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Introduction to Genesis

Part 1: General Introduction

Outline of Genesis

  1. From the Creation to the Tower of Babel
  • The account of the creation of the heavens and the earth (1:1–4:26)
  • The account of Adam (5:1–6:8)
  • The account of Noah (6:9–11:9)
  • The account of Shem (11:10–11:26)
  • The account of Terah (11:27–11:32)
  1. The accounts of the Patriarchs
  • The account of Abraham (12:1-25:11)
  • The account of Ishmael (25:12–25:18)
  • The account of Isaac, focusing on Jacob (25:19–35:29)
  • The account of Esau (36:1–37:1)
  • The account of Jacob, focusing on Joseph (37:2–50:26)

What is Genesis about?

Genesis begins with the early years of creation. It tells about God creating heaven, earth, and the first humans. It also tells about the first time humans sinned. This caused humans to be separated from God and to eventually die. Genesis 1-11 briefly tells about other important events that occurred over many hundreds of years. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/death]])

Genesis is also about the beginning of God’s people. Genesis 12-50 tells about how God remained faithful to Abraham and his descendants. Abraham’s descendants became known as the Hebrews and later as the Israelites. These people would worship Yahweh and be his people.

Genesis ends with Abraham’s descendants living in Egypt with the hope of returning one day to the Promised Land. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promisedland]])

How should the title of this book be translated?

“Genesis” means “beginning,” so translators should express this idea in their title. Titles such as “The Beginning of Things” may be suitable. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

Who wrote Genesis?

The writers of both the Old and New Testaments presented Moses as being very involved with writing the book of Genesis. Since ancient times, both Jews and Christians have thought that Moses wrote Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts

What are the covenants mentioned in Genesis?

A covenant is a formal, binding agreement between two parties that one or both parties must fulfill.

God made three covenants in Genesis. In the covenant with Adam, God promised to bless Adam and cause him to prosper. Adam was not allowed to eat fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. God promised that Adam would die if he disobeyed what he commanded.

In the covenant with Noah, God promised to never again destroy the world with a flood.

In the covenant with Abraham, God promised to make Abraham’s descendants into a great nation. He also promised to protect them and to give them a land of their own.

What was God’s purpose for the book of Genesis?

The book of Genesis says that God created a very good world. However, the world became cursed because human beings began to sin. But Genesis shows that God continues to have complete control over the world.

Genesis also describes the start of God’s plan to bless the whole world again. This is shown when God makes a covenant with Abraham. With this covenant, God chose Abraham and his descendants to be his people. God promised to bless the world through Abraham’s descendants.

What was the custom for inheritance as described by Genesis?

There are several passages in Genesis that show the customs of a father who is about to die passing on a blessing to his son. Abraham blessed his son, Isaac, and made him the ancestor of the people of Israel. However, Ishmael, Abraham’s other son, did not receive that same divine blessing. Likewise, Isaac’s older son Esau did not receive the blessing. Isaac’s younger son, Jacob, received it instead. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]])

Also, it was the custom for a man to divide among his sons his material wealth and land. All his sons received equal portions except the oldest son. The firstborn son received twice as much. His portion was called a double portion. Esau gave up his right to receive the double portion.

How does Genesis present sin and evil?

Genesis presents sin as doing things that are against God’s word and God’s ways. It presents evil as the opposite of good.

Sin and evil have affected all people. This started when Adam disobeyed God in the Garden of Eden.

Part 3: Important Translation Issues

What is one way in which Genesis marks the beginning of important sections?

Genesis uses one Hebrew phrase that the ULT translates as “this is the record of,” “these were the events concerning,” or “these were the descendants of.” The information in these sections may have come from sources much older than Moses. These passages are 2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 10:1; 11:10, 27; 25:12, 19; 36:1, 9; 37:2.

If the translator wants to translate in only two ways, we recommend for most passages a phrase such as, “this is the record about” or “this is information about.” Some passages will be better translated, however, as “These were the descendants of.”

Why are the beginnings of some narrative sections in Genesis difficult to translate?

Often in Genesis, the author first summarizes what is about to happen. Then in the following verses, the author tells the details of what happened. Probable examples of this style occur in Gen. 1:1, 6:22, 18:1, 21:1 and 22:1.

However, in many languages, it is preferred to write summaries at the end of a narrative. In this case, translators may choose a different approach. For example, in Gen. 1:1 (“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”), translators may decide to translate like this: “This is about how God made the heavens and the earth in the beginning.”

What is the difference between “people,” “peoples,” and “people groups”?

The word “people” refers to all the individuals who belong to a group, such as “the people of Israel.” The word “peoples” (used in the ULT) refers to multiple groups of people. Each people group might speak their own language, have their own customs, and worships their own gods. Some different peoples in the ancient Near East were those of Israel, Egypt, Edom, Moab, and Ammon.

The expression “people groups” (used in the UST) means the same thing as “peoples” in the ULT. The translator should use the most equivalent term that is common in the project language.

What is the relationship between individuals and peoples that have similar names?

Many individuals in Genesis eventually had large numbers of descendants who were called after their ancestor’s name. For example, Cush was the name of an individual. But, “Cush” also became the name of nation that his descendants formed. They were called “Cushites.” If possible, when translating these names, the translator should make the individual’s name and the nation’s name similar. Examples of this are “Cush” and “Cushite” or “Moab” and “Moabite.” Otherwise, the translator may say, “the descendants of Cush” or “the descendants of Moab.”

What do the phrases “to this day” or “of today” mean?

These phrases were used by the narrator to refer to the time when he was writing. The translator should be aware that “to this day” and “of today” refer to a time already passed. The translator might decide to say, “to this day, at the time when this is being written,” or, “to this day, at the time of writing.” This Hebrew phrase occurs in Gen. 19:37, 19:38, 22:14, 26:33, 32:32, 35:20, 47:26, 48:18.

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Genesis 01 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter presents the first account of God creating the world. There is a pattern to this account: “God said…God saw that it was good…This was evening and morning, the first day.” Translators should preserve this pattern in their versions.

Special concepts in this chapter

The universe

This account of creation is told within the framework of ancient Hebrew ideas about the universe: the earth was resting with water around it and below it. Over the earth was something like a vast dome, called “an expanse between the waters” (1:6), on top of which was more water. Translators should try to keep these original images in their work, even though readers in their project language might have a completely different idea of what the universe is like.

Evening and morning

Genesis 1 presents the ancient Hebrew idea of a day: it begins with sunset, lasts through the night and continues through the daylight hours until the next sunset. This pattern should be preserved in translation, even if readers in the project language define “day” differently.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“In the beginning”

Some languages and cultures speak of the world as if it has always existed, as if it had no beginning. But “very long ago” is different from “in the beginning,” and you need to be sure that your translation communicates correctly.

“God said, ‘Let there be’”

This expression occurs often in this chapter. It can be difficult to translate, because God is not shown as talking to a particular person. If God is talking to a thing, it is something not yet in existence. Translators should find the most natural way in the project language to signal the idea that God spoke things into existence; he created the world and the things in it by simply commanding that they should exist.

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In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth

“This is about how God made the heavens and the earth in the beginning.” This statement summarizes the rest of the chapter. Some languages translate it as “A very long time ago God created the heavens and the earth.” Translate it in a way that shows this actually happened and is not just a folk story.

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In the beginning

This refers to the start of the world and everything in it.

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the heavens and the earth

“the sky, the ground, and everything in them”

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heavens

This refers here to the sky.

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without form and empty

God had not yet put the world in order.

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the deep

“the water” or “the deep water” or “the vast water”

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the surface of the waters

“the surface of the water” or “the water”

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d7qw

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Let there be light

This is a command. By commanding that light should exist, God made it exist. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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God saw the light, that it was good

“God considered the light and was pleased with it.” “Good” here means “pleasing” or “suitable.”

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divided the light from the darkness

“separated the light and the darkness” or “made it light at one time and dark at another.” This refers to God creating the daytime and the night time.

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gl7g

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This was evening and morning, the first day

God did these things on the first day that the universe existed.

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jc2d

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evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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urb3

figs-imperative

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Let there be an expanse…let it divide

These are commands. By commanding that the expanse should exist and that it divide the waters, God made it exist and divide the waters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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expanse

large empty space. The Jewish people thought of this space as being shaped like the inside of dome or the inside of a bowl that is turned upside down.

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between the waters

“in the water”

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God made the expanse and divided the waters

“In this way God made the expanse and divided the waters.” When God spoke, it happened. This sentence explains what God did when he spoke.

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It was so

“It happened like that” or “That is what happened.” What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning wherever it appears.

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ss9r

figs-merism

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evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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the second day

This refers to the second day that the universe existed. See how you translated “the first day” in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

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zu6f

figs-activepassive

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Let the waters…be gathered

This can be translated with an active verb. This is a command. By commanding that the waters gather together, God made them gather together. Alternate translation: “Let the waters…gather” or “Let the waters…come together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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iv2c

figs-imperative

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let the dry land appear

The water had covered the land. Now the water would move aside and some of the land would be uncovered. This is a command. By commanding that dry land should appear, God made it appear. Alternate translation: “let dry land become visible” or “let the dry land become clear” or “let the land be uncovered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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dry land

This refers to land that is not covered with water. It does not refer to land that is too dry for farming.

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It was so

“It happened like that” or “That is what happened.” What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning wherever it appears. See how you translated it in Genesis 1:7.

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the dry land “earth,” and

“the part that was dry ‘earth,’ and”

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He saw that it was good

Here “it” refers to the land and the sea. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

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figs-imperative

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Let the earth sprout vegetation

This is a command. By commanding that vegetation should sprout on the earth, God made it sprout. Alternate translation: “Let vegetation sprout up on the earth” or “Let vegetation grow on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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vegetation: plants yielding seed and fruit trees bearing fruit

“vegetation, each plant that bears seed and each tree that bears fruit” or “vegetation. Let them be plants that produce seeds and fruit trees that produce fruit.” Here “vegetation” is used here as a general term that includes all plants and trees.

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plants

These are kinds of vegetation that have soft stems, rather than woody stems.

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fruit trees bearing fruit whose seed is in the fruit

“trees that bear fruit with seeds in them”

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each according to its own kind

The seeds would produce plants and trees that would be like the ones they came from. In this way, the plants and trees would “reproduce themselves” .

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It was so

“It happened like that” or “That is what happened.” What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning wherever it appears. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:7.

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God saw that it was good

Here “it” refers to the vegetation, plants, and trees. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:10.

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ch8e

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evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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the third day

This refers to the third day that the universe existed. See how you translated “the first day” in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

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sr8w

figs-imperative

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Let there be lights in the sky

This is a command. By commanding that lights should exist, God made them exist. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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lights in the sky

“things that shine in the sky” or “things that give light in the sky.” This refers to the sun, moon, and stars.

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in the sky

“in the expanse of the sky” or “in the large space of the sky”

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to divide the day from the night

“to separate the day from the night.” This means “to help us tell the difference between day and night.” The sun means it is daytime, and the moon and stars mean it is nighttime.

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m2r4

figs-imperative

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let them be as signs

This is a command. By commanding that they should serve as signs, God made them serve as signs. Alternate translation: “Let them serve as signs” or “let them show” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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signs

Here this means something that reveals or points to something.

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for seasons, for days and years

The sun, moon, and stars show the passing of time. This enables us to know when it is time for events that happen each week, month, or year.

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seasons

times that are set aside for festivals and other things that people do

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q4ne

figs-imperative

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Let them be lights in the sky to give light upon the earth

This is a command. By commanding that they should light the earth, God made them light the earth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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to give light upon the earth

“to shine light on the earth” or “to brighten the earth.” The earth does not self-shine but it is lit and so reflects light.

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It was so

“It happened like that” or “That is what happened.” What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:7.

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God made the two great lights

“In this way God made the two great lights.” This sentence explains what God did when he spoke.

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the two great lights

“the two large lights” or “the two bright lights.” The two great lights are the sun and the moon.

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figs-personification

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to rule the day

The lights that controlled the day are spoken of as if they were a human ruler that controlled what people do. Alternate translation: “to direct the daytime as a ruler directs a group of people” or “to mark the times of the day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

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day

This refers only to the daylight hours.

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the lesser light

“the smaller light” or “the dimmer light”

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in the sky

“in the heavens” or “in the open space of the sky”

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to divide the light from the darkness

“to separate the light from the darkness” or “to make it light at one time and dark at another.” See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

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God saw that it was good

Here “it” refers to the sun, moon, and stars. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

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ds1l

figs-merism

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evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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ukw9

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the fourth day

This refers to the fourth day that the universe existed. See how you translated “the first day” in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

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uw3u

figs-imperative

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Let the waters be filled with great numbers of living creatures

This is a command. By commanding that living creatures should fill the waters, God made them exist. Some languages may have one word that refers to all kinds of fish and sea animals. Alternate translation: “Let the waters be full of many living things” or “Let many animals that swim live in the oceans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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g6cj

figs-imperative

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let birds fly

This is a command. By commanding that birds should fly, God made them fly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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p48l

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birds

“animals that fly” or “flying things”

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the expanse of the sky

“the open space of the sky” or “the sky”

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God created

“In this way God created”

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great sea creatures

“large animals that live in the sea”

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after its kind

Living things of the same “kind” are like the ones they came from. See how you translated “kind” in Genesis 1:11,12.

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every winged bird

“every flying thing that has wings.” If the word for birds is used, it may be more natural in some languages to simply say “every bird,” since all birds have wings.

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God saw that it was good

Here “it” refers to the birds and the fish. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

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blessed them

“blessed the animals that he had made”

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ti8f

figs-doublet

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Be fruitful and multiply

This is God’s blessing. He told the sea animals to produce more sea animals like themselves, so that there would be many of them in the seas. The word “multiply” explains how they are to be “fruitful.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

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e4tn

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multiply

increase greatly in number

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lm9s

figs-imperative

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Let birds multiply

This is a command. By commanding that birds should multiply, God made birds multiply. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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sg3v

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birds

“animals that fly” or “flying things.” See how you translated this in Genesis 1:20.

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kpz8

figs-merism

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evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

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the fifth day

This refers to the fifth day that the universe existed. See how you translated “the first day” in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

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ke21

figs-imperative

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Let the earth produce living creatures

“Let the earth produce living things” or “Let many living animals live on the earth.” This is a command. By commanding that the earth should produce living creatures, God made the earth produce living creatures. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

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x6eu

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each according to its own kind

“so that each kind of animal will produce more of its own kind”

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m1pi

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livestock, creeping things, and beasts of the earth

This shows that God created all kinds of animals. If your language has another way of grouping all the animals, you can use that, or you can use these groups.

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g2m4

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livestock

animals that people look after

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yk9w

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creeping things

“small animals”

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r6l3

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beasts of the earth

“wild animals” or “dangerous animals”

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l3v2

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It was so

“It happened like that” or “That is what happened.” What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:7.

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m7h6

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God made the beasts

“In this way God made the beasts”

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s88h

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He saw that it was good

Here “it” refers to the living creatures on the earth. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:4.

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x8fd

figs-pronouns

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Let us make

The word “us” here refers to God. God was saying what he intended to do. The pronoun “us” is plural. Possible reasons for the plural use are (1) the plural form suggests that God is discussing something with the angels that make up his heavenly court or (2) the plural form foreshadows the later New Testament implications that God exists in the form of the Holy Trinity. Some translate it as “Let me make” or “I will make.” If you do this, consider adding a footnote to say that the word is plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

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xk37

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man

human beings

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kt75

figs-doublet

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in our image, after our likeness

These two phrases mean the same thing and emphasize that God made mankind to be like him. This verse does not tell in what ways God made people to be like himself. God does not have a body, so it does not mean that people would look like God. Alternate translation: “to truly be like us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

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st51

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have dominion over

“rule over” or “have authority over”

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qip4

figs-parallelism

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God created man…he created him

These two sentences mean the same thing and emphasize that God created people in his own image. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

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r7sx

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God created man

The way that God created man was different from the way he created everything else. Do not specify that he created man by simply speaking, as in the preceding verses.

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uiq2

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God blessed them

The word “them” refers to the man and woman God had created.

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tfr1

figs-doublet

0

Be fruitful, and multiply

God told the man and the woman to produce more people like themselves so that there would be many of them. The word “multiply” explains how they are to be “fruitful.” See how you translated this in Genesis 1:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

92

GEN

1

28

a7nj

0

Fill the earth

Fill the earth with people.

93

GEN

1

30

j3is

0

General Information:

God continues speaking.

94

GEN

1

30

vc53

0

every bird of the heavens

“all the birds that fly in the sky”

95

GEN

1

30

etp6

0

that has the breath of life

“that breathes.” This phrase emphasizes that these animals had a different kind of life than the plants. Plants do not breathe, and were to be used as food for the animals. Here “life” means physical life.

96

GEN

1

30

di9p

0

It was so

“It happened like that” or “That is what happened.” What God commanded happened just as he said it should. This phrase appears throughout the chapter and has the same meaning. See how you translated it in Genesis 1:7.

97

GEN

1

31

re3q

0

Behold, it

“This is true and important: it”

98

GEN

1

31

r2m5

0

it was very good

Now when God looked at everything he had made, it was “very good. “See how you translated “it was good” in Genesis 1:10.

99

GEN

1

31

stn7

figs-merism

0

evening and morning

This refers to the whole day. The writer speaks of the whole day as if it were these two parts. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

100

GEN

1

31

vqp1

0

the sixth day

This refers to the sixth day that the universe existed. See how you translated “the first day” in Genesis 1:5 and decide if you should translate this the same way.

101

GEN

2

intro

nfp7

0

Genesis 02 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Gen. 2:1-3 ends the first creation account, begun in the previous chapter. The second creation account, beginning in 2:4, is very different, using a more natural, story-telling style instead of following a set formula using repeated phrases. Translators should try to imitate this difference in their versions.

Special concepts in this chapter

The second creation account in Gen. 2:4-25

Gen. 2:4-25 presents an account of creation from a different viewpoint than the one given in Gen. 1:1-2:3. This second account should be regarded as filling out the first account, not as conflicting with it.

Yahweh, the name of God

“Yahweh,” the personal name of God in the Old Testament, appears for the first time in this chapter. Translators must decide how to represent it in their versions. For 2,000 years, it has been traditional for many Christians to represent it with the term “the Lord.” Indeed, it is demanded by Roman Catholics for their Bible versions to continue doing this. Of course, the disadvantage of using “the Lord” is that this is a title for God, not a personal name. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/yahweh]])

Translators who are not producing versions for Roman Catholics can consider transliterating the name “Yahweh,” approximating the name as best as their project languages allow.

Or translators can consider using expressions for the supreme god that might exist in their project languages, such as, “The Great One,” “The Ruler of All,” “The One who Never Sleeps,” etc. Of course, these are descriptive titles, not personal names, so they suffer from the same disadvantages that “the Lord” has.

Translators can also consider pairing a transliteration of “Yahweh” with a meaningful title for the supreme god in the project language. Whatever solution is found should be followed consistently when the name “Yahweh” occurs in the Scriptures.

The Garden of Eden

This was not a vegetable garden or cultivated field. Instead, it was probably a large area of land with fruit trees and other plants bearing leaves, etc., that were good to eat. A river flowed out from the Garden of Eden, giving the impression that the Garden was a holy place; in the ancient Near East, temples had gardens and waterways. In Rev. 22:1-2, the throne of God in the New Jerusalem is pictured with a river flowing out from it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/holy]])

102

GEN

2

1

c32g

0

the heavens

“the sky” or “the skies”

103

GEN

2

1

u4a2

0

and all the living things that filled them

“and all the many living things that are in them” or “and all the crowds of living things in them”

104

GEN

2

1

yv5z

figs-activepassive

0

were finished

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “God had finished creating them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

105

GEN

2

2

hi76

0

On the seventh day God came to the end of his work

God did not work at all on the seventh day.

106

GEN

2

2

qf2n

figs-idiom

0

came to the end of

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “had finished” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

107

GEN

2

2

a69h

0

he rested on the seventh day from all his work

“on that day he did not work”

108

GEN

2

3

k8jv

0

God blessed the seventh day

Possible meanings are (1) God caused the seventh day to produce good result or (2) God said that the seventh day was good.

109

GEN

2

3

k5p6

0

sanctified it

“set it apart” or “called it his own”

110

GEN

2

3

dc8y

0

in it he rested from all his work

“on it he did not work”

111

GEN

2

4

br8g

0

General Information:

The rest of Genesis 2 tells about how God created people on the sixth day.

112

GEN

2

4

f65q

0

These were the events concerning the heavens and the earth

“This is the account of the heavens and the earth” or “This is the story about the heavens and the earth.” Possible meanings are (1) it is a summary of the events described in Genesis 1:1-2:3 or (2) it introduces the events described in Genesis 2. If possible, translate this so that people can understood it either way.

113

GEN

2

4

e8kg

0

they were created

“Yahweh God created them.” In chapter 1 the writer always speaks of God as “God,” but in chapter 2 he always speaks of God as “Yahweh God.”

114

GEN

2

4

j1fv

0

on the day that Yahweh God made

“when Yahweh God created.” The word “day” refers to the whole time span of the creation, not to just one particular day.

115

GEN

2

4

rpv8

0

Yahweh

This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. See the translationWord page about Yahweh concerning how to translate this.

116

GEN

2

5

s14i

0

No bush of the field

no shrubs growing in the wild that animals might eat

117

GEN

2

5

rk64

0

no plant of the field

no leafy plants like vegetables or greens that both animals and humans can eat

118

GEN

2

5

ef6d

0

to cultivate

to do everything he needed to do so that the plants would grow well

119

GEN

2

6

xfl8

0

mist

Possible meanings are (1) something like dew or morning fog o (2) springs from underground streams.

120

GEN

2

6

v3yt

0

the whole surface of the ground

the entire earth

121

GEN

2

7

id8h

0

formed man

“molded man” or “shaped man” or “created man”

122

GEN

2

7

dk8k

0

man…man

“a human being…the human” or “a person…the person” not specifically a male

123

GEN

2

7

hjr4

0

his nostrils

“his nose”

124

GEN

2

7

ix5v

0

breath of life

“breath that makes things live.” Here “life” refers to physical life.

125

GEN

2

8

ezu8

0

a garden

This could have been an orchard of fruit trees or an area with all kinds of trees.

126

GEN

2

8

mn4d

0

eastward

in the east

127

GEN

2

9

rq2t

0

the tree of life

“the tree that gives people life”

128

GEN

2

9

ff9d

0

life

Here this means “eternal life” or life that does not end.

129

GEN

2

9

p743

0

the tree of the knowledge of good and evil

“the tree that gives people the ability to understand both good and evil” or “the tree that makes people who eat its fruit able to know good things and bad things”

130

GEN

2

9

rp99

figs-merism

0

good and evil

This is a figure of speech that refers to both extremes and everything in between. Alternate translation: “everything, including both good and evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

131

GEN

2

9

r1nw

0

in the midst of the garden

“in the middle of the garden.” The two trees may not have been in the exact center of the garden.

132

GEN

2

10

qg1f

0

A river went out of Eden to water the garden

The garden was in Eden. The river continued to flow outside of Eden. “A river flowed through Eden to water the garden”

133

GEN

2

11

nw6i

translate-names

0

Pishon

This is the only time this river is referred to in the Bible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

134

GEN

2

11

k6gw

translate-names

0

the whole land of Havilah

“the whole land called Havilah.” It was somewhere in the Arabian Desert. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

135

GEN

2

11

i82f

figs-distinguish

0

where there is gold

This phrase gives information about Havilah. Some languages would translate it as a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “There is gold in Havilah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

136

GEN

2

12

x7hc

0

There are also bdellium and the onyx stone

The word “there” is placed first in the sentence for emphasis. Alternate translation: “This is also where people can find bdellium and onyx stones”

137

GEN

2

12

zst7

translate-unknown

0

bdellium

This resin comes from a tree and smells nice. A resin is sticky stuff that comes out of some trees and can burn. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

138

GEN

2

12

eyf8

translate-unknown

0

the onyx stone

“onyx stones.” Onyx is a certain kind of beautiful stone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

139

GEN

2

13

tr82

translate-names

0

Gihon

This is the only mention of this river in the Bible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

140

GEN

2

13

lzz9

0

flows throughout the whole land of Cush

The river did not cover the whole land, but wound through various parts of the land.

141

GEN

2

13

hc9p

0

the whole land of Cush

“the entire land called Cush”

142

GEN

2

14

trw5

figs-distinguish

0

which flows east of Ashur

“which flows in the land east of the city of Ashur.” The Tigris River flows from north to south. The phrase “which flows east of Ashur” gives information about where the Tigris River is. Some languages would translate it as a separate sentence. Alternate translation: “It flows east of Ashur” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

143

GEN

2

15

js9w

0

the garden of Eden

“the garden that was in Eden”

144

GEN

2

15

e3ky

0

to work it

“to cultivate it.” This means to do everything necessary so that the plants will grow well.

145

GEN

2

15

r7v3

0

to maintain it

to guard against anything bad happening in it

146

GEN

2

16

c3wj

0

From every tree in the garden

“The fruit of every tree in the garden”

147

GEN

2

16

b9cu

figs-you

0

you

This pronoun is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

148

GEN

2

16

e4ij

0

may freely eat

“may eat without restriction”

149

GEN

2

17

ydc7

0

But from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat

These words complete the command that begins with the words “From every tree in the garden you may freely eat” in verse 15. In some languages, it may be more natural to say what is not permitted and to then say what is permitted, as in the UST.

150

GEN

2

17

l1vi

0

the tree of the knowledge of good and evil

“the tree that gives people the ability to understand both good and evil” or “the tree that makes people who eat its fruit able to know good things and bad things.” See how you translated this in Genesis 2:9.

151

GEN

2

17

up23

0

you may not eat

“I will not permit you to eat” or “you must not eat”

152

GEN

2

18

jeg8

0

I will make him a helper suitable for him

“I will make a helper who is just right for him”

153

GEN

2

19

sb6j

0

every animal of the field and every bird of the sky

The phrases “of the field” and “of the sky” tell where the animals and birds are usually found. Alternate translation: “all kinds of animals and birds”

154

GEN

2

20

f5az

0

all the livestock

“all the animals that people look after”

155

GEN

2

20

l5uf

figs-activepassive

0

there was found no helper suitable for him

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “there was no companion that was right for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

156

GEN

2

21

vnf4

0

caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man

“caused the man to sleep intensely.” A deep sleep is a time of sleeping in which a person is not easily disturbed or wakened.

157

GEN

2

21

m6wd

0

flesh

This refers to the soft parts of the body like skin and muscle.

158

GEN

2

22

i9u8

0

With the rib…he made a woman

“From the rib…he formed a woman.” The rib was the material God made the woman from.

159

GEN

2

23

i7j8

0

This time, this one is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh

“Finally, this one’s bones are like my bones, and her flesh is like my flesh.” After looking among all the animals for a partner and not finding one, he finally saw someone who was like him and could be his partner. The man was probably expressing his feeling of relief and joy.

160

GEN

2

23

s44p

0

She will be called ‘woman,’ because she was taken out of man

The translator may want to write a footnote saying “The Hebrew word for ‘woman’ sounds like the Hebrew word for ‘man.’

161

GEN

2

24

yx3u

0

General Information:

What follows is written by the author. The man did not say these things.

162

GEN

2

24

v11k

0

Therefore a man

“That is why a man”

163

GEN

2

24

ydt1

0

a man will leave his father and his mother

“a man will stop living in his father and mother’s home.” This is about men in general. It does not refer to any particular man at any particular time.

164

GEN

2

24

tr8p

figs-idiom

0

they will become one flesh

This idiom speaks of sexual activity as though the bodies that are together become one body. Alternate translation: “their two bodies will become one body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

165

GEN

2

25

h8mq

0

They were both naked

The word “they” refers to the man and the woman that God had created.

166

GEN

2

25

t8n2

0

naked

“not wearing clothing”

167

GEN

2

25

ir9e

0

but were not ashamed

“they were not ashamed about being naked”

168

GEN

3

intro

j7i3

0

Genesis 03 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter continues the second creation account that began in Gen. 2:4. But a new section of this account begins in 3:1. The ULT reads, “Now the serpent was more shrewd than any other beast of the field which Yahweh God had made,” because this is how the Scriptures introduce the serpent into the account. However, many languages prefer different ways to introduce new characters or things into stories, for example, “One of the wild animals made by God was the serpent” or “This is about the serpent, one of the wild animals that God had made.”

Scholars typically refer to the events of this chapter as “the fall” or “the fall of man” because sin is introduced into creation. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Curses

In this chapter, God curses the man, the woman, and the serpent for their sins. In general, cursing is calling down God’s punishment on someone or something. In this chapter, however, it is God himself who is doing the cursing. Of course, he does not call down punishment on the man, the woman, and the serpent from someone else. Instead, he is promising that he himself will punish them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/curse]])

Serpent

Most scholars believe that the serpent is Satan, even though his name is not used in this chapter. There are other places in Scripture where the serpent is used as an image for Satan. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/satan]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

169

GEN

3

1

m3hl

0

Now

The writer is beginning a new part of the story.

170

GEN

3

1

v5dp

0

more shrewd

“more cunning” or “smarter at getting what he wanted by telling lies”

171

GEN

3

1

bp3b

figs-rquestion

0

Has God really said, ‘You…garden’?

The snake is pretending to be surprised that God has made this rule. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am surprised that God said, ‘You…garden.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

172

GEN

3

1

t1qz

figs-you

0

You must not eat

The word “you” is plural and refers to the man and the woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

173

GEN

3

2

k94l

0

We may eat

“We are allowed to eat” or “We have permission to eat”

174

GEN

3

3

ujz2

0

but concerning the fruit…garden, God said, ‘You may not eat it, nor may you touch it, or you will die

These words are the end of Eve’s description of God’s command to them that begins with the words “We may eat” in verse 2. Eve told the serpent what God had permitted them to do first and then what God had told them not to do. Some languages would say what they were told not to do first and then say what they were allowed to do, as in the UST.

175

GEN

3

3

b76r

figs-you

0

You may not…nor may you…you will die

The word “you” is plural and refers to the man and the woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

176

GEN

3

3

n3h9

0

You may not eat it

“You must not eat it” or “Do not eat it”

177

GEN

3

3

dhv7

0

nor may you touch it

“and you must not touch it” or “and do not touch it”

178

GEN

3

4

fw9n

figs-you

0

You will…not die

These words refer to the man and the woman and so are dual or plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

179

GEN

3

5

rvj9

figs-you

0

you…your…you

These words refer to the man and the woman and so are dual or plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

180

GEN

3

5

k8qs

figs-idiom

0

your eyes will be opened

“your eyes will open.” This idiom means “you will become aware of things” or “you will understand new things.” This meaning can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “It will be as though your eyes were opened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

181

GEN

3

5

kv6j

figs-merism

0

knowing good and evil

Here “good and evil” is a figure of speech that refers to both extremes and everything in between. See how you translated “knowledge of good and evil” in Genesis 2:9. Alternate translation: “knowing everything, including both good and evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

182

GEN

3

6

n2vt

0

it was a delight to the eyes

“the tree was delightful to look at” or “it was nice to look at” or “it was very beautiful”

183

GEN

3

6

sw6q

0

that the tree was desirable to make one wise

“she wanted the tree’s fruit because it could make a person wise” or “she wanted its fruit because it could make her understand what was right and wrong just as God does”

184

GEN

3

7

yn1e

0

The eyes of both of them were opened

“Then their eyes opened” or “They became aware” or “They understood.” See how you translated “your eyes will be opened” in Genesis 3:5.

185

GEN

3

7

jp6y

0

sewed

put together, probably using vines as thread

186

GEN

3

7

y6l1

0

fig leaves

If people do not know what fig leaves are like, this can be translated as “large leaves from a fig tree” or simply “large leaves.”

187

GEN

3

7

l856

figs-explicit

0

made coverings for themselves

They did this because they were ashamed. This implicit information can be made explicit if needed as in the UST. Alternate translation: “clothed themselves with them because they were ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

188

GEN

3

8

llf2

0

in the cool of the day

“at the time of day when a cool breeze blows”

189

GEN

3

8

gi6e

0

from the presence of Yahweh God

“from Yahweh God’s sight” or “so that Yahweh God would not see them” or “from Yahweh God”

190

GEN

3

9

c8sg

0

Where are you?

“Why are you trying to hide from me?” God knew where the man was. When the man answered, he did not say where he was but why he was hiding.

191

GEN

3

9

ijl7

figs-you

0

you

In verses 9 and 11, God was speaking to the man. Languages that have a singular form of “you” would use that here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

192

GEN

3

10

b8tp

0

I heard you

“I heard the sound you were making”

193

GEN

3

11

ujb1

figs-rquestion

0

Who told you

God knew the answer to this question. He asked it in order to force Adam to confess that he had disobeyed God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

194

GEN

3

11

hny5

figs-rquestion

0

Have you eaten…from?

Again, God knew this had happened. Translate this question in a form that shows God was accusing Adam of disobedience. The sentence can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You must have eaten…from.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

195

GEN

3

13

fw79

figs-rquestion

0

What is this you have done?

God already knew what the woman had done. When he asked this question, he was giving her the opportunity to tell him about it, and he was expressing his disappointment with what she had done. Many languages use rhetorical questions for scolding or rebuking. If possible, use a form that expresses this disappointment. It can also be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You have done a terrible thing.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

196

GEN

3

14

w3bn

0

cursed are you alone

“you alone are cursed.” The word “curse” is first in Hebrew in order to emphasize the contrast between God’s blessing on the animals and this curse on the serpent. This is a “curse formula,” or the way that curses were expressed. By saying this curse, God made it happen.

197

GEN

3

14

x1b4

0

all the livestock and all the beasts of the field

“all domestic animals and all wild animals”

198

GEN

3

14

yxn7

0

It is on your stomach that you will go

“You will move along the ground on your stomach.” The words “it is upon your stomach” comes first to emphasize the contrast between the way other animals would move along using their legs and the way the serpent would slither along on its stomach. This is also part of the curse formula.

199

GEN

3

14

p527

0

it is dust that you will eat

“you will eat dust.” The words “it is dust” comes first to emphasize the contrast between the plants above the ground that other animals would eat and the dirty food on the ground that the serpent would eat. This is part of the curse formula.

200

GEN

3

15

gi4d

0

hostility between you and the woman

This means that the serpent and the woman would become enemies.

201

GEN

3

15

p95z

0

seed

The word “seed” refers to what a man puts into a woman to cause a baby to grow inside the woman. Like the word “offspring,” it can refer to more than one person. Try to find a word that is singular but can refer to more than one person.

202

GEN

3

15

iyz4

figs-pronouns

0

He will bruise…his heel

The words “he” and “his” refer to the woman’s descendant. If “seed” was translated as plural, this can be translated as “they will bruise…their heel”; in this case, consider inserting footnotes to say that the “they” and “their” are used to translate a singular pronoun. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

203

GEN

3

15

k4z3

0

bruise

“crush” or “strike” or “attack”

204

GEN

3

16

hk7l

0

I will greatly multiply your pain

“I will make your pain increase much” or “I will make your pain to be very severe”

205

GEN

3

16

a74c

0

in having children

“in giving birth to children” or “when you give birth to children”

206

GEN

3

16

rt5m

0

Your desire will be for your husband

“You will have a strong desire for your husband.” Possible meanings are (1) “You will want very much to be with your husband” or (2) “You will want to control your husband”

207

GEN

3

16

mk2u

0

he will rule over you

“he will be your master” or “he will control you”

208

GEN

3

17

vtq5

0

Adam

The name Adam is the same as the Hebrew word for “man.” Some translations say “Adam” and some say “the man.” You may use either form as it refers to the same person.

209

GEN

3

17

f2pb

figs-idiom

0

you have listened to the voice of your wife

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “you have obeyed what your wife said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

210

GEN

3

17

jl8p

figs-explicit

0

have eaten from the tree

You can say what it was that they ate. Alternate translation: “have eaten the fruit of the tree” or “have eaten some of the fruit of the tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

211

GEN

3

17

fhp5

0

You may not eat from it

“You must not eat from it” or “Do not eat its fruit”

212

GEN

3

17

rlw9

figs-activepassive

0

cursed is the ground

The word “curse” comes first in the sentence to emphasize that the ground, which had been “good” (Genesis 1:10), was now under God’s curse. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I am cursing the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

213

GEN

3

17

zjr5

0

through painful work

“by doing hard work”

214

GEN

3

17

dg63

figs-metonymy

0

you will eat from it

The word “it” refers to the ground and is a metonym for the parts of the plants, which grow in the ground, that people eat. Alternate translation: “you will eat what grows from it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

215

GEN

3

18

zc9v

0

the plants of the field

Possible meanings are (1) “the plants that you take care of in your fields” or (2) “the wild plants that grow in the open fields.”

216

GEN

3

19

kc7j

0

By the sweat of your face

“By doing hard work that makes your face sweat”

217

GEN

3

19

pl6i

figs-synecdoche

0

you will eat bread

Here the word “bread” is a synecdoche for food in general. Alternate translation: “you will eat food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

218

GEN

3

19

z9pa

0

until you return to the ground

“until you die and your body is put in the ground.” In some cultures, they put the bodies of people who have died in a hole in the ground. Man’s hard work does not end until the time of his death and burial.

219

GEN

3

19

hc39

0

For dust you are, and to dust you will return

“I made you from soil, so your body will become soil again.” Translate both occurrences of “dust” with the same word in order to show that man begins and ends in the same condition.

220

GEN

3

20

lzl1

0

The man

Some translations say “Adam.”

221

GEN

3

20

qic8

0

called his wife’s name Eve

“gave his wife the name Eve” or “named his wife Eve”

222

GEN

3

20

pn1z

0

Eve

Translators may write a footnote saying “The name Eve sounds like the Hebrew word that means ‘living.’”

223

GEN

3

20

wq8p

figs-nominaladj

0

all the living

The word “living” refers to people. Alternate translation: “all people” or “all living people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

224

GEN

3

21

an9a

0

garments of skins

“clothing made out of animal skins”

225

GEN

3

22

ve6w

0

the man

Possible meanings are (1) God was referring to one human, the man, or (2) God was referring to humans in general, so this would mean the man and his wife. Even if God was speaking about one person, what he said applied to both of them.

226

GEN

3

22

gnj9

0

like one of us

“like us.” The pronoun “us” is plural. See how you translated “Let us make” in Genesis 1:26.

227

GEN

3

22

x7q6

figs-merism

0

knowing good and evil

Here “good and evil” is a figure of speech that refers to both extremes and everything in between. See how you translated “knowledge of good and evil” in Genesis 2:9. Alternate translation: “knowing everything, including both good and evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

228

GEN

3

22

vz41

figs-activepassive

0

he must not be allowed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I will not allow him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

229

GEN

3

22

qxt1

0

tree of life

“the tree that gives people life.” See how you translated this in Genesis 2:9.

230

GEN

3

23

t7zb

0

the ground from which he had been taken

“dirt because he had been taken from dirt.” This does not refer to the particular place on the land that the God took man from.

231

GEN

3

23

dri1

0

to cultivate

This means to what is needed so that plants grow well. See how you translated this in Genesis 2:5.

232

GEN

3

24

lwk4

0

So God drove the man out of the garden

“God forced the man to leave the garden.” This refers to the event in Genesis 3:23, where it says “Yahweh God sent him out of the garden of Eden.” God did not send the man out a second time.

233

GEN

3

24

jgc5

0

in order to guard the way to the tree of life

“in order to stop people from going to the tree of life”

234

GEN

3

24

uuj7

0

flaming sword

Possible meanings are (1) a sword that had flames coming from it or (2) a fire that was shaped like a sword. Languages that do not have swords could use another weapon such as a spear or arrow.

235

GEN

4

intro

a2f7

0

Genesis 04 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Most of the text in this chapter is prose, but 4:23-24 is poetry. If the translator should put these two verses into poetic form, or at least into elegant speech, different from the rest of the chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Vengeance

The theme of vengeance is important in this chapter. Ancient Hebrew society allowed for people to seek revenge if a relative was murdered. After Cain murdered his brother Abel, he thought that he would be helpless against this danger because he had been driven away from God’s protection. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/avenge]])

The theme of vengeance continues with the words of Lamech, who had killed someone for injuring him: “I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me. If Cain is avenged seven times as much, truly Lamech will be avenged seventy-seven times as much” (Gen. 4:23b-24).

236

GEN

4

1

eg45

figs-euphemism

0

The man knew Eve

This is a polite way of saying that the man had sexual relations with Eve. You may need to use another euphemism in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

237

GEN

4

1

vph2

0

The man

“the human being” or “Adam”

238

GEN

4

1

l6v2

0

I have produced a man

The word for “man” typically describes an adult male, rather than a baby or child. If that would cause confusion, it could be translated as “manchild” or “boy” or “baby boy” or “son.”

239

GEN

4

1

g2tx

figs-explicit

0

Cain

Translators may want to include a footnote that says “The name Cain sounds like the Hebrew word that means ‘produce.’ Eve named him Cain because she produced him.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

240

GEN

4

2

hv71

0

Then she gave birth

We do not know how much time passed between the births of Cain and Abel. They may have been twins, or Abel may have been born after Eve became pregnant again. If possible, use an expression that does not tell how much time passed.

241

GEN

4

2

bpy1

0

cultivated

This means he did everything he needed to do so that the plants would grow well. See how “cultivate” is translated in Genesis 2:5.

242

GEN

4

3

x19b

0

It came about that

This phrase is used to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using that method here.

243

GEN

4

3

pvj2

0

in the course of time

Possible meanings are (1) “after some time had passed” or (2) “at the right time”

244

GEN

4

3

ph1l

figs-explicit

0

fruit of the ground

This refers to the food that came from plants he had tended. Alternate translation: “crops” or “harvest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

245

GEN

4

4

zq2f

figs-explicit

0

some of the fat

This refers to the fatty parts of the lambs that he had killed, it was the best part of the animal. Alternate translation: “some of their fat parts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

246

GEN

4

4

mi4f

0

accepted

“looked favorably upon” or “was pleased with”

247

GEN

4

5

rcs4

0

did not accept

“did not look favorably upon” or “was not pleased with”

248

GEN

4

5

dyg6

0

was very angry

Some languages have an idiom for anger such as “He burned” or “His anger burned.”

249

GEN

4

5

bwt7

figs-idiom

0

he scowled

This means that the expression on his face showed that he was angry or jealous. Some languages have an idiom that describes what a person’s face looks like when he is angry. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

250

GEN

4

6

pu1k

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you angry and why are you scowling?

God used these rhetorical questions to tell Cain that he was wrong to be angry and scowl. They may also have been intended to give Cain an opportunity to confess that he was wrong. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

251

GEN

4

7

ln9v

figs-rquestion

0

If you…will you not be accepted?

God used this rhetorical question to remind Cain of something Cain should have already known. Alternate translation: “You know that if you do what is right, I will accept you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

252

GEN

4

7

j7ks

figs-personification

0

But if you do not…you must rule over it

God speaks of sin as if it were a person. Alternate translation: “But if you do not do what is right, you will desire to sin even more, and then you will do sinful things. You must refuse to obey it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

253

GEN

4

7

eqb2

figs-metaphor

0

sin crouches…to control you

Here sin is spoken of as a dangerous wild animal that is waiting for the chance to attack Cain. Alternate translation: “you will become so angry that you will not be able to stop sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

254

GEN

4

7

x8lx

0

sin

Languages that do not have a noun that means “sin” could translate this as “your desire to sin” or “the bad things you want to do.”

255

GEN

4

7

s7tk

figs-personification

0

you must rule over it

Yahweh speaks of Cain’s desire to sin as if it were a person over whom Cain should rule. Alternate translation: “you must control it so you do not sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

256

GEN

4

8

n4x9

translate-textvariants

0

Cain spoke to Abel his brother.

Some early translations tell explicitly what Cain said to his brother. You may want to do the same if it is present in your national version. Alternate translation: “Cain said to Abel his brother, ‘Let us go into the fields.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

257

GEN

4

8

h58l

figs-explicit

0

brother

Abel was Cain’s younger brother. Some languages may need to use the word for “younger brother.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

258

GEN

4

8

znp9

figs-idiom

0

rose up against

Standing up to fight against a person is an idiom for attacking him. Alternate translation: “attacked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

259

GEN

4

9

rc6x

figs-rquestion

0

Where is Abel your brother

God knew that Cain had killed Abel, but he asked Cain this question so that Cain would have to answer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

260

GEN

4

9

r4il

figs-rquestion

0

Am I my brother’s keeper?

Cain used this rhetorical question so that he would not have to tell the truth. This can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am not my brother’s keeper!” or “You know that taking care of my brother is not my job!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

261

GEN

4

10

fs9s

figs-rquestion

0

What have you done?

God uses a rhetorical question to rebuke Cain. This can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “What you have done is terrible!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

262

GEN

4

10

epa5

figs-metonymy

0

Your brother’s blood is calling out to me

Abel’s blood is a metonym for his death, as if it were a person calling out for God to punish Cain. Alternate translation: “Your brother’s blood is like a person calling out to me to punish the person who killed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

263

GEN

4

11

xi71

figs-activepassive

0

Now cursed are you from the ground

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I am cursing you so that you will not be able to grow food from the ground” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

264

GEN

4

11

p2h4

figs-personification

0

which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood

God speaks of the earth as if it were a person who could drink Abel’s blood. Alternate translation: “which is soaked with your brother’s blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

265

GEN

4

11

n89j

figs-synecdoche

0

from your hand

Here Cain is represented by his “hand,” to emphasize that he personally had killed his brother. Alternate translation: “that spilled when you killed him” or “from you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

266

GEN

4

12

s7z7

0

cultivate

This means to do everything necessary to do so that the plants would grow well. See how “cultivate” is translated in Genesis 2:5.

267

GEN

4

12

t858

figs-personification

0

it will not yield to you its strength

The ground is personified as if it were a person who loses strength. Alternate translation: “the ground will not produce much food for you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

268

GEN

4

12

vn98

figs-hendiadys

0

A fugitive and a wanderer

You can join these words together. Alternate translation: “A homeless wanderer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

269

GEN

4

14

e7mj

figs-idiom

0

I will be hidden from your face

The term “your face” represents God’s presence. Alternate translation: “I will not be able to speak to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

270

GEN

4

14

qwi8

0

a fugitive and a wanderer

See how you translated this in Genesis 4:12

271

GEN

4

15

zay8

figs-activepassive

0

vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I will take vengeance on him seven times” or “I will punish that person seven times as severely as I am punishing you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

272

GEN

4

15

y97q

0

would not attack him

“would not kill Cain”

273

GEN

4

16

f6yy

figs-idiom

0

went out from the presence of Yahweh

Even though Yahweh is everywhere, this idiom speaks of Cain as though he went far away. Alternate translation: “went away from where Yahweh spoke to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

274

GEN

4

16

rx4d

0

Nod

Translators may add a footnote saying “The word Nod means ‘wandering.’”

275

GEN

4

17

s2i7

figs-euphemism

0

Cain knew his wife

This is a polite way of saying that Cain had sexual relations with his wife. You may need to use another euphemism in your language. See how you translated this in Genesis 4:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

276

GEN

4

17

bf1z

0

He built a city

“Cain built a city”

277

GEN

4

18

n5ni

figs-explicit

0

To Enoch was born Irad

It is implied that Enoch grew up and married a woman. Alternate translation: “Enoch grew up and married and became the father of a son whom he named Irad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

278

GEN

4

18

l1gq

translate-names

0

Irad

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

279

GEN

4

19

bm1j

translate-names

0

Adah…Zillah

women’s names (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

280

GEN

4

20

urt3

0

Adah

See how you translated this woman’s name in Genesis 4:19.

281

GEN

4

20

ll8c

0

He was the father of those who lived in tents

Possible meanings are (1) “He was the first person to live in a tent” or (2) “He and his descendants lived in tents.”

282

GEN

4

20

fpv4

0

who lived in tents who have livestock

people who both live in tents and also take care of animals

283

GEN

4

21

fv9d

0

He was the father of those who play the harp and pipe

Possible meanings are (1) “He was the first person to play the harp and pipe” or (2) “He and his descendants played the harp and pipe.”

284

GEN

4

22

m5qg

0

Zillah

See how you translated this woman’s name in Genesis 4:19.

285

GEN

4

22

n1k8

translate-names

0

Tubal-Cain

the name of a man (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

286

GEN

4

22

c64b

0

the forger of tools of bronze and iron

“who made tools out of bronze and iron”

287

GEN

4

22

k7q7

0

iron

a very strong metal used to make tools and weapons.

288

GEN

4

23

p6mu

0

Adah…Zillah

See how you translated these women’s names in Genesis 4:19.

289

GEN

4

23

f7di

figs-parallelism

0

listen to my voice…listen to what I say

Lamech said the same thing twice for emphasis. His voice is a synecdoche for his whole person. Alternate translation: “listen carefully to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

290

GEN

4

23

pa9h

figs-parallelism

0

a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me

Lamech killed only one person. These two phrases mean the same thing and are repeated to emphasize the certainty of his action. Alternate translation: “a young man because he hurt me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

291

GEN

4

24

reh3

figs-activepassive

0

If Cain is avenged seven times, then Lamech

Lamech knows that God will avenge Cain seven times. Alternate translation: “Since God will punish anyone who kills Cain seven times, Lamech” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

292

GEN

4

24

w88s

figs-activepassive

0

then Lamech will be avenged seventy-seven times

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “whoever kills me, God will punish seventy-seven times” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

293

GEN

4

24

mz2s

translate-numbers

0

seventy-seven

77 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

294

GEN

4

25

g5y9

figs-euphemism

0

Adam knew his wife

This is a polite way of saying that Adam had sexual relations with his wife. You may need to use another euphemism in your language. See how you translated this in Genesis 4:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

295

GEN

4

25

y7i8

figs-explicit

0

said, “God has given me another son

This is the reason that she named him Seth. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “explained, ‘God has given me another child” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

296

GEN

4

25

t9w6

translate-names

0

Seth

Translators may add a footnote that says “This name sounds like the Hebrew word that means ‘has given.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

297

GEN

4

26

aua4

figs-explicit

0

A son was born to Seth

This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Seth’s wife bore him a son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

298

GEN

4

26

i4rs

figs-explicit

0

to call on the name of Yahweh

This is the first time people called God by the name Yahweh. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “to worship God by using the name Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

299

GEN

5

intro

v62r

0

Genesis 05 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter provides the first of many lists of descendants in the Bible. This is not a simple list, because the author makes comments about each person. Translators should format this text in the way that is clearest in the project language. Many may choose to introduce each new person in a separate paragraph, as the ULT and UST do.

