

Exodus 06 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  • v. 1-13, 28-30: Yahweh repeats his commissioning of Moses after the bad events recorded in chapter 5
  • v. 14-27: Genealogy of Moses and Aaron

Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter

Repetition of events:

Most of the content of this chapter is very similar to the events and dialogue in chapters 3-4. For consistency, translators should consult the decisions they made there while keeping in mind that this narrative is not exactly the same. Also, verses 10-12 and verses 28-30 are very similar to each other. These events are probably a recommissioning of Moses. After his first encounter with Pharaoh went very poorly and the Israelites seem to reject God, Yahweh reminds Moses of his promises and power.

Referring to God

A name for God (Yahweh) and a title for God (El Shaddai) are mentioned in this chapter (6:2\-6:3). The precise meaning of El Shaddai is not known, but most scholars think it means something like “almighty.” Translators who have worked on Genesis may find confusing the statement that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob did not know Yahweh as the name of God.

Other possible translation difficulties:

With little explanation, a large portion of the chapter is devoted to the genealogy of Moses and Aaron. Some of the people in the genealogy lived much longer than is normal for humans today. If translators are not familiar with the lengths of people’s lives in the early days of the world (as recorded in Genesis, especially chapter 5), this may cause confusion.

Study Concepts in this Chapter

Promised Land

According to the covenant Yahweh made with Abraham, Egypt is not the home of the Hebrew people. Their home is the Promised Land in Canaan. The people are to return home to their land. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promisedland]])

God and his people

In verse 7, note the mention of a very important biblical theme of God being “your God” and the special relationship that his people have with him.

471

EXO

6

1

ip5i

figs-quotemarks

עַתָּ֣ה תִרְאֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה לְפַרְעֹ֑ה כִּ֣י בְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ יְשַׁלְּחֵ֔ם וּבְיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה יְגָרְשֵׁ֖ם מֵאַרְצֽוֹ

1

This is a direct quotation. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by marking it with first-level quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes unless there is something unique about them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

472

EXO

6

1

lu95

grammar-connect-time-sequential

עַתָּ֣ה

1

This refers to future events starting very soon. Alternative translation: “Starting soon” or “Very soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])

473

EXO

6

1

ece6

figs-metonymy

בְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙…וּבְיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה

1

my strong hand

Here, hand is a metonym for power. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “by a strong power … and by a strong power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

474

EXO

6

1

utnn

figs-metonymy

בְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙…וּבְיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה

1

It is not clear in the text whose hand is referred to here. The options include: (1) Both refer to God’s hand (forcing Pharaoh’s actions) (2) Both refer to Pharaoh’s hand (forcing the Israelites out) (3) They don’t refer to the same person’s hand; the first refers to God’s and the second to Pharaoh’s. The UST has followed (1), which is the most common interpretation. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: (1) “by my strong hand … and by my strong hand” (2) “by his strong hand … and by his strong hand” (3) “by my strong hand … and by his strong hand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

475

EXO

6

1

vdno

figs-parallelism

כִּ֣י בְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ יְשַׁלְּחֵ֔ם וּבְיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֔ה יְגָרְשֵׁ֖ם מֵאַרְצֽוֹ

1

These two phrases mean similar things. God says the same thing twice, in similar ways, for emphasis. If saying the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you can combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “I will force him to let my people leave the land” However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could also choose to bring that out in your translation. The second phrase intensifies the first by portraying Pharaoh as not merely letting the Israelites go, but as forcing them to leave the land. Alternate translation: “I will force him to let them go, in fact, I will force him to force them to leave his land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

476

EXO

6

1

sdon

מֵאַרְצֽוֹ

1

Alternate translation: “from Egypt”

477

EXO

6

2

wse5

writing-newevent

וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֑ה וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו

1

There is a transition here. Before this verse, Yahweh was answering Moses’ question more directly. At the beginning of this verse, Yahweh is reintroduced as “God” because he begins to make a clarifying statement about himself and his relationship with the Israelites and their ancestors as well as his plans for the Israelites. Much of this section repeats what Yahweh has already told Moses. You may want to consider a section break before this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

478

EXO

6

3

l81y

translate-transliterate

בְּאֵ֣ל שַׁדָּ֑י

1

I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob

El Shaddai is a title for God that many scholars think means “almighty.” You will need to decide if you will transliterate the term into your language or translate the meaning. Either approach has broad support. Alternative translation: “as the strongest God of all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-transliterate]])

