Corrected formatting errors in John #2233

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Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
JHN front intro t6za 0 # Introduction to the Gospel of John<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Gospel of John<br><br>1. Introduction about who Jesus is (1:1–18)<br>2. Jesus is baptized, and he chooses twelve disciples (1:19–51)<br>3. Jesus preaches, teaches, and heals people (2–11)<br>4. The seven days before Jesus’ death (12–19)<br> * Mary anoints the feet of Jesus (12:1–11)<br> * Jesus rides a donkey into Jerusalem (12:12–19)<br> * Some Greek men want to see Jesus (12:20–36)<br> * The Jewish leaders reject Jesus (12:37–50)<br> * Jesus teaches his disciples (13–17)<br> * Jesus is arrested and undergoes trial (18:1–19:15)<br> * Jesus is crucified and buried (19:16–42)<br>5. Jesus rises from the dead (20:1–29)<br>6. John says why he wrote his gospel (20:30–31)<br>7. Jesus meets with the disciples (21)<br><br>### What is the Gospel of John about?<br><br>The Gospel of John is one of four books in the New Testament that describe some of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. These books are called “Gospels,” which means “good news.” Their authors wrote about different aspects of who Jesus was and what he did. John said that he wrote his Gospel “so that people might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God” (20:31). John’s Gospel repeatedly emphasizes that Jesus is God in human form.<br><br>John’s Gospel is very different from the other three Gospels. John does not include some of the teachings and events that the other writers included in their Gospels. Also, John wrote about some teachings and events that are not in the other Gospels.<br><br>John wrote much about the miraculous signs Jesus did to prove that what Jesus said about himself was true. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sign]])<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Gospel of John” or “The Gospel According to John.” Or they may choose a title that may be clearer, such as, “The Good News About Jesus That John Wrote.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>### Who wrote the Gospel of John?<br><br>This book does not give the name of the author. However, since early Christian times, most Christians have thought that the Apostle John was the author. Further evidence that the Apostle John wrote this Gospel is the fact that his name does not occur once within it. Instead, this Gospel contains the phrase “the disciple whom Jesus loved” in places where the other Gospels indicate that John was involved. The Apostle John most likely referred to himself in this manner because he wanted to humbly testify to his close relationship with Jesus as part of Jesus’ inner circle of disciples who became the “pillars” of the early church (Galatians 2:9).<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Why does John write so much about the final week of Jesus’ life?<br><br>John wrote much about Jesus’ final week. He wanted his readers to think deeply about Jesus’ final week and his death on the cross. He wanted people to understand that Jesus willingly died on the cross so that God could forgive them for sinning against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Why does Jesus refer to himself as the “Son of Man”?<br><br>In the Gospels, Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man.” This is a reference to Daniel 7:13–14. In that passage, there is a person who is described as like a “son of man.” That means that the person was someone who looked like a human being. God gave authority to this “son of man” to rule over the nations forever. All people will worship him forever.<br><br>Jews of Jesus’ time did not use “Son of Man” as a title for anyone. But Jesus used it for himself to help them understand who he truly was. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]])<br><br>Translating the title “Son of Man” can be difficult in many languages. Readers may misunderstand a literal translation. Translators can consider alternatives, such as “The Human One.” It may also be helpful to include a footnote to explain the title.<br><br>### What do the words “remain,” “reside,” and “abide” mean in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John often used the words “remain,” “reside”, and “abide” as metaphors. John spoke of a believer becoming more faithful to Jesus and knowing Jesus better as if Jesus’ word “remained” in the believer. John also spoke of someone being spiritually joined to someone else as if the person “remained” in the other person. Christians are said to “remain” in Christ and in God. The Father is said to “remain” in the Son, and the Son is said to “remain” in the Father. The Son is said to “remain” in believers. The Holy Spirit is also said to “remain” in the believers.<br><br>Many translators will find it impossible to represent these ideas in their languages in exactly the same way. For example, Jesus intended to express the idea of the Christian being spiritually together with him when he said, “He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him” (John 6:56). The UST uses the idea of “will be joined to me, and I will be joined to him.” But translators may have to find other ways of expressing the idea.<br><br>In the passage, “If my words remain in you” (John 15:7), the UST expresses this idea as, “If you live by my message.” Translators may find it possible to use this translation as a model.<br><br>### What is double meaning in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John occasionally used words or phrases that could have two meanings (double entendre) in the language he was writing in. For example, the phrase translated “born again” in the ULT could also mean “born from above” (John 3:3, 7). In such cases, you may want to choose one meaning and put the other meaning in a footnote.<br><br>### What are the major issues in the text of the Gospel of John?<br><br>The following verses found in older versions of the Bible but are not included in most modern versions. Translators are advised not to translate these verses. However, if in the translators’ region, there are older versions of the Bible that include these verses, the translators can include them. If they are translated, they should be put inside square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that they were probably not original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* “waiting for the moving of the water. For an angel of the Lord occasionally went down into the pool and stirred the water and whoever went first after the stirring of the water, was made well from the disease they had.” (5:3-4)<br>* “going through the midst of them, and so passed by” (8:59)<br><br>The following passage is included in most older and modern versions of the Bible. But it is not in the earliest copies of the Bible. Translators are advised to translate this passage. It should be put inside of square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that it may not have been original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* The story of the adulterous woman (7:53-8:11)<br><br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])
JHN 1 intro k29b 0 # John 1 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus is God (1:1–5)<br>2. John the Baptist was Jesus’ witness (1:6–8)<br>3. Summary of Jesus’ ministry on Earth (1:9–13)<br>4. Jesus is God in the flesh (1:14–18)<br>5. John the Baptist prepares the way for Jesus (1:19–34)<br>6. Jesus meets Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Nathaniel (1:35–51)<br><br>Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in [1:23](../01/23.md), which are words from the Old Testament.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “The Word”<br><br>John uses the phrase “the Word” to refer to Jesus ([1:1, 14](../01/01.md)). John is saying that God’s most important message to all people is actually Jesus, a person with a physical body. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wordofgod]])<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. In [1:4–9](../01/04.md), John uses an extended metaphor in which light represents what is true and good and darkness represents what is false and evil. John applies that light metaphor to Jesus in order to show that Jesus is the embodiment of God’s truth and goodness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### “Children of God”<br><br>People are sometimes described as “children of God” because God created them. However, John uses this expression in a different sense in this chapter. He uses it to describe people who have entered into a father-child relationship with God by putting their faith and trust in Jesus. God indeed created all people, but people can only become children of God in this sense by believing in Jesus. "Children" in this usage does not refer to those who are young, but only to the relationship that people have at any age to their father. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Important figures of speech in this chapter<br><br>### Metaphors<br><br>John uses the metaphors of light and darkness and of “the Word” to tell the reader that he will be writing more about good and evil and about what God wants to tell people through Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “In the beginning”<br><br>Some languages and cultures speak of the world as if it has always existed, as if it had no beginning. But “very long ago” is different from “in the beginning,” and you need to be sure that your translation communicates correctly.<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([1:51](../01/51.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN front intro t6za 0 # Introduction to the Gospel of John<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Gospel of John<br><br>1. Introduction about who Jesus is (1:1–18)<br>2. Jesus is baptized, and he chooses twelve disciples (1:19–51)<br>3. Jesus preaches, teaches, and heals people (2–11)<br>4. The seven days before Jesus’ death (12–19)<br> * Mary anoints the feet of Jesus (12:1–11)<br> * Jesus rides a donkey into Jerusalem (12:12–19)<br> * Some Greek men want to see Jesus (12:20–36)<br> * The Jewish leaders reject Jesus (12:37–50)<br> * Jesus teaches his disciples (13–17)<br> * Jesus is arrested and undergoes trial (18:1–19:15)<br> * Jesus is crucified and buried (19:16–42)<br>5. Jesus rises from the dead (20:1–29)<br>6. John says why he wrote his gospel (20:30–31)<br>7. Jesus meets with the disciples (21)<br><br>### What is the Gospel of John about?<br><br>The Gospel of John is one of four books in the New Testament that describe some of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. These books are called “Gospels,” which means “good news.” Their authors wrote about different aspects of who Jesus was and what he did. John said that he wrote his Gospel “so that people might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God” (20:31). John’s Gospel repeatedly emphasizes that Jesus is God in human form.<br><br>John’s Gospel is very different from the other three Gospels. John does not include some of the teachings and events that the other writers included in their Gospels. Also, John wrote about some teachings and events that are not in the other Gospels.<br><br>John wrote much about the miraculous signs Jesus did to prove that what Jesus said about himself was true. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sign]])<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Gospel of John” or “The Gospel According to John.” Or they may choose a title that may be clearer, such as, “The Good News About Jesus That John Wrote.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>### Who wrote the Gospel of John?<br><br>This book does not give the name of the author. However, since early Christian times, most Christians have thought that the Apostle John was the author. Further evidence that the Apostle John wrote this Gospel is the fact that his name does not occur once within it. Instead, this Gospel contains the phrase “the disciple whom Jesus loved” in places where the other Gospels indicate that John was involved. The Apostle John most likely referred to himself in this manner because he wanted to humbly testify to his close relationship with Jesus as part of Jesus’ inner circle of disciples who became the “pillars” of the early church (Galatians 2:9).<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Why does John write so much about the final week of Jesus’ life?<br><br>John wrote much about Jesus’ final week. He wanted his readers to think deeply about Jesus’ final week and his death on the cross. He wanted people to understand that Jesus willingly died on the cross so that God could forgive them for sinning against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Why does Jesus refer to himself as the “Son of Man”?<br><br>In the Gospels, Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man.” This is a reference to Daniel 7:13–14. In that passage, there is a person who is described as like a “son of man.” That means that the person was someone who looked like a human being. God gave authority to this “son of man” to rule over the nations forever. All people will worship him forever.<br><br>Jews of Jesus’ time did not use “Son of Man” as a title for anyone. But Jesus used it for himself to help them understand who he truly was. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]])<br><br>Translating the title “Son of Man” can be difficult in many languages. Readers may misunderstand a literal translation. Translators can consider alternatives, such as “The Human One.” It may also be helpful to include a footnote to explain the title.<br><br>### What do the words “remain,” “reside,” and “abide” mean in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John often used the words “remain,” “reside”, and “abide” as metaphors. John spoke of a believer becoming more faithful to Jesus and knowing Jesus better as if Jesus’ word “remained” in the believer. John also spoke of someone being spiritually joined to someone else as if the person “remained” in the other person. Christians are said to “remain” in Christ and in God. The Father is said to “remain” in the Son, and the Son is said to “remain” in the Father. The Son is said to “remain” in believers. The Holy Spirit is also said to “remain” in the believers.<br><br>Many translators will find it impossible to represent these ideas in their languages in exactly the same way. For example, Jesus intended to express the idea of the Christian being spiritually together with him when he said, “He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him” (John 6:56). The UST uses the idea of “will be joined to me, and I will be joined to him.” But translators may have to find other ways of expressing the idea.<br><br>In the passage, “If my words remain in you” (John 15:7), the UST expresses this idea as, “If you live by my message.” Translators may find it possible to use this translation as a model.<br><br>### What is double meaning in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John occasionally used words or phrases that could have two meanings (double entendre) in the language he was writing in. For example, the phrase translated “born again” in the ULT could also mean “born from above” (John 3:3, 7). In such cases, you may want to choose one meaning and put the other meaning in a footnote.<br><br>### What are the major issues in the text of the Gospel of John?<br><br>The following verses found in older versions of the Bible but are not included in most modern versions. Translators are advised not to translate these verses. However, if in the translators’ region, there are older versions of the Bible that include these verses, the translators can include them. If they are translated, they should be put inside square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that they were probably not original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* “waiting for the moving of the water. For an angel of the Lord occasionally went down into the pool and stirred the water and whoever went first after the stirring of the water, was made well from the disease they had.” (5:3-4)<br>* “going through the midst of them, and so passed by” (8:59)<br><br>The following passage is included in most older and modern versions of the Bible. But it is not in the earliest copies of the Bible. Translators are advised to translate this passage. It should be put inside of square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that it may not have been original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* The story of the adulterous woman (7:53-8:11)<br><br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])
JHN 1 intro k29b 0 # John 1 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus is God (1:1–5)<br>2. John the Baptist was Jesus’ witness (1:6–8)<br>3. Summary of Jesus’ ministry on Earth (1:9–13)<br>4. Jesus is God in the flesh (1:14–18)<br>5. John the Baptist prepares the way for Jesus (1:19–34)<br>6. Jesus meets Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Nathaniel (1:35–51)<br><br>Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in [1:23](../01/23.md), which are words from the Old Testament.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “The Word”<br><br>John uses the phrase “the Word” to refer to Jesus ([1:1, 14](../01/01.md)). John is saying that God’s most important message to all people is actually Jesus, a person with a physical body. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wordofgod]])<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. In [1:4–9](../01/04.md), John uses an extended metaphor in which light represents what is true and good and darkness represents what is false and evil. John applies that light metaphor to Jesus in order to show that Jesus is the embodiment of God’s truth and goodness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### “Children of God”<br><br>People are sometimes described as “children of God” because God created them. However, John uses this expression in a different sense in this chapter. He uses it to describe people who have entered into a father-child relationship with God by putting their faith and trust in Jesus. God indeed created all people, but people can only become children of God in this sense by believing in Jesus. “Children” in this usage does not refer to those who are young, but only to the relationship that people have at any age to their father. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Important figures of speech in this chapter<br><br>### Metaphors<br><br>John uses the metaphors of light and darkness and of “the Word” to tell the reader that he will be writing more about good and evil and about what God wants to tell people through Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “In the beginning”<br><br>Some languages and cultures speak of the world as if it has always existed, as if it had no beginning. But “very long ago” is different from “in the beginning,” and you need to be sure that your translation communicates correctly.<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([1:51](../01/51.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 1 1 er9g ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν 1 In the beginning This phrase refers to the very earliest time before God created the heavens and the earth. It does not refer to time in the distant past. Alternate translation: “Before the beginning of the universe there was” or “Before the universe began there was”
JHN 1 1 z59q figs-explicit ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος…καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος 1 the Word Here, **the Word** refers to Jesus. It does not refer to a spoken word. ULT indicates this by capitalizing **Word** to indicate that this is a title for Jesus. Use whatever convention your language uses to indicate that this is a name. If “word” is feminine in your language, it could be translated as “the one who is called the Word.” Alternate translation: “Jesus, who is the Word, and Jesus … and Jesus was God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 2 u6xx writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to Jesus, whom John has called “the Word” in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus” or “the Word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
@ -21,13 +21,13 @@ JHN 1 5 w9ni αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν 1 Here, the word translated *
JHN 1 5 yv8l writing-pronouns αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν 1 Here, **it** refers to the light mentioned earlier in the verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “did not overcome the light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 6 qa1s figs-activepassive ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ Θεοῦ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could use an active verbal form in place of the passive verbal form **having been sent**. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “whom God has sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 1 6 gih6 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης 1 Here, **John** refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 7 mtlb writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to John the Baptist, who was introduced in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 7 mtlb writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to John the Baptist, who was introduced in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 7 mht8 figs-metaphor περὶ τοῦ φωτός 1 testify about the light Here, **light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “about Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 7 cdl5 δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **through** indicates the means by which everyone might believe in the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “by means of him”
JHN 1 7 m4fo writing-pronouns δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **him** refers to John the Baptist. It does not refer to Jesus or the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “through John the Baptist” or “through John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 8 pn9t writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος 1 **That one** here refers to John the Baptist. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 8 pn9t writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος 1 **That one** here refers to John the Baptist. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 8 kbwh figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς…τοῦ φωτός 1 Here, **light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. See how you translated it in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God … Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 9 xe1z figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν, ὃ 1 The true light Here, **light** is a metaphor that represents Jesus as the one who both reveals the truth about God and is himself that truth. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who truly embodied God’s truth, who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 9 xe1z figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν, ὃ 1 The true light Here, **light** is a metaphor that represents Jesus as the one who both reveals the truth about God and is himself that truth. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who truly embodied God’s truth, who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 9 rbsj figs-metaphor ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον 1 Here, **light** is a metaphor for God’s truth and goodness. Alternate translation: “which reveals the true and good things of God to all men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 9 u00s figs-gendernotations ἄνθρωπον 1 Although the term **men** is masculine, John is using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
JHN 1 10 c2ne writing-pronouns ἦν…δι’ αὐτοῦ…αὐτὸν 1 **He** and **him** in this verse refer to Jesus. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus was … through Jesus … Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
@ -79,21 +79,21 @@ JHN 1 15 lrd7 ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν 1 for he was before me Here, *
JHN 1 16 punh grammar-connect-logic-result ὅτι 1 Here, John is using the word **For** to introduce the reason why he said that Jesus is “full of grace and truth” in verse [14](../01/14.md). Alternate translation: “We can say that Jesus is full of grace and truth because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 1 16 iriv writing-pronouns αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 16 p3zg figs-abstractnouns τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ 1 fullness Here, **fullness** refers to the grace and truth which John said Jesus was full of in verse [14](../01/14.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **fullness** with an equivalent expression that says this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what he is full of” or “his full amount of grace and truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 1 16 vmyz figs-exclusive ἡμεῖς πάντες 1 Here, **we** refers to John and all believers. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “all of we believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
JHN 1 16 vmyz figs-exclusive ἡμεῖς πάντες 1 Here, **we** refers to John and all believers. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “all of we believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
JHN 1 16 yrg8 ἐλάβομεν καὶ χάριν 1 Here, **even** indicates that “grace after grace” explains what “his fullness” means. Alternate translation: “have received, that is, grace” or “have received, namely, grace”
JHN 1 16 b9r1 figs-abstractnouns χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος 1 grace after grace If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate both occurrences of the abstract noun **grace** here with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “kind act after kind act” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 1 16 avst χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος 1 Here, **after** could mean: (1) the second “grace” replaces the first “grace,” which is the most common use for this word. This meaning could indicate that the first “grace” refers to “the law” and the second “grace” refers to “Grace and truth” in the next verse. Alternate translation: “grace in place of grace” or “grace instead of grace” (2) the second “grace” is in addition to the first “grace.” Alternate translation: “grace in addition to” or “grace upon grace”
JHN 1 17 iata grammar-connect-logic-contrast ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο 1 John placed the two sentences in this verse next to each other without any connecting word in order to show a contrast between the law of Moses and the grace and truth of Jesus. This does not mean that the law of Moses did not have grace and truth. Rather, John is indicating that the grace and truth revealed by Jesus is more complete than that revealed in the law of Moses. Although God revealed himself and his will through the law of Moses, he did so much more clearly though Jesus, who is God in human form. Alternate translation: “the law was given through Moses. But grace and truth came about through Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
JHN 1 17 xsbj figs-activepassive ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form and indicate who did the action. Alternate translation: “God gave the law through Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 1 17 wios translate-names Μωϋσέως 1 **Moses** is the name of a man, a prophet of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 17 wios translate-names Μωϋσέως 1 **Moses** is the name of a man, a prophet of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 17 vm1h figs-abstractnouns ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract nouns **grace** and **truth** with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “God’s gracious and faithful character” or “Kind acts and true teachings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 1 18 vf9q μονογενὴς Θεὸς 1 Here and throughout John’s Gospel, the phrase **the One and Only** is a title for Jesus that could refer to: (1) Jesus being unique as the only member of his kind. Alternate translation: “the Unique God” (2) Jesus being the only child of his Father. Alternate translation: “the Only Begotten God”
JHN 1 18 r1la μονογενὴς Θεὸς 1 Here, **God** indicates that Jesus, who is called **the One and Only**, is God. If it would be clearer to you readers, you could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the One and Only, who is God”
JHN 1 18 rflq figs-idiom ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ Πατρὸς 1 Here, **in the bosom of** is an idiom that refers to having a close and intimate relationship with someone. Alternate translation: “who is close to the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
JHN 1 18 rflq figs-idiom ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ Πατρὸς 1 Here, **in the bosom of** is an idiom that refers to having a close and intimate relationship with someone. Alternate translation: “who is close to the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
JHN 1 18 h5cq guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τοῦ Πατρὸς 1 Father This is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 1 18 kmqm writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος 1 Here, **that one** refers to Jesus in an emphatic way. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 18 kmqm writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος 1 Here, **that one** refers to Jesus in an emphatic way. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 18 zc8g writing-pronouns ἐξηγήσατο 1 Here, **him** refers to God the Father. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 18 pmw5 ἐξηγήσατο 1 Here, the word translated **has made him known** refers to making people know something by explaining or revealing it clearly. Alternate translation: “has explained him” or “has fully revealed him”
JHN 1 18 pmw5 ἐξηγήσατο 1 Here, the word translated **has made him known** refers to making people know something by explaining or revealing it clearly. Alternate translation: “has explained him” or “has fully revealed him”
JHN 1 19 t5pf figs-explicit τοῦ Ἰωάννου 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “of John the Baptist” or “of John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 19 e1dz figs-synecdoche ἀπέστειλαν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων 1 the Jews sent … to him from Jerusalem Here, **the Jews** refers to the “Jewish leaders.” Alternate translation: “the Jewish leaders sent … from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
JHN 1 20 b7zz ὡμολόγησεν καὶ οὐκ ἠρνήσατο, καὶ ὡμολόγησεν 1 He confessed—he did not deny, but confessed The phrase “he confessed” says in positive terms the same thing that **he did not deny** says in negative terms. This emphasizes that John was telling the truth and was strongly stating that he was not the Christ. Your language may have a different way of doing this. Alternate translation: “he strongly confessed” or “he solemnly testified”
@ -107,17 +107,17 @@ JHN 1 22 wbd9 figs-ellipsis τίς εἶ? ἵνα ἀπόκρισιν δῶμε
JHN 1 22 x8wz figs-exclusive δῶμεν…ἡμᾶς 1 we may give … us Here, **we** and **us** refer to the priests and Levites, not to John. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
JHN 1 22 fmc8 ἵνα ἀπόκρισιν δῶμεν 1 Alternate translation: “so that we might tell your answer”
JHN 1 22 sa3t figs-explicit τοῖς πέμψασιν ἡμᾶς 1 they said to him This phrase refers to the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to those leaders in Jerusalem who sent us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 23 a732 writing-pronouns ἔφη 1 He said **He** here refers to John the Baptist. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John said (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 23 a732 writing-pronouns ἔφη 1 He said **He** here refers to John the Baptist. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John said (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 23 x314 figs-quotemarks φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου 1 In these phrases, John quotes from the book of Isaiah. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])
JHN 1 23 baa5 figs-metonymy ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ 1 I am a voice, crying in the wilderness Here, **voice** refers to the person who is crying out in the wilderness. Alternate translation: “I am the one calling out in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 1 23 p7kc figs-quotesinquotes ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου 1 This clause is a quotation within a quotation. John is quoting from the book of Isaiah, and Isaiah is quoting the words of the person calling out in the wilderness. It would be best to indicate that by punctuating this material as a second-level quotation, since Luke is quoting from Scripture. However, if your language does not put one direct quotation within another, you could translate this material as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “I am a voice crying out in the wilderness to make the way of the Lord straight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])
JHN 1 23 iry1 figs-metaphor εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου 1 Make the way of the Lord straight This is a figurative way of telling people to get ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes. They are to do this by repenting of their sins. Alternate translation: “Repent of your sins so that you will be ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 23 v1gi translate-names Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης 1 **Isaiah** is the name of a man. He wrote the Book of Isaiah in the Bible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 24 bk96 writing-background καὶ ἀπεσταλμένοι ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων 1 Now some from the Pharisees This is background information about the people who questioned John. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