300

GEN

5

1

wj9n

0

General Information:

This is the beginning of the list of Adam’s descendants.

301

GEN

5

1

qwp1

figs-pronouns

0

in his own likeness

This phrase means that God made mankind to be like him. This verse does not tell in what ways God made people to be like himself. God does not have a body, so it does not mean that people would look like God. See how “after our likeness” is translated in Genesis 1:26. Alternate translation: “to truly be like us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

302

GEN

5

2

j6nz

figs-activepassive

0

when they were created

This can be made active. Alternate translation: “when he created them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

303

GEN

5

3

zcj2

translate-numbers

0

130

Translators may write the words “one hundred thirty.” (The ULT and the UST use numerals if the number has three or more words; they use words if a number has only one or two words.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

304

GEN

5

3

a62w

0

he became the father of a son

“he had a son”

305

GEN

5

3

al1g

0

in his own likeness, after his image

These two phrases mean the same thing. They are used as a reminder that God made man in his own image. See how you translated similar phrases in Genesis 1:26.

306

GEN

5

3

t33a

0

Seth

See how you translated this name in Genesis 4:25.

307

GEN

5

4

k8qg

translate-numbers

0

eight hundred

Translators may write the numerals “800.” (The ULT and the UST use numerals if the number has three or more words; they use words if a number has only one or two words.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

308

GEN

5

4

y8af

0

He became the father of more sons and daughters

“He had more sons and daughters”

309

GEN

5

5

j99s

0

then he died

This phrase will be repeated throughout the chapter. Use the ordinary word for “died.”

310

GEN

5

5

tw8v

translate-numbers

0

Adam lived 930 years

“Adam lived nine hundred and thirty years.” People used to live a very long time. Use your ordinary word for “years.” Alternate translation: “Adam lived a total of 930 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

311

GEN

5

6

r7dg

translate-numbers

0

105 years

“one hundred and five years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

312

GEN

5

6

lqy1

0

he became the father of Enosh

Here “father” means his actual father, not his grandfather. Alternate translation: “he had his son Enosh”

313

GEN

5

6

ek6r

translate-names

0

Enosh

This is the name of a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

314

GEN

5

7

t48l

translate-numbers

0

807 years

“eight hundred and seven years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

315

GEN

5

7

g73m

0

and became the father of more sons and daughters

“and had more sons and daughters”

316

GEN

5

8

sh2z

translate-numbers

0

Seth lived 912 years

“Seth lived nine hundred and twelve years.” Seth lived a total of 912 years. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

317

GEN

5

8

wqz6

0

then he died

This phrase is repeated throughout the chapter. Use the ordinary word for “died.”

318

GEN

5

9

qbk4

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

319

GEN

5

9

es59

translate-numbers

0

ninety years

“90 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

320

GEN

5

10

q4y5

translate-numbers

0

815 years

“eight hundred and fifteen years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

321

GEN

5

11

kjj5

translate-numbers

0

905 years

“nine hundred and give years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

322

GEN

5

12

s2nr

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

323

GEN

5

12

xpk5

translate-numbers

0

seventy years

“70 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

324

GEN

5

13

n3df

translate-numbers

0

840 years

“eight hundred and forty years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

325

GEN

5

14

k461

translate-numbers

0

910 years

“nine hundred and ten years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

326

GEN

5

15

bi8l

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

327

GEN

5

18

hfg3

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

328

GEN

5

21

i3dx

0

he became the father of Methuselah

“he had his son Methuselah”

329

GEN

5

21

se6e

translate-names

0

Methuselah

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

330

GEN

5

22

w9tp

figs-metaphor

0

Enoch walked with God

To walk with someone is a metaphor for being in a close relationship with him. Alternate translation: “Enoch had a close relationship with God” or “Enoch lived in union with God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

331

GEN

5

22

bmi4

0

He became the father of more sons and daughters

“He had more sons and daughters”

332

GEN

5

23

rs6f

translate-numbers

0

Enoch lived 365 years

“Enoch lived three hundred and sixty-five years.” Enoch lived a total of 365 years. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

333

GEN

5

24

nyq3

0

then he was gone

The word “he” refers to Enoch. He was no longer on earth.

334

GEN

5

24

lhk8

0

for God took him

This means that God took Enoch to be with himself (God).

335

GEN

5

25

y9rj

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 5:6-27 have the same format. Translate them according to the notes in Genesis 5:6-8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

336

GEN

5

25

nk49

0

Lamech

This Lamech is different from the Lamech in Genesis 4:18.

337

GEN

5

28

ljh7

translate-numbers

0

182 years

“one hundred and eighty-two years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

338

GEN

5

28

u994

0

became the father of a son

“had a son”

339

GEN

5

29

fk97

translate-names

0

Noah

Translators may want to add a footnote that says: “This name sounds like the Hebrew word that means ‘rest.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

340

GEN

5

29

lr8d

figs-doublet

0

from our work and from the painful labor of our hands

Lamech says the same thing twice to emphasize how hard the work was. Alternate translation: “from working so hard with our hands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

341

GEN

5

30

ah2j

translate-numbers

0

595 years

“five hundred and ninety-five years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

342

GEN

5

31

kv28

translate-numbers

0

Lamech lived 777 years

“Lamech lived seven hundred seventy-seven years.” Lamech lived a total of 777 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

343

GEN

5

32

z148

0

he became the father of

“he had his sons.” This does not tell us whether the sons were born on the same day or in different years.

344

GEN

5

32

n65e

0

Shem, Ham, and Japheth

These sons may not be listed in the order of their birth. There is disagreement about which one was the oldest. Avoid translating this in a way that implies that the list is in the order of their ages.

345

GEN

6

intro

ak78

0

Genesis 06 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Beginning in 6:22, the author gives statements summarizing events he tells about again in the text that follows. In the next chapter, the author sometimes gives summary statements that introduce events for the first time. If these statements, and the surrounding events, are not carefully translated, readers can believe that the same events happened twice or three times instead of only one time. Translators should be careful not to give this impression.

346

GEN

6

1

x6gk

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

347

GEN

6

1

dj4v

figs-activepassive

0

daughters were born to them

This can be active. Alternate translation: “the women bore daughters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

348

GEN

6

2

l1va

0

sons of God

Translators could add a footnote saying: “It is not clear whether this refers to heavenly beings or human beings. In either case, they were beings that God created.” Some believe these words refer to angels who rebelled against God, that is, evil spirits or demons. Others think this may refer to powerful political rulers, and others think this may refer to the descendants of Seth.

349

GEN

6

3

lz4s

0

My spirit

Here Yahweh is talking about himself and his spirit, which is the Spirit of God.

350

GEN

6

3

et8s

0

flesh

This means that they have physical bodies that will one day die.

351

GEN

6

3

pvv2

translate-numbers

0

They will live 120 years

“They will live one hundred and twenty years.” Possible meanings are (1) the normal lifespan of people would decrease to 120 years. Alternate translation: “They will not live more than 120 years” or (2) in 120 years everyone would die. Alternate translation: “They will live only 120 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

352

GEN

6

4

e44a

0

Giants

very tall, large people

353

GEN

6

4

ih17

0

This happened when

“The giants were born because”

354

GEN

6

4

et78

0

sons of God

See how you translated this in Genesis 6:2.

355

GEN

6

4

slb2

0

These were the mighty men of old

“These giants were the mighty men who lived long ago” or “These children grew to become the powerful fighters who lived long ago”

356

GEN

6

4

sk1e

0

mighty men

men who are courageous and victorious in battle

357

GEN

6

4

u34f

0

men of renown

“famous men”

358

GEN

6

5

q6rz

0

every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts

“everything their hearts wanted to think about”

359

GEN

6

5

id88

figs-metonymy

0

the thoughts of their hearts

The writer speaks of the heart as if it were the part of the body that thinks. Your language may use a word other than “heart” to talk about the part of people that thinks. Alternate translation: “their inner, secret thoughts” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

360

GEN

6

6

mr7b

figs-metonymy

0

it grieved him to his heart

The writer speaks of the heart as if it were the part of the body that feels sadness. Your language may use a word other than “heart” to talk about the emotions. Alternate translation: “he was very, very sad about it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

361

GEN

6

7

tk23

figs-metaphor

0

I will wipe away mankind…from the surface of the earth

The writer speaks of God killing people as if God were wiping dirt off a flat surface. Alternate translation: “I will destroy mankind…so that there will not be any people on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

362

GEN

6

7

if98

figs-distinguish

0

I will wipe away mankind whom I have created

Some languages would need to translate this as two sentences. Alternate translation: “I created mankind. I will wipe them away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

363

GEN

6

7

ss97

0

wipe away

“completely destroy.” Here “wipe away” is used in a negative sense, for God is talking about destroying the people because of their sin.

364

GEN

6

8

sc4m

figs-idiom

0

Noah found favor in the eyes of Yahweh

The phrase “found favor” is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “Yahweh looked favorably on Noah” or “Yahweh was pleased with Noah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

365

GEN

6

9

y7rc

0

General Information:

This begins the story of Noah, which continues into chapter 9.

366

GEN

6

9

nwq5

0

These were the events concerning Noah

“This is the account of Noah”

367

GEN

6

9

eh9u

0

walked with God

See how you translated this in Genesis 5:21.

368

GEN

6

10

sf7p

0

Noah became the father of three sons

“Noah had three sons” or “Noah’s wife had three sons”

369

GEN

6

10

kk5r

0

Shem, Ham, and Japheth

Translators may add the following footnote: “The sons are not listed in the order in which they were born.”

370

GEN

6

11

ym2f

figs-metonymy

0

The earth

Possible meanings are (1) the people who lived on the earth or (2) “The earth itself.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

371

GEN

6

11

cmt9

figs-metaphor

0

was corrupt

The people doing what is evil is spoken of as if they were food that has become rotten. Alternate translation: “was rotten” or “was completely evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

372

GEN

6

11

uj42

0

before God

Possible meanings are (1) “in God’s sight” or (2) “in the presence of Yahweh” as in Genesis 4:16.

373

GEN

6

11

taq9

figs-metaphor

0

and it was filled with violence

The writer speaks of violence as if it were something that could be put into a container and of the earth as a container. Alternate translation: “and there were very many violent people on the earth” or “because it was full of people who did evil things to each other” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

374

GEN

6

12

j3ek

0

behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

375

GEN

6

12

ut53

figs-synecdoche

0

all flesh

Possible meanings for what “all flesh” represents are (1) all human beings or (2) all physical beings, including humans and animal. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

376

GEN

6

12

ds5x

figs-metaphor

0

had corrupted their way

How a person behaves is spoken of as if it were a way or road. Alternate translation: “had stopped living the way God wanted” or “had behaved in an evil way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

377

GEN

6

13

qem8

0

all flesh

See how you translated these words in Genesis 6:12.

378

GEN

6

13

hw2i

0

the earth is filled with violence through them

“people everywhere on earth are violent”

379

GEN

6

13

tw4l

0

I will destroy them with the earth

“I will destroy both them and the earth” or “I will destroy them when I destroy the earth”

380

GEN

6

14

c3m5

0

an ark

This refers to a very large box that would be able to float on water even in a very bad storm. “a large boat” or “a ship” or “a barge”

381

GEN

6

14

m88q

0

cypress wood

People do not know exactly what kind of tree this was. “wood used for building boats” or “good wood”

382

GEN

6

14

a94b

figs-explicit

0

cover it with pitch

The reason for doing this can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “spread pitch on it” or “paint tar on it” or “cover it with pitch to make it waterproof” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

383

GEN

6

14

ryf4

0

pitch

This is a thick, sticky or oily liquid that people put on the outside of a boat to stop water from going through gaps in the wood into the boat.

384

GEN

6

15

cz5l

translate-bdistance

0

cubits

A cubit was a unit of measure, a little less than half a meter long. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

385

GEN

6

15

xri9

translate-bdistance

0

three hundred cubits

“138 meters.” You may use the Hebrew measuring units from the ULT or the metric units from the UST or your own culture’s units if you know how they compare to the metric units. You may also write a footnote that says: “Three hundred cubits is about 138 meters.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

386

GEN

6

15

y496

translate-bdistance

0

fifty cubits

“twenty-three meters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

387

GEN

6

15

u2h3

translate-bdistance

0

thirty cubits

“fourteen meters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

388

GEN

6

16

bv39

0

a roof for the ark

This was probably a peaked or slanted roof. Its purpose was to protect everything in the ark from the rain.

389

GEN

6

16

se34

translate-bdistance

0

cubit

A cubit was a little less than half a meter long. See how you translated this in Genesis 6:15. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])

390

GEN

6

16

ml4z

0

a lower, a second, and a third deck

“a lower deck, a middle deck, and an upper deck” or “three decks inside”

391

GEN

6

16

gl2q

0

deck

“floor” or “level”

392

GEN

6

17

f72f

0

Listen

God said this in order to emphasize that he would do what he was about to say. “Pay attention” or “Listen to what I am saying”

393

GEN

6

17

b6s7

figs-go

0

I am about to bring the flood of waters

In some languages it may b e better to say “to send” instead of “to bring. It is also possible to avoid the direction and say “to cause.” Alternate translation: “I am about to send a flood of waters” or “I am about to cause a flood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

394

GEN

6

17

h8ev

figs-synecdoche

0

all flesh

Here “flesh” represents all physical beings, including humans and animals. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

395

GEN

6

17

jv7g

figs-metonymy

0

that has in it the breath of life

Here “breath” represents life. Alternate translation: “that lives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

396

GEN

6

18

ycd4

0

establish my covenant with you

“make a covenant between you and me”

397

GEN

6

18

uqa9

0

with you

with Noah

398

GEN

6

18

c9jq

0

You will come into the ark

“You will enter the ark.” Some translations say “You will go into the ark.”

399

GEN

6

19

gs78

0

Of every living creature of all flesh, two of every kind you must bring into the ark

“You must bring into the ark two of every kind of living creature”

400

GEN

6

19

x8zw

0

creature

an animal God created

401

GEN

6

19

v6ar

0

all flesh

See how you translated these words in Genesis 6:12.

402

GEN

6

20

v1mj

0

after their kind

“of each different kind”

403

GEN

6

20

ua1j

0

creeping thing of the ground

This refers to small animals that move on the ground .

404

GEN

6

20

b3i9

0

two of every sort

This refers to two of every kind of bird and animal.

405

GEN

6

20

f2s1

figs-you

0

to you

This refers to Noah and so is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

406

GEN

6

20

msl4

0

to keep them alive

“so you can keep them alive”

407

GEN

6

21

w126

figs-you

0

yourself…you

These refer to Noah and are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

408

GEN

6

21

bbh4

0

food that is eaten

“food that people and animals eat”

409

GEN

6

22

df5r

figs-parallelism

0

So Noah did this. According to all that God commanded him, so he did

These two sentences mean the same thing. The second sentence explains the first and emphasizes that Noah obeyed God. These parallel sentences can be combined into one. Alternate translation: “So Noah did everything that God commanded him to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

410

GEN

7

intro

n23k

0

Genesis 07 General Notes

Structure and formatting

In this chapter, the author continues his pattern of statements that summarize events already described, and of repeating events that have already happened. Again, careful translation is necessary so that readers do not think that the same events happened more than one time in the story. Special attention in this regard should be given to 7:5,10,13, and 17.

Special concepts in this chapter

Clean animals and birds

Noah sacrificed to Yahweh some of the “clean” animals and birds that he had with him (8:20). These were animals and birds that the Hebrew people would later consider to be fit to eat and to sacrifice to God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/clean]])

Water underneath and over the earth

The flood is presented as occurring because of rain pouring out of the sky and because of seawater rising from under the earth. This is because the ancient Hebrews pictured the earth as resting on top of the sea. They also pictured the sky as containing water above the earth that poured down through windows in the sky when God allowed it to rain. Translators should not try to change this picture in order to suit what readers believe about the world. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

411

GEN

7

1

n13c

0

General Information:

The events in this chapter take place after Noah built the ark, gathered the food, and put it in the ark.

412

GEN

7

1

iml7

figs-go

0

Come…into the ark

“Enter…into the ark.” Many translations read “Go…into the ark.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

413

GEN

7

1

lh4z

figs-you

0

you

The word “you” refers to Noah and is singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

414

GEN

7

1

jtj5

0

your household

“your family”

415

GEN

7

1

d59a

0

righteous before me

This means that God saw Noah as righteous.

416

GEN

7

1

c6rt

0

in this generation

This refers to all the people who were living at that time. Alternate translation: “among all the people who are now living”

417

GEN

7

2

qv8l

figs-go

0

you will bring

“take.” Many translations read “you will take.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

418

GEN

7

2

j5le

0

clean animal

This was an animal that God allowed his people to eat and to sacrifice.

419

GEN

7

2

js39

0

animals that are not clean

These were animals that God did not allow people to eat or to sacrifice.

420

GEN

7

3

t2rp

0

to preserve their offspring

“so that they will have offspring that will live” or “so that, after the flood, animals will continue to live”

421

GEN

7

4

v9e3

0

forty days and forty nights

This was a full forty days. It was not a total of eighty days. Alternate translation: “forty days and nights”

422

GEN

7

4

ss6k

0

living

This refers to physical life.

423

GEN

7

6

a3lu

0

General Information:

Verses 6-12 repeat for a second time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

424

GEN

7

6

y68j

0

came upon the earth

“happened” or “came on the earth”

425

GEN

7

7

jew8

0

because of the waters of the flood

“because of the flood that would come” or “to escape the flood water”

426

GEN

7

8

z9t2

0

General Information:

Verses 6-12 repeat for a second time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

427

GEN

7

8

u2ij

0

clean animals

These were animals that God allowed people to eat and to give to him as sacrifices.

428

GEN

7

8

er9l

0

unclean animals

These were animals that God did not allow people to eat or to give to him as sacrifices.

429

GEN

7

9

ib15

0

two by two

The animals entered the boat in pairs of one male and one female.

430

GEN

7

10

z7w9

0

It came about that

This phrase is used here to mark an important event in the story: the start of the flood. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

431

GEN

7

10

kkc2

0

after the seven days

“after seven days” or “seven days later”

432

GEN

7

10

uy9m

figs-explicit

0

the waters of the flood came upon the earth

The implicit information, “it started to rain” can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “it started to rain and the waters of the flood came upon the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

433

GEN

7

11

gsi1

0

General Information:

Verses 6-12 repeat for a second time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

434

GEN

7

11

ybc8

translate-ordinal

0

In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life

“When Noah was 600 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

435

GEN

7

11

wi34

translate-hebrewmonths

0

the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month

Since Moses wrote this book, it is possible he is referring to the second month of the Hebrew calendar. But this is uncertain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

436

GEN

7

11

m7m8

0

on the same day

This refers to the specific day when the rain began. This phrase emphasizes how all of these major events happened quickly when the time arrived.

437

GEN

7

11

tw87

0

the fountains of the great deep burst open

“water from under the earth rushed up to the earth’s surface”

438

GEN

7

11

nsh5

0

the great deep

This refers to the sea that was thought to be under the earth.

439

GEN

7

11

qtm7

0

the windows of heaven were opened

This refers to rain. It describes the sky as a ceiling that keeps the waters above it from falling down to the earth. When the windows, or doors, in the sky were opened, the water came down through them. Alternate translation: “the sky opened” or “the doors in the sky opened”

440

GEN

7

12

ri9c

0

rain

If your language has a word for a great amount of rain, it would be appropriate here.

441

GEN

7

13

dh5z

0

General Information:

Verses 13-18 repeat for a third time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

442

GEN

7

13

yp26

0

On that very same day

“On that exact day.” This refers to the day that the rain started. Verses 13-16 tell what Noah did immediately before the rain began.

443

GEN

7

14

l52z

0

wild animal…livestock…creeping thing…bird

These four groups are listed to show that every kind of animal was included. If your language has another way of grouping all the animals, you can use that, or you can use these groups. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:24.

444

GEN

7

14

ayv5

0

creeping thing

This refers to animals that crawl on the ground, like rodents, insects, lizards, and snakes.

445

GEN

7

14

v2bb

0

according to its kind

“so that each kind of animal will produce more of its own kind.” See how you translated this in Genesis 1:24.

446

GEN

7

15

i5qf

0

General Information:

Verses 13-18 repeat for a third time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

447

GEN

7

15

pbr7

figs-metonymy

0

Two of all flesh

Here “flesh” represents animals. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

448

GEN

7

15

d2w3

figs-metonymy

0

in which was the breath of life

Here “breath” represents life. Alternate translation: “that lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

449

GEN

7

15

lgu4

figs-go

0

came to Noah

The word “came” can be translated as “went.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

450

GEN

7

15

uni5

figs-synecdoche

0

of all flesh

Here “flesh” represents animals. Alternate translation: “of every kind of animal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

451

GEN

7

16

j6fz

figs-explicit

0

after them

The full meaning can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “after they entered the ark” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

452

GEN

7

17

ea6p

0

General Information:

Verses 13-18 repeat for a third time and give more detail about how Noah went into the ark with his family and the animals in Genesis 7:1-5. This is not a new event.

453

GEN

7

17

b3ji

0

the water increased

“the water became very deep.” This happened during the forty days while the water kept coming.

454

GEN

7

17

ww1c

0

lifted the ark

“it caused the ark to float”

455

GEN

7

17

n9ke

0

raised it above the earth

“causes the ark to rise up high over the ground” or “he ark floated on top of the deep water”

456

GEN

7

19

j266

0

The waters rose greatly on the earth

“The water totally overwhelmed the earth”

457

GEN

7

20

k8t7

0

fifteen cubits

“six meters.” See how you translated this in Genesis 6:15.

458

GEN

7

21

x8dz

0

moved upon

“moved about” or “roamed”

459

GEN

7

21

hq98

0

all the living creatures that lived in great numbers upon the earth

This refers to all the animals that move around on the ground in large groups.

460

GEN

7

22

wlj2

figs-synecdoche

0

who breathed the breath of life through their noses

Here “noses” represent the whole animal or human. Alternate translation: “everyone that breathed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

461

GEN

7

22

cdp8

figs-metonymy

0

the breath of life

The words “breath” and “life” represent the power that causes people and animals to be alive. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

462

GEN

7

23

ki1a

figs-activepassive

0

So every living thing…was wiped out

If necessary, this can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “So every living thing…perished” or “So the flood completely destroyed every living thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

463

GEN

7

23

wvw2

figs-activepassive

0

They were all destroyed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “God destroyed them all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

464

GEN

7

23

pnx5

0

from the earth

“so they were no longer on the earth”

465

GEN

7

23

drq1

0

those with him

“the people and animals that were with him”

466

GEN

7

23

g46l

0

were left

“remained” or “lived” or “remained alive”

467

GEN

8

intro

z61w

0

Genesis 08 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 8:22, which is part of what Yahweh was telling Noah.

Special concepts in this chapter

Flood waters

The waters receded after this great flood. Because there was so much water, and it came from God, it is described in a unique way.

The mountains of Ararat

It is unclear where Ararat was located. Many people believe it is located in the modern country of Turkey.

468

GEN

8

1

vs3j

0

considered Noah

“remembered Noah” or “decided to help Noah”

469

GEN

8

1

xtv9

0

ark

This refers to a very large box that would be able to float on water even in a very bad storm. See how you translated this in Genesis 6:14. Alternate translation: “a large boat” or “a ship” or “a barge”

470

GEN

8

2

zi8q

figs-activepassive

0

The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed

“The water stopped coming out of the ground and the rain stopped falling.” This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “God closed the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

471

GEN

8

2

p1zi

0

fountains of the deep

“water from under the earth.” See how this is translated in Genesis 7:11.

472

GEN

8

2

dh7e

0

the windows of heaven were closed

This refers to the rain stopping. It describes the sky as a ceiling that keeps the waters above it from falling down to the earth. When the windows, or doors, in the sky were closed, the water stopped coming through them. See how “the windows of heaven” is translated in Genesis 7:11. Alternate translation: “the sky closed” or “the doors in the sky closed”

473

GEN

8

4

te6b

0

came to rest

“landed” or “stopped on solid ground”

474

GEN

8

4

fi75

translate-hebrewmonths

0

in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month

Because Moses wrote this book, it is possible he is referring to the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

475

GEN

8

5

gf1v

translate-hebrewmonths

0

tenth month

Because Moses wrote this book, it is possible he is referring to the tenth month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

476

GEN

8

5

l1gg

0

On the first day of the month

“On the first day of the tenth month”

477

GEN

8

5

yhx2

figs-explicit

0

appeared

This can be made more explicit: “appeared above the surface of the water.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

478

GEN

8

6

lmm4

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. Alternate translation: “It happened that”

479

GEN

8

6

k8bq

figs-distinguish

0

It came about…the window of the ark which he had made

The phrase “which he had made” tells about the window. Some languages may need to make this phrase a separate sentence: “Noah had made a window in the boat. It came about after forty days that he opened the window” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

480

GEN

8

7

rm8x

0

raven

a black bird that eats mainly the flesh of dead animals

481

GEN

8

7

s2vc

0

it flew back and forth

This means that the raven kept leaving the boat and returning.

482

GEN

8

7

dn2u

figs-activepassive

0

until the waters were dried up

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “until the wind dried up the waters” or “until the waters dried up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

483

GEN

8

8

f1ln

0

he sent out a dove

If you use masculine pronouns for the word “dove,” you may need to insert Noah’s name here to avoid confusion: “Noah sent out a dove.”

484

GEN

8

9

r2x5

0

to rest her foot

“to land” or “to perch.” It means to land on something in order to rest from flying.

485

GEN

8

9

clq5

0

her foot…she returned…and brought her

The word “dove” is feminine in the author’s language. You could translate these phrases with the pronouns “its…it…it” or “his…he…him,” depending on how your language refers to a dove.

486

GEN

8

9

rst8

0

he…him

If you use masculine pronouns for the word “dove,” you may need to insert Noah’s name here to avoid confusion: “Noah sent out a dove,” “Noah stretched forth his hand,” etc.

487

GEN

8

10

p48z

0

He waited another seven days

“He again waited for seven days”

488

GEN

8

11

hjg1

0

Look

“Pay attention” or “This is important”

489

GEN

8

11

mc6s

0

a freshly plucked olive leaf

“a leaf that she had just plucked from an olive tree”

490

GEN

8

11

nbw2

0

plucked

“broken off”

491

GEN

8

12

x79p

figs-explicit

0

She did not return again to him

If people would not understand, you could state the reason explicitly: “She did not return again to him because she found a place to land.” (See:[[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

492

GEN

8

13

ejr2

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

493

GEN

8

13

nhb3

translate-ordinal

0

in the six hundred and first year

“when Noah was 601 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

494

GEN

8

13

k4h8

translate-hebrewmonths

0

the first month, on the first day of the month

Since Moses wrote this book it is possible he is referring to the first month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

495

GEN

8

13

dvf1

figs-activepassive

0

the waters were dried up from off the earth

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “the waters covering the earth dried up” or “the wind dried up the waters covering the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

496

GEN

8

13

uyy6

0

the covering of the ark

This refers to a cover that kept the rain water from going into the ark.

497

GEN

8

13

l4nx

0

behold

The word “behold” tells us to pay attention to the important information that comes next.

498

GEN

8

14

afz6

translate-hebrewmonths

0

In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month

“On the twenty seventh day of the second month.” This may refer to the second month of the Hebrew calendar, but this is uncertain. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

499

GEN

8

14

tn29

0

the earth was dry

“the ground was completely dry”

500

GEN

8

16

k1zj

figs-go

0

Go out of

“Leave.” Some translations read “Come out.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

501

GEN

8

17

y1p1

figs-go

0

Take out

“Take.” Some translations read “Bring out.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

502

GEN

8

17

cg9q

0

every living creature of all flesh

“every kind of living creature.” See how “all flesh” is translated in Genesis 6:12.

503

GEN

8

17

bv2p

figs-doublet

0

be fruitful and multiply

This is an idiom. See how this is translated in Genesis 1:28. God wanted the humans and animals to reproduce, so there would be many of them. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

504

GEN

8

18

e5a9

figs-go

0

Noah went out

Some translations read “Noah came out.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

505

GEN

8

19

g5xb

0

according to their families

“in groups of their own kinds”

506

GEN

8

20

wu8x

0

built an altar to Yahweh

“built an altar dedicated to Yahweh” or “built an altar for worshiping Yahweh.” He may have built it with stones.

507

GEN

8

20

y625

0

clean animals…clean birds

Here “clean” means that God allowed these animals to be used in sacrifice. Some animals were not used for sacrifices and were called “unclean.”

508

GEN

8

20

t66t

0

offered burnt offerings

Noah killed the animals and then completely burned them up as an offering to God. Alternate translation: “burned the animals as offerings to Yahweh”

509

GEN

8

21

z8wm

0

pleasing aroma

This refers to the good smell of the roasted meat.

510

GEN

8

21

v91q

0

said in his heart

Here the word “heart” refers to God’s thoughts and emotions.

511

GEN

8

21

li87

0

curse the ground

“do very serious harm to the earth”

512

GEN

8

21

t7q2

figs-explicit

0

because of mankind

This can be made more explicit: “because mankind is sinful.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

513

GEN

8

21

k2f9

0

the intentions of their hearts is evil from childhood

“from their earliest years they tend to do evil things” or “when they are young, they want to do evil things”

514

GEN

8

21

i5xk

0

the intentions of their hearts

Here the word “hearts” refers to people’s thoughts, emotions, desires, and will. Alternate translation: “their tendency” or “their habit”

515

GEN

8

21

me8a

0

from childhood

This refers to an older child. Alternate translation: “from their youth”

516

GEN

8

22

t468

0

While the earth remains

“While the earth lasts” or “As long as the earth exists”

517

GEN

8

22

mwx9

0

seed time

“the season for planting”

518

GEN

8

22

v7fe

figs-merism

0

cold and heat, summer and winter

These expressions both refer to two major weather conditions in the year. Translators may use local expressions. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

519

GEN

8

22

wu43

0

summer

the hot, dry time of the year

520

GEN

8

22

t9hn

0

winter

the cool, wet or snowy time of the year

521

GEN

8

22

vy7b

figs-doublenegatives

0

will not cease

“will not cease to exist” or “will not cease to occur.” This can be expressed in a positive manner. Alternate translation: “will continue” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

522

GEN

9

intro

at1n

0

Genesis 09 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations prefer to set apart extended quotations, prayers or songs. The ULT and many other English translations set the lines of 9:6-7, which is the poetic part of the quotation, farther to the right on the page than the rest of the text. They also set apart 9:25-27, which contains two quotations.

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 9:6 and 9:25-27.

Special concepts in this chapter

Man’s relationship to animals

There is a noticeable shift in man’s relationship with the animals on the earth. Before the flood, there apparently was harmony between man and the animals. After the flood, the animals fear man and man is permitted to eat the animals, something he was not allowed to do previously. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Life in the blood

This chapter introduces the concept that there is life in the blood of an animal and in man. In Hebrew thought, blood represents the life present in a living thing. This is an image used throughout Scripture. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/life]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/blood]])

Covenant with Noah

God made a covenant with Noah. This covenant was an unconditional promise God made to never destroy the whole world with a flood. Rainbows are a perpetual sign of this covenant. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

A father’s nakedness

In Noah’s culture, it was unacceptable to see a father’s nakedness. It was wrong for Ham to show his brothers their father’s nakedness. Ham’s actions were insulting or disrespectful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth”

This is a command that God gives. He expects Noah to obey him.

523

GEN

9

1

bpc9

figs-doublet

0

Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth

This is God’s blessing. He told Noah and his family to produce more humans like themselves, so that there would be many of them. The word “multiply” explains how they are to be “fruitful.” See how you translated these commands in Genesis 1:28. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

524

GEN

9

2

e28l

figs-metaphor

0

The fear of you and the dread of you will be upon every living animal…and upon all the fish of the sea

The writer speaks of fear and dread as if they were physical objects that could be upon the animals. Alternate translation: “Every living animal…and all the fish of the sea will be dreadfully afraid of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

525

GEN

9

2

ax85

figs-doublet

0

The fear of you and the dread of you

The words “fear” and “dread” mean basically the same thing and emphasize how afraid the animals will be of mankind. Alternate translation: “A dreadful fear of you” or “A terrible fear of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

526

GEN

9

2

gm7c

0

every living animal on the earth

This is the first of the four categories of animals that the writer lists, and not a summary of the rest of the animals that he mentions next.

527

GEN

9

2

qqp7

0

bird

This is a general term for things that fly. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:21.

528

GEN

9

2

fhz4

0

upon everything that goes low on the ground

This includes all types of small animals. See how you translated this in Genesis 1:25.

529

GEN

9

2

g7t3

figs-metonymy

0

They are given into your hand

The hand represents control. This can be made active. Alternate translation: “They are given into your control” or “I have put them under your control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

530

GEN

9

3

gxp7

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

531

GEN

9

4

s9mx

0

life…blood

Translators may add a footnote such as this: “The blood is a symbol for life.” They may also add a footnote that says something like this: “God was commanding people not to eat meat while the blood was still in it. They had to drain out the blood first.”

532

GEN

9

5

jd7y

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

533

GEN

9

5

t1t8

0

But for your blood

This contrasts man’s blood with the blood of animals (Genesis 9:4).

534

GEN

9

5

w9jw

figs-explicit

0

for your blood, the life that is in your blood

It is implied that the blood is shed, or poured out, or spilled out. Alternate translation: “if anyone causes your blood to pour out” or “if anyone spills your blood” or “if anyone kills you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

535

GEN

9

5

c5je

0

life

This refers to physical life.

536

GEN

9

5

sp2y

0

I will require payment

This payment refers to the death of the murderer, not to money. Alternate translation: “I will require anyone who kills you to pay”

537

GEN

9

5

f5z4

figs-synecdoche

0

from the hand

Here the word “hand” refers to the one who is responsible for something happening. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

538

GEN

9

5

ihu7

0

From the hand of every animal I will require it

“I will require any animal that takes your life to pay”

539

GEN

9

5

kr1g

0

From the hand of any man, that is, from the hand of one who has murdered his brother, I will require an accounting for the life of that man

“I will require anyone who takes the life of another person to pay”

540

GEN

9

5

hye6

figs-synecdoche

0

From the hand of

This phrase refers to the person in a very personal way. Alternate translation: “From that very man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

541

GEN

9

5

n71j

0

brother

Here “brother” is used as a general reference to relatives, such as members of the same tribe, clan, or people group.

542

GEN

9

6

ghj9

figs-metaphor

0

Whoever sheds man’s blood, by man will his blood be shed

The shedding of blood is a metaphor for killing someone. This means that if a person murders someone, someone else must kill the murderer. However, “blood” is very significant in this passage and should be used in the translation if possible. Translate “sheds blood” with words that indicate a major loss of blood that causes death. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

543

GEN

9

6

pnh5

0

for it was in the image of God that he made man

“because God made people to be like him” or “because I made people in my own image”

544

GEN

9

7

r2cz

figs-doublet

0

be fruitful and multiply

This is God’s blessing. He told Noah and his family to produce more humans like themselves, so that there would be many of them. The word “multiply” explains how they are to be “fruitful.” See how you translated this in Genesis 1:28. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

545

GEN

9

8

ra1n

0

Then God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him

God was already speaking to them. This phrase marks a change in what God was going to speak about. Alternate translation: “God continued speaking to Noah and his sons” or “Then God went on to say”

546

GEN

9

9

cpy2

0

As for me

This phrase is used in English to mark the change from God talking about what Noah and his sons must do to talking about what God would do.

547

GEN

9

9

maf2

0

confirm my covenant with you

“make a covenant between you and me.” See how you translated this in Genesis 6:18.

548

GEN

9

11

q967

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

549

GEN

9

11

lay9

0

I hereby confirm my covenant with you

“By saying this, I make my covenant with you.” See how similar words are translated in Genesis 6:18.

550

GEN

9

11

zug5

figs-synecdoche

0

all flesh

Possible meanings for what “all flesh” represents are (1) all human beings or (2) all physical beings, including humans and animal. See how this is translated in Genesis 6:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

551

GEN

9

11

wr5z

0

Never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth

“There will never again be a flood that destroys the earth.” There would be floods, but they would not destroy the whole earth.

552

GEN

9

12

r1uh

0

sign

This means a reminder of something that was promised.

553

GEN

9

12

tl5l

0

covenant…for all future generations

The covenant applies to Noah and his family and also to all generations that follow.

554

GEN

9

14

l8xy

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

555

GEN

9

14

s4e4

0

It will come about when

“Whenever.” It is something that would happen many times.

556

GEN

9

14

f9zr

figs-activepassive

0

the rainbow is seen

It is not clear who will see the rainbow, but because the covenant is between Yahweh and people, if you need to say who it is who will see the rainbow, it would be best to name both Yahweh and people. This can be translated in active form. Alternate translation: “people and I see the rainbow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

557

GEN

9

14

kg5c

0

rainbow

the colorful strip of light that appears in the rain when the sun shines from behind the viewer

558

GEN

9

15

i9p6

0

I will call to mind my covenant

This does not mean that God would first forget. Alternate translation: “I will think about my covenant”

559

GEN

9

15

d7pg

0

me and you

The word “you” is plural. God was speaking to Noah and Noah’s sons.

560

GEN

9

15

lk6n

0

every living creature of all flesh

“every kind of living being”

561

GEN

9

15

vn2n

figs-synecdoche

0

all flesh

Possible meanings for what “all flesh” represents are (1) all human beings or (2) all physical beings, including humans and animal. See how this is translated in Genesis 6:12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

562

GEN

9

16

kbz5

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Noah and his sons.

563

GEN

9

16

b2e4

0

in order to remember

“so that I will remember” or “so that I will think about”

564

GEN

9

16

kf45

0

between God and every living creature

God is speaking here. Alternate translation: “between me and every living creature”

565

GEN

9

16

m4th

0

every living creature of all flesh

“every kind of living being.” See how you translated this in Genesis 9:15.

566

GEN

9

17

x593

0

Then God said to Noah

God was already talking to Noah. This phrase marks the final part of what God was saying. Alternate translation: “God finished by saying to Noah” or “So God said to Noah”

567

GEN

9

18

n7g4

0

General Information:

Verses 18-19 introduce the three sons of Noah, who will be an important part of the next story.

568

GEN

9

18

zxn9

0

father

Ham was Canaan’s true father.

569

GEN

9

20

bvi9

0

farmer

person who raises plants for food

570

GEN

9

21

d5k4

0

became drunk

“drank too much wine”

571

GEN

9

21

e6dg

0

uncovered

The text does not specify how much of Noah’s body was uncovered as he lay drunk. His sons’ reactions show us that it was shameful.

572

GEN

9

22

xd8e

0

his father

This refers to Noah.

573

GEN

9

24

ka8c

0

General Information:

In verses 25-27 Noah pronounced a curse on Ham’s son and blessings on Ham’s brothers. What Noah said about them also applied to their descendants, as shown in the UST. Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in Noah’s curse and blessings in verses 25-27.

574

GEN

9

24

w9sj

0

awoke from his wine

He awoke after drinking wine and becoming drunk. He “became sober.”

575

GEN

9

24

y2mt

0

his youngest son

This refers to Ham. Alternate translation: “his youngest son, Ham”

576

GEN

9

25

tmj7

0

Cursed be Canaan

“I curse Canaan” or “May bad things happen to Canaan”

577

GEN

9

25

p9e7

0

Canaan

This was one of Ham’s sons. Alternate translation: “Ham’s son Canaan”

578

GEN

9

25

kp5y

0

a servant to his brothers’ servants

“the lowest servant of his brothers” or “the least important servant of his brothers”

579

GEN

9

25

ey5x

0

his brothers

This could refer either to Canaan’s brothers or to his relatives in general.

580

GEN

9

26

rx6d

0

General Information:

If you can, format these verses as they are formatted here to show your readers that this is poetry.

581

GEN

9

26

w1a7

0

May Yahweh, the God of Shem, be blessed

“Praised be Yahweh, the God of Shem,” or “Yahweh, the God of Shem, is worthy of praise” or “I praise Yahweh, the God of Shem”

582

GEN

9

27

s54q

0

May Canaan be his servant

“And let Canaan be Shem’s servant.” This includes Canaan’s and Shem’s descendants.

583

GEN

9

27

hh2y

0

May God extend the territory of Japheth

Possible meanings are (1) “May God make Japheth’s territory larger” or (2) “May God cause Japheth to have many descendants.”

584

GEN

9

27

bxj1

0

let him make his home in the tents of Shem

“let him leave peacefully with Shem.” This includes Japheth’s and Shem’s descendants.

585

GEN

9

27

x2sl

0

May Canaan be his servant

“Let Canaan be Japheth’s servant.” This includes Canaan’s and Japheth’s descendants.

586

GEN

10

intro

z42v

0

Genesis 10 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins a genealogical record. It also records the location of ancient people groups.

Special concepts in this chapter

Assyria and Nineveh

While these places may be located in the same area as the Assyria mentioned later in Scripture, they are not the same kingdom.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Sons were born to”

This is an unusual phrase meaning “were sons of.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

587

GEN

10

1

h24x

0

These were the descendants of the sons of Noah

“This is the account of Noah’s sons.” This sentence introduces the account of Noah’s descendants in Genesis 10:1-11:9.

588

GEN

10

5

w1ea

0

From these the coastland peoples separated and went into their lands

“Javan’s sons and descendants separated and moved to the coastlands and islands”

589

GEN

10

5

pl9t

0

coastland peoples

This refers to people who lived along the coast and on the islands.

590

GEN

10

5

xw9u

0

their lands

“their homelands.” These are the places that the people moved to and lived in.

591

GEN

10

5

nhz9

0

every one with its own language

“Each people group spoke its own language” or “The people groups divided themselves according to their languages”

592

GEN

10

6

s5fj

0

Mizraim

Mizraim is the Hebrew name for “Egypt.”

593

GEN

10

8

f6b4

0

conqueror

Possible meanings are (1) “mighty warrior” or (2) “mighty man” or (3) “powerful ruler.”

594

GEN

10

9

k3vf

0

before Yahweh

Possible meanings are (1) “in Yahweh’s sight” or (2) “with Yahweh’s help”

595

GEN

10

9

ig4i

writing-proverbs

0

That is why it is said

This introduces a proverb. Your language may introduce proverbs and sayings in a different way. Alternate translation: “This is the reason people say” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-proverbs]])

596

GEN

10

10

i218

0

The first centers

Possible meanings are (1) the first centers he developed or (2) the important cities.

597

GEN

10

11

ufj6

0

he went to Assyria

“Nimrod went into Assyria”

598

GEN

10

13

d3j7

0

Mizraim became

The list of Noah’s descendants continues.

599

GEN

10

13

yc8k

0

Mizraim

Mizraim was one of Ham’s sons. His descendants became the people of Egypt. Mizraim is the Hebrew name for Egypt.

600

GEN

10

16

l6at

0

Jebusites…Amorites…Girgashites

These names refer to larger groups of people that descended from Canaan.

601

GEN

10

19

h65z

0

border

line between one person’s land and another person’s land

602

GEN

10

19

vy73

figs-explicit

0

from Sidon, in the direction of Gerar, as far as Gaza

The direction south can be stated explicitly if needed. Alternate translation: “from Sidon city in the north as far south as Gaza town, which is near Gerar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

603

GEN

10

19

rp9w

figs-explicit

0

as one goes toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboyim, as far as Lasha

The direction “east” or “inland” can be stated explicitly if needed. Alternate translation: “then east toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboyim towns, as far as Lasha” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

604

GEN

10

20

b2zq

0

These were the sons of Ham

The word “these” refers to the people and people groups who were listed in verses Genesis 6-19.

605

GEN

10

20

t4tj

0

by their languages

“broken up according to their different languages”

606

GEN

10

20

w46b

0

in their lands

“in their homelands”

607

GEN

10

24

ns9i

0

Arphaxad

Arphaxad was one of Shem’s sons.

608

GEN

10

25

a5uy

0

Peleg

Translators may add a footnote note that says: “The name Peleg means ‘division.’”

609

GEN

10

25

wad2

figs-activepassive

0

the earth was divided

This can be made active. Alternate translation: “the people of the earth divided themselves” or “the people of the earth separated from one another” or “God divided the people of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

610

GEN

10

26

dqg8

translate-names

0

Joktan

Joktan was one of Eber’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

611

GEN

10

29

n82g

0

All these

“These” here refers to the sons of Joktan.

612

GEN

10

30

s9ds

0

Their territory

“The land they controlled” or “The land they lived in”

613

GEN

10

31

s4mu

0

These were the sons of Shem

The word “these” refers to the descendants of Shem (Genesis 10:21-29).

614

GEN

10

32

lws8

0

These were the clans

This refers back to all the people listed in Genesis 10:1-31.

615

GEN

10

32

rr78

0

according to

“listed by”

616

GEN

10

32

a96c

0

From these the nations separated and went over the earth

“From these clans the nations divided and spread over the earth” or “These clans divided from each other and formed the nations of the earth”

617

GEN

10

32

bp4b

figs-explicit

0

after the flood

This can be stated clearly or more explicitly. Alternate translation: “after the flood destroyed the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

618

GEN

11

intro

ecl3

0

Genesis 11 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter is a story traditionally referred to as the “Tower of Babel.”

This chapter seeks to answer the questions: why do people speak different languages? how did people become so dispersed across the earth? God’s punishment described in this chapter may also explain why the world has racial and ethnic divisions.

Special concepts in this chapter

Age of people when they die

After the flood, people began to live shorter lives. This chapter begins to record the shortening of the average lifespan.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Personification

The statement “Yahweh came down to see” is a type of personification. Yahweh always knows what happens on earth. This statement indicates that Yahweh is about to bring judgment on mankind. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/judge]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Let us build ourselves a city and a tower whose top will reach to the sky”

The people were very full of pride and rebelled against God in this action. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

619

GEN

11

1

ar7x

0

Now

This word shows that the writer is beginning a new part of the story.

620

GEN

11

1

gr4c

figs-metonymy

0

the whole earth

This represents all the people on the earth. Alternate translation: “all the people on the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

621

GEN

11

1

y7c6

figs-parallelism

0

used one language and had the same words

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize that all people spoke the same language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

622

GEN

11

2

c5a7

0

they journeyed

“they moved around”

623

GEN

11

2

p5qy

0

in the east

Possible meanings are (1) “in the east” or (2) “from the east” or (3) “to the east.” The preferred choice is “in the east” because Shinar is to the east of where scholars believe the ark came to rest.

624

GEN

11

2

a3c6

0

settled

stopped moving from one place to another and began to live at one location

625

GEN

11

3

mad2

0

Come

If your language has a way of urging or commanding people to begin work, like the English “Come on!” you might use it here.

626

GEN

11

3

z6gz

0

bake them thoroughly

People make bricks out of clay and heat them in a very hot oven to make them hard and strong.

627

GEN

11

3

ihz3

0

tar

a thick, sticky, black liquid that comes up from the ground

628

GEN

11

3

zxv1

0

mortar

This is a thick substance made of lime powder, clay, sand, and water used to make stones or bricks stick together.

629

GEN

11

4

nzr5

0

let us make a name for ourselves

“let us make our reputation great”

630

GEN

11

4

rxx9

0

name

reputation

631

GEN

11

4

ejq9

figs-activepassive

0

we will be scattered

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “we will separate from each other and live in different places” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

632

GEN

11

5

v8n7

0

the descendants of Adam

“the people”

633

GEN

11

5

t6pt

figs-explicit

0

came down

The information about where he came down from can be made explicit: “came down from heaven.” This does not tell how he came down. Use a general word meaning “came down.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

634

GEN

11

5

b3yl

0

to see

“to observe” or “to look more closely”

635

GEN

11

6

uzm2

0

one people with the same language

All the people were one big group and they all spoke the same language.

636

GEN

11

6

a83e

0

they are beginning to do this

Possible meanings are (1) “they have begun to do this,” meaning that they have begun to build the tower but it is not finished, or (2) “this is just the first thing they have done,” meaning that in future they will do greater things.

637

GEN

11

6

ux98

figs-doublenegatives

0

nothing that they intend to do will be impossible for them

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “anything they intend to do will be possible for them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

638

GEN

11

7

i5gb

0

Come

If your language has a way of urging or commanding people to begin work, like the English “Come on!” you might use it here. See how this is translated in Genesis 11:3.

639

GEN

11

7

i17m

figs-pronouns

0

let us go down

The word “us” is plural even though it refers to God. Some translate it as “let me go down” or “I will go down.” If you do this, consider adding a footnote to say that the pronoun is plural. See the note on “Let us make” in Genesis 1:26. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-pronouns]])

640

GEN

11

7

d22g

figs-explicit

0

confuse their language

This means that Yahweh would cause the people all over the earth to stop speaking the same language. Alternate translation: “mix up their language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

641

GEN

11

7

plc4

figs-explicit

0

so that they may not understand each other

This was the purpose of confusing their language. Alternate translation: “so that they will not be able to understand what each other is saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

642

GEN

11

8

htq4

0

from there

“from the city”

643

GEN

11

9

m76d

0

its name was called Babel, because there Yahweh confused

The name “Babel” sounds like the word that means “confused.” Translators may want to add a footnote about this.

644

GEN

11

9

ppz1

figs-explicit

0

confused the language of the whole earth

It means that Yahweh caused the people all over the earth to no longer speak the same language. Alternate translation: “mixed up the language of the whole earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

645

GEN

11

10

jzy8

0

General Information:

The rest of this chapter lists the line of Shem’s descendants down to Abram.

646

GEN

11

10

gq2u

0

These were the descendants of Shem

This sentence begins the list of Shem’s descendants.

647

GEN

11

10

n5un

0

flood

This is the flood from Noah’s time when people had become so evil that God sent a worldwide flood to cover the earth.