479

EXO

6

3

m27p

figs-activepassive

וּשְׁמִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לֹ֥א נוֹדַ֖עְתִּי לָהֶֽם

1

I was not known to them

If your language does not use the passive form in this way, you can express the idea in active form or in another way that is natural in your language. Alternate translation: “but they did not know me by my name Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

480

EXO

6

3

e36z

וּשְׁמִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה לֹ֥א נוֹדַ֖עְתִּי לָהֶֽם

1

This statement is very difficult to understand as God’s name, Yahweh, is used throughout Genesis, including by Abraham and others. There are many theories about what it means; the view followed by the UST is that now God is revealing to the Israelites a fuller meaning of his divine name than what Abraham and others knew. Alternate translation: “but my name Yahweh was not understood by them”

481

EXO

6

4

zxvc

figs-quotations

לָתֵ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן

1

This is the content of the covenant promise from God to his people. Some languages may need to make this part a direct quotation. To do so, begin a new sentence. Alternate translation: “I said, ‘I will give you the land of Canaan’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

482

EXO

6

4

gkkc

figs-parallelism

אֶ֥רֶץ מְגֻרֵיהֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־גָּ֥רוּ בָֽהּ

1

These two phrases mean similar things. If saying the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you can combine the phrases into one. Alternate translation: “the land they lived in as temporary residents” or “the land that was not their home but where they lived as foreigners” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

483

EXO

6

5

l3yc

נַאֲקַת֙

1

groaning

Here, groaning means making sad sounds because of pain and suffering.

484

EXO

6

5

aiey

וָאֶזְכֹּ֖ר אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי

1

I have remembered my covenant means God is going to take action. Alternative translation: “I will keep my promise”

485

EXO

6

6

rgh0

grammar-connect-logic-result

לָכֵ֞ן

1

God is now telling Moses to deliver a message to the Israelites of what God is going to do because of everything that he said in verses 2-5. The reason-result relationship is strongly marked here, so translations should make sure to use a connector that marks verse 6-8 as a result of verses 2-5. Alternate translation: “Because of this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

486

EXO

6

6

yv14

לָכֵ֞ן אֱמֹ֥ר לִבְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֘ל

1

say to the Israelites

This is a command from Yahweh to Moses. Alternate translation: “So Yahweh told Moses to say to the Israelites”

487

EXO

6

6

we3z

figs-youdual

אֶתְכֶ֗ם…אֶתְכֶ֖ם…אֶתְכֶם֙

1

Here every occurrence of you refers to the Israelites. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

488

EXO

6

6

oqnw

figs-synecdoche

מִתַּ֨חַת֙ סִבְלֹ֣ת מִצְרַ֔יִם

1

This refers to all the hard work the Egyptians made the Israelites do. If it would be helpful in your language, you could translate the meaning plainly. Alternate translation: “from the hard work the Egyptians force you to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

489

EXO

6

6

xyn4

figs-metaphor

בִּזְר֣וֹעַ נְטוּיָ֔ה

1

Here, arm is a figurative way of referring to Yahweh’s power, influence, and capacity for action. Outstretched means that he is using that power. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “by my great strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

490

EXO

6

6

efx1

וּבִשְׁפָטִ֖ים

1

Here, the term judgments refers to the plagues that God is about to send to harm Egypt and the Egyptians. Each plague is a response to Pharaoh’s stubbornness. Alternate translation: “and by [greatly] harming the Egyptians”

491

EXO

6

7

o3lb

figs-youdual

אֶתְכֶ֥ם…לָכֶ֖ם…וִֽידַעְתֶּ֗ם…אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם…אֶתְכֶ֔ם

1

Here every occurrence of you refers to the Israelites. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

492

EXO

6

7

xsdh

figs-synecdoche

מִתַּ֖חַת סִבְל֥וֹת מִצְרָֽיִם

1

This refers to all the hard work the Egyptians forced upon the Israelites. See what you did in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “from the hard work the Egyptians force you to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

493

EXO

6

8

h9ho

figs-youdual

אֶתְכֶם֙…לָכֶ֛ם

1

Here every occurrence of you refers to the Israelites. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a plural form here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

494

EXO

6

8

g9ru

translate-symaction

נָשָׂ֨אתִי֙ אֶת־יָדִ֔י

1

I swore

This is an action that signifies making an oath. Raising the hand may not have the same meaning in your culture, so you may need to use a different symbolic oath-taking action in your translation or simply translate the meaning. Alternate translation: “I promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