JHN 1 24 uq5b figs-explicit ἀπεσταλμένοι 1 Here, **the ones** refers to the priests and Levites, as introduced in verse [19](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the priests and Levites who had been sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 24 uq5b figs-explicit ἀπεσταλμένοι 1 Here, **the ones** refers to the priests and Levites, as introduced in verse [19](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the priests and Levites who had been sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 24 guqm figs-activepassive ἀπεσταλμένοι ἦσαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this in an active form. Alternate translation: “the ones whom the Jewish leaders sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 1 24 f4xj figs-explicit ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων 1 This phrase could refer to: (1) the priests and Levites who had been sent. Alternate translation: “belonged to the Pharisees” (2) the leaders in Jerusalem who sent the priests and Levites. Alternate translation: “were sent from the Pharisees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 25 s00c writing-pronouns ἠρώτησαν 1 Here, **they** refers to the priests and Levites who had been sent from Jerusalem, as introduced in verse [19](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the priests and Levites from Jerusalem asked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 25 s00c writing-pronouns ἠρώτησαν 1 Here, **they** refers to the priests and Levites who had been sent from Jerusalem, as introduced in verse [19](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the priests and Levites from Jerusalem asked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 25 v5sn translate-names Ἠλείας 1 **Elijah** is the name of a man. **Elijah** was a prophet whom the Jews expected to return to earth shortly become the arrival of the Messiah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 25 u7is figs-explicit ὁ προφήτης 1 Here, **the prophet** refers to a prophet the Jews were waiting for, based on God's promise to send a prophet like Moses which is recorded in Deuteronomy 18:15. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the prophet whom God promised to send to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 26 la26 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ JHN 1 28 u0iq writing-pronouns ταῦτα 1 Here, **these things** refers to t
JHN 1 28 civp translate-names Βηθανίᾳ 1 **Bethany** is the name of a village. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 28 tfxy translate-names τοῦ Ἰορδάνου 1 **Jordan** is the name of a river. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 28 f5he translate-names πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου 1 Here, **beyond the Jordan** refers to the region of Judea that is on the east side of the Jordan River, which is the side opposite from Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “on the side of the Jordan River opposite from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 28 ryi1 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 28 ryi1 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 29 bt67 grammar-connect-time-sequential τῇ ἐπαύριον 1 **The next day** here indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event it has just described in [1:19–28](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “The day after John spoke with the priests and Levites from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
JHN 1 29 aqo3 βλέπει…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he saw … said”
JHN 1 29 fpj6 figs-metaphor ἴδε 1 John records John the Baptist using the term **Behold** to call his audience’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
@ -158,7 +158,7 @@ JHN 1 36 kuol λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, Jo
JHN 1 36 ntaw figs-explicit ἴδε, ὁ Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 The phrase lamb of God refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Behold, Jesus, the Lamb of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 36 t2yx figs-metaphor ἴδε 1 John records John the Baptist using the term **Behold** to call his audience’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 36 ap5m figs-metaphor Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Lamb of God Here, John uses a metaphor to refer to Jesus as God’s perfect sacrifice. (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lamb) See how you translated this same phrase in [John 1:29](../01/29.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 37 v5be writing-pronouns ἤκουσαν οἱ δύο μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** and **him** refer to John the Baptist. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John’s two disciples heard him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 37 v5be writing-pronouns ἤκουσαν οἱ δύο μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** and **him** refer to John the Baptist. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John’s two disciples heard him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 38 a8bg writing-pronouns θεασάμενος αὐτοὺς 1 Here, **them** refers to the two disciples John the Baptist who were mentioned in the previous verse. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “having seen John’s two disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 38 hlee figs-ellipsis θεασάμενος αὐτοὺς ἀκολουθοῦντας 1 Here, John is leaving out a word that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply this word from the context. Alternate translation: “having seen them following him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
JHN 1 38 qxej λέγει αὐτοῖς 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said to them”
@ -172,13 +172,13 @@ JHN 1 40 x8g8 0 General Information: Verses [40–42] give background informat
JHN 1 40 f6b9 figs-explicit Ἰωάννου 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 40 q0bp translate-names Ἀνδρέας…Σίμωνος Πέτρου 1 These are names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 40 jmyp Σίμωνος Πέτρου 1 **Simon** was also called **Peter** by Jesus, as recorded in verse [42](../01/42.md). Alternate translation: “Simon, who is also called Peter”
JHN 1 41 xpi4 writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **This one** here refers to Andrew, who was mentioned in the previous verse. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Andrew” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 41 xpi4 writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **This one** here refers to Andrew, who was mentioned in the previous verse. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Andrew” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 41 vfsj εὑρίσκει…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “found … said”
JHN 1 41 roca translate-names Σίμωνα 1 These is the name of a man, Andrew’s brother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 41 rxox figs-activepassive ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον, Χριστός 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning of the passive verbal form **is translated** with an active form. Alternate translation: “which means Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 1 41 ek1a figs-explicit ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον, Χριστός 1 John assumes that his readers will know that he is saying what the title Messiah means when translated from the Aramaic language into Greek. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “which is ‘Christ’ in Greek” or “which is the Aramaic word for Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 42 xwc7 writing-pronouns ἤγαγεν αὐτὸν 1 **He** here refers to Andrew and **him** refers to Simon. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Andrew brought Simon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 1 42 f5wo writing-pronouns ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ, ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν 1 Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “Jesus looked at him, and he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])
JHN 1 42 f5wo writing-quotations ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ, ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν 1 Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “Jesus looked at him, and he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])
JHN 1 42 k2dx translate-names υἱὸς Ἰωάννου 1 son of John **John** is the name of a man. This is neither John the Baptist nor John the Apostle. **John** was a common name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 1 42 rstd figs-activepassive σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form and indicate who will do the action. Alternate translation: “People will call you Cephas” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 1 42 pv4e figs-explicit Κηφᾶς 1 **Cephas** is a word in the Aramaic language that means “rock.” Here, Jesus uses the word as a name for Simon. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Cephas, which means ‘rock’ in Aramaic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -201,7 +201,7 @@ JHN 1 47 e1ke καὶ λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the s
JHN 1 47 ka53 figs-metaphor ἴδε 1 John records Jesus using the term **Behold** to call his audience’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 1 47 ys8d figs-litotes ἐν ᾧ δόλος οὐκ ἔστιν 1 in whom is no deceit Here, Jesus uses a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “a completely truthful man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])
JHN 1 48 am5y λέγει αὐτῷ Ναθαναήλ 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “Nathaniel said to him”
JHN 1 48 d1on figs-explicit πρὸ τοῦ σε Φίλιππον φωνῆσαι, ὄντα ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν, εἶδόν σε 1 Nathaniel’s reaction to this statement in the next verse indicates that this is a display of supernatural knowledge. It appears that Jesus knew something about Nathaniel that no one else could have known. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this in some way. Alternate translation: “Before Philip called you, being completely alone under the fig tree, I saw you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 48 d1on figs-explicit πρὸ τοῦ σε Φίλιππον φωνῆσαι, ὄντα ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν, εἶδόν σε 1 Nathaniel’s reaction to this statement in the next verse indicates that this is a display of supernatural knowledge. It appears that Jesus knew something about Nathaniel that no one else could have known. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this in some way. Alternate translation: “Before Philip called you, being completely alone under the fig tree, I saw you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 48 a0ym figs-explicit ὄντα ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν 1 The subject of this clause is Philip, not Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “while you were under the fig tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 1 49 l666 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Son of God This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 1 50 d53b grammar-connect-logic-result ὅτι εἶπόν σοι, ὅτι εἶδόν σε ὑποκάτω τῆς συκῆς, πιστεύεις? 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the result for the reason that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “Do you believe because I said to you that I saw you underneath the fig tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
@ -229,7 +229,7 @@ JHN 2 4 v5x5 figs-metonymy οὔπω ἥκει ἡ ὥρα μου 1 My time has
JHN 2 5 d5wy λέγει ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “His mother said”
JHN 2 6 y7p3 translate-bvolume μετρητὰς δύο ἢ τρεῖς 1 two to three metretes A **metretes** was equivalent to about 40 liters. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the quantity in modern measurements. Alternatively, to help your readers recognize that the biblical writings come from long ago when people used different measurements, you could express the amount using the ancient measurement, the metrete, and explain the equivalent in modern measurements in a footnote. Alternate translation: “80 to 120 liters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])
JHN 2 7 hv80 λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to them”
JHN 2 7 byc0 writing-pronouns αὐτοῖς 1 Here, **them** refers to the servants at the wedding. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to the servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 2 7 byc0 writing-pronouns αὐτοῖς 1 Here, **them** refers to the servants at the wedding. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to the servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 2 7 vt75 ἕως ἄνω 1 to the brim The **brim** is the top edge of the water pot. Alternate translation: “to the very top”
JHN 2 8 xbw3 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
JHN 2 8 y52q writing-pronouns αὐτοῖς…οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν 1 Here, **them** and **they** refer to the servants at the wedding. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to the servants … And the servants carried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
@ -242,7 +242,7 @@ JHN 2 10 vu60 figs-gendernotations πᾶς ἄνθρωπος 1 Here, **man** is
JHN 2 10 mh3s figs-explicit καὶ ὅταν μεθυσθῶσιν τὸν ἐλάσσω 1 drunk This means that guests were given the cheaper wine, which is of lower quality and inferior flavor, after their senses had been dulled by drinking too much alcohol and were thus unable to tell that it was inferior wine. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “and the cheaper wine when they have become drunk and unable to discern the quality of the wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 2 11 sq53 0 Connecting Statement: This verse is a comment about the events described in [2:1–10](../02/01.md). John wrote much about the miraculous signs Jesus did to prove that what Jesus said about himself was true. This is the first of those miracles. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sign]])
JHN 2 11 r5kb translate-names Κανὰ 1 Cana **Cana** is the name of a town in the region of Galilee. See how you translated this in verse [1](../02/01.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 2 11 z3tk figs-abstractnouns ἐφανέρωσεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ 1 revealed his glory Here, **glory** refers to the mighty power of Jesus that enabled him to do miracles. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this abstract noun with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “revealed his glorious power”
JHN 2 11 z3tk figs-abstractnouns ἐφανέρωσεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ 1 revealed his glory Here, **glory** refers to the mighty power of Jesus that enabled him to do miracles. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this abstract noun with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “revealed his glorious power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 2 12 gw2f writing-newevent μετὰ τοῦτο 1 **After this** introduces a new event that happened some time after the events the story has just related. The story does not say how long after those events this new event happened. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “Some time afterward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
JHN 2 12 mmkj writing-pronouns μετὰ τοῦτο 1 Here, **this** refers to the what took place in Cana that was described in [2:1–11](../02/01.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “After Jesus’ first sign in Cana” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 2 12 ay2r writing-pronouns αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus and his mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
@ -250,10 +250,10 @@ JHN 2 12 h9tu κατέβη 1 went down This indicates that they went from a hig
JHN 2 12 x3f7 translate-names Καφαρναοὺμ 1 his brothers **Capernaum** is the name of a town in the region of Galilee. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 2 13 xr29 ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα 1 went up to Jerusalem This indicates that Jesus went from a lower place to a higher place. Jerusalem is built on a hill.
JHN 2 14 sa75 figs-explicit τοὺς πωλοῦντας βόας καὶ πρόβατα καὶ περιστερὰς 1 sellers of oxen and sheep and pigeons These animals were used for sacrifices in the temple. People were buying animals in the temple courtyard in order to sacrifice them to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “those selling oxen and sheep and pigeons for people to sacrifice to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 2 14 qu9k figs-explicit κερματιστὰς 1 money changers Jewish authorities required people who wanted to buy animals for sacrifices in the temple to exchange their money for special money from the **money changers**. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “people who exchanged money for special money approved for temple use” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 2 14 qu9k figs-explicit κερματιστὰς 1 money changers Jewish authorities required people who wanted to buy animals for sacrifices in the temple to exchange their money for special money from the **money changers**. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “people who exchanged money for special money approved for temple use” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 2 14 i8lv figs-explicit καθημένους 1 were sitting there The next verse makes it clear that these people are in the temple courtyard. That area was intended for worship and not for commerce. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “sitting in the temple courtyard that was intended for worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 2 15 x6et grammar-connect-logic-result καὶ 1 So Here John is telling his readers what Jesus did as a result of the commerce he saw going on in the temple. Alternate translation: “Consequently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 2 15 nn6y writing-pronouns πάντας 1 Here, **them all** refers to the people selling the animals and the money changers. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “all the sellers and money changers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 2 15 nn6y writing-pronouns πάντας 1 Here, **them all** refers to the people selling the animals and the money changers. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “all the sellers and money changers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 2 16 h6qy figs-explicit τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου οἶκον ἐμπορίου 1 the house of my Father Jesus uses **the house of my Father** to refer to the temple. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the house of my Father, which is the temple, a house of commerce” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 2 16 grg3 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τοῦ πατρός μου 1 my Father **Father** is an important title that Jesus uses for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 2 17 c2pu figs-activepassive γεγραμμένον ἐστίν 1 it was written If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form. Alternate translation: “someone had written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
@ -267,7 +267,7 @@ JHN 2 19 of4u figs-metaphor λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον, κα
JHN 2 20 qb4x figs-rquestion σὺ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερεῖς αὐτόν? 1 Here, the Jewish leaders are using the question form for emphasis. They think that Jesus wants to tear down the temple and rebuild it in three days. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “you cannot possibly rebuild it in three days!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
JHN 2 21 g6jx writing-endofstory 0 General Information: Verses 21 and 22 are a comment John made about the story that was described in [2:13–20](../02/13.md). These verses tell about something that happened later. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])
JHN 2 21 b440 writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔλεγεν 1 Here, **that one** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “But Jesus was speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 2 22 oznm grammar-connect-logic-result οὖν 1 **Therefore** indicates that in this verse John is giving the result of Jesus making the statement in [2:19](../02/19.md). Alternate translation: “Because Jesus said this about his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 2 22 oznm grammar-connect-logic-result οὖν 1 **Therefore** indicates that in this verse John is giving the result of Jesus making the statement in [2:19](../02/19.md). Alternate translation: “Because Jesus said this about his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 2 22 jejg figs-activepassive ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form and say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God raised him from the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 2 22 nxug ἐμνήσθησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, John is speaking about something that happened long after the event described in the previous verses. See the discussion of this in the General Notes to this chapter.
JHN 2 22 ewi1 figs-explicit τοῦτο…τῷ λόγῳ ὃν εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς 1 this statement Here, **this** and **the word** refer back to Jesus’ statement in [2:19](../02/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “this statement about his body … the word about his body that Jesus had spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -282,7 +282,7 @@ JHN 2 24 cm49 οὐκ ἐπίστευεν αὑτὸν αὐτοῖς 1 Althou
JHN 2 24 f2n7 figs-gendernotations τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν πάντας 1 Here, the word **men** represents people in general. Alternate translation: “he knew all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
JHN 2 25 et23 figs-gendernotations περὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου…τί ἦν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ 1 about man, for he knew what was in man Here, both instances of the word **man** represent people in general. Alternate translation: “about mankind … what was in mankind” or “about people … what was in people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
JHN 2 25 lxro figs-explicit τί ἦν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ 1 This refers to the inner thoughts and desires of people, which some cultures refer to as “the heart.” (See the discussion of this in the General Notes to this chapter.) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what people think” or “the thoughts and desires people have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 intro i7a7 0 # John 3 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus teaches Nicodemus about being born again (3:1–21)<br>2. John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (3:22–36)<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong, and to begin to obey God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### Born again<br><br>A major idea in this chapter is the spiritual new birth that Jesus says is necessary in order for someone to enter the kingdom of God [3:3–8](../03/03.md). Jesus also uses the following expressions to refer to being born again: “born from water and the Spirit” ([3:4](../03/05.md)) and “born from the Spirit” ([3:6, 8](../03/06.md)). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]])<br><br>## Possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([3:13](../03/13.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the General Introduction to the Gospel of John. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 3 intro i7a7 0 # John 3 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus teaches Nicodemus about being born again (3:1–21)<br>2. John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (3:22–36)<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong, and to begin to obey God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### Born again<br><br>A major idea in this chapter is the spiritual new birth that Jesus says is necessary in order for someone to enter the kingdom of God [3:3–8](../03/03.md). Jesus also uses the following expressions to refer to being born again: “born from water and the Spirit” ([3:4](../03/04.md)) and “born from the Spirit” ([3:6,8](../03/06.md)). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]])<br><br>## Possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([3:13](../03/13.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the General Introduction to the Gospel of John. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 3 1 yl6f writing-newevent δὲ 1 **Now** here introduces a new event that happened some time after the events the story has just related in the previous chapter. The story does not say how long after those events this new event happened. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “Some time later” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
JHN 3 1 s9p9 writing-participants ἦν…ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, 1 Now Here, **there was a man** is used to introduce Nicodemus as a new character in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. The phrase **from the Pharisees** identifies him as member of a strict Jewish religious sect. Alternate translation: “there was a man named Nicodemus, who was a member of a strict Jewish religious group” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])
JHN 3 1 fz6f figs-explicit ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων 1 This phrase means that Nicodemus was a member of the Jewish religious leadership, specifically the Jewish council called the Sanhedrin which made decisions about Jewish law. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/council]]) If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “a member of the Jewish ruling council” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -290,7 +290,7 @@ JHN 3 2 sxo1 writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **This one** here refers to Nicodem
JHN 3 2 n84a writing-pronouns πρὸς αὐτὸν 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 2 skq8 figs-exclusive οἴδαμεν 1 we know Here, **we** is exclusive. Nicodemus is only referring to himself and the other members of the Jewish council. Your language may require you to mark this form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
JHN 3 2 hxcr figs-metaphor ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ Θεὸς μετ’ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **with him** is used figuratively to refer to God's help. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “without God's help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 3 nz18 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in [1:51](../01/51.md).
JHN 3 3 nz18 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in [1:51](../01/51.md).
JHN 3 3 svpx figs-metaphor γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν 1 The phrase **born again** is a metaphor that refers to spiritual rebirth. See the discussion of this expression in the General Notes to this chapter. Because this is an important biblical metaphor, you should retain this metaphor in your translation if possible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 3 t8pt γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν 1 born again Here, the word translated **again** could also be translated as “from above.” It could refer to: (1) spiritual rebirth as a second birth that takes place in addition to physical birth. Alternate translation, as in the ULT: “would be born again” (2) spiritual rebirth as a birth that is caused by God, in which case “above” is a euphemism for God. Alternate translation: “would be born from above” (3) spiritual rebirth as both a second birth and a birth caused by God. See the discussion of John’s use of double meaning in Part 3 of the Introduction to this book. Alternate translation: “would be born again by God”
JHN 3 3 i0ew figs-metaphor ἰδεῖν τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Here, **see** is used figuratively to refer to experiencing an event or state. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “to experience the kingdom of God” or “to participate in the kingdom of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
@ -298,14 +298,14 @@ JHN 3 3 ikj9 figs-metaphor τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 kingdo
JHN 3 4 z64b λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν 1 a second time To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said to him”
JHN 3 4 wa1p figs-rquestion πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι, γέρων ὤν? 1 How can a man be born when he is old? Nicodemus uses this question to emphasize that this cannot happen. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “A man certainly cannot be born again when he is old!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
JHN 3 4 yk9d figs-rquestion μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι? 1 He cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born, can he? Nicodemus uses this question to emphasize his belief that a second birth is impossible. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “He surely cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
JHN 3 5 il52 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this is in [3:3](../03/03.md).
JHN 3 5 il52 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this is in [3:3](../03/03.md).
JHN 3 5 n6d7 figs-metaphor γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ Πνεύματος 1 born of water and the Spirit The phrase **born from water and Spirit** could refer to: (1) spiritual birth that includes cleansing from sin and spiritual transformation by the Holy Spirit. In this case, Jesus’ words would be understood as a reference to Ezekiel 36:25–27, which Nicodemus would have been familiar with. Alternate translation: “would be born again by cleansing and the Spirit.” (2) physical birth and spiritual birth. Alternate translation: “would be born physically and spiritually” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 5 e1dj figs-metaphor εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Here, **enter into** is used figuratively to refer to experiencing something. The meaning is similar to the meaning of “see” in [3:3](../03/03.md). Alternate translation: “to experience the kingdom of God” or “to participate in the kingdom of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 5 m37g figs-metaphor τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 enter into the kingdom of God This phrase is a metaphor for the rule of God. See how you translated this in [3:3](../03/03.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 6 gswx figs-activepassive τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this in an active form. Alternate translation: “What flesh has given birth to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 3 6 rru5 figs-metonymy τῆς σαρκὸς, σάρξ ἐστιν 1 Here, Jesus is describing human beings figuratively by referring to something associated with them, the **flesh** they are made of. The word **flesh** here does not refer to sinful human nature as it does in other verses in the New Testament. Alternate translation: “a human being is a human being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 3 6 v3g8 figs-explicit τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ Πνεύματος 1 Here, **the Spirit** refers to the Holy Spirit, who enables people to be born again. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what has been born again by means of the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 6 lfg1 figs-explicit πνεῦμά 1 Here, **spirit** refers to the new spiritual nature that God gives a person when they are born again. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “a new spiritual nature” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 6 lfg1 figs-explicit πνεῦμά 1 Here, **spirit** refers to the new spiritual nature that God gives a person when they are born again. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “a new spiritual nature” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 7 t2sl figs-metaphor γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν 1 See how you translated this in [3:3](../03/03.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 8 p87y figs-metaphor τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει, πνεῖ 1 The wind blows wherever it wishes The word translated **wind** can also mean spirit. Jesus here speaks figuratively of the Holy Spirit, as if he is **wind**. Just like people in Jesus’ time could not understand how the **wind** blew but could observe the effects of the wind, people cannot understand how the Holy Spirit works but can witness the effects of his work. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with a simile. Alternate translation: “The Holy Spirit is like the wind that blows wherever it wants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 8 mxjc οὕτως ἐστὶν 1 This phrase connects this sentence with the previous sentence. In the same way that people cannot understand the wind but recognize its effects, people who are not born from the Spirit cannot understand those who are born from the Spirit but can recognize the effects of the new birth. Alternative translation: “So it is with” or “So it happens with”
@ -317,7 +317,7 @@ JHN 3 10 gw2h figs-rquestion σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσ
JHN 3 10 gbu5 figs-you σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος…οὐ γινώσκεις 1 Are you a teacher … yet you do not understand The word **you** is singular and refers to Nicodemus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Are you, Nicodemus, the teacher … you do not understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 3 10 ljiy figs-explicit ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ 1 Here, **the teacher** indicates that Nicodemus was recognized as a master teacher and religious authority in the land of Israel. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the renowned religious teacher in Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 10 vx3u writing-pronouns ταῦτα 1 Here, **these things** refers to all that Jesus had spoken in [3:3–8](../03/03.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. See how you translated this phrase is the previous verse. Alternate translation: “these things you have just told me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 11 jt1f ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this is in [3:3](../03/03.md).