648

GEN

11

10

y7s3

0

became the father of Arphaxad

“had his son Arphaxad” or “his son Arphaxad was born”

649

GEN

11

10

b4lz

translate-names

0

Arphaxad

a man’s name (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

650

GEN

11

10

ty5m

translate-numbers

0

a hundred…two

Translators may write the words or the numerals “100” and “2.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

651

GEN

11

11

ix9y

translate-numbers

0

five hundred

Translators may write the words or the numeral “500.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

652

GEN

11

12

i93p

0

he became the father of Shelah

“his son Shelah was born”

653

GEN

11

12

i685

translate-names

0

Shelah

This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

654

GEN

11

13

v9kr

translate-numbers

0

403 years

“four hundred and three years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

655

GEN

11

14

aht6

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

656

GEN

11

16

nh92

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

657

GEN

11

18

t5j5

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

658

GEN

11

20

zj9y

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

659

GEN

11

22

qv7c

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

660

GEN

11

24

kk5d

translate-names

0

General Information:

The records in Genesis 11:12-25 have the same format. See how you translated them in Genesis 11:12-13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

661

GEN

11

26

v3ui

0

Abram, Nahor, and Haran

We do not know the birth order of his sons.

662

GEN

11

27

sx61

translate-names

0

Now these were the descendants of Terah

This sentence introduces the account of Terah’s descendants. Genesis 11:27-25:11 tells about Terah’s descendants, particularly his son Abraham. Alternate translation: “This is the account of Terah’s descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

663

GEN

11

28

qu78

translate-names

0

Haran died in the presence of his father Terah

This means that Haran died while his father was still living. Alternate translation: “Haran died while his father, Terah, was with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

664

GEN

11

29

qxs6

0

took wives

“married wives”

665

GEN

11

29

x1m2

translate-names

0

Iskah

This is a female name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

666

GEN

11

30

s9v1

0

Now

This word is used to introduce new information about Sarai that will become important in later chapters.

667

GEN

11

30

yps7

figs-euphemism

0

barren

This term describes a woman who is physically unable to conceive or bear a child. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

668

GEN

11

31

cu9g

0

his

Here the word “his” refers to Terah.

669

GEN

11

31

tj9e

0

Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife

“his daughter-in-law Sarai, who was the wife of his son Abram”

670

GEN

11

31

h4pi

0

Haran…Haran

These are two different names and they are spelled differently in Hebrew. One refers to a person and the other refers to a city. (The “h” sound in the city’s name is louder than the “h” sound in the person’s name.) You might choose to spell them differently in your language to show this.

671

GEN

11

32

lt94

translate-numbers

0

205 years

“two hundred and five years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

672

GEN

12

intro

b9wm

0

Genesis 12 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Abram

When God said, “Go from your country, and from your relatives,” he established several new people groups. These groups descended from Abram.

God’s covenant with Abraham

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. It has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“They will kill me”

Abram was afraid the Egyptians would see him as a foreigner and upon seeing his beautiful wife, they would try to kill him. This would free Sarai to marry someone else. Apparently, it would have been easy for them to kill a foreigner without punishment. If she was Abram’s sister, they would have shown favor to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/favor]])

673

GEN

12

1

k9r8

0

Now

This word is used to mark a new part of the story.

674

GEN

12

1

d1lk

0

Go from your country, and from your relatives

“Go from your land, from your family”

675

GEN

12

2

hc9y

figs-metonymy

0

I will make of you a great nation

Here “you” is singular and refers to Abram, but Abram represents his descendants. Alternate translation: “I will start a great nation through you” or “I will make your descendants become a great nation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

676

GEN

12

2

q7ai

figs-metonymy

0

make your name great

The word “name” represents the person’s reputation. Alternate translation: “make you famous” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

677

GEN

12

2

jt28

figs-ellipsis

0

you will be a blessing

The words “to other people” are understood. Alternate translation: “you will be a blessing to other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

678

GEN

12

3

xec4

0

whoever dishonors you I will curse

“I will curse whoever treats you in a shameful way” or “if anyone treats you as worthless, I will curse him”

679

GEN

12

3

cpj9

figs-activepassive

0

Through you will all the families of the earth be blessed

This can be made active. Alternate translation: “I will bless all the families of the earth through you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

680

GEN

12

3

xd5b

0

Through you

“Because of you” or “Because I have blessed you”

681

GEN

12

5

lvz6

0

possessions

This includes animals and non-living property.

682

GEN

12

5

nv12

0

the people that they had acquired

Possible meanings are (1) “slaves that they had accumulated” or (2) “the people whom they had gathered to be with them.”

683

GEN

12

6

j4pb

figs-explicit

0

Abram passed through the land

Only Abram’s name is mentioned because he was the head of the family. God had given him the command to take his family and go there. Alternate translation: “So Abram and his family went through the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

684

GEN

12

6

lgv1

0

the land

“the land of Canaan”

685

GEN

12

6

jvj4

translate-names

0

the oak of Moreh

Moreh was probably the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

686

GEN

12

7

v6g3

0

Yahweh, who had appeared to him

“Yahweh, because he had appeared to him”

687

GEN

12

8

ln91

0

he pitched his tent

Abram had many people with him as he traveled. People who moved from place to place lived in tents. Alternate translation: “they set up their tents”

688

GEN

12

8

v6m1

0

called on the name of Yahweh

“prayed in the name of Yahweh” or “worshiped Yahweh”

689

GEN

12

9

vbq7

figs-explicit

0

Then Abram continued journeying

You may need to make explicit that he took his tent with him. “Then Abram took his tent and continued journeying.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

690

GEN

12

9

t22q

0

toward the Negev

“toward the Negev region” or “toward the south” or “south to the Negev desert”

691

GEN

12

10

lv6b

figs-explicit

0

There was a famine

The crops did not grow well that season. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “There was a shortage of food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

692

GEN

12

10

c2c3

0

in the land

“in the area” or “in the land where Abram was living”

693

GEN

12

10

me1z

0

went down into

Possible meanings are (1) “went further south” or (2) “went away from Canaan into.” It would be best to translate this using your usual words for going from a higher place to a lower place.

694

GEN

12

12

hmn5

figs-explicit

0

they will kill me…you alive

The reason they would kill Abram can be made explicit: “they will kill me so that they can marry you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

695

GEN

12

13

sj7i

figs-activepassive

0

so that my life will be spared because of you

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “so that, because of you, they will not kill me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

696

GEN

12

14

stl2

0

It came about that

Possible meanings are (1) This phrase is used here to mark where the action starts, and if your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here, or (2) “And that was what happened” .

697

GEN

12

15

cnd8

0

The princes of Pharaoh saw her

“Pharaoh’s officials saw Sarai” or “the king’s officials saw her”

698

GEN

12

15

n3fw

figs-activepassive

0

the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s household

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Pharaoh took her into his household” or “Pharaoh had his soldiers take her into his household” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

699

GEN

12

15

hw84

0

the woman

Sarai

700

GEN

12

15

y2tk

figs-euphemism

0

Pharaoh’s household

Possible meanings are (1) “Pharoah’s family,” that is, as a wife, or (2) “Pharaoah’s house” or “Pharaoh’s palace,” a euphemism for Pharaoh making her one of his wives. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

701

GEN

12

16

m9jr

0

for her sake

“for Sarai’s sake” or “because of her”

702

GEN

12

17

kb9r

figs-explicit

0

because of Sarai, Abram’s wife

This can be made more explicit. Alternate translation: “because Pharaoh intended to take Sarai, Abram’s wife, to be his own wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

703

GEN

12

18

r9kt

0

Pharaoh summoned Abram

“Pharaoh called Abram” or “Pharaoh ordered Abram to come to him”

704

GEN

12

18

e9mt

figs-rquestion

0

What is this that you have done to me?

Pharaoh used this rhetorical question to show how angry he was about what Abram had done to him. It can also be stated as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “You have done a terrible thing to me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

705

GEN

12

20

f2i8

0

Then Pharaoh gave orders to his men concerning him

“Then Pharaoh directed his officials concerning Abram”

706

GEN

12

20

edz8

0

they sent him away, along with his wife and all that he had

“the officials sent Abram away from Pharoah, with his wife and all his possessions”

707

GEN

13

intro

qch2

0

Genesis 13 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Abram’s faith

Since the land could not support both Lot’s and Abraham’s family, they each went their own way. Even though good land was not plentiful, Abraham allowed Lot to choose the better land because he trusted in God to fulfill his promises. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

God’s covenant with Abram

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. It has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety. This chapter continues the covenant which began in the previous chapter. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Built an altar

Abram would have built an altar in order to offer sacrifices to Yahweh. There is an implicit understanding that building an altar was an act of worship. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

708

GEN

13

1

sjz2

0

went up from

“left” or “departed from”

709

GEN

13

1

ige2

figs-explicit

0

went into the Negev

The Negev was a desert region in southern Canaan, west of Egypt. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “went back to the Negev desert” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

710

GEN

13

2

bty5

0

Abram was very rich in animals, in silver, and in gold

“Abram had many animals, much silver, and much gold”

711

GEN

13

2

lwq5

0

animals

“livestock” or “cattle”

712

GEN

13

3

rg7d

figs-explicit

0

He continued on his journey

Abram and his family traveled by stages, going from place to place. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “They continued on their journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

713

GEN

13

3

vxf3

figs-explicit

0

to the place where his tent had been before

Translators may add a footnote that says “See Genesis 12:8.” The time of his travel can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “to the place where he had set up his tent before he went to Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

714

GEN

13

4

h2ad

0

called on the name of Yahweh

“prayed in the name of Yahweh” or “worshiped Yahweh.” See how you translated this in Genesis 12:8.

715

GEN

13

5

br4w

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used to show what follows is background information to help the reader understand the events that follow. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

716

GEN

13

6

ash5

0

The land was not able to support them

There was not enough grazing land and water for all their animals.

717

GEN

13

6

k6zz

0

their possessions

This includes livestock, which need pasture and water.

718

GEN

13

6

y1wq

0

could not stay together

“could not live together”

719

GEN

13

7

e3n1

0

The Canaanites and the Perizzites were living in the land at that time

This is another reason that the land could not support them all.

720

GEN

13

8

rbt4

0

Let there be no strife between you and me

“Let’s not quarrel”

721

GEN

13

8

l2ht

0

strife

arguments or fights

722

GEN

13

8

ayp5

0

between your herdsmen and my herdsmen

“let’s stop the men who take care of our animals from quarreling”

723

GEN

13

8

l8eq

0

after all, we are family

“because we are family”

724

GEN

13

8

vz47

0

family

“kinsmen” or “relatives.” Lot was Abraham’s nephew.

725

GEN

13

9

n7k3

figs-rquestion

0

Is not the whole land before you?

This rhetorical question can be translated as a positive statement. Alternate translation: “The whole land is available for you to use.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

726

GEN

13

9

av37

0

Go ahead and separate yourself from me

Abraham was speaking kindly to Lot and encouraging him to do something that would help them both. “Let’s separate.”

727

GEN

13

9

flm1

0

If you go to the left, then I will go to the right

Possible meanings are (1) “If you go one way, then I will go the other” or (2) “If you go to the north, I will go to the south.” Abram let Lot choose the part of the land he wanted, and Abram would take what remained.

728

GEN

13

10

v189

0

the whole plain of the Jordan

This refers to the general region of the Jordan River.

729

GEN

13

10

ve9r

0

was well watered

“had much water”

730

GEN

13

10

zs4c

0

like the garden of Yahweh, like the land of Egypt

“like the garden of Yahweh or like the land of Egypt.” These were two different places.

731

GEN

13

10

p9t9

0

the garden of Yahweh

This is another name for the garden of Eden.

732

GEN

13

10

v2iw

0

garden

Use the same word for “garden” as you used in Genesis 2:8.

733

GEN

13

10

z1zy

0

This was before Yahweh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah

This anticipates something that would happen later. It is important here because it explains why Lot settled in a region that later was not fertile.

734

GEN

13

11

c5bb

0

the relatives

“the kinsmen” or “the families.” This refers to Lot and Abram with their households.

735

GEN

13

12

hc2t

0

Abram lived

“Abram made his home” or “Abram stayed”

736

GEN

13

12

cpm2

0

the land of Canaan

“the land of the Canaanites”

737

GEN

13

12

umy1

0

He set up his tents as far away as Sodom

Possible meanings are (1) “He set up his tents near Sodom” or (2) “He moved his tents around in an area that reached all the way to Sodom.”

738

GEN

13

14

y61m

0

after Lot had departed from him

“after Lot left Abraham”

739

GEN

13

17

xil7

0

walk through the length and breadth of the land

“walk around all over the whole land”

740

GEN

13

18

zy7q

translate-names

0

Mamre

This was the name of the man who owned the oak trees. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

741

GEN

13

18

is6e

translate-names

0

Hebron

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

742

GEN

13

18

xw41

0

an altar to Yahweh

“an altar for worshiping Yahweh”

743

GEN

14

intro

hz9l

0

Genesis 14 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 14:19-20.

Special concepts in this chapter

Names of places

Sometimes the names of places in Scripture are referred to by the name used during the time of the writer. For example, the location referred to as Dan was not yet known by that name because Dan had not yet come to live there. Moses, the author of Genesis, would have known this location as Dan.

Melchizedek

Melchizedek was both a priest and a king. Because of this, he parallels the roles of Jesus. Melchizedek is an important figure in the book of Hebrews. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/priest]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

God Most High

Melchizedek worshiped the God Most High. This is probably a reference to the true and only God who created the heavens and the earth and came to be known as Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]])

744

GEN

14

1

zbz3

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

745

GEN

14

1

p95i

0

in the days of

“in the time of”

746

GEN

14

1

e5wj

translate-names

0

Amraphel…Arioch…Kedorlaomer…Tidal

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

747

GEN

14

1

psb1

translate-names

0

Shinar…Ellasar…Elam…Goiim

These are names of places. See how you translated “Shinar” in Genesis 10:10 (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

748

GEN

14

2

s6jz

0

they made war

“they went to war” or “they started a war” or “they prepared for war”

749

GEN

14

3

pdv2

figs-explicit

0

These latter five kings joined together

The information that their armies were with them can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “These latter five kings and their armies joined together” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

750

GEN

14

4

vk6f

0

Twelve years they had served

The events in verses 4-7 happened before verse 3. Your language may have a way of showing this.

751

GEN

14

4

d7j6

translate-names

0

they had served Kedorlaomer

They probably had to pay him taxes and serve in his army. Alternate translation: “they had been under the control of Kedorlaomer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

752

GEN

14

4

m72u

0

they rebelled

“they refused to serve him” or “they stopped serving him”

753

GEN

14

5

k2wm

0

came and attacked

They did this because the other kings rebelled.

754

GEN

14

5

k3kf

translate-names

0

the Rephaim…the Zuzites…the Emites

These are the names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

755

GEN

14

5

kj3n

translate-names

0

Ashteroth Karnaim…Ham…Shaveh Kiriathaim

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

756

GEN

14

5

pm1u

0

Ham

This name in Hebrew is different from the name of Noah’s son, which is spelled the same way in English.

757

GEN

14

6

afr4

translate-names

0

the Horites

This is the name of a people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

758

GEN

14

6

m4dw

translate-names

0

Seir…El Paran

These are the names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

759

GEN

14

6

s52t

figs-distinguish

0

El Paran, which is near the desert

This phrase helps readers understand where El Paran was. It can be translated as a separate sentence if necessary. Alternate translation: “El Paran. El Paran is near the desert” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

760

GEN

14

7

my4b

0

General Information:

Verses 8 and 9 repeats what was said in Genesis 14:3 and continues to tell what happened when the kings came together to fight.

761

GEN

14

7

rck2

figs-go

0

they turned and came

The word “they” refers to the four foreign kings who were attacking the region of Canaan. Their names were Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer, and Tidal. Alternate translation: “they turned and went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

762

GEN

14

7

ed6d

0

the Amorites who lived in Hazezon Tamar

This phrase tells which Amorite people were defeated. There were other Amorite people who lived in other places.

763

GEN

14

8

pq4d

0

the king of Bela (also called Zoar)

The city of Bela was also called Zoar. This information could also be put at the end of the sentence. “the king of Bela went out and prepared for battle. Bela is also called Zoar.”

764

GEN

14

8

v7s3

figs-explicit

0

prepared for battle

“joined battle” or “drew up battle lines.” Some translators may need to also say that the armies fought, as the UST does in verse 9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

765

GEN

14

9

uq5u

0

four kings against the five

Since the five kings were listed first, some languages might prefer to translate this as “five kings against four.”

766

GEN

14

10

yn7e

writing-background

0

Now

This word introduces background information about the valley of Siddim. Your language may have another way of introducing background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

767

GEN

14

10

u9qi

0

was full of tar pits

“had many tar pits.” These were holes in the ground that had tar in them.

768

GEN

14

10

f98l

0

tar

a thick, sticky, black liquid that comes up from the ground. See how this is translated in Genesis 11:3.

769

GEN

14

10

mp8k

figs-synecdoche

0

the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah

Here the kings represent themselves and their armies. Alternate translation: the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and their armies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

770

GEN

14

10

kj2n

figs-metonymy

0

they fell in there

Possible meanings are (1) some of their soldiers fell in the tar pits or (2) the kings themselves fell in the tar pits. Since Genesis 14:17 says that the king of Sodom went to meet Abram, the first meaning is more likely correct. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

771

GEN

14

10

ern2

0

Those who were left

“Those who did not die in battle and did not fall in the pits”

772

GEN

14

11

rk4u

figs-metonymy

0

the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah

The words “Sodom” and “Gomorrah” are metonyms for the people who lived in those cities. Alternate translation: “the wealth of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah” or “the property of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

773

GEN

14

11

c7vp

0

their provisions

“their food and drink”

774

GEN

14

11

e6qg

0

went their way

“they went away”

775

GEN

14

12

g2sj

figs-distinguish

0

they also took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, who was living in Sodom, along with all his possessions

The phrases “Abram’s brother’s son” and “who was living in Sodom” remind the reader of things that were written earlier about Lot. Alternate translation: “they also took Lot, along with all his possessions. Lot was Abram’s brother’s son and was living in Sodom at that time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

776

GEN

14

13

w39m

0

One who had escaped came

“A man escaped from the battle and came”

777

GEN

14

13

g8u8

writing-background

0

He was living

“Abram was living.” This introduces background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

778

GEN

14

13

mmt3

0

were all allies of Abram

“were treaty-partners with Abram” or “had a peace agreement with Abram”

779

GEN

14

14

se1t

0

his relative

This is a reference to Abram’s nephew Lot.

780

GEN

14

14

wc3z

translate-numbers

0

318 trained men

“three hundred and eighteen trained men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

781

GEN

14

14

llz9

0

trained men

“men who were trained to fight”

782

GEN

14

14

gjn2

0

men who had been born in his house

“men who were born in Abram’s household.” They were children of Abram’s servants.

783

GEN

14

14

a2k3

0

pursued them

“chased them”

784

GEN

14

14

kgi3

0

Dan

This is a city in the far north of Canaan, far from Abram’s camp.

785

GEN

14

15

z2r4

0

He divided his men against them at night and attacked them

This probably refers to a battle strategy. “Abram divided the men into several groups, and they attacked their enemies from various directions”

786

GEN

14

16

fxf4

0

all the possessions

This refers to the things that the enemies had stolen from the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah.

787

GEN

14

16

qp8w

0

his goods

“Lot’s property that the enemies had stolen from Lot”

788

GEN

14

16

gt3k

0

as well as the women and the other people

“as well as the women and other people that the four kings had captured”

789

GEN

14

17

s822

figs-explicit

0

returned

The implied information about where he was returning to can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “returned to where he was living” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

790

GEN

14

18

cz1b

0

Melchizedek, king of Salem

This is the first time this king is mentioned.

791

GEN

14

18

hqq1

0

bread and wine

People commonly ate bread and wine. See how you translated “bread” in Genesis 3:19 and “wine” in Genesis 9:21.

792

GEN

14

19

b6iz

0

He blessed him

King Melchizedek blessed Abram.

793

GEN

14

19

wnf1

figs-activepassive

0

Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “May God Most High, the Creator of heaven and earth, bless Abram” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

794

GEN

14

19

z9ck

0

heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

795

GEN

14

20

pvn4

0

God Most High, who has given

“God Most High, because he has given.” The phrase starting with “who has given” tells us something more about God Most High.

796

GEN

14

20

hyf9

0

Blessed be God Most High

This is a way of praising God. See how you translated “blessed be” in Genesis 9:26.

797

GEN

14

20

me4m

0

into your hand

“into your control” or “into your power”

798

GEN

14

21

yzi9

0

Give me the people

The phrase “the people” may refer to the people of Sodom that the enemies had captured. Abram rescued them when he rescued Lot.

799

GEN

14

22

pw78

0

I have lifted up my hand

This means “I have taken an oath” or “I have made a promise.”

800

GEN

14

24

fd75

0

I will take nothing except what the young men have eaten

“I take from you only what my young men have already eaten.” Abram was refusing to accept anything for himself, but acknowledged that the soldiers had eaten some of the supplies during the journey back to Sodom after the battle.

801

GEN

14

24

xk3g

figs-explicit

0

the share of the men that went with me

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the share of the recovered property that belongs to the men who helped me get it back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

802

GEN

14

24

dn4x

figs-explicit

0

Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre

These are the allies of Abram (Genesis 14:13). Because they were Abram’s allies they fought battles alongside him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “my allies Aner, Eshkol, and Mamre” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

803

GEN

15

intro

b77u

0

Genesis 15 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Inheritance

In the ancient Near East, a person’s children inherited the property and land of their parents. Abraham doubted the fulfillment of God’s covenant because he did not have any children to whom to give his land. This showed a lack of faith. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]],[[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

Fulfilling a promise

In the ancient Near East, two people performed a similar sacrifice by dividing animals in half. It was a way to say to the other person, “may this happen to me if I do not fulfill my promise.” The event recorded here indicates that God will fulfill his promise and only he is responsible for bringing it about. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

God’s covenant with Abraham

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. This covenant has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety.

804

GEN

15

1

u7m1

0

After these things

“These things” refers to when the kings fought and Abram rescued Lot.

805

GEN

15

1

y6sg

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came to Abram in a vision, saying, “Fear

The idiom “the word of Yahweh came to” is used to introduce a special message from God. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave a message to Abram in a vision. He said, ‘Fear” or “Yahweh spoke this message to Abram in a vision: ‘Fear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

806

GEN

15

1

f5jx

figs-metaphor

0

shield…reward

God used these two metaphors to tell Abram about his character and his relationship to Abram. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

807

GEN

15

1

q9jg

figs-metaphor

0

I am your shield

Soldiers use a shield to protect themselves from their enemies. Alternate translation: “I will protect you like shield” or “I am your shield to protect you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

808

GEN

15

1

a84d

0

I am…your very great reward

Possible meanings are (1) “I myself will be all that you need” or (2) “I will give you all you need.”

809

GEN

15

1

d6eq

figs-metonymy

0

reward

the result of a person’s actions. This seems to be a metonym for the gracious blessing God would give Abram. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

810

GEN

15

3

e54g

0

Abram said, “Since you have given me

“Abram continued speaking and said, ‘Since you have given me’”

811

GEN

15

4

ym81

0

Then, behold

The word “behold” emphasizes the fact that the word of Yahweh came to Abraham again.

812

GEN

15

4

a5xl

figs-idiom

0

the word of Yahweh came to him, saying, “This

The idiom “The word of Yahweh came to” is used to introduce a special message from God. See how you translated this idiom in Genesis 15:1. Alternate translation: “Yahweh gave him a message. He said, ‘This” or “Yahweh spoke this message to him: ‘This” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

813

GEN

15

4

jf7t

0

This man

This refers to Eliezer of Damascus.

814

GEN

15

4

t2nt

0

the one who will come from your own body

“the one that you will father” or “your very own son.” Abram’s own son would become his heir.

815

GEN

15

5

rzc6

0

number the stars

“count the stars”

816

GEN

15

5

s2td

0

So will your descendants be

Just as Abram would not be able to count all the stars, he would not be able to count all his descendants because there would be so many.

817

GEN

15

6

wi6t

0

He believed Yahweh

This means he accepted and trusted what Yahweh said was true.

818

GEN

15

6

vu8m

0

he counted it to him as righteousness

“Yahweh counted Abram’s belief as righteousness” or “Yahweh considered Abram righteous because Abram believed him”

819

GEN

15

7

s8nq

0

I am Yahweh, who brought you out of Ur

Yahweh was reminding Abraham of what he had already done so that Abraham would know that Yahweh had the power to give Abram what he promised him.

820

GEN

15

7

vpc6

0

to inherit it

“to receive it” or “so that you will possess it”

821

GEN

15

8

xgm4

0

how will I know

Abram was asking for more proof that Yahweh would give him the land.

822

GEN

15

11

ej2r

0

the carcasses

“the dead bodies of the animals and birds”

823

GEN

15

11

ld5n

0

Abram drove them away

“Abram chased the birds away.” He made sure the birds did not eat the dead animals.

824

GEN

15

12

mt8x

figs-idiom

0

Abram fell sound asleep

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “Abraham slept deeply” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

825

GEN

15

12

s67i

0

a deep and terrifying darkness

“an extreme darkness that terrified him”

826

GEN

15

12

t6p7

0

overwhelmed him

“surrounded him”

827

GEN

15

13

v3tk

0

strangers

people who are at home in one place but have to live in another place

828

GEN

15

13

ayu5

figs-activepassive

0

will be enslaved and oppressed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “the owners of that land will enslave your descendants and oppress them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

829

GEN

15

14

u2c1

0

General Information:

Yahweh continued to speak to Abram while Abram dreamed.

830

GEN

15

14

chv9

figs-metonymy

0

I will judge

Here “judge” is a metonym for what will happen after God makes the judgment. Alternate translation: “I will punish” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

831

GEN

15

14

i1hs

figs-explicit

0

that they will serve

The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “that your descendants will serve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

832

GEN

15

14

i716

figs-idiom

0

abundant possessions

This is an idiom. Alternate translation: “many possessions” or “great wealth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

833

GEN

15

15

zj2t

figs-euphemism

0

you will go to your fathers

This is a polite way of saying “you will die.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

834

GEN

15

15

ce5w

figs-synecdoche

0

fathers

The word “fathers” is a synecdoche for all ancestors. Alternate translation: “ancestors” or “ancestral fathers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

835

GEN

15

15

m38i

0

you will be buried in a good old age

“you will be very old when you die and your family buries your body”

836

GEN

15

16

t8tm

0

In the fourth generation

Here one generation refers to a lifespan of 100 years. “After four hundred years”

837

GEN

15

16

kgu5

0

they will come here again

“your descendants will come back here.” Abraham’s descendants would come to the land where Abram was then living, the land that Yahweh had promised to give to him.

838

GEN

15

16

dfh5

0

has not yet reached its limit

“is not yet complete” or “will get much worse before I punish them”

839

GEN

15

17

bak2

0

behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

840

GEN

15

17

dq6q

0

a smoking fire pot and a flaming torch passed between the pieces

God did this to show Abram that he was making a covenant with him.

841

GEN

15

17

b8ea

0

passed between the pieces

“passed through between the two rows of animal pieces”

842

GEN

15

18

jca2

0

covenant

In this covenant God promises to bless Abram, and he will continue to bless him as long as Abram follows him.

843

GEN

15

18

n51q

0

I hereby give this land

By saying this, God was giving the land to Abram’s descendants. God was doing this then, but the descendants would not go into the land until many years later.

844

GEN

15

19

z53u

translate-names

0

the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites

These are the names of groups of people who lived in that land. God would allow Abraham’s descendants to conquer these people and take their land. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

845

GEN

15

20

s5a4

translate-names

0

the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaites

These are the names of groups of people who lived in that land. God would allow Abraham’s descendants to conquer these people and take their land. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

846

GEN

15

21

x8uz

translate-names

0

the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites

These are the names of groups of people who lived in that land. God would allow Abraham’s descendants to conquer these people and take their land. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

847

GEN

16

intro

hcf5

0

Genesis 16 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 16:11-12.

Special concepts in this chapter

Plural marriage

Abram married Hagar while he was also married to Sarai. Even though Abram had his wife’s permission, this was an immoral and sinful action. It also showed a lack of faith in God. Sarai quickly became jealous of Hagar. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/jealous]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

848

GEN

16

1

g63i

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used in English to introduce a new part of the story and background information about Sarai. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

849

GEN

16

1

qvt5

0

female servant

“slave-girl.” This type of slave would serve the woman of the household.

850

GEN

16

2

mi22

0

from having children

“from giving birth to children”

851

GEN

16

2

g7pn

0

I will have children by her

“I will build my family through her”

852

GEN

16

2

d65g

0

Abram listened to the voice of Sarai

“Abram did what Sarai said”

853

GEN

16

4

r8xr

0

she looked with contempt on her mistress

“she despised her mistress” or “she thought that she was more valuable than her mistress”

854

GEN

16

4

n3w5

0

her mistress

Here this refers to Sarai. A mistress has authority over her slave. Alternate translation: “her owner” or “Sarai”

855

GEN

16

5

zy8r

0

This wrong on me

“This injustice against me”

856

GEN

16

5

cs17

0

is because of you

“is your responsibility” or “is your fault”

857

GEN

16

5

pg3a

figs-euphemism

0

I gave my servant woman into your embrace

Sarai used the word “embrace” here to refer to him sleeping with her. Alternate translation: “I gave you my servant so that you would sleep with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

858

GEN

16

5

da2j

figs-activepassive

0

I was despised in her eyes

This can be active. Alternate translation: “she hated me” or “she began to hate me” or “she thought she was better than me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

859

GEN

16

5

yn9x

0

Let Yahweh judge between me and you

“I want Yahweh to say whether this is my fault or your fault” or “I want Yahweh to decide which one of us is right.” The phrase “to judge between” means to decide which person is right in a dispute between them.

860

GEN

16

6

xrl3

0

See here

“Listen to me” or “Pay attention”

861

GEN

16

6

dgm6

0

in your power

“under your authority”

862

GEN

16

6

j5i9

0

Sarai dealt harshly with her

“Sarai treated Hagar very badly”

863

GEN

16

6

t433

0

she fled from her

“Hagar fled from Sarai”

864

GEN

16

7

e27g

0

The angel of Yahweh

Possible meanings are (1) Yahweh made himself look like an angel or (2) this was one of Yahweh’s angels or (3) this was a special messenger from God (some scholars think it was Jesus). Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as “the angel of Yahweh” using the normal word that you use for “angel.”

865

GEN

16

7

w6d6

0

wilderness

The wilderness area she went to was a desert. Alternate translation: “desert”

866

GEN

16

7

y62e

0

Shur

This was the name of a place south of Canaan and east of Egypt.

867

GEN

16

8

mk7v

0

my mistress

Here this refers to Sarai. A mistress has authority over her slave. See how “her mistress” is translated in Genesis 16:4. Alternate translation: “my owner”

868

GEN

16

9

rqm5

0

The angel of Yahweh said to her

“The angel of Yahweh said to Hagar”

869

GEN

16

9

r9gt

0

your mistress

Sarai. See how “her mistress” is translated in Genesis 16:4.

870

GEN

16

10

km4g

0

the angel of Yahweh

See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

871

GEN

16

10

aa1h

0

the angel of Yahweh said to her, “I

When he said “I,” he was referring to Yahweh. When translating what is in the quote, do it as the angel of Yahweh did and use the word “I” when referring to Yahweh.

872

GEN

16

10

xr66

0

I will greatly multiply your descendants

“I will give you very many descendants”

873

GEN

16

10

sn9f

0

too numerous to count

“so many that no one will be able to count them”

874

GEN

16

11

ee9v

0

The angel of Yahweh

See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

875

GEN

16

11

mj7q

0

Behold

“Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention”

876

GEN

16

11

qqh8

0

bear a son

“give birth to a son”

877

GEN

16

11

t29c

0

you will call his name

“you will name him.” The word “you” refers to Hagar.

878

GEN

16

11

x6x4

0

Ishmael, because Yahweh has heard

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name ‘Ishmael’ means ‘God has heard.’”

879

GEN

16

11

xmm5

0

affliction

She has been afflicted by distress and suffering.

880

GEN

16

12

rpu1

figs-metaphor

0

He will be a wild donkey of a man

This was not an insult. It may mean that Ishmael would be independent and strong like a wild donkey. Alternate translation: “He will be like a wild donkey among men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

881

GEN

16

12

vyt4

0

He will be hostile against every man

“He will be every man’s enemy”

882

GEN

16

12

j1p2

0

every man will be hostile to him

“everyone will be his enemy”

883

GEN

16

12

q8j2

0

he will live apart from

This can also mean “he will live in hostility with.”

884

GEN

16

12

ihy3

0

his brothers

“his relatives” or “the other members of his family”

885

GEN

16

13

t9b6

0

Yahweh who spoke to her

“Yahweh, because he spoke to her”

886

GEN

16

13

jsy3

figs-rquestion

0

Do I really continue to see,…me?

Hagar used this rhetorical question to express her amazement that she was still alive even after she met God. People expected that if they met God, they would die. Here seeing represents living. Alternate translation: “I am surprised that I am still alive,…me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

887

GEN

16

14

ez2d

translate-names

0

Therefore the well was called Beer Lahai Roi

Translators may add a footnote that says “Beer Lahai Roi means ‘the well of the living one who sees me.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

888

GEN

16

14

c8h8

translate-names

0

behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered

The word “behold” here draws attention to the fact that the well was in a place that the author and his readers knew. Alternate translation: “in fact, it is between Kadesh and Bered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

889

GEN

16

15

x6tu

figs-explicit

0

Hagar gave birth

Hagar’s return to Sarai and Abram is implict. You can make this more explicit. Alternate translation: “So Hagar went back and gave birth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

890

GEN

16

15

g9my

0

named his son, whom Hagar bore

“named his son by Hagar” or “named his and Hagar’s son”

891

GEN

16

16

cdy2

writing-background

0

Abram was

This introduces background information about Abram’s age when these things happened. Your language may have a special way to mark background information. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

892

GEN

16

16

e7x4

0

bore Ishmael to Abram

This means “gave birth to Abram’s son, Ishmael.” The focus is on Abram having a son.

893

GEN

17

intro

ry14

0

Genesis 17 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

“The father of a multitude of nations”

Abram came to have many descendants. He had so many descendants that many of his immediate descendants became large people groups and nations.

God’s covenant with Abraham

God made a covenant with Abram. This covenant was not conditioned upon anything that Abraham needed to do, but the fulfillment of its promises is conditioned upon the actions of each generation of his descendants. It has not yet been fulfilled in its entirety. It is important to note in this chapter that Isaac is the son who receives the promises associated with the covenant and not Ishmael. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

Circumcision

Circumcision was an unusual practice in the ancient Near East. It served to separate the Hebrew people from the rest of the world. This chapter records the beginning of this practice among Abraham and his descendants. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/circumcise]])

Name change

In Scripture, a change in name always occurs at a highly significant point in a person’s life. The beginning of the practice of circumcision was a significant event in the history of the Hebrew people.

894

GEN

17

1

e289

0

When Abram was ninety-nine years old

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

895

GEN

17

1

j61v

0

God Almighty

“the all-powerful God” or “the God who has all power”

896

GEN

17

1

cp7w

figs-metaphor

0

Walk before me

Walking is a metaphor for living, and “before me” or “in my presence” here is a metaphor for obedience. Alternate translation: “Live the way I want you to” or “Obey me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

897

GEN

17

2

e6dj

0

Then I will confirm

“If you do this, then I will confirm”

898

GEN

17

2

n6qi

0

I will confirm my covenant

“I will give my covenant” or “I will make my covenant”

899

GEN

17

2

x3wu

0

covenant

In this covenant God promises to bless Abram, but he also requires Abram to obey him.

900

GEN

17

2

qt2p

figs-idiom

0

multiply you exceedingly

Here “multiply you” is an idiom that means he will give him more descendants. Alternate translation: “greatly increase the number of your descendants” or “give you very many descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

901

GEN

17

3

m64l

0

Abram bowed low with his face to the ground

“Abram threw himself face down on the ground” or “Abraham immediately lay down with his face to the ground.” He did this to show that he respected God and would obey him.

902

GEN

17

4

j6m4

0

As for me

God used this phrase to introduce what he would do for Abram as part of his covenant with Abram.

903

GEN

17

4

x8l2

0

behold, my covenant is with you

The word “behold” here says that what comes next is certain: “my covenant is certainly with you.”

904

GEN

17

4

x5p4

0

the father of a multitude of nations

“the father of a great number of nations” or “the one after whom many nations name themselves”

905

GEN

17

6

qgt7

0

I will make you exceedingly fruitful

“I will cause you to have very many descendants”

906

GEN

17

6

z2ge

0

I will make nations of you

“I will cause your descendants to become nations”

907

GEN

17

6

u97r

0

kings will descend from you

“among your descendants there will be kings” or “some of your descendants will be kings”

908

GEN

17

7

qx71

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Abraham.

909

GEN

17

7

nr7x

0

throughout their generations

“for each generation”

910

GEN

17

7

pbe9

0

for an everlasting covenant

“as a covenant that will last forever”

911

GEN

17

7

pr1d

0

to be God to you and to your descendants after you

“to be your God and your descendants’ God” or “covenant”

912

GEN

17

8

hur8

0

Canaan, for an everlasting possession

“Canaan, as an everlasting possession” or “Canaan, to possess forever”

913

GEN

17

9

x9sd

0

As for you

God uses this phrase to introduce what Abram would have to do as part of God’s covenant with him.

914

GEN

17

9

x8a9

0

keep my covenant

“observe my covenant” or “honor my covenant” or “obey my covenant”

915

GEN

17

10

jn4e

0

This is my covenant

“This is a requirement of my covenant” or “This is part of my covenant.” This sentence introduces the part of the covenant that Abram must do.

916

GEN

17

10

ib6l

figs-activepassive

0

Every male among you must be circumcised

This can be stated in an active form. Alternate translation: “You must circumcise every male among you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

917

GEN

17

10

xjr3

0

Every male

This refers to human males.

918

GEN

17

11

j6pm

figs-euphemism

0

You must be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin

Some communities may prefer a less descriptive expression such as “You must be circumcised.” If your translation of “be circumcised” already includes the word for “foreskin”, you do not need to repeat it. This can be made active. Alternate translation: “You must circumcise every male among you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

919

GEN

17

11

i3l8

0

the sign of the covenant

“the sign that shows that the covenant exists”

920

GEN

17

11

s7vs

0

the sign

Possible meanings are (1) “the sign” or (2) “a sign.” The first means that there was one sign, and the second means that there may have been more than one sign. Here the word “sign” means a reminder of something that God had promised.

921

GEN

17

12

t92x

0

General Information:

God continues speaking to Abraham.

922

GEN

17

12

xpc8

0

Every male

“Every human male”

923

GEN

17

12

ev7m

0

throughout your people’s generations

“in every generation”

924

GEN

17

12

ed5x

figs-activepassive

0

him who is bought with money

This refers to slaves. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “any male that you buy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

925

GEN

17

13

fim6

figs-activepassive

0

my covenant will be in your flesh

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “you will mark my covenant in your flesh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

926

GEN

17

13

ea1n

0

for an everlasting covenant

“as a permanent covenant.” Because it was marked in flesh, no one could easily erase it.

927

GEN

17

14

lpi7

figs-activepassive

0

uncircumcised male who is not circumcised

This can be stated in active form, and you may leave out words that will give wrong meaning in your language. Alternate translation: “male whom you have not circumcised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

928

GEN

17

14

any2

0

Any uncircumcised male…foreskin will be cut off from his people

Possible meanings are (1) “I will cut off any uncircumcised male…foreskin from his people” or (2) “I want you to cut off any uncircumcised male…foreskin from his people.”

929

GEN

17

14

pi4v

figs-euphemism

0

cut off from his people

Possible meanings are (1) “killed” or (2) “sent away from the community.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

930

GEN

17

14

e2n7

0

He has broken my covenant

“He has not obeyed the rules of my covenant.” This is the reason that he would be cut off from his people.

931

GEN

17

15

w67t

0

As for Sarai

The words “As for” introduce the next person God talks about.

932

GEN

17

16

fpk7

0

I will give you a son by her

“I will make her bear a son for you”

933

GEN

17

16

g1ax

0

she will become the mother of nations

“she will be the ancestor of many nations” or “her descendants will become nations”

934

GEN

17

16

tb49

0

Kings of peoples will come from her

“Kings of peoples will descend from her” or “Some of her descendants will be kings of peoples”

935

GEN

17

17

cx58

0

said in his heart

“thought to himself” or “said to himself silently”

936

GEN

17

17

s8rv

figs-rquestion

0

Can a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old?

Abraham used this rhetorical question because he did not believe that this could happen. Alternate translation: “Surely a man who is a hundred years old cannot father a child!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

937

GEN

17

17

ewn1

figs-rquestion

0

How can Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a son?

Again Abraham used a rhetorical question because he did not believe this could happen. The phrase “who is ninety years old” tells why Abraham did not believe that Sarah could bear a son. Alternate translation: “Sarah is ninety years old. Could she bear a son?” or “Sarah is ninety years old. Surely she could not bear a son!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

938

GEN

17

18

bc1n

0

Oh that Ishmael might live before you

“Please let Ishmael inherit the covenant that you have made with me” or “Perhaps Ishmael could receive your covenant blessing.” Abraham suggested something that he believed really could happen.

939

GEN

17

19

q8lt

0

No, but Sarah your wife will bear

God said this to correct Abraham’s belief that Sarah could not have a son.

940

GEN

17

19

u9hq

0

you must name him

The word “you” refers to Abraham.

941

GEN

17

20

l6cf

0

As for Ishmael

The words “As for” show that God is switching from talking about the baby that would be born to talking about Ishmael.

942

GEN

17

20

fvb5

0

Behold

“Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

943

GEN

17

20

e3g9

figs-idiom

0

will make him fruitful

This is an idiom that means “will cause him to have many children.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

944

GEN

17

20

y6m2

0

will multiply him abundantly

“I will cause him to have many descendants”

945

GEN

17

20

ga2d

0

princes

“chiefs” or “rulers.” Ishmael’s twelve sons are different from the twelve sons of Jacob who were the fathers of the twelve tribes of Israel.

946

GEN

17

21

rwv4

0

But my covenant I will establish with Isaac

God returns to talking about his covenant with Abraham and emphasizes that he would fulfill his promise with Isaac, not with Ishmael.

947

GEN

17

22

m8vf

0

When he had finished talking with him

“When God had finished talking with Abraham”

948

GEN

17

22

sw9y

0

God went up from Abraham

“God left Abraham”

949

GEN

17

23

nxp3

0

every male among the men of Abraham’s household

“every human male in Abraham’s household” or “every male person in Abraham’s household.” It refers to human males of all ages: babies, boys, and men.

950

GEN

17

27

rgk6

0

including those born into the household and those bought with money from a foreigner

“This includes those who were born in his household and those he had bought from foreigners”

951

GEN

17

27

a2ym

0

those bought with money from a foreigner

This refers to servants or slaves.

952

GEN

17

27

xq3b

figs-activepassive

0

those bought

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “those whom he had bought” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

953

GEN

18

intro

ky5w

0

Genesis 18 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Three men

The three men who visited Abraham were probably angels. This is evident from Abraham’s reaction to them. Also, it appears Abraham knew that he was speaking directly to Yahweh through these men. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/angel]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Disbelief

When Sarah heard the news that she was going to have a baby, she laughed in disbelief because she was considered too old to have a baby. She also asked a rhetorical question in order to further show her disbelief. This would have been considered an insult to God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

In his exchange with God, Abraham did not show any sign of unbelief. Instead, he is asking God for mercy because he trusted in the character of God. He does not question God’s power to accomplish things as Sarah had done. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Sarah’s age

It should be apparent that Sarah was physically no longer able to have children because of her age. There is a natural period in a woman’s life when she stops being able to have children. The text assumes the reader understands that Sarah has already experienced this event. In English, this is called “menopause.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

954

GEN

18

1

a3at

0

Mamre

This was the name of the man who owned the oak trees.

955

GEN

18

1

ra4w

0

in the tent doorway

“at the opening of the tent” or “at the entrance of the tent”

956

GEN

18

1

u27f

0

heat of the day

“hottest time of day”

957

GEN

18

2

t35m

0

He looked up and, behold, he saw three men standing

“He looked up and saw, and behold, three men were standing”

958

GEN

18

2

m2pv

0

behold, he saw

“he was surprised because he saw”

959

GEN

18

2

xd3c

0

across from him

“nearby” or “there.” They were near him, but far enough away for him to run to them.

960

GEN

18

2

ygs8

0

bowed

This means to bend over to humbly express respect and honor toward someone.

961

GEN

18

3

cj7j

0

Lord

This is a title of respect. Possible meanings are (1) Abraham knew that one of these men was God or (2) Abraham knew that these men came on behalf of God.

962

GEN

18

3

s5jg

figs-idiom

0

if I have found favor in your sight

Here “found favor” is an idiom that means be approved of or that the Lord is pleased with him, and “your sight” is a metaphor representing the Lord’s evaluation. Alternate translation: “if you have evaluated me and approve” or “if you are pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

963

GEN

18

3

i86z

figs-you

0

in your sight

Abraham is speaking to one of the men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

964

GEN

18

3

ie2s

0

do not pass by

“please do not keep on going past”

965

GEN

18

3

s6nr

0

your servant

“me.” Abraham refers to himself this way in order to show respect to his guest.

966

GEN

18

4

cs93

figs-activepassive

0

Let a little water be brought

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Let me bring you some water” or “My servant will bring you some water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

967

GEN

18

4

r83u

0

a little water

“some water.” Saying “little” was a polite way of showing generosity. Abraham would give them more than enough water.

968

GEN

18

4

c7uk

0

wash your feet

This custom helped tired travelers to refresh themselves after walking long distances.

969

GEN

18

5

p5cn

0

a little food

“some food.” Saying “little” was a polite way of showing generosity. Abraham would give them more than enough food.

970

GEN

18

5

rmc5

figs-you

0

your…you

Abraham speaks to all three of the men, so “you” and “your” are plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

971

GEN

18

6

gl4c

translate-bvolume

0

three seahs

about 22 liters (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])

972

GEN

18

6

sbt6

0

bread

This bread was probably cooked quickly on a hot stone. It may have been flat or round like small loaves or rolls.

973

GEN

18

7

s4v8

0

he hurried

“the servant hurried”

974

GEN

18

7

hp5s

0

to prepare it

“to cut it up and roast it”

975

GEN

18

8

k6lz

0

curds

This refers to the solid part of fermented milk. It may have been yogurt or cheese.

976

GEN

18

8

c4vs

0

the calf that had been prepared

“the roasted calf”

977

GEN

18

8

pp29

0

before them

“before the three visitors”

978

GEN

18

9

eq6d

0

They said to him

“Then they said to Abraham”

979

GEN

18

10

gg9j

0

He said, “I will certainly return to you

The word “He” refers to the man whom Abraham called “Lord” in Genesis 18:3.

980

GEN

18

10

iwn6

0

in the springtime

“when this same season comes next year” or “about this time next year”

981

GEN

18

10

aas2

0

see

The word “see” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

982

GEN

18

10

qvh9

0

in the tent doorway

“at the opening of the tent” or “at the entrance of the tent”

983

GEN

18

12

u12x

figs-rquestion

0

After I am worn-out and my master is old, will I now have this pleasure?

You may want to add “of having a baby.” Sarah used this rhetorical question because she did not believe that she could have a child. Alternate translation: “I cannot believe that I will experience the joy of having a child. My master is also too old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

984

GEN

18

12

m2nn

0

my master is old

This means “since my husband is also old.”

985

GEN

18

12

qrv3

0

my master

This is a title of respect that Sarah gave to her husband Abraham.

986

GEN

18

13

dfs6

figs-rquestion

0

Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Will I really bear a child, when I am old’?

God used this rhetorical question to show that he knew what Sarah was thinking and that he was not pleased with it. He repeats Sarah’s rhetorical question (Genesis 18:12) using different words. Alternate translation: “Sarah was wrong to laugh and say, ‘I will not bear a child because I am too old!’”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

987

GEN

18

14

i13f

figs-123person

0

Is anything too hard for Yahweh?

“Is there anything that Yahweh cannot do?” Yahweh speaks of himself as if he were speaking of someone else to remind Abraham that he, Yahweh, is great and can do anything. Alternate translation: “There is nothing that I, Yahweh, cannot do!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

988

GEN

18

14

rd96

0

At the time appointed by me, in the spring

“At the time I have appointed, which is in the spring”

989

GEN

18

15

fc88

0

Then Sarah denied it and said

“The Sarah denied it by saying”

990

GEN

18

15

c49f

0

He replied

“Yahweh replied”

991

GEN

18

15

pq5b

0

No, you did laugh

“Yes, you did laugh.” This means “No, that is not true; you did in fact laugh.”

992

GEN

18

16

mtk2

0

to see them on their way

“to send them on their way” or “to say ‘Farewell’ to them.” It was polite to go some distance with guests as they were leaving.

993

GEN

18

17

z943

figs-rquestion

0

Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do

God used this rhetorical question to say that he was going to talk to Abraham about something very important and that it was best for him to do so. Alternate translation: “I should not and will not hide from Abraham what I am about to do” or “I should and will tell Abraham what I am about to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

994

GEN

18

18

e6qk

figs-rquestion

0

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Should I hide” in verse 17 ends here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

995

GEN

18

18

h854

figs-rquestion

0

since Abraham…in him?

The rhetorical question that begins with the words “Should I hide” in verse 17 ends here. God uses this rhetorical question to say that he was going to talk to Abraham about something very important and that it was best for him to do so. “I should not and will not hide…since Abraham in him.” or “I should and will tell…since Abraham in him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

996

GEN

18

18

q36h

0

since…him?

“This is because…him”

997

GEN

18

18

e9uw

figs-activepassive

0

all the nations of the earth will be blessed in him

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I will bless all the nations of the earth through Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

998

GEN

18

18

i8b1

0

will be blessed in him

“will be blessed because of Abraham” or “will be blessed because I have blessed Abraham.” For translating “in him” see how you translated “through you” in Genesis 12:3.

999

GEN

18

19

pxl9

0

that he may instruct

“that he will direct” or “so that he will command”

1000

GEN

18

19

cwm4

figs-123person

0

to keep the way of Yahweh…Yahweh may bring…he has said

Yahweh is speaking about himself as if he were another person. Alternate translation: “to obey what I, Yahweh, require…I, Yahweh, may bring…I have said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1001

GEN

18

19

ny3x

0

to keep the way of Yahweh

“to obey the commands of Yahweh”

1002

GEN

18

19

f8f7

0

to do righteousness and justice

“by doing righteousness and justice.” This tells how to keep the way of Yahweh.

1003

GEN

18

19

v4z4

0

so that Yahweh may bring upon Abraham what he has said to him

“so that Yahweh may bless Abraham just as he said he would.” This refers to the covenant promise to bless Abraham and make him a great nation.

