Merged Jane's proofreading suggestions to Philemon #2172

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Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
PHM front intro sz2w 0 # Introduction to Philemon<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Book of Philemon<br><br>1. Paul greets Philemon (1:1-3)<br>2. Paul makes requests of Philemon about Onesimus (1:4-21)<br>3. Conclusion (1:22-25)<br><br>### Who wrote the Book of Philemon?<br><br>Paul wrote Philemon. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.<br><br>Paul was in a prison when he wrote this letter.<br><br>### What is the Book of Philemon about?<br><br>Paul wrote this letter to a man named Philemon. Philemon was a believer in Jesus who lived in the city of Colossae. He owned a slave named Onesimus. Onesimus had run away from Philemon and possibly stole something from him as well. Onesimus went to Rome and visited Paul in prison there, where Paul brought Onesimus to Jesus.<br><br>Paul told Philemon that he was sending Onesimus back to him. Philemon had the right to execute Onesimus according to Roman law. But Paul said that Philemon should accept Onesimus back as a Christian brother. He even suggested that Philemon should allow Onesimus to come back to Paul and help him in prison.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Philemon.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Letter to Philemon” or “The Letter Paul wrote to Philemon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Does this letter approve the practice of slavery?<br><br>Paul sent Onesimus back to his former master. But that did not mean that Paul thought that slavery was an acceptable practice. Instead, Paul was more concerned with people being reconciled to each other and that they serve God in whatever situation they were in. It is important to note that in the culture of the time, people became slaves for various reasons and it was not considered a permanent state.<br><br>### What does Paul mean by the expression “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?<br><br>Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. See the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Singular and plural “you”<br><br>In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. The word “you” is almost always singular and refers to Philemon. The two exceptions to this are 1:22 and 1:25. There “you” refers to Philemon and the believers that met at his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])<br><br>Three times Paul identifies himself as the author of this letter (in verses 1, 9, and 19). Evidently Timothy was with him and may have written down the words as Paul said them. All instances of “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to Paul. Philemon is the main person to whom this letter is written. All instances of “you” and “your” refer to him and are singular unless otherwise noted. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
PHM front intro sz2w 0 # Introduction to Philemon<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Book of Philemon<br><br>1. Paul greets Philemon (1:1-3)<br>2. Paul makes requests of Philemon about Onesimus (1:4-21)<br>3. Conclusion (1:22-25)<br><br>### Who wrote the Book of Philemon?<br><br>Paul wrote Philemon. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Saul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.<br><br>Paul was in a prison when he wrote this letter.<br><br>### What is the Book of Philemon about?<br><br>Paul wrote this letter to a man named Philemon. Philemon was a believer in Jesus who lived in the city of Colossae. He owned a slave named Onesimus. Onesimus had run away from Philemon and possibly stole something from him as well. Onesimus went to Rome and visited Paul in prison there, where Paul brought Onesimus to Jesus.<br><br>Paul told Philemon that he was sending Onesimus back to him. Philemon had the right to execute Onesimus according to Roman law. But Paul said that Philemon should accept Onesimus back as a Christian brother. He even suggested that Philemon should allow Onesimus to come back to Paul and help him in prison.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Philemon.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Letter to Philemon” or “The Letter Paul wrote to Philemon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Does this letter approve the practice of slavery?<br><br>Paul sent Onesimus back to his former master. But that did not mean that Paul thought that slavery was an acceptable practice. Instead, Paul was more concerned with people being reconciled to each other and that they serve God in whatever situation they were in. It is important to note that in the culture of the time, people became slaves for various reasons and it was not considered a permanent state.<br><br>### What does Paul mean by the expression “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?<br><br>Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. See the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Singular and plural “you”<br><br>In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. The word “you” is almost always singular and refers to Philemon. The two exceptions to this are 1:22 and 1:25. There “you” refers to Philemon and the believers that met at his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])<br><br>Three times Paul identifies himself as the author of this letter (in verses 1, 9, and 19). Evidently Timothy was with him and may have written down the words as Paul said them. All instances of “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to Paul. Philemon is the main person to whom this letter is written. All instances of “you” and “your” refer to him and are singular unless otherwise noted. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