JHN 3 11 jt1f ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this is in [3:3](../03/03.md).
JHN 3 11 upi7 figs-exclusive ὃ οἴδαμεν λαλοῦμεν…τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν 1 we speak When Jesus said **we** and **our** in this verse, he was not including Nicodemus. Jesus used these pronouns as a contrast to Nicodemus saying **we** in [3:2](../03/02.md). While Nicodemus used **we** to refer to him and the other Jewish religious leaders, Jesus could have been referring to: (1) himself and his disciples. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “my disciples and I speak what we know … our testimony” (2) himself and the other members of the Godhead. Alternate translation: “the Father, Spirit, and I speak what we know … our testimony” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
JHN 3 11 j1k1 figs-you οὐ λαμβάνετε 1 you do not accept The word **you** is plural and could refer to: (1) the Jewish people in general. Alternate translation: “you Jews” (2) Nicodemus and his fellow Jewish leaders. Alternate translation: “you Jewish leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 3 12 y4e9 grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν 1 John records Jesus speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Jesus is saying is not certain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “Since I told you earthly things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
@ -330,16 +330,16 @@ JHN 3 13 ocj0 figs-explicit ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου 1 The titl
JHN 3 14 tb3s figs-simile καὶ καθὼς Μωϋσῆς ὕψωσεν τὸν ὄφιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ 1 Just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up In this verse, John records Jesus comparing his crucifixion to Moses lifting up a bronze snake. John assumes that his readers will know that Jesus is referring to a story recorded in the Old Testament book of Numbers. In that story, the Israelites complained against God and God punished them by sending poisonous snakes to kill them. God then told Moses to make a bronze snake and raise it up on a pole so that whoever was bitten by one of the poisonous snakes and looked at the bronze snake would not die. You could indicate this explicitly if it would be helpful to your readers, particularly if they would not know the story. Alternate translation: “And just as Moses lifted up the bronze serpent on a pole when the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])<br>
JHN 3 14 f9yi figs-activepassive ὑψωθῆναι δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου 1 in the wilderness If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form and you could indicate who will do the action. Alternate translation: “it is necessary for people to lift up the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 3 14 krir figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου 1 See how you translated this phrase in the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 15 e9ls grammar-connect-logic-goal ἵνα 1 Here, **so that** indicates that Jesus is stating the purpose for which he would be crucified. In your translation, follow the conventions of your language for purpose clauses. Alternate translation (without a comma preceding): “in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])
JHN 3 16 vg6z grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 *For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous two verses is true. Alternate translation: “This is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 15 e9ls grammar-connect-logic-goal ἵνα 1 Here, **so that** indicates that Jesus is stating the purpose for which he would be crucified. In your translation, follow the conventions of your language for purpose clauses. Alternate translation (without a comma preceding): “in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])
JHN 3 16 vg6z grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous two verses is true. Alternate translation: “This is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 16 h4ht οὕτως…ἠγάπησεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν κόσμον 1 Here, **so** could refer to: (1) the manner in which God loved the world. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “God loved the world in this way” (2) the degree to which God loved the world. Alternate translation: “God loved the world so much” (3) both the manner in which and the degree to which God loved the world. For this interpretation, see the discussion of John’s use of double meaning in Part 3 of the Introduction to this book. Alternate translation: “in this way God loved the world so much”
JHN 3 16 uxc2 figs-metonymy τὸν κόσμον 1 God so loved the world Here, **world** refers to the people who live in it. Alternate translation: “the people in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 3 16 jen2 grammar-connect-logic-result ὥστε 1 loved Here, **that** introduces the result of what the previous clause stated. Alternate translation: “as a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 16 fqk7 figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 Here, **One and Only Son** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “his One and Only Son, Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 16 z8at figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 Here and throughout John’s Gospel, the phrase **One and Only** is a title for Jesus that could refer to: (1) Jesus being unique as the only member of his kind. Alternate translation: “his Unique Son” (2) Jesus being the only child of his Father. Alternate translation: “his only begotten Son”
JHN 3 16 z8at figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 Here and throughout John’s Gospel, the phrase **One and Only** is a title for Jesus that could refer to: (1) Jesus being unique as the only member of his kind. Alternate translation: “his Unique Son” (2) Jesus being the only child of his Father. Alternate translation: “his only begotten Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 16 qpc9 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 3 16 xryx writing-pronouns εἰς αὐτὸν 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 17 k8rf grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 *For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous verse is true. Alternate translation: “God gave his One and Only Son because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 17 k8rf grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous verse is true. Alternate translation: “God gave his One and Only Son because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 17 b7vf figs-parallelism οὐ γὰρ ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν Υἱὸν εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ἵνα κρίνῃ τὸν κόσμον, ἀλλ’ ἵνα σωθῇ ὁ κόσμος δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 For God did not send the Son into the world in order to condemn the world, but in order to save the world through him These two clauses mean nearly the same thing, said twice for emphasis, first in the negative and then in the positive. Use whatever form your language uses for emphasis. Alternate translation: “For God truly sent his Son into the world so that he might save it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
JHN 3 17 haut guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τὸν Υἱὸν 1 This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 3 17 mjjg figs-123person τὸν Υἱὸν…δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. If this is confusing in your language, you can use the first person. Alternate translation: “me … through me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
@ -361,19 +361,19 @@ JHN 3 19 t9z5 figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν εἰς τὸν κό
JHN 3 19 gh4i figs-123person τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον…ἢ τὸ φῶς 1 If your language does not allow people to speak of themselves in the third person, you may need to specify who **the light** is. Alternate translation: “I, the light, have come into the world … than me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 3 19 fvvg figs-gendernotations οἱ ἄνθρωποι 1 Although the term **men** is masculine, John records Jesus using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
JHN 3 19 h4nk figs-metaphor ἠγάπησαν οἱ ἄνθρωποι…τὸ σκότος 1 men loved the darkness Here, **darkness** is a metaphor for what is false and evil. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. See the discussion of light and darkness in the General Notes for chapter 1. Alternate translation: “men loved evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 20 velv grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates another reason why men love the darkness, as stated in the previous verse. People who do evil things hate the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “This is because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 20 velv grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates another reason why men love the darkness, as stated in the previous verse. People who do evil things hate the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “This is because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 20 bus8 πᾶς…ὁ φαῦλα πράσσων 1 This phrase refers to someone who habitually does evil things. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “everyone who habitually does evil”
JHN 3 20 cg3i figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς, καὶ…πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 Here, **the light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. See how you translated this word in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God, and … to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 20 s49o figs-123person τὸ φῶς, καὶ…πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 If your language does not allow people to speak of themselves in the third person, you may need to specify who **the light** is. Alternate translation: “me, the light, and … to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 3 20 u25p figs-activepassive ἵνα μὴ ἐλεγχθῇ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ 1 so that his deeds will not be exposed If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form and say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “so that the light might not expose his deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 3 21 q77t ὁ…ποιῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν 1 This phrase refers to someone who habitually does true things. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “everyone who habitually does the truth”
JHN 3 21 kpb9 figs-abstractnouns ὁ…ποιῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **truth** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the one who does true things” or “the one who does what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 3 21 kpb9 figs-abstractnouns ὁ…ποιῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **truth** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the one who does true things” or “the one who does what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 3 21 ud15 figs-metaphor ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 Here, **the light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. See how you translated this word in the previous two verses. Alternate translation: “comes to Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 21 k8wr figs-123person ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 If your language does not allow people to speak of themselves in the third person, you may need to specify who **the light** is. See how you translated this expression in the previous two verses. Alternate translation: “comes to me, the light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 3 21 l7ax figs-activepassive φανερωθῇ αὐτοῦ τὰ ἔργα 1 plainly seen that his deeds If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form and say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “the light might reveal his deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 3 21 de2j ὅτι ἐν Θεῷ ἐστιν εἰργασμένα 1 This clause indicates what the light will reveal about the deeds of those who come to the light. The phrase **in God** indicates that the works these people have done were done with God’s help and not by their own strength or effort. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “that they have been done with God’s help”
JHN 3 22 uy4j grammar-connect-time-sequential μετὰ ταῦτα 1 After this This phrase indicates that what follows occurred after Jesus had spoken with Nicodemus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “After this conversation with Nicodemus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
JHN 3 23 m4yg translate-names ὁ Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist]]) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 23 m4yg figs-explicit ὁ Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist]]) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 23 x1ge translate-names Αἰνὼν 1 Aenon This is the name of a town near the Jordan River close to Samaria. **Aenon** is the Aramaic word for springs of water, which explains John’s comment in the next clause about there being much water there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 3 23 e5v2 translate-names τοῦ Σαλείμ 1 Salim This is the name of a town near the Jordan River close to Samaria. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 3 23 ukz2 figs-activepassive ἐβαπτίζοντο 1 were being baptized If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in an active form and say who was doing the action. Alternate translation: “John was baptizing them” or “he was baptizing them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
@ -381,7 +381,7 @@ JHN 3 24 v13x figs-activepassive οὔπω…ἦν βεβλημένος 1 If it
JHN 3 25 fuq2 figs-abstractnouns ἐγένετο οὖν ζήτησις ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν Ἰωάννου 1 a dispute If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **dispute** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “Then the disciples of John began arguing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 3 25 ft8r figs-activepassive ἐγένετο οὖν ζήτησις ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν Ἰωάννου μετὰ Ἰουδαίου 1 Then there arose a dispute between some of John’s disciples and a Jew If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in an active form. Alternate translation: “Then John’s disciples and a Jew began to dispute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 3 25 qzq7 figs-explicit Ἰωάννου 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist]]) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “of John the Baptist” or “of John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 26 uuvj writing-pronouns ἦλθον 1 Here, **they** refers to John the Baptist’s disciples who were disputing in the previous verse. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John’s disciples went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 26 uuvj writing-pronouns ἦλθον 1 Here, **they** refers to John the Baptist’s disciples who were disputing in the previous verse. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John’s disciples went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 26 cxy7 figs-explicit ὃς ἦν μετὰ σοῦ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, ᾧ σὺ μεμαρτύρηκας 1 This phrase refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who was with you beyond the Jordan, about whom you had testified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 26 jr28 figs-metaphor ἴδε, οὗτος βαπτίζει 1 you have testified, look, he is baptizing, John the Baptist’s disciples used the term **behold** to call John’s attention to what Jesus was doing. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. Alternate translation: “look! He is baptizing” or “see how he is baptizing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 26 j8di figs-hyperbole πάντες ἔρχονται πρὸς αὐτόν 1 Here John the Baptist’s disciples use the word **all** as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “it seems like everyone is going to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
@ -413,7 +413,7 @@ JHN 3 33 k36d figs-genericnoun ὁ λαβὼν αὐτοῦ τὴν μαρτυρ
JHN 3 33 ygba writing-pronouns αὐτοῦ τὴν μαρτυρίαν 1 Here, **his** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ testimony” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 33 g5x4 translate-unknown ἐσφράγισεν 1 has confirmed This expression refers to placing a seal on a document in order to certify that what is written in the document is true. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/seal]]) Here, this meaning is extended to refer to certifying that God is true. If your readers would not be familiar with this practice of sealing documents, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “has certified” or “has attested” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
JHN 3 34 rr83 figs-explicit ὃν…ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς 1 For the one whom God has sent This phrase refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, whom God has sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 34 p9wt grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 2 **For** here indicates that what follows is the reason why the previous sentence is true. We know that Jesus speaks the words of God because God has given him the Holy Spirit. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “We know this because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 34 p9wt grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 2 **For** here indicates that what follows is the reason why the previous sentence is true. We know that Jesus speaks the words of God because God has given him the Holy Spirit. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “We know this because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 3 34 bnx8 writing-pronouns οὐ…δίδωσιν 1 For he does not give the Spirit by measure Here, **he** refers to God. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “God does not give” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 3 34 hmky figs-ellipsis οὐ…ἐκ μέτρου δίδωσιν τὸ Πνεῦμα 1 John is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context, especially this discussion of God giving to his Son in the next verse. Alternate translation: “he does not give the Spirit to him by measure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
JHN 3 34 cdia figs-litotes οὐ…ἐκ μέτρου δίδωσιν τὸ Πνεῦμα 1 This clause is a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “he certainly gives the Spirit without measure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])
@ -426,7 +426,7 @@ JHN 3 36 joql ὁ…ἀπειθῶν 2 The word translated **disobeys** can al
JHN 3 36 ni86 figs-metaphor οὐκ ὄψεται ζωήν 1 Here, **see** is used metaphorically to refer to experiencing or participating in something. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “will not experience life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 3 36 pzf5 figs-explicit οὐκ ὄψεται ζωήν 1 Here, **life** refers to eternal life, as indicated by the previous clause. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “will not see eternal life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 3 36 zy7u figs-abstractnouns ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ μένει ἐπ’ αὐτόν 1 the wrath of God stays on him If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **wrath** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “God will continue to be angry against him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 4 intro j1hv 0 # John 4 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus leaves Judea for Galilee (4:1–6)<br>2. Jesus meets a Samaritan woman (4:7–14)<br>3. Jesus teaches the Samaritan woman about worship (4:15–26)<br>4. Jesus teaches his disciples about evangelism (4:27–38)<br>5. Jesus’ ministry in Samaria (4:39–42)<br>6. Jesus goes to Galilee (4:43–45)<br>7. Jesus’ second sign: he heals an official’s son (4:46–54)<br><br>[John 4:7–38](../04/04.md) forms one story centered on the teaching of Jesus as the “living water” who gives eternal life to all who believe in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “It was necessary for him to pass through Samaria”<br><br>Jews avoided traveling through the region of Samaria because Jews and Samaritans were longtime enemies who hated each other. So Jesus did what most Jews did not want to do. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/samaria]])<br><br>### “an hour is coming”<br><br>Jesus used these words to begin prophecies about events that could be shorter or longer than sixty minutes. In such instances, “hour” refers to a point in time when something happens, not a set length of time. For example, “an hour … when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth” refers to the point in time when people begin to do so ([4:23](../04/23.md)).<br><br>### The proper place of worship<br><br>Long before Jesus came to earth, the Samaritan people had broken the law of Moses by setting up their own temple on Mount Gerizim in their land ([4:20](../04/20.md)). Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman that in the near future it would no longer be important where people worshiped ([4:21–24](../04/21.md)).<br><br>### Harvest<br><br>Harvest refers to the time when people go out to get the food they have planted so they can bring it to their houses and eat it. Jesus used this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about Jesus so those people can be part of God’s kingdom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])<br><br>### “The Samaritan woman”<br><br>John probably told this story to show the difference between the Samaritan woman, who believed, and the Jews, who did not believe and later killed Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “in spirit and truth”<br><br>The people who truly know who God is and enjoy worshiping him for who the Bible says he is are the ones who truly please him. The place where they worship him is not important.
JHN 4 intro j1hv 0 # John 4 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus leaves Judea for Galilee (4:1–6)<br>2. Jesus meets a Samaritan woman (4:7–14)<br>3. Jesus teaches the Samaritan woman about worship (4:15–26)<br>4. Jesus teaches his disciples about evangelism (4:27–38)<br>5. Jesus’ ministry in Samaria (4:39–42)<br>6. Jesus goes to Galilee (4:43–45)<br>7. Jesus’ second sign: he heals an official’s son (4:46–54)<br><br>[John 4:7–38](../04/07.md) forms one story centered on the teaching of Jesus as the “living water” who gives eternal life to all who believe in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “It was necessary for him to pass through Samaria”<br><br>Jews avoided traveling through the region of Samaria because Jews and Samaritans were longtime enemies who hated each other. So Jesus did what most Jews did not want to do. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/samaria]])<br><br>### “an hour is coming”<br><br>Jesus used these words to begin prophecies about events that could be shorter or longer than sixty minutes. In such instances, “hour” refers to a point in time when something happens, not a set length of time. For example, “an hour … when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth” refers to the point in time when people begin to do so ([4:23](../04/23.md)).<br><br>### The proper place of worship<br><br>Long before Jesus came to earth, the Samaritan people had broken the law of Moses by setting up their own temple on Mount Gerizim in their land ([4:20](../04/20.md)). Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman that in the near future it would no longer be important where people worshiped ([4:21–24](../04/21.md)).<br><br>### Harvest<br><br>Harvest refers to the time when people go out to get the food they have planted so they can bring it to their houses and eat it. Jesus used this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about Jesus so those people can be part of God’s kingdom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])<br><br>### “The Samaritan woman”<br><br>John probably told this story to show the difference between the Samaritan woman, who believed, and the Jews, who did not believe and later killed Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “in spirit and truth”<br><br>The people who truly know who God is and enjoy worshiping him for who the Bible says he is are the ones who truly please him. The place where they worship him is not important.
JHN 4 1 jum6 writing-background 0 General Information: John 4:1–6 gives the background to the next event, which is Jesus’ conversation with a Samaritan woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
JHN 4 1 ci4n 0 Connecting Statement: John 4:1–3 is one long sentence. It may be necessary in your language to divide this long sentence into several shorter sentences.
JHN 4 1 b1vc figs-infostructure ὡς οὖν ἔγνω ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤκουσαν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, ὅτι Ἰησοῦς πλείονας μαθητὰς ποιεῖ καὶ βαπτίζει ἢ Ἰωάννης 1 Now when Jesus knew that the Pharisees had heard that he was making and baptizing more disciples than John If it would be natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “Now Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John. When he knew that the Pharisees had heard that he was doing this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])
@ -439,12 +439,12 @@ JHN 4 4 tds9 translate-names τῆς Σαμαρείας 1 This is a region in t
JHN 4 5 ukxr grammar-connect-time-sequential ἔρχεται οὖν 1 **Then** here indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event just described in verse [3](../04/03.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “After leaving Judea, he comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
JHN 4 5 ff7t ἔρχεται 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he came”
JHN 4 5 vqjm translate-names Συχὰρ 1 This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 4 6 bd8s figs-explicit ἐκεῖ 1 Here, **there** refers to the town of Sychar mentioned in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “there at Sychar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 6 bd8s figs-explicit ἐκεῖ 1 Here, **there** refers to the town of Sychar mentioned in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “there at Sychar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 6 vwdf grammar-connect-time-sequential ὁ οὖν Ἰησοῦς 1 **Then** here indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event just described in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “When Jesus came to Sychar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
JHN 4 6 lovl grammar-connect-logic-result κεκοπιακὼς 1 This clause indicates the reason why Jesus sat by the well. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he had grown weary” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 4 6 mwi2 grammar-connect-logic-result ἐκ τῆς ὁδοιπορίας 1 This phrase indicates the reason why Jesus had grown weary. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because of the journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 4 6 yjzo ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη 1 In this culture, people began counting the hours each day beginning around daybreak at six o’clock in the morning. Here, **the sixth hour** indicates a time in the middle of the day, when it would be the hottest. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this in the way the people of your culture reckon time. Alternate translation: “about 12:00 PM”
JHN 4 7 kswz ἔρχεται…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “came … said”
JHN 4 7 kswz ἔρχεται…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “came … said”
JHN 4 7 g82d figs-imperative δός μοι πεῖν 1 Give me some water This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “Please give me to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])
JHN 4 7 urgd figs-ellipsis δός μοι πεῖν 1 Here, John records Jesus leaving out a word that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply the word from the context. Alternate translation: “Give me something to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
JHN 4 8 u29c grammar-connect-logic-result οἱ γὰρ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἀπεληλύθεισαν 1 For his disciples had gone This phrase indicates the reason why Jesus asked the woman for water. The disciples had gone away and brought the tools for drawing water with them, so that Jesus could not draw the water himself. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because his disciples had gone away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
@ -458,7 +458,7 @@ JHN 4 10 ed4r figs-possession τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Jesus i
JHN 4 10 oywu figs-123person τίς ἐστιν ὁ λέγων σοι…ᾔτησας αὐτὸν, καὶ ἔδωκεν 1 Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “who I am who is saying to you … would have asked me, and I would have given” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 4 10 ua0b figs-quotesinquotes ὁ λέγων σοι, δός μοι πεῖν, 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “who is asking you to give him a drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])
JHN 4 10 zub5 figs-metaphor ὕδωρ ζῶν 1 living water Jesus uses the metaphor **living water** to refer to the Holy Spirit who works in a person to save and transform them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly or with a simile. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit” or “the Holy Spirit, who is like living water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 4 11 pf7q λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 11 pf7q λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 11 mw2b κύριε 1 The Samaritan woman calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])
JHN 4 11 nwln τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ζῶν 1 The phrase **living water** usually refers to moving or flowing water, which is what the Samaritan woman means here. She did not understand Jesus’ metaphorical use of **living water** in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “the flowing water”
JHN 4 12 di9q figs-rquestion μὴ σὺ μείζων εἶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἰακώβ, ὃς ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν τὸ φρέαρ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἔπιεν, καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ θρέμματα αὐτοῦ? 1 You are not greater, are you, than our father Jacob … cattle? The woman is using the question form for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate her words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You are certainly not greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank from it himself, and his sons and his cattle!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
@ -468,12 +468,12 @@ JHN 4 14 udxp figs-exmetaphor ὃς δ’ ἂν πίῃ ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατ
JHN 4 15 vzoy λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 15 iz1p κύριε 1 Sir The Samaritan woman calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])
JHN 4 15 hd9f ἀντλεῖν 1 draw water Here, **draw** refers to scooping water out of a well using a container that can hold water. Alternate translation: “get water” or “pull water up from the well”
JHN 4 16 ii7c λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “He said”
JHN 4 16 ii7c λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “He said”
JHN 4 17 h5pt λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 17 bg94 figs-quotesinquotes καλῶς εἶπας, ὅτι ἄνδρα οὐκ ἔχω 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “You have rightly said that you do not have a husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])
JHN 4 18 zpl1 figs-explicit τοῦτο ἀληθὲς εἴρηκας 1 What you have said is true **This you have said** refers to the Samaritan woman’s statement in the previous verse that she did not have a husband. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “You have spoken the truth when you said you do not have a husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 19 tzs3 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 19 c2qi writing-pronouns αὐτῷ 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 19 c2qi writing-pronouns αὐτῷ 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 19 kfs1 κύριε 1 Sir The Samaritan woman calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])
JHN 4 19 za2w figs-metaphor θεωρῶ ὅτι προφήτης εἶ σύ 1 I see that you are a prophet Here, **see** is used figuratively to refer to understanding something. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “I understand that you are a prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 4 20 hp3m figs-explicit ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ 1 Our fathers Here, **this mountain** refers to Mount Gerizim, the mountain where the Samaritans built their own temple. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “here on Mount Gerizim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -493,12 +493,12 @@ JHN 4 23 k1gf guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τῷ Πατρὶ…ὁ Πατὴρ
JHN 4 23 fb51 ἐν πνεύματι 1 in spirit and truth Here, **spirit** could refer to: (1) the inner person, which is what a person thinks and feels. Alternate translation: “with their spirits” (2) the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “in the Holy Spirit”
JHN 4 23 utt7 figs-abstractnouns ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ 1 in … truth Here, **truth** refers to thinking correctly of what is true about God, which is revealed in the Bible. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in spirit and in accordance with God’s Word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 4 24 pfdv ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ 1 See how you translated this phrase in the previous verse.