1004

GEN

18

20

m237

figs-abstractnouns

0

the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great

This can be reworded so that the abstract noun “outcry” is expressed as the verb “accuse.” Alternate translation: “so many people have been accusing the people of Sodom and Gomorrah of doing evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1005

GEN

18

20

jp1b

0

their sin is so serious

“they have sinned so much”

1006

GEN

18

21

fb8x

0

I will now go down there

“I will now go down to Sodom and Gomorrah”

1007

GEN

18

21

lki8

0

go down there and see

“go down there to find out” or “go down there to decide”

1008

GEN

18

21

vp7m

figs-abstractnouns

0

see the outcry…that has come to me

Yahweh speaks as if he knew about this matter because he had heard the cries and accusations coming from the people who had suffered. This can be reworded so that the abstract noun “outcry” is expressed as the verb “accuse.” Alternate translation: “as wicked as those who are accusing them say that they are” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1009

GEN

18

21

vp4d

0

If not

“If they are not as wicked as the outcry suggests”

1010

GEN

18

22

ms2h

0

turned from there

“went out from Abraham’s camp”

1011

GEN

18

22

yxr6

0

Abraham remained standing before Yahweh

“Abraham and Yahweh remained together”

1012

GEN

18

23

b62y

0

approached and said

“approached Yahweh and said” or “stepped closer to Yahweh and said”

1013

GEN

18

23

g5he

figs-metaphor

0

sweep away

Abraham speaks of destroying people as if it were sweeping dirt with a broom. Alternate translation: “destroy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1014

GEN

18

23

awu4

0

the righteous with the wicked

“the righteous people with the wicked people”

1015

GEN

18

24

pb7k

0

General Information:

Abraham continues talking to Yahweh.

1016

GEN

18

24

h4eu

0

Perhaps there are

“Suppose there are”

1017

GEN

18

24

dz9j

figs-rquestion

0

Will you sweep it away and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there?

Abraham was hoping that Yahweh would say, “I will not sweep it away.” Alternate translation: “I think you would not sweep it away. Instead, you would spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1018

GEN

18

24

h8ks

figs-metaphor

0

sweep it away

“destroy it.” Abraham speaks of destroying people as if it were sweeping dirt with a broom. Alternate translation: “destroy the people who live there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1019

GEN

18

24

qq2a

0

not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there?

Abraham was hoping that God would say “I will spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous people there.”

1020

GEN

18

24

d8ui

0

spare the place

“let the people live”

1021

GEN

18

24

zj59

0

for the sake of

“because of”

1022

GEN

18

25

rj5a

figs-idiom

0

Far be it from you to do such a thing

Here “Far be it from you” is an idiom that means the person should never do something like that. Alternate translation: “I would never want you to do something like that” or “You should not want to do something like that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1023

GEN

18

25

re6w

0

such a thing, killing

“such a thing as killing” or “such a thing, that is, killing”

1024

GEN

18

25

hqx8

figs-activepassive

0

the righteous should be treated the same as the wicked

This can be stated in active from. Alternate translation: “you should treat the righteous the same way you treat the wicked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1025

GEN

18

25

m329

figs-rquestion

0

Will not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?

Abraham used this rhetorical question to say what he expected God to do. Alternate translation: “The Judge of all the earth will certainly do what is just!” or “Since you are the Judge of all the earth, you will surely do what is right!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1026

GEN

18

25

de6w

0

Judge

God is often referred to as a judge because he is the one perfect judge who makes the final decisions about what is right or wrong.

1027

GEN

18

27

dsz4

0

Look

The phrase “Look” here draws attention to the surprising information that follows.

1028

GEN

18

27

fax5

0

I have undertaken to speak

“Pardon me for being so bold as to speak to you” or “Excuse me for daring to speak”

1029

GEN

18

27

snd3

figs-123person

0

to my Lord

Abraham shows his respect to Yahweh by speaking to Yahweh as if he were speaking to someone else. Alternate translation: “to you, my Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1030

GEN

18

27

ew9k

figs-metaphor

0

only dust and ashes

This metaphor describes Abraham as a human being, who will die and whose body will turn into to dust and ashes. Alternate translation: “only a mortal man” or “as unimportant as dust and ashes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1031

GEN

18

28

ln28

0

five less than fifty righteous

“only forty-five righteous people”

1032

GEN

18

28

zqs7

0

for lack of five

“if there are five fewer righteous people”

1033

GEN

18

28

n8tk

0

I will not destroy it

“I will not destroy Sodom”

1034

GEN

18

29

uj4n

0

He spoke to him

“Abraham spoke to Yahweh”

1035

GEN

18

29

hah3

figs-activepassive

0

if there are forty found there

This can be translated in active form. You may have to fill in the ellipsis, “righteous people.” Alternate translation: “if you find forty righteous people there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1036

GEN

18

29

y28t

figs-ellipsis

0

for the forty’s sake

“for the sake of the forty” or “if I find forty there.” You may have to fill in the ellipsis, “righteous people.” Alternate translation: “for the sake of the forty righteous people” or “if I find forty righteous people there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1037

GEN

18

29

nup9

0

He replied

“Yahweh answered”

1038

GEN

18

29

tyh3

0

I will not do it for the forty’s sake

“I will not destroy the cities if I find forty righteous people there”

1039

GEN

18

30

vk5m

figs-activepassive

0

thirty will be found there

This can be translated in active form. You may have to fill in the ellipsis, “righteous people.” Alternate translation: “you will find thirty righteous people there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1040

GEN

18

31

kep9

0

Look

The phrase “Look” here draws attention to the surprising information that follows.

1041

GEN

18

31

e1em

0

I have undertaken to speak

“Pardon me for being so bold as to speak to you” or “Excuse me for daring to speak.” See how this is translated in Genesis 18:27.

1042

GEN

18

31

un9p

figs-activepassive

0

twenty will be found there

This can be translated in active form. You may have to fill in the ellipsis, “righteous people.” Alternate translation: “you will find twenty righteous people there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1043

GEN

18

31

s4zn

figs-ellipsis

0

for the twenty’s sake

“for the sake of the twenty” or “if I find twenty there.” You may have to fill in the ellipsis, “righteous people.” Alternate translation: “for the sake of the twenty righteous people” or “if I find twenty righteous people there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1044

GEN

18

32

a6tx

0

Perhaps ten will be found there

“Perhaps you will find ten righteous people there”

1045

GEN

18

32

q1p9

0

Perhaps ten

“Perhaps ten righteous people” or “ten good people”

1046

GEN

18

32

ak2y

0

Then he said

“And Yahweh answered”

1047

GEN

18

32

d335

0

for the ten’s sake

“if I find ten righteous people there”

1048

GEN

18

33

wum8

figs-idiom

0

Yahweh went on his way

Here “went on his way” is an idiom that means he left, or he continued his journey. Yahweh appeared to Abraham in human form as a traveler. Alternate translation: “Yahweh departed” or “Yahweh continued on his journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1049

GEN

19

intro

hb2x

0

Genesis 19 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

The evil desires of the Sodomites

The men of Sodom desired to forcibly have sexual relations with the angels who came to the city appearing as men. Such action is known as “rape.” Their desire was viewed as especially evil because Lot was obligated to protect his guests at all costs, even that of sacrificing his own children for his guests. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/evil]])

Hospitality

Hospitality, or being kind to a visitor, was very important in the Ancient Near East. Lot showed his guests loyalty by doing his utmost to protect them from the people of Sodom.

Important figures of speech in this chapter

Contrasts

It is probable that Abraham’s faith and actions in chapter 18 are intended to contrast with the actions of the worldly Sodomites. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])

1050

GEN

19

1

uh7h

0

The two angels

The two men who have gone to Sodom (Genesis 18:22) are really angels.

1051

GEN

19

1

b4sb

0

the gate of Sodom

“the entrance to the city of Sodom.” The city had a wall around it, and people had to go through a gate to get into it. This was a very important place in a city. Important people often spent time there.

1052

GEN

19

1

ny92

0

bowed down with his face to the ground

He put his knees on the ground then touched his forehead and nose to the ground.

1053

GEN

19

2

t9qp

0

my masters

This was a term of respect Lot used for the angels.

1054

GEN

19

2

egr4

0

I urge you to turn aside into your servant’s house

“Please come and stay in your servant’s house”

1055

GEN

19

2

w78p

figs-123person

0

your servant’s house

Lot refers to himself as their servant in order to show them respect. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1056

GEN

19

2

sp4m

0

wash your feet

People liked to wash their feet after traveling.

1057

GEN

19

2

sb2f

0

rise up early

“wake up early”

1058

GEN

19

2

a65m

figs-exclusive

0

we will spend the night

When the two angels said this, they were referring only to themselves, not to Lot. The two of them planned to spend the night in the square. Some languages would use the exclusive form of “we” here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1059

GEN

19

2

r62b

0

town square

This is a public, outdoor place in the town.

1060

GEN

19

3

vnk8

0

they went with him

“they turned and went with him”

1061

GEN

19

4

lc42

0

before they lay down

“before the people in Lot’s house lay down to go to sleep”

1062

GEN

19

4

iw1t

0

the men of the city, the men of Sodom

“the men of the city, that is, the men of Sodom” or just “the men of the city of Sodom”

1063

GEN

19

4

gyq4

0

the house

“Lot’s house”

1064

GEN

19

4

vqe5

0

both young and old

“from the youngest to the oldest.” This means “men of all ages” and refers to the men of Sodom who were surrounding Lot’s house.

1065

GEN

19

5

cu4h

0

that came in to you

“that went into your house”

1066

GEN

19

5

jfu1

figs-euphemism

0

we may know them

These words literally mean “we may know who they are,” but the men meant them as a euphemism for “we may have sexual relations with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1067

GEN

19

6

k84s

0

after himself

“behind him” or “after he went through”

1068

GEN

19

7

tg28

0

I beg you, my brothers

“I plead with you, my brothers”

1069

GEN

19

7

s55m

figs-idiom

0

my brothers

Lot spoke in a friendly way to the men of the city hoping that they would listen to him. Alternate translation: “my friends” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1070

GEN

19

7

ur1w

0

do not act so wickedly

“do not do something so wicked” or “do not do such a wicked thing”

1071

GEN

19

8

bc5c

0

Look

“Pay attention” or “Look here”

1072

GEN

19

8

pb1n

figs-euphemism

0

who have not known any man

This is a polite way of saying that the daughters had not had sexual relations with any man. You may need to use another euphemism in your language. See how you translated similar words in Genesis 4:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1073

GEN

19

8

jn4w

0

whatever is good in your eyes

“whatever you desire” or “whatever you think is right”

1074

GEN

19

8

nig7

figs-synecdoche

0

under the shadow of my roof

The two men were guests in Lot’s home, so he needed to protect them. The word “roof” is a synecdoche for the whole house and a metaphor for Lot protecting them. Alternate translation: “into my house, and God expects me to protect them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1075

GEN

19

9

k7mf

0

Stand back!

“Step aside!” or “Get out of our way!”

1076

GEN

19

9

sgx9

0

This one came here to live as a foreigner

“This one came here as an outsider” or “This foreigner came to live here”

1077

GEN

19

9

ym7y

0

This one

“Lot.” The men are speaking to each other. If this would be unclear in your language, you may have the men speak to Lot here, as in UST.

1078

GEN

19

9

c9uq

figs-idiom

0

and now

The speaker would not expect a foreigner to judge the people of that land. Alternate translation: “but even though he has no good reason to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1079

GEN

19

9

sa6c

figs-idiom

0

he has become our judge

Here “has become our judge” is an idiom that means Lot is acting as if he can tell the men what actions are right or wrong. Alternate translation: “he acts as if he has the authority to tell us what is right and what is wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1080

GEN

19

9

x79u

0

Now we

“Because you are telling us that what we are doing is wrong, we”

1081

GEN

19

9

xi8x

figs-idiom

0

we will deal worse with you than with them

The men are angry that Lot said, “Do not act so wickedly” (Genesis 19:7), so they are threatening to act more wickedly than Lot had feared at first. Alternate translation: “we will act more wickedly with you than we will with them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1082

GEN

19

9

gdw3

0

They pressed hard against the man, against Lot, and came near to break down the door

Possible meanings are (1) “They kept coming closer to the man, to Lot, until they were close enough to break down the door” or (2) they physically pushed Lot up against the wall or door of the house and were about to break the door down.

1083

GEN

19

9

q8f7

0

the man…Lot

This is two ways of referring to Lot.

1084

GEN

19

10

u4re

0

But the men

“But Lot’s two guests” or “But the two angels”

1085

GEN

19

10

ri1g

figs-explicit

0

the men reached out their hands and brought…them and shut

Your language may need to add that the men opened the door first. Alternate translation: ‘the men opened the door far enough so they could reach out their hands and pull…them, and then they shut” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1086

GEN

19

11

urq7

figs-metaphor

0

Lot’s visitors struck with blindness the men

The phrase “struck with blindness” is a metaphor; the visitors did not physically hit the men. Alternate translation: “Lot’s visitors blinded the men” or “they took away their sight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1087

GEN

19

11

kg3g

figs-merism

0

both young and old

“men of all ages.” This merism emphasizes that the visitors blinded all the men. This could indicate social standing rather than age. Alternate translation: “both small and great” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1088

GEN

19

12

zat4

0

Then the men said

“Then the two men said” or “Then the angels said”

1089

GEN

19

12

pl2x

0

Do you have anyone else here?

“Are there any other members of your family in the city?” or “Do you have any other family members in this place?”

1090

GEN

19

12

k1l8

0

whoever you have in the city

“any other members of your family living in this city”

1091

GEN

19

13

zq54

figs-exclusive

0

we are about to destroy

The word “we” here is exclusive. Only the two angels would destroy the city; Lot would not destroy it. If your language has an exclusive form of “we,” use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1092

GEN

19

13

q8rc

figs-abstractnouns

0

the accusations against it before Yahweh have become so loud

This can be reworded so that the abstract noun “accusations” is expressed as a verb. See how similar words are translated in Genesis 18:20. Alternate translation: “so many people have been telling Yahweh that the people of this city are doing evil things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1093

GEN

19

14

pd6h

0

Lot went out

“So Lot left the house”

1094

GEN

19

14

cb3j

figs-parallelism

0

his sons-in-law, the men who had promised to marry his daughters

The phrase “the men who had promised to marry his daughters” explains what “sons-in-law” means here. Alternate translation: “the men who were going to marry his daughters” or “his daughters’ fiancés” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1095

GEN

19

15

ch9a

0

When the morning dawned

“Just before the sun came up”

1096

GEN

19

15

r4pf

0

Get going

“Go now”

1097

GEN

19

15

ta9n

figs-activepassive

0

you are not swept away in the punishment of the city

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “so Yahweh does not also destroy you when he punishes the people of this city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1098

GEN

19

15

nd8n

figs-metaphor

0

not swept away in the punishment

God destroying the people of the city is spoken of as if a person were sweeping away dust. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1099

GEN

19

15

s4jw

figs-metonymy

0

of the city

Here “city” stands for the people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1100

GEN

19

16

jp9l

0

But he lingered

“But Lot hesitated” or “But Lot did not start to leave”

1101

GEN

19

16

sa45

0

So the men grabbed

“So the two men grabbed” or “So the angels grabbed”

1102

GEN

19

16

jl9w

0

was merciful to him

“had compassion on Lot.” Yahweh is described as being “merciful” because he was sparing the lives of Lot and his family instead of destroying them when he destroyed the people of Sodom for the wrong they had done.

1103

GEN

19

17

z72f

0

When they had brought them out

“When the two men had brought Lot’s family out”

1104

GEN

19

17

is11

figs-idiom

0

Run for your lives!

This is a way of telling them to run so that they do not die. Alternate translation: “Run away and save your lives!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1105

GEN

19

17

wpz3

figs-ellipsis

0

Do not look back

The phrase “at the city” is understood. Alternate translation: “Do not look back at the city” or “Do not look back at Sodom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1106

GEN

19

17

hx63

0

on the plain

This means the plain of the Jordan River. This refers to the general region of the Jordan River.

1107

GEN

19

17

n2if

figs-ellipsis

0

so you are not swept away

It is understood that they would swept away with the people of the city. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “or else God will destroy you along with the people of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1108

GEN

19

17

c7y3

figs-metaphor

0

not swept away

God destroying the people of the city is spoken of as if a person were sweeping away dust. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1109

GEN

19

19

q7pm

figs-idiom

0

Your servant has found favor in your eyes

The phrase “found favor” is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Here “eyes” are a metonym for sight, and sight is a metaphor representing his evaluation. Alternate translation: “You have been pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1110

GEN

19

19

zq9l

figs-123person

0

Your servant has

Lot was showing respect by referring to himself as “your servant.” Alternate translation: “I, your servant, have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1111

GEN

19

19

hc7t

figs-abstractnouns

0

you have shown me great kindness in saving my life

The abstract noun “kindness” can be stated as “kind.” Alternate translation: “you have been very kind to me by saving my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1112

GEN

19

19

i5uv

figs-personification

0

I cannot escape to the mountains, because the disaster will overtake me, and I will die

Being unable to get far enough away from Sodom when God destroys the city is spoken of as if “disaster” is a person that will chase and catch up with Lot. Alternate translation: “My family and I will certainly die when God destroys the people of Sodom, because the mountains are too far away for us to get there safely” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

1113

GEN

19

19

q5le

figs-explicit

0

my life…I cannot escape…overtake me, and I will die

It is implied that Lot’s family would die along with him. Alternate translation: “our lives…we cannot escape…overtake us, and we will die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1114

GEN

19

20

m8z1

figs-rquestion

0

let me escape there (is it not a little one?), and my life will be saved

Lot used this rhetorical question to get the angels to notice that the city really is a small one. Alternate translation: “let me escape there. You can see how small it is. If you let us go there we will live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1115

GEN

19

20

c93m

figs-explicit

0

let me escape there

Lot’s full request can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “instead of destroying that city, let me escape there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1116

GEN

19

20

yx21

figs-explicit

0

my life will be saved

It is implied that the lives of Lot’s family will be saved along with his. This can also be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “so that we will live” or “so that we will survive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1117

GEN

19

21

x14h

0

I am granting this request also

“I will do what you have asked”

1118

GEN

19

22

np4e

figs-explicit

0

cannot do anything

This can be made more explicit. Alternate translation: “cannot destroy the other cities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1119

GEN

19

22

y7sj

0

Zoar

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Zoar sounds like the Hebrew word that means ‘little.’ Lot called this town ‘little’ in Genesis 19:20.”

1120

GEN

19

23

z84a

figs-explicit

0

The sun had risen upon the earth

“The sun had risen over the earth.” The phrase “upon the earth” can be left implicit as it is in the UST where it is not translated. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1121

GEN

19

23

zhv3

figs-explicit

0

when Lot reached Zoar

It is implied that Lot’s family is with him. Alternate translation: “when Lot and his family arrived at Zoar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1122

GEN

19

24

f7cp

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from Yahweh out of the sky

The phrase “from Yahweh” stands for God’s power to cause the sulfur and fire to fall on the city. Alternate translation: “Yahweh caused sulfur and fire to fall from the sky onto Sodom and Gomorrah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1123

GEN

19

24

c8se

figs-hendiadys

0

sulfur and fire

These two words are used together to describe one object. Alternate translation: “burning sulfur” or “fiery rain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

1124

GEN

19

25

ubh2

0

those cities

This refers primarily to Sodom and Gomorrah, but also to three other towns.

1125

GEN

19

25

kx2i

0

the inhabitants of the cities

“the people who lived in the cities”

1126

GEN

19

26

pf2p

0

she became a pillar of salt

“she became like a statue of salt” or “her body became like a tall stone of salt.” Because she disobeyed the angel who told them not to look back at the city, God caused her to become something like a statue made out of rock salt.

1127

GEN

19

28

zp8y

0

behold

The word “behold” draws attention to the surprising information that follows.

1128

GEN

19

28

p62z

figs-simile

0

like the smoke of a furnace

This shows that it was a very large amount of smoke. Alternate translation: “like the smoke from a very large fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1129

GEN

19

29

vag9

0

General Information:

Verse 29 is a summary of this chapter.

1130

GEN

19

29

tj4d

figs-idiom

0

God called Abraham to mind

This tells why God rescued Lot. To “call to mind” is a way of saying “remember.” This does not imply that God forgot about Abraham. It means he considered Abraham and had mercy on him. Alternate translation: “God thought about Abraham and had mercy on him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1131

GEN

19

29

h1uq

0

out of the midst of the destruction

“away from the destruction” or “away from danger”

1132

GEN

19

30

p16k

0

Lot went up from Zoar to live in the mountains

The phrase “went up from” is used because Lot went to a higher elevation in the mountains.

1133

GEN

19

31

me8w

figs-nominaladj

0

The firstborn…the younger

Here “firstborn” and “younger” are nominal adjectives that refer to Lot’s two daughters according to their birth order. Alternate translation: “Lot’s first daughter…Lot’s last daughter” or “The older daughter…the younger daughter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1134

GEN

19

31

xk1x

figs-euphemism

0

to lie with us

These words are a euphemism for sexual relations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1135

GEN

19

31

fm8h

figs-metonymy

0

according to the way of all the world

Here “the world” stands for the people. Alternate translation: “as people everywhere do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1136

GEN

19

32

tlh6

figs-explicit

0

drink wine

It can be made explicit that their goal was to get him drunk. Alternate translation: “drink wine until he gets drunk” or “get drunk with wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1137

GEN

19

32

cr2n

figs-euphemism

0

we will lie with him

To “lie with” someone is a euphemism for having sexual relations with that person. Alternate translation: “we will have sexual relations with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1138

GEN

19

32

j57q

figs-metaphor

0

so that we may extend our father’s line

This speaks about giving Lot descendants as if his family were a line that they are making longer. Alternate translation: “so that we can bear children who will be our father’s descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1139

GEN

19

33

ufz5

figs-euphemism

0

lay with her father

This is probably a euphemism for sexual activity. Alternate translation:”had sexual relations with her father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1140

GEN

19

33

r7ai

figs-euphemism

0

when she lay down

Possible meanings are (1) these words are literal, a complement to “when she got up,” or (2) they are a euphemism for sexual relations. Alternate translation: “when she had sexual relations with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1141

GEN

19

34

pyk6

0

Let us make him drink wine…father’s line

See how you translated these phrases in Genesis 19:32.

1142

GEN

19

34

mb9p

figs-explicit

0

drink wine

It can be made explicit that their goal was to get him drunk. Alternate translation: “drink wine until he gets drunk” or “get drunk with wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1143

GEN

19

34

qf2v

figs-metaphor

0

so that we may extend our father’s line

This speaks about giving Lot descendants as if his family were a line that they are making longer. Alternate translation: “so that we can bear children who will be our father’s descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1144

GEN

19

35

hm3h

0

So they made…or when she got up

See how you translated similar phrases in Genesis 19:33.

1145

GEN

19

35

l4nj

figs-euphemism

0

lay with him

This is probably a euphemism for sexual activity. Alternate translation:”had sexual relations with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1146

GEN

19

35

x62y

figs-euphemism

0

when she lay down

Possible meanings are (1) these words are literal, a complement to “when she got up,” or (2) they are a euphemism for sexual relations. See how these words are translated in Genesis 19:33. Alternate translation: “when she had sexual relations with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1147

GEN

19

36

bq86

0

were pregnant by their father

“became pregnant by their father” or “conceived children with their father”

1148

GEN

19

37

ur5a

0

He became

“He is”

1149

GEN

19

37

u4u4

0

the Moabites of today

“the Moab people who are now living”

1150

GEN

19

37

lre9

0

of today

The word “today” refers to the time when the author of Genesis was living. The author was born and wrote this many years after Lot’s family lived and died.

1151

GEN

19

38

tbc3

translate-names

0

Ben-Ammi

This is a male name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1152

GEN

19

38

kpi7

0

the people of Ammon

“the descendants of Ammon” or “the Ammon people”

1153

GEN

20

intro

m5j1

0

Genesis 20 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

“She is my sister”

Abraham was afraid the people of Gerar would see him as a foreigner and upon seeing his beautiful wife, they would try to kill him. This would free Sarah to marry someone else. Apparently, it would have been easy for them to kill a foreigner without punishment. If she was Abraham’s sister, they would have shown favor to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/favor]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Irony

Abraham believed that the people of Gerar did not fear Yahweh, but when confronted by Yahweh, the king showed that he feared Yahweh. Instead, it was Abraham who did not show any fear of Yahweh when he sinned. This is irony. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fear]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

1154

GEN

20

1

pym2

translate-names

0

Shur

This is a desert region on the eastern border of Egypt. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1155

GEN

20

2

zga1

0

sent for Sarah and took her

“made his men go get Sarah and bring her to him”

1156

GEN

20

3

v444

0

God came to Abimelech

“God appeared to Abimelech”

1157

GEN

20

3

tme7

0

Behold

“pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: “

1158

GEN

20

3

x7kr

figs-idiom

0

you are a dead man

This is a strong way of saying the king will die. Alternate translation: “you will certainly die soon” or “I will kill you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1159

GEN

20

3

l852

0

a man’s wife

“a married woman”

1160

GEN

20

4

cxb7

writing-background

0

Now…her

This word is used here to mark a change from the story to information about Abimelech. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1161

GEN

20

4

nbq2

figs-euphemism

0

Abimelech had not come near her

This is a polite way of saying he did not have sex with her. Alternate translation: “Abimelech had not slept with Sarah” or “Abimelech had not touched Sarah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1162

GEN

20

4

gxv9

figs-metonymy

0

even a righteous nation

Here “nation” stands for the people. Abimelech is worried that God will punish not only him, but his people also. Alternate translation: “even a people who are innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1163

GEN

20

5

a3jr

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Did he not himself say to me, ‘She is my sister?’ Even she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’

This has quotations within a quotation. They can be stated as indirect quotations. Alternate translation: “Did he himself not tell me that she is his sister? Even she herself told me that he is her brother.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1164

GEN

20

5

c4vt

figs-rquestion

0

Did he not himself say to me, ‘She is my sister?’

Abimelech used this rhetorical question to remind God of something God already knew. This can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “Abraham himself told me, ‘She is my sister.’” or “Abraham said that she is his sister.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1165

GEN

20

5

lx3l

figs-rpronouns

0

Did he not himself say…Even she herself

The words “he himself” and “she herself” are used for emphasis to bring attention to Abraham and Sarah and to blame them for what happened. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

1166

GEN

20

5

ey19

figs-metonymy

0

I have done this in the integrity of my heart and the innocence of my hands

Here “heart” stands for his thoughts or intentions. Also “hands” stands for his actions. Alternate translation: “I have done this with good intentions and actions” or “I have done this with no evil thoughts or actions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1167

GEN

20

6

b1a5

0

God said to him

“God said to Abimelech”

1168

GEN

20

6

r797

figs-metonymy

0

in the integrity of your heart you did this

Here “heart” stands for his thoughts or intentions. Alternate translation: “you did this with good intentions” or “you did this without evil intentions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1169

GEN

20

6

fkd2

figs-euphemism

0

to touch her

This is a euphemism for having sex with Sarah. Alternate translation: “to sleep with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1170

GEN

20

7

x37f

0

the man’s wife

“Abraham’s wife”

1171

GEN

20

7

e8qh

0

you will live

“I will let you live”

1172

GEN

20

7

nj49

0

all who are yours

“all of your people”

1173

GEN

20

8

egv2

0

He told all these things to them

“He told them everything that God had told him”

1174

GEN

20

9

vne4

figs-rquestion

0

What have you done to us?

Abimelech used this rhetorical question to accuse Abraham. Alternate translation: “You have done something bad to us!” or “Look what you have done to us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1175

GEN

20

9

s7b5

figs-exclusive

0

to us

The word “us” here is exclusive and does not include Abraham and Sarah. If your language uses an exclusive form of “we” or “us,” use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1176

GEN

20

9

za1f

figs-rquestion

0

How have I sinned against you, that you have brought…sin?

Abimelech used this rhetorical question to remind Abraham that he had not sinned against Abraham. Alternate translation: “I have done nothing against you to cause you to bring…sin.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1177

GEN

20

9

jp85

figs-metaphor

0

that you have brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin

To cause someone to be guilty of sinning is spoken of as if “sin” was a thing that could be placed on a person. Alternate translation: “that you should make me and my kingdom guilty of such a terrible sin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1178

GEN

20

9

e4jh

figs-metonymy

0

on my kingdom

Here “kingdom” stands for the people. Alternate translation: “on the people of my kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1179

GEN

20

9

x8wm

0

You have done to me that which ought not to be done

“You should not have done this to me”

1180

GEN

20

10

qyr8

figs-explicit

0

What prompted you to do this thing?

“What caused you to do this?” or “Why did you do this?” What Abraham did can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “Why did you tell me that Sarah is your sister?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1181

GEN

20

11

gvr3

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Because I thought, ‘Surely there is no fear of God in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.’

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “Because I thought that since no one here fears God, someone may kill me so they can take my wife.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1182

GEN

20

11

nei7

figs-metonymy

0

no fear of God in this place

Here “place” refers to the people. Alternate translation: “no one here in Gerar fears God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1183

GEN

20

11

y87a

0

fear of God

This means to deeply respect God and show that respect by obeying him.

1184

GEN

20

12

p538

0

Besides, she is indeed my sister

“Also, it is true that Sarah is my sister” or “Also, Sarah really is my sister”

1185

GEN

20

12

ml6b

0

the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother

“we have the same father, but we have different mothers”

1186

GEN

20

13

ktu6

0

General Information:

Verse 13 is a continuation of Abraham’s answer to Abimelech.

1187

GEN

20

13

e2ep

figs-metonymy

0

my father’s house

Here “house” stands for Abraham’s family. Alternate translation: “my father and the rest of my family” or “my father’s household” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1188

GEN

20

13

jl8s

figs-quotesinquotes

0

I said to her, ‘You must show me this faithfulness as my wife: At every place where we go, say about me, “He is my brother.”’

This has quotations within quotations. They can be stated as indirect quotations. Alternate translation: “I said to Sarah that I wanted her to be faithful to me by telling people everywhere we go that I am her brother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1189

GEN

20

14

sh8w

0

Abimelech took

“Abimelech brought some”

1190

GEN

20

15

d1fq

0

Abimelech said

“Abimelech said to Abraham”

1191

GEN

20

15

f45t

0

Look

“Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important”

1192

GEN

20

15

pv15

figs-idiom

0

my land is before you

This is a way of saying “I make all of my land available to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1193

GEN

20

15

ch6w

0

Settle wherever it pleases you

“Live wherever you want”

1194

GEN

20

16

u7bg

translate-numbers

0

a thousand

“1,000” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1195

GEN

20

16

tv82

figs-metaphor

0

It is to cover any offense against you in the eyes of all who are with you

Giving money to prove to others that Sarah is innocent is spoken of as if he is placing a cover over an offense so no one can see it. Alternate translation: “I am giving this to him, so that those who are with you will know that you have done nothing wrong” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1196

GEN

20

16

gpn5

figs-metaphor

0

in the eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “in the opinion” or “in the judgement” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1197

GEN

20

16

id4c

figs-activepassive

0

before everyone, you are completely made right

The passive phrase “made right” can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “everyone will know that you are innocent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1198

GEN

20

18

wr3n

0

completely infertile

“totally unable to have children”

1199

GEN

20

18

z9nv

figs-explicit

0

because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife

The full meaning can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “because Abimelech had taken Abraham’s wife Sarah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1200

GEN

21

intro

cru4

0

Genesis 21 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Sarah’s anger

After Sarah was able to have her own child, and he survived infancy, she began to get angry with Abraham’s other son, Ishmael. He would have been a constant reminder of her own sin. God blessed Ishmael, but he was not able to inherit the promises given to Abraham. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]])

Abandoning Ishmael

According to the law at this time, Hagar was able to gain her freedom from slavery by abandoning any claim to receive an inheritance. This is why Hagar would have abandoned her son under the tree. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Treaty

The Gentile king, Abimelech, made a covenant or treaty with Abraham. It is possible that he did this because he recognized the power of Abraham’s God, but his exact reasons are unknown. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

1201

GEN

21

1

f988

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh paid attention to Sarah

Here the phrase “paid attention to” refers to Yahweh helping Sarah have a baby. Alternate translation: “Yahweh helped Sarah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1202

GEN

21

2

waa9

0

bore a son to Abraham

“gave birth to Abraham’s son”

1203

GEN

21

2

xm5n

0

in his old age

“when Abraham was very old”

1204

GEN

21

2

ud3d

0

at the set time of which God had spoken to him

“at the exact time that God had told him it would happen”

1205

GEN

21

3

gbc9

0

Abraham named his son, the one who had been born to him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac

“Abraham named his newborn son, the one Sarah gave birth to, Isaac” or “Abraham named their newborn son Isaac”

1206

GEN

21

4

wzz8

0

Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old

“When his son Isaac was eight days old, Abraham circumcised him”

1207

GEN

21

4

g3m9

translate-numbers

0

eight days

“8 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1208

GEN

21

4

pp61

0

had commanded him

“had commanded Abraham to do”

1209

GEN

21

5

j1u3

translate-numbers

0

one hundred

“100” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1210

GEN

21

6

nu7q

figs-explicit

0

God has made me laugh

Sarah was laughing because she was surprised and happy. This can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “God has caused me to laugh joyfully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1211

GEN

21

6

ns7b

figs-explicit

0

every one who hears

What people would hear can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “everyone who hears about what God has done for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1212

GEN

21

7

t9ue

figs-rquestion

0

Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children

This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “No one would have ever said to Abraham that Sarah will nurse children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1213

GEN

21

7

hs12

figs-euphemism

0

nurse children

This is a polite way of referring to breast-feeding babies. Alternate translation: “feed a baby her own milk” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1214

GEN

21

8

dp3y

figs-euphemism

0

The child grew and…Isaac was weaned

“Wean” here is a polite way of saying the child was finished with breast feeding. Alternate translation: “Isaac grew, and when he no longer needed his mother’s milk, Abraham had a large feast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1215

GEN

21

9

mm9v

figs-explicit

0

the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham

The name of Hagar’s son can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “Ishmael, the son of Hagar the Egyptian and Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1216

GEN

21

9

d73k

figs-explicit

0

mocking

It can be stated explicitly that he was jeering or laughing at Isaac. Alternate translation: “laughing at Isaac” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1217

GEN

21

10

t7tn

0

she said to Abraham

“Sarah said to Abraham”

1218

GEN

21

10

y4le

0

Drive out

“send away” or “get rid of”

1219

GEN

21

10

n7ry

0

this slave woman and her son

This refers to Hagar and Ishmael. Sarah probably did not refer to them by name because she was angry with them.

1220

GEN

21

10

jrm9

0

with my son, with Isaac

“with my son Isaac”

1221

GEN

21

11

b5qj

0

This thing was very grievous to Abraham

“Abraham was very unhappy about what Sarah said”

1222

GEN

21

11

bb4j

figs-explicit

0

because of his son

“because it was about his son.” It is implied that this means his son, Ishmael. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1223

GEN

21

12

r6u6

0

Do not be grieved because of the lad, and because of your servant woman

“Do not be upset about the boy and your handmaid”

1224

GEN

21

12

t2a7

0

Listen to her words in all she says to you about this matter

“Do everything that Sarah says to you about them”

1225

GEN

21

12

wzl5

figs-activepassive

0

it is through Isaac that your descendants will be named

The phrase “will be named” means those born through Isaac are the ones God considers to be the descendants that he promised Abraham. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Isaac is the one who will be the forefather of the descendants I promised to give you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1226

GEN

21

13

k7jw

figs-metonymy

0

I will also make the son of the servant woman into a nation

The word “nation” means God will give him many descendants so that they become a great nation of people. Alternate translation: “I will make the servant woman’s son also become the father of a great nation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1227

GEN

21

14

u9q1

figs-synecdoche

0

took bread

Possible meanings are (1) this refers to food in general or (2) this refers to bread specifically. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1228

GEN

21

14

hbx9

0

a skin of water

“a bag of water.” The water container was made out of animal skin.

1229

GEN

21

15

ad5u

0

When the water in the waterskin was gone

“When the water bag was empty” or “When they had drank all of the water”

1230

GEN

21

16

z7c3

0

about the distance of a bowshot away

This refers to the distance that a person could shoot an arrow with a bow. This is about 100 meters.

1231

GEN

21

16

kuh9

figs-abstractnouns

0

Let me not look upon the death of the child

The abstract noun “death” can be stated as “die.” Alternate translation: “I do not want to watch the boy die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1232

GEN

21

16

i8r8

figs-metonymy

0

she lifted up her voice and wept

Here “voice” stands for the sound of her crying. To “life up her voice” means to cry loudly. Alternate translation: “she cried out loudly and wept” or “she wept loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1233

GEN

21

17

y2cd

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of the lad

“the boy’s voice.” Here “voice” stands for the sound of the boy crying or speaking. Alternate translation: “the sound of Ishmael” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1234

GEN

21

17

swz4

0

the angel of God

“a messenger from God” or “God’s messenger”

1235

GEN

21

17

nh6r

0

out of heaven

Here “heaven” means the place where God lives.

1236

GEN

21

17

usq5

0

What troubles you

“What is wrong” or “Why are you crying”

1237

GEN

21

17

bx2t

figs-metonymy

0

the voice of the lad where he is

Here “voice” stands for the sound of the boy crying or speaking. Alternate translation: “the sound of the boy lying over there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1238

GEN

21

18

n4hf

0

raise up the lad

“help the boy stand up”

1239

GEN

21

18

ifp4

figs-metonymy

0

I will make him into a great nation

To make Ishmael into a great nation means God will give him many descendants who will become a great nation. Alternate translation: “I will make his descendants become a great nation” or “I will make him become the ancestor of a great nation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1240

GEN

21

19

kqh4

figs-metaphor

0

God opened her eyes, and she saw

God making Hagar aware of the well is spoken of as if he literally opened her eyes. Alternate translation: “God caused Hagar to see” or “God showed her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1241

GEN

21

19

l527

0

the skin

“the container made of skin” or “the bag”

1242

GEN

21

19

q3fh

0

the lad

“the boy” or “Ishmael”

1243

GEN

21

20

i9tw

figs-idiom

0

God was with the lad

Here the phrase “was with” is an idiom that means God helped or blessed the boy. Alternate translation: “God guided the boy” or “God blessed the boy” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1244

GEN

21

20

dwr6

0

became an archer

“became very skilled at using a bow and arrows”

1245

GEN

21

21

nwf2

0

got a wife

“found a wife”

1246

GEN

21

22

d7es

writing-newevent

0

It came about at that time

This phrase marks the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1247

GEN

21

22

sx3y

translate-names

0

Phicol

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1248

GEN

21

22

fg4b

0

captain of his army

“commander of his army”

1249

GEN

21

22

j5ga

0

his army

The word “his” refers to Abimelech.

1250

GEN

21

22

ed3j

figs-idiom

0

God is with you in all that you do

Here the phrase “is with you” is an idiom that means God helps or blesses Abraham. Alternate translation: “God blesses everything you do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1251

GEN

21

23

s6v8

figs-explicit

0

Now therefore

The word “Now” does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows. Alternate translation: “Therefore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1252

GEN

21

23

le59

figs-idiom

0

swear to me here by God

This is an idiom meaning to make a solemn oath witnessed by a higher authority, in this instance, God. Alternate translation: “promise me with God as your witness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1253

GEN

21

23

du1c

0

that you will not deal falsely with me

“that you will not lie to me”

1254

GEN

21

23

z3n7

figs-doublenegatives

0

will not deal falsely…with my descendants

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “will deal honestly with me and my descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1255

GEN

21

23

s3ki

figs-abstractnouns

0

Show to me…covenant faithfulness that I have shown to you

The two men had made a covenant with each other. The abstract noun “faithfulness” can be stated as “faithful” or “loyal.” Alternate translation: “Be as faithful to me and to the land as I have been to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1256

GEN

21

23

cj4i

figs-metonymy

0

to the land

Here “land” stands for the people. Alternate translation: “to the people of the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1257

GEN

21

24

s11p

figs-ellipsis

0

I swear

This can be stated with the understood information. Alternate translation: “I swear to be as faithful to you and your people as you have been to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1258

GEN

21

25

v44s

0

Abraham also complained to Abimelech

Possible meanings are (1) Abraham was complaining about what happened or (2) “Abraham also rebuked Abimelech”

1259

GEN

21

25

ph9l

0

concerning a well of water that Abimelech’s servants had seized from him

“because Abimelech’s servants had taken one of Abraham’s wells”

1260

GEN

21

25

t12g

0

seized from him

“taken from Abraham” or “had taken control of”

1261

GEN

21

26

i3se

0

I have not heard of it until today

“This is the first time I have heard about it”

1262

GEN

21

27

ruw8

translate-symaction

0

Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech

This is a sign of friendship and that Abraham agrees to make covenant with Abimelech. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1263

GEN

21

28

jy7m

0

Abraham set seven female lambs of the flock by themselves

“Abraham separated seven female lambs from the flock”

1264

GEN

21

29

tqa1

0

What is the meaning of these seven female lambs that you have set by themselves?

“Why have you separated these seven lambs from the flock?”

1265

GEN

21

30

t7mt

0

you will receive

“you will take”

1266

GEN

21

30

mf9f

figs-synecdoche

0

from my hand

Here “hand” stands for Abraham. Alternate translation: “from me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1267

GEN

21

30

z8ku

0

it may be a witness

The word “it” refers to the gift of seven lambs.

1268

GEN

21

30

k965

figs-abstractnouns

0

so that it may be a witness for me

The abstract noun “witness” can be stated as “to prove.” Alternate translation: “to prove to everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1269

GEN

21

31

fs2d

0

he called that place

“Abraham called that place”

1270

GEN

21

31

nln8

0

Beersheba

Translators may add a footnote saying “Beersheba can mean either “well of the oath” or “well of seven.”

1271

GEN

21

31

uup5

0

they both

“Abraham and Abimelech”

1272

GEN

21

32

nu8h

0

Phicol

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 21:22.

1273

GEN

21

33

nb3h

translate-unknown

0

a tamarisk tree

This is an evergreen tree that can grow in the desert. It can be stated more generally. Alternate translation: “a tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1274

GEN

21

33

hss3

0

the eternal God

“the God who lives forever”

1275

GEN

21

34

q54a

0

many days

“for a long time”

1276

GEN

22

intro

eq6l

0

Genesis 22 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Sacrificing his son

Although Isaac was not Abraham’s only son, he was the son who was to inherit Abraham’s promised blessings. It is possible this parallels God’s actual sacrifice of his son, Jesus, for the sins of man. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Covenant affirmation

After important events, it is common for Scripture to affirm the tenants of a covenant. This serves as a reminder of the covenant and affirms it. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

God tests Abraham

Extra care should be taken when translating “testing.” It is best to avoid using the same word used for “tempting” even though they overlap in meaning. This is because Scripture also says God does not tempt anyone. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/test]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/tempt]] and James 2:13)

1277

GEN

22

1

v5l5

writing-newevent

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1278

GEN

22

1

l21s

0

after these things

This phrase refers to the events in chapter 21.

1279

GEN

22

1

n2k1

figs-explicit

0

God tested Abraham

It is implied that God tests Abraham to learn if Abraham will be faithful to him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: God tested Abraham’s faithfulness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1280

GEN

22

1

wmg9

0

Here I am

“Yes, I am listening” or “Yes, what is it?”

1281

GEN

22

2

riw5

figs-explicit

0

your only son

It is implied that God knows that Abraham has another son, Ishmael. This emphasizes that Isaac is the son that God promised to give Abraham. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “your only son whom I have promised” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1282

GEN

22

2

wi8g

0

whom you love

This emphasizes Abraham’s love for his son, Isaac.

1283

GEN

22

2

f7eh

translate-names

0

the land of Moriah

“the land called Moriah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1284

GEN

22

3

t9yx

0

saddled his donkey

“loaded his donkey” or “put on his donkey what he needed for the journey”

1285

GEN

22

3

yed4

0

young men

“servants”

1286

GEN

22

3

u1yy

0

set out on his journey

“started his journey” or “started traveling”

1287

GEN

22

4

rp2j

translate-ordinal

0

On the third day

The word “third” is the ordinal number for three. Alternate translation: “After traveling for three days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1288

GEN

22

4

wqd9

0

saw the place afar off

“saw far away the place that God had spoken of”

1289

GEN

22

5

n287

0

young men

“servants”

1290

GEN

22

5

fay2

figs-exclusive

0

We will worship

The word “we” refers only to Abraham and Isaac, but not to the young men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1291

GEN

22

5

h4ur

0

come again to you

“return to you”

1292

GEN

22

6

hdf8

0

put it on Isaac his son

“had Isaac, his son, carry it”

1293

GEN

22

6

kw2g

figs-synecdoche

0

He took in his own hand

Here “his own hand” emphasizes that Abraham himself carried these things. Alternate translation: “Abraham himself carried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1294

GEN

22

6

lj2s

figs-synecdoche

0

the fire

Here “fire” stands for a pan containing burning coals or a torch or lamp. Alternate translation: “something for starting a fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1295

GEN

22

6

v6yy

0

they went both of them together

“they left together” or “the two of them went together”

1296

GEN

22

7

h248

0

My father

This is a loving way for a son to speak to his father.

1297

GEN

22

7

j9ph

0

Here I am

“Yes, I am listening” or “Yes, what is it?” See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

1298

GEN

22

7

vf73

0

my son

This is a loving way for a father to speak to his son.

1299

GEN

22

7

m2y2

figs-synecdoche

0

the fire

Here “fire” stands for a pan containing burning coals or a torch or lamp. See how you translated this in Genesis 22:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1300

GEN

22

7

eb9g

0

the lamb for the burnt offering

“the lamb that you will give as a burnt offering”

1301

GEN

22

8

w7zp

figs-rpronouns

0

God himself

Here “himself” emphasizes that it is God who will provide the lamb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

1302

GEN

22

8

p2wc

0

will provide

“will give us”

1303

GEN

22

9

yn6m

0

When they came to the place

“When Abraham and Isaac arrived at the place”

1304

GEN

22

9

x21f

0

he bound

“he tied up”

1305

GEN

22

9

g9i8

0

on the altar, on top of the wood

“on top of the wood that was on the altar”

1306

GEN

22

10

a5eg

0

reached out with his hand and took up the knife

“picked up the knife”

1307

GEN

22

11

d82r

0

the angel of Yahweh

Possible meanings are (1) Yahweh made himself look like an angel or (2) this was one of Yahweh’s angels or (3) this was a special messenger from God (some scholars think it was Jesus). Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as “the angel of Yahweh” using the normal word that you use for “angel.” See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

1308

GEN

22

11

yu4c

0

from heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

1309

GEN

22

11

w9zz

0

Here I am

“Yes, I am listening” or “Yes, what is it?” See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

1310

GEN

22

12

m8d6

figs-idiom

0

Do not lay your hand upon the lad, nor do anything to harm him

The phrase “Do no lay your hand upon” is a way of saying “do not harm.” God said basically the same thing twice to emphasize that Abraham should not hurt Isaac. Alternate translation: “Do not hurt the boy in any way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1311

GEN

22

12

n4c5

0

now I know…from me

The words “I” and “me” refer to Yahweh. When translating what is in the quote, do it as the angel of Yahweh did and use the words “I” and “me” when referring to Yahweh.

1312

GEN

22

12

n8sb

0

you fear God

This refers to deeply respecting God and showing that respect by obeying him.

1313

GEN

22

12

rcz2

0

seeing that

“because I see that”

1314

GEN

22

12

nh8u

figs-doublenegatives

0

you have not withheld your son…from me

“you have not held back your son…from me.” This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “you were willing to offer your son…to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1315

GEN

22

12

yqd1

figs-explicit

0

your son, your only son

It is implied that God knows that Abraham has another son, Ishmael. This emphasizes that Isaac is the son that God promised to give Abraham. See how you translated a similar phrase in Genesis 22:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1316

GEN

22

13

n7b6

0

behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

1317

GEN

22

13

qy8n

figs-activepassive

0

was a ram caught in the bushes by his horns

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “was a ram whose horns were stuck in the bushes” or “was a ram stuck in the bushes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1318

GEN

22

13

i7l2

0

went and took the ram

“Abraham went over to the ram and took it”

1319

GEN

22

14

fk9q

0

will provide…will be provided

Use the same word for “provide” as you used in Genesis 22:8.

1320

GEN

22

14

cbx8

0

to this day

“even now.” This means even to the time that the author was writing this book.

1321

GEN

22

14

qmx7

figs-activepassive

0

it will be provided

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “he will provide” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1322

GEN

22

15

qcn7

0

The angel of Yahweh

Possible meanings are (1) Yahweh made himself look like an angel or (2) this was one of Yahweh’s angels or (3) this was a special messenger from God (some scholars think it was Jesus). Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as “The angel of Yahweh” using the normal word that you use for “angel.” See the note about this phrase in Genesis 16:7.

1323

GEN

22

15

aa8z

translate-ordinal

0

a second time

The word “second” is the ordinal number for two. Alternate translation: “again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

1324

GEN

22

15

e8jz

0

from heaven

Here the word “heaven” refers to the place where God lives.

1325

GEN

22

16

t7gg

0

said—this is Yahweh’s declaration

“spoke this message from Yahweh” or “declared these words of Yahweh.” This is a formal way of saying that the words that follow come directly from Yahweh.

1326

GEN

22

16

p814

0

by myself I have sworn

“I have promised and I am my witness.” To swear means to use the name of something or someone as the basis or power on which the oath is made. There is nothing more powerful for Yahweh to swear by than himself.

1327

GEN

22

16

une6

0

you have done this thing

“you obeyed me”

1328

GEN

22

16

jc1a

figs-doublenegatives

0

have not withheld your son

“have not kept back your son.” This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “were willing to offer your son to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

1329

GEN

22

16

pyp7

figs-explicit

0

your son, your only son

It is implied that God knows that Abraham has another son, Ishmael. This emphasizes that Isaac is the son that God promised to give Abraham. See how you translated a similar phrase in Genesis 22:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1330

GEN

22

17

rb7e

0

surely bless

“certainly bless”

1331

GEN

22

17

ejb4

0

I will greatly multiply your descendants

“I will cause your descendants to increase again and again” or “I will cause your descendants to be very many”

1332

GEN

22

17

aih1

figs-simile

0

as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the seashore

God compared Abraham’s descendants to the stars and the sand. Just as people cannot count the huge number of stars or the grains of sand, so there would be so many of Abraham’s descendants that people would not be able to count them. Alternate translation: “beyond what you can count” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1333

GEN

22

17

v86r

0

as the stars of the heavens

Here the word “heavens” refers to everything we see above the earth, including the sun, moon, and stars.