PHM 1 1 ne8k figs-123person Παῦλος 1 Your language may have a particular way of introducing the author of a letter. Use that here. Alternate translations: “From me, Paul” or “I, Paul” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person)
PHM 1 1 cgs4 δέσμιος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ 1 a prisoner of Christ Jesus Paul was in prison because people in authority did not want him to preach about Jesus. They put him there in order to stop him and to punish him. This does not mean that Jesus had put Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “a prisoner for the sake of Christ Jesus”
PHM 1 1 sv3p ὁ ἀδελφὸς 1 our brother Paul is using the term **brother** figuratively to mean someone who shares the same faith. Alternate translation: “our fellow Christian” or “our companion in the faith” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)
@ -12,30 +12,30 @@ PHM 1 2 b37l translate-names Ἀπφίᾳ 1 This is the name of a woman. (See:
PHM 1 2 bb1s figs-exclusive τῇ ἀδελφῇ 1 Here, the word **our** is not in the original, but was necessary for English, which requires that a relationship word indicate who the person is related to. In this case, **our** would be inclusive, relating Apphia to Paul and the readers as a sister in Christ. If your language requires this, you can do the same. If not, you can do the same as the original, which says, “the sister.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
PHM 1 2 hhpc figs-metaphor τῇ ἀδελφῇ 1 Paul is using the term **sister** figuratively to mean a woman who shares the same faith. Alternate translation: “our fellow Christian” or “our spiritual sister” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)
PHM 1 2 e8su figs-exclusive ἡμῶν 1 our The word **our** here refers to Paul and those with him, but not to the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
PHM 1 2 kyzo Ἀπφίᾳ…Ἀρχίππῳ…τῇ…ἐκκλησίᾳ 1 The letter is predominantly addressed to Philemon. It could be misleading to suggest Paul is writing to **Apphia**, **Archippus**, and **the church** in Philemon’s house, on the same level as Philemon.
PHM 1 2 kyzo Ἀπφίᾳ…Ἀρχίππῳ…τῇ…ἐκκλησίᾳ 1 The letter is predominantly addressed to Philemon. It could be misleading to suggest Paul is writing to **Apphia**, **Archippus**, and **the church** in Philemon’s house, on the same level as he is writing to Philemon.
PHM 1 2 sq44 translate-names Ἀρχίππῳ 1 Archippus This is the name of a man in the church with Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
PHM 1 2 mnn5 figs-metaphor τῷ συνστρατιώτῃ ἡμῶν 1 our fellow soldier Paul speaks here of Archippus as if they were both soldiers in an army. He means that Archippus works hard, as Paul himself works hard, to spread the gospel. Alternate translation: “our fellow spiritual warrior” or “who also fights the spiritual battle with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 2 mnn5 figs-metaphor τῷ συνστρατιώτῃ ἡμῶν 1 our fellow soldier Paul speaks here of Archippus as if he and Archippus were both soldiers in an army. He means that Archippus works hard, as Paul himself works hard, to spread the gospel. Alternate translation: “our fellow spiritual warrior” or “who also fights the spiritual battle with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 2 uof9 καὶ τῇ κατ’ οἶκόν σου ἐκκλησίᾳ 1 Apphia and Archippus were probably also members of the church that met at Philemon’s house. If mentioning them separately would imply that they were not part of the church, you could include a word like “other.” Alternate translation: “to the other members of the church in your house”
PHM 1 3 r4nq translate-blessing χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ After introducing the senders and recipients of the letter, Paul gives a blessing. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “May God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ give you grace and peace.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])
PHM 1 3 iv7e figs-abstractnouns χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns **grace** and **peace** with adjectives such as “gracious” and “peaceful.” Alternate translation: “May God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and make you peaceful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 3 e5z8 figs-exclusive ἡμῶν…ἡμῶν 1 our The word **our** here is inclusive, referring to Paul, those with him, and the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
PHM 1 3 qglx figs-yousingular ὑμῖν 1 Here **you** is plural, referring to all of the recipients named in verses 1–2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
PHM 1 3 lh8a guidelines-sonofgodprinciples Πατρὸς 1 Father This is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
PHM 1 4 puh8 figs-exclusive σου 1 Here, the word **you** is singular and refers to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
PHM 1 4 puh8 figs-yousingular σου 1 Here, the word **you** is singular and refers to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
PHM 1 5 l3i2 figs-abstractnouns ἀκούων σου τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους 1 figs-abstractnouns If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the ideas behind the abstract nouns **love** and **faith** with verbs instead. Alternate translation: “hearing how much you love and believe in the Lord Jesus and all the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 5 ojcu writing-poetry ἀκούων σου τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους 1 writing-poetry Paul is using a poetic structure here in which the first and last parts relate and the second and third parts relate. Therefore, the meaning is: “hearing of the faith that you have in the Lord Jesus and of your love for all the saints.”Paul said exactly that in Colossians 1:4 without the poetic structure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])