JHN 4 25 ip1u λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 25 ip1u λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 25 lp44 figs-explicit ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός 1 I know that the Messiah … Christ **Christ** is the Greek translation of **Messiah**. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the one called Christ in the Greek language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 25 ek2f writing-pronouns ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐκεῖνος 1 Here, **he** and **that one** refer to the Messiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “When the Messiah may come, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])<br>
JHN 4 25 u8nb figs-explicit ἐκεῖνος, ἀναγγελεῖ ἡμῖν ἅπαντα 1 he will explain everything to us The words **declare everything** imply all that the people need to know. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “he will tell us all that we need to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 25 izgt figs-exclusive ἡμῖν 1 When the woman said “us,” she was including who she was speaking to, so languages that have inclusive and exclusive forms of “we” and “us” would use the inclusive form in this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
JHN 4 26 lvgs λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 26 lvgs λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 26 rbgo figs-123person ὁ λαλῶν σοι 1 Jesus is referring to himself in third person. If this is confusing in your language, you can use the first person form. Alternate translation: “I who am speaking to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 4 27 vk5j ἐπὶ τούτῳ 1 At that moment his disciples returned Alternate translation: “at the time he said this” or “just as Jesus was saying this”
JHN 4 27 p39j figs-explicit καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ὅτι μετὰ γυναικὸς ἐλάλει 1 Now they were wondering why he was speaking with a woman In the culture of that time, it was very unusual for a Jew to speak with a **woman** he did not know, especially if they were alone or if that woman was a Samaritan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “and they were amazed that he was speaking alone with an unknown woman because people didn’t usually do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -542,7 +542,7 @@ JHN 4 42 ciyt figs-exclusive πιστεύομεν…ἀκηκόαμεν…οἴ
JHN 4 42 fpdj writing-pronouns οὗτός 1 Here, **this one** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “this man, Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 42 k4cz figs-metonymy κόσμου 1 world Here, **world** refers to everyone throughout the world who believes in Jesus. Alternate translation: “all the believers in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 4 43 n1mk writing-newevent μετὰ δὲ τὰς δύο ἡμέρας 1 This phrase introduces a new event that happened after the events the story has just related. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “After he had spent two days in Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
JHN 4 43 u2e7 writing-pronouns ἐξῆλθεν 1 Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus departed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 43 u2e7 writing-pronouns ἐξῆλθεν 1 Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus departed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 43 gj2f figs-explicit ἐκεῖθεν 1 from there Here, **there** could refer to: (1) the Samaritan city of Sychar. Alternate translation: “from Sychar” (2) the region of Samaria in general. Alternate translation: “from Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 44 ic94 grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates that this verse provides one reason why Jesus wanted to go to Galilee. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “He went to Galilee because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
JHN 4 44 t1li figs-rpronouns αὐτὸς γὰρ Ἰησοῦς ἐμαρτύρησεν 1 For Jesus himself declared The reflexive pronoun **himself** is added to emphasize that Jesus had **testified** or said this. You can translate this in your language in a way that will give emphasis to a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])
@ -554,19 +554,19 @@ JHN 4 45 lm4g grammar-connect-logic-result πάντα ἑωρακότες 1 Thi
JHN 4 45 r65x figs-hyperbole πάντα ἑωρακότες 1 Here, **all** is an exaggeration that refers to the Galileans having seen many of Jesus’ miracles. If this is not clear in your language, you could use an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “having seen many of the things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
JHN 4 45 v9la figs-explicit ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ…εἰς τὴν ἑορτήν 1 at the festival Here, **the festival** refers the Passover festival, as indicated in [2:12–25](../02/12.md). If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “at the Passover festival … to the Passover” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 46 ffm3 grammar-connect-time-sequential οὖν 1 Now **Then** indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event it has just described. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “After Jesus entered Galilee and the Galileans welcomed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
JHN 4 46 hg54 writing-pronouns ἦλθεν 1 In this verse **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 46 hg54 writing-pronouns ἦλθεν 1 In this verse **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 46 w3dy translate-names τὴν Κανὰ…Καφαρναούμ 1 **Cana** is the name of a town and **Capernaum** is the name of a city. Both were in the region of Galilee. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 4 46 bp3w writing-participants καὶ ἦν τις βασιλικὸς 1 royal official This phrase introduces a new character in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. The expression “royal official” identifies this man as a someone who was in the service of the king. Since he is a new participant, if it would be helpful to your readers, you could call him something like “a man who was a government official who served the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])
JHN 4 47 brcf writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to the royal official. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “The official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 47 brcf writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to the royal official. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “The official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 4 47 p2nv translate-names τῆς Ἰουδαίας…τὴν Γαλιλαίαν 1 These are two main regions in the land of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 4 47 eqga writing-pronouns ἤμελλεν 1 Here, **he** refers to the royal official’s son. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the official’s son was about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])<br>
JHN 4 47 eqga writing-pronouns ἤμελλεν 1 Here, **he** refers to the royal official’s son. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the official’s son was about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])<br>
JHN 4 48 u73r figs-doublenegatives ἐὰν μὴ σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα ἴδητε, οὐ μὴ πιστεύσητε 1 Unless you see signs and wonders, you will not believe This statement is a double negative. In some languages it is more natural to translate this statement in a positive form. Alternate translation: “Only if you see signs and wonders will you believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])
JHN 4 48 hlts figs-you ἴδητε…πιστεύσητε 1 The word **you** is plural in this verse. This means that Jesus was not only speaking to the royal official, but also to the other people who were there. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “you all would see … you all would … believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 4 48 n3ot figs-hendiadys σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα 1 This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with **and**. The word **wonders** describes the character of Jesus’ miraculous **signs**. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “wonderful miraculous signs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])
JHN 4 49 ui6f λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”<br>
JHN 4 49 ui6f λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”<br>
JHN 4 49 y3vi κύριε 1 The royal official calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. See how you translated this word in [4:11](../04/11.md). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])<br>
JHN 4 49 ycdt figs-imperative κατάβηθι 1 This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “please come down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])
JHN 4 50 n5mo λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 49 ycdt figs-imperative κατάβηθι 1 This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “please come down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])
JHN 4 50 n5mo λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 4 50 cbtv figs-explicit ὁ ἄνθρωπος 1 Here, **the man** refers to the royal official who was introduced in verse [46](../04/46.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “The royal official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 4 50 uwa3 figs-metonymy ἐπίστευσεν…τῷ λόγῳ 1 believed the word Here, **word** refers to all that Jesus said to the man. It does not refer to one specific word that Jesus said. Alternate translation: “believed the words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 4 51 a5gw writing-pronouns αὐτοῦ 1 While In this verse **he**, **his**, and **him** refer to the royal official who was introduced in verse [46](../04/46.md). If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the royal official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
@ -613,7 +613,7 @@ JHN 5 15 auad figs-synecdoche τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις 1 Here, **the Jews*
JHN 5 16 efg2 writing-background καὶ διὰ τοῦτο, ἐδίωκον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τὸν Ἰησοῦν, ὅτι ταῦτα ἐποίει ἐν Σαββάτῳ. 1 Now The writer uses the word **And** to show that the words this verse gives background information. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. Alternate translation: “Now the Jews began to persecute Jesus because he was doing these things on the Sabbath.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
JHN 5 16 ef9i writing-pronouns διὰ τοῦτο 1 Here, **this** refers to what the man whom Jesus had healed told the Jewish leaders. The Jewish leaders began to persecute Jesus because he had healed the man on the Sabbath, which was something they believed was against the law of Moses. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because Jesus had healed him on the Sabbath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 5 16 kup5 figs-synecdoche οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι 1 the Jews Here, **the Jews** is a synecdoche which represent the Jewish leaders. Alternate translation: “the Jewish authorities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
JHN 5 16 acn0 figs-explicit ὅτι ταῦτα ἐποίει 1 This phrase indicates a second reason why the Jewish leaders began persecuting Jesus. Here, **these things** refers to Jesus healing people on the Sabbath. The plural **things** indicates that he healed on the Sabbath multiple times, not just on the occasion recorded in verses [5–9](../05/09.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he was doing these healings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 5 16 acn0 figs-explicit ὅτι ταῦτα ἐποίει 1 This phrase indicates a second reason why the Jewish leaders began persecuting Jesus. Here, **these things** refers to Jesus healing people on the Sabbath. The plural **things** indicates that he healed on the Sabbath multiple times, not just on the occasion recorded in verses [5–9](../05/05.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he was doing these healings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 5 16 f69o ἐν Σαββάτῳ 1 Your language might use an indefinite article rather than the definite article here, since the synagogue ruler is not speaking of a specific Sabbath. Alternate translation: “on a Sabbath day”
JHN 5 17 ijd8 writing-pronouns ὁ δὲ ἀπεκρίνατο αὐτοῖς 1 is working Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “But Jesus replied to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 5 17 lq1v guidelines-sonofgodprinciples ὁ Πατήρ μου 1 My Father **Father** is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
@ -641,15 +641,15 @@ JHN 5 21 c96p figs-123person ὁ Υἱὸς 1 As in the previous two verses, Je
JHN 5 22 b2l6 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples ὁ Πατὴρ…τῷ Υἱῷ 1 For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son **Father** and **Son** are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 5 22 sc4t figs-abstractnouns τὴν κρίσιν 1 Here, **judgment** refers to the legal authority to judge people as guilty or innocent. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this abstract noun with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “power to judge others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
JHN 5 22 dtxw figs-123person τῷ Υἱῷ 1 As in the previous three verses, Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “to me, the Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 5 23 iqn7 figs-123person τὸν Υἱὸν…τὸν Πατέρα. ὁ μὴ τιμῶν τὸν Υἱὸν, οὐ τιμᾷ τὸν Πατέρα 1 **Father** and **Son** are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 5 23 iqn7 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τὸν Υἱὸν…τὸν Πατέρα. ὁ μὴ τιμῶν τὸν Υἱὸν, οὐ τιμᾷ τὸν Πατέρα 1 **Father** and **Son** are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 5 23 p2kj figs-123person τὸν Υἱὸν…ὁ μὴ τιμῶν τὸν Υἱὸν 1 As in the previous four verses, Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “me, the Son…The one not honoring me, the Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
JHN 5 24 w6wu ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in [1:51](../01/51.md). Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”
JHN 5 24 rsqh figs-you λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 5 24 rsqh figs-you λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47.md). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 5 24 eg5h figs-metonymy τὸν λόγον μου 1 he who hears my word Here, **word** refers to the message or teachings of Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “my message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 5 24 ql7q figs-metaphor εἰς κρίσιν οὐκ ἔρχεται 1 will not be condemned Jesus speaks figuratively of **judgment** as if it was a place a person could enter. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this phrase plainly. Alternate translation: “will not be judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 5 24 p5jx μεταβέβηκεν ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου εἰς τὴν ζωήν 1 Here, **passed** means to move from one state to another. Alternate translation: “he has moved from death to life”
JHN 5 25 gtu6 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”
JHN 5 25 v33w figs-you λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 5 25 v33w figs-you λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47.md). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 5 25 kosy figs-explicit ἔρχεται ὥρα 1 Here, **hour** refers to a point in time when something happens. It does not refer to a 60-minute length of time. See the discussion of this in the General Notes to chapter four and see how you translated it in [4:21](../04/21.md). Alternate translation: “a point in time is coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 5 25 d81y guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Son of God This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
JHN 5 25 croa figs-123person τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 As in the previous verses in this paragraph, Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “of me, the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
@ -725,7 +725,7 @@ JHN 6 6 uk6t figs-rpronouns αὐτὸς…ᾔδει 1 for he himself knew Here,
JHN 6 7 z3gj translate-bmoney διακοσίων δηναρίων ἄρτοι 1 Two hundred denarii worth of bread The word **denarii** is the plural form of “denarius,” which was a denomination of money in the Roman Empire that was equivalent to one days’ wages. Alternate translation: “The amount of bread that cost two hundred days’ wages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])
JHN 6 8 ih44 writing-pronouns αὐτῷ…αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** and **him** refer to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ … to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 6 8 gzei translate-names Ἀνδρέας…Σίμωνος Πέτρου 1 **Andrew** and **Simon Peter** are names of men who were Jesus’ disciples. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
JHN 6 8 diq0 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 6 8 diq0 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
JHN 6 9 k3k6 translate-unknown πέντε ἄρτους κριθίνους 1 five bread loaves of barley The grain **barley** was a common grain eaten by the poor in Israel because it was cheaper than wheat. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/barley]]) They would bake the barley into **bread loaves**, which are lumps of flour dough that a person has shaped and baked. Alternate translation: “five loaves of barley bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
JHN 6 9 xwu8 figs-rquestion ταῦτα τί ἐστιν εἰς τοσούτους? 1 what are these among so many? This remark appears in the form of a question to emphasize that they do not have enough food to feed everyone. Alternate translation: “these are not enough to feed so many!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
JHN 6 9 v5uk figs-ellipsis εἰς τοσούτους 1 Here, John records Andrew leaving out a word that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “to so many people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
@ -741,8 +741,8 @@ JHN 6 11 ib37 figs-explicit τῶν ὀψαρίων 1 These **fish** are the tw
JHN 6 12 leym figs-activepassive ἐνεπλήσθησαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this in an active or reflexive form. Alternate translation: “they had finished eating” or “they had filled themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 6 12 z5o3 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
JHN 6 12 qp1n figs-quotations λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, συναγάγετε 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “he says to his disciples to gather up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])
JHN 6 13 hqx9 writing-pronouns συνήγαγον 1 they gathered Here, **they** refers to the disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the disciples gathered up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 6 13 h64z translate-unknown κοφίνους 1 Here, **baskets** refers to a large basket that was used for carrying goods while traveling. If your language has a word for this kind of basket, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “large traveling baskets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
JHN 6 13 hqx9 writing-pronouns συνήγαγον 1 they gathered Here, **they** refers to the disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the disciples gathered up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 6 13 h64z translate-unknown κοφίνους 1 Here, **baskets** refers to a large basket that was used for carrying goods while traveling. If your language has a word for this kind of basket, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “large traveling baskets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
JHN 6 14 d7lp figs-gendernotations οἱ…ἄνθρωποι 1 Although the term **men** is masculine, John uses the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
JHN 6 14 gmat ἰδόντες ὃ ἐποίησεν σημεῖον 1 This clause could refer to: (1) the time that they said what follows in the verse. Alternate translation: “at the time they saw the sign he did” (2) the reason that they said what follows in the verse. Alternate translation: “because they saw the sign he did”
JHN 6 14 nlw1 figs-explicit ὃ…σημεῖον 1 this sign Here, **sign** refers to the Jesus miraculously feeding the large crowd that was described in verses [5–13](../06/05.md).. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the sign of miraculously feeding the large crowd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -761,9 +761,9 @@ JHN 6 18 pms3 figs-metaphor διηγείρετο 1 John uses **aroused** figura
JHN 6 18 z381 figs-activepassive ἥ…θάλασσα…διηγείρετο 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the wind was causing the sea to be aroused” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
JHN 6 19 xx7d translate-unknown ἐληλακότες 1 they had rowed The boats used on the Sea of Galilee usually had two, four, or six people who **rowed** with oars together on each side side of the boat. If your readers would not be familiar with rowed boats, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “having pushed the boat through the water by using oars” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
JHN 6 19 sgf4 translate-bdistance ὡς σταδίους εἴκοσι πέντε ἢ τριάκοντα 1 about twenty-five or thirty stadia The word **stadia** is the plural of “stadium,” which is a Roman measurement of distance equivalent to about 185 meters or a little over 600 feet. Alternate translation: “about four and one half or five and one half kilometers” or “about thee or three and one half miles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])
JHN 6 19 u8ww writing-pronouns θεωροῦσιν 1 Here, **they** refers to Jesus’ disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ disciples see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 6 19 u8ww writing-pronouns θεωροῦσιν 1 Here, **they** refers to Jesus’ disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ disciples see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
JHN 6 19 diko θεωροῦσιν 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “they saw”
JHN 6 20 tjg9 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
JHN 6 20 tjg9 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
JHN 6 21 qtw5 figs-explicit ἤθελον…λαβεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 1 they were willing to receive him into the boat It is implied that Jesus got **into the boat**. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “they gladly received him into the boat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 6 22 yy7c figs-explicit τῆς θαλάσσης 1 the sea Here and throughout this chapter, **sea** refers to the Sea of Galilee. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “of the Sea of Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 6 22 ho60 figs-explicit πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης 1 Here, **the other side of the sea** refers to the side of the Sea of Galilee where Jesus had fed the crowd. It does not refer to the side of the Sea of Galilee that he and his disciples arrived at in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “on the side of the sea where Jesus performed the miracle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@ -1077,7 +1077,7 @@ JHN 8 42 nh4m ἠγαπᾶτε 1 love This is the kind of love that comes from
JHN 8 43 ig11 figs-rquestion διὰ τί τὴν λαλιὰν τὴν ἐμὴν οὐ γινώσκετε? 1 Why do you not understand my words? Jesus is using this question mainly to rebuke the Jewish leaders for not listening to him. Alternate translation: “I will tell you why you do not understand what I say!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
JHN 8 43 cf8v figs-metonymy ὅτι οὐ δύνασθε ἀκούειν τὸν λόγον τὸν ἐμόν 1 It is because you cannot hear my words Here, **words** is a metonym for the “teachings” of Jesus. Alternate translation: “It is because you will not accept my teachings.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
JHN 8 44 vgy1 ὑμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ διαβόλου ἐστὲ 1 You are of your father, the devil “You belong to your father, Satan”
JHN 8 44 x11i figs-explicit ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ 1 It is understood that here, **it** refers to the act of lying that the devil did. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “the father of lying" (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 8 44 x11i figs-explicit ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ 1 It is understood that here, **it** refers to the act of lying that the devil did. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “the father of lying (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
JHN 8 44 k1qu figs-metaphor ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ 1 the father of lies Here, **father** is a metaphor for the one who originates the act of lying. Alternate translation: “he is the one who created lying in the beginning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 8 45 g1q9 0 Connecting Statement: Jesus continues speaking to the Jews.