495

EXO

6

8

i3vj

מוֹרָשָׁ֖ה

1

This means the Israelites will own the land. Alternate translation: “as your own land”

496

EXO

6

9

aalj

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְלֹ֤א שָֽׁמְעוּ֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה מִקֹּ֣צֶר ר֔וּחַ וּמֵעֲבֹדָ֖ה קָשָֽׁה

1

In some languages it will be necessary to put the reason for the people not listening before the result. Alternate translation: “but because of shortness of spirit and because of hard service, they did not listen to Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

497

EXO

6

9

eph2

מִקֹּ֣צֶר ר֔וּחַ

1

Here, the people’s spirit is spoken of as something that could be measured. By calling it “short,” the author is saying they did not have very much motivation or hope. Alternate translation: “because they had no hope”

498

EXO

6

10

tpw4

לֵּאמֹֽר

1

This is used to mark the beginning of a direct quotation. It can be omitted if it is unnatural.

499

EXO

6

11

fxf2

figs-quotations

וִֽישַׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאַרְצֽוֹ

1

This statement tells Moses what to discuss with Pharaoh. Some languages may need to covey this information as a direct quotation. Be careful to change the third-person pronouns to second-person pronouns if you do this. Alternate translation: “and say, ‘You must let the sons of Israel go from your land’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

500

EXO

6

12

h7o0

figs-metonymy

לִפְנֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה

1

Here, face figuratively represents the presence of a person. There may also be a hint of impudence in Moses’ attitude that is conveyed by the words before the face of Yahweh. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “in the presence of Yahweh” or “boldly to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

501

EXO

6

12

iiui

הֵ֤ן

1

Behold is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. If there is not a good way to translate this term in your language, this term can be omitted from the translation, or you can use an alternate translation like “as you know.”

502

EXO

6

12

k7hl

figs-rquestion

הֵ֤ן בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֹֽא־שָׁמְע֣וּ אֵלַ֔י וְאֵיךְ֙ יִשְׁמָעֵ֣נִי פַרְעֹ֔ה

1

If the Israelites have not listened to me, why will Pharaoh listen to me, since I am not good at speaking?

Moses asked this question in hopes that God would change his mind about using Moses. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Since the Israelites did not listen to me, neither will Pharaoh!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

503

EXO

6

12

lj51

grammar-connect-logic-result

הֵ֤ן בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֹֽא־שָׁמְע֣וּ אֵלַ֔י וְאֵיךְ֙ יִשְׁמָעֵ֣נִי פַרְעֹ֔ה

1

Moses is presenting a reasoned argument: since this, then probably that. Use a natural way of expressing such arguments in your language. Alternate translation: “Since the sons of Israel have not listened to me, why would you think Pharaoh would listen to me?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

504

EXO

6

12

k3br

figs-metaphor

וַאֲנִ֖י עֲרַ֥ל שְׂפָתָֽיִם

1

This is a metaphor that means that Moses was not a good speaker. It is somewhat crude; your translation of this phrase could convey that Moses spoke impolitely. If your readers would not understand what this image means in this context, you could use an equivalent metaphor from your culture. Alternatively, you could express the meaning in a non-figurative way. Alternate translation: “And I do not speak well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

505

EXO

6

13

janr

וַיְצַוֵּם֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאֶל־פַּרְעֹ֖ה

1

This phrase is somewhat difficult to translate. Here, command could also be translated as “charge” or “commission.” Another difficulty is knowing to whom the command is directed: is it to Moses and Aaron or are they to give the command to Pharaoh and the Israelites; thus to could be translated as “for” or “regarding.” Alternate translations: “and he charged them regarding the sons of Israel and regarding Pharaoh” or “and he gave them a command for the sons of Israel and for Pharaoh” or “and he gave them a commission to the sons of Israel and to Pharaoh”

506

EXO

6

14

hh3z

writing-background

0

Verses 14-27 are background information. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

507

EXO

6

14

h195

figs-metonymy

רָאשֵׁ֣י

1

the heads of their fathers’ houses

Here, heads refers to the original leaders of the clan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “the ancestors of ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

508

EXO

6

14

wv89

translate-names

רְאוּבֵ֜ן…יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל…חֲנ֤וֹךְ וּפַלּוּא֙ חֶצְר֣וֹן וְכַרְמִ֔י…רְאוּבֵֽן