1334

GEN

22

17

q7zd

figs-synecdoche

0

will possess the gate of their enemies

Here “gate” represents the whole city. To “possess the gate of their enemies” means destroying their enemies. Alternate translation: “will completely triumph over their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1335

GEN

22

18

tq9d

0

General Information:

The angel of Yahweh continues speaking to Abraham.

1336

GEN

22

18

u7dd

figs-activepassive

0

all the nations of the earth will be blessed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I, the Lord, will bless all the people living everywhere” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1337

GEN

22

18

bl9q

figs-metonymy

0

nations of the earth

Here “nations” stands for the people of the nations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1338

GEN

22

18

i6qx

figs-metonymy

0

you have obeyed my voice

Here “voice” stands for what God said. Alternate translation: “you have obeyed what I said” or “you have obeyed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1339

GEN

22

19

eb78

figs-explicit

0

Abraham returned

Only Abraham was named because he was the father, but it was implied that his son went with him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Abraham and his son went back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1340

GEN

22

19

vx4h

0

young men

“servants”

1341

GEN

22

19

e1ck

0

they departed

“they left that place”

1342

GEN

22

19

v5yw

figs-explicit

0

he lived at Beersheba

Only Abraham was mentioned because he was the leader of his family and servants, but it was implied that they were with him. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “Abraham and his people stayed in Beersheba” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1343

GEN

22

20

hai9

writing-newevent

0

It came about after these things

“After these events.” The phrase “these things” refers to the events of Genesis 22:1-19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

1344

GEN

22

20

u5ru

figs-activepassive

0

Abraham was told

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “someone told Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1345

GEN

22

20

a222

0

Milkah has borne children, as well

“Milkah has also borne children”

1346

GEN

22

20

i8qv

translate-names

0

Milkah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1347

GEN

22

21

hd5y

0

They were Uz his firstborn, Buz his brother

“The name of his firstborn was Uz, and the names of the rest of his children were Buz his brother”

1348

GEN

22

21

xm6k

translate-names

0

Uz…Buz…Kemuel…Aram

These are all names of men. Translate this so that it is clear that all of these except Aram are the sons of Nahor and Milkah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1349

GEN

22

22

qg5a

translate-names

0

Kesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel

These are all names of men. Translate this so that it is clear that all of these are the sons of Nahor and Milkah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1350

GEN

22

23

h2fe

0

Bethuel became the father of Rebekah

“Later Bethel became the father of Rebekah”

1351

GEN

22

23

xue2

0

These were the eight children that Milkah bore to Nahor, Abraham’s brother

“These were the eight children of Milkah and Nahor, Abraham’s brother.” This refers to the children that were listed in Genesis 22:21-22.

1352

GEN

22

24

v3k2

0

His concubine

“Nahor’s concubine”

1353

GEN

22

24

td3e

translate-names

0

Reumah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1354

GEN

22

24

uvx4

0

also bore

“also gave birth to”

1355

GEN

22

24

km7f

translate-names

0

Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah

These are all names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1356

GEN

23

intro

m5kz

0

Genesis 23 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Abraham’s character

Abraham’s interaction with the people show that he was greatly respected. This would have been unusual for a foreigner and indicates that Abraham was a man of great character. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

Burial

Burial was a common practice when Abraham lived, but only the wealthy were able to bury their dead relatives in this way.

1357

GEN

23

1

by7k

translate-numbers

0

Sarah lived a hundred and twenty-seven years

“Sarah lived 127 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1358

GEN

23

1

dq7c

figs-doublet

0

These were the years of the life of Sarah

Some translations do not include this sentence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1359

GEN

23

2

bm76

translate-names

0

Kiriath Arba

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1360

GEN

23

2

dik9

0

Abraham mourned and wept for Sarah

“Abraham was very sad and cried because Sarah died”

1361

GEN

23

3

r87x

0

rose up and went from his dead wife

“got up and left his wife’s body”

1362

GEN

23

3

n5za

translate-names

0

the sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Heth” or “the Hittites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1363

GEN

23

4

tg1d

0

among you

This idea may be expressed in terms of location. “in your country” or “here”

1364

GEN

23

4

llx2

0

Please grant me a property

“Sell me some land” or “Allow me to buy a piece of land”

1365

GEN

23

4

ehx7

figs-nominaladj

0

my dead

The nominal adjective “dead” can be stated as an adjective or a verb. Alternate translation: “my dead wife” or “my wife who has died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1366

GEN

23

5

w3ln

translate-names

0

The sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. Alternate translation: “The descendants of Heth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1367

GEN

23

6

s243

0

my master

This phrase is used to show respect to Abraham.

1368

GEN

23

6

z2xn

figs-idiom

0

a prince of God

This is an idiom. This probably means “a powerful man” or “a mighty leader.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1369

GEN

23

6

l6my

figs-nominaladj

0

your dead

The nominal adjective “dead” can be stated as a verb or simply as “wife.” Alternate translation: “your wife who has died” or “your wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1370

GEN

23

6

rh4j

0

the choicest of our tombs

“the best of our burial places”

1371

GEN

23

6

u2pe

0

refuse you his tomb

“withhold his burial place from you” or “refuse to give to you his tomb”

1372

GEN

23

7

h7w7

writing-symlanguage

0

bowed down

This means to bend over or kneel down very low to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1373

GEN

23

7

yw6s

0

to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth

“to the sons of Heth who lived in the area”

1374

GEN

23

7

qnd5

translate-names

0

the sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Heth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1375

GEN

23

8

z68i

figs-nominaladj

0

my dead

The nominal adjective “dead” can be stated as a verb or simply as “wife.” Alternate translation: “my wife who has died” or “my wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1376

GEN

23

8

c9j3

translate-names

0

Ephron…Zohar

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1377

GEN

23

9

t978

0

the cave of Machpelah, which he owns, which is at the end of his field

“his cave that is at the end of his field in Machpelah”

1378

GEN

23

9

h3f7

translate-names

0

the cave of Machpelah

“the cave in Machpela.” Machpela was the name of an area or region. Ephron owned a field in Machpela and the cave that was in the field. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1379

GEN

23

9

n9as

figs-distinguish

0

which he owns

This tells something about the cave. Ephron owned the cave. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

1380

GEN

23

9

e8mr

figs-distinguish

0

which is at the end of his field

This also tells something about the cave. The cave was at the end of Ephron’s field. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

1381

GEN

23

9

xw6j

0

sell it to me publicly

“sell it to me in front of you all” or “sell it to me in your presence”

1382

GEN

23

9

h1qr

0

as a property

“as a piece of land that I may own and use”

1383

GEN

23

10

idb1

writing-background

0

Now Ephron was sitting among the sons of Heth

Here “Now” is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Ephron. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1384

GEN

23

10

w16a

translate-names

0

Ephron

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1385

GEN

23

10

qat3

translate-names

0

the sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Heth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1386

GEN

23

10

pmj4

figs-abstractnouns

0

in the hearing of the sons of Heth

The abstract noun “the hearing” can be stated as “hear” or “listening.” Alternate translation: “so that all the sons of Heth could hear him” or “while all the sons of Heth were listening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1387

GEN

23

10

yq1p

figs-distinguish

0

all those who had come into the gate of his city

This tells which sons of Heth were listening. Alternate translation: “all those who had gathered at the gate of his city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

1388

GEN

23

10

v5hh

0

gate of his city

The city gate was where the leaders of the city would meet to make important decisions.

1389

GEN

23

10

juf1

0

his city

“the city where he lived.” This phrase shows that Ephron belonged to that city. It does not mean that he owned it.

1390

GEN

23

11

t9j5

0

my master

This phrase is used to show respect to Abraham.

1391

GEN

23

11

zt96

figs-metonymy

0

in the presence of the sons of my people

Here “presence” stands for the people serving as witnesses. Alternate translation: “with my fellow countrymen as my witnesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1392

GEN

23

11

td9w

0

sons of my people

This means “my fellow countrymen” or “my fellow Hittites”

1393

GEN

23

11

zdp4

0

my people

This phrase shows that Ephron was part of that group of people. It does not mean that he was their leader.

1394

GEN

23

11

eq11

0

I give it to you to bury your dead

“I give it to you. Bury your dead”

1395

GEN

23

11

d3q4

figs-nominaladj

0

your dead

The nominal adjective “dead” can be stated as a verb or simply as “wife.” Alternate translation: “your wife who has died” or “your wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1396

GEN

23

12

sv7w

writing-symlanguage

0

bowed himself down

This means to bend over or kneel down very low to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-symlanguage]])

1397

GEN

23

12

g1ce

0

people of the land

“people who lived in that area”

1398

GEN

23

13

s7vm

figs-abstractnouns

0

in the hearing of the people of the land

The abstract noun “the hearing” can be stated as “hear” or “listening” Alternate translation: “so that the people who lived in the area could hear” or “while the people who lived in the area were listening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1399

GEN

23

13

d4k3

0

But if you are willing

The word “but” shows a contrast. Ephron wanted to give the field to Abraham; Abraham wanted to pay for it. Alternate translation: “No, but if you are willing” or “No, but if you agree with this”

1400

GEN

23

13

t89n

0

I will pay for the field

“I will give you money for the field”

1401

GEN

23

13

xai6

figs-nominaladj

0

my dead

The nominal adjective “dead” can be stated as a verb or simply as “wife.” Alternate translation: “my wife who has died” or “my wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1402

GEN

23

14

i9a7

translate-names

0

Ephron

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1403

GEN

23

15

a9gk

0

Please, my master, listen to me

“Hear me, my master” or “Listen to me, kind sir”

1404

GEN

23

15

a6wp

0

my master

This phrase is used to show respect to Abraham.

1405

GEN

23

15

v7ic

figs-rquestion

0

A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and you?

Ephron meant that since he and Abraham were both so wealthy, 400 pieces of silver was a small amount. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “The piece of land is worth only four hundred shekels of silver. For you and me, that is nothing.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1406

GEN

23

15

pl1v

translate-bweight

0

four hundred shekels of silver

This is about 4.5 kilograms of silver. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

1407

GEN

23

15

vh1v

translate-numbers

0

four hundred

“400” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1408

GEN

23

15

v5rr

figs-nominaladj

0

Bury your dead

The nominal adjective “dead” can be stated as a verb or simply as “wife.” Alternate translation: “Go bury your wife who has died” or “Go bury your wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-nominaladj]])

1409

GEN

23

16

bu12

0

Abraham weighed out to Ephron the amount of silver

“Abraham weighed the silver and gave Ephron the amount” or “Abraham counted out to Ephron the amount of silver”

1410

GEN

23

16

af6q

0

the amount of silver that he had spoken

“the amount of silver that Ephron had said”

1411

GEN

23

16

k56n

figs-abstractnouns

0

in the hearing of the sons of Heth

The abstract noun “the hearing” can be stated as “hear” or “listening.” Alternate translation: “so that all the sons of Heth could hear him” or “while all the sons of Heth were listening” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1412

GEN

23

16

n255

translate-names

0

the sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Heth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1413

GEN

23

16

z85u

0

according to the standard measurement of the merchants

“using the standard measurement of weight that merchants used.” This can be stated as a new sentence. Alternate translation: “He weighed the silver the same way that the merchants used to weigh it”

1414

GEN

23

17

tt9e

translate-names

0

Machpelah

Machpela was the name of an area or region. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1415

GEN

23

17

x6jb

translate-names

0

Mamre

This was another name for the city of Hebron. It may have been named after Mamre, the friend of Abraham who lived there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1416

GEN

23

17

ia83

0

that is, the field, the cave that was in it, and all the trees

This phrase explains what the author meant when he wrote “the field of Ephron.” It was not only the field, but also the cave and trees in the field.

1417

GEN

23

17

d6s8

0

passed

“became property that belonged”

1418

GEN

23

18

lsx4

0

to Abraham by purchase

These words complete the idea that begins with the word “passed” in verse 17. “became Abraham’s possession when he purchased it” or “belonged to Abraham after he bought it”

1419

GEN

23

18

cr5r

figs-metonymy

0

in the presence of the sons of Heth

Here “presence” stands for the people serving as witnesses. Alternate translation: “with the people of Heth watching as witnesses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1420

GEN

23

18

n2pe

translate-names

0

the sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Heth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1421

GEN

23

18

g8u6

figs-distinguish

0

all those who had come into the gate of his city

This tells which sons of Heth saw Abraham buy the property. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-distinguish]])

1422

GEN

23

18

ygu6

0

gate of his city

The city gate was where the leaders of the city would meet to make important decisions.

1423

GEN

23

18

e2hk

0

his city

“the city where he lived.” This phrase shows that Ephron belonged to that city. It does not mean that he owned it.

1424

GEN

23

19

ekx3

0

After this

“After he bought the field”

1425

GEN

23

19

fv26

0

the cave of the field

“the cave in the field”

1426

GEN

23

19

b38v

0

the field of Machpelah

“the field in Machpelah”

1427

GEN

23

19

ey3f

0

that is, Hebron

Possible meanings are (1) Mamre was another name for Hebron or (2) Hebron was formerly called Mamre or (3) Mamre was very near the larger city of Hebron, so people usually called it Hebron.

1428

GEN

23

20

cs4e

0

passed to Abraham as a property for a burial place from the sons of Heth

“became Abraham’s property for a burial ground when he bought it from the sons of Heth”

1429

GEN

23

20

fx6q

translate-names

0

the sons of Heth

Here “sons” stands for those who descended from Heth. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:3. Alternate translation: “the descendants of Heth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1430

GEN

24

intro

t2cz

0

Genesis 24 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 24:60.

Special concepts in this chapter

Intermarriage

Abraham would not allow his son to marry anyone from the people of Canaan. This is because it would cause his son to worship other gods. Intermarriage and worshiping false gods are things that frequently caused Abraham’s descendants to struggle. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]])

Abraham’s wealth

There are many instances recorded in this chapter which highlight Abraham’s significant wealth. He owned more than 10 camels and had large amounts of gold.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“Put your hand under my thigh”

Many scholars believe this is a euphemism. Putting one’s hand on a man’s genitals was a way to make an important oath. It represented power and progeny. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1431

GEN

24

1

swv5

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author starts to tell a new part of the story.

1432

GEN

24

2

ebr3

translate-symaction

0

Put your hand under my thigh

Abraham was about to ask the servant to swear to do something. Putting his hand under Abraham’s thigh would show that he would certainly do what he would swear to do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1433

GEN

24

3

f2nf

figs-imperative

0

I will make you swear

This can be expressed as a command. Alternate translation: “swear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1434

GEN

24

3

a7dx

0

swear by Yahweh

The term “swear by” means to use the name of something or someone as the basis or power on which the oath is made. “promise me with Yahweh as your witness”

1435

GEN

24

3

hip1

figs-merism

0

the God of heaven and the God of the earth

“the God of heaven and earth.” The words “heaven” and “earth” are used together to mean every thing that God created. Alternate translation: “the God of everything in heaven and earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

1436

GEN

24

3

ren6

0

heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

1437

GEN

24

3

v2r5

0

from the daughters of the Canaanites

“from the Canaanite women” or “from the Canaanites.” This refers to Canaanite females.

1438

GEN

24

3

i3p4

figs-synecdoche

0

among whom I make my home

“among whom I live.” Here, “I” stands for Abraham and all of his family and servants. Alternate translation: “among whom we live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1439

GEN

24

4

a5wn

figs-imperative

0

But you will go

This can be stated as a command. Alternate translation: “Swear that you will go” or “But go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])

1440

GEN

24

4

s3ne

0

my relatives

“my family”

1441

GEN

24

5

qpu6

0

What if

“What should I do if”

1442

GEN

24

5

wkn5

0

will not be willing to follow me

“will not follow me” or “refuses to come back with me”

1443

GEN

24

5

b9nk

0

Must I take your son back to the land from which you came

“Should I take you son to live in the land from which you came”

1444

GEN

24

6

g1bh

0

Make sure that you do not take my son back there

The phrase “Make sure” emphasizes the command that follows. “Be careful not to take my son back there” or “You definitely must not take my son there”

1445

GEN

24

7

b2tf

figs-metonymy

0

who took me from my father’s house

Here “house” stands for the people in his family. Alternate translation: “who took me from my father and the rest of my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1446

GEN

24

7

rg6g

0

promised me with a solemn oath

“swore an oath to me”

1447

GEN

24

7

ar65

figs-quotesinquotes

0

saying, ‘To your offspring I will give this land,’

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “saying that he would give this land to my offspring” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1448

GEN

24

7

a25j

0

he will send his angel

The words “he” and “his” refer to Yahweh.

1449

GEN

24

8

w9ll

0

General Information:

Verse 8 is a continuation of the instructions Abraham gave his servant.

1450

GEN

24

8

j773

figs-hypo

0

But if the woman is not willing to follow you

“But if the woman refuses to come with you.” Abraham was answering the servant’s question from Genesis 24:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1451

GEN

24

8

q3gy

figs-metaphor

0

you will be free from this oath of mine

“you will be released from the oath you made to me.” Not having to fulfill an oath is spoken of as if the person is free from an object to which he was bound. Alternate translation: “you will not have to do what you swore to me that you would do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1452

GEN

24

9

tty4

translate-symaction

0

put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master

This was to show that he would certainly do what he was swearing to do. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1453

GEN

24

9

lt8g

0

swore to him

“made an oath to him”

1454

GEN

24

9

k6wb

0

concerning this matter

“concerning Abraham’s request” or “that he would do what Abraham said”

1455

GEN

24

10

qz3v

0

departed. He also took

The sentence starting with “He also took” gives additional information about what the servant took with him on the journey. He gathered them before he departed.

1456

GEN

24

10

t2ji

0

He also took with him all kinds of gifts from his master

This means he also took many good things that his master wanted to give to the woman’s family.

1457

GEN

24

10

yq2h

0

departed and went

“set out and went” or “he left and went”

1458

GEN

24

10

nmn4

translate-names

0

the city of Nahor

Possible meanings are (1) the city where Nahor lived” or (2) “the city called Nahor.” If you can translate it without choosing a meaning, do so. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1459

GEN

24

11

x8ge

0

He made the camels kneel down

Camels are tall animals with long legs. He made them bend their legs and lower their bodies to the ground. “He made the camels lie down”

1460

GEN

24

11

c8xs

0

well of water

“water well” or “well”

1461

GEN

24

11

n18k

0

draw water

“get water”

1462

GEN

24

12

tp8i

0

Then he said

“Then the servant said”

1463

GEN

24

12

yyj6

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

grant me success today and show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham

You can state this with the connecting word “by.” This makes clear how the servant wants God to show covenant faithfulness. Alternate translation: “Show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham by granting me success today” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1464

GEN

24

12

i9ac

figs-abstractnouns

0

grant me success

“give me success.” The servant wanted to find a good wife for Abraham’s son. The abstract noun “success” can be stated as a verb. Alternate translation: “help me to succeed” or “make me able to do what I have come here to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1465

GEN

24

12

n4s6

figs-abstractnouns

0

show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham

The abstract noun “faithfulness” can be stated as “faithful.” Alternate translation: “be faithful to the covenant you have with my master Abraham” or “be faithful to my master Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1466

GEN

24

13

b9wq

0

Look, here I am standing

“You can see me standing here”

1467

GEN

24

13

y2ut

0

the spring of water

“the spring” or “the well”

1468

GEN

24

13

v4y7

0

the daughters of the men of the city

“the young women of the city”

1469

GEN

24

14

xg68

0

Let it happen like this

“Let it happen this way” or “Make this happen”

1470

GEN

24

14

uy2f

figs-quotesinquotes

0

When I say to a young woman, ‘Please lower your pitcher so that I may drink,’

This is a quotation within a quotation. This can be expressed with an indirect quote. Alternate translation: “When I ask a young woman to let me have a drink of water from her jar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1471

GEN

24

14

z6kj

0

Please lower your pitcher

The women carried the pitchers on their shoulder. She would have to lower it to give the man a drink.

1472

GEN

24

14

khg5

0

pitcher

a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids

1473

GEN

24

14

je9p

figs-abstractnouns

0

that you have shown covenant faithfulness to my master

The abstract noun “faithfulness” can be stated as “been faithful.” Alternate translation: “that you have been faithful to the covenant you have with my master Abraham” or “you have been faithful to my master Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1474

GEN

24

15

td2g

0

It came about that

This phrase is used here to mark where the action starts. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

1475

GEN

24

15

jq3w

0

behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

1476

GEN

24

15

fm5s

0

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

1477

GEN

24

15

y3qz

0

Rebekah was born to Bethuel son of Milkah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham’s brother

“Rebekah’s father was Bethuel. Bethuel’s parents were Milkah and Nahor. Nahor was Abraham’s brother”

1478

GEN

24

15

y6za

translate-names

0

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah’s father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1479

GEN

24

15

y7ld

translate-names

0

Nahor

This is the name of a man. See how you translated his name in Genesis 11:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1480

GEN

24

15

xmc5

translate-names

0

Milkah

Milkah was Nahor’s wife and Bethuel’s mother. See how you translated this name in Genesis 11:29. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1481

GEN

24

16

s6tm

0

She went down to the spring…and came up

The spring was somewhere lower in elevation than where the servant was standing.

1482

GEN

24

17

lng1

0

to meet her

“to meet the young woman”

1483

GEN

24

17

hb32

0

a little drink of water

“a little water”

1484

GEN

24

17

tiz4

0

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

1485

GEN

24

18

dr38

0

my master

“sir.” Here the woman uses this term of respect to refer to the man, though she is not his slave.

1486

GEN

24

18

h8xp

0

she quickly let down her pitcher on her hand

“she quickly lowered her pitcher.” She was carrying the pitcher on her shoulder. She had to lower it to get water for the servant.

1487

GEN

24

19

jg5k

0

I will draw water

“I will get water”

1488

GEN

24

20

n27r

0

So she hurried and emptied her pitcher

“So she quickly emptied her pitcher”

1489

GEN

24

20

pkk9

0

the trough

“the animals’ water trough.” A trough is a long open container for holding water for animals to drink.

1490

GEN

24

21

ui6c

0

The man

“The servant”

1491

GEN

24

21

q4p6

0

watched her

“watched Rebekah” or “watched the young woman”

1492

GEN

24

21

b11e

figs-metaphor

0

to see

Learning something is often spoken of as if it were seeing. Alternate translation: “to know” or “to determine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1493

GEN

24

21

i3b2

figs-explicit

0

had prospered his journey

“had fulfilled the purpose of his journey” or “had made his journey successful.” You can make explicit what specifically the servant was trying to determine. Alternate translation: “was showing him the woman who would become Isaac’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1494

GEN

24

21

x4zm

figs-ellipsis

0

or not

You can state clearly the understood information. Alternate translation: “or not prospered his journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1495

GEN

24

22

slf4

translate-bweight

0

a gold nose ring weighing half a shekel

“a gold nose ring that weighed six grams.” The weight indicates the value of the ring. Alternate translation: “an expensive gold nose ring” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

1496

GEN

24

22

w1h6

translate-bweight

0

two gold bracelets for her arms weighing ten shekels

“two gold bracelets for her arms that weighed 110 grams.” The weight shows their size and value. Alternate translation: “two large gold bracelets for her arms” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bweight]])

1497

GEN

24

23

r4h2

0

Whose daughter are you

“Who is your father”

1498

GEN

24

23

e8zs

0

is there room in your father’s house

“is there a place in your father’s house”

1499

GEN

24

23

vu7b

figs-exclusive

0

for us

Apparently other men went on this journey with Abraham’s servant. Here “us” refers to the servant and those traveling with him, but not to those to whom he was speaking. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1500

GEN

24

23

ij83

0

to spend the night

“to stay tonight” or “to stay for the night”

1501

GEN

24

24

qx3y

0

She said

“Rebekah said” or “the young woman said”

1502

GEN

24

24

h5cc

0

to him

“to the servant”

1503

GEN

24

24

tu27

0

I am the daughter of Bethuel son of Milkah, whom she bore to Nahor

“Bethuel is my father, and his parents are Milkah and Nahor”

1504

GEN

24

25

ki2b

figs-ellipsis

0

We have plenty of both straw and feed

It is understood that the straw and feed are for the camels. You can make clear this understood information. Alternate translation: “We have plenty of straw and feed for the camels” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1505

GEN

24

25

g1si

0

for you to spend the night

“for you to stay tonight” or “where you can stay for the night”

1506

GEN

24

25

j8dw

figs-you

0

for you

Here “you” refers to the servant and those traveling with him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1507

GEN

24

26

wj5p

0

the man

“the servant”

1508

GEN

24

26

rf3n

translate-symaction

0

bowed down

This is a sign of humility before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1509

GEN

24

27

pf99

figs-abstractnouns

0

has not forsaken his covenant faithfulness and his trustworthiness toward my master

“has not stopped showing his covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness to my master.” The abstract nouns “faithfulness” and “trustworthiness” can be stated as “to be faithful and trustworthy.” Alternate translation: “has not stopped being faithful to his covenant and trustworthy toward my master” or “has not stopped being faithful and trustworthy to my master” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1510

GEN

24

27

eme3

figs-litotes

0

has not forsaken

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “continues to show” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1511

GEN

24

27

xfl3

0

my master’s relatives

“my master’s family” or “my master’s clan”

1512

GEN

24

28

s6bc

figs-metonymy

0

ran and told her mother’s household

Here “household” stands for all the people living in her mother’s house. Alternate translation: “ran to the house and told her mother and everyone there” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1513

GEN

24

28

xw7q

0

all of these things

“everything that had just happened”

1514

GEN

24

29

yd93

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author tells background information about Rebekah. The author introduces her brother, Laban, to the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])

1515

GEN

24

30

n1zt

figs-events

0

When he had seen the nose ring…and when he had heard the words of Rebekah his sister

These things happened before he ran out to the man. This tells why Laban ran out to the man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

1516

GEN

24

30

si84

figs-quotations

0

when he had heard the words of Rebekah his sister, “This is what the man said to me,”

This can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “when he had heard his sister Rebekah tell what the man had said to her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1517

GEN

24

30

qav2

0

behold, he

The word “behold” here adds emphasis to what follows. “it was just as she had said: he”

1518

GEN

24

31

w2vg

0

Come, you

“Come in, you” or “Enter, you”

1519

GEN

24

31

rud7

0

you blessed of Yahweh

“you whom Yahweh has blessed”

1520

GEN

24

31

tn1r

figs-you

0

you

Here the word “you” refers to Abraham’s servant. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1521

GEN

24

31

gk45

figs-rquestion

0

Why are you standing outside?

Laban used this question to invite Abraham’s servant into his house. This question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “You do not need to stay outside.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1522

GEN

24

32

n6xf

figs-go

0

So the man came to the house

The word “came” can be translated as “went.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1523

GEN

24

32

h7z7

figs-activepassive

0

he unloaded the camels

It is not clear who did this work. This may be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Laban’s servants unloaded the camels” or “the camels were unloaded” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1524

GEN

24

32

hhx8

figs-activepassive

0

The camels were given straw and feed, and water was provided

This does not say who did the work. If you state this in active form use “Laban’s servants” as the subject. Alternate translation: “Laban’s servants gave straw and feed to the camels, and they provided water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1525

GEN

24

32

jti6

0

to wash his feet…him

“for Abraham’s servant and the men who were with him to wash their feet”

1526

GEN

24

33

x4b4

0

They set

Here, the word “they” refers to Laban’s family members or to the household servants.

1527

GEN

24

33

th5z

0

set food before him

“gave food to the servant”

1528

GEN

24

33

d4p6

0

said what I have to say

“spoken my words” or “told you why I am here”

1529

GEN

24

35

x58h

0

he has become great

Here the word “he” refers to Abraham.

1530

GEN

24

35

w53i

0

become great

“become very wealthy”

1531

GEN

24

35

ff88

0

He has given

The word “he” refers to Yahweh.

1532

GEN

24

36

l6kq

0

General Information:

Abraham’s servant continues speaking to Rebekah’s family.

1533

GEN

24

36

em4l

0

bore a son to my master

“gave birth to a son”

1534

GEN

24

36

sw5h

0

he has given…to him

“my master has given…to his son”

1535

GEN

24

37

bu75

0

My master made me swear, saying

“My master made me swear that I would do what he told me to do. He said”

1536

GEN

24

37

gr54

0

from the daughters of the Canaanites

This refers to Canaanite females. Alternate translation: “from the Canaanite women” or “from the Canaanites”

1537

GEN

24

37

nd18

figs-synecdoche

0

in whose land I make my home

“among whom I live.” Here, “I” stands for Abraham and all of his family and servants. Alternate translation: “among whom we live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1538

GEN

24

38

ye3t

0

to my relatives

“to my own clan”

1539

GEN

24

39

pgj8

0

General Information:

Abraham’s servant continues speaking to Rebekah’s family.

1540

GEN

24

39

xvk8

figs-hypo

0

Perhaps the woman will not follow me.

This is something that could possibly happen. Alternate translation: “What if the woman will not come back with me?” or “What should I do if the woman will not come back with me?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1541

GEN

24

40

mp4m

figs-metaphor

0

before whom I walk

Serving Yahweh is spoken of as if Abraham were walking in Yahweh’s presence. Alternate translation: “whom I serve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1542

GEN

24

40

uj9t

0

he will prosper your way

“he will make your journey successful”

1543

GEN

24

40

f64z

0

family line

“family”

1544

GEN

24

41

x3ph

figs-hypo

0

But you will be free from my oath if you come to my relatives and they will not give her to you. Then you will be free from my oath

This is a hypothetical situation that Abraham did not think was likely to happen. Possible meanings are (1) “There is only one way for you to be free from my oath: if you come to my relatives and they will not give her to you, then you will be free from my oath” or, (2) building on verse 40, “If you go to my father’s family and ask for a girl, you will have done what I told you to do. If they will not give her to you, then you will be free from the oath you swore to me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hypo]])

1545

GEN

24

41

ijt4

figs-metaphor

0

you will be free from my oath

“you will be released from the oath you made to me.” Not having to fulfill an oath is spoken of as if the person is free from an object to which he was bound. Alternate translation: “you will not have to do what you swore to me that you would do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1546

GEN

24

41

wll8

figs-go

0

if you come to my relatives

Languages use the words come and go differently. Alternate translation: “if you arrive at my relatives’ home” or “if you go to my relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

1547

GEN

24

42

t1j2

0

General Information:

Abraham’s servant continues speaking to Rebekah’s family.

1548

GEN

24

42

m7ps

0

the spring

“the well”

1549

GEN

24

43

ey1m

0

let the young woman who comes…the woman to whom I say

The servant goes back to stating his request. These are the first two things he has to say about the woman whom he hopes will come.

1550

GEN

24

43

ru4z

0

to draw water

“to get water”

1551

GEN

24

43

ays7

0

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

1552

GEN

24

44

k1f8

0

the woman who says to me, “Drink…camels”

The thought that begins with the words “let the young woman who comes” in verse 43 ends here. This is the third of the three things the servant has to say about the woman whom he hopes will come.

1553

GEN

24

44

t41f

0

let her be the woman

The servant finishes his request.

1554

GEN

24

45

jux7

0

General Information:

Abraham’s servant continues speaking to Rebekah’s family.

1555

GEN

24

45

w249

figs-metaphor

0

speaking in my heart

To pray silently in one’s mind is spoken of as if he were speaking in his heart. The word “heart” refers to his thoughts and his mind. Alternate translation: “praying” or “praying quietly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1556

GEN

24

45

s82z

0

behold, Rebekah came

“suddenly Rebekah came” or “I was surprised because I saw Rebekah coming”

1557

GEN

24

45

s4y4

0

pitcher

This is a medium-size jar made of clay used for holding and pouring liquids. See how you translated this in Genesis 24:14.

1558

GEN

24

45

v94w

0

she went down to the spring

The phrase “went down” is used because the spring was somewhere lower than where the servant was standing.

1559

GEN

24

45

r9da

0

spring

opening in the ground from which fresh water comes

1560

GEN

24

46

kvw1

0

watered the camels

“gave water to the camels”

1561

GEN

24

47

q3rt

0

General Information:

Abraham’s servant continues speaking to Rebekah’s family.

1562

GEN

24

47

wg1u

0

The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor’s son, whom Milkah bore to him

“My father is Bethuel. His parents are Nahor and Milkah”

1563

GEN

24

47

xxd2

0

ring…bracelets

In this story, all of these items were made of gold. See how you translated these in Genesis 24:22.

1564

GEN

24

48

e8rq

translate-symaction

0

I bowed down

This is a sign of humility before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1565

GEN

24

48

h58h

0

led me by the right way

“brought me here”

1566

GEN

24

48

zhy2

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

who had led me

The connecting word “because” can be used to show this is why the servant worshiped God. Alternate translation: “because Yahweh led me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1567

GEN

24

48

p249

0

my master’s relative

This refers to Bethuel, the son of Abraham’s brother Nahor.

1568

GEN

24

49

v7x5

0

General Information:

Abraham’s servant continues speaking to Rebekah’s family.

1569

GEN

24

49

u6eh

0

Now therefore

“Now.” Here “Now” does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

1570

GEN

24

49

yac9

figs-explicit

0

if you are prepared to show covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness to my master, tell me

How they could show the covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “tell me if you will be faithful and trustworthy to my master by giving Rebekah to be his son’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1571

GEN

24

49

q5fw

figs-you

0

you

The word “you” refers to Laban and Bethuel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1572

GEN

24

49

bf6u

figs-abstractnouns

0

faithfulness and trustworthiness

These abstract nouns can be stated as “faithful and trustworthy.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1573

GEN

24

49

r8l1

figs-ellipsis

0

But if not

The understood information can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “But if you are not prepared to treat my master with family faithfulness and trustworthiness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

1574

GEN

24

49

yjd9

figs-metaphor

0

so that I may turn to the right hand or to the left

Possible meanings are (1) deciding what to do is spoken of as if the person will physically turn one direction or another. Alternate translation: “so that I will know what do” or (2) the servant wants to know if he needs to travel somewhere else. Alternate translation: “so that I may continue on my journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1575

GEN

24

50

jew5

0

Bethuel

This was the father of Laban and Rebekah.

1576

GEN

24

50

x54j

0

The thing has come from Yahweh

“Yahweh has caused all of this to happen”

1577

GEN

24

50

e21v

figs-idiom

0

we cannot speak to you either bad or good

They are saying they do not have the authority to decide whether what God has done is good or bad. Alternate translation: “we dare not judge what Yahweh is doing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1578

GEN

24

51

y3tx

0

Look, Rebekah is

“You can see Rebekah here”

1579

GEN

24

51

zkd6

0

Rebekah is before you

“Here is Rebekah”

1580

GEN

24

52

f6nn

0

their words

“what Laban and Bethuel said”

1581

GEN

24

52

s5s4

translate-symaction

0

he bowed himself down

Bowing down before God is an expression of worship to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1582

GEN

24

53

c4x7

0

articles of silver and articles of gold

“silver and gold items” or “things made of silver and gold”

1583

GEN

24

53

yqa2

0

precious gifts

“expensive gifts” or “valuable gifts”

1584

GEN

24

54

w8v9

0

he and the men who were with him

“Abraham’s servant and his men”

1585

GEN

24

54

ssz6

0

stayed there overnight

“slept there that night”

1586

GEN

24

54

v8m5

0

arose in the morning

“got up the next morning”

1587

GEN

24

54

fw75

0

Send me away

“Let me leave and return”

1588

GEN

24

55

a6ia

0

a few more days, at least ten

“at least ten more days”

1589

GEN

24

55

ce7w

0

After that

“Then”

1590

GEN

24

56

pr3s

0

he said

“Abraham’s servant said”

1591

GEN

24

56

sl94

0

to them

“to Rebekah’s brother and mother”

1592

GEN

24

56

dav8

0

Do not hinder me

“Do not delay me” or “Do not make me wait”

1593

GEN

24

56

jnv7

figs-metonymy

0

Yahweh has prospered my way

Here “way” stands for a journey. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has caused me to succeed in the purpose my journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1594

GEN

24

56

g87g

0

Send me on my way

“Allow me to leave”

1595

GEN

24

59

qez3

0

So they sent their sister Rebekah

“So the family sent Rebekah”

1596

GEN

24

59

e462

0

their sister

Rebekah was Laban’s sister. Alternate translation: “their relative” or “Laban’s sister”

1597

GEN

24

59

uvk2

0

her female servant

This refers to the female servant who had fed Rebekah when she was a baby, cared for her when she was a child, and still served her.

1598

GEN

24

60

ck3m

0

Our sister

Rebekah was not the sister to everyone in her family. But they called her this to show that they loved her. Alternate translation: “Our dear Rebekah”

1599

GEN

24

60

lz94

0

may you be the mother of thousands of ten thousands

Here “mother” stands for ancestor. Alternate translation: “may you be the ancestor of millions of people” or “may you have very many descendants”

1600

GEN

24

60

k4au

translate-numbers

0

thousands of ten thousands

This means a very large number or an uncountable number. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1601

GEN

24

60

lj6f

figs-metonymy

0

may your descendants possess the gate of those who hate them

Armies would break through the gate of their enemies’ cities and conquer the people. Alternate translation: “may your descendants completely defeat those who hate them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1602

GEN

24

61

m2sa

0

Then Rebekah arose, and she and her servant girls mounted the camels

“Then Rebekah and her servant girls went and got on the camels”

1603

GEN

24

61

s54m

0

Thus the servant took Rebekah, and went his way

“In this way Abraham’s servant took Rebekah with him and returned to where he had come from”

1604

GEN

24

62

de8g

0

Now

This word marks a change in the story. It was telling about the servant finding a wife, and now it will tell about Isaac.

1605

GEN

24

62

a6ll

0

Beer Lahai Roi

This is the name of a water well in the Negev. See how you translated it in Genesis 16:14.

1606

GEN

24

63

l5s8

0

Isaac went out to meditate in the field in the evening

“One evening Isaac went out to the field to think.” This must have been a long time after the servant and Rebekah left her home since they had to travel a long distance.

1607

GEN

24

63

r5zl

0

When he looked up and saw, behold, there were camels coming!

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows. “When he looked up he was surprised to see camels coming”

1608

GEN

24

64

ct8r

0

Rebekah looked

“Rebekah looked up”

1609

GEN

24

64

xm2p

0

she jumped down from the camel

“she quickly got off the camel”

1610

GEN

24

65

ai22

translate-symaction

0

So she took her veil, and covered herself

“So she covered her face with her veil.” This is a sign of respect and modesty towards the man she will marry. The full meaning of this can be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1611

GEN

24

65

x2me

0

veil

a piece of cloth used to cover a person’s head, shoulders and face

1612

GEN

24

67

c5ut

figs-doublet

0

took Rebekah, and she became his wife

Both of these phrases mean that Isaac married Rebekah. Alternate translation: “married Rebekah” or “took her as his wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1613

GEN

24

67

h9zw

figs-activepassive

0

So Isaac was comforted

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “So Rebekah comforted Isaac” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1614

GEN

25

intro

ig86

0

Genesis 25 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 25:23.

Special concepts in this chapter

Polygamy

Abraham married another wife. This was sinful of him. Many other Hebrew leaders came to marry multiple wives. This is known as “polygamy.” It has never been an acceptable practice. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Inheritance

In the ancient Near East, inheritance was passed on through the eldest son. Even though Esau and Jacob were twins, it is very important that Esau was born first. It was his birthright to receive his inheritance, but he foolishly gave it up. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/birthright]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/foolish]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

God fulfill’s his promise

God begins to fulfill the promise he gave to Abraham about making his descendants numerous. Many of these children through his concubines would become large people groups. This may not be easy to understand without the remainder of the Old Testament and the history it records. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1615

GEN

25

1

cu8t

translate-names

0

General Information:

See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]].

1616

GEN

25

4

rx7z

0

All these

This refers to the people named in verses 2-4.

1617

GEN

25

5

l5pw

0

Abraham gave all that he owned to Isaac

“Isaac inherited all that Abraham owned.” It was normal for the father to divide his wealth when he was old and not leave that for others to do after he died.

1618

GEN

25

7

wx9m

translate-numbers

0

These were the days of the years of Abraham’s life which he lived, 175 years

“These were…he lived, one hundred and seventy-five years.” Abraham lived 175 years. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1619

GEN

25

8

p4ht

figs-doublet

0

Abraham breathed his last and died

“Abraham took his last breath and died.” The phrases “breathed his last” and “died” mean basically the same thing. Alternate translation: “Abraham died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1620

GEN

25

8

ej3k

figs-euphemism

0

breathed his last

This is a polite way of saying a person died. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1621

GEN

25

8

g4ax

figs-doublet

0

at a good old age, an old man with a full life

These two phrases mean basically the same thing and emphasize that Abraham lived a very long time. Alternate translation: “when he had lived a very long time and was very old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1622

GEN

25

8

yns7

figs-metaphor

0

an old man with a full life

Living a long life is spoken of as if life were a container that becomes full. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1623

GEN

25

8

x8xg

figs-idiom

0

he was gathered to his people

This means that after Abraham died, his soul went to the same place as his relatives who died before him. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “he joined his family members who had already died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1624

GEN

25

9

mwj2

0

the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron

Ephron owned a field in Machpelah and the cave that was in that field. Abraham bought the field from Ephron.

1625

GEN

25

9

q9gq

translate-names

0

Machpelah

Machpelah was the name of an area or region. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1626

GEN

25

9

cy2d

translate-names

0

Ephron…Zohar

These are names of men. See how you translated these men’s names in Genesis 23:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1627

GEN

25

9

s1d5

0

which is near Mamre

Machpela was near Mamre.

1628

GEN

25

9

k9tk

translate-names

0

Mamre

This was another name for the city of Hebron. It may have been named after Mamre, the friend of Abraham who lived there. See how you translated this place name in Genesis 23:17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1629

GEN

25

10

sbt9

0

This field Abraham had bought

“Abraham had bought this field”

1630

GEN

25

10

f1i4

0

sons of Heth

“the descendants of Heth” or “the Hittites.” See how you translated this in Genesis 23:5.

1631

GEN

25

10

d9zw

figs-activepassive

0

Abraham was buried

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “They buried Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1632

GEN

25

11

qdt2

translate-names

0

Beer Lahai Roi

This name means “the well of the living one who sees me.” See how you translated this place name in Genesis 16:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1633

GEN

25

12

uwb2

0

Now

This word is used in English to introduce a new part of the story and information about Ishmael.

1634

GEN

25

13

gn6t

translate-names

0

General Information:

See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]].

1635

GEN

25

16

xgd3

0

These were Ishmael’s sons, and these were their names, by their villages, and by their encampments; twelve princes according to their tribes

This can be stated as two sentences. “These were the names of Ishmael’s twelve sons. They led tribes that were named after them, and they each had their own villages and campsites”

1636

GEN

25

16

e5ag

translate-numbers

0

twelve

“12” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1637

GEN

25

16

iy7y

0

princes

Here the word “princes” means that the men were leaders or rules of the tribes; it does not mean that they were the sons of a king.

1638

GEN

25

17

nem6

translate-numbers

0

These were the years of the life of Ishmael, 137 years

“These were…Ishmael, one hundred and thirty-seven years.” Ishmael lived 137 years. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1639

GEN

25

17

s1vq

figs-doublet

0

breathed his last and died

The terms “breathed his last” and “died” mean basically the same thing. Alternate translation: “died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1640

GEN

25

17

p7dl

figs-idiom

0

was gathered to his people

This means that after Ishmael died, his soul went to the same place as his relatives who died before him. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “he joined his family members who had already died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1641

GEN

25

18

q1vv

0

They lived

“His descendants settled”

1642

GEN

25

18

z9aa

0

from Havilah to Ashhur

“between Havilah and Ashhur”

1643

GEN

25

18

pk2r

translate-names

0

Havilah

Havilah was located somewhere in the Arabian Desert. See how you translated this in Genesis 2:11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1644

GEN

25

18

ev35

0

as one goes toward

“in the direction of”

1645

GEN

25

18

p8m3

0

They lived in hostility with each other

Possible meanings are (1) “they did not live in peace together,” or (2) “they lived away from their other relatives.”

1646

GEN

25

19

t67i

figs-explicit

0

These were the events concerning Isaac, Abraham’s son

This sentence introduces the account of Isaac’s descendants in Genesis 25:19-35:29. Alternate translation: “This is the account of the descendants of Isaac, Abraham’s son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1647

GEN

25

20

gih8

translate-numbers

0

forty years old

“40 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1648

GEN

25

20

g4lq

0

when he took as his wife Rebekah

“when he married Rebekah”

1649

GEN

25

20

xn63

translate-names

0

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah’s father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1650

GEN

25

20

dft3

translate-names

0

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1651

GEN

25

21

wr2b

0

she was childless

“she was unable to become pregnant”

1652

GEN

25

21

zn2s

figs-explicit

0

Rebekah his wife conceived

It can be made explicit that Rebekah was pregnant with two babies at the same time: “Rebekah, his wife, became pregnant with twins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1653

GEN

25

22

as86

0

The children struggled together within her

“the babies inside her kept bumping against each other” or “The babies pushed against each other within her”

1654

GEN

25

22

gza2

figs-explicit

0

The children…within her

Rebekah was pregnant with twins. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1655

GEN

25

22

u1xs

0

She went to ask Yahweh about this

“She went and asked Yahweh about this.” It is not clear where she went. She may have gone somewhere private to pray, or she may have gone somewhere to offer a sacrifice.

1656

GEN

25

23

y9m7

0

said to her

“said to Rebekah”

1657

GEN

25

23

m836

writing-poetry

0

Two nations…serve the younger

This is poetic language. If your language has a way to indicate poetry, you could use it here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])

1658

GEN

25

23

s1wf

figs-metonymy

0

Two nations are in your womb

Here “two nations” stands for the two children. Each child will be the father of a nation. Alternate translation: “Two nations will come from the twins within you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1659

GEN

25

23

lxl5

figs-metonymy

0

two peoples will be separated from within you

Here “two peoples” stands for the two children. Each child will be the father of a people. This can be translated with an active verb. Alternate translation: “when you give birth to these two children they will be rivals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1660

GEN

25

23

pgz5

0

the older will serve the younger

Possible meanings are (1) “the older son will serve the younger son” or (2) “the descendants of the older son will serve the descendants of the younger son.” If possible, translate it so that people could understand either meaning.

1661

GEN

25

24

urq6

0

behold, there

“she was surprised to learn that there”

1662

GEN

25

25

wyy1

figs-simile

0

red all over like a hairy garment

Possible meanings are (1) his skin was red and he had a lot of hair on his body or (2) he had a lot of red hair on his body. Alternate translation: “red and hairy like a garment made of animal hair” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1663

GEN

25

25

p7lj

0

Esau

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Esau sounds like the word ‘hairy.’”

1664

GEN

25

26

u57z

0

grasping Esau’s heel

“holding the back part of Esau’s foot”

1665

GEN

25

26

gls8

0

Jacob

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Jacob means ‘he grasps the heel.’”

1666

GEN

25

26

i7ic

translate-numbers

0

sixty years old

“60 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1667

GEN

25

27

a46v

0

became a skillful hunter

“became good at hunting and killing animals for food”

1668

GEN

25

27

ee9p

0

a quiet man

“a peaceful man” or “a less active man”

1669

GEN

25

27

n923

figs-metaphor

0

who spent his time in the tents

This speaks about time as if it were a commodity that someone could spend. Alternate translation: “who remained in the tents much of the time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1670

GEN

25

28

t4i8

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used to mark a change in focus, shifting from the story to background information about Isaac and Rebekah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1671

GEN

25

28

yr46

0

Isaac loved

Here the word “loved” means “favored” or “preferred.”

1672

GEN

25

28

m6rw

0

because he ate the animals that he had hunted

“because he ate the animals that Esau had hunted” or “because he enjoyed eating the wild animal meat that Esau caught”

1673

GEN

25

29

z5en

0

Jacob cooked

Since this is the beginning of a story about something that happened one time, some translators may want to start it with a phrase like “One day, Jacob cooked” in a similar manner to the UST.

1674

GEN

25

29

n13g

0

cooked some stew

“boiled some food” or “cooked some soup.” This stew was made of boiled lentils (Genesis 25:34).

1675

GEN

25

29

ms24

0

he was weak from hunger

“he was weak because he was very hungry” or “he was very hungry”

1676

GEN

25

30

se91

0

I am exhausted

“I am weak from hunger” or “I am very hungry”

1677

GEN

25

30

x1uk

0

Edom

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Edom means ‘red.’”

1678

GEN

25

31

nk7u

0

birthright

right as firstborn to inherit most of the father’s wealth

1679

GEN

25

32

efr4

figs-hyperbole

0

I am about to die

Esau was exaggerating to emphasize how hungry he was. Alternate translation: “I am so hungry I feel like I could die” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1680

GEN

25

32

h8jv

figs-rquestion

0

What good is the birthright to me?

Esau used a question to emphasize that eating was more important than a birthright. This can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “My inheritance is no good to me if I die of hunger!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1681

GEN

25

33

b4qn

figs-explicit

0

First swear to me

What Jacob wanted Esau to swear can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “First swear to me that you will sell me your birthright” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1682

GEN

25

34

v7ff

translate-unknown

0

lentils

These are like beans, but their seeds are very small, round, and somewhat flat. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

1683

GEN

25

34

r6tg

0

Esau despised his birthright

“Esau showed that he did not value his birthright”

1684

GEN

26

intro

cwz4

0

Genesis 26 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Trust

When things in the land were bad, Isaac did not trust in Yahweh. Instead, he ran to the safety of Egypt. Even when Abraham’s descendants did not trust in Yahweh’s faithfulness to fulfill his covenant, Yahweh remained faithful to his covenant and blessed Isaac. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faithful]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fulfill]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

Wells

In the ancient Near East, wells were very important strategically. Therefore, they were a sign of power and a sign of God’s blessing being upon Isaac.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“She is my sister”

Isaac was afraid the Egyptians would see him as a foreigner and upon seeing his beautiful wife, they would try to kill him. This would free Rebekah to marry someone else. Apparently, it would have been easy for them to kill a foreigner without punishment. If she was Isaac’s sister, they would have shown favor to him. This is the same thing his father, Abraham, did. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/favor]])

1685

GEN

26

1

n54s

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a new part of the story.