JHN 8 45 e55r ἐγὼ…ὅτι τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγω 1 because I speak the truth “because I tell you true things about God”
@ -1558,7 +1558,7 @@ JHN 15 2 p311 figs-metaphor πᾶν κλῆμα ἐν ἐμοὶ μὴ φέρο
JHN 15 2 wt8w αἴρει αὐτό 1 takes away “he cuts it off and takes it away”
JHN 15 2 xej7 πᾶν τὸ καρπὸν φέρον, καθαίρει αὐτὸ 1 prunes every branch “he trims every branch that bears fruit”
JHN 15 3 xn3j figs-metaphor ἤδη ὑμεῖς καθαροί ἐστε, διὰ τὸν λόγον ὃν λελάληκα ὑμῖν 1 You are already clean because of the message that I have spoken to you The implied metaphor here is the **clean** branches that have already been “pruned.” Alternate translation: “It is as if you have already been pruned and are clean branches because you have obeyed what I have taught you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
JHN 15 3 l5zz figs-you ὑμεῖς…ὑμῖν 1 you The words **You** and **you* in this verse are plural and refer to the disciples of Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 15 3 l5zz figs-you ὑμεῖς…ὑμῖν 1 you The words **You** and **you** in this verse are plural and refer to the disciples of Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
JHN 15 4 qvv9 μείνατε ἐν ἐμοί, κἀγὼ ἐν ὑμῖν 1 Remain in me, and I in you “If you remain joined to me, I will remain joined to you” or “Remain joined to me, and I will remain joined to you”
JHN 15 4 hn7q ἐὰν μὴ ἐν ἐμοὶ μένητε 1 unless you remain in me By remaining in Christ, those who belong to him depend on him for everything. Alternate translation: “unless you stay joined to me and depend upon me for everything”
JHN 15 5 mw4t figs-metaphor ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἄμπελος; ὑμεῖς τὰ κλήματα 1 I am the vine, you are the branches Here, the **vine** is a metaphor that represents Jesus, and the **branches** is a metaphor that represent those who trust in Jesus and belong to him. Alternate translation: “I am like a vine, and you are like branches that are attached to the vine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])

1 Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
2 JHN front intro t6za 0 # Introduction to the Gospel of John<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Gospel of John<br><br>1. Introduction about who Jesus is (1:1–18)<br>2. Jesus is baptized, and he chooses twelve disciples (1:19–51)<br>3. Jesus preaches, teaches, and heals people (2–11)<br>4. The seven days before Jesus’ death (12–19)<br> * Mary anoints the feet of Jesus (12:1–11)<br> * Jesus rides a donkey into Jerusalem (12:12–19)<br> * Some Greek men want to see Jesus (12:20–36)<br> * The Jewish leaders reject Jesus (12:37–50)<br> * Jesus teaches his disciples (13–17)<br> * Jesus is arrested and undergoes trial (18:1–19:15)<br> * Jesus is crucified and buried (19:16–42)<br>5. Jesus rises from the dead (20:1–29)<br>6. John says why he wrote his gospel (20:30–31)<br>7. Jesus meets with the disciples (21)<br><br>### What is the Gospel of John about?<br><br>The Gospel of John is one of four books in the New Testament that describe some of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. These books are called “Gospels,” which means “good news.” Their authors wrote about different aspects of who Jesus was and what he did. John said that he wrote his Gospel “so that people might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God” (20:31). John’s Gospel repeatedly emphasizes that Jesus is God in human form.<br><br>John’s Gospel is very different from the other three Gospels. John does not include some of the teachings and events that the other writers included in their Gospels. Also, John wrote about some teachings and events that are not in the other Gospels.<br><br>John wrote much about the miraculous signs Jesus did to prove that what Jesus said about himself was true. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sign]])<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Gospel of John” or “The Gospel According to John.” Or they may choose a title that may be clearer, such as, “The Good News About Jesus That John Wrote.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>### Who wrote the Gospel of John?<br><br>This book does not give the name of the author. However, since early Christian times, most Christians have thought that the Apostle John was the author. Further evidence that the Apostle John wrote this Gospel is the fact that his name does not occur once within it. Instead, this Gospel contains the phrase “the disciple whom Jesus loved” in places where the other Gospels indicate that John was involved. The Apostle John most likely referred to himself in this manner because he wanted to humbly testify to his close relationship with Jesus as part of Jesus’ inner circle of disciples who became the “pillars” of the early church (Galatians 2:9).<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Why does John write so much about the final week of Jesus’ life?<br><br>John wrote much about Jesus’ final week. He wanted his readers to think deeply about Jesus’ final week and his death on the cross. He wanted people to understand that Jesus willingly died on the cross so that God could forgive them for sinning against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Why does Jesus refer to himself as the “Son of Man”?<br><br>In the Gospels, Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man.” This is a reference to Daniel 7:13–14. In that passage, there is a person who is described as like a “son of man.” That means that the person was someone who looked like a human being. God gave authority to this “son of man” to rule over the nations forever. All people will worship him forever.<br><br>Jews of Jesus’ time did not use “Son of Man” as a title for anyone. But Jesus used it for himself to help them understand who he truly was. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]])<br><br>Translating the title “Son of Man” can be difficult in many languages. Readers may misunderstand a literal translation. Translators can consider alternatives, such as “The Human One.” It may also be helpful to include a footnote to explain the title.<br><br>### What do the words “remain,” “reside,” and “abide” mean in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John often used the words “remain,” “reside”, and “abide” as metaphors. John spoke of a believer becoming more faithful to Jesus and knowing Jesus better as if Jesus’ word “remained” in the believer. John also spoke of someone being spiritually joined to someone else as if the person “remained” in the other person. Christians are said to “remain” in Christ and in God. The Father is said to “remain” in the Son, and the Son is said to “remain” in the Father. The Son is said to “remain” in believers. The Holy Spirit is also said to “remain” in the believers.<br><br>Many translators will find it impossible to represent these ideas in their languages in exactly the same way. For example, Jesus intended to express the idea of the Christian being spiritually together with him when he said, “He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him” (John 6:56). The UST uses the idea of “will be joined to me, and I will be joined to him.” But translators may have to find other ways of expressing the idea.<br><br>In the passage, “If my words remain in you” (John 15:7), the UST expresses this idea as, “If you live by my message.” Translators may find it possible to use this translation as a model.<br><br>### What is double meaning in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John occasionally used words or phrases that could have two meanings (double entendre) in the language he was writing in. For example, the phrase translated “born again” in the ULT could also mean “born from above” (John 3:3, 7). In such cases, you may want to choose one meaning and put the other meaning in a footnote.<br><br>### What are the major issues in the text of the Gospel of John?<br><br>The following verses found in older versions of the Bible but are not included in most modern versions. Translators are advised not to translate these verses. However, if in the translators’ region, there are older versions of the Bible that include these verses, the translators can include them. If they are translated, they should be put inside square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that they were probably not original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* “waiting for the moving of the water. For an angel of the Lord occasionally went down into the pool and stirred the water and whoever went first after the stirring of the water, was made well from the disease they had.” (5:3-4)<br>* “going through the midst of them, and so passed by” (8:59)<br><br>The following passage is included in most older and modern versions of the Bible. But it is not in the earliest copies of the Bible. Translators are advised to translate this passage. It should be put inside of square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that it may not have been original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* The story of the adulterous woman (7:53-8:11)<br><br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]]) # Introduction to the Gospel of John<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Gospel of John<br><br>1. Introduction about who Jesus is (1:1–18)<br>2. Jesus is baptized, and he chooses twelve disciples (1:19–51)<br>3. Jesus preaches, teaches, and heals people (2–11)<br>4. The seven days before Jesus’ death (12–19)<br> * Mary anoints the feet of Jesus (12:1–11)<br> * Jesus rides a donkey into Jerusalem (12:12–19)<br> * Some Greek men want to see Jesus (12:20–36)<br> * The Jewish leaders reject Jesus (12:37–50)<br> * Jesus teaches his disciples (13–17)<br> * Jesus is arrested and undergoes trial (18:1–19:15)<br> * Jesus is crucified and buried (19:16–42)<br>5. Jesus rises from the dead (20:1–29)<br>6. John says why he wrote his gospel (20:30–31)<br>7. Jesus meets with the disciples (21)<br><br>### What is the Gospel of John about?<br><br>The Gospel of John is one of four books in the New Testament that describe some of the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. These books are called “Gospels,” which means “good news.” Their authors wrote about different aspects of who Jesus was and what he did. John said that he wrote his Gospel “so that people might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God” (20:31). John’s Gospel repeatedly emphasizes that Jesus is God in human form.<br><br>John’s Gospel is very different from the other three Gospels. John does not include some of the teachings and events that the other writers included in their Gospels. Also, John wrote about some teachings and events that are not in the other Gospels.<br><br>John wrote much about the miraculous signs Jesus did to prove that what Jesus said about himself was true. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sign]])<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “The Gospel of John” or “The Gospel According to John.” Or they may choose a title that may be clearer, such as, “The Good News About Jesus That John Wrote.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>### Who wrote the Gospel of John?<br><br>This book does not give the name of the author. However, since early Christian times, most Christians have thought that the Apostle John was the author. Further evidence that the Apostle John wrote this Gospel is the fact that his name does not occur once within it. Instead, this Gospel contains the phrase “the disciple whom Jesus loved” in places where the other Gospels indicate that John was involved. The Apostle John most likely referred to himself in this manner because he wanted to humbly testify to his close relationship with Jesus as part of Jesus’ inner circle of disciples who became the “pillars” of the early church (Galatians 2:9).<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Why does John write so much about the final week of Jesus’ life?<br><br>John wrote much about Jesus’ final week. He wanted his readers to think deeply about Jesus’ final week and his death on the cross. He wanted people to understand that Jesus willingly died on the cross so that God could forgive them for sinning against him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Why does Jesus refer to himself as the “Son of Man”?<br><br>In the Gospels, Jesus calls himself the “Son of Man.” This is a reference to Daniel 7:13–14. In that passage, there is a person who is described as like a “son of man.” That means that the person was someone who looked like a human being. God gave authority to this “son of man” to rule over the nations forever. All people will worship him forever.<br><br>Jews of Jesus’ time did not use “Son of Man” as a title for anyone. But Jesus used it for himself to help them understand who he truly was. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]])<br><br>Translating the title “Son of Man” can be difficult in many languages. Readers may misunderstand a literal translation. Translators can consider alternatives, such as “The Human One.” It may also be helpful to include a footnote to explain the title.<br><br>### What do the words “remain,” “reside,” and “abide” mean in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John often used the words “remain,” “reside”, and “abide” as metaphors. John spoke of a believer becoming more faithful to Jesus and knowing Jesus better as if Jesus’ word “remained” in the believer. John also spoke of someone being spiritually joined to someone else as if the person “remained” in the other person. Christians are said to “remain” in Christ and in God. The Father is said to “remain” in the Son, and the Son is said to “remain” in the Father. The Son is said to “remain” in believers. The Holy Spirit is also said to “remain” in the believers.<br><br>Many translators will find it impossible to represent these ideas in their languages in exactly the same way. For example, Jesus intended to express the idea of the Christian being spiritually together with him when he said, “He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him” (John 6:56). The UST uses the idea of “will be joined to me, and I will be joined to him.” But translators may have to find other ways of expressing the idea.<br><br>In the passage, “If my words remain in you” (John 15:7), the UST expresses this idea as, “If you live by my message.” Translators may find it possible to use this translation as a model.<br><br>### What is double meaning in the Gospel of John?<br><br>John occasionally used words or phrases that could have two meanings (double entendre) in the language he was writing in. For example, the phrase translated “born again” in the ULT could also mean “born from above” (John 3:3, 7). In such cases, you may want to choose one meaning and put the other meaning in a footnote.<br><br>### What are the major issues in the text of the Gospel of John?<br><br>The following verses found in older versions of the Bible but are not included in most modern versions. Translators are advised not to translate these verses. However, if in the translators’ region, there are older versions of the Bible that include these verses, the translators can include them. If they are translated, they should be put inside square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that they were probably not original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* “waiting for the moving of the water. For an angel of the Lord occasionally went down into the pool and stirred the water and whoever went first after the stirring of the water, was made well from the disease they had.” (5:3-4)<br>* “going through the midst of them, and so passed by” (8:59)<br><br>The following passage is included in most older and modern versions of the Bible. But it is not in the earliest copies of the Bible. Translators are advised to translate this passage. It should be put inside of square brackets (\[\]) to indicate that it may not have been original to John’s Gospel.<br><br>* The story of the adulterous woman (7:53-8:11)<br><br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-textvariants]])
3 JHN 1 intro k29b 0 # John 1 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus is God (1:1–5)<br>2. John the Baptist was Jesus’ witness (1:6–8)<br>3. Summary of Jesus’ ministry on Earth (1:9–13)<br>4. Jesus is God in the flesh (1:14–18)<br>5. John the Baptist prepares the way for Jesus (1:19–34)<br>6. Jesus meets Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Nathaniel (1:35–51)<br><br>Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in [1:23](../01/23.md), which are words from the Old Testament.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “The Word”<br><br>John uses the phrase “the Word” to refer to Jesus ([1:1, 14](../01/01.md)). John is saying that God’s most important message to all people is actually Jesus, a person with a physical body. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wordofgod]])<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. In [1:4–9](../01/04.md), John uses an extended metaphor in which light represents what is true and good and darkness represents what is false and evil. John applies that light metaphor to Jesus in order to show that Jesus is the embodiment of God’s truth and goodness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### “Children of God”<br><br>People are sometimes described as “children of God” because God created them. However, John uses this expression in a different sense in this chapter. He uses it to describe people who have entered into a father-child relationship with God by putting their faith and trust in Jesus. God indeed created all people, but people can only become children of God in this sense by believing in Jesus. "Children" in this usage does not refer to those who are young, but only to the relationship that people have at any age to their father. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Important figures of speech in this chapter<br><br>### Metaphors<br><br>John uses the metaphors of light and darkness and of “the Word” to tell the reader that he will be writing more about good and evil and about what God wants to tell people through Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “In the beginning”<br><br>Some languages and cultures speak of the world as if it has always existed, as if it had no beginning. But “very long ago” is different from “in the beginning,” and you need to be sure that your translation communicates correctly.<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([1:51](../01/51.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]]) # John 1 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus is God (1:1–5)<br>2. John the Baptist was Jesus’ witness (1:6–8)<br>3. Summary of Jesus’ ministry on Earth (1:9–13)<br>4. Jesus is God in the flesh (1:14–18)<br>5. John the Baptist prepares the way for Jesus (1:19–34)<br>6. Jesus meets Andrew, Peter, Philip, and Nathaniel (1:35–51)<br><br>Some translations set each line of poetry farther to the right than the rest of the text to make it easier to read. The ULT does this with the poetry in [1:23](../01/23.md), which are words from the Old Testament.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “The Word”<br><br>John uses the phrase “the Word” to refer to Jesus ([1:1, 14](../01/01.md)). John is saying that God’s most important message to all people is actually Jesus, a person with a physical body. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/wordofgod]])<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong and begin to obey God. In [1:4–9](../01/04.md), John uses an extended metaphor in which light represents what is true and good and darkness represents what is false and evil. John applies that light metaphor to Jesus in order to show that Jesus is the embodiment of God’s truth and goodness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### “Children of God”<br><br>People are sometimes described as “children of God” because God created them. However, John uses this expression in a different sense in this chapter. He uses it to describe people who have entered into a father-child relationship with God by putting their faith and trust in Jesus. God indeed created all people, but people can only become children of God in this sense by believing in Jesus. “Children” in this usage does not refer to those who are young, but only to the relationship that people have at any age to their father. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Important figures of speech in this chapter<br><br>### Metaphors<br><br>John uses the metaphors of light and darkness and of “the Word” to tell the reader that he will be writing more about good and evil and about what God wants to tell people through Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “In the beginning”<br><br>Some languages and cultures speak of the world as if it has always existed, as if it had no beginning. But “very long ago” is different from “in the beginning,” and you need to be sure that your translation communicates correctly.<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([1:51](../01/51.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
4 JHN 1 1 er9g ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν 1 In the beginning This phrase refers to the very earliest time before God created the heavens and the earth. It does not refer to time in the distant past. Alternate translation: “Before the beginning of the universe there was” or “Before the universe began there was”
5 JHN 1 1 z59q figs-explicit ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος…καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος 1 the Word Here, **the Word** refers to Jesus. It does not refer to a spoken word. ULT indicates this by capitalizing **Word** to indicate that this is a title for Jesus. Use whatever convention your language uses to indicate that this is a name. If “word” is feminine in your language, it could be translated as “the one who is called the Word.” Alternate translation: “Jesus, who is the Word, and Jesus … and Jesus was God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
6 JHN 1 2 u6xx writing-pronouns οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to Jesus, whom John has called “the Word” in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus” or “the Word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
21 JHN 1 5 yv8l writing-pronouns αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν 1 Here, **it** refers to the light mentioned earlier in the verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “did not overcome the light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
22 JHN 1 6 qa1s figs-activepassive ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ Θεοῦ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could use an active verbal form in place of the passive verbal form **having been sent**. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “whom God has sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
23 JHN 1 6 gih6 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης 1 Here, **John** refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
24 JHN 1 7 mtlb writing-pronouns οὗτος οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to John the Baptist, who was introduced in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
25 JHN 1 7 mht8 figs-metaphor περὶ τοῦ φωτός 1 testify about the light Here, **light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “about Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
26 JHN 1 7 cdl5 δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **through** indicates the means by which everyone might believe in the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “by means of him”
27 JHN 1 7 m4fo writing-pronouns δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **him** refers to John the Baptist. It does not refer to Jesus or the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “through John the Baptist” or “through John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
28 JHN 1 8 pn9t writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος ἐκεῖνος 1 **That one** here refers to John the Baptist. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
29 JHN 1 8 kbwh figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς…τοῦ φωτός 1 Here, **light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. See how you translated it in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God … Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
30 JHN 1 9 xe1z figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν, ὃ τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν, ὃ 1 The true light Here, **light** is a metaphor that represents Jesus as the one who both reveals the truth about God and is himself that truth. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who truly embodied God’s truth, who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
31 JHN 1 9 rbsj figs-metaphor ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον 1 Here, **light** is a metaphor for God’s truth and goodness. Alternate translation: “which reveals the true and good things of God to all men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
32 JHN 1 9 u00s figs-gendernotations ἄνθρωπον 1 Although the term **men** is masculine, John is using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
33 JHN 1 10 c2ne writing-pronouns ἦν…δι’ αὐτοῦ…αὐτὸν 1 **He** and **him** in this verse refer to Jesus. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus was … through Jesus … Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
79 JHN 1 16 punh grammar-connect-logic-result ὅτι 1 Here, John is using the word **For** to introduce the reason why he said that Jesus is “full of grace and truth” in verse [14](../01/14.md). Alternate translation: “We can say that Jesus is full of grace and truth because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
80 JHN 1 16 iriv writing-pronouns αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
81 JHN 1 16 p3zg figs-abstractnouns τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ 1 fullness Here, **fullness** refers to the grace and truth which John said Jesus was full of in verse [14](../01/14.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **fullness** with an equivalent expression that says this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what he is full of” or “his full amount of grace and truth” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
82 JHN 1 16 vmyz figs-exclusive ἡμεῖς πάντες ἡμεῖς πάντες 1 Here, **we** refers to John and all believers. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “all of we believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
83 JHN 1 16 yrg8 ἐλάβομεν καὶ χάριν 1 Here, **even** indicates that “grace after grace” explains what “his fullness” means. Alternate translation: “have received, that is, grace” or “have received, namely, grace”
84 JHN 1 16 b9r1 figs-abstractnouns χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος 1 grace after grace If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate both occurrences of the abstract noun **grace** here with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “kind act after kind act” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
85 JHN 1 16 avst χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος 1 Here, **after** could mean: (1) the second “grace” replaces the first “grace,” which is the most common use for this word. This meaning could indicate that the first “grace” refers to “the law” and the second “grace” refers to “Grace and truth” in the next verse. Alternate translation: “grace in place of grace” or “grace instead of grace” (2) the second “grace” is in addition to the first “grace.” Alternate translation: “grace in addition to” or “grace upon grace”
86 JHN 1 17 iata grammar-connect-logic-contrast ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο 1 John placed the two sentences in this verse next to each other without any connecting word in order to show a contrast between the law of Moses and the grace and truth of Jesus. This does not mean that the law of Moses did not have grace and truth. Rather, John is indicating that the grace and truth revealed by Jesus is more complete than that revealed in the law of Moses. Although God revealed himself and his will through the law of Moses, he did so much more clearly though Jesus, who is God in human form. Alternate translation: “the law was given through Moses. But grace and truth came about through Jesus Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
87 JHN 1 17 xsbj figs-activepassive ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form and indicate who did the action. Alternate translation: “God gave the law through Moses” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
88 JHN 1 17 wios translate-names Μωϋσέως Μωϋσέως 1 **Moses** is the name of a man, a prophet of God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
89 JHN 1 17 vm1h figs-abstractnouns ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract nouns **grace** and **truth** with equivalent expressions. Alternate translation: “God’s gracious and faithful character” or “Kind acts and true teachings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
90 JHN 1 18 vf9q μονογενὴς Θεὸς 1 Here and throughout John’s Gospel, the phrase **the One and Only** is a title for Jesus that could refer to: (1) Jesus being unique as the only member of his kind. Alternate translation: “the Unique God” (2) Jesus being the only child of his Father. Alternate translation: “the Only Begotten God”
91 JHN 1 18 r1la μονογενὴς Θεὸς 1 Here, **God** indicates that Jesus, who is called **the One and Only**, is God. If it would be clearer to you readers, you could state this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the One and Only, who is God”
92 JHN 1 18 rflq figs-idiom ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ Πατρὸς 1 Here, **in the bosom of** is an idiom that refers to having a close and intimate relationship with someone. Alternate translation: “who is close to the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]]) Here, **in the bosom of** is an idiom that refers to having a close and intimate relationship with someone. Alternate translation: “who is close to the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
93 JHN 1 18 h5cq guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τοῦ Πατρὸς 1 Father This is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
94 JHN 1 18 kmqm writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος ἐκεῖνος 1 Here, **that one** refers to Jesus in an emphatic way. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus himself” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
95 JHN 1 18 zc8g writing-pronouns ἐξηγήσατο 1 Here, **him** refers to God the Father. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the Father” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
96 JHN 1 18 pmw5 ἐξηγήσατο 1 Here, the word translated **has made him known** refers to making people know something by explaining or revealing it clearly. Alternate translation: “has explained him” or “has fully revealed him” Here, the word translated **has made him known** refers to making people know something by explaining or revealing it clearly. Alternate translation: “has explained him” or “has fully revealed him”
97 JHN 1 19 t5pf figs-explicit τοῦ Ἰωάννου 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “of John the Baptist” or “of John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
98 JHN 1 19 e1dz figs-synecdoche ἀπέστειλαν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων 1 the Jews sent … to him from Jerusalem Here, **the Jews** refers to the “Jewish leaders.” Alternate translation: “the Jewish leaders sent … from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
99 JHN 1 20 b7zz ὡμολόγησεν καὶ οὐκ ἠρνήσατο, καὶ ὡμολόγησεν 1 He confessed—he did not deny, but confessed The phrase “he confessed” says in positive terms the same thing that **he did not deny** says in negative terms. This emphasizes that John was telling the truth and was strongly stating that he was not the Christ. Your language may have a different way of doing this. Alternate translation: “he strongly confessed” or “he solemnly testified”
107 JHN 1 22 x8wz figs-exclusive δῶμεν…ἡμᾶς 1 we may give … us Here, **we** and **us** refer to the priests and Levites, not to John. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
108 JHN 1 22 fmc8 ἵνα ἀπόκρισιν δῶμεν 1 Alternate translation: “so that we might tell your answer”
109 JHN 1 22 sa3t figs-explicit τοῖς πέμψασιν ἡμᾶς 1 they said to him This phrase refers to the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to those leaders in Jerusalem who sent us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
110 JHN 1 23 a732 writing-pronouns ἔφη 1 He said **He** here refers to John the Baptist. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John said (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]]) **He** here refers to John the Baptist. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
111 JHN 1 23 x314 figs-quotemarks φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου 1 In these phrases, John quotes from the book of Isaiah. It may be helpful to your readers to indicate this by setting off all of this material with quotation marks or with whatever other punctuation or convention your language uses to indicate a quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotemarks]])
112 JHN 1 23 baa5 figs-metonymy ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ 1 I am a voice, crying in the wilderness Here, **voice** refers to the person who is crying out in the wilderness. Alternate translation: “I am the one calling out in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