PHM 1 5 pf1y figs-exclusive σου…ἔχεις 1 Here, the words **your** and **you** are singular and refer to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
PHM 1 5 pf1y figs-yousingular σου…ἔχεις 1 Here, the words **your** and **you** are singular and refer to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
PHM 1 6 mfrp figs-explicit ὅπως 1 Here, **that** introduces the content of the prayer that Paul mentions in verse 4. If it would be clearer in your language, you can repeat the idea of prayer here. Alternate translation: “I pray that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 6 t54l figs-abstractnouns ἡ κοινωνία τῆς πίστεώς σου 1 the fellowship of your faith The word translated **fellowship** means a sharing or a partnership in something. Paul probably intends both meanings, but if you must choose, it could mean: (1) that Philemon shares the same faith in Christ as Paul and others. Alternate translation: “the faith that you share with us” (2) that Philemon is a partner with Paul and others in working for Christ. Alternate translation: “your working together with us as believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 6 hcwp figs-abstractnouns ἡ κοινωνία τῆς πίστεώς σου, ἐνεργὴς γένηται ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ τοῦ ἐν ἡμῖν εἰς Χριστόν. 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **faith** with a verb such as “trust” or “believe,” and the abstract noun **knowledge** with a verb such as “know” or “learn.” Alternate translation: “as you trust in the Messiah along with us, you may become increasingly better at serving the Messiah, as you learn about all of the good things that he has given us to use for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 6 pxw1 figs-abstractnouns ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ 1 may be effective for the knowledge of everything good This could mean: (1) “will result in you knowing every good thing” (2) “those you share your faith with will know every good thing” Alternate translation: “by knowing everything good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 6 n25e figs-explicit εἰς Χριστόν 1 in Christ If it would be clearer in your language, you could say more explicitly how **everything good** is **for Christ**. Alternate translation: “for the sake of Christ” or “for the benefit of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 6 pxw1 figs-abstractnouns ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ 1 may be effective for the knowledge of everything good This could mean: (1) “and will result in you knowing every good thing” (2) “so that those you share your faith with will know every good thing” Alternate translation: “by knowing everything good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 6 n25e figs-explicit εἰς Χριστόν 1 in Christ If it would be clearer in your language, you could say more explicitly how “everything good” is **for Christ**. Alternate translation: “for the sake of Christ” or “for the benefit of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 7 vyc7 figs-abstractnouns χαρὰν γὰρ πολλὴν ἔσχον καὶ παράκλησιν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns **joy** and **comfort** with adjectives. Alternate translation: “For you made me very joyful and comforted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 7 xlp6 figs-abstractnouns ἐπὶ τῇ ἀγάπῃ σου 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **love** with a verb. Alternate translation: “because you love people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 7 shpv figs-activepassive τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων ἀναπέπαυται διὰ σοῦ 1 the inward parts of the saints are being refreshed by you This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “you have refreshed the inward parts of the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
PHM 1 7 aq4g figs-metonymy τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων 1 the inward parts of the saints Here, **inward parts** figuratively refers to a person’s emotions or inner being. Use the figure that is normal in your language for this, such as “hearts” or “livers,” or give the plain meaning. Alternate translation: “the thoughts and feelings of the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHM 1 7 z0ne figs-metaphor τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων ἀναπέπαυται διὰ σοῦ 1 Here, **being refreshed** figuratively refers to the feeling of encouragement or relief. Alternate translation: “you have encouraged the saints” or “you have helped the believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 7 m5ip figs-metaphor σοῦ, ἀδελφέ 1 you, brother Paul called Philemon **brother** because they were both believers and to emphasize their friendship. Alternate translation: “you, dear brother” or “you, dear friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 7 m5ip figs-metaphor σοῦ, ἀδελφέ 1 you, brother Paul called Philemon **brother** because they were both believers, and he wanted to emphasize their friendship. Alternate translation: “you, dear brother” or “you, dear friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 8 ayy1 0 Connecting Statement: Paul begins his plea and the reason for his letter.