1686

GEN

26

1

vwi7

0

a famine happened

“there was a famine” or “there was another famine”

1687

GEN

26

1

ags3

figs-explicit

0

in the land

You can state explicitly the land to which this refers. Alternate translation: “in the land where Isaac and his family lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1688

GEN

26

1

a6wl

0

that had been in the days of Abraham

“that had happened during Abraham’s life” or “that had happened while Abraham was alive”

1689

GEN

26

2

p1xe

0

General Information:

Yahweh begins to speak to Isaac.

1690

GEN

26

2

t4aj

0

appeared to him

“appeared to Isaac”

1691

GEN

26

2

mqf3

figs-idiom

0

Do not go down to Egypt

It was common to speak of leaving the promised land as “going down” to another place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1692

GEN

26

3

v9hh

0

for to you and to your descendants, I will give all these lands

“for I will give all these lands to you and your descendants”

1693

GEN

26

3

ekq9

0

I will fulfill the oath that I swore to Abraham your father

“I will do what I promised Abraham your father I would do”

1694

GEN

26

4

tu5b

0

General Information:

Yahweh continues speaking to Isaac.

1695

GEN

26

4

y44e

0

I will multiply your descendants

“I will cause you to have very many descendants.”

1696

GEN

26

4

k6jq

figs-simile

0

like the stars of heaven

This speaks about the number of Isaac’s descendants as if they were the same as the number of stars. See how you translated this in Genesis 22:17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1697

GEN

26

4

jm8x

0

heaven

This refers to everything we see above the earth, including the sun, moon, and stars.

1698

GEN

26

4

hpl9

figs-activepassive

0

all the nations of the earth will be blessed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I will bless all the nations of the earth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1699

GEN

26

5

nr7e

figs-parallelism

0

Abraham obeyed my voice and kept my instructions, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws

The phrases “obeyed my voice” and “kept my instructions, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws” mean basically the same thing. Alternate translation: “Abraham obeyed me and did everything I commanded him to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

1700

GEN

26

5

brk9

figs-synecdoche

0

obeyed my voice

Here “voice” stands for Yahweh. Alternate translation: “obeyed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1701

GEN

26

6

wr4q

figs-explicit

0

So Isaac settled in Gerar

Only Isaac is mentioned because he is the leader of the family, but his whole family was with him. Alternate translation: “So Isaac and his family settled in Gerar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1702

GEN

26

7

rr88

0

He feared to say

Here “fear” refers to the unpleasant feeling a person has when there is a threat of harm to himself or others. “He was afraid to say”

1703

GEN

26

7

j128

0

to get Rebekah

“in order to take Rebekah”

1704

GEN

26

8

z63l

0

He saw, behold, Isaac

The word “behold” shows that what Abimelech saw surprised him. Alternate translation: “And he was surprised to see that Isaac”

1705

GEN

26

8

i16v

0

was caressing Rebekah

Possible meanings are (1) he was touching her the way a husband touches his wife or (2) he was laughing and talking with her the way a husband talks with his wife.

1706

GEN

26

9

hv6m

figs-metonymy

0

Abimelech called Isaac to him

Abimelech probably sent someone to tell Isaac that Abimelech wanted to see him. Alternate translation: “Abimelech sent someone to bring Isaac to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1707

GEN

26

9

aeb1

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Why did you say, ‘She is my sister’?

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “Why did you say that she is your sister?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1708

GEN

26

9

m9n4

0

to get her

“so he could take her”

1709

GEN

26

10

t2ul

figs-rquestion

0

What is this you have done to us?

Abimelech used this question to scold Isaac. Alternate translation: “You should not have done this to us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1710

GEN

26

10

s759

figs-euphemism

0

might easily have lain with your wife

The word “lain” here is a euphemism for “had sexual relations.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1711

GEN

26

10

t1mu

figs-metaphor

0

you would have brought guilt upon us

This speaks about causing someone to be guilty as if “guilt” were an object that is placed on someone. Alternate translation: “you would have caused us to be guilty of taking a man’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1712

GEN

26

10

l5d1

figs-exclusive

0

upon us

Here “us” refers to Abimelech and his people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1713

GEN

26

11

ztx1

figs-idiom

0

Whoever touches this man

Here “touches” means to touch in a harmful way. Alternate translation: “Whoever harms this man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1714

GEN

26

11

fk2l

figs-activepassive

0

will surely be put to death

Abimelech may have intended to tell someone to kill anyone who might harm Isaac or Rebekah. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I will put him to death” or “I will order my men to kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1715

GEN

26

12

tl8n

0

General Information:

This begins a new part of the story. It changes from telling about Isaac calling Rebekah his sister, and it starts to tell about how Isaac became very rich and the Philistines were jealous of him.

1716

GEN

26

12

f6x6

0

in that land

“in Gerar”

1717

GEN

26

12

d294

translate-numbers

0

a hundredfold

This means “one hundred times as much as he planted.” It can be translated more generally as “a very large crop.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1718

GEN

26

13

i68k

0

The man became rich

“Isaac became rich” or “He became rich”

1719

GEN

26

13

p5mh

0

grew more and more until he became very great

“he gained more and more until he became very wealthy”

1720

GEN

26

14

jv6c

figs-explicit

0

sheep

This may also include goats. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1721

GEN

26

14

h37m

figs-metonymy

0

a large household

Here “household” stands for workers or servants. Alternate translation: “many servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1722

GEN

26

14

f17g

0

The Philistines envied him

“The Philistines were jealous of him”

1723

GEN

26

15

rue9

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

Now

Here this word does not mean “at this moment.” It is indicating where the action in the story begins. It can be translated with the connecting word “So” to show that this is a result of what happened in Genesis 26:12-14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1724

GEN

26

15

xy1c

0

in the days of Abraham his father

The phrase “in the days of” stands for a person’s lifetime. Alternate translation: “when Abraham, his father, was living” or “during his father Abraham’s lifetime”

1725

GEN

26

16

f5ia

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

Abimelech said

Possible meanings are (1) this is another action to force Isaac and his people to leave. Alternate translation: “Then Abimelech said” or “Finally Abimelech said” or (2) Abimelech made this decision because he saw that his people were jealous and acting in a hostile way towards Isaac. Alternate translation: “Therefore Abimelech said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

1726

GEN

26

16

e8vy

0

much mightier than we

“much stronger than we are”

1727

GEN

26

17

tz3u

figs-explicit

0

So Isaac departed

Only Isaac is mentioned because he is the leader, but his family and servants went with him. Alternate translation: “So Isaac and his household left” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1728

GEN

26

18

r15b

figs-synecdoche

0

Isaac dug out

Here “Isaac” stands for Isaac and his servants. Alternate translation: “Isaac and his servants dug out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1729

GEN

26

18

hly9

0

which they had dug

“which Abraham’s servants had dug”

1730

GEN

26

18

c6vy

0

in the days of Abraham his father

“during his father Abraham’s lifetime” or “when Abraham, his father, was living”

1731

GEN

26

18

sn3p

figs-events

0

The Philistines had stopped them up

This was the reason that Isaac dug them out. Possible ways to translate this are: (1) Since this happened first, this sentence can come before the sentence about Isaac digging them out, as in the UST. or (2) This sentence can start with “Isaac did this because the Philistines had stopped them up.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

1732

GEN

26

18

jfl7

0

had stopped them up

“had filled them with earth”

1733

GEN

26

19

b9ic

figs-idiom

0

flowing water

This phrase refers to a natural spring they uncovered when they were digging a new well. It provided a continuous flow of fresh drinking water. Alternate translation: “fresh water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1734

GEN

26

20

m6un

0

herdsmen

men who tended livestock

1735

GEN

26

20

ls3b

figs-exclusive

0

This water is ours

Here “ours” refers to the herdsmen of Gerar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

1736

GEN

26

20

nw21

translate-names

0

Esek

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Esek means ‘quarrel’ or ‘argue.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1737

GEN

26

21

kan5

0

Then they dug

“Then Isaac’s servants dug”

1738

GEN

26

21

t12r

0

they quarreled

“the herdsmen of Gerar argued with Isaac’s herdsmen”

1739

GEN

26

21

ss3i

0

so he gave it

“so Isaac gave it”

1740

GEN

26

21

ny83

translate-names

0

Sitnah

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Sitnah means ‘oppose’ or ‘accuse.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1741

GEN

26

22

gd8u

translate-names

0

Rehoboth

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Rehoboth means ‘make room for’ or ‘empty place.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1742

GEN

26

22

kj55

0

us…we

Isaac was speaking about himself and his household.

1743

GEN

26

23

ct3x

0

Isaac went up from there to Beersheba

Here “went up” is probably a reference to going north. Say that he departed in the most natural way for your language. Alternate translation: “Isaac left there and went to Beersheba”

1744

GEN

26

24

sq69

0

multiply your descendants

“will cause your descendants to increase greatly” or “will cause your descendants to be very many”

1745

GEN

26

24

j1jd

figs-explicit

0

for my servant Abraham’s sake

“for my servant Abraham” or you can make the full meaning explicit. Alternate translation: “because I promised my servant Abraham that I would do this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1746

GEN

26

25

g525

figs-explicit

0

Isaac built an altar there

You can make explicit why Isaac built an altar. Alternate translation: “Isaac built an altar there to sacrifice to Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1747

GEN

26

25

pam6

figs-metonymy

0

called on the name of Yahweh

To “call on” means to pray or to worship. Here “name” stands for Yahweh. Alternate translation: “prayed to Yahweh” or “worshiped Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1748

GEN

26

26

k6ep

0

went to him

“went to Isaac”

1749

GEN

26

26

ls17

translate-names

0

Ahuzzath

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1750

GEN

26

26

lca7

0

his friend

Possible meanings are (1) “Abimelech’s friend” or (2) “Abimelech’s advisor.”

1751

GEN

26

26

mcz9

translate-names

0

Phicol

This is the name of a man. See how you translated his name in Genesis 21:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1752

GEN

26

28

pw9y

0

they said

This refers to Abimelech, Ahuzzath, and Phicol. One of them spoke and the other two agreed with what he said. It does not mean they all spoke at the same time. Alternate translation: “one of them said”

1753

GEN

26

28

pt6d

0

We have clearly seen

“We know” or “We are certain”

1754

GEN

26

28

wg9d

0

So let us make a covenant

“So we want to make a covenant”

1755

GEN

26

29

b7sa

0

and as we have treated you well

This can also be translated as the beginning of a new sentence. “We have done only good to you”

1756

GEN

26

29

qgj3

figs-activepassive

0

you are blessed by Yahweh

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has blessed you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1757

GEN

26

30

ur1a

figs-explicit

0

Isaac made a feast for them, and they ate and drank

Eating a meal together was a part of making a covenant with one another. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1758

GEN

26

30

wvz4

0

for them

Here “them” refers to “Abimelech, Ahuzzath, and Phicol”

1759

GEN

26

30

rb7d

0

they ate

Here “they” refers to Isaac, Abimelech, Ahuzzath, and Phicol. Alternate translation: “they all ate”

1760

GEN

26

31

bpu3

0

They rose early

“They awoke early”

1761

GEN

26

33

l4xz

translate-names

0

He called the well Shibah

“So he called the well Shibah.” Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Shibah sounds like the word that means ‘oath.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1762

GEN

26

33

ymy1

0

Beersheba

Translators may add a footnote saying “Beersheba can mean either “well of the oath” or “well of seven.” (See note on Genesis 21:32)

1763

GEN

26

34

mr5x

0

General Information:

Most of Genesis 26 was about Isaac. These verses are about his older son Esau.

1764

GEN

26

34

n2fj

translate-numbers

0

forty

“40” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

1765

GEN

26

34

f6p7

figs-explicit

0

he took a wife

“he married.” You can state explicitly that he married two women. Alternate translation: “he took two wives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1766

GEN

26

34

n6q3

translate-names

0

Judith…Basemath

These are the names of Esau’s wives. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1767

GEN

26

34

vpc3

translate-names

0

Beeri…Elon

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1768

GEN

26

34

es97

translate-names

0

the Hittite

“the descendant of Heth” or “a descendant of Heth.” The Hittite people were the descendants of Heth. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1769

GEN

26

35

tfu7

figs-metaphor

0

They brought sorrow to Isaac and Rebekah

Here “they” refers to Judith and Basemath. To make someone sorrowful or miserable is spoken of as if “sorrow” were an object that a person could bring to another person. Alternate translation: “They made Isaac and Rebekah sorrowful” or “Isaac and Rebekah were miserable because of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1770

GEN

27

intro

r9m3

0

Genesis 27 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in 27:27-29 and in 27:39-40.

Special concepts in this chapter

Blessing

In the ancient Near East, a father’s blessing was very important. This spoken blessing was legally binding. Jacob previously received the birthright from Esau and was guaranteed the double portion of land money that was supposed to be inherited by the older son, Esau. In this chapter, Jacob tricks Isaac into giving him Esau’s blessing. This means that he is to inherit the promises of the covenant Yahweh made with Abraham. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/birthright]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]])

1771

GEN

27

1

dk7f

figs-metaphor

0

his eyes were dim

This speaks about being nearly blind as if the eyes were a lamp and the light has nearly gone out. Alternate translation: “he was nearly blind” or “he was almost blind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1772

GEN

27

1

xl56

0

Here I am

“I am here” or “I am listening.” See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

1773

GEN

27

2

chx2

figs-explicit

0

See here

The phrase “see here” adds emphasis to what follows. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1774

GEN

27

2

r5ug

figs-explicit

0

I do not know the day of my death

It is implied that Isaac knows he will die soon. Alternate translation: “I may die any day now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1775

GEN

27

2

djk1

0

death

This refers to physical death.

1776

GEN

27

3

g526

0

General Information:

Isaac continues giving instructions to his older son Isaac.

1777

GEN

27

3

dk3j

0

your weapons

“your hunting equipment”

1778

GEN

27

3

q9sp

figs-explicit

0

your quiver

A quiver is a case for holding arrows. Alternate translation: “your quiver of arrows” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1779

GEN

27

3

r6x1

0

hunt game for me

“hunt a wild animal for me”

1780

GEN

27

4

z48e

figs-explicit

0

Make delicious food for me, the sort that I love

The word “delicious” refers to something that tastes very good. Alternate translation: “Cook for me the tasty meat that I love” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1781

GEN

27

4

wt6a

0

bless you

In Bible times, a father would often pronounce a formal blessing on his children.

1782

GEN

27

5

xjr9

writing-background

0

This verse is background information for the description of the events that follow. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1783

GEN

27

5

wkc6

writing-background

0

Now

This verse is background information for the description of the events that follow. The word “now” shows that the author is going to begin to talk about Rebekah and Jacob. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1784

GEN

27

5

f3na

0

Rebekah heard it when Isaac spoke to Esau his son

“Rebekah heard Isaac speaking to his son Esau”

1785

GEN

27

5

wpq7

0

to Esau his son

Esau was the son of both Isaac and Rebekah. The author calls Esau “his son” to emphasize that Isaac preferred Esau over Isaac.

1786

GEN

27

6

jlu7

writing-background

0

This verse continues the background information that begins with the words “Now Rebekah heard” in verse 5. It is background information for the description of the events that follow. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1787

GEN

27

6

fr9i

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

Rebekah spoke to Jacob

This verse continues the background information that begins with the words “Esau went…bring it back” in verse 5. It is background information for the description of the events that follow. After Esau leaves, Rebekah speaks to Jacob because of what she has heard. “So when Esau went…bring it back, Rebekah spoke to Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1788

GEN

27

6

j6cj

0

to Jacob her son

Jacob was the son of both Isaac and Rebekah. The author calls Jacob “her son” here to emphasize that Rebekah preferred Jacob over Esau.

1789

GEN

27

6

yc8h

0

See here

The phrase “see here” adds emphasis to what follows. Alternate translation: “Listen carefully”

1790

GEN

27

7

nl2j

figs-quotesinquotes

0

‘Bring me game and make me delicious food, that I may eat it and bless you in the presence of Yahweh before my death.’

These are the words that the author introduces with the words “He said” in verse 6. This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. “He told Esau to hunt a wild animal, and to make the tasty meat that he loves. Then before he dies, your father will bless Esau in the presence of Yahweh.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

1791

GEN

27

7

chc2

0

Bring me game

“Bring me a wild animal that you hunt and kill”

1792

GEN

27

7

epu1

0

make me delicious food

“cook for me the tasty meat that I love.” See how this was translated in Genesis 27:4.

1793

GEN

27

7

tq2y

0

bless you in the presence of Yahweh

“bless you before Yahweh”

1794

GEN

27

7

ei7n

0

before my death

“before I die”

1795

GEN

27

8

f173

0

General Information:

Rebekah continues to speak to her younger son Jacob.

1796

GEN

27

8

y3a9

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

1797

GEN

27

8

g188

figs-metonymy

0

obey my voice as I command you

Rebekah said “my voice” to refer to what she was saying. Alternate translation: “obey me and do what I tell you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1798

GEN

27

9

vla2

0

I will make delicious food from them for your father, just like he loves

The word “delicious” refers to something that tastes very good. See how a similar sentence was translated in Genesis 27:4.

1799

GEN

27

10

jnw9

0

You will take it to your father

“Then take it to your father”

1800

GEN

27

10

y1kp

0

so that he may eat it, so that he may bless you

“and after he eats it, he will bless you”

1801

GEN

27

10

j39b

0

he may bless you

The word “bless” refers to the formal blessing a father pronounces on his children.

1802

GEN

27

10

g1ev

0

before his death

“before he dies”

1803

GEN

27

11

qtd3

0

I am a smooth man

“I am a man with smooth skin” or “I am not hairy”

1804

GEN

27

12

t3a4

0

I will seem to him as a deceiver

“he will think that I am a liar” or “he will know that I am deceiving him”

1805

GEN

27

12

s8h4

figs-metaphor

0

I will bring a curse upon me and not a blessing

Being cursed or blessed is spoken of as if a curse and a blessing are objects that are placed on a person. Alternate translation: “Then because of this, he will curse me and not bless me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1806

GEN

27

13

svh3

figs-metaphor

0

My son, let any curse fall on me

“let your curse be on me, my son.” Being cursed is spoken of as if the curse were on object that is placed on the person. Alternate translation: “let your father curse me instead of you, my son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1807

GEN

27

13

yj3y

figs-metonymy

0

obey my voice

Rebekah said “my voice” to refer to what she was saying. Alternate translation: “obey what I tell you” or “obey me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1808

GEN

27

13

p12u

0

bring them to me

“bring me the young goats”

1809

GEN

27

14

fje9

0

made delicious food, just like his father loved

The word “delicious” refers to something that tastes very good. See how a similar sentence was translated in Genesis 27:4.

1810

GEN

27

16

cd2u

0

She put the skins of the young goats on his hands

The goat skins still had the hair on them.

1811

GEN

27

17

zjt6

0

She put the delicious food and the bread that she had prepared into the hand of her son Jacob

“She gave to her son Jacob the delicious food and bread which she had prepared”

1812

GEN

27

18

ak4j

0

Here I am

“Yes, I am listening” or “Yes, what is it?” See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

1813

GEN

27

19

rss2

0

I have done as you said to me

“I have done what you told me to do”

1814

GEN

27

19

h2fq

0

some of my game

The word “game” refers to wild animals that someone hunts and kills. See how “game” was translated in Genesis 27:3.

1815

GEN

27

20

rke8

0

He said

“Jacob replied”

1816

GEN

27

20

wk6c

figs-idiom

0

brought it to me

This is an idiom meaning that God caused it to happen. Alternate translation: “helped me to succeed while hunting” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1817

GEN

27

21

jmh1

0

whether you are my true son Esau or not

“if you are really my son Esau”

1818

GEN

27

22

zy8a

0

Jacob went over to Isaac his father

“Jacob approached Isaac his father”

1819

GEN

27

22

g574

figs-synecdoche

0

The voice is Jacob’s voice

Here Issac speaks of Jacob’s voice as representing Jacob. Alternate translation: “You sound like Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1820

GEN

27

22

yi47

figs-synecdoche

0

but the hands are the hands of Esau

Here Issac speaks of Esau’s hands as representing Esau. Alternate translation: “but your hands feel like Esau’s hands” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1821

GEN

27

24

wi51

figs-events

0

He said

Isaac asks this question before blessing his son. Alternate translation: “But first Isaac asked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])

1822

GEN

27

25

sqb8

0

eat of your game

The word “game” refers to a wild animal that people hunt and kill. See how “game” was translated in Genesis 27:7.

1823

GEN

27

25

w6sf

0

he drank

“Isaac drank it”

1824

GEN

27

27

tr1w

figs-explicit

0

he smelled the smell of his clothes and blessed him

It can be made explicit that the clothes smelled like Esau’s clothes. Alternate translation: “he smelled his clothes and they smelled like Esau’s clothes, so Isaac blessed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1825

GEN

27

27

nr5p

0

he smelled

“Isaac smelled”

1826

GEN

27

27

e57u

0

the smell

“the scent”

1827

GEN

27

27

t86t

0

blessed him

“then he blessed him.” This refers to the formal blessing a father pronounces on his children.

1828

GEN

27

27

m1kb

0

See, the smell of my son

The word “see” is used as an emphatic figure of speech to mean “it is true.” Alternate translation: “Truly, the smell of my son”

1829

GEN

27

27

s46h

figs-idiom

0

that Yahweh has blessed

Here the word “blessed” means that Yahweh has caused good things to happen to the field and it has become fruitful. Alternate translation: “that Yahweh has caused to be very productive” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1830

GEN

27

28

q1wj

0

General Information:

This is Isaac’s blessing. He thought he was speaking to Esau, but he was speaking to Jacob.

1831

GEN

27

28

e1me

figs-you

0

give you

Here “you” is singular and refers to Jacob. But the blessing would also apply to Jacob’s descendants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1832

GEN

27

28

v1nn

figs-explicit

0

dew of heaven

“Dew” is drops of water that form on the plants during the night. This can be made explicit in the translation. Alternate translation: “night mist from heaven to water your crops” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1833

GEN

27

28

wst4

figs-metaphor

0

fatness of the earth

Having fertile land is spoken of as if the earth were fat or rich. Alternate translation: “good soil for producing crops” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1834

GEN

27

28

hlu3

figs-explicit

0

plenty of grain and new wine

If “grain” and “wine” are unknown, this can be stated more generally. Alternate translation: “plenty of food and drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1835

GEN

27

29

z9hr

figs-you

0

you…your

Here these pronouns are singular and refer to Jacob. But the blessing also applies to Jacob’s descendants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1836

GEN

27

29

i4ct

figs-metonymy

0

nations bow down

Here “nations” refers to the people. Alternate translation: “people from all nations bow down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1837

GEN

27

29

qa8g

translate-symaction

0

bow down

This means to bend over to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

1838

GEN

27

29

z1qi

0

Be master over your brothers

“Become a master over your brothers”

1839

GEN

27

29

lvg1

figs-synecdoche

0

your brothers…your mother’s sons

Isaac is speaking this blessing directly to Jacob. But, it also applies to Jacob’s descendants who will rule over the descendants of Esau and the descendants of any other of Jacob’s brothers that he may have. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1840

GEN

27

29

vc3p

0

may your mother’s sons bow down to you

“your mother’s sons will bow down to you”

1841

GEN

27

29

af44

figs-activepassive

0

May every one who curses you be cursed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “May God curse everyone who curses you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1842

GEN

27

29

rwr2

figs-activepassive

0

may every one who blesses you be blessed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “May God bless everyone who blesses you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1843

GEN

27

30

dae7

0

had scarcely gone out from the presence of Isaac his father

“had just left the tent of Isaac his father”

1844

GEN

27

31

htl4

0

delicious food

“tasty meat that I love.” See how this was translated in Genesis 27:3.

1845

GEN

27

31

jjd8

figs-123person

0

some of your son’s game

Here “your son’s” was a polite way of Esau referring to his own food he prepared. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1846

GEN

27

31

r39y

0

your son’s game

The word “game” refers to wild animals that people hunt to eat. See how “game” was translated in Genesis 27:7.

1847

GEN

27

31

p6yp

0

bless me

This refers to the formal blessing a father pronounces on his children.

1848

GEN

27

32

qzp4

0

said to him

“said to Esau”

1849

GEN

27

33

s8l1

0

Isaac trembled

“Isaac began to shake”

1850

GEN

27

33

vrt1

0

hunted this game

Game refers to a wild animal that people hunt and kill. See how “game” was translated in Genesis 27:7.

1851

GEN

27

34

g5y4

figs-metaphor

0

he cried with a very great and bitter cry

Esau’s anguish was similar to the taste of something bitter. Alternate translation: “he cried loudly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1852

GEN

27

35

xrv3

figs-metaphor

0

has taken away your blessing

This is a figure of speech meaning Jacob took what was Esau’s. Alternate translation: “I have blessed him instead of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1853

GEN

27

36

vpk4

figs-rquestion

0

Is he not rightly named Jacob?

Esau uses a question to emphasize his anger at Jacob. Alternate translation: “Jacob is certainly the right name for my brother!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1854

GEN

27

36

rq3b

0

Jacob

Translators may also add a footnote that says: “The name Jacob means ‘he grasps the heel.’ In the original language the name ‘Jacob’ also sounds like the word for ‘he deceives.’”

1855

GEN

27

36

s7al

figs-metaphor

0

He took away my birthright

This speaks about a birthright as if it were an object that a person could take away. Alternate translation: “What was once my birthright is now his because he tricked me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1856

GEN

27

36

d3f1

figs-metaphor

0

now he has taken away my blessing

This speaks about a blessing as if it were an object that person could take away. Alternate translation: “now he has tricked you into blessing him instead of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1857

GEN

27

36

bej9

0

Have you not reserved a blessing for me

Esau knows that his father cannot bless him with the same things that he blessed Jacob. Esau is asking if there is anything left to say to him that Isaac did not say while blessing Jacob.

1858

GEN

27

37

z3vr

figs-rquestion

0

What more can I do for you, my son?

Isaac uses a question to emphasize that there is nothing else he can do. Alternate translation: “There is nothing else I can do for you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1859

GEN

27

38

xf7q

0

Have you not even one blessing for me, my father

This can be stated in positive form. “My father, do you have one more blessing for me”

1860

GEN

27

39

yu4i

0

said to him

“said to Esau”

1861

GEN

27

39

j4p8

0

Look, the place

“Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: the place”

1862

GEN

27

39

ykr5

figs-metaphor

0

far from the richness of the earth

This is a figure of speech referring to the earth’s fertility. Alternate translation: “far from the fertile soil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1863

GEN

27

39

xpl9

figs-explicit

0

dew of the sky above

“Dew” is drops of water that form on the plants during the night. This can be made explicit in the translation. Alternate translation: “the night mist from the sky to water your crops” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1864

GEN

27

40

vn48

figs-synecdoche

0

your…you

In 27:39-40 these pronouns are singular and refer to Esau, but what Isaac says also applies to Esau’s descendants (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1865

GEN

27

40

tzg9

figs-metonymy

0

By your sword you will live

Here “sword” stands for violence. Alternate translation: “You will rob and kill people in order to get what you need to live” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1866

GEN

27

40

rvk2

figs-metaphor

0

you will shake his yoke from off your neck

This speaks about someone having a master as if the master’s control over the person were a yoke that the person had to carry. Alternate translation: “you will free yourself from his control” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1867

GEN

27

41

ajl9

figs-synecdoche

0

Esau said in his heart

Here “heart” stands for Esau himself. Alternate translation: “Esau said to himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1868

GEN

27

41

f5u3

0

days of mourning for my father are near

This refers to a number of days a person grieves when a family member dies.

1869

GEN

27

42

xuy8

figs-activepassive

0

The words of Esau her older son were told to Rebekah

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone told Rebekah about Esau’s plan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1870

GEN

27

42

f45j

0

See

“Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

1871

GEN

27

42

n35u

0

is consoling himself

“is making himself feel better”

1872

GEN

27

43

n2yn

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

1873

GEN

27

43

h9zp

0

flee to Laban

“leave here quickly and go to Laban”

1874

GEN

27

44

f6w6

0

for a while

“for a period of time”

1875

GEN

27

44

nuh4

0

until your brother’s fury subsides

“until you brother calms down”

1876

GEN

27

45

bkx2

figs-metaphor

0

until your brother’s anger turns away from you

No longer being angry is spoken of as if the anger turns to a different direction away from the person. Alternate translation: “until he is no longer angry with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1877

GEN

27

45

s57p

figs-rquestion

0

Why should I lose you both in one day?

Rebekah uses a question to emphasize her concern. Alternate translation: “I do not want to lose both of you in one day!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1878

GEN

27

45

b5v1

figs-explicit

0

I lose you both in one day

It is implied that if Esau kills Jacob, then they will execute Esau as a murderer. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1879

GEN

27

45

mt31

figs-euphemism

0

I lose

This is a polite way of referring to her sons dying. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1880

GEN

27

46

z2lw

figs-hyperbole

0

I am weary of life

Rebekah is exaggerating to emphasize how upset she is about the Hittite women that Esau married. Alternate translation: “I am terribly upset” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

1881

GEN

27

46

d19k

0

the daughters of Heth

“these Hittite women” or “descendants of Heth”

1882

GEN

27

46

ujy2

figs-idiom

0

like these women, some of the daughters of the land

The phrase “daughters of the land” means the local females. Alternate translation: “like these women who live in this land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1883

GEN

27

46

z91x

figs-rquestion

0

what good will my life be to me?

Rebekah uses a question to emphasize how upset she would be if Jacob marries a Hittite woman. Alternate translation: “My life will be awful!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1884

GEN

28

intro

t611

0

Genesis 28 General Notes

Structure and formatting

Even though Jacob tricked his father in order to receive Esau’s blessing, the chapter repeats the blessing, ensuring he inherits the blessings promised to Abraham. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

Special concepts in this chapter

Jacob’s dream

Jacob had a dream or received a vision. The purpose of this dream is to show that, despite Jacob’s sin, God is giving Abraham’s covenant promises to Jacob and his descendants. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

Bethel

This was an important city for Abraham and his descendants. It is possible that there is some theological significance to the city of Bethel.

1885

GEN

28

1

nl2p

0

You must not take

“Do not take”

1886

GEN

28

2

jcc6

0

Arise, go

“Go right away”

1887

GEN

28

2

ptv8

translate-names

0

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. See how this was translated in Genesis 25:20. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1888

GEN

28

2

dv3j

figs-metonymy

0

house of

This refers to a person’s descendants or other relatives. Alternate translation: “family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1889

GEN

28

2

m29w

translate-names

0

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah’s father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1890

GEN

28

2

dh9y

0

your mother’s father

“your grandfather”

1891

GEN

28

2

fqr7

0

one of the daughters

“from the daughters”

1892

GEN

28

2

a74b

0

your mother’s brother

“your uncle”

1893

GEN

28

3

u2mm

0

General Information:

Isaac continues speaking to Jacob

1894

GEN

28

3

qw5a

figs-doublet

0

make you fruitful and multiply you

The word “multiply” explains how God would make Jacob “fruitful.” Alternate translation: “give you many children and descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1895

GEN

28

4

nas7

figs-metaphor

0

May he give you the blessing of Abraham, to you, and to your descendants after you

This speaks about blessing someone as if a blessing were an object that a person can give. The abstract noun “the blessing” can be stated as “bless.” Alternate translation: “May God bless you and your descendants as he blessed Abraham” or “May God give to you and your descendants what he promised to Abraham” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

1896

GEN

28

4

eja3

figs-metaphor

0

that you may inherit the land

God giving the land of Canaan to Jacob and his descendants is spoken of as if a child were inheriting money or possessions from his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1897

GEN

28

4

da2s

0

the land where you have been living

“the land where you have been staying”

1898

GEN

28

4

yx4w

0

which God gave to Abraham

“which God promised to Abraham”

1899

GEN

28

5

c4ky

translate-names

0

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. See how this was translated in Genesis 25:20. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1900

GEN

28

5

ses3

translate-names

0

Bethuel

Bethuel was Rebekah’s father. See how you translated this name in Genesis 22:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1901

GEN

28

6

b2pg

0

General Information:

The story changes from Jacob to Esau

1902

GEN

28

6

mjy9

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Esau. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1903

GEN

28

6

ic25

translate-names

0

Paddan Aram

This was another name for the region of Mesopotamia, which about the same location as modern Iraq. See how this was translated in Genesis 25:20. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1904

GEN

28

6

avf6

0

to take a wife

“to take a wife for himself”

1905

GEN

28

6

epz3

0

He also saw that Isaac had blessed him

“Esau also saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob”

1906

GEN

28

6

xj5i

0

You must not take

“Do not take”

1907

GEN

28

6

sp4g

0

women of Canaan

“daughters of Canaan” or “Canaanite women”

1908

GEN

28

8

gmv1

0

General Information:

This continues the background information about Esau.

1909

GEN

28

8

h454

0

Esau saw

“Esau realized”

1910

GEN

28

8

a14e

0

the women of Canaan did not please Isaac his father

“his father Isaac did not approve of the women of Canaan”

1911

GEN

28

8

sp9b

0

women of Canaan

“daughters of Canaan” or “the Canaanite women”

1912

GEN

28

9

pn6x

0

So he went

“Because of that, he went”

1913

GEN

28

9

e5ya

0

besides the wives that he had

“in addition to the wives that he already had”

1914

GEN

28

9

l4pn

translate-names

0

Mahalath

This is the name of one of Ishmael’s daughters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1915

GEN

28

9

su64

translate-names

0

Nebaioth

This is the name of one of Ishmael’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1916

GEN

28

10

uh6w

0

General Information:

The story switches back to Jacob

1917

GEN

28

11

ru38

0

He came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun had set

“He came to a certain place and, because the sun had set, he decided to stay for the night”

1918

GEN

28

12

mwk8

0

He dreamed

“Jacob had a dream”

1919

GEN

28

12

z48g

0

set up on the earth

“with the bottom of it touching the ground”

1920

GEN

28

12

pn7d

0

reached to heaven

This refers to the place where God lives.

1921

GEN

28

13

ax75

0

Behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

1922

GEN

28

13

wwx2

0

Yahweh stood above it

Possible meanings are (1) “Yahweh was standing at the top of the stairway” or (2) “Yahweh was standing next to Jacob”

1923

GEN

28

13

a91d

0

Abraham your father

Here “father” means “ancestor.” Alternate translation: “Abraham your ancestor” or “Abraham your forefather”

1924

GEN

28

14

j413

0

General Information:

God continues to talk to Jacob in a dream.

1925

GEN

28

14

wu5i

figs-simile

0

Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth

God compares Jacob’s descendants to the dust of the earth to emphasize their huge number. Alternate translation: “You will have more descendants than you can count” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

1926

GEN

28

14

pyi5

figs-metonymy

0

you will spread far out to the west

The word “you” is singular and refers to Jacob. Here Jacob represents his descendants. Alternate translation: “your descendants will spread out to the west” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1927

GEN

28

14

fby4

0

you will spread far out

This means the people will extend the borders of their land and occupy more territory.

1928

GEN

28

14

hn6s

figs-synecdoche

0

to the west, to the east, to the north, and to the south

This phrases are used together to mean “all directions.” Alternate translation: “in all directions” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1929

GEN

28

14

i1qm

figs-activepassive

0

Through you and through your descendants will all the families of the earth be blessed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “I will bless all families on the earth through you and your descendants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1930

GEN

28

15

yb1m

0

Behold, I am

“Pay attention, because what I am about to say is both true and important: I am”

1931

GEN

28

15

n4tr

0

for I will not leave you. I will do all

“for I will not leave you until I have done all”

1932

GEN

28

15

gr8q

0

I will keep you

“I will keep you safe” or “I will protect you”

1933

GEN

28

15

em1w

0

I will bring you into this land again

“I will bring you back to this land”

1934

GEN

28

16

t191

0

awoke out of his sleep

“woke up from his sleep”

1935

GEN

28

17

h8p1

figs-doublet

0

the house of God…the gate of heaven

The phrase “the gate of heaven” explains that this place is the entrance to “the house of God” and “the entrance to where God lives.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

1936

GEN

28

17

hc3f

figs-metaphor

0

This is the gate of heaven

This speaks about the entrance to the place where God lives as if it were a literal kingdom that had a gate that someone has to open to let people in. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1937

GEN

28

18

e2b6

0

pillar

This is a memorial pillar, that is, simply a large stone or boulder set up on its end.

1938

GEN

28

18

grd4

translate-symaction

0

poured oil upon the top of it

This action symbolizes that Jacob is dedicating the pillar to God. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “poured oil on the top of it in order to dedicate the pillar to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1939

GEN

28

19

hv4e

0

Bethel

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Bethel means ‘house of God.’”

1940

GEN

28

19

u3i9

translate-names

0

Luz

This is the name of a city. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1941

GEN

28

20

bas3

0

Connecting Statement:

Jacob begins to make a vow to Yahweh.

1942

GEN

28

20

p422

0

vowed a vow

“made a vow” or “solemnly promised God”

1943

GEN

28

20

dm3m

figs-123person

0

If God will…clothes to wear

Jacob is speaking to God in the third person. This can be stated in the second person. Alternate translation: “If you will…clothes to wear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1944

GEN

28

20

ye9d

figs-metonymy

0

on this road on which I am walking

This stands for Jacob’s journey to find a wife and to return home. Alternate translation: “on this journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1945

GEN

28

20

vwl3

figs-synecdoche

0

will give me bread to eat

Here “bread” stands for food in general. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

1946

GEN

28

21

t1uz

0

Connecting Statement:

The vow that began with the words “If God will…clothes to wear” in verse 20 continues here.

1947

GEN

28

21

my56

figs-123person

0

so that I return safely…then Yahweh will be my God

The vow that began with the words “If God will…clothes to wear” in verse 20 continues here. Jacob is speaking to God in the third person. This can be stated in the second person. “If you will…clothes to wear…so that I return safely…then you, Yahweh, will be the God that I will worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

1948

GEN

28

21

lw1z

figs-metonymy

0

to my father’s house

Here “house” stands for Jacob’s family. Alternate translation: “to my father and the rest of my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1949

GEN

28

22

auv9

0

a sacred stone

This means that the stone will mark the place where God appeared to him and it will be a place where people can worship God. Alternate translation: “God’s house” or “God’s place”

1950

GEN

29

intro

cbq8

0

Genesis 29 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter records the conflict between Jacob’s wives, Rachel and Leah. This account continues into the next chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Shepherds

Although the exact reasoning for the shepherds’ unwillingness to give water to the sheep is unknown, it is probable they were being lazy. The actions of these shepherds contrast Jacob’s actions.

Kissing

It was common in the ancient Near East for relatives to greet each other with a kiss. There was nothing sexual about this type of kissing.

Marriage

It was customary in the ancient Near East for a man to work for a woman’s father in order to earn the right to marry her. It is unknown how common it was for a father to have his younger daughter marry before an older daughter. It was also sinful for Jacob to marry more than one wife. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

1951

GEN

29

1

lq7q

0

the people of the east

This means the people of Paddan Aram, which is a land east of the land of Canaan.

1952

GEN

29

2

jxn8

0

and, behold, three flocks of sheep were lying there by it

The word “behold” marks the beginning of another event in the larger story. Your language may have a way of doing this.

1953

GEN

29

2

hn73

writing-background

0

For out of that well

“For from that well.” This phrase marks a change from the story to background information about how the shepherds watered the flocks. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1954

GEN

29

2

lfz9

0

they would water

“the shepherds would water” or “those taking care of the sheep would water”

1955

GEN

29

2

e7ms

figs-idiom

0

the well’s mouth

Here “mouth” is a way of referring to an opening. Alternate translation: “the opening of the well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1956

GEN

29

4

uup8

0

Jacob said to them

“Jacob said to the shepherds”

1957

GEN

29

4

th3u

0

My brothers

This is a polite way to greet a stranger.

1958

GEN

29

5

l8t8

0

Laban son of Nahor

Here “son” refers to a male descendant. Another possible meaning is “Laban the grandson of Nahor.”

1959

GEN

29

6

g1kl

0

and, look there, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep

“Now look! Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep”

1960

GEN

29

7

vjn6

0

it is the middle of the day

“the sun is still high in the sky” or “the sun is still shining brightly”

1961

GEN

29

7

wsp1

figs-activepassive

0

for the flocks to be gathered together

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “for you to gather the flocks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1962

GEN

29

7

kul5

figs-explicit

0

to be gathered together

This means to gather them together inside a fence for them to stay for the night. The full meaning of this can be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1963

GEN

29

7

eea1

0

let them graze

“let them eat grass in the field”

1964

GEN

29

8

vp42

0

We cannot water them

“We have to wait to water them.” This has to do with timing, not permission.

1965

GEN

29

8

w41a

figs-activepassive

0

until all the flocks are gathered together

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “until the other shepherds gather their flocks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1966

GEN

29

8

q2rs

figs-idiom

0

from the well’s mouth

Here “mouth” is way of referring to an opening. Alternate translation: “from the well” or “from the opening of the well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1967

GEN

29

8

f3hm

0

and we will water the sheep

“then we will water the sheep”

1968

GEN

29

10

lk18

0

his mother’s brother

“his uncle”

1969

GEN

29

10

l4ls

figs-idiom

0

the well’s mouth

Here “mouth” is a way of referring to an opening. Alternate translation: “the well” or “the opening of the well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

1970

GEN

29

11

dr7v

0

Jacob kissed Rachel

In ancient Near East, it is common to greet a relative with a kiss. However, it is normally done between men. If your language has an affectionate greeting for a relative, use that. If not, use what is appropriate.

1971

GEN

29

11

bje4

figs-explicit

0

wept loudly

Jacob weeps because he is so happy. The full meaning of this statement can be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1972

GEN

29

12

rxl5

0

her father’s relative

“related to her father”

1973

GEN

29

13

vkr1

0

his sister’s son

“his nephew”

1974

GEN

29

13

g5et

0

embraced him

“hugged him”

1975

GEN

29

13

arl7

0

kissed him

In ancient Near East, it is common to greet a relative with a kiss. However, it is normally done between men. If your language has an affectionate greeting for a relative, use that. If not, use what is appropriate.

1976

GEN

29

13

ze3q

0

Jacob told Laban all these things

“then Jacob told Laban everything he told Rachel”

1977

GEN

29

14

klc2

figs-metonymy

0

my bone and my flesh

This phrase means they are directly related. Alternate translation: “my relative” or “a member of my family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1978

GEN

29

15

i5a9

figs-rquestion

0

Should you serve me for nothing…my relative?

Laban uses a question to emphasize that he should pay Jacob for working for him. The question can be translated as a statement. This can also be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “It is certainly right that I should pay you for working for me even though you are my relative.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

1979

GEN

29

16

yvd6

writing-background

0

Now Laban had

The word “now” is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Laban and his daughters. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1980

GEN

29

17

daa9

0

Leah’s eyes were tender

Possible meanings are (1) “Leah’s eyes were pretty” or (2) “Leah’s eyes were plain”

1981

GEN

29

18

jsx9

0

Jacob loved Rachel

Here the word “loved” refers to a romantic attraction between a man and a woman.

1982

GEN

29

19

d6zk

0

than that I should give her to another man

“rather than give her to another man”

1983

GEN

29

20

p6uz

0

and they seemed to him only a few days

“but the time seemed to him to be only a few days”

1984

GEN

29

20

p7wx

0

for the love he had for her

“on account of the love he had for her” or “because of his love for her”

1985

GEN

29

21

nz7t

figs-activepassive

0

Give me my wife, for my days have been completed—so that I may marry her!

The phrase “have been completed” can be stated in active form. The statement is emphatic. Alternate translation: Give me my wife, so that I may marry her, for I have completed the length of time that I was to work for you!”Give me Rachel so that I may marry her, for I have worked seven years for you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

1986

GEN

29

22

kln5

figs-metonymy

0

made a feast

“prepared a wedding feast.” Most likely Laban had others prepare the feast. Alternate translation: “had others prepare a wedding feast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

1987

GEN

29

23

q4m4

figs-euphemism

0

who went in to her

“who had sexual relations with her.” You may need to use other, more polite words here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1988

GEN

29

24

yic2

writing-background

0

Laban gave his female servant Zilpah…her servant

Here the author gives background information about Laban giving Zilpah to Leah. Most likely he gave Zilpah to Leah before the wedding. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

1989

GEN

29

24

n874

translate-names

0

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah’s female servant. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1990

GEN

29

25

m2hu

0

behold, it was Leah

“Jacob was surprised to see it was Leah in bed with him.” The word “behold” here shows that Jacob was surprised by what he saw.

1991

GEN

29

25

ji15

figs-rquestion

0

What is this you have done to me?

Jacob uses a question to express his anger and surprise. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “I cannot believe you did this to me!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1992

GEN

29

25

g6rs

figs-rquestion

0

Did I not serve you for Rachel?

Jacob uses these questions to express his hurt that Laban had tricked him. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “I served you for seven years to marry Rachel!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

1993

GEN

29

26

gfg2

0

It is not our custom to give

“In our family we do not give”

1994

GEN

29

27

ly1t

0

Complete the bridal week of this daughter

“Finish celebrating Leah’s bridal week”

1995

GEN

29

27

vma8

figs-explicit

0

we will give you the other also

The full meaning can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “next week we will give you Rachel also” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

1996

GEN

29

28

a6qr

0

Jacob did so, and completed Leah’s week

“And Jacob did what Laban asked, and finished celebrating Leah’s bridal week”

1997

GEN

29

29

g7yl

translate-names

0

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel’s female servant. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

1998

GEN

29

30

zix1

figs-euphemism

0

Jacob went in to Rachel

“Jacob had sexual relations with Rachel.” You may need to use other, more polite words here. See how similar words are translated in Genesis 29:23. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

1999

GEN

29

30

q996

0

he loved Rachel

This refers to the romantic love between a man and a woman.

2000

GEN

29

31

s19a

figs-activepassive

0

Leah was not loved

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Jacob did not love Leah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2001

GEN

29

31

lk3e

figs-hyperbole

0

not loved

This is an exaggeration to emphasize that Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah. Alternate translation: “loved less than Rachel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

2002

GEN

29

31

t2ud

figs-metaphor

0

so he opened her womb

God causing Leah to be able to become pregnant is spoken of as if God is opening her womb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2003

GEN

29

31

snn8

0

was childless

“was not able to become pregnant”

2004

GEN

29

32

w9x3

0

Leah conceived and bore a son

“Leah became pregnant and gave birth to a son”

2005

GEN

29

32

j9j3

translate-names

0

she called his name Reuben

Translators may also add a footnote that says: “The name Reuben means ‘See, a son.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2006

GEN

29

32

p4ip

figs-abstractnouns

0

Yahweh has looked upon my affliction

Leah was experiencing emotional pain because Jacob had rejected her. The abstract noun “affliction” can be stated as a verb. Alternate translation: “Yahweh saw that I was suffering” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2007

GEN

29

33

ff7r

0

Then she conceived

“Then Leah became pregnant”

2008

GEN

29

33

jl8z

0

bore a son

“gave birth to a son”

2009

GEN

29

33

djc1

figs-activepassive

0

Yahweh has heard that I am unloved

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Yahweh has heard that my husband does not love me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2010

GEN

29

33

dlg9

translate-names

0

she called his name Simeon

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Simeon means ‘heard.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2011

GEN

29

34

tv8t

0

will my husband be attached to me

“my husband will embrace me”

2012

GEN

29

34

q2up

0

I have borne him three sons

“I have given birth to three sons for him”

2013

GEN

29

34

bz8c

translate-names

0

his name was called Levi

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Levi means ‘attached.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2014

GEN

29

35

x9x6

0

She conceived again

“Leah became pregnant again”

2015

GEN

29

35

acb5

0

bore a son

“gave birth to a son”

2016

GEN

29

35

xp9g

translate-names

0

she called his name Judah

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Judah means ‘praise.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2017

GEN

30

intro

g8rn

0

Genesis 30 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter continues the story of the conflict between Rachel and Leah.

Special concepts in this chapter

Women and their children

In the ancient Near East, it was important for a married woman to have many children. If a woman did not have many children, people believed it brought shame upon her. This is one of the reasons why Rachel and Leah were always jealous of each other. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/jealous]])

Speckled and spotted

Speckled and spotted sheep were considered to be imperfect. Therefore, they were considered to be much less valuable than the spotless sheep. Despite Jacob’s fair offer, Laban once again tried to cheat him out of something he deserved. Jacob anticipated Laban’s cheating.

2018

GEN

30

1

b8mq

0

When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children

“When Rachel realized that she was unable to become preganant”

2019

GEN

30

1

ct56

figs-hyperbole

0

I will die

Rachel is exaggerating to show how upset she is about not having children. Alternate translation: “I will feel completely worthless” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

2020

GEN

30

1

v6l6

0

Give me children

“Cause me to become pregnant”

2021

GEN

30

2

rs2s

figs-metaphor

0

Jacob’s anger burned against Rachel

Jacob’s anger is spoken of as if it were a fire. Alternate translation: “Jacob was very angry with Rachel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2022

GEN

30

2

b7dm

figs-rquestion

0

Am I in the place of God, who has kept you from having children?

This is a rhetorical question that Jacob uses to scold Rachel. It can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am not God! I am not the one who is preventing you from having children!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2023

GEN

30

3

dh9k

0

She said

“Rachel said”

2024

GEN

30

3

y5pn

0

See

“Look” or “Listen” or “Pay attention to what I am about to tell you”

2025

GEN

30

3

rc5q

figs-explicit

0

there is my servant Bilhah…I will have children by her

At that time, this was an acceptable way for a barren woman to have children that would legally belong to her. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2026

GEN

30

3

u6p8

0

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29.

2027

GEN

30

3

fqb3

figs-euphemism

0

Go in to her

This is a polite way of talking about sexual relations. You may need to use different words in your language. Alternate translation: “Have sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2028

GEN

30

3

jt2n

figs-idiom

0

on my knees

This is a way of saying that the child that Bilhah gives birth to will belong to Rachel. Alternate translation: “for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2029

GEN

30

3

fu33

0

I will have children by her

“and in this way she will cause me to have children”

2030

GEN

30

4

m19u

figs-euphemism

0

Jacob went in to her

This is a polite way of talking about sexual relations. You may need to use different words in your language. Alternate translation: “Jacob had sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2031

GEN

30

5

e6rx

0

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29.