1

Hanok, Pallu, Hezron, and Karmi

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

509

EXO

6

15

c1ni

translate-names

שִׁמְע֗וֹן יְמוּאֵ֨ל וְיָמִ֤ין וְאֹ֨הַד֙ וְיָכִ֣ין וְצֹ֔חַר וְשָׁא֖וּל…שִׁמְעֽוֹן

1

Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

510

EXO

6

16

k64h

translate-names

לֵוִי֙…גֵּרְשׁ֕וֹן וּקְהָ֖ת וּמְרָרִ֑י…לֵוִ֔י

1

Gershon…Merari

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

511

EXO

6

16

m36f

translate-numbers

שֶׁ֧בַע וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת

1

137 years old

Alternate translation: “one hundred thirty-seven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

512

EXO

6

17

alm8

translate-names

גֵרְשׁ֛וֹן לִבְנִ֥י וְשִׁמְעִ֖י

1

Amram…Uzziel

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

513

EXO

6

18

gzm3

translate-names

קְהָ֔ת עַמְרָ֣ם וְיִצְהָ֔ר וְחֶבְר֖וֹן וְעֻזִּיאֵ֑ל…קְהָ֔ת

1

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

514

EXO

6

18

qu41

translate-numbers

שָׁלֹ֧שׁ וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת

1

133 years old

Alternate translation: “one hundred thirty-three” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

515

EXO

6

19

p5sz

translate-names

מְרָרִ֖י מַחְלִ֣י וּמוּשִׁ֑י

1

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

516

EXO

6

20

ni1l

translate-names

עַמְרָ֜ם…אַהֲרֹ֖ן…מֹשֶׁ֑ה…עַמְרָ֔ם

1

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

517

EXO

6

20

o5gb

translate-names

יוֹכֶ֤בֶד

1

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

518

EXO

6

20

mh02

translate-kinship

דֹּֽדָתוֹ֙

1

Here the term his aunt specifically means his father’s sister. If your language uses a different term that is specific in this way, translators should use it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

519

EXO

6

20

ti6q

translate-numbers

שֶׁ֧בַע וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת

1

137 years

Alternate translation: “one hundred thirty-seven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

520

EXO

6

21

f3yr

translate-names

יִצְהָ֑ר קֹ֥רַח וָנֶ֖פֶג וְזִכְרִֽי׃

1

Izhar…Korah…Zichri

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

521

EXO

6

22

n7cl

translate-names

עֻזִּיאֵ֑ל מִֽישָׁאֵ֥ל וְאֶלְצָפָ֖ן וְסִתְרִֽי

1

Uzziel…Mishael…Sithri

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

522

EXO

6

23

n1xh

translate-names

אַהֲרֹ֜ן…עַמִּינָדָ֛ב…נַחְשׁ֖וֹן…נָדָב֙…אֲבִיה֔וּא…אֶלְעָזָ֖ר…אִֽיתָמָֽר

1

Nadab…Ithamar

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

523

EXO

6

23

kww9

translate-names

אֱלִישֶׁ֧בַע

1

Nadab…Ithamar

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

524

EXO

6

24

rkz9

translate-names

קֹ֔רַח אַסִּ֥יר וְאֶלְקָנָ֖ה וַאֲבִיאָסָ֑ף

1

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

525

EXO

6

24

i6o7

translate-names

הַקָּרְחִֽי

1

This was the name of the clan of people descended from Korah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

526

EXO

6

25

zvg2

translate-names

וְאֶלְעָזָ֨ר…אַהֲרֹ֜ן…פּֽוּטִיאֵל֙…פִּֽינְחָ֑ס

1

Phinehas

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

527

EXO

6

25

fck8

figs-metonymy

רָאשֵׁ֛י

1

These were the heads of the fathers’ houses

Here, heads represents family leaders. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “These were the leaders of the families” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

528

EXO

6

26

ft6y

translate-unknown

עַל־צִבְאֹתָֽם

1

by their groups of fighting men

The term hosts refers to a large group of people often organized into groups for war. Alternate translation: “by their groups” or “by their divisions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

529

EXO

6

27

o7xp

grammar-connect-logic-goal

לְהוֹצִ֥יא

1

This expresses their goal when they spoke to Pharaoh. Use a natural way in your language for indicating purpose. See the UST. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

530

EXO

6

28

xssl

writing-newevent

וַיְהִ֗י בְּי֨וֹם

1

This marks a transition from the record of the genealogy back to the narrative. Consider placing a section break at the start of this verse. Alternate translation: “One day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