PHM 1 8 fd84 πολλὴν ἐν Χριστῷ παρρησίαν 1 all boldness in Christ This could mean: (1) “all authority because of Christ” (2) “all courage because of Christ.”
PHM 1 8 x3nc grammar-connect-logic-result διό 1 The word **Therefore** signals that what Paul has just said in verses 4–7 is the reason for what he is about to say. Use a connecting word or another way that your language uses to signal this relationship. Alternate translation: “Because of this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
@ -50,8 +50,8 @@ PHM 1 12 fdwn figs-metaphor τὰ ἐμὰ σπλάγχνα 1 my inward parts Th
PHM 1 12 yn1d figs-metonymy τὰ ἐμὰ σπλάγχνα 1 Here, ** inward parts** is figurative for the place of a person’s emotions. If your language has a similar figure, then use that. If not, use plain language. Alternate translation: “my heart” or “my liver” or “my deepest feelings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHM 1 13 t4xl ἵνα ὑπὲρ σοῦ μοι διακονῇ 1 so that he might serve me on behalf of you Paul knows that Philemon wants to help him, and so he suggests that a way to do that would be to allow Onesimus to serve Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “so that, since you cannot be here, he might help me” or “so that he could help me in your place”
PHM 1 13 bb3t figs-metonymy ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς 1 in the chains Prisoners were often bound in **chains**. Paul was in prison when he told Onesimus about the Messiah, and he was still in prison when he wrote this letter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHM 1 13 vver figs-explicit ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς τοῦ εὐαγγελίου 1 Paul was in prison because he preached **the gospel** publicly. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “that they put on me because I preach the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 14 ngg8 figs-abstractnouns ἵνα μὴ ὡς κατὰ ἀνάγκην τὸ ἀγαθόν σου 1 but according to good will If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **compulsion** with a verb. Alternate translation: “for I did not want you to do this good deed because I commanded you to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 13 vver figs-explicit ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς τοῦ εὐαγγελίου 1 Paul was in prison because he preached **the gospel** publicly. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “in the chains that they put on me because I preach the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 14 ngg8 figs-abstractnouns ἵνα μὴ ὡς κατὰ ἀνάγκην τὸ ἀγαθόν σου 1 but according to good will If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **compulsion** with a verb. Alternate translation: “for I did not want you to do this good deed because I commanded you to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 14 fg6l figs-abstractnouns ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἑκούσιον. 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **will** with a verb. Alternate translation: “but because you wanted to do it” or “but because you freely chose to do the right thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 15 tcrd figs-activepassive τάχα γὰρ διὰ τοῦτο, ἐχωρίσθη πρὸς ὥραν, ἵνα 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “For perhaps the reason that God took Onesimus away from you for a time was so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
PHM 1 15 bx4q figs-idiom πρὸς ὥραν 1 Here, the phrase **for an hour** is an idiom meaning “for a short time.” If it would be clearer in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “for this short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
@ -60,21 +60,21 @@ PHM 1 16 dg1w οὐκέτι ὡς δοῦλον 1 This does not mean that Ones
PHM 1 16 bynb ὑπὲρ δοῦλον 1 Alternate translation: “more valuable than a slave”