113 JHN 1 23 p7kc figs-quotesinquotes ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου 1 This clause is a quotation within a quotation. John is quoting from the book of Isaiah, and Isaiah is quoting the words of the person calling out in the wilderness. It would be best to indicate that by punctuating this material as a second-level quotation, since Luke is quoting from Scripture. However, if your language does not put one direct quotation within another, you could translate this material as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “I am a voice crying out in the wilderness to make the way of the Lord straight” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])
114 JHN 1 23 iry1 figs-metaphor εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου 1 Make the way of the Lord straight This is a figurative way of telling people to get ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes. They are to do this by repenting of their sins. Alternate translation: “Repent of your sins so that you will be ready to listen to the Lord’s message when it comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
115 JHN 1 23 v1gi translate-names Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης 1 **Isaiah** is the name of a man. He wrote the Book of Isaiah in the Bible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
116 JHN 1 24 bk96 writing-background καὶ ἀπεσταλμένοι ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων 1 Now some from the Pharisees This is background information about the people who questioned John. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
117 JHN 1 24 uq5b figs-explicit ἀπεσταλμένοι ἀπεσταλμένοι 1 Here, **the ones** refers to the priests and Levites, as introduced in verse [19](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the priests and Levites who had been sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
118 JHN 1 24 guqm figs-activepassive ἀπεσταλμένοι ἦσαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this in an active form. Alternate translation: “the ones whom the Jewish leaders sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
119 JHN 1 24 f4xj figs-explicit ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων 1 This phrase could refer to: (1) the priests and Levites who had been sent. Alternate translation: “belonged to the Pharisees” (2) the leaders in Jerusalem who sent the priests and Levites. Alternate translation: “were sent from the Pharisees” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
120 JHN 1 25 s00c writing-pronouns ἠρώτησαν ἠρώτησαν 1 Here, **they** refers to the priests and Levites who had been sent from Jerusalem, as introduced in verse [19](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the priests and Levites from Jerusalem asked” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
121 JHN 1 25 v5sn translate-names Ἠλείας 1 **Elijah** is the name of a man. **Elijah** was a prophet whom the Jews expected to return to earth shortly become the arrival of the Messiah. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
122 JHN 1 25 u7is figs-explicit ὁ προφήτης 1 Here, **the prophet** refers to a prophet the Jews were waiting for, based on God's promise to send a prophet like Moses which is recorded in Deuteronomy 18:15. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the prophet whom God promised to send to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
123 JHN 1 26 la26 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
129 JHN 1 28 civp translate-names Βηθανίᾳ 1 **Bethany** is the name of a village. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
130 JHN 1 28 tfxy translate-names τοῦ Ἰορδάνου 1 **Jordan** is the name of a river. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
131 JHN 1 28 f5he translate-names πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου 1 Here, **beyond the Jordan** refers to the region of Judea that is on the east side of the Jordan River, which is the side opposite from Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “on the side of the Jordan River opposite from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
132 JHN 1 28 ryi1 figs-explicit Ἰωάννης Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
133 JHN 1 29 bt67 grammar-connect-time-sequential τῇ ἐπαύριον 1 **The next day** here indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event it has just described in [1:19–28](../01/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “The day after John spoke with the priests and Levites from Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
134 JHN 1 29 aqo3 βλέπει…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he saw … said”
135 JHN 1 29 fpj6 figs-metaphor ἴδε 1 John records John the Baptist using the term **Behold** to call his audience’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
158 JHN 1 36 ntaw figs-explicit ἴδε, ὁ Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 The phrase lamb of God refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Behold, Jesus, the Lamb of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
159 JHN 1 36 t2yx figs-metaphor ἴδε 1 John records John the Baptist using the term **Behold** to call his audience’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
160 JHN 1 36 ap5m figs-metaphor Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Lamb of God Here, John uses a metaphor to refer to Jesus as God’s perfect sacrifice. (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lamb) See how you translated this same phrase in [John 1:29](../01/29.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
161 JHN 1 37 v5be writing-pronouns ἤκουσαν οἱ δύο μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤκουσαν οἱ δύο μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** and **him** refer to John the Baptist. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John’s two disciples heard him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
162 JHN 1 38 a8bg writing-pronouns θεασάμενος αὐτοὺς 1 Here, **them** refers to the two disciples John the Baptist who were mentioned in the previous verse. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “having seen John’s two disciples” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
163 JHN 1 38 hlee figs-ellipsis θεασάμενος αὐτοὺς ἀκολουθοῦντας 1 Here, John is leaving out a word that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply this word from the context. Alternate translation: “having seen them following him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
164 JHN 1 38 qxej λέγει αὐτοῖς 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said to them”
172 JHN 1 40 f6b9 figs-explicit Ἰωάννου 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
173 JHN 1 40 q0bp translate-names Ἀνδρέας…Σίμωνος Πέτρου 1 These are names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
174 JHN 1 40 jmyp Σίμωνος Πέτρου 1 **Simon** was also called **Peter** by Jesus, as recorded in verse [42](../01/42.md). Alternate translation: “Simon, who is also called Peter”
175 JHN 1 41 xpi4 writing-pronouns οὗτος οὗτος 1 **This one** here refers to Andrew, who was mentioned in the previous verse. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Andrew” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
176 JHN 1 41 vfsj εὑρίσκει…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “found … said”
177 JHN 1 41 roca translate-names Σίμωνα 1 These is the name of a man, Andrew’s brother. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
178 JHN 1 41 rxox figs-activepassive ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον, Χριστός 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the meaning of the passive verbal form **is translated** with an active form. Alternate translation: “which means Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
179 JHN 1 41 ek1a figs-explicit ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον, Χριστός 1 John assumes that his readers will know that he is saying what the title Messiah means when translated from the Aramaic language into Greek. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “which is ‘Christ’ in Greek” or “which is the Aramaic word for Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
180 JHN 1 42 xwc7 writing-pronouns ἤγαγεν αὐτὸν 1 **He** here refers to Andrew and **him** refers to Simon. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Andrew brought Simon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
181 JHN 1 42 f5wo writing-pronouns writing-quotations ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ, ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν 1 Consider natural ways of introducing direct quotations in your language. Alternate translation: “Jesus looked at him, and he said” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-quotations]])
182 JHN 1 42 k2dx translate-names υἱὸς Ἰωάννου 1 son of John **John** is the name of a man. This is neither John the Baptist nor John the Apostle. **John** was a common name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
183 JHN 1 42 rstd figs-activepassive σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form and indicate who will do the action. Alternate translation: “People will call you Cephas” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
184 JHN 1 42 pv4e figs-explicit Κηφᾶς 1 **Cephas** is a word in the Aramaic language that means “rock.” Here, Jesus uses the word as a name for Simon. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Cephas, which means ‘rock’ in Aramaic” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
201 JHN 1 47 ka53 figs-metaphor ἴδε 1 John records Jesus using the term **Behold** to call his audience’s attention to what he is about to say. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
202 JHN 1 47 ys8d figs-litotes ἐν ᾧ δόλος οὐκ ἔστιν 1 in whom is no deceit Here, Jesus uses a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “a completely truthful man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])
203 JHN 1 48 am5y λέγει αὐτῷ Ναθαναήλ 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “Nathaniel said to him”
204 JHN 1 48 d1on figs-explicit πρὸ τοῦ σε Φίλιππον φωνῆσαι, ὄντα ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν, εἶδόν σε 1 Nathaniel’s reaction to this statement in the next verse indicates that this is a display of supernatural knowledge. It appears that Jesus knew something about Nathaniel that no one else could have known. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this in some way. Alternate translation: “Before Philip called you, being completely alone under the fig tree, I saw you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) Nathaniel’s reaction to this statement in the next verse indicates that this is a display of supernatural knowledge. It appears that Jesus knew something about Nathaniel that no one else could have known. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could indicate this in some way. Alternate translation: “Before Philip called you, being completely alone under the fig tree, I saw you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
205 JHN 1 48 a0ym figs-explicit ὄντα ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν 1 The subject of this clause is Philip, not Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “while you were under the fig tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
206 JHN 1 49 l666 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Son of God This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
207 JHN 1 50 d53b grammar-connect-logic-result ὅτι εἶπόν σοι, ὅτι εἶδόν σε ὑποκάτω τῆς συκῆς, πιστεύεις? 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the result for the reason that the first phrase describes. Alternate translation: “Do you believe because I said to you that I saw you underneath the fig tree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
229 JHN 2 5 d5wy λέγει ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “His mother said”
230 JHN 2 6 y7p3 translate-bvolume μετρητὰς δύο ἢ τρεῖς 1 two to three metretes A **metretes** was equivalent to about 40 liters. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could express the quantity in modern measurements. Alternatively, to help your readers recognize that the biblical writings come from long ago when people used different measurements, you could express the amount using the ancient measurement, the metrete, and explain the equivalent in modern measurements in a footnote. Alternate translation: “80 to 120 liters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bvolume]])
231 JHN 2 7 hv80 λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “Jesus said to them”
232 JHN 2 7 byc0 writing-pronouns αὐτοῖς αὐτοῖς 1 Here, **them** refers to the servants at the wedding. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to the servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
233 JHN 2 7 vt75 ἕως ἄνω 1 to the brim The **brim** is the top edge of the water pot. Alternate translation: “to the very top”
234 JHN 2 8 xbw3 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
235 JHN 2 8 y52q writing-pronouns αὐτοῖς…οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν 1 Here, **them** and **they** refer to the servants at the wedding. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to the servants … And the servants carried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
242 JHN 2 10 mh3s figs-explicit καὶ ὅταν μεθυσθῶσιν τὸν ἐλάσσω 1 drunk This means that guests were given the cheaper wine, which is of lower quality and inferior flavor, after their senses had been dulled by drinking too much alcohol and were thus unable to tell that it was inferior wine. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “and the cheaper wine when they have become drunk and unable to discern the quality of the wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
243 JHN 2 11 sq53 0 Connecting Statement: This verse is a comment about the events described in [2:1–10](../02/01.md). John wrote much about the miraculous signs Jesus did to prove that what Jesus said about himself was true. This is the first of those miracles. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sign]])
244 JHN 2 11 r5kb translate-names Κανὰ 1 Cana **Cana** is the name of a town in the region of Galilee. See how you translated this in verse [1](../02/01.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
245 JHN 2 11 z3tk figs-abstractnouns ἐφανέρωσεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ 1 revealed his glory Here, **glory** refers to the mighty power of Jesus that enabled him to do miracles. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this abstract noun with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “revealed his glorious power” Here, **glory** refers to the mighty power of Jesus that enabled him to do miracles. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this abstract noun with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “revealed his glorious power” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
246 JHN 2 12 gw2f writing-newevent μετὰ τοῦτο 1 **After this** introduces a new event that happened some time after the events the story has just related. The story does not say how long after those events this new event happened. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “Some time afterward” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
247 JHN 2 12 mmkj writing-pronouns μετὰ τοῦτο 1 Here, **this** refers to the what took place in Cana that was described in [2:1–11](../02/01.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “After Jesus’ first sign in Cana” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
248 JHN 2 12 ay2r writing-pronouns αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus and his mother” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
250 JHN 2 12 x3f7 translate-names Καφαρναοὺμ 1 his brothers **Capernaum** is the name of a town in the region of Galilee. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
251 JHN 2 13 xr29 ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα 1 went up to Jerusalem This indicates that Jesus went from a lower place to a higher place. Jerusalem is built on a hill.
252 JHN 2 14 sa75 figs-explicit τοὺς πωλοῦντας βόας καὶ πρόβατα καὶ περιστερὰς 1 sellers of oxen and sheep and pigeons These animals were used for sacrifices in the temple. People were buying animals in the temple courtyard in order to sacrifice them to God. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “those selling oxen and sheep and pigeons for people to sacrifice to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
253 JHN 2 14 qu9k figs-explicit κερματιστὰς 1 money changers Jewish authorities required people who wanted to buy animals for sacrifices in the temple to exchange their money for special money from the **money changers**. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “people who exchanged money for special money approved for temple use” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) Jewish authorities required people who wanted to buy animals for sacrifices in the temple to exchange their money for special money from the **money changers**. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “people who exchanged money for special money approved for temple use” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
254 JHN 2 14 i8lv figs-explicit καθημένους 1 were sitting there The next verse makes it clear that these people are in the temple courtyard. That area was intended for worship and not for commerce. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “sitting in the temple courtyard that was intended for worship” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
255 JHN 2 15 x6et grammar-connect-logic-result καὶ 1 So Here John is telling his readers what Jesus did as a result of the commerce he saw going on in the temple. Alternate translation: “Consequently” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
256 JHN 2 15 nn6y writing-pronouns πάντας πάντας 1 Here, **them all** refers to the people selling the animals and the money changers. If if would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “all the sellers and money changers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
257 JHN 2 16 h6qy figs-explicit τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου οἶκον ἐμπορίου 1 the house of my Father Jesus uses **the house of my Father** to refer to the temple. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the house of my Father, which is the temple, a house of commerce” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
258 JHN 2 16 grg3 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τοῦ πατρός μου 1 my Father **Father** is an important title that Jesus uses for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
259 JHN 2 17 c2pu figs-activepassive γεγραμμένον ἐστίν 1 it was written If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form. Alternate translation: “someone had written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
267 JHN 2 20 qb4x figs-rquestion σὺ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερεῖς αὐτόν? 1 Here, the Jewish leaders are using the question form for emphasis. They think that Jesus wants to tear down the temple and rebuild it in three days. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate his words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “you cannot possibly rebuild it in three days!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
268 JHN 2 21 g6jx writing-endofstory 0 General Information: Verses 21 and 22 are a comment John made about the story that was described in [2:13–20](../02/13.md). These verses tell about something that happened later. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-endofstory]])
269 JHN 2 21 b440 writing-pronouns ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔλεγεν 1 Here, **that one** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “But Jesus was speaking” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
270 JHN 2 22 oznm grammar-connect-logic-result οὖν οὖν 1 **Therefore** indicates that in this verse John is giving the result of Jesus making the statement in [2:19](../02/19.md). Alternate translation: “Because Jesus said this about his body” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
271 JHN 2 22 jejg figs-activepassive ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form and say who did the action. Alternate translation: “God raised him from the dead” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
272 JHN 2 22 nxug ἐμνήσθησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, John is speaking about something that happened long after the event described in the previous verses. See the discussion of this in the General Notes to this chapter.
273 JHN 2 22 ewi1 figs-explicit τοῦτο…τῷ λόγῳ ὃν εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς 1 this statement Here, **this** and **the word** refer back to Jesus’ statement in [2:19](../02/19.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “this statement about his body … the word about his body that Jesus had spoken” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
282 JHN 2 24 f2n7 figs-gendernotations τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν πάντας 1 Here, the word **men** represents people in general. Alternate translation: “he knew all people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
283 JHN 2 25 et23 figs-gendernotations περὶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου…τί ἦν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ 1 about man, for he knew what was in man Here, both instances of the word **man** represent people in general. Alternate translation: “about mankind … what was in mankind” or “about people … what was in people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
284 JHN 2 25 lxro figs-explicit τί ἦν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ 1 This refers to the inner thoughts and desires of people, which some cultures refer to as “the heart.” (See the discussion of this in the General Notes to this chapter.) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what people think” or “the thoughts and desires people have” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
285 JHN 3 intro i7a7 0 # John 3 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus teaches Nicodemus about being born again (3:1–21)<br>2. John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (3:22–36)<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong, and to begin to obey God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### Born again<br><br>A major idea in this chapter is the spiritual new birth that Jesus says is necessary in order for someone to enter the kingdom of God [3:3–8](../03/03.md). Jesus also uses the following expressions to refer to being born again: “born from water and the Spirit” ([3:4](../03/05.md)) and “born from the Spirit” ([3:6, 8](../03/06.md)). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]])<br><br>## Possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([3:13](../03/13.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the General Introduction to the Gospel of John. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]]) # John 3 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus teaches Nicodemus about being born again (3:1–21)<br>2. John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (3:22–36)<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Light and Darkness<br><br>The Bible often speaks of unrighteous people, people who do not do what pleases God, as if they were walking around in darkness. It speaks of light as if it were what enables those sinful people to become righteous, to understand what they are doing wrong, and to begin to obey God. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>### Born again<br><br>A major idea in this chapter is the spiritual new birth that Jesus says is necessary in order for someone to enter the kingdom of God [3:3–8](../03/03.md). Jesus also uses the following expressions to refer to being born again: “born from water and the Spirit” ([3:4](../03/04.md)) and “born from the Spirit” ([3:6,8](../03/06.md)). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]])<br><br>## Possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “Son of Man”<br><br>Jesus refers to himself as the “Son of Man” in this chapter ([3:13](../03/13.md)). Your language may not allow people to speak of themselves as if they were speaking about someone else. See the discussion of this phrase in Part 3 of the General Introduction to the Gospel of John. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sonofman]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
286 JHN 3 1 yl6f writing-newevent δὲ 1 **Now** here introduces a new event that happened some time after the events the story has just related in the previous chapter. The story does not say how long after those events this new event happened. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “Some time later” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
287 JHN 3 1 s9p9 writing-participants ἦν…ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, 1 Now Here, **there was a man** is used to introduce Nicodemus as a new character in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. The phrase **from the Pharisees** identifies him as member of a strict Jewish religious sect. Alternate translation: “there was a man named Nicodemus, who was a member of a strict Jewish religious group” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])
288 JHN 3 1 fz6f figs-explicit ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων 1 This phrase means that Nicodemus was a member of the Jewish religious leadership, specifically the Jewish council called the Sanhedrin which made decisions about Jewish law. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/council]]) If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “a member of the Jewish ruling council” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
290 JHN 3 2 n84a writing-pronouns πρὸς αὐτὸν 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
291 JHN 3 2 skq8 figs-exclusive οἴδαμεν 1 we know Here, **we** is exclusive. Nicodemus is only referring to himself and the other members of the Jewish council. Your language may require you to mark this form. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
292 JHN 3 2 hxcr figs-metaphor ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ Θεὸς μετ’ αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **with him** is used figuratively to refer to God's help. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “without God's help” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
293 JHN 3 3 nz18 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in [1:51](../01/51.md).
294 JHN 3 3 svpx figs-metaphor γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν 1 The phrase **born again** is a metaphor that refers to spiritual rebirth. See the discussion of this expression in the General Notes to this chapter. Because this is an important biblical metaphor, you should retain this metaphor in your translation if possible. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
295 JHN 3 3 t8pt γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν 1 born again Here, the word translated **again** could also be translated as “from above.” It could refer to: (1) spiritual rebirth as a second birth that takes place in addition to physical birth. Alternate translation, as in the ULT: “would be born again” (2) spiritual rebirth as a birth that is caused by God, in which case “above” is a euphemism for God. Alternate translation: “would be born from above” (3) spiritual rebirth as both a second birth and a birth caused by God. See the discussion of John’s use of double meaning in Part 3 of the Introduction to this book. Alternate translation: “would be born again by God”
296 JHN 3 3 i0ew figs-metaphor ἰδεῖν τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Here, **see** is used figuratively to refer to experiencing an event or state. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “to experience the kingdom of God” or “to participate in the kingdom of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
298 JHN 3 4 z64b λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν 1 a second time To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said to him”
299 JHN 3 4 wa1p figs-rquestion πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι, γέρων ὤν? 1 How can a man be born when he is old? Nicodemus uses this question to emphasize that this cannot happen. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “A man certainly cannot be born again when he is old!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
300 JHN 3 4 yk9d figs-rquestion μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι? 1 He cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born, can he? Nicodemus uses this question to emphasize his belief that a second birth is impossible. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “He surely cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
301 JHN 3 5 il52 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this is in [3:3](../03/03.md).
302 JHN 3 5 n6d7 figs-metaphor γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ Πνεύματος 1 born of water and the Spirit The phrase **born from water and Spirit** could refer to: (1) spiritual birth that includes cleansing from sin and spiritual transformation by the Holy Spirit. In this case, Jesus’ words would be understood as a reference to Ezekiel 36:25–27, which Nicodemus would have been familiar with. Alternate translation: “would be born again by cleansing and the Spirit.” (2) physical birth and spiritual birth. Alternate translation: “would be born physically and spiritually” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
303 JHN 3 5 e1dj figs-metaphor εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Here, **enter into** is used figuratively to refer to experiencing something. The meaning is similar to the meaning of “see” in [3:3](../03/03.md). Alternate translation: “to experience the kingdom of God” or “to participate in the kingdom of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
304 JHN 3 5 m37g figs-metaphor τὴν Βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 enter into the kingdom of God This phrase is a metaphor for the rule of God. See how you translated this in [3:3](../03/03.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
305 JHN 3 6 gswx figs-activepassive τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this in an active form. Alternate translation: “What flesh has given birth to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
306 JHN 3 6 rru5 figs-metonymy τῆς σαρκὸς, σάρξ ἐστιν 1 Here, Jesus is describing human beings figuratively by referring to something associated with them, the **flesh** they are made of. The word **flesh** here does not refer to sinful human nature as it does in other verses in the New Testament. Alternate translation: “a human being is a human being” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
307 JHN 3 6 v3g8 figs-explicit τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ Πνεύματος 1 Here, **the Spirit** refers to the Holy Spirit, who enables people to be born again. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “what has been born again by means of the Holy Spirit” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
308 JHN 3 6 lfg1 figs-explicit πνεῦμά πνεῦμά 1 Here, **spirit** refers to the new spiritual nature that God gives a person when they are born again. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/bornagain]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “a new spiritual nature” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
309 JHN 3 7 t2sl figs-metaphor γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν 1 See how you translated this in [3:3](../03/03.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
310 JHN 3 8 p87y figs-metaphor τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει, πνεῖ 1 The wind blows wherever it wishes The word translated **wind** can also mean spirit. Jesus here speaks figuratively of the Holy Spirit, as if he is **wind**. Just like people in Jesus’ time could not understand how the **wind** blew but could observe the effects of the wind, people cannot understand how the Holy Spirit works but can witness the effects of his work. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with a simile. Alternate translation: “The Holy Spirit is like the wind that blows wherever it wants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
311 JHN 3 8 mxjc οὕτως ἐστὶν 1 This phrase connects this sentence with the previous sentence. In the same way that people cannot understand the wind but recognize its effects, people who are not born from the Spirit cannot understand those who are born from the Spirit but can recognize the effects of the new birth. Alternative translation: “So it is with” or “So it happens with”
317 JHN 3 10 gbu5 figs-you σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος…οὐ γινώσκεις 1 Are you a teacher … yet you do not understand The word **you** is singular and refers to Nicodemus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Are you, Nicodemus, the teacher … you do not understand” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
318 JHN 3 10 ljiy figs-explicit ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ 1 Here, **the teacher** indicates that Nicodemus was recognized as a master teacher and religious authority in the land of Israel. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the renowned religious teacher in Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
319 JHN 3 10 vx3u writing-pronouns ταῦτα 1 Here, **these things** refers to all that Jesus had spoken in [3:3–8](../03/03.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. See how you translated this phrase is the previous verse. Alternate translation: “these things you have just told me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
320 JHN 3 11 jt1f ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω σοι 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this is in [3:3](../03/03.md).