531

EXO

6

30

zyqs

figs-metonymy

לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה

1

Here, face figuratively represents the presence of a person. There may also be a hint of impudence in Moses’ attitude that is conveyed by saying he spoke before the face of Yahweh. See how you translated this in 6:12. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “in the presence of Yahweh” or “boldly to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

532

EXO

6

30

nf3w

figs-rquestion

הֵ֤ן אֲנִי֙ עֲרַ֣ל שְׂפָתַ֔יִם וְאֵ֕יךְ יִשְׁמַ֥ע אֵלַ֖י פַּרְעֹֽה

1

I am not good…why will Pharaoh listen to me?

Moses asks this question hoping to change God’s mind about sending him. If you would not use a rhetorical question for this purpose in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “Behold, I am not a good speaker. Pharaoh will certainly not listen to me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

533

EXO

6

30

y4g2

הֵ֤ן

1

Behold is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. If there is not a good way to translate this term in your language, this term can be omitted from the translation, or you can use an alternate translation like “as you know.”

534

EXO

6

30

vzhq

figs-metaphor

אֲנִי֙ עֲרַ֣ל שְׂפָתַ֔יִם

1

This is a metaphor that means that Moses thought he was not a good speaker. It is somewhat crude, and your translation of this phrase could convey that Moses spoke impolitely. See how you translated this in 6:12. Alternate translation: “I always fail to speak well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

535

EXO

7

intro

r9we

0

Exodus 07 General Notes

Structure and Formatting

  • v. 1-9: The end of Yahweh’s re-sending of Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh
  • v. 10-13: Pharaoh’s first refusal, the sign of the snakes
  • v. 14-25: First plague: the Nile turns to blood

Special Concepts in this Chapter

Miracles

When Yahweh had Moses perform miracles, Pharaoh’s men were able to copy these miracles. It is unknown how they were able to do this, but since it was not from Yahweh, they were probably done under some evil power. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/miracle]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Pharaoh’s hard heart

Pharaoh’s heart is often described as hard, strong, or heavy in this chapter. This means that he was not willing to obey Yahweh’s instructions.

Possible Translation Difficulties in this Chapter Include:

  • Moses as God to Pharaoh
  • A number of difficult terms: prophet, signs, wonders, miracles, sorcerers, magicians, magic, judgments, canals, reservoirs
  • The use of “heart” to refer to the seat of will and emotion
  • Up to third-level quotations
536

EXO

7

1

r18p

figs-quotemarks

מֹשֶׁ֔ה

1

After this phrase, a direct quote begins that continues to the end of verse 5. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this with an opening first-level quotation mark or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate the beginning of a quotation. There may be other quotations in this chapter; they will be marked by the same punctuation, but they will not have their own notes unless there is something unique about them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])

537

EXO

7

1

gy1t

רְאֵ֛ה

1

This is used to draw attention to surprising information that follows. Alternative translation: “Listen carefully”

538

EXO

7

1

dn1s

figs-metaphor

נְתַתִּ֥יךָ אֱלֹהִ֖ים לְפַרְעֹ֑ה

1

I have made you like a god

This means Moses would represent the same authority to Pharaoh as God did to Moses. See how you translated the very similar phrase in Exodus 4:16. Alternate translation: “I will cause Pharaoh to consider you as a god” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

539

EXO

7

1

z163

figs-metaphor

וְאַהֲרֹ֥ן אָחִ֖יךָ יִהְיֶ֥ה נְבִיאֶֽךָ

1

This phrase compares Aaron to a prophet, because Aaron will actually be the one who proclaims to Pharaoh what Moses tells him. See how you translated a similar phrase in Exodus 4:16. Alternate translation: “and Aaron your brother will act like your prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

540

EXO

7

2

l44v

translate-kinship

אָחִ֨יךָ֙

1

Aaron is older than Moses. If your language uses a different term for the sibling relationship based on gender and age order, choose the appropriate one. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-kinship]])

541

EXO

7

2

hdwo

figs-quotations

וְשִׁלַּ֥ח אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאַרְצֽוֹ

1

Some languages may need to make this a direct quotation. If so, be sure to mark it as a second-level quotation, subordinate to Yahweh’s main speech. See what you did in 6:25. Alternative translation: “saying, ‘You must let the sons of Israel go from your land’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

542

EXO

7

2

p9p7

מֵאַרְצֽוֹ

1

Alternate translation: “from Egypt”