PHM 1 16 f8tz figs-metaphor ἀδελφὸν 1 a beloved brother Here, **brother** is a metaphor for a fellow believer. Alternative translation, “spiritual brother” or “brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 16 qxi0 ἀγαπητόν 1 Alternate translation: “dear” or “precious”
PHM 1 16 scj1 ἐν Κυρίῳ 1 in the Lord Alternate translation: “because he is a brother in the Lord” or “because he is a fellow believer in the Lord”
PHM 1 16 scj1 ἐν Κυρίῳ 1 in the Lord Alternate translation: “in the fellowship of brotherhood through Jesus” or “in the fellowship of believers in the Lord”
PHM 1 17 e1j2 grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ…με ἔχεις κοινωνόν 1 if you have me as a partner Paul is writing in a way that makes it seem as though it is possible that Philemon does not consider that Paul is his partner, but he knows that Philemon does consider Paul to be his partner. This is a way of getting Philemon to agree on one thing (that Paul is a partner) so that he will agree to the other thing (to receive Onesimus). If your language does not state something as uncertain if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “since you have me as a partner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
PHM 1 17 e0es grammar-connect-logic-result οὖν 1 **Therefore** means that what came before this word is the reason for what comes after it. It may be that Paul intends for everything that came before to be the reason, because this word also indicates that Paul is now coming to the main point of the letter. Use a natural method in your language to indicate this transition. Alternate translation: “Because of all of these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
PHM 1 17 d56r figs-ellipsis προσλαβοῦ αὐτὸν ὡς ἐμέ. 1 Paul is leaving out some of the words here that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “receive him just as you would receive me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
PHM 1 18 nq4j grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει 1 Onesimus certainly did wrong Philemon by leaving, and he probably also stole some of Philemon’s property. But Paul is stating these things as uncertain in order to be polite. If your language does not use a conditional statement in this way, then use a more natural way to state this. Alternate translation: “But whatever he has taken or whatever wrong he has done to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
PHM 1 18 nq4j grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει 1 Onesimus certainly did wrong to Philemon by running away, and he probably also stole some of Philemon’s property. But Paul is stating these things as uncertain in order to be polite. If your language does not use a conditional statement in this way, then use a more natural way to state this. Alternate translation: “But whatever he has taken or whatever wrong he has done to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
PHM 1 18 w4ys εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει 1 These two phrases mean similar things, although **wronged you** is more general than **owes you**. If it would be more natural in your language, you can put the more general phrase second. Alternate translation: “But if he owes you anything or has wronged you in any way”
PHM 1 18 j3ou τοῦτο ἐμοὶ ἐλλόγα. 1 Alternate translation: “I will take responsibility for repaying you” or “say that I am the one who owes you”
PHM 1 19 wb53 ἐγὼ Παῦλος ἔγραψα τῇ ἐμῇ χειρί 1 I, Paul, write this with my own hand Paul wrote this part with his **own hand** so that Philemon would know that these words were really from Paul, and that Paul really would pay him. He used the past tense here because the action of writing would be in the past when Philemon read the letter. Use the tense that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I, Paul, write this myself.”