321 JHN 3 11 upi7 figs-exclusive ὃ οἴδαμεν λαλοῦμεν…τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν 1 we speak When Jesus said **we** and **our** in this verse, he was not including Nicodemus. Jesus used these pronouns as a contrast to Nicodemus saying **we** in [3:2](../03/02.md). While Nicodemus used **we** to refer to him and the other Jewish religious leaders, Jesus could have been referring to: (1) himself and his disciples. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “my disciples and I speak what we know … our testimony” (2) himself and the other members of the Godhead. Alternate translation: “the Father, Spirit, and I speak what we know … our testimony” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
322 JHN 3 11 j1k1 figs-you οὐ λαμβάνετε 1 you do not accept The word **you** is plural and could refer to: (1) the Jewish people in general. Alternate translation: “you Jews” (2) Nicodemus and his fellow Jewish leaders. Alternate translation: “you Jewish leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
323 JHN 3 12 y4e9 grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν 1 John records Jesus speaking as if this were a hypothetical possibility, but he means that it is actually true. If your language does not state something as a condition if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Jesus is saying is not certain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “Since I told you earthly things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
330 JHN 3 14 tb3s figs-simile καὶ καθὼς Μωϋσῆς ὕψωσεν τὸν ὄφιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ 1 Just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up In this verse, John records Jesus comparing his crucifixion to Moses lifting up a bronze snake. John assumes that his readers will know that Jesus is referring to a story recorded in the Old Testament book of Numbers. In that story, the Israelites complained against God and God punished them by sending poisonous snakes to kill them. God then told Moses to make a bronze snake and raise it up on a pole so that whoever was bitten by one of the poisonous snakes and looked at the bronze snake would not die. You could indicate this explicitly if it would be helpful to your readers, particularly if they would not know the story. Alternate translation: “And just as Moses lifted up the bronze serpent on a pole when the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])<br>
331 JHN 3 14 f9yi figs-activepassive ὑψωθῆναι δεῖ τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου 1 in the wilderness If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form and you could indicate who will do the action. Alternate translation: “it is necessary for people to lift up the Son of Man” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
332 JHN 3 14 krir figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τοῦ Ἀνθρώπου 1 See how you translated this phrase in the previous verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
333 JHN 3 15 e9ls grammar-connect-logic-goal ἵνα ἵνα 1 Here, **so that** indicates that Jesus is stating the purpose for which he would be crucified. In your translation, follow the conventions of your language for purpose clauses. Alternate translation (without a comma preceding): “in order that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])
334 JHN 3 16 vg6z grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 *For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous two verses is true. Alternate translation: “This is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]]) **For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous two verses is true. Alternate translation: “This is true because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
335 JHN 3 16 h4ht οὕτως…ἠγάπησεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν κόσμον 1 Here, **so** could refer to: (1) the manner in which God loved the world. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “God loved the world in this way” (2) the degree to which God loved the world. Alternate translation: “God loved the world so much” (3) both the manner in which and the degree to which God loved the world. For this interpretation, see the discussion of John’s use of double meaning in Part 3 of the Introduction to this book. Alternate translation: “in this way God loved the world so much”
336 JHN 3 16 uxc2 figs-metonymy τὸν κόσμον 1 God so loved the world Here, **world** refers to the people who live in it. Alternate translation: “the people in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
337 JHN 3 16 jen2 grammar-connect-logic-result ὥστε 1 loved Here, **that** introduces the result of what the previous clause stated. Alternate translation: “as a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
338 JHN 3 16 fqk7 figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 Here, **One and Only Son** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “his One and Only Son, Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
339 JHN 3 16 z8at figs-explicit τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 Here and throughout John’s Gospel, the phrase **One and Only** is a title for Jesus that could refer to: (1) Jesus being unique as the only member of his kind. Alternate translation: “his Unique Son” (2) Jesus being the only child of his Father. Alternate translation: “his only begotten Son” Here and throughout John’s Gospel, the phrase **One and Only** is a title for Jesus that could refer to: (1) Jesus being unique as the only member of his kind. Alternate translation: “his Unique Son” (2) Jesus being the only child of his Father. Alternate translation: “his only begotten Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
340 JHN 3 16 qpc9 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τὸν Υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ 1 This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
341 JHN 3 16 xryx writing-pronouns εἰς αὐτὸν 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
342 JHN 3 17 k8rf grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ γὰρ 1 *For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous verse is true. Alternate translation: “God gave his One and Only Son because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]]) **For** here indicates that Jesus is giving a reason why the statement in the previous verse is true. Alternate translation: “God gave his One and Only Son because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
343 JHN 3 17 b7vf figs-parallelism οὐ γὰρ ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν Υἱὸν εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ἵνα κρίνῃ τὸν κόσμον, ἀλλ’ ἵνα σωθῇ ὁ κόσμος δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 For God did not send the Son into the world in order to condemn the world, but in order to save the world through him These two clauses mean nearly the same thing, said twice for emphasis, first in the negative and then in the positive. Use whatever form your language uses for emphasis. Alternate translation: “For God truly sent his Son into the world so that he might save it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
344 JHN 3 17 haut guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τὸν Υἱὸν 1 This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
345 JHN 3 17 mjjg figs-123person τὸν Υἱὸν…δι’ αὐτοῦ 1 Jesus is speaking about himself in the third person. If this is confusing in your language, you can use the first person. Alternate translation: “me … through me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
361 JHN 3 19 gh4i figs-123person τὸ φῶς ἐλήλυθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον…ἢ τὸ φῶς 1 If your language does not allow people to speak of themselves in the third person, you may need to specify who **the light** is. Alternate translation: “I, the light, have come into the world … than me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
362 JHN 3 19 fvvg figs-gendernotations οἱ ἄνθρωποι 1 Although the term **men** is masculine, John records Jesus using the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
363 JHN 3 19 h4nk figs-metaphor ἠγάπησαν οἱ ἄνθρωποι…τὸ σκότος 1 men loved the darkness Here, **darkness** is a metaphor for what is false and evil. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. See the discussion of light and darkness in the General Notes for chapter 1. Alternate translation: “men loved evil” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
364 JHN 3 20 velv grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates another reason why men love the darkness, as stated in the previous verse. People who do evil things hate the light. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “This is because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
365 JHN 3 20 bus8 πᾶς…ὁ φαῦλα πράσσων 1 This phrase refers to someone who habitually does evil things. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “everyone who habitually does evil”
366 JHN 3 20 cg3i figs-metaphor τὸ φῶς, καὶ…πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 Here, **the light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. See how you translated this word in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God, and … to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
367 JHN 3 20 s49o figs-123person τὸ φῶς, καὶ…πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 If your language does not allow people to speak of themselves in the third person, you may need to specify who **the light** is. Alternate translation: “me, the light, and … to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
368 JHN 3 20 u25p figs-activepassive ἵνα μὴ ἐλεγχθῇ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ 1 so that his deeds will not be exposed If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form and say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “so that the light might not expose his deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
369 JHN 3 21 q77t ὁ…ποιῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν 1 This phrase refers to someone who habitually does true things. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “everyone who habitually does the truth”
370 JHN 3 21 kpb9 figs-abstractnouns ὁ…ποιῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **truth** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the one who does true things” or “the one who does what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **truth** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “the one who does true things” or “the one who does what is true” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
371 JHN 3 21 ud15 figs-metaphor ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 Here, **the light** is a metaphor for the revelation of God’s truth and goodness in Jesus. See how you translated this word in the previous two verses. Alternate translation: “comes to Jesus, who revealed the true and good things of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
372 JHN 3 21 k8wr figs-123person ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸ φῶς 1 If your language does not allow people to speak of themselves in the third person, you may need to specify who **the light** is. See how you translated this expression in the previous two verses. Alternate translation: “comes to me, the light” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
373 JHN 3 21 l7ax figs-activepassive φανερωθῇ αὐτοῦ τὰ ἔργα 1 plainly seen that his deeds If it would be clearer in your language, you could state this in an active form and say who would do the action. Alternate translation: “the light might reveal his deeds” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
374 JHN 3 21 de2j ὅτι ἐν Θεῷ ἐστιν εἰργασμένα 1 This clause indicates what the light will reveal about the deeds of those who come to the light. The phrase **in God** indicates that the works these people have done were done with God’s help and not by their own strength or effort. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “that they have been done with God’s help”
375 JHN 3 22 uy4j grammar-connect-time-sequential μετὰ ταῦτα 1 After this This phrase indicates that what follows occurred after Jesus had spoken with Nicodemus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “After this conversation with Nicodemus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
376 JHN 3 23 m4yg translate-names figs-explicit ὁ Ἰωάννης 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist]]) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “John the Baptist” or “John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
377 JHN 3 23 x1ge translate-names Αἰνὼν 1 Aenon This is the name of a town near the Jordan River close to Samaria. **Aenon** is the Aramaic word for springs of water, which explains John’s comment in the next clause about there being much water there. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
378 JHN 3 23 e5v2 translate-names τοῦ Σαλείμ 1 Salim This is the name of a town near the Jordan River close to Samaria. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
379 JHN 3 23 ukz2 figs-activepassive ἐβαπτίζοντο 1 were being baptized If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in an active form and say who was doing the action. Alternate translation: “John was baptizing them” or “he was baptizing them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
381 JHN 3 25 fuq2 figs-abstractnouns ἐγένετο οὖν ζήτησις ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν Ἰωάννου 1 a dispute If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **dispute** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “Then the disciples of John began arguing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
382 JHN 3 25 ft8r figs-activepassive ἐγένετο οὖν ζήτησις ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν Ἰωάννου μετὰ Ἰουδαίου 1 Then there arose a dispute between some of John’s disciples and a Jew If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in an active form. Alternate translation: “Then John’s disciples and a Jew began to dispute” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
383 JHN 3 25 qzq7 figs-explicit Ἰωάννου 1 Here, John refers to Jesus’ cousin, often referred to as “John the Baptist.” (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/johnthebaptist]]) It does not refer to the Apostle John who wrote this Gospel. If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “of John the Baptist” or “of John the Immerser” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
384 JHN 3 26 uuvj writing-pronouns ἦλθον ἦλθον 1 Here, **they** refers to John the Baptist’s disciples who were disputing in the previous verse. If this would be clearer in your language, you could say it explicitly. Alternate translation: “John’s disciples went” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
385 JHN 3 26 cxy7 figs-explicit ὃς ἦν μετὰ σοῦ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, ᾧ σὺ μεμαρτύρηκας 1 This phrase refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, who was with you beyond the Jordan, about whom you had testified” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
386 JHN 3 26 jr28 figs-metaphor ἴδε, οὗτος βαπτίζει 1 you have testified, look, he is baptizing, John the Baptist’s disciples used the term **behold** to call John’s attention to what Jesus was doing. Your language may have a similar expression that you can use here. Alternate translation: “look! He is baptizing” or “see how he is baptizing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
387 JHN 3 26 j8di figs-hyperbole πάντες ἔρχονται πρὸς αὐτόν 1 Here John the Baptist’s disciples use the word **all** as a generalization for emphasis. Alternate translation: “it seems like everyone is going to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
413 JHN 3 33 ygba writing-pronouns αὐτοῦ τὴν μαρτυρίαν 1 Here, **his** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ testimony” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
414 JHN 3 33 g5x4 translate-unknown ἐσφράγισεν 1 has confirmed This expression refers to placing a seal on a document in order to certify that what is written in the document is true. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/seal]]) Here, this meaning is extended to refer to certifying that God is true. If your readers would not be familiar with this practice of sealing documents, you could use a general expression. Alternate translation: “has certified” or “has attested” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
415 JHN 3 34 rr83 figs-explicit ὃν…ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς 1 For the one whom God has sent This phrase refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus, whom God has sent” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
416 JHN 3 34 p9wt grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ γὰρ 2 **For** here indicates that what follows is the reason why the previous sentence is true. We know that Jesus speaks the words of God because God has given him the Holy Spirit. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “We know this because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]]) **For** here indicates that what follows is the reason why the previous sentence is true. We know that Jesus speaks the words of God because God has given him the Holy Spirit. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “We know this because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
417 JHN 3 34 bnx8 writing-pronouns οὐ…δίδωσιν 1 For he does not give the Spirit by measure Here, **he** refers to God. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “God does not give” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
418 JHN 3 34 hmky figs-ellipsis οὐ…ἐκ μέτρου δίδωσιν τὸ Πνεῦμα 1 John is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context, especially this discussion of God giving to his Son in the next verse. Alternate translation: “he does not give the Spirit to him by measure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
419 JHN 3 34 cdia figs-litotes οὐ…ἐκ μέτρου δίδωσιν τὸ Πνεῦμα 1 This clause is a figure of speech that expresses a strong positive meaning by using a negative word together with a word that is the opposite of the intended meaning. If this is confusing in your language, you can express the meaning positively. Alternate translation: “he certainly gives the Spirit without measure” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-litotes]])
426 JHN 3 36 ni86 figs-metaphor οὐκ ὄψεται ζωήν 1 Here, **see** is used metaphorically to refer to experiencing or participating in something. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “will not experience life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
427 JHN 3 36 pzf5 figs-explicit οὐκ ὄψεται ζωήν 1 Here, **life** refers to eternal life, as indicated by the previous clause. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “will not see eternal life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
428 JHN 3 36 zy7u figs-abstractnouns ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ μένει ἐπ’ αὐτόν 1 the wrath of God stays on him If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the abstract noun **wrath** with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “God will continue to be angry against him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
429 JHN 4 intro j1hv 0 # John 4 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus leaves Judea for Galilee (4:1–6)<br>2. Jesus meets a Samaritan woman (4:7–14)<br>3. Jesus teaches the Samaritan woman about worship (4:15–26)<br>4. Jesus teaches his disciples about evangelism (4:27–38)<br>5. Jesus’ ministry in Samaria (4:39–42)<br>6. Jesus goes to Galilee (4:43–45)<br>7. Jesus’ second sign: he heals an official’s son (4:46–54)<br><br>[John 4:7–38](../04/04.md) forms one story centered on the teaching of Jesus as the “living water” who gives eternal life to all who believe in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “It was necessary for him to pass through Samaria”<br><br>Jews avoided traveling through the region of Samaria because Jews and Samaritans were longtime enemies who hated each other. So Jesus did what most Jews did not want to do. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/samaria]])<br><br>### “an hour is coming”<br><br>Jesus used these words to begin prophecies about events that could be shorter or longer than sixty minutes. In such instances, “hour” refers to a point in time when something happens, not a set length of time. For example, “an hour … when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth” refers to the point in time when people begin to do so ([4:23](../04/23.md)).<br><br>### The proper place of worship<br><br>Long before Jesus came to earth, the Samaritan people had broken the law of Moses by setting up their own temple on Mount Gerizim in their land ([4:20](../04/20.md)). Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman that in the near future it would no longer be important where people worshiped ([4:21–24](../04/21.md)).<br><br>### Harvest<br><br>Harvest refers to the time when people go out to get the food they have planted so they can bring it to their houses and eat it. Jesus used this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about Jesus so those people can be part of God’s kingdom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])<br><br>### “The Samaritan woman”<br><br>John probably told this story to show the difference between the Samaritan woman, who believed, and the Jews, who did not believe and later killed Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “in spirit and truth”<br><br>The people who truly know who God is and enjoy worshiping him for who the Bible says he is are the ones who truly please him. The place where they worship him is not important. # John 4 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>1. Jesus leaves Judea for Galilee (4:1–6)<br>2. Jesus meets a Samaritan woman (4:7–14)<br>3. Jesus teaches the Samaritan woman about worship (4:15–26)<br>4. Jesus teaches his disciples about evangelism (4:27–38)<br>5. Jesus’ ministry in Samaria (4:39–42)<br>6. Jesus goes to Galilee (4:43–45)<br>7. Jesus’ second sign: he heals an official’s son (4:46–54)<br><br>[John 4:7–38](../04/07.md) forms one story centered on the teaching of Jesus as the “living water” who gives eternal life to all who believe in him. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### “It was necessary for him to pass through Samaria”<br><br>Jews avoided traveling through the region of Samaria because Jews and Samaritans were longtime enemies who hated each other. So Jesus did what most Jews did not want to do. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/names/samaria]])<br><br>### “an hour is coming”<br><br>Jesus used these words to begin prophecies about events that could be shorter or longer than sixty minutes. In such instances, “hour” refers to a point in time when something happens, not a set length of time. For example, “an hour … when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth” refers to the point in time when people begin to do so ([4:23](../04/23.md)).<br><br>### The proper place of worship<br><br>Long before Jesus came to earth, the Samaritan people had broken the law of Moses by setting up their own temple on Mount Gerizim in their land ([4:20](../04/20.md)). Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman that in the near future it would no longer be important where people worshiped ([4:21–24](../04/21.md)).<br><br>### Harvest<br><br>Harvest refers to the time when people go out to get the food they have planted so they can bring it to their houses and eat it. Jesus used this as a metaphor to teach his followers that they need to go and tell other people about Jesus so those people can be part of God’s kingdom. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/faith]])<br><br>### “The Samaritan woman”<br><br>John probably told this story to show the difference between the Samaritan woman, who believed, and the Jews, who did not believe and later killed Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/believe]])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### “in spirit and truth”<br><br>The people who truly know who God is and enjoy worshiping him for who the Bible says he is are the ones who truly please him. The place where they worship him is not important.
430 JHN 4 1 jum6 writing-background 0 General Information: John 4:1–6 gives the background to the next event, which is Jesus’ conversation with a Samaritan woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
431 JHN 4 1 ci4n 0 Connecting Statement: John 4:1–3 is one long sentence. It may be necessary in your language to divide this long sentence into several shorter sentences.
432 JHN 4 1 b1vc figs-infostructure ὡς οὖν ἔγνω ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤκουσαν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, ὅτι Ἰησοῦς πλείονας μαθητὰς ποιεῖ καὶ βαπτίζει ἢ Ἰωάννης 1 Now when Jesus knew that the Pharisees had heard that he was making and baptizing more disciples than John If it would be natural in your language, you could change the order of these phrases. Alternate translation: “Now Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John. When he knew that the Pharisees had heard that he was doing this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-infostructure]])
439 JHN 4 5 ukxr grammar-connect-time-sequential ἔρχεται οὖν 1 **Then** here indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event just described in verse [3](../04/03.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “After leaving Judea, he comes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
440 JHN 4 5 ff7t ἔρχεται 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he came”
441 JHN 4 5 vqjm translate-names Συχὰρ 1 This is the name of a place. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
442 JHN 4 6 bd8s figs-explicit ἐκεῖ ἐκεῖ 1 Here, **there** refers to the town of Sychar mentioned in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “there at Sychar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
443 JHN 4 6 vwdf grammar-connect-time-sequential ὁ οὖν Ἰησοῦς 1 **Then** here indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event just described in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “When Jesus came to Sychar” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
444 JHN 4 6 lovl grammar-connect-logic-result κεκοπιακὼς 1 This clause indicates the reason why Jesus sat by the well. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he had grown weary” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
445 JHN 4 6 mwi2 grammar-connect-logic-result ἐκ τῆς ὁδοιπορίας 1 This phrase indicates the reason why Jesus had grown weary. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because of the journey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
446 JHN 4 6 yjzo ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη 1 In this culture, people began counting the hours each day beginning around daybreak at six o’clock in the morning. Here, **the sixth hour** indicates a time in the middle of the day, when it would be the hottest. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this in the way the people of your culture reckon time. Alternate translation: “about 12:00 PM”
447 JHN 4 7 kswz ἔρχεται…λέγει ἔρχεται…λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “came … said”
448 JHN 4 7 g82d figs-imperative δός μοι πεῖν 1 Give me some water This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation: “Please give me to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])
449 JHN 4 7 urgd figs-ellipsis δός μοι πεῖν 1 Here, John records Jesus leaving out a word that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply the word from the context. Alternate translation: “Give me something to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
450 JHN 4 8 u29c grammar-connect-logic-result οἱ γὰρ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἀπεληλύθεισαν 1 For his disciples had gone This phrase indicates the reason why Jesus asked the woman for water. The disciples had gone away and brought the tools for drawing water with them, so that Jesus could not draw the water himself. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because his disciples had gone away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
458 JHN 4 10 oywu figs-123person τίς ἐστιν ὁ λέγων σοι…ᾔτησας αὐτὸν, καὶ ἔδωκεν 1 Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “who I am who is saying to you … would have asked me, and I would have given” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
459 JHN 4 10 ua0b figs-quotesinquotes ὁ λέγων σοι, δός μοι πεῖν, 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “who is asking you to give him a drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])
460 JHN 4 10 zub5 figs-metaphor ὕδωρ ζῶν 1 living water Jesus uses the metaphor **living water** to refer to the Holy Spirit who works in a person to save and transform them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly or with a simile. Alternate translation: “the Holy Spirit” or “the Holy Spirit, who is like living water” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
461 JHN 4 11 pf7q λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
462 JHN 4 11 mw2b κύριε 1 The Samaritan woman calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])
463 JHN 4 11 nwln τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ζῶν 1 The phrase **living water** usually refers to moving or flowing water, which is what the Samaritan woman means here. She did not understand Jesus’ metaphorical use of **living water** in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “the flowing water”
464 JHN 4 12 di9q figs-rquestion μὴ σὺ μείζων εἶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἰακώβ, ὃς ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν τὸ φρέαρ, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἔπιεν, καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ τὰ θρέμματα αὐτοῦ? 1 You are not greater, are you, than our father Jacob … cattle? The woman is using the question form for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate her words as a statement or an exclamation and communicate the emphasis in another way. Alternate translation: “You are certainly not greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well and drank from it himself, and his sons and his cattle!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
468 JHN 4 15 vzoy λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
469 JHN 4 15 iz1p κύριε 1 Sir The Samaritan woman calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])
470 JHN 4 15 hd9f ἀντλεῖν 1 draw water Here, **draw** refers to scooping water out of a well using a container that can hold water. Alternate translation: “get water” or “pull water up from the well”
471 JHN 4 16 ii7c λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “He said”
472 JHN 4 17 h5pt λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
473 JHN 4 17 bg94 figs-quotesinquotes καλῶς εἶπας, ὅτι ἄνδρα οὐκ ἔχω 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this so that there is not a quotation within a quotation. Alternate translation: “You have rightly said that you do not have a husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotesinquotes]])
474 JHN 4 18 zpl1 figs-explicit τοῦτο ἀληθὲς εἴρηκας 1 What you have said is true **This you have said** refers to the Samaritan woman’s statement in the previous verse that she did not have a husband. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “You have spoken the truth when you said you do not have a husband” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
475 JHN 4 19 tzs3 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
476 JHN 4 19 c2qi writing-pronouns αὐτῷ αὐτῷ 1 Here, **him** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
477 JHN 4 19 kfs1 κύριε 1 Sir The Samaritan woman calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])
478 JHN 4 19 za2w figs-metaphor θεωρῶ ὅτι προφήτης εἶ σύ 1 I see that you are a prophet Here, **see** is used figuratively to refer to understanding something. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “I understand that you are a prophet” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
479 JHN 4 20 hp3m figs-explicit ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ 1 Our fathers Here, **this mountain** refers to Mount Gerizim, the mountain where the Samaritans built their own temple. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “here on Mount Gerizim” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
493 JHN 4 23 fb51 ἐν πνεύματι 1 in spirit and truth Here, **spirit** could refer to: (1) the inner person, which is what a person thinks and feels. Alternate translation: “with their spirits” (2) the Holy Spirit. Alternate translation: “in the Holy Spirit”
494 JHN 4 23 utt7 figs-abstractnouns ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ 1 in … truth Here, **truth** refers to thinking correctly of what is true about God, which is revealed in the Bible. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in spirit and in accordance with God’s Word” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
495 JHN 4 24 pfdv ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ 1 See how you translated this phrase in the previous verse.