2032

GEN

30

5

j1wf

0

bore Jacob a son

“gave birth to a son for Jacob”

2033

GEN

30

6

m82y

0

she called his name

“Rachel gave him the name”

2034

GEN

30

6

qy9x

translate-names

0

called his name Dan

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Dan means ‘he judged.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2035

GEN

30

7

d11y

0

Bilhah…conceived again

“Bilhah…became pregnant again”

2036

GEN

30

7

e4tc

0

bore Jacob a second son

“gave birth to a second son for Jacob”

2037

GEN

30

8

xbz2

figs-idiom

0

With mighty wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister

The phrase “wrestlings have I wrestled” is an idiom used for emphasis. It is also a metaphor that speaks of Rachel’s attempts to have a child like her sister as if she were having a physical fight with Leah. Alternate translation: “I have had a great struggle to have children like my older sister, Leah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2038

GEN

30

8

p9q6

0

have prevailed

“I have won” or “I have succeeded”

2039

GEN

30

8

gy77

0

called his name Naphtali

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Naphtali means ‘my struggle.’”

2040

GEN

30

9

n7if

0

When Leah saw that

“When Leah became aware that”

2041

GEN

30

9

ct6f

0

she took Zilpah, her servant, and gave her to Jacob as a wife

“she gave Zilpah, her servant, to Jacob as a wife”

2042

GEN

30

9

mw56

0

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah’s female servant. See how you translated this in Genesis 29:24.

2043

GEN

30

10

pf1k

0

bore Jacob a son

“gave birth to a son for Jacob”

2044

GEN

30

11

ml48

0

This is fortunate!

“How fortunate!” or “What good luck!”

2045

GEN

30

11

hmk8

0

called his name Gad

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Gad means ‘fortunate.’”

2046

GEN

30

12

sp7h

translate-names

0

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:24. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2047

GEN

30

12

cbx9

0

bore Jacob a second son

“gave birth to a second son for Jacob”

2048

GEN

30

13

c2du

0

I am happy!

“How blessed I am!” or “How happy I am!”

2049

GEN

30

13

i9pt

0

the daughters

“the women” or “the young women”

2050

GEN

30

13

q84q

translate-names

0

called his name Asher

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Asher means ‘happy.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2051

GEN

30

14

k7d6

0

Reuben went

“Reuben went out”

2052

GEN

30

14

yv13

figs-idiom

0

in the days of wheat harvest

Here the phrase “in the days of” is an idiom that refers to the season or time of year. Alternate translation: “at the time of year of the wheat harvest” or “during the wheat harvest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2053

GEN

30

14

t6zn

translate-unknown

0

mandrakes

This is a fruit that was said to increase fertility and the desire to sleep with one’s lover. Alternate translation: “love fruit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

2054

GEN

30

15

uq87

figs-rquestion

0

Is it a small matter to you…my husband?

“Do you not care…my husband?” This is a rhetorical question used to scold Rachel. This question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “It is bad enough…my husband.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2055

GEN

30

15

h684

figs-rquestion

0

Do you now want…too?

This is a rhetorical question, used to scold Rachel. This question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “Now you want…too!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2056

GEN

30

15

ku4g

figs-euphemism

0

Then he will lie with you

Here “lie with” is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “Then Jacob will have sexual intercourse with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2057

GEN

30

16

y5di

figs-euphemism

0

You must come in to me

Here “come in to” is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “You must have sexual intercourse with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2058

GEN

30

16

c6r1

0

with my son’s mandrakes

“for the price of my son’s mandrakes.” See how you translated “mandrake” in Genesis 30:14.

2059

GEN

30

17

k8h8

0

she conceived

“She became pregnant”

2060

GEN

30

17

ew6t

0

bore Jacob a fifth son

“gave birth to a fifth son for Jacob”

2061

GEN

30

18

k9kl

figs-metaphor

0

God has given me my wages

God rewarding Leah is spoken of as if he were a boss paying wages to someone who works for him. Alternate translation: “God has given my due” or “God has rewarded me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2062

GEN

30

18

n1d3

0

She called his name Issachar

Translators may also add a footnote that says: “The name Issachar means ‘there is a reward.’”

2063

GEN

30

19

u4y3

0

Leah conceived again

“Leah became pregnant again”

2064

GEN

30

19

i5p8

0

bore a sixth son to Jacob

“gave birth to a sixth son for Jacob”

2065

GEN

30

20

my2k

0

She called his name Zebulun

Translators may also add a footnote that says: “The name Zebulun means ‘honor.’”

2066

GEN

30

21

glq4

translate-names

0

called her name Dinah

This is the name of Leah’s daughter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2067

GEN

30

22

tj2w

figs-idiom

0

God called Rachel to mind and listened to her

The phrase “call to mind” means to remember. This does not mean God forgot about Rachel. It means he considered her request. Alternate translation: “God considered Rachel and granted to her what she wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2068

GEN

30

23

ql6d

figs-metaphor

0

God has taken away my shame

God causing Rachel to no longer feel ashamed is spoken of as if “shame” were an object that person could take away from someone else. The abstract noun “shame” can be stated as “ashamed.” Alternate translation: “God has caused me to no longer feel ashamed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2069

GEN

30

24

lyt5

translate-names

0

She called his name Joseph

Translators may also add a footnote that says: “The name Joseph means ‘may he add.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2070

GEN

30

24

lif6

0

Yahweh has added to me another son

Rachel’s first sons were through her female servant Bilhah.

2071

GEN

30

25

a2ai

0

After Rachel had borne Joseph

“After Rachel gave birth to Joseph”

2072

GEN

30

26

jpd7

0

and let me go

“so I can go”

2073

GEN

30

26

n1c9

figs-abstractnouns

0

you know the service I have given you

Jacob is reminding Laban of their contract (Genesis Gen 29:27). The abstract noun “service” can be stated as “served.” Alternate translation: “you know that I have served you long enough” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2074

GEN

30

27

wnz1

0

Laban said to him

“Laban said to Jacob”

2075

GEN

30

27

f6ny

figs-metaphor

0

If now I have found favor in your eyes

The eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “If I have found favor with you” or “If you are pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2076

GEN

30

27

hl6m

figs-idiom

0

found favor

This is an idiom that means that someone is approved of by someone else. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2077

GEN

30

27

f5lu

0

wait, because

“please stay, because”

2078

GEN

30

27

ww4z

0

I have learned by using divination

“I have discovered by my own spiritual and magical practices”

2079

GEN

30

27

nl2u

0

for your sake

“because of you”

2080

GEN

30

28

unx9

figs-explicit

0

Name your wages

This can be made more explicit. Alternate translation: “Tell me how much I have to pay to keep you here” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2081

GEN

30

29

wk5n

0

Jacob said to him

“Jacob said to Laban”

2082

GEN

30

29

va18

0

how your livestock have fared with me

“how well your livestock have done since I started taking care of them”

2083

GEN

30

30

wm8b

0

For you had little before I came

“your herds were small before I worked for you”

2084

GEN

30

30

cxf4

0

and it has increased abundantly

“but now your wealth has greatly increased”

2085

GEN

30

30

yq88

figs-rquestion

0

Now when will I provide for my own household also?

“Now when will I take care of my own family?” Jacob uses a question to emphasize that he wants to start providing for his own family. This question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “Now I want to take care of my family!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2086

GEN

30

31

guq7

figs-explicit

0

What will I pay you

“What can I pay you” or “What can I give you.” This can be made more explicit. Alternate translation: “What can I pay you so that you stay and work for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2087

GEN

30

31

p7p2

grammar-connect-words-phrases

0

If you will do this thing for me

The connecting word “But” can be used at the beginning to show that what Jacob is about to say contrasts with what he just said. Alternate translation: “But if you will do this thing for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])

2088

GEN

30

31

b25k

0

this thing

The phrase “this thing” refers to what Jacob will propose in verse 32.

2089

GEN

30

31

b9ys

0

feed your flock and keep it

“feed and take care of your flock”

2090

GEN

30

32

d9j2

0

removing from it every speckled and spotted sheep, and every black one among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats

“and remove every sheep with spots, every black sheep, and every goat with spots”

2091

GEN

30

32

nqn7

0

These will be my wages

“This will be the cost of keeping me here”

2092

GEN

30

33

rd2c

figs-personification

0

My integrity will testify for me later on

The word “integrity” means “honesty.” This speaks about integrity as if it were a person who could testify for or against another person. Alternate translation: “And later you will know if I have been honest with you or not” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2093

GEN

30

33

c2ni

figs-activepassive

0

Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and black among the sheep, if any are found with me, will be considered to be stolen

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “If you find any goats without spots or any sheep that are not black, you can consider them stolen” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2094

GEN

30

34

uk57

0

Let it be according to your word

“Let it be as you say” or “We will do what you have said”

2095

GEN

30

35

w5h3

0

that were striped and spotted

“that had stripes and spots”

2096

GEN

30

35

vgj7

0

that were speckled and spotted

“that had spots”

2097

GEN

30

35

yj5c

0

every one that had white in it

“every goat that had some white in it”

2098

GEN

30

35

wxg5

0

all the black ones among the sheep

“all the black sheep”

2099

GEN

30

35

kx5r

figs-metonymy

0

gave them into the hand

Here “hand” stands for control or care. Alternate translation: “had his sons take care of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2100

GEN

30

37

q2ef

translate-unknown

0

fresh poplar…almond…plane tree

These are all trees with white wood. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

2101

GEN

30

37

i1xk

0

peeled white streaks in them, and made the white inner wood appear that was in the sticks

“peeled off pieces of bark so that the white wood underneath would show”

2102

GEN

30

38

m1gg

0

the watering troughs

long open containers for holding water for animals to drink

2103

GEN

30

39

w5f7

0

The flocks bred

“The animals of the flocks conceived” or “The animals mated”

2104

GEN

30

39

u7ap

0

produced striped, speckled, and spotted young

“gave birth to babies with stripes and spots”

2105

GEN

30

40

i58f

figs-explicit

0

Jacob separated

It can be made explicit that this happened over several years. Alternate translation: “During the several years following, Jacob separated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2106

GEN

30

40

ff1z

0

face toward

“look toward”

2107

GEN

30

40

y79l

0

he separated out his flocks for himself alone

“he set his flocks apart”

2108

GEN

30

41

l916

figs-synecdoche

0

before the eyes of the flock

Here the flock’s “eyes” represent the sheep and emphasize what they see. Alternate translation: “so that the flock could see them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2109

GEN

30

41

s3qy

0

among the sticks

“in front of the sticks”

2110

GEN

30

42

sm36

0

the feebler animals

“the weaker animals”

2111

GEN

30

42

z6j6

figs-explicit

0

So the feebler animals were Laban’s, and the stronger were Jacob’s

“So the weaker offspring belonged to Laban, while the stronger offspring belonged to Jacob.” You can make this even more explicit. Alternate translation: “So the weaker offspring did not have stripes or spots and so belonged to Laban, while the stronger offspring did have stripes or spots and so belonged to Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2112

GEN

30

43

qp8n

0

The man

“Jacob”

2113

GEN

30

43

be3r

0

became very prosperous

“greatly prospered” or “became very wealthy”

2114

GEN

31

intro

zw5h

0

Genesis 31 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

God’s blessing

When Jacob left Paddam Aram, he left very wealthy. Despite his punishment of exile from Canaan, God still blessed Jacob and his family. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]])

Household gods

Although a few scholars believe the possession of the household gods was a sign of inheritance, this seems unlikely. It is probable that Rachel believed these idols would bring them “good luck” and would bring them great blessing. This was sinful because they were to trust in Yahweh, who already promised to bless them. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Irony

Laban’s sons complained that Jacob cheated them out of their father’s possessions. It was their father who tried to cheat Jacob out of what he promised to give Jacob. Jacob treated his brother Esau in the same way. Jacob cheated Esau out of their father’s blessing.

2115

GEN

31

1

q6pl

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a break in the main story line. Here the author starts to tell a new part of the story.

2116

GEN

31

1

bae1

0

Jacob heard the words of Laban’s sons, that they said

“Jacob heard that Laban’s sons were saying”

2117

GEN

31

1

j4tu

figs-hyperbole

0

Jacob has taken away all that was our father’s

Laban’s sons were exaggerating because they were angry. Alternate translation: “Everything that Jacob has taken belonged to our father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

2118

GEN

31

2

dj32

figs-parallelism

0

Jacob saw the look on Laban’s face. He saw that his attitude toward him had changed

These two sentences mean basically the same thing. The second explains the look that Jacob saw on Laban’s face. Alternate translation: “Jacob noticed that Laban was no longer pleased with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2119

GEN

31

3

dy3j

0

your fathers

“your father Isaac and your grandfather Abraham”

2120

GEN

31

4

s242

0

Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock

“Jacob sent for Rachel and Leah and told them to meet him out in the field with the flocks”

2121

GEN

31

5

zwf5

figs-sentences

0

and said to them

You can start a new sentence here. Alternate translation: “He said to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-sentences]])

2122

GEN

31

5

m3hk

0

I see your father’s attitude toward me has changed

“I have noticed your father is no longer pleased with me”

2123

GEN

31

6

j527

figs-you

0

You know that it is with all my strength that I have served your father

The word “you” here refers to both Rachel and Leah. It also adds emphasis. Alternate translation: “You yourselves know that I have served your father with all my strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

2124

GEN

31

7

z2br

0

has deceived me

“has lied to me” or “has not treated me fairly”

2125

GEN

31

7

gi9n

0

my wages

“what he said he would pay me”

2126

GEN

31

7

j7hr

0

to hurt me

Possible meanings are (1) physical harm or (2) to cause Jacob to suffer in any way.

2127

GEN

31

8

czw6

0

The speckled animals

“The animals with spots”

2128

GEN

31

8

cah9

0

the flock bore

“the flock gave birth to”

2129

GEN

31

8

yfc5

0

The striped

“The animals with stripes”

2130

GEN

31

9

z1nb

0

In this way God has taken away the livestock of your father and given them to me

“This is how God gave your father’s animals to me”

2131

GEN

31

10

ff24

0

General Information:

Jacob continues his story to his wives Leah and Rachel.

2132

GEN

31

10

b7lk

0

Once at the time of breeding season

“During the breeding season”

2133

GEN

31

10

g7hi

figs-synecdoche

0

mating with the flock

Here “flock” represents only the female goats. Alternate translation: “mating with the female goats of the flock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2134

GEN

31

10

bp2h

0

were striped, speckled, and spotted

“had stripes, little spots, and big spots”

2135

GEN

31

11

sp9t

0

angel of God

Possible meanings are (1) God himself appeared as a man or (2) one of God’s messengers appeared. Since the phrase is not well understood, it is best to simply translate it as “the angel of God,” using the normal word that you use for “angel.”

2136

GEN

31

11

t3sj

0

I said

“And I answered”

2137

GEN

31

11

z5w7

0

Here I am

“Yes, I am listening” or “Yes, what is it?” See how you translated this in Genesis 22:1.

2138

GEN

31

12

qi7z

0

General Information:

The angel of the Lord continues to talk to Jacob (Genesis 31:10).

2139

GEN

31

12

ta2d

figs-idiom

0

Lift up your eyes

This is a way of saying “Look up.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2140

GEN

31

12

zf86

figs-synecdoche

0

that are breeding with the flock

Here “flock” stands for only the female goats. Alternate translation: “that are breeding with the female goats of the flock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2141

GEN

31

12

w88y

0

are striped, speckled, and spotted

“have stripes and spots”

2142

GEN

31

13

c737

translate-symaction

0

where you anointed a pillar

Jacob poured oil on the pillar to dedicate it to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

2143

GEN

31

13

qa2q

0

the land of your birth

“the land where you were born”

2144

GEN

31

14

bwh9

0

Rachel and Leah answered and said to him

This does not mean they talked at the same time. It emphasizes they agreed with each other.

2145

GEN

31

14

ir9t

figs-rquestion

0

Is there any portion or inheritance for us in our father’s house?

Rachel and Leah use a question to emphasize that there is nothing left for their father to give. Alternate translation: “There is absolutely nothing left for us to inherit from our father!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2146

GEN

31

15

sxw7

figs-rquestion

0

Are we not treated by him as foreigners?

They use a question to show their anger about how their father treats them. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Our father treats us like a foreign women instead of daughters!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2147

GEN

31

15

y7ge

figs-explicit

0

For he has sold us

This can be made more explicit. Alternate translation: “He has sold us for his own gain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2148

GEN

31

15

z4i2

figs-metaphor

0

has also completely devoured our money

Laban completely using up the money that he should have given to his daughters is spoken of as if he were a wild beast that ate the money as if it were food. Alternate translation: “he completely used up our money” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2149

GEN

31

16

vbk7

0

are now ours and our children’s

“belongs to us and to our children”

2150

GEN

31

16

vi8d

0

Now then

Here “Now” does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

2151

GEN

31

16

g6k9

0

whatever God has said to you, do it

“do all that God has told you”

2152

GEN

31

17

vr3n

figs-explicit

0

his sons

Jacob took all of his children. It only mentions the sons because they are important as his heirs. Alternate translation: “his children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2153

GEN

31

18

n4b2

0

He drove all his livestock

“He drove all his cattle.” Here “livestock” is referring to all his domesticate animals.

2154

GEN

31

18

xzk2

0

including the livestock he had acquired in Paddan Aram

“and the other herd of cattle which he took ownership of when he was in Paddan Aram”

2155

GEN

31

18

pgg7

0

Then he set out to go to his father Isaac in the land of Canaan

“He went to the land of Canaan, where his father Isaac lived”

2156

GEN

31

19

ct6p

0

When Laban had gone to shear his sheep

“When Laban had left to cut the wool off of his sheep”

2157

GEN

31

21

rq4h

0

the River

This refers to the Euphrates River.

2158

GEN

31

21

e57v

0

headed toward

“traveled toward”

2159

GEN

31

21

xdn1

0

the hill country of Gilead

“the mountains of Gilead” or “Mount Gilead”

2160

GEN

31

22

w2bp

0

On the third day

It was Jewish custom to count the day of departure as day one. Alternate translation: “Two days after they had left”

2161

GEN

31

22

fsz8

figs-activepassive

0

Laban was told

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “someone told Laban” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2162

GEN

31

22

rjd6

figs-explicit

0

that Jacob had fled

Only Jacob is mentioned because he is the leader of the family. It can be made explicit that his family went with him. Alternate translation: “that Jacob had fled with his wives and children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2163

GEN

31

23

v1il

0

So he took

“So Laban took”

2164

GEN

31

23

c1wi

0

pursued him

“chased after Jacob”

2165

GEN

31

23

vs2j

0

for a seven days’ journey

Laban spent seven days walking to catch up to Jacob.

2166

GEN

31

23

x5mw

0

He overtook him

“He caught up to him”

2167

GEN

31

24

i4gj

writing-background

0

Now God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at night

The word “now” is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Laban. Alternate translation: “That night God came to Laban in a dream” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2168

GEN

31

24

s2du

figs-merism

0

Be careful that you speak to Jacob neither good nor bad

The phrase “good nor bad” are used together to mean “anything.” Alternate translation: “Do not say anything to try and stop Jacob from leaving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

2169

GEN

31

25

c3nf

writing-background

0

Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the hill country. Laban also camped with his relatives in the hill country of Gilead

The word “now” is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Jacob and Laban. Alternate translation: “When Laban caught up with Jacob, Jacob had set up camp in the hill country. Then Laban and his relatives also camped in the hill country of Gilead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2170

GEN

31

26

dg9e

figs-simile

0

carried away my daughters like prisoners of war

Laban speaks about Jacob taking his family with him back to the land of Canaan as if Jacob took them as prisoners after a battle and is forcing them to go with him. Laban is exaggerating because he is angry and is trying to make Jacob feel guilty for what he did. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])

2171

GEN

31

27

a98f

0

flee secretly

“run away in secret”

2172

GEN

31

27

g8iz

0

with celebration

“with joy”

2173

GEN

31

27

bg4p

figs-metonymy

0

with tambourine and with harps

These instruments stand for music. Alternate translation: “and with music” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2174

GEN

31

27

a23y

translate-unknown

0

tambourine

a musical instrument with a head like a drum that can be hit and with pieces of metal around the side that sound when the instrument is shaken (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])

2175

GEN

31

28

esl3

figs-gendernotations

0

to kiss my grandsons

Here “grandsons” would include all grandchildren whether male or female. Alternate translation: “to kiss my grandchildren” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

2176

GEN

31

28

cr1s

0

Now you have done foolishly

“You have acted foolishly”

2177

GEN

31

28

y6dz

0

Now

This does not mean “at this moment,” but is used to draw attention to the important point that follows.

2178

GEN

31

29

lza8

figs-you

0

It is in my power to do you harm

The word “you” is plural and refers to everyone with Jacob. Alternate translation: “I have enough people with me to harm all of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

2179

GEN

31

29

qs6g

figs-merism

0

Be careful that you speak to Jacob neither good nor bad

The words “good nor bad” are used together to mean “anything.” See how you translated this in Genesis 31:24. Alternate translation: “Do not say anything to try and stop Jacob from leaving” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])

2180

GEN

31

30

bz9g

figs-you

0

you have gone away

This “you” is singular and refers to Jacob. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

2181

GEN

31

30

f8iz

figs-metonymy

0

to your father’s house

Here “house” stands for family. Alternate translation: “to be home with your father and the rest of your family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2182

GEN

31

30

e3jc

0

my gods

“my idols”

2183

GEN

31

31

qd9f

0

Because I was afraid and thought that you would take your daughters from me by force I left secretly

“I left in secret because I was afraid that you would take your daughters from me by force”

2184

GEN

31

32

e35z

figs-litotes

0

Whoever has stolen your gods will not continue to live

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “We will kill whoever has stolen your gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])

2185

GEN

31

32

zh3x

figs-exclusive

0

In the presence of our relatives

The word “our” refers to Jacob’s relatives and includes Laban’s relatives. All the relatives will watch to make sure everything is fair and honest. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2186

GEN

31

32

l4l6

0

identify whatever with me is yours and take it

“look for whatever we have that is yours and take it”

2187

GEN

31

32

mjz6

writing-background

0

For Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them

This changes from the story to background information about Jacob. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2188

GEN

31

33

rd4w

0

the two female servants

This refers to Zilpah and Bilhah.

2189

GEN

31

33

f3n9

0

he did not find them

“he did not find his idols”

2190

GEN

31

34

s5c7

writing-background

0

Now Rachel…upon them

The word “now” is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Rachel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2191

GEN

31

34

j5k2

0

saddle

a seat placed on the back of an animal so a person can ride on it

2192

GEN

31

35

cd8t

0

my master

Calling someone “my master” is a way of honoring them.

2193

GEN

31

35

h3tw

0

that I cannot stand up before you

“because I am unable to stand up in your presence”

2194

GEN

31

35

rx2l

figs-euphemism

0

for I am having my period

This refers to the time of the month when a woman bleeds from her womb. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2195

GEN

31

36

ka2t

0

He said to him

“Jacob said to Laban”

2196

GEN

31

36

wcv8

figs-parallelism

0

What is my offense? What is my sin, that you have hotly pursued after me?

The phrases “What is my offense” and “What is my sin” mean basically the same thing. Jacob is asking Laban to tell him what he did wrong. Alternate translation: “What have I done wrong that you should pursue me like this?” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2197

GEN

31

36

rd64

figs-idiom

0

hotly pursued after me

Here the word “hotly” means Laban urgently chased Jacob intending to capture him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2198

GEN

31

37

lf9u

0

What have you found of all your household goods?

“What have you found that belongs to you?”

2199

GEN

31

37

jgu5

figs-exclusive

0

Set them here before our relatives

Here the word “our” refers to Jacob’s relatives and includes Laban’s relatives. Alternate translation: “Lay anything you have found in front of our relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2200

GEN

31

37

q8tg

figs-exclusive

0

they may judge between us two

Here “two of us” refers to Jacob and Laban. The phrase “to judge between” means to decide which person is right in a dispute. Alternate translation: “they may judge between the two of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2201

GEN

31

38

l12d

0

General Information:

Jacob continues to speak to Laban.

2202

GEN

31

38

a2zw

translate-numbers

0

twenty years

“20 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2203

GEN

31

38

rum5

0

ewes

female sheep

2204

GEN

31

38

lk1u

0

have not miscarried

This means they have not had a pregnancy end early and unexpectedly with the lamb or kid born dead.

2205

GEN

31

39

kc4z

figs-activepassive

0

What was torn by beasts I did not bring to you

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “When a wild animal killed one of your animals I did not bring it to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2206

GEN

31

39

ji5d

figs-metaphor

0

Instead, I bore the loss of it

For Jacob to count Laban’s dead animals as a loss from his own flock is spoken of as if it was a burden he would bear on his shoulders. Alternate translation: “Instead of counting it a loss from your flock, I counted it as a loss from my flock” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2207

GEN

31

40

tf6f

figs-metaphor

0

There I was; in the day the heat consumed me, and the frost by night

Suffering in the hot and cold temperatures is spoken of as if the temperatures were animals that were eating Jacob. Alternate translation: “I stayed with your flocks even during hottest part of the day and the coldest part of the night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2208

GEN

31

41

gx9i

0

General Information:

Jacob continues to speak to Laban.

2209

GEN

31

41

j81s

translate-numbers

0

These twenty years

“These last 20 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2210

GEN

31

41

l5lt

translate-numbers

0

fourteen years

“14 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2211

GEN

31

41

w1k8

0

changed my wages ten times

“changed what he said he would pay me ten times.” See how you translated “my wages” in Genesis 31:7.

2212

GEN

31

42

hcc4

0

Unless the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the one Isaac fears, had been with me

Jacob is referring to the same God not to three different gods. Alternate translation: “If the God of Abraham and Isaac, my father, had not been with me”

2213

GEN

31

42

fy4h

0

the God of my father

Here the word “father” refers to his parent, Isaac.

2214

GEN

31

42

v1d1

0

the one Isaac fears

Here the word “fears” refers to the “fear of Yahweh,” which means to deeply respect him and show that respect by obeying him.

2215

GEN

31

42

tin2

figs-metonymy

0

empty-handed

This stands for having nothing. Alternate translation: “with absolutely nothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2216

GEN

31

42

eqx1

figs-abstractnouns

0

God has seen my oppression and how hard I worked

The abstract noun “oppression” can be stated as “oppressed.” Alternate translation: “God has seen how hard I worked and how you oppressed me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2217

GEN

31

43

ah9n

figs-rquestion

0

But what can I do today to these my daughters, or to their children whom they have borne?

Laban uses a question to emphasize that there is nothing he can do. This rhetorical question can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “But, there is nothing I can do to bring my daughters and grandchildren back with me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2218

GEN

31

44

pm7d

figs-personification

0

let it be for a witness

Here the word “witness” does not refer to a person, but it is used figuratively and refers to the covenant that Jacob and Laban are making. The covenant is spoken of as if it were a person who is there when they agree to act peacefully to one another. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2219

GEN

31

45

q2sh

0

pillar

This means that a large stone was simply set up on its end to mark the place where this important event happened.

2220

GEN

31

46

mz54

0

made a pile

“stacked them on top of each other”

2221

GEN

31

46

c4fm

figs-explicit

0

Then they ate there by the pile

Eating a meal together was a part of making the covenant with one another. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2222

GEN

31

47

grz7

translate-names

0

Jegar Saha Dutha

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name Jegar Saha Dutha means ‘heap of witness’ in Laban’s language.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2223

GEN

31

47

tn6r

translate-names

0

Galeed

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name Galeed means ‘heap of witness’ in Jacob’s language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2224

GEN

31

48

y6zl

figs-personification

0

This pile is a witness between me and you

The stones do not actually bear witness as a person. Alternate translation: “This pile will be a reminder between me and you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2225

GEN

31

48

f3tt

translate-names

0

Galeed

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name Galeed means ‘heap of witness’ in Jacob’s language. See how you translated this in Genesis 31:47. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2226

GEN

31

49

d4iu

translate-names

0

Mizpah

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name Mizpah means ‘watchtower.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2227

GEN

31

49

ip35

figs-metonymy

0

when we are out of sight one from another

Here “out of sight” stands for no longer being in each other’s presence. Alternate translation: “when we are no longer with each other” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2228

GEN

31

50

e3ip

0

although no one else is with us

Here “us” refers to Laban and Jacob. Alternate translation: “even if no one else is there to see us”

2229

GEN

31

50

h365

0

see

“look” or “remember” or “pay attention to what i am about to tell you”

2230

GEN

31

52

jh98

figs-personification

0

This pile is a witness, and the pillar is a witness

These piles of stones were to act as a remembrance and a boundary marker for Jacob and Laban regarding their peace agreement. They are spoken of as if they are human witnesses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2231

GEN

31

53

zmt6

0

May the God of Abraham, and the god of Nahor, the gods of their father, judge between us

Abraham is Jacob’s grandfather. Nahor is Laban’s grandfather. The father of Abraham and Nahor is Terah. Not all of them worshipped Yahweh.

2232

GEN

31

53

r6hl

0

the Fear of his father Isaac

Here the word “Fear” refers to Yahweh, who Isaac deeply respected and showed that respect by obeying him.

2233

GEN

31

54

fmy2

figs-explicit

0

called his relatives to eat a meal

Eating a meal together was part of making the covenant with one another. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2234

GEN

31

55

w76k

0

Early in the morning…returned home

Verse 55 is the first verse of chapter 32 in the original Hebrew text, but the last verse of chapter 31 in most modern Bibles. We suggest that you follow the numbering of Bibles in your national language.

2235

GEN

31

55

kif6

0

blessed

This means expressing a desire for positive and beneficial things to happen to someone.

2236

GEN

32

intro

udr3

0

Genesis 32 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Jacob does not trust Yahweh

Jacob does not trust in Yahweh. Instead, he fears that his brother Esau could kill him and his family. He should have known that Yahweh would continue to bless him and protect his family. He should have trusted in Yahweh’s covenant faithfulness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenantfaith]])

Name change

In Scripture, a change in name always occurs at a highly significant point in a person’s life. The return of Jacob to Canaan was a significant event in the history of the Hebrew people.

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

“A man wrestled with him”

Scholars are divided over the identity of the person Jacob wrestled with. It was probably an angel, but some believe he wrestled with Jesus before he came to earth. The translator will probably have difficulty trying to keep ambiguity in identifying this individual because the word “man” usually indicates a normal, living person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2237

GEN

32

2

fr1q

0

Mahanaim

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Mahanaim means ‘two camps.’”

2238

GEN

32

3

f84p

translate-names

0

Seir

This is a mountainous area in the region of Edom. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2239

GEN

32

4

ayv1

figs-quotesinquotes

0

This is what you will say to my master Esau: This is what your servant Jacob says: ‘I have been…have delayed my return until now.

This has a quotation within a quotation. The direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “‘This is what I want you to tell my master Esau. Tell him that I have been…have delayed my return until now.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

2240

GEN

32

4

n3lr

0

my master Esau

Jacob is using polite language and refers to his brother as “my master.”

2241

GEN

32

4

y932

0

your servant Jacob

Jacob is using polite language and refers to himself as “your servant.”

2242

GEN

32

5

ne7y

figs-quotesinquotes

0

I have oxen…in your eyes.

This continues the quotation within a quotation that begins with the words “I have been” in verse 4. The direct quotation can be stated as an indirect quotation. “This is what I want you to tell my master Esau. Tell him that I have been…Tell him that I have oxen…in his eyes.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

2243

GEN

32

5

vi1k

figs-idiom

0

that I may find favor in your eyes

When a person finds favor in the eyes of another, the second person approves of the first person. Here “eyes” are a metonym for the person seeing something, and seeing a person is a metaphor for deciding whether what that person sees is good or bad. Alternate translation: “that you may approve of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2244

GEN

32

6

h954

translate-numbers

0

four hundred men

“400 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2245

GEN

32

7

ra4u

0

afraid

This refers to the unpleasant feeling a person has when there is a threat of harm to himself or others.

2246

GEN

32

7

e2dk

0

upset

distressed, troubled

2247

GEN

32

8

n1e3

figs-metonymy

0

to one camp and attacks it, then the camp that is left will escape

Here “camp” refers to the people. Alternate translation: “to attack the people in one camp, then the people in the other camp will escape” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2248

GEN

32

9

fdw7

figs-explicit

0

God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, Yahweh

This does not refer to different gods, but to the one God they all worship. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, who is God of my grandfather Abraham and my father Isaac” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2249

GEN

32

9

c3nw

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Yahweh, who said to me, ‘Return to your country and to your kindred, and I will prosper you,’

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, you who said that I should return to my country and to my kindred, and that you would prosper me,” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

2250

GEN

32

9

ah51

0

to your kindred

“to your family”

2251

GEN

32

9

v7p9

0

I will prosper you

“I will do good for you” or “I will treat you well”

2252

GEN

32

10

i1jg

figs-activepassive

0

I am not worthy of all your acts of covenant faithfulness and of all the trustworthiness that you have done for your servant

The abstract nouns “faithfulness” and “trustworthiness” can be stated as “faithful” and “loyal.” Alternate translation: “I do not deserve for you to remain faithful to your covenant or for you to be loyal to me, your servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2253

GEN

32

10

gfq5

0

your servant

This is a polite way of saying “me.”

2254

GEN

32

10

ri5t

figs-idiom

0

now I have become two camps

Here the phrase “I have become” is an idiom meaning what he now possesses. Alternate translation: “and now I have enough people, flocks, and possessions with me to make two camps” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2255

GEN

32

11

b4a5

0

rescue me

“save me”

2256

GEN

32

11

b2lt

figs-metonymy

0

from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau

Here the word “hand” refers to power. The two phrases mean basically the same thing. The second clarifies that the brother whom Jacob intended was Esau. Alternate translation: “from the power of my brother, Esau” or “from my brother, Esau” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])

2257

GEN

32

11

amt5

0

I am afraid of him, that he will

“I am afraid that he will”

2258

GEN

32

12

x5kw

figs-quotesinquotes

0

But you said, ‘I will certainly make you prosper. I will make your descendants…number.’

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “But you said that you would certainly prosper me, and that you would make my descendants…number” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

2259

GEN

32

12

w429

0

make you prosper

“do good to you” or “treat you well”

2260

GEN

32

12

n5pn

figs-simile

0

I will make your descendants like the sand of the sea

This speaks about the very large number of Jacob’s descendants as if their number will be like the grains of sand on the seashore. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2261

GEN

32

12

bc4t

figs-activepassive

0

which cannot be numbered for their number

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “which no one can count because of their number” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2262

GEN

32

14

zj6f

translate-numbers

0

two hundred

“200” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2263

GEN

32

14

a35f

translate-numbers

0

twenty

“20” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2264

GEN

32

15

ew39

translate-numbers

0

thirty…forty…ten

“30…40…10” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2265

GEN

32

15

k3iy

0

their colts

“their young”

2266

GEN

32

16

il9n

figs-idiom

0

These he gave into the hand of his servants, every herd by itself

Here “into the hand” means to give control over them. Alternate translation: “He divided them into small herds, and gave each of his servants control over one herd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2267

GEN

32

16

hh9w

0

put a space between each of the herds

“let each herd travel at a distance from the other herds”

2268

GEN

32

17

ti5k

0

He instructed

“He commanded”

2269

GEN

32

17

h449

figs-quotesinquotes

0

asks you…that are in front of you?’

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “asks you who your master is, where you are going, and who owns these animals that are ahead of you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

2270

GEN

32

17

lnl5

0

To whom do you belong?

“Who is your master?”

2271

GEN

32

17

hl31

0

Whose animals are these that are in front of you?

“Who owns these animals that are in front of you?”

2272

GEN

32

18

e7wd

figs-quotesinquotes

0

Then you will say, ‘They are your servant Jacob’s. They are a gift sent to my master Esau. See, he is also coming after us.’

This is a quotation within a quotation. It can be stated as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “Then I want you to tell him that all of these things belong to Jacob, his servant, and he his giving them to his master, Esau. And tell him that Jacob is on the way to meet him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])

2273

GEN

32

18

i8qf

0

your servant Jacob’s

Jacob is referring to himself in a polite way as Esau’s servant.

2274

GEN

32

18

nk58

0

to my master Esau

Jacob is referring to Esau is a polite way as his master.

2275

GEN

32

18

a5zw

figs-exclusive

0

coming after us

Here “us” refers to the servant speaking and the other servants bringing herds to Esau. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2276

GEN

32

19

mb2s

0

gave instructions to the second group

“commanded the second group”

2277

GEN

32

20

l71w

0

You must also say, ‘Your servant Jacob

Possible meanings are (1) “You will say also, ‘Your servant Jacob’” or (2) “You will say, ‘Also, Your servant Jacob.’”

2278

GEN

32

20

kth9

0

I will appease him

“I will calm him down” or “I will make his anger go away”

2279

GEN

32

20

fz2r

0

he will receive me

“he will welcome me kindly”

2280

GEN

32

21

mgp1

figs-metonymy

0

So the gifts went on ahead of him

Here “gifts” stands for the servants taking the gifts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2281

GEN

32

21

bet5

figs-rpronouns

0

He himself stayed

Here “himself” emphasizes that Jacob did not go with the servants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

2282

GEN

32

22

ak58

0

his two women servants

“his two servant wives.” This means Zilpah and Bilhah.

2283

GEN

32

22

ts8h

0

ford

a shallow place in a river that is easy to cross

2284

GEN

32

22

tkp8

translate-names

0

Jabbok

This is the name of a river. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2285

GEN

32

23

uu6x

0

all his possessions

“all that he had”

2286

GEN

32

24

ui74

0

until daybreak

“until dawn”

2287

GEN

32

25

ugk7

figs-activepassive

0

Jacob’s hip was dislocated as he wrestled with him

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “The man injured Jacob’s hip as he wrestled with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2288

GEN

32

25

f6zk

0

hip

the place where the upper leg bone connects to the hip

2289

GEN

32

26

wh2x

0

for the dawn is breaking

“the sun will rise soon”

2290

GEN

32

26

hd6q

0

bless

Here “bless” means to pronounce a formal blessing on someone and to cause good things to happen to that person.

2291

GEN

32

26

pb6k

figs-doublenegatives

0

I will not let you go unless you bless me

This can be stated in positive form. Alternate translation: “Absolutely not! You must bless me first, then I will let you go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])

2292

GEN

32

28

a2ft

translate-names

0

Israel

Translators may add a footnote that says “The name Israel means ‘He struggles with God.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2293

GEN

32

28

kel8

0

with men

Here “men” means “people” in general.

2294

GEN

32

29

if16

figs-rquestion

0

He said, “Why is it that you ask my name?”

“He said, ‘Why would you ask about my name?’” This rhetorical question was meant to shock, rebuke and cause Jacob to ponder over what just happened between him and the other man he just wrestled with. Alternate translation: “Do not ask me for my name!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2295

GEN

32

30

m49w

translate-names

0

Peniel

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name Peniel means ‘the face of God.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2296

GEN

32

30

n4r1

0

face to face

Being “face to face” means that two people are seeing each other in person, at a close distance.

2297

GEN

32

30

p6dk

figs-activepassive

0

and my life is delivered

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “yet he spared my life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2298

GEN

32

32

v4a5

writing-background

0

That is why to this day

This marks a change from the story to background information about the descendants of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2299

GEN

32

32

n4af

0

to this day

This means to the day that the author was writing this.

2300

GEN

32

32

t93f

0

ligaments of the hip

This refers to the muscle that connects the thigh bone to the thigh socket.

2301

GEN

32

32

l5px

0

hip joint

“thigh socket”

2302

GEN

32

32

j363

0

while dislocating

“while striking”

2303

GEN

33

intro

tc2t

0

Genesis 33 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Jacob’s fear

Jacob feared his brother. He showed Esau great respect and sought to protect his family from Esau’s power. He did not fear and trust Yahweh. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/fear]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/trust]])

Favoritism

Jacob showed favoritism towards Rachel and Joseph. He arranged the family according to those he loved the most. Rachel and Joseph were the most protected from a potential attack by Esau. He would have rather had everyone else die, in order to spare their lives. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/favor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2304

GEN

33

1

ck16

0

behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to a surprising new part of the story.

2305

GEN

33

1

c4ai

translate-numbers

0

four hundred men

“400 men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2306

GEN

33

1

lqj5

figs-explicit

0

Jacob divided the children…female servants

This does not mean Jacob divided the children evenly so that each woman had the same amount of children with her. Jacob divided the children so that each one went with his or her mother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2307

GEN

33

1

h467

0

female servants

“servant wives.” This refers to Bilhah and Zilpah.

2308

GEN

33

3

f927

figs-rpronouns

0

He himself went on ahead of them

Here “himself” emphasizes that Jacob went alone in front of the others. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])

2309

GEN

33

3

prz6

translate-symaction

0

He bowed

Here the word “bow” means to bend over to humbly express respect and honor toward someone. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

2310

GEN

33

4

xq93

0

meet him

“meet Jacob”

2311

GEN

33

4

ptu7

0

embraced him, hugged his neck, and kissed him

This can be translated as a new sentence. Alternate translation: “Esau put his arms around Jacob, hugged him, and kissed him”

2312

GEN

33

4

d91x

figs-explicit

0

Then they wept

This can be translated more explicitly. Alternate translation: “Then Esau and Jacob cried because they were happy to see each other again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2313

GEN

33

5

bni9

0

he saw the women and the children

“he saw the women and children who were with Jacob”

2314

GEN

33

5

n88j

figs-123person

0

The children whom God has graciously given your servant

The phrase “your servant” is a polite way for Jacob to refer to himself. Alternate translation: “These are the children God has kindly given me, your servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

2315

GEN

33

6

huv5

0

female servants

“servant wives.” This refers to Bilhah and Zilpah.

2316

GEN

33

6

ndg7

translate-symaction

0

bowed down

This is a sign of humility and respect before another person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

2317

GEN

33

8

xl2u

0

What do you mean by all these groups that I met?

The phrase “all these groups” refers to the groups of servants that Jacob sent to give gifts to Esau. Alternate translation: “Why did you send all of those different groups to meet me?”

2318

GEN

33

8

p6x8

figs-idiom

0

To find favor in the sight of my master

The phrase “find favor” is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, sight represents judgment or evaluation. Alternate translation: “So that you, my master, would be pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2319

GEN

33

8

b54p

figs-123person

0

my master

The phrase “my master” is a polite way of referring to Esau. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

2320

GEN

33

9

fvu3

figs-ellipsis

0

I have enough

The word “animals” or “property” is understood. Alternate translation: “I have enough animals” or “I have enough property” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])

2321

GEN

33

10

c8jk

figs-idiom

0

if I have found favor in your eyes

The phrase “found favor” is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Here “eyes” are a metonym for sight, and sight is a metaphor representing his evaluation. Alternate translation: “if you are pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2322

GEN

33

10

g919

figs-synecdoche

0

my gift from my hand

Here “hand” refers to Jacob. Alternate translation: “this gift that I am giving to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2323

GEN

33

10

cv9s

0

my hand, for indeed

This can be translated as a new sentence: “my hand. For certainly”

2324

GEN

33

10

qp99

figs-simile

0

I have seen your face, and it is like seeing the face of God

The meaning of this simile is unclear. Possible meanings are (1) Jacob is happy that Esau has forgiven him like God has forgiven him or (2) Jacob is amazed to see his brother again like he was amazed to see God or (3) Jacob is humbled to be in Esau’s presence like he was humbled to be in God’s presence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])

2325

GEN

33

10

ni5g

figs-synecdoche

0

I have seen your face

Here “face” stands for Esau. It may be best to translate as “face” because of the importance of the word “face” here with “face of God” and “face to face” in Genesis 32:30. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2326

GEN

33

11

i3ez

figs-activepassive

0

that was brought to you

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “that my servants brought to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2327

GEN

33

11

c581

0

God has dealt graciously with me

“God has treated me very well” or “God has blessed me very much”

2328

GEN

33

11

r6mp

0

Thus Jacob urged him, and Esau accepted it

It was customary to refuse a gift first, but then to accept the gift before the giver was offended.

2329

GEN

33

13

j3jv

figs-123person

0

My master knows

This is a polite and formal way of referring to Esau. Alternate translation: “You, my master, know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

2330

GEN

33

13

k72p

figs-explicit

0

the children are young

The meaning can be stated more explicitly. Alternate translation: “the children are too young to travel fast” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2331

GEN

33

13

lzl5

figs-activepassive

0

If they are driven hard even one day

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “If we force them to go too fast even for one day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2332

GEN

33

14

be6w

figs-123person

0

Please let my master go on ahead of his servant

This is a polite and formal way of Jacob referring to himself. Alternate translation: “My lord, I am your servant. Please go ahead of me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

2333

GEN

33

14

k77x

0

at the pace of the livestock that are before me

“at the speed the animals I am looking after can go”

2334

GEN

33

14

he5j

translate-names

0

Seir

This is a mountainous area in the region of Edom. See how you translated this in Genesis 32:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2335

GEN

33

15

e3u2

figs-rquestion

0

Why do that?

Jacob uses a question to emphasize that Esau does not need to leave men. Alternate translation: “Do not do that!” or “You do not need to do that!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2336

GEN

33

15

rl9k

figs-123person

0

my lord

This is a polite and formal way of referring to Esau. Alternate translation: “you, my lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

2337

GEN

33

17

k3g6

translate-names

0

Succoth

Translators may also add a footnote that says, “The name Succoth means ‘shelters.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2338

GEN

33

17

k4xa

figs-explicit

0

built himself a house

It is implied that the house is also for his family. Alternate translation: “built a house for himself and his family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2339

GEN

33

17

ykg8

0

for his livestock

“for the animals he looked after”

2340

GEN

33

18

yt2u

0

General Information:

This starts a new part of the story. The author describes what Jacob did after he rested in Succoth.

2341

GEN

33

18

jve3

0

When Jacob came from Paddan Aram

“After Jacob left Paddan Aram”

2342

GEN

33

18

qr2k

figs-explicit

0

When Jacob…he arrived…He camped

This only mentions Jacob because he is the leader of the family. It is implied that his family was with him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2343

GEN

33

18

rx3s

0

He camped near

“He set up his camp near”

2344

GEN

33

19

a6wu

0

piece of ground

“piece of land”

2345

GEN

33

19

xu69

translate-names

0

Hamor

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2346

GEN

33

19

y9i5

0

Shechem’s father

Shechem is the name of a city and the name of a man.

2347

GEN

33

19

kh7z

translate-numbers

0

a hundred

“100” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2348

GEN

33

20

ps43

translate-names

0

El Elohe Israel

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name El Elohe Israel means ‘God, the God of Israel.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2349

GEN

34

intro

gv6g

0

Genesis 34 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Israel

Jacob’s name was changed to Israel. It is his descendants who inherited the promised blessings given to him and to Isaac and Abraham. This is the first time his descendants are collectively referred to as the people group Israel. The people group Israel is identified through the covenant of circumcision. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]], [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/circumcise]])

Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter

Implicit information

Jacob’s reacted to the rape of Dinah with indifference. This is possibly because she was not a daughter of Rachel. His reaction was both unwise and improper. This action brought shame on the whole family. Therefore, Jacob’s sons corrected this wrong and plotted against Hamor and Shechem.

Shechem raped Dinah, but then he said he loved her. By raping her, he ensured that no one else would want to marry her. This is not love. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wise]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/love]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2350

GEN

34

1

g89z

0

Now

Here this word is used to mark a new part of the story.

2351

GEN

34

1

q1ki

translate-names

0

Dinah

This is the name of Leah’s daughter. See how you translated this name in Genesis 30:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2352

GEN

34

2

y29n

translate-names

0

the Hivite

This is the name of a people group. See how you translated the similar word “Hivites” in Genesis 10:17. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2353

GEN

34

2

x58u

0

the prince of the land

This is referring to Hamor not Shechem. Also, “prince” here does not mean son of a king. It means Hamor was the leader of the people in that area.

2354

GEN

34

2

hx1e

figs-hendiadys

0

He took her and lay with her

Possible meanings are (1) “took” and “lay with” are two separate actions. Alternate translation: “he grabbed her and had sexual relations with her” or (2) “took” and “lay with” are a hendiadys, two words used to describe one action, Alternate translation: “raped her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])

2355

GEN

34

2

mrp5

figs-euphemism

0

lay with her

This is a polite way of speaking of sexual relations. You may have to use other words in your translation. Alternate translation: “had sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2356

GEN

34

3

d96a

figs-metaphor

0

He was drawn to Dinah

“He was very attracted to her.” This speaks about Shechem loving Dinah and wanting to be with her as if something were forcing him to come to Dinah. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “He wanted very much to be with Dinah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2357

GEN

34

3

bz11

0

spoke tenderly to her

He tried to convince her that he loved her and that he wanted her to love him also.

2358

GEN

34

5

wy9t

writing-background

0

Now Jacob

“Now” is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Jacob. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2359

GEN

34

5

k25j

0

Jacob heard that he

The word “he” refers to Shechem.

2360

GEN

34

5

mp97

0

he had defiled

This means that Shechem had greatly dishonored and disgraced Dinah by forcing her to sleep with him.

2361

GEN

34

5

sk45

figs-idiom

0

held his peace

This is a way of saying that Jacob did not say or do anything about the matter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2362

GEN

34

6

r1kg

0

Hamor…went out to Jacob

“Hamor…went to meet Jacob”

2363

GEN

34

7

yd2w

0

The men were offended

“The men were very insulted” or “They were shocked”

2364

GEN

34

7

xe5r

figs-metonymy

0

he had disgraced Israel

Here the word “Israel” refers to every member of Jacob’s family. Israel as a people group was disgraced. Alternate translation: “he had humiliated the family of Israel” or “he had brought shame on the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2365

GEN

34

7

wki8

0

lying with Jacob’s daughter

“having sexual relations with Jacob’s daughter”

2366

GEN

34

7

ud6t

figs-activepassive

0

for such a thing should not have been done

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “for he should not have done such a terrible thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2367

GEN

34

8

ud45

0

Hamor spoke with them

“Hamor spoke with Jacob and his sons”

2368

GEN

34

8

q43r

0

loves your daughter

Here the word “love” refers to romantic love between a man and a woman. Alternate translation: “loves her and wants to marry her”

2369

GEN

34

8

gx32

0

give her to him as a wife

In some cultures, the parents decide whom their children will marry.