543

EXO

7

3

adsq

figs-metaphor

אַקְשֶׁ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה

1

This means God will make him stubborn. His stubborn attitude is spoken of as if his heart were hard. If the heart is not the body part your culture uses to refer to a person’s will, consider using whichever organ your culture would use for this image. See how you translated this in Exodus 4:21, but note the slightly different metaphor there: the heart being strong vs. hard here. Alternate translation: “will cause Pharaoh to be stubborn” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

544

EXO

7

3

vtt1

figs-doublet

אֶת־אֹתֹתַ֛י וְאֶת־מוֹפְתַ֖י

1

many signs…many wonders

The words signs and wonders mean basically the same thing. God uses them to emphasize the greatness of what he will do in Egypt. If your language does not use repetition in this way, you can combine them.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

545

EXO

7

4

ar0l

figs-youdual

אֲלֵכֶם֙

1

Here, you means Moses and Aaron. If your language uses different forms of “you” depending on the number of people addressed, use a dual form (if you have one) or plural form (if not) here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-youdual]])

546

EXO

7

4

e2kv

figs-metonymy

יָדִ֖י

1

put my hand on

The words my hand represent God’s great power. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “my power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

547

EXO

7

4

b6h8

figs-metonymy

בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם

1

Here, on Egypt refers to the land and everything in it, including people, animals, and plants. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

548

EXO

7

4

nilu

אֶת־צִבְאֹתַ֜י אֶת־עַמִּ֤י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙

1

These phrases refer to the Israelites in three different ways; they do not refer to three different groups of people. Here, armies is the same word translated “hosts” in Exodus 6:26. Alternate translation: “the armies of my Israelite people”

549

EXO

7

5

cg3n

grammar-connect-logic-result

וְיָדְע֤וּ מִצְרַ֨יִם֙ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֔ה

1

This is the result of God rescuing the Israelites. If it would be more natural in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the result that the first phrase describes. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])

550

EXO

7

5

npd6

figs-metonymy

בִּנְטֹתִ֥י אֶת־יָדִ֖י עַל

1

reach out with my hand on

This phrase represents God’s great power. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent expression or plain language. Alternate translation: “when I show my powerful acts against” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

551

EXO

7

5

dguc

grammar-connect-logic-goal

וְהוֹצֵאתִ֥י אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מִתּוֹכָֽם

1

The goal of God’s powerful acts was to rescue the Israelites. Use a natural way in your language for indicating purpose. Alternate translation: “so that I bring the sons of Israel out from their midst” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])

552

EXO

7

6

iii5

figs-parallelism

וַיַּ֥עַשׂ…עָשֽׂוּ

1

This repetition emphasizes the statement. If saying the same thing twice might be confusing for your readers, you can combine the phrases into one. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

553

EXO

7

7

liir

writing-background

0

This verse contains background information. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

554

EXO

7

7

g7i5

translate-numbers

שְׁמֹנִ֣ים…שָׁלֹ֥שׁ וּשְׁמֹנִ֖ים

1

Aaron eighty-three years old

Alternate translation: “eighty … eighty-three” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

555

EXO

7

7

zoou

figs-idiom

בֶּן־שְׁמֹנִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה…בֶּן־שָׁלֹ֥שׁ וּשְׁמֹנִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה

1

The phrase a son of, followed by a number and then years, is an idiom that refers to their age. If it would be helpful in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

556

EXO

7

8

pwph

writing-newevent

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֔ה

1

This verse marks the beginning of new sections, both major and minor. The major story of the plagues and Exodus itself unfolds from here until after Pharaoh’s army is defeated at the Red Sea. The next minor event is the miracle of the rods becoming snakes. Either by using particular forms that your language uses to mark transitions or by making a section break and heading, this transition should be marked for readers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

557

EXO

7

8

p2kf

לֵאמֹֽר

1

Here, saying marks the beginning of a direct quote and is often omitted in translation when such a construction is unnatural in the target language. See UST.

558

EXO

7

9

jt9z

figs-quotations

כִּי֩ יְדַבֵּ֨ר אֲלֵכֶ֤ם פַּרְעֹה֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר תְּנ֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם מוֹפֵ֑ת וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֗ן קַ֧ח אֶֽת־מַטְּךָ֛ וְהַשְׁלֵ֥ךְ לִפְנֵֽי־פַרְעֹ֖ה יְהִ֥י ל