496 JHN 4 25 ip1u λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
497 JHN 4 25 lp44 figs-explicit ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός 1 I know that the Messiah … Christ **Christ** is the Greek translation of **Messiah**. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the one called Christ in the Greek language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
498 JHN 4 25 ek2f writing-pronouns ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐκεῖνος 1 Here, **he** and **that one** refer to the Messiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “When the Messiah may come, the Messiah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])<br>
499 JHN 4 25 u8nb figs-explicit ἐκεῖνος, ἀναγγελεῖ ἡμῖν ἅπαντα 1 he will explain everything to us The words **declare everything** imply all that the people need to know. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “he will tell us all that we need to know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
500 JHN 4 25 izgt figs-exclusive ἡμῖν 1 When the woman said “us,” she was including who she was speaking to, so languages that have inclusive and exclusive forms of “we” and “us” would use the inclusive form in this verse. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
501 JHN 4 26 lvgs λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
502 JHN 4 26 rbgo figs-123person ὁ λαλῶν σοι 1 Jesus is referring to himself in third person. If this is confusing in your language, you can use the first person form. Alternate translation: “I who am speaking to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
503 JHN 4 27 vk5j ἐπὶ τούτῳ 1 At that moment his disciples returned Alternate translation: “at the time he said this” or “just as Jesus was saying this”
504 JHN 4 27 p39j figs-explicit καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ὅτι μετὰ γυναικὸς ἐλάλει 1 Now they were wondering why he was speaking with a woman In the culture of that time, it was very unusual for a Jew to speak with a **woman** he did not know, especially if they were alone or if that woman was a Samaritan. If it would be helpful in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “and they were amazed that he was speaking alone with an unknown woman because people didn’t usually do that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
542 JHN 4 42 fpdj writing-pronouns οὗτός 1 Here, **this one** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “this man, Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
543 JHN 4 42 k4cz figs-metonymy κόσμου 1 world Here, **world** refers to everyone throughout the world who believes in Jesus. Alternate translation: “all the believers in the world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
544 JHN 4 43 n1mk writing-newevent μετὰ δὲ τὰς δύο ἡμέρας 1 This phrase introduces a new event that happened after the events the story has just related. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new event. Alternate translation: “After he had spent two days in Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
545 JHN 4 43 u2e7 writing-pronouns ἐξῆλθεν ἐξῆλθεν 1 Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus departed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
546 JHN 4 43 gj2f figs-explicit ἐκεῖθεν 1 from there Here, **there** could refer to: (1) the Samaritan city of Sychar. Alternate translation: “from Sychar” (2) the region of Samaria in general. Alternate translation: “from Samaria” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
547 JHN 4 44 ic94 grammar-connect-logic-result γὰρ 1 **For** here indicates that this verse provides one reason why Jesus wanted to go to Galilee. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “He went to Galilee because” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
548 JHN 4 44 t1li figs-rpronouns αὐτὸς γὰρ Ἰησοῦς ἐμαρτύρησεν 1 For Jesus himself declared The reflexive pronoun **himself** is added to emphasize that Jesus had **testified** or said this. You can translate this in your language in a way that will give emphasis to a person. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rpronouns]])
554 JHN 4 45 r65x figs-hyperbole πάντα ἑωρακότες 1 Here, **all** is an exaggeration that refers to the Galileans having seen many of Jesus’ miracles. If this is not clear in your language, you could use an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “having seen many of the things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
555 JHN 4 45 v9la figs-explicit ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ…εἰς τὴν ἑορτήν 1 at the festival Here, **the festival** refers the Passover festival, as indicated in [2:12–25](../02/12.md). If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “at the Passover festival … to the Passover” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
556 JHN 4 46 ffm3 grammar-connect-time-sequential οὖν 1 Now **Then** indicates that the events the story will now relate came after the event it has just described. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a fuller phrase. Alternate translation: “After Jesus entered Galilee and the Galileans welcomed him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
557 JHN 4 46 hg54 writing-pronouns ἦλθεν ἦλθεν 1 In this verse **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus came” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
558 JHN 4 46 w3dy translate-names τὴν Κανὰ…Καφαρναούμ 1 **Cana** is the name of a town and **Capernaum** is the name of a city. Both were in the region of Galilee. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
559 JHN 4 46 bp3w writing-participants καὶ ἦν τις βασιλικὸς 1 royal official This phrase introduces a new character in the story. Use the natural form in your language for introducing a new character. The expression “royal official” identifies this man as a someone who was in the service of the king. Since he is a new participant, if it would be helpful to your readers, you could call him something like “a man who was a government official who served the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])
560 JHN 4 47 brcf writing-pronouns οὗτος οὗτος 1 **He** here refers to the royal official. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “The official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
561 JHN 4 47 p2nv translate-names τῆς Ἰουδαίας…τὴν Γαλιλαίαν 1 These are two main regions in the land of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
562 JHN 4 47 eqga writing-pronouns ἤμελλεν ἤμελλεν 1 Here, **he** refers to the royal official’s son. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the official’s son was about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])<br>
563 JHN 4 48 u73r figs-doublenegatives ἐὰν μὴ σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα ἴδητε, οὐ μὴ πιστεύσητε 1 Unless you see signs and wonders, you will not believe This statement is a double negative. In some languages it is more natural to translate this statement in a positive form. Alternate translation: “Only if you see signs and wonders will you believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])
564 JHN 4 48 hlts figs-you ἴδητε…πιστεύσητε 1 The word **you** is plural in this verse. This means that Jesus was not only speaking to the royal official, but also to the other people who were there. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “you all would see … you all would … believe” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
565 JHN 4 48 n3ot figs-hendiadys σημεῖα καὶ τέρατα 1 This phrase expresses a single idea by using two words connected with **and**. The word **wonders** describes the character of Jesus’ miraculous **signs**. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this meaning with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “wonderful miraculous signs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])
566 JHN 4 49 ui6f λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”<br>
567 JHN 4 49 y3vi κύριε 1 The royal official calls Jesus **Sir** in order to show respect or politeness. See how you translated this word in [4:11](../04/11.md). (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/lord]])<br>
568 JHN 4 49 ycdt figs-imperative κατάβηθι κατάβηθι 1 This is an imperative, but it communicates a polite request rather than a command. Use a form in your language that communicates a polite request. It may be helpful to add an expression such as “please” to make this clear. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “please come down” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-imperative]])
569 JHN 4 50 n5mo λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
570 JHN 4 50 cbtv figs-explicit ὁ ἄνθρωπος 1 Here, **the man** refers to the royal official who was introduced in verse [46](../04/46.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “The royal official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
571 JHN 4 50 uwa3 figs-metonymy ἐπίστευσεν…τῷ λόγῳ 1 believed the word Here, **word** refers to all that Jesus said to the man. It does not refer to one specific word that Jesus said. Alternate translation: “believed the words” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
572 JHN 4 51 a5gw writing-pronouns αὐτοῦ 1 While In this verse **he**, **his**, and **him** refer to the royal official who was introduced in verse [46](../04/46.md). If it would be clearer to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the royal official” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
613 JHN 5 16 efg2 writing-background καὶ διὰ τοῦτο, ἐδίωκον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τὸν Ἰησοῦν, ὅτι ταῦτα ἐποίει ἐν Σαββάτῳ. 1 Now The writer uses the word **And** to show that the words this verse gives background information. Use the natural form in your language for expressing background information. Alternate translation: “Now the Jews began to persecute Jesus because he was doing these things on the Sabbath.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
614 JHN 5 16 ef9i writing-pronouns διὰ τοῦτο 1 Here, **this** refers to what the man whom Jesus had healed told the Jewish leaders. The Jewish leaders began to persecute Jesus because he had healed the man on the Sabbath, which was something they believed was against the law of Moses. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because Jesus had healed him on the Sabbath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
615 JHN 5 16 kup5 figs-synecdoche οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι 1 the Jews Here, **the Jews** is a synecdoche which represent the Jewish leaders. Alternate translation: “the Jewish authorities” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
616 JHN 5 16 acn0 figs-explicit ὅτι ταῦτα ἐποίει 1 This phrase indicates a second reason why the Jewish leaders began persecuting Jesus. Here, **these things** refers to Jesus healing people on the Sabbath. The plural **things** indicates that he healed on the Sabbath multiple times, not just on the occasion recorded in verses [5–9](../05/09.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he was doing these healings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) This phrase indicates a second reason why the Jewish leaders began persecuting Jesus. Here, **these things** refers to Jesus healing people on the Sabbath. The plural **things** indicates that he healed on the Sabbath multiple times, not just on the occasion recorded in verses [5–9](../05/05.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because he was doing these healings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
617 JHN 5 16 f69o ἐν Σαββάτῳ 1 Your language might use an indefinite article rather than the definite article here, since the synagogue ruler is not speaking of a specific Sabbath. Alternate translation: “on a Sabbath day”
618 JHN 5 17 ijd8 writing-pronouns ὁ δὲ ἀπεκρίνατο αὐτοῖς 1 is working Here, **he** refers to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “But Jesus replied to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
619 JHN 5 17 lq1v guidelines-sonofgodprinciples ὁ Πατήρ μου 1 My Father **Father** is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
641 JHN 5 22 b2l6 guidelines-sonofgodprinciples ὁ Πατὴρ…τῷ Υἱῷ 1 For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son **Father** and **Son** are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
642 JHN 5 22 sc4t figs-abstractnouns τὴν κρίσιν 1 Here, **judgment** refers to the legal authority to judge people as guilty or innocent. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this abstract noun with an equivalent expression. Alternate translation: “power to judge others” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
643 JHN 5 22 dtxw figs-123person τῷ Υἱῷ 1 As in the previous three verses, Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “to me, the Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
644 JHN 5 23 iqn7 figs-123person guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τὸν Υἱὸν…τὸν Πατέρα. ὁ μὴ τιμῶν τὸν Υἱὸν, οὐ τιμᾷ τὸν Πατέρα 1 **Father** and **Son** are important titles that describe the relationship between God and Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
645 JHN 5 23 p2kj figs-123person τὸν Υἱὸν…ὁ μὴ τιμῶν τὸν Υἱὸν 1 As in the previous four verses, Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “me, the Son…The one not honoring me, the Son” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
646 JHN 5 24 w6wu ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in [1:51](../01/51.md). Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”
647 JHN 5 24 rsqh figs-you λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]]) Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47.md). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
648 JHN 5 24 eg5h figs-metonymy τὸν λόγον μου 1 he who hears my word Here, **word** refers to the message or teachings of Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this plainly. Alternate translation: “my message” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
649 JHN 5 24 ql7q figs-metaphor εἰς κρίσιν οὐκ ἔρχεται 1 will not be condemned Jesus speaks figuratively of **judgment** as if it was a place a person could enter. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this phrase plainly. Alternate translation: “will not be judged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
650 JHN 5 24 p5jx μεταβέβηκεν ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου εἰς τὴν ζωήν 1 Here, **passed** means to move from one state to another. Alternate translation: “he has moved from death to life”
651 JHN 5 25 gtu6 ἀμὴν, ἀμὴν, λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Truly, truly Jesus uses this phrase to emphasize the truth of the statement that follows. See how you translated this in the previous verse. Alternate translation: “What I am about to tell you is very true”
652 JHN 5 25 v33w figs-you λέγω ὑμῖν 1 Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]]) Since Jesus is speaking to a group of Jewish leaders, **you** is plural here and through [5:47](../05/47.md). If your language does not have a different form for plural **you**, you can use another way to express it. Alternate translation: “I say to you Jews” or “I say to you all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
653 JHN 5 25 kosy figs-explicit ἔρχεται ὥρα 1 Here, **hour** refers to a point in time when something happens. It does not refer to a 60-minute length of time. See the discussion of this in the General Notes to chapter four and see how you translated it in [4:21](../04/21.md). Alternate translation: “a point in time is coming” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
654 JHN 5 25 d81y guidelines-sonofgodprinciples τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Son of God This is an important title for Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
655 JHN 5 25 croa figs-123person τοῦ Υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 As in the previous verses in this paragraph, Jesus is referring to himself in the third person. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this in the first person. Alternate translation: “of me, the Son of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
725 JHN 6 7 z3gj translate-bmoney διακοσίων δηναρίων ἄρτοι 1 Two hundred denarii worth of bread The word **denarii** is the plural form of “denarius,” which was a denomination of money in the Roman Empire that was equivalent to one days’ wages. Alternate translation: “The amount of bread that cost two hundred days’ wages” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]])
726 JHN 6 8 ih44 writing-pronouns αὐτῷ…αὐτοῦ 1 Here, **his** and **him** refer to Jesus. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ … to Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
727 JHN 6 8 gzei translate-names Ἀνδρέας…Σίμωνος Πέτρου 1 **Andrew** and **Simon Peter** are names of men who were Jesus’ disciples. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
728 JHN 6 8 diq0 λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “said”
729 JHN 6 9 k3k6 translate-unknown πέντε ἄρτους κριθίνους 1 five bread loaves of barley The grain **barley** was a common grain eaten by the poor in Israel because it was cheaper than wheat. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/barley]]) They would bake the barley into **bread loaves**, which are lumps of flour dough that a person has shaped and baked. Alternate translation: “five loaves of barley bread” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
730 JHN 6 9 xwu8 figs-rquestion ταῦτα τί ἐστιν εἰς τοσούτους? 1 what are these among so many? This remark appears in the form of a question to emphasize that they do not have enough food to feed everyone. Alternate translation: “these are not enough to feed so many!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
731 JHN 6 9 v5uk figs-ellipsis εἰς τοσούτους 1 Here, John records Andrew leaving out a word that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “to so many people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
741 JHN 6 12 leym figs-activepassive ἐνεπλήσθησαν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this in an active or reflexive form. Alternate translation: “they had finished eating” or “they had filled themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
742 JHN 6 12 z5o3 λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
743 JHN 6 12 qp1n figs-quotations λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, συναγάγετε 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this as an indirect quotation. Alternate translation: “he says to his disciples to gather up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-quotations]])
744 JHN 6 13 hqx9 writing-pronouns συνήγαγον 1 they gathered Here, **they** refers to the disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the disciples gathered up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]]) Here, **they** refers to the disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the disciples gathered up” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
745 JHN 6 13 h64z translate-unknown κοφίνους 1 Here, **baskets** refers to a large basket that was used for carrying goods while traveling. If your language has a word for this kind of basket, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “large traveling baskets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]]) Here, **baskets** refers to a large basket that was used for carrying goods while traveling. If your language has a word for this kind of basket, you could use it here. Alternate translation: “large traveling baskets” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
746 JHN 6 14 d7lp figs-gendernotations οἱ…ἄνθρωποι 1 Although the term **men** is masculine, John uses the word here in a generic sense that includes both men and women. Alternate translation: “the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
747 JHN 6 14 gmat ἰδόντες ὃ ἐποίησεν σημεῖον 1 This clause could refer to: (1) the time that they said what follows in the verse. Alternate translation: “at the time they saw the sign he did” (2) the reason that they said what follows in the verse. Alternate translation: “because they saw the sign he did”
748 JHN 6 14 nlw1 figs-explicit ὃ…σημεῖον 1 this sign Here, **sign** refers to the Jesus miraculously feeding the large crowd that was described in verses [5–13](../06/05.md).. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the sign of miraculously feeding the large crowd” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
761 JHN 6 18 z381 figs-activepassive ἥ…θάλασσα…διηγείρετο 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “the wind was causing the sea to be aroused” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
762 JHN 6 19 xx7d translate-unknown ἐληλακότες 1 they had rowed The boats used on the Sea of Galilee usually had two, four, or six people who **rowed** with oars together on each side side of the boat. If your readers would not be familiar with rowed boats, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “having pushed the boat through the water by using oars” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
763 JHN 6 19 sgf4 translate-bdistance ὡς σταδίους εἴκοσι πέντε ἢ τριάκοντα 1 about twenty-five or thirty stadia The word **stadia** is the plural of “stadium,” which is a Roman measurement of distance equivalent to about 185 meters or a little over 600 feet. Alternate translation: “about four and one half or five and one half kilometers” or “about thee or three and one half miles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])
764 JHN 6 19 u8ww writing-pronouns θεωροῦσιν θεωροῦσιν 1 Here, **they** refers to Jesus’ disciples. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Jesus’ disciples see” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
765 JHN 6 19 diko θεωροῦσιν 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “they saw”
766 JHN 6 20 tjg9 λέγει λέγει 1 To call attention to a development in the story, John uses the present tense in past narration. If it would not be natural to do that in your language, you can use the past tense in your translation. Alternate translation: “he said”
767 JHN 6 21 qtw5 figs-explicit ἤθελον…λαβεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον 1 they were willing to receive him into the boat It is implied that Jesus got **into the boat**. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “they gladly received him into the boat” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
768 JHN 6 22 yy7c figs-explicit τῆς θαλάσσης 1 the sea Here and throughout this chapter, **sea** refers to the Sea of Galilee. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation, as in the UST: “of the Sea of Galilee” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
769 JHN 6 22 ho60 figs-explicit πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης 1 Here, **the other side of the sea** refers to the side of the Sea of Galilee where Jesus had fed the crowd. It does not refer to the side of the Sea of Galilee that he and his disciples arrived at in the previous verse. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “on the side of the sea where Jesus performed the miracle” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
1077 JHN 8 43 ig11 figs-rquestion διὰ τί τὴν λαλιὰν τὴν ἐμὴν οὐ γινώσκετε? 1 Why do you not understand my words? Jesus is using this question mainly to rebuke the Jewish leaders for not listening to him. Alternate translation: “I will tell you why you do not understand what I say!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
1078 JHN 8 43 cf8v figs-metonymy ὅτι οὐ δύνασθε ἀκούειν τὸν λόγον τὸν ἐμόν 1 It is because you cannot hear my words Here, **words** is a metonym for the “teachings” of Jesus. Alternate translation: “It is because you will not accept my teachings.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
1079 JHN 8 44 vgy1 ὑμεῖς ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ διαβόλου ἐστὲ 1 You are of your father, the devil “You belong to your father, Satan”
1080 JHN 8 44 x11i figs-explicit ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ 1 It is understood that here, **it** refers to the act of lying that the devil did. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “the father of lying" (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) It is understood that here, **it** refers to the act of lying that the devil did. You can state this clearly. Alternate translation: “the father of lying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
1081 JHN 8 44 k1qu figs-metaphor ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ 1 the father of lies Here, **father** is a metaphor for the one who originates the act of lying. Alternate translation: “he is the one who created lying in the beginning” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
1082 JHN 8 45 g1q9 0 Connecting Statement: Jesus continues speaking to the Jews.
1083 JHN 8 45 e55r ἐγὼ…ὅτι τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγω 1 because I speak the truth “because I tell you true things about God”
1558 JHN 15 2 wt8w αἴρει αὐτό 1 takes away “he cuts it off and takes it away”
1559 JHN 15 2 xej7 πᾶν τὸ καρπὸν φέρον, καθαίρει αὐτὸ 1 prunes every branch “he trims every branch that bears fruit”
1560 JHN 15 3 xn3j figs-metaphor ἤδη ὑμεῖς καθαροί ἐστε, διὰ τὸν λόγον ὃν λελάληκα ὑμῖν 1 You are already clean because of the message that I have spoken to you The implied metaphor here is the **clean** branches that have already been “pruned.” Alternate translation: “It is as if you have already been pruned and are clean branches because you have obeyed what I have taught you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
1561 JHN 15 3 l5zz figs-you ὑμεῖς…ὑμῖν 1 you The words **You** and **you* in this verse are plural and refer to the disciples of Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]]) The words **You** and **you** in this verse are plural and refer to the disciples of Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
1562 JHN 15 4 qvv9 μείνατε ἐν ἐμοί, κἀγὼ ἐν ὑμῖν 1 Remain in me, and I in you “If you remain joined to me, I will remain joined to you” or “Remain joined to me, and I will remain joined to you”
1563 JHN 15 4 hn7q ἐὰν μὴ ἐν ἐμοὶ μένητε 1 unless you remain in me By remaining in Christ, those who belong to him depend on him for everything. Alternate translation: “unless you stay joined to me and depend upon me for everything”
1564 JHN 15 5 mw4t figs-metaphor ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἄμπελος; ὑμεῖς τὰ κλήματα 1 I am the vine, you are the branches Here, the **vine** is a metaphor that represents Jesus, and the **branches** is a metaphor that represent those who trust in Jesus and belong to him. Alternate translation: “I am like a vine, and you are like branches that are attached to the vine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
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