2370

GEN

34

9

ec6v

0

Intermarry with us

To intermarry is to marry a member of a different racial, social, religious or tribal group. Alternate translation: “Allow marriages between your people and ours”

2371

GEN

34

10

pv18

0

the land will be open to you

“the land will be available to you”

2372

GEN

34

11

x9iz

0

Shechem said to her father

“Shechem said to Dinah’s father Jacob”

2373

GEN

34

11

gev1

figs-idiom

0

Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you tell me I will give

The phrase “find favor” is an idiom which means to be approved of by someone. Also, the eyes represent seeing, and seeing represents thoughts or judgment. Alternate translation: “If you will approve of me, then I will give you whatever you ask” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2374

GEN

34

12

w7wc

0

bride price

In some cultures, it is customary for a man to give money, property, cattle, and other gifts to the bride’s family at the time of marriage.

2375

GEN

34

13

h21q

figs-abstractnouns

0

The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father with deceit

The abstract noun “deceit” can be stated as the verb “lied.” Alternate translation: “But the sons of Jacob lied to Shechem and Hamor when they answered them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2376

GEN

34

13

uxy5

0

Shechem had defiled Dinah

This means that Shechem had greatly dishonored and disgraced Dinah by forcing her to sleep with him. See how you translated “defiled” in Genesis 34:5.

2377

GEN

34

14

un4d

0

They said to them

“Jacob’s sons said to Shechem and Hamor”

2378

GEN

34

14

yku7

0

We cannot do this thing, to give our sister

“We cannot agree to give Dinah in marriage”

2379

GEN

34

14

c7ml

figs-exclusive

0

for that would be a disgrace to us

“for that would cause us shame.” Here “us” refers to Jacob’s sons and all the people of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2380

GEN

34

16

w7nl

0

give our daughters to you…take your daughters to ourselves

This means they will allow a person from Jacob’s family to marry a person who lives in Hamor’s land.

2381

GEN

34

18

vm37

0

Their words pleased Hamor and his son Shechem

“Hamor and his son Shechem agreed with what Jacob’s sons said”

2382

GEN

34

19

yza5

0

to do what they said

“to become circumcised”

2383

GEN

34

19

vjf5

0

Jacob’s daughter

“Jacob’s daughter Dinah”

2384

GEN

34

19

ve5w

figs-explicit

0

because he was the most honored person in all his father’s household

This can be translated as a new sentence. It can be made explicit that Shechem knew the other men would agree to be circumcised because they greatly respected him. Alternate translation: “Shechem knew all the men in his father’s household would agree with him because he was the most honored among them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2385

GEN

34

20

bl5k

0

the gate of their city

It was common for leaders to meet at the city gate to make official decisions.

2386

GEN

34

21

ub3p

0

These men

“Jacob, his sons, and the people of Israel”

2387

GEN

34

21

gg84

figs-exclusive

0

peace with us

Here “us” includes Hamor, his son and all the people they spoke with at the city gate. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2388

GEN

34

21

peg8

0

let them live in the land and trade in it

“let them live and trade in the land”

2389

GEN

34

21

qgk2

0

for, really, the land is large enough for them

Shechem uses the word “really” to add emphasis to his statement. “because, certainly, the land is large enough for them” or “because, indeed, there is plenty of land for them”

2390

GEN

34

21

i8u8

0

take their daughters…give them our daughters

This refers to marriages between the women of one group and the men of the other group. See how you translated similar phrases in Genesis 34:9.

2391

GEN

34

22

pyn5

0

General Information:

Hamor and Shechem his son continue to talk to the city elders.

2392

GEN

34

22

g2kq

0

Only on this condition will the men agree to live with us and become one people: If every male among us is circumcised, as they are circumcised

“Only if every man among us is circumcised, as the men of Israel are circumcised, will they agree to live among us and unite with us as one people”

2393

GEN

34

23

n7gu

figs-rquestion

0

Will not their livestock and their property—all their animals be ours?

Shechem uses a question to emphasize that Jacob’s livestock and property will belong to the people of Shechem. This can be translated as a statement. Alternate translation: “All of their animals and property will be ours.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2394

GEN

34

24

m2ft

figs-activepassive

0

Every male was circumcised

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “So Hamor and Shechem had someone circumcise all the men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2395

GEN

34

25

xfn1

translate-ordinal

0

On the third day

“third” is the ordinal number for three. It can be stated without the ordinal number. Alternate translation: “After two days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])

2396

GEN

34

25

w2yp

0

when they were still in pain

“when the men of the city were still in pain”

2397

GEN

34

25

usz1

0

each took his sword

“took their swords”

2398

GEN

34

25

p39e

figs-metonymy

0

they attacked the city

Here “city” stands for the people. Alternate translation: “they attacked the people of the city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2399

GEN

34

25

cm25

0

security, and they killed all the males

This can be translated as a new sentence. “security. Simeon and Levi killed all the men of the city”

2400

GEN

34

27

jn2q

0

the dead bodies

“the dead bodies of Hamor, Shechem, and their men”

2401

GEN

34

27

r6r4

0

looted the city

“stole everything in the city that was valuable”

2402

GEN

34

27

dr6w

0

because the people had defiled their sister

Shechem alone had defiled Dinah, but Jacob’s sons considered Shechem’s entire family and everyone in the city responsible for this act.

2403

GEN

34

27

gep2

0

had defiled

This means that Shechem had greatly dishonored and disgraced Dinah by forcing her to sleep with him. See how you translated “defiled” in Genesis 34:5.

2404

GEN

34

28

ikb2

0

They took their flocks

“Jacob’s sons took the people’s flocks”

2405

GEN

34

29

u4y1

0

all their wealth

“all their possessions and money”

2406

GEN

34

29

lb76

0

All their children and their wives, they captured

“They captured all their children and wives”

2407

GEN

34

30

tk7q

figs-metaphor

0

brought trouble on me

Causing someone to experience trouble is spoken of as if trouble were an object that is brought and placed on a person. Alternate translation: “caused great problems for me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2408

GEN

34

30

g5qj

figs-metaphor

0

to make me stink to the inhabitants of the land

Causing the people in the surrounding areas to hate Jacob is spoken of as if Jacob’s sons made him smell bad physically. This can be translated as a new sentence. Alternate translation: “You have made me repulsive to the people who live in the land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2409

GEN

34

30

di4j

figs-synecdoche

0

I am few in number…against me and attack me, then I will be destroyed, I and my household

Here the words “I” and “me” refer to all of Jacob’s household. Jacob only says “I” or “me” since he is the leader. Alternate translation: “My household is small…against us and attack us, then they will destroy all of us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2410

GEN

34

30

f8i3

0

gather themselves together against me and attack me

“form an army and attack me” or “form an army and attack us”

2411

GEN

34

30

pr2b

figs-activepassive

0

then I will be destroyed

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “they will destroy me” or “they will destroy us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2412

GEN

34

31

l9v7

figs-rquestion

0

Should Shechem have dealt with our sister as with a prostitute?

Simeon and Levi use a question to emphasize that Shechem did what was wrong and deserved to die. Alternate translation: “Shechem should not have treated our sister as if she were a prostitute!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2413

GEN

35

intro

r5b3

0

Genesis 35 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Name change

In Scripture, a change in name always occurs at a highly significant point in a person’s life. The return of Jacob to Canaan was a significant event in the history of the Hebrew people.

Covenant

The covenant God made with Abraham is repeated here. It indicates that all of Jacob’s descendants will inherit the promises of this covenant. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/covenant]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/inherit]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promise]])

2414

GEN

35

1

m48u

0

go up to Bethel

The phrase “go up” is used because Bethel is higher in elevation than Shechem.

2415

GEN

35

1

a7yt

figs-123person

0

Build an altar there to God

God speaks about himself in the third person. Alternate translation: “Build an altar there to me, your God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])

2416

GEN

35

2

zm9p

0

said to his household

“said to his family”

2417

GEN

35

2

s6f2

0

Put away the foreign gods that are among you

“Throw away your idols” or “Get rid of your false gods”

2418

GEN

35

2

ke2n

0

purify yourselves, and change your clothes

This was the custom of cleansing oneself morally and physically before going to worship God.

2419

GEN

35

2

p78p

translate-symaction

0

change your clothes

Putting on a new clothes was a sign that they had made themselves clean before approaching God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

2420

GEN

35

3

uv67

0

in the day of my distress

“in the time of my distress” or “when I was in trouble”

2421

GEN

35

4

k9aj

0

So they gave

“so everyone in Jacob’s household gave” or “so all of his family and servants gave”

2422

GEN

35

4

v6i9

figs-metonymy

0

that were in their hand

Here “in their hand” stands for what they own. Alternate translation: “that were in their possession” or “that they had” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2423

GEN

35

4

q9se

0

the rings that were in their ears

“their earrings.” Possible meanings are (1) the gold in the earrings could have been used to make more idols or (2) they took these earrings from the city of Shechem after they attacked it and killed all the people. The earrings would have reminded them of their sin.

2424

GEN

35

5

kv2s

figs-metaphor

0

God made panic to fall on the cities

God causing the people of the cities to be afraid of Jacob and his family is spoken of as if panic were an object that fell on the cities. The abstract noun “panic” can be stated as “afraid.” Alternate translation: “God made the people in the surrounding cities afraid of Jacob and those with him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])

2425

GEN

35

5

nn7z

figs-metonymy

0

on the cities

Here “cities” stands for the people who live in the cities. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2426

GEN

35

5

gee5

figs-explicit

0

the sons of Jacob

It is implied that no one attacked anyone in Jacob’s family. But two of the sons, Simeon and Levi had attacked the Canaanites relatives of Shechem after he seized and slept with Jacob’s daughter. Jacob was afraid they would seek revenge in Genesis 34:30. Alternate translation: “Jacob’s family” or “Jacob’s household” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2427

GEN

35

6

ex8u

translate-names

0

Luz

This is the name of a city. See how you translated this in Genesis 28:19. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2428

GEN

35

7

ku6t

translate-names

0

El Bethel

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name El Bethel means ‘God of Bethel.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2429

GEN

35

7

i3c5

0

there God had revealed himself to him

“there God made himself known to Jacob”

2430

GEN

35

8

bz6e

translate-names

0

Deborah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2431

GEN

35

8

xvy6

0

Rebekah’s nurse

A nurse is a woman who takes care of another woman’s child. The nurse was highly honored and important to the family.

2432

GEN

35

8

je7d

figs-activepassive

0

She was buried down from Bethel

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “They buried her down from Bethel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2433

GEN

35

8

v837

0

down from Bethel

The phrase “down from” is used because they buried her in a place that was lower in elevation than Bethel.

2434

GEN

35

8

cv5c

translate-names

0

Allon Bakuth

Translators may add a footnote that says: “The name Allon Bakuth means ‘Oak tree where there is weeping.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2435

GEN

35

9

sbc1

figs-explicit

0

When Jacob came from Paddan Aram

It can be made explicit that they were in Bethel. Alternate translation: “After Jacob left Paddan Aram, and while he was in Bethel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2436

GEN

35

9

x1ha

0

blessed

Here “bless” means to pronounce a formal blessing on someone and to cause good things to happen to that person.

2437

GEN

35

10

z15l

figs-activepassive

0

but your name will no longer be called Jacob

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “but your name will no longer be Jacob” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2438

GEN

35

11

i7mm

0

God said to him

“God said to Jacob”

2439

GEN

35

11

z2vl

figs-doublet

0

Be fruitful and multiply

God told Jacob to produce children so that there would be many of them. The word “multiply” explains how he was to be “fruitful.” See how you translated this in Genesis 1:22. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2440

GEN

35

11

p3b2

figs-metonymy

0

A nation and a company of nations will come from you

Here “nation” and “nations” refer to Jacob’s descendants who will establish these nations. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2441

GEN

35

13

ev4e

0

God went up from him

Here “went up” is used because where God dwells is typically thought of as being up or above the world. Alternate translation: “God left him”

2442

GEN

35

14

b5hy

0

pillar

This is a memorial pillar which was simply a large stone or boulder set up on its end.

2443

GEN

35

14

epr5

translate-symaction

0

He poured out a drink offering over it and poured oil on it

This is a sign that he is dedicating the pillar to God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])

2444

GEN

35

15

j65s

0

Bethel

Translators may also add a footnote that says “The name Bethel means ‘house of God.’”

2445

GEN

35

16

ap5k

0

Ephrath

This is another name for the town of Bethlehem.

2446

GEN

35

16

vy4h

0

She had hard labor

“She was having a very difficult time giving birth to the child”

2447

GEN

35

17

x4mh

0

While she was in hardest labor

“When the labor pain was at its worst”

2448

GEN

35

17

s3cm

0

midwife

a person who helps a woman when she is giving birth to a child

2449

GEN

35

18

hn3n

figs-idiom

0

As she was dying, with her dying breath

A “dying breath” is a person’s last breath before he or she dies. Alternate translation: “Just before she died, as she was taking her last breath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2450

GEN

35

18

dty6

translate-names

0

Ben-Oni

Translator may add a footnote that says “The name Ben-Oni means ‘son of my sorrow.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2451

GEN

35

18

d44e

0

Benjamin

Translator may add a footnote that says “The name Benjamin means ‘son of the right hand.’” The phrase “right hand” indicates a place of special favor.

2452

GEN

35

19

v664

figs-activepassive

0

was buried

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “they buried her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2453

GEN

35

19

cj7f

0

on the way

“alongside the road”

2454

GEN

35

20

n32v

0

It is the marker of Rachel’s grave to this day

“It marks Rachel’s grave still to this day”

2455

GEN

35

20

lj22

0

to this day

“up to the present time.” This means to the time that the author was writing this.

2456

GEN

35

21

iq45

figs-explicit

0

Israel traveled on

It is implied that Israel’s family and servants are with him. The full meaning of this information can be made explicit. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2457

GEN

35

22

s2bs

figs-euphemism

0

lay with

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “had sexual relations with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2458

GEN

35

22

w9fr

translate-names

0

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2459

GEN

35

22

m9qr

0

Now Jacob had twelve sons

This sentence begins a new paragraph, which continues into the following verses.

2460

GEN

35

22

lv7q

translate-numbers

0

twelve sons

“12 sons” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2461

GEN

35

25

vbv7

translate-names

0

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2462

GEN

35

26

bk2l

translate-names

0

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:24. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2463

GEN

35

26

tc13

figs-explicit

0

who were born to him in Paddan Aram

It is implied that this does not include Benjamin who was born in the land of Canaan near Bethlehem. It only mentions Paddan Aram since that is where most of them were born. The full meaning of this can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “who were born to him in Paddan Aram, except Benjamin who was born in the land of Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2464

GEN

35

27

f44e

figs-go

0

Jacob came to Isaac

Here “came” can be stated as “went.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])

2465

GEN

35

27

a58a

translate-names

0

Mamre

This was another name for the city of Hebron. It may have been named after Mamre, the friend of Abraham who lived there. See how you translated this in Genesis 13:18. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2466

GEN

35

27

bc7q

translate-names

0

Kiriath Arba

This is the name of a city. See how you translated this in Genesis 23:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2467

GEN

35

28

x251

translate-numbers

0

one hundred eighty years

“180 years” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2468

GEN

35

29

rk3c

figs-doublet

0

Isaac breathed his last and died

“Isaac took his last breath and died.” The phrases “breathed his last” and “died” mean basically the same thing. See how you translated a similar phrase in Genesis 25:8. Alternate translation: “Isaac died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

2469

GEN

35

29

p3ct

figs-euphemism

0

breathed his last

This is a polite way of saying a person died. See how you translated this in Genesis 25:8. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2470

GEN

35

29

fpy4

figs-idiom

0

was gathered to his ancestors

This means that after Isaac died, his soul went to the same place as his relatives who died before him. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “he joined his family members who had already died” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2471

GEN

35

29

bxx8

figs-doublet

0

an old man full of days

The phrases “old man” and “full of days” mean basically the same thing. They emphasize that Isaac lived a very long time. Alternate translation: “after he had lived a very long time and was very old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])

2472

GEN

36

intro

st7p

0

Genesis 36 General Notes

Special concepts in this chapter

Esau’s descendants

Esau’s descendants became known as the Edomite people group. They also become a great nation. This nation is prominent in the rest of the Old Testament. God graciously blessed Esau and he had many descendants. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/grace]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]])

2473

GEN

36

1

zj65

figs-explicit

0

These were the descendants of Esau (also called Edom)

“These are the descendants of Esau, who is also called Edom.” This sentence introduces the account of Esau’s descendants in Genesis 36:1-8. Alternate translation: “This is an account of the descendants of Esau, who is also called Edom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2474

GEN

36

2

ac64

translate-names

0

Adah…Oholibamah

These are names of Esau’s wives. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2475

GEN

36

2

hna3

translate-names

0

Elon the Hittite

“Elon the descendant of Heth” or “Elon a descendant of Heth.” This is the name of a man. See how you translate this in Genesis 26:34. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2476

GEN

36

2

s9ni

translate-names

0

Anah…Zibeon

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2477

GEN

36

2

hd6t

0

Hivite

This refers to a larger group of people. See how you translated it in Genesis 10:17.

2478

GEN

36

3

g86y

translate-names

0

Nebaioth

a man’s name (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2479

GEN

36

3

k2u1

translate-names

0

Basemath

This is the name of one of Esau’s wives. See how you translated this in Genesis 26:34. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2480

GEN

36

3

n8tf

translate-names

0

Nebaioth

This is the name of one of Ishmael’s sons. See how you translated this in Genesis 28:9. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2481

GEN

36

4

w5z8

translate-names

0

Adah…Basemath

These are names of Esau’s wives. See how you translated these in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2482

GEN

36

4

s7t4

translate-names

0

Eliphaz…Reuel

These are names of Esau’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2483

GEN

36

5

rp9l

translate-names

0

Oholibamah

These are names of Esau’s wives. See how you translated these in Genesis 36:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2484

GEN

36

5

m5u2

translate-names

0

Jeush…Jalam…Korah

These are names of Esau’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2485

GEN

36

6

k2ey

figs-explicit

0

which he had gathered in the land of Canaan

This refers to all of the things that he had accumulated while living in the land of Canaan. Alternate translation: “which he had accumulated while living in the land of Canaan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2486

GEN

36

6

u7vt

figs-idiom

0

went into a land

This means to moved to another place and live there. Alternate translation: “went to live in another land” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2487

GEN

36

7

y3im

0

their possessions

“Esau’s and Jacob’s possessions”

2488

GEN

36

7

kr6m

figs-explicit

0

could not support them because of their livestock

The land was not large enough to support all of the livestock that Jacob and Esau owned. Alternate translation: “was not big enough to support all of their livestock” or “was not big enough for both Esau’s flocks and Jacob’s flocks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2489

GEN

36

7

ui47

figs-idiom

0

where they had settled

The word “settled” means to move somewhere and live there. Alternate translation: “where they had moved to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2490

GEN

36

9

yd4a

figs-explicit

0

These were the descendants of Esau

This sentence introduces the account of Esau’s descendants in Genesis 36:9-43. Alternate translation: “This is an account of the descendants of Esau” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2491

GEN

36

9

vme3

figs-explicit

0

in the hill country of Seir

This means that they lived in the hill country of Seir. The full meaning of this may be made explicit. Alternate translation: “who lived in the hill country of Seir” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2492

GEN

36

10

kf9d

translate-names

0

Eliphaz…Reuel

These are names of Esau’s sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2493

GEN

36

10

b61h

translate-names

0

Adah…Basemath

These are names of Esau’s wives. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:2-3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2494

GEN

36

11

uw62

translate-names

0

Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz

These are names of the sons of Eliphaz. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2495

GEN

36

12

q2xy

translate-names

0

Amalek

a son of Eliphaz (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2496

GEN

36

12

c8w1

translate-names

0

Timna

This is the name of Eliphaz’s concubine. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2497

GEN

36

13

qe6l

translate-names

0

Reuel

This is the name of a son of Esau. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2498

GEN

36

13

eka4

translate-names

0

Nahath…Zerah…Shammah…Mizzah

These are names of Reuel’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2499

GEN

36

13

tv77

translate-names

0

Basemath

This is the name of a wife of Esau. See how you translated this in Genesis 36:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2500

GEN

36

14

n41e

translate-names

0

Oholibamah

This is the name of a wife of Esau. See how you translated these in Genesis 36:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2501

GEN

36

14

sz5g

translate-names

0

Anah…Zibeon

These are the names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2502

GEN

36

14

u6hp

translate-names

0

Jeush, Jalam, and Korah

These are names of Esau’s sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2503

GEN

36

15

zg7m

translate-names

0

Eliphaz

This is the name of one of Esau’s sons. See how you translated his name in Genesis 36:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2504

GEN

36

15

lut6

translate-names

0

Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz

These are names of Eliphaz’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2505

GEN

36

16

zr8u

translate-names

0

Korah, Gatam, and Amalek

These are names of Eliphaz’s sons. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2506

GEN

36

16

j4yq

translate-names

0

Adah

This is the name of one of Esau’s wives. See how you translated her name in Genesis 36:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2507

GEN

36

17

ts2e

translate-names

0

Reuel

This is the name of a son of Esau. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2508

GEN

36

17

uk29

translate-names

0

Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, Mizzah

These are the names of Reuel’s sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2509

GEN

36

17

h6as

figs-explicit

0

in the land of Edom

This means that they lived in the land of Edom. Alternate translation: “who lived in the land of Edom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2510

GEN

36

17

pn88

translate-names

0

Basemath

This is the name of a wife of Esau. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2511

GEN

36

18

bz8x

translate-names

0

Oholibamah

This is the name of a wife of Esau. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2512

GEN

36

18

lpz9

translate-names

0

Jeush, Jalam, Korah

These are the names of Esau’s sons. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2513

GEN

36

18

bs35

translate-names

0

Anah

This the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2514

GEN

36

20

nf56

0

Seir

The word “Seir” is the name of a man and of a country.

2515

GEN

36

20

pj69

0

the Horite

The word “Horite” refers to a people group. See how you translated it in Genesis 14:6.

2516

GEN

36

20

lrw4

0

the inhabitants of the land

“who lived in the land of Seir, which is also called Edom”

2517

GEN

36

20

e8fa

translate-names

0

Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2518

GEN

36

21

g54a

translate-names

0

Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2519

GEN

36

22

ui8e

translate-names

0

Lotan…Hori and Heman

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2520

GEN

36

22

r36g

translate-names

0

Timna

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2521

GEN

36

23

c6jr

translate-names

0

Shobal

This is the name of man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:20. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2522

GEN

36

23

smz3

translate-names

0

Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2523

GEN

36

24

zng8

translate-names

0

Zibeon

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:20. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2524

GEN

36

24

l94x

translate-names

0

Aiah and Anah

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2525

GEN

36

25

t8gx

0

Anah…Dishon

These are names of men. See how you translated “Anah” in Genesis 36:20.

2526

GEN

36

25

esu6

translate-names

0

Oholibamah

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2527

GEN

36

26

tb3r

translate-names

0

Dishon…Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran

These are names of men. See how you translated “Dishon” in Genesis 36:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2528

GEN

36

27

w3mp

translate-names

0

Ezer…Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan

These are names of men. See how you translated “Ezer” in Genesis 36:20-21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2529

GEN

36

28

u49l

translate-names

0

Dishan…Uz and Aran

These are names of men. See how you translated “Dishan” in Genesis 36:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2530

GEN

36

29

fkl1

translate-names

0

the Horites

This is the name of a people group. See how you translated this in Genesis 14:6. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2531

GEN

36

29

g2zx

translate-names

0

Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, and Anah

These are the names of men. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:20. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2532

GEN

36

30

cp7f

translate-names

0

Dishon, Ezer, Dishan

These are the names of men. See how you translated these names in Genesis 36:21. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2533

GEN

36

30

yki3

figs-explicit

0

in the land of Seir

This means that they lived in the land of Seir. Alternate translation: “of those who lived in the land of Seir” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2534

GEN

36

32

v99w

translate-names

0

Bela…Beor

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2535

GEN

36

32

h4lb

figs-idiom

0

the name of his city

This means that this was the city where he lived. Alternate translation: “the name of the city where he lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2536

GEN

36

32

e1xl

translate-names

0

Dinhabah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2537

GEN

36

33

sr5r

translate-names

0

Bela…Jobab…Zerah

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2538

GEN

36

33

cuf9

translate-names

0

Bozrah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2539

GEN

36

34

d4sk

translate-names

0

Jobab

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:33. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2540

GEN

36

34

ne5s

translate-names

0

Husham

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2541

GEN

36

34

l23l

figs-explicit

0

Husham who was of the land of the Temanites

This means that Husham lived in the land of the Temanites. Alternate translation: “Husham who lived in the land of the Temanites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2542

GEN

36

34

b498

translate-names

0

Temanites

descendants of a man named Teman (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2543

GEN

36

35

ct4x

translate-names

0

Husham…Hadad…Bedad

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2544

GEN

36

35

ar3g

figs-idiom

0

The name of his city

This means that this was the city where he lived. Alternate translation: “The name of the city where he lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2545

GEN

36

35

i9ul

translate-names

0

Avith

These are names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2546

GEN

36

36

en7h

translate-names

0

Hadad…Samlah

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2547

GEN

36

36

f4j5

translate-names

0

Samlah of Masrekah

“Samlah from Masrekah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2548

GEN

36

36

rd2a

translate-names

0

Masrekah

These are names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2549

GEN

36

37

b1jl

translate-names

0

Samlah

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 36:36. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2550

GEN

36

37

hji7

figs-explicit

0

then Shaul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his place

Shaul lived in Rehoboth. Rehoboth was by the Euphrates river. This information may be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “then Shaul reigned in his place. He was from Rehoboth which is by the Euphrates River” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2551

GEN

36

37

c5xx

translate-names

0

Shaul

This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2552

GEN

36

37

d42q

translate-names

0

Rehoboth

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2553

GEN

36

38

c5rd

translate-names

0

Shaul…Baal-Hanan…Akbor

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2554

GEN

36

39

jf15

translate-names

0

Baal-Hanan…Akbor…Hadar…Matred…Me Zahab

These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2555

GEN

36

39

kk3p

figs-idiom

0

The name of his city

This means that this was the city where he lived. Alternate translation: “The name of the city where he lived” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2556

GEN

36

39

sz99

translate-names

0

Pau

These are names of places. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2557

GEN

36

39

vn2x

translate-names

0

Mehetabel

This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2558

GEN

36

39

f6vx

0

the daughter of Matred, the granddaughter of Me Zahab

“she was the daughter of Matred, and the granddaughter of Me Zahab”

2559

GEN

36

40

bim6

0

the heads of clans

“the leaders of the clans”

2560

GEN

36

40

n8cf

figs-explicit

0

according to their clans and their regions, by their names

The clans and the regions were named after the heads of the clans. Alternate translation: “the names of their clans and the regions where they lived were named after them. These are their names” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2561

GEN

36

40

yu9e

translate-names

0

Timna, Alvah, Jetheth

These are names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2562

GEN

36

41

q8em

translate-names

0

Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon

These are names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2563

GEN

36

42

f4dx

translate-names

0

Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar

These are names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2564

GEN

36

43

bjb8

translate-names

0

Magdiel, and Iram

These are names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2565

GEN

36

43

f84q

0

their settlements

“their dwelling places” or “the places they lived”

2566

GEN

36

43

zc7w

figs-metonymy

0

This was Esau

This list is said “to be” Esau, which means that it is the whole list of his descendants. Alternate translation: “This is the list of the descendants of Esau” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2567

GEN

37

intro

s17y

0

Genesis 37 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter begins to record the account of Jacob’s sons. The rest of the book of Genesis focuses on Jacob’s sons, especially Joseph. This chapter also references Jacob as “Israel” beginning in this chapter.

Special concepts in this chapter

Favoritism

Jacob’s favoritism became a great problem for his sons. They are always jealous of Joseph because he is the favorite son. The beautiful garment Jacob gave to Joseph greatly strained the relationship between Joseph and his brothers. Joseph dreams he will rule all of his brothers, even though he is not the oldest son. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/favor]])

God’s power

The account of Joseph focuses on the power of God. God is able to protect his people despite the evil actions of some. He also is able to continue to bless them despite their circumstances. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bless]])

2568

GEN

37

1

y34b

0

the land where his father was staying, in the land of Canaan

“in the land of Canaan where his father had lived”

2569

GEN

37

2

gx4z

figs-synecdoche

0

These were the events concerning Jacob

This sentence introduces the account of Jacob’s children in Genesis 37:1-50:26. Here “Jacob” refers to his whole family. Alternate translation: “This is the account of Jacob’s family” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2570

GEN

37

2

h2a4

translate-numbers

0

seventeen years old

“17 years old” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2571

GEN

37

2

kg73

translate-names

0

Bilhah

This is the name of Rachel’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:29. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2572

GEN

37

2

g6zc

translate-names

0

Zilpah

This is the name of Leah’s female servant. See how you translated this name in Genesis 29:24. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2573

GEN

37

2

gp4s

0

wives

These women were servants of Leah and Rachel whom they had given to Jacob to produce children.

2574

GEN

37

2

fj2x

0

an unfavorable report about them

“a bad report about his brothers”

2575

GEN

37

3

in67

writing-background

0

Now

This word is used here to mark a change from the story to background information about Israel and Joseph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])

2576

GEN

37

3

hu4a

0

loved

This refers to brotherly love or love for a friend or family member. This is natural human love between friends or relatives.

2577

GEN

37

3

fd1u

figs-idiom

0

of his old age

This means that Joseph was born when Israel was an old man. Alternate translation: “who was born when Israel was an old man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2578

GEN

37

3

n9xs

0

He made him

“Israel made Joseph”

2579

GEN

37

3

m9ni

0

a beautiful garment

“a beautiful robe”

2580

GEN

37

4

ua1k

0

would not speak kindly to him

“could not speak in a courteous manner to him”

2581

GEN

37

5

z7xa

0

Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told his brothers about it. They hated him even more

This is a summary of the events that will happen in 37:6-11.

2582

GEN

37

5

req1

0

They hated him even more

“And Joseph’s brothers hated him even more than they hated him before”

2583

GEN

37

6

c6ln

0

Please listen to this dream which I dreamed

“Please listen to this dream that I had”

2584

GEN

37

7

hu4k

0

General Information:

Joseph tells his brothers about his dream.

2585

GEN

37

7

zk8j

0

Behold

The word “behold” here alerts us to pay attention to the surprising information that follows.

2586

GEN

37

7

v7ub

figs-exclusive

0

we were

The word “we” refers to Joseph and includes all of his brothers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2587

GEN

37

7

lp7e

0

tying bundles of grain

When grain is reaped it is tied into bundles and stacked until it is time to separate the grain from the straw.

2588

GEN

37

7

p45z

0

behold

Here the word “behold” here shows that Joseph was surprised by what he saw.

2589

GEN

37

7

yu7f

figs-personification

0

my bundle rose and stood upright…your bundles came around and bowed down

Here the bundles of grain are standing and kneeling as if they were people. These bundle represent Joseph and his brothers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])

2590

GEN

37

8

yak9

figs-parallelism

0

Will you really reign over us? Will you actually rule over us?

Both of these phrases mean basically the same thing. Joseph’s brothers are using questions to mock Joseph. They can be written as statements. Alternate translation: “You will never be our king, and we will never bow down to you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2591

GEN

37

8

pjm9

figs-exclusive

0

reign over us

The word “us” refers to Joseph’s brothers but not Joseph. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])

2592

GEN

37

8

gtl3

0

for his dreams and for his words

“because of his dreams and what he said”

2593

GEN

37

9

kyz2

0

He dreamed another dream

“Joseph had another dream”

2594

GEN

37

9

tzi7

translate-numbers

0

eleven stars

“11 stars” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2595

GEN

37

10

fqz5

0

his father rebuked him. He said to him

“Israel scolded him, saying”

2596

GEN

37

10

c1l9

figs-rquestion

0

What is this dream that you have dreamed? Will your mother…to the ground to you?

Israel uses questions to correct Joseph. This can be written as statements. Alternate translation: “This dream you had is not real. Your mother, brothers, and I will not bow down before you!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2597

GEN

37

11

r99i

0

jealous

This means being angry because someone else is successful or more popular.

2598

GEN

37

11

ml87

figs-idiom

0

kept the matter in mind

The means that he kept thinking about the meaning of Joseph’s dream. Alternate translation: “kept thinking about what the dream might mean” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2599

GEN

37

13

is7f

figs-rquestion

0

Are not your brothers tending the flock in Shechem?

Israel uses a question to begin a conversation. This can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “You brothers are tending the flock in Shechem.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2600

GEN

37

13

mkc7

figs-explicit

0

Come

Here it is implied that Israel is asking Joseph to prepare himself to leave and go see his brothers. Alternate translation: “Get ready” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2601

GEN

37

13

py59

figs-explicit

0

I am ready

He is ready to leave. “I am ready to go” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2602

GEN

37

14

qey4

0

He said to him

“Israel said to Joseph”

2603

GEN

37

14

w1ct

figs-idiom

0

bring me word

Israel wants Joseph to come back and tell him about how his brother and flocks are doing. Alternate translation: “come tell me what you find out” or “give me a report” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2604

GEN

37

14

lr5e

0

out of the Valley

“from the Valley”

2605

GEN

37

15

un9m

0

A certain man found Joseph. Behold, Joseph was wandering in a field

“A certain man found Joseph wandering in a field”

2606

GEN

37

15

d2cb

0

Behold

This marks the beginning of another event in the larger story. It may involve different people than the previous events. Your language may have a way of doing this.

2607

GEN

37

15

s9np

0

What do you seek?

“What are you looking for?”

2608

GEN

37

16

a4w2

0

Tell me, please, where

“Please tell me where”

2609

GEN

37

16

w68c

0

tending the flock

“shepherding their flock”

2610

GEN

37

17

kti6

translate-names

0

Dothan

This is the name of a place that is about 22 kilometers from Shechem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2611

GEN

37

18

b5ik

0

They saw him from a distance

“Joseph’s brothers saw him while he was far away”

2612

GEN

37

18

j6pl

0

they plotted against him to kill him

“they made plans to kill him”

2613

GEN

37

19

e925

0

this dreamer is approaching

“here comes the one who has the dreams”

2614

GEN

37

20

gv2f

figs-idiom

0

Come now, therefore

This wording shows that the brothers acted upon their plans. Alternate translation: “So now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2615

GEN

37

20

q5ub

0

wild animal

“dangerous animal” or “ferocious animal”

2616

GEN

37

20

tf98

0

devoured

to eagerly have eaten

2617

GEN

37

20

f645

figs-irony

0

We will see what will become of his dreams

His brothers planned to kill him, therefore it is ironic that they would speak of his dream coming true, since he would be dead. Alternate translation: “That way we will make sure his dreams do not come true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])

2618

GEN

37

21

hcd3

0

heard it

“heard what they were saying”

2619

GEN

37

21

h7vp

figs-metonymy

0

from their hand

The phrase “their hand” refers to the brothers’ plan to kill him. Alternate translation: “from them” or “from their plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2620

GEN

37

21

tgx9

figs-euphemism

0

Let us not take his life

The phrase “take his life” is a euphemism for killing someone. Alternate translation: “Let us not kill Joseph” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2621

GEN

37

22

ia68

figs-litotes

0

Shed no blood

The negation can be placed on the verb. Also, “shedding blood” is a euphemism for killing someone. Alternate translation: “Do not spill any blood” or “Do not kill him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2622

GEN

37

22

pp4s

0

that he might rescue him

This can be translated as a new sentence: “Rueben said this so that he might rescue Joseph”

2623

GEN

37

22

w33s

figs-metonymy

0

out of their hand

The phrase “their hand” refers to the brothers’ plan to kill him. Alternate translation: “from them” or “from their plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2624

GEN

37

22

qi79

0

to bring him back

“and return him”

2625

GEN

37

23

avb4

0

It came about that when

This phrase is used here to mark an important event in the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

2626

GEN

37

23

hk1a

0

they stripped him of his beautiful garment

“they tore his beautiful garment off of him”

2627

GEN

37

23

r88s

0

beautiful garment

“beautiful robe.” See how you translated this in Genesis 37:3.

2628

GEN

37

25

z1zh

figs-synecdoche

0

They sat down to eat bread

“Bread” represents food in general. Alternate translation: “They sat down to eat food” or “Joseph’s brothers sat down to eat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2629

GEN

37

25

u8ky

figs-metaphor

0

They lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan

Here looking up is spoken of as if a person literally lifted up his eyes. Also, the word “behold” is used here to draw the reader’s attention to what the men saw. Alternate translation: “They looked up and they suddenly saw a caravan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2630

GEN

37

25

vw51

0

bearing

carrying

2631

GEN

37

25

ry7t

0

spices

seasonings

2632

GEN

37

25

c9x3

0

balm

an oily substance with a sweet smell used for healing and protecting skin. “medicine”

2633

GEN

37

25

c48b

figs-explicit

0

traveling to carry them down to Egypt

“bringing them down to Egypt.” This can be made more explicit. Alternate translation: “bringing them down to Egypt to sell them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2634

GEN

37

26

jqq1

figs-rquestion

0

What profit is it if we kill our brother and cover up his blood?

This can be written as a statement. Alternate translation: “We do not gain a profit by killing our brother and covering up his blood” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2635

GEN

37

26

t3nl

figs-metaphor

0

cover up his blood

This is a figure of speech referring to hiding Joseph’s death. Alternate translation: “hide his murder” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2636

GEN

37

27

z5vv

0

to the Ishmaelites

“to these men who are descendants of Ishmael”

2637

GEN

37

27

drn8

figs-idiom

0

not lay our hands upon him

This means not to harm or injure him. Alternate translation: “not hurt him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2638

GEN

37

27

x3zy

figs-metonymy

0

he is our brother, our flesh

The word “flesh” is a metonym that stands for a relative. Alternate translation: “he is our blood relative” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])

2639

GEN

37

27

ih6w

0

His brothers listened to him

“Judah’s brothers listened to him” or “Judah’s brothers agreed with him”

2640

GEN

37

28

fs89

0

Midianite…Ishmaelites

Both names refer to the same group of traders that Joseph’s brothers meet.

2641

GEN

37

28

plq1

translate-numbers

0

for twenty pieces of silver

“for the price of 20 pieces of silver” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])

2642

GEN

37

28

sty7

0

carried Joseph into Egypt

“took Joseph to Egypt”

2643

GEN

37

29

u33n

0

Reuben returned to the pit, and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit

“Reuben returned to the pit, and was surprised to see that Joseph was not there.” The word “behold” here shows that Reuben was surprised to find out Joseph was gone.

2644

GEN

37

29

q2rx

figs-explicit

0

He tore his clothes

This is an act of deep distress and grief. This can be written more clearly. Alternate translation: “He was so grieved that he tore his clothes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2645

GEN

37

30

rz5i

figs-rquestion

0

The boy is not there! And I, where can I go?

Reuben uses questions for emphasis the problem that Joseph was missing. These can be written as statements. Alternate translation: “The boy is gone! I cannot go back home now!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])

2646

GEN

37

31

mg6n

0

Joseph’s garment

This refers to the beautiful garment that his father made for him.

2647

GEN

37

31

v9ds

0

the blood

“the goat’s blood”

2648

GEN

37

32

uw8d

0

they brought it

“they brought the garment”

2649

GEN

37

33

jk1r

0

has devoured him

“has eaten him”

2650

GEN

37

33

i3f2

figs-activepassive

0

Joseph has certainly been torn to pieces

Jacob thinks that a wild animal has torn Joseph’s body apart. Alternate translation: “It has certainly torn Joseph to pieces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2651

GEN

37

34

br9g

figs-explicit

0

Jacob tore his garments

This is an act of deep distress and grief. This can be written more clearly. Alternate translation: “Jacob was so grieved that he tore his garments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2652

GEN

37

34

x4zj

figs-explicit

0

put sackcloth upon his loins

Here “loins” refers to the middle part of the body or the waist. Alternate translation: “put on sackcloth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2653

GEN

37

35

rd4c

figs-metaphor

0

rose up

Here the childrens’ coming to their father is spoke of as “rising up.” Alternate translation: “came to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

2654

GEN

37

35

inp9

figs-activepassive

0

but he refused to be comforted

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “but he would not let them comfort him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2655

GEN

37

35

qls4

figs-explicit

0

Indeed I will go down to Sheol mourning

The means that he be mourning from now until when he dies. Alternate translation: “Indeed when I die and go down to Sheol I will still be mourning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2656

GEN

37

36

p1k8

0

The Midianites sold him

“The Midianites sold Joseph”

2657

GEN

37

36

zpi7

0

the captain of the bodyguard

“the leader of the soldiers who guarded the king”

2658

GEN

38

intro

m9uv

0

Genesis 38 General Notes

Structure and formatting

This chapter focuses on Jacob’s son Judah.

Special concepts in this chapter

“Spilling his seed”

Onan was to provide for his brother’s widow and give her an heir. This phrase indicates that he used Tamar to fulfill his own sexual desires rather than help her. This was sinful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])

God preserves Judah’s line

The Canaanite woman, Tamar, deceived her father-in-law, Judah, into having sexual relations with her. If it had not been for this act, Judah would not have any descendants to carry on his family line. Although her actions were wrong, God used them to protect his people. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]])

2659

GEN

38

1

d341

writing-newevent

0

It came about at that time that Judah

This introduces a new part of the story that focuses on Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

2660

GEN

38

1

mm6t

translate-names

0

a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah

Hirah is the name of a man who lived in the village of Adullam. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2661

GEN

38

2

g2ep

translate-names

0

whose name was Shua

Shua is a Canaanite woman who married Judah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2662

GEN

38

2

ri4x

figs-euphemism

0

he went in to her

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “he had sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2663

GEN

38

3

tdy5

0

She became pregnant

“Judah’s wife became pregnant”

2664

GEN

38

3

b2qs

figs-activepassive

0

He was named Er

This can be written in active form. Alternate translation: “His father named him Er” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2665

GEN

38

3

uw47

translate-names

0

Er

Judah’s son (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2666

GEN

38

4

j52v

0

called his name

“named him”

2667

GEN

38

4

d5vx

translate-names

0

Onan

Judah’s son (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2668

GEN

38

5

qtm2

translate-names

0

Shelah

Judah’s son (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2669

GEN

38

5

q8z9

translate-names

0

Kezib

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2670

GEN

38

6

yph1

translate-names

0

Er

This is the name of one of Judah’s sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2671

GEN

38

7

dn6g

figs-idiom

0

was wicked in the sight of Yahweh

The phrase “in the sight” refers to Yahweh seeing Er’s wickedness. Alternate translation: “was wicked and Yahweh saw it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2672

GEN

38

7

i5dq

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh killed him

Yahweh killed him because he was wicked. This can be made clear. Alternate translation: “So Yahweh killed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2673

GEN

38

8

tk66

translate-names

0

Onan

This is the name of one of Judah’s sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:4. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2674

GEN

38

8

kks8

figs-euphemism

0

Go in to your brother’s wife

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “Have sexual relations with your brother’s wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2675

GEN

38

8

a6ev

0

Do the duty of a brother-in-law to her

This refers to a custom that when the oldest brother dies before he and his wife have a son, the next oldest brother would marry and have sexual relations with the widow. When the widow gave birth to the first son, that son was considered the son of the oldest brother and he would receive the oldest brother’s inheritance.

2676

GEN

38

9

h2uc

figs-euphemism

0

he went in to

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “he had sexual relations with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2677

GEN

38

10

d3ql

figs-idiom

0

was evil in the sight of Yahweh

The phrase “in the sight” refers to Yahweh seeing Onan’s wickedness. Alternate translation: “was evil and Yahweh saw it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])

2678

GEN

38

10

pa7a

figs-explicit

0

Yahweh killed him also

Yahweh killed him because what he did was evil. This can be made clear. Alternate translation: “So Yahweh killed him also” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2679

GEN

38

11

w812

0

his daughter-in-law

“his oldest son’s wife”

2680

GEN

38

11

tu93

figs-explicit

0

in your father’s house

This means her to live in here father’s house. Alternate translation: “and live in your father’s house” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2681

GEN

38

11

xx8w

figs-explicit

0

until Shelah, my son, grows up

Judah intends for Tamar to marry Shelah when he grows up. Alternate translation: “and when Shelah, my son, grows up, he can marry you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2682

GEN

38

11

e1y2

translate-names

0

Shelah

This is the name of one of Judah’s sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2683

GEN

38

11

ib5z

figs-explicit

0

For he feared, “He might also die, just like his brothers

Judah feared that if Shelah married Tamar he would also die like his brothers did. Alternate translation: “For he feared, ‘If he marries her he may also die like his brothers did” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2684

GEN

38

12

fpu9

translate-names

0

Shua’s

This is the name of a man. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2685

GEN

38

12

ws3g

0

Judah was comforted and

“When Judah was no longer grieving, he”

2686

GEN

38

12

f28q

0

his sheepshearers at Timnah

“Timnah, where his men were shearing sheep”

2687

GEN

38

12

cx57

translate-names

0

Timnah

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2688

GEN

38

12

gmi5

0

he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite

“His friend Hiram, from Adullam, went with him”

2689

GEN

38

12

ep2s

translate-names

0

Hirah the Adullamite

“Hiram” is the name of a man, and “Adullam” is the name of a village where he lived. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2690

GEN

38

13

pf3r

figs-activepassive

0

Tamar was told

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Someone told Tamar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2691

GEN

38

13

g6yw

0

Look, your father-in-law

“Listen.” Here the word “look” is used to get Tamar attention.

2692

GEN

38

13

dt3t

0

your father-in-law

“your husband’s father”

2693

GEN

38

14

z7kx

translate-names

0

Enaim

This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2694

GEN

38

14

l825

0

of her widowhood

“that widows wear”

2695

GEN

38

14

z8wu

0

veil

a very thin material used to cover a woman’s head and face

2696

GEN

38

14

w9p6

figs-explicit

0

wrapped herself

This means that she hid herself with her clothing so that people would not recognize her. Traditionally, part of women’s clothing were large pieces of cloth they wrapped themselves with. Alternate translation: “wrapped herself in her clothing so that people would not recognize her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2697

GEN

38

14

i1it

0

by the road

“along the road” or “on the way”

2698

GEN

38

14

ph6r

figs-activepassive

0

she had not been given to him as a wife

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Judah had not given her to Shelah as a wife” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2699

GEN

38

15

wl6g

0

When Judah saw her

The word “her” here refers to Tamar, but your reader should understand that Judah did not know that the woman he was looking at was Tamar.

2700

GEN

38

15

y8kx

figs-explicit

0

because she had covered her face

Judah did not think she was a prostitute just because her face was covered but also because she was sitting in the gate. Alternate translation: “because she had covered her head and sat where prostitutes often sat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2701

GEN

38

16

i3uh

figs-explicit

0

He went to her by the road

Tamar was sitting by the road. Alternate translation: “He went to where she was sitting by the road” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])

2702

GEN

38

16

q479

0

Come, please

“Come with me, please” or “Come now, please”

2703

GEN

38

17

rjw2

0

from the flock

“from my flock of goats”

2704

GEN

38

18

dv74

0

seal and cord…staff

A “seal” is similar to a coin with a design engraved on it, used to imprint melted wax. The “cord” was put through the seal so the owner could wear it around his neck. A staff was long wooden stick that helped in walking over rough ground.

2705

GEN

38

18

tz55

figs-euphemism

0

he went in to her

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “he had sexual relations with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2706

GEN

38

18

e1lh

figs-activepassive

0

she became pregnant by him

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “he caused her to become pregnant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2707

GEN

38

19

t44a

0

veil

This was a very thin material used to cover a woman’s head and face. See how you translated these in Genesis 38:14.

2708

GEN

38

19

df5s

0

clothing of her widowhood

“clothing that widows wear.” See how you translated these in Genesis 38:14.

2709

GEN

38

20

ck76

translate-names

0

Adullamite

a person who lives in the village of Adullam. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2710

GEN

38

20

c471

figs-activepassive

0

receive the pledge

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “take back the pledge”(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2711

GEN

38

20

gj77

figs-synecdoche

0

from the woman’s hand

Here “hand” emphasizes that they were in here possession. The woman’s hand refers to the woman. Alternate translation: “from the woman” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])

2712

GEN

38

21

yd96

translate-names

0

Adullamite

a person who lives in the village of Adullam. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:1. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2713

GEN

38

21

f9j4

0

the men of the place

“some of the men who lived there”

2714

GEN

38

21

wg3u

0

cultic prostitute

“prostitute who serves in the temple”

2715

GEN

38

21

tr6j

translate-names

0

Enaim

This is the name of a place. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2716

GEN

38

23

wmj7

figs-explicit

0

that we not be put to shame

When people found out what had happened they would ridicule Judah and laugh at him. This can be made clear and stated in active form. Alternate translation: “or else people will laugh at us when they find out what happened” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2717

GEN

38

24

n17v

writing-newevent

0

It came about

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

2718

GEN

38

24

v2xa

figs-activepassive

0

it was told to Judah

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “someone told Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2719

GEN

38

24

ps9t

0

Tamar your daughter-in-law

“Tamar, your oldest son’s wife”

2720

GEN

38

24

cli3

figs-activepassive

0

she is pregnant by it

Here the word “it” refers to the “prostitution” that she committed. This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “it has made her pregnant” or “she is pregnant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2721

GEN

38

24

gs86

0

Bring her here

“Bring her out”

2722

GEN

38

24

u7ku

figs-activepassive

0

let her be burned

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “we will burn her to death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2723

GEN

38

25

b976

figs-activepassive

0

When she was brought out

This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “When they brought her out” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])

2724

GEN

38

25

h9p8

0

her father-in-law

“her husband’s father”

2725

GEN

38

25

sd68

0

seal and cords and staff

A “seal” is similar to a coin with a design engraved on it, used to make an impression in melted wax. The “cord” was put through the seal so the owner could wear it around his neck. A staff was long wooden stick that helped in walking over rough ground. See how you translated this in Genesis 38:18.

2726

GEN

38

26

r4f3

translate-names

0

Shelah

This is the name of one of Judah’s sons. See how you translated this name in Genesis 38:5. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])

2727

GEN

38

26

fdr5

figs-euphemism

0

did not lie with her again

This is a euphemism. Alternate translation: “did not have sexual relations with her again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

2728

GEN

38

27

i46v

writing-newevent

0

It came about at the time

This phrase is used here to mark the beginning of a new part of the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])

2729

GEN

38

27

aqm9

0

behold

The word “behold” alerts us to the surprise that Tamar was carrying twins, which was previously unknown.

2730

GEN

38

28

p9yq

0

It came about as she was giving birth

This phrase “It came about” marks an important event in the story. If your language has a way for doing this, you could consider using it here.

2731

GEN

38

28

xui1

0

one put out a hand

“one of the babies put out his hand”