PHM 1 19 gn6c figs-irony ἵνα μὴ λέγω σοι 1 in order not to say to you Paul says that he will not say something to Philemon while saying it. This is a polite way of emphasizing the truth of what Paul is telling him. If your language would not use irony like this, then use a more natural expression. Alternate translation: “I do not need to remind you” or “You already know.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])
PHM 1 19 gn6c figs-irony ἵνα μὴ λέγω σοι 1 in order not to say to you Paul says that he will not say something to Philemon while saying it. This is a polite way of emphasizing the truth of what Paul is telling him. If your language would not use irony like this, then use a more natural expression. Alternate translation: “I do not need to remind you” or “You already know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])
PHM 1 19 st7e figs-explicit καὶ σεαυτόν μοι προσοφείλεις 1 you also owe me your own self Paul was implying that whatever Onesimus or Paul owed to Philemon was canceled by the larger amount that Philemon owed to Paul, which was Philemon’s own life. The reason that Philemon owed Paul his life can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “you even owe me your own life” or “you owe me much more because I saved your life” or “you owe me your own life because I told you about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 20 mw03 figs-metaphor ἀδελφέ 1 Here, **brother** is a metaphor for a fellow believer. Alternate translation: “spiritual brother” or “brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 20 cqd0 figs-metaphor ἐν Κυρίῳ 1 See how you translated **in the Lord** in verse 16. This metaphor refers to being a believer in Jesus and means the same as **in Christ**. Alternate translation: “as you serve the Lord” or “because we are fellow believers in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 20 xp0b figs-explicit ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα ἐν Χριστῷ 1 refresh my inward parts in Christ How Paul wanted Philemon to refresh him can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “refresh my inward parts in Christ by accepting Onesimus kindly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHM 1 20 j8lh figs-metaphor ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα 1 refresh my inward parts Here **refresh** is a metaphor for comfort or encourage. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHM 1 20 kmpp figs-metonymy ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα 1 refresh my inward parts Here “inward parts” is a metonym for a person’s feelings, thoughts, or inner being. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHM 1 20 kmpp figs-metonymy ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα 1 refresh my inward parts Here, **inward parts** is a metonym for a person’s feelings, thoughts, or inner being. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHM 1 21 azje figs-abstractnouns πεποιθὼς τῇ ὑπακοῇ σου 1 refresh my inward parts If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns **confidence** and **obedience** with verbs. Alternate translation: “Because I am confident that you will obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 21 lxxi ἔγραψά σοι 1 refresh my inward parts Paul used the past tense here because the action of writing would be in the past when Philemon read the letter. Use the tense that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I write to you”
PHM 1 22 xpn6 checking/headings 0 Connecting Statement: Here Paul closes his letter and gives final instruction to Philemon and a blessing on Philemon and on the believers that met for church in Philemon’s house. If you are using section headings, you could put one here before verse 22. Suggested heading: “Final Instruction and Blessing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])
@ -82,13 +82,13 @@ PHM 1 22 bx62 grammar-connect-time-simultaneous ἅμα 1 at the same time The w
PHM 1 22 ctr4 χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν 1 I will be given back to you Alternate translation: “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can go to you.”
PHM 1 22 mzr0 ἑτοίμαζέ μοι ξενίαν 1 I will be given back to you The word translated **guest room** refers to any hospitality that is provided for a guest. So the kind of space is unspecified. Alternate translation: “also prepare a place in your house for me.”
PHM 1 22 lnw9 διὰ τῶν προσευχῶν ὑμῶν 1 I will be given back to you Alternate translation: “God will answer your prayers so”
PHM 1 22 p2u0 figs-activepassive χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν. 1 I will be given back to you If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bring me back to you” or “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can go to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
PHM 1 22 p2u0 figs-activepassive χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν. 1 I will be given back to you If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bring me back to you” or “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can come to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
PHM 1 22 o06s figs-you ὑμῶν…ὑμῖν 1 I will be given back to you The words **your** and **you** here are plural, referring to Philemon and all the believers who met in his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
PHM 1 23 x2d8 translate-names Ἐπαφρᾶς 1 Epaphras This is the name of a man who was a fellow believer and prisoner with Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
PHM 1 23 f0b6 ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ 1 Epaphras Here, **in Christ Jesus** means something similar to the phrases “in the Lord” and “in Christ” in verse 20. See how you translated those there. Alternate translation: “who is in prison with me because he serves Christ Jesus”
PHM 1 23 x2d8 translate-names Ἐπαφρᾶς 1 Epaphras **Epaphras** was the name of a man who was a fellow believer and prisoner with Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
PHM 1 23 f0b6 ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ 1 Epaphras fdHere, **in Christ Jesus** means something similar to the phrases “in the Lord” and “in Christ” in verse 20. See how you translated those there. Alternate translation: “who is here with me because he serves Christ Jesus”
PHM 1 24 i5gc translate-names Μᾶρκος, Ἀρίσταρχος, Δημᾶς, Λουκᾶς 1 Mark…Aristarchus…Demas…Luke These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
PHM 1 24 uc6n figs-ellipsis Μᾶρκος, Ἀρίσταρχος, Δημᾶς, Λουκᾶς 1 Mark…Aristarchus…Demas…Luke Paul is leaving out some of the words here that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “as do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow workers” or “Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow workers, also greet you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
PHM 1 24 gf6e οἱ συνεργοί μου 1 my fellow workers Alternate translation: “the men who work with me” or “who all work with me.”
PHM 1 25 apvl figs-synecdoche μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν 1 be with your spirit The words **your spirit** are a synecdoche and represent the people themselves. Paul is referring to Philemon and all who met in his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
PHM 1 25 e35h figs-abstractnouns ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 be with your spirit If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **grace** with an adjective or verb. Alternate translation: “May our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to” or “May our Lord Jesus Christ be kind to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 25 e35h figs-abstractnouns ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 be with your spirit If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **grace** with an adjective or verb. Alternate translation: “May our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and” or “May our Lord Jesus Christ be kind to you and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHM 1 25 jou6 figs-you ὑμῶν 1 be with your spirit The word **your** here is plural and refers to Philemon and all who met in his house. Alternate translation: “your spirits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])

1 Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
2 PHM front intro sz2w 0 # Introduction to Philemon<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Book of Philemon<br><br>1. Paul greets Philemon (1:1-3)<br>2. Paul makes requests of Philemon about Onesimus (1:4-21)<br>3. Conclusion (1:22-25)<br><br>### Who wrote the Book of Philemon?<br><br>Paul wrote Philemon. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Paul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.<br><br>Paul was in a prison when he wrote this letter.<br><br>### What is the Book of Philemon about?<br><br>Paul wrote this letter to a man named Philemon. Philemon was a believer in Jesus who lived in the city of Colossae. He owned a slave named Onesimus. Onesimus had run away from Philemon and possibly stole something from him as well. Onesimus went to Rome and visited Paul in prison there, where Paul brought Onesimus to Jesus.<br><br>Paul told Philemon that he was sending Onesimus back to him. Philemon had the right to execute Onesimus according to Roman law. But Paul said that Philemon should accept Onesimus back as a Christian brother. He even suggested that Philemon should allow Onesimus to come back to Paul and help him in prison.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Philemon.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Letter to Philemon” or “The Letter Paul wrote to Philemon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Does this letter approve the practice of slavery?<br><br>Paul sent Onesimus back to his former master. But that did not mean that Paul thought that slavery was an acceptable practice. Instead, Paul was more concerned with people being reconciled to each other and that they serve God in whatever situation they were in. It is important to note that in the culture of the time, people became slaves for various reasons and it was not considered a permanent state.<br><br>### What does Paul mean by the expression “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?<br><br>Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. See the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Singular and plural “you”<br><br>In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. The word “you” is almost always singular and refers to Philemon. The two exceptions to this are 1:22 and 1:25. There “you” refers to Philemon and the believers that met at his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])<br><br>Three times Paul identifies himself as the author of this letter (in verses 1, 9, and 19). Evidently Timothy was with him and may have written down the words as Paul said them. All instances of “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to Paul. Philemon is the main person to whom this letter is written. All instances of “you” and “your” refer to him and are singular unless otherwise noted. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]]) # Introduction to Philemon<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of the Book of Philemon<br><br>1. Paul greets Philemon (1:1-3)<br>2. Paul makes requests of Philemon about Onesimus (1:4-21)<br>3. Conclusion (1:22-25)<br><br>### Who wrote the Book of Philemon?<br><br>Paul wrote Philemon. Paul was from the city of Tarsus. He had been known as Saul in his early life. Before becoming a Christian, Saul was a Pharisee. He persecuted Christians. After he became a Christian, he traveled several times throughout the Roman Empire telling people about Jesus.<br><br>Paul was in a prison when he wrote this letter.<br><br>### What is the Book of Philemon about?<br><br>Paul wrote this letter to a man named Philemon. Philemon was a believer in Jesus who lived in the city of Colossae. He owned a slave named Onesimus. Onesimus had run away from Philemon and possibly stole something from him as well. Onesimus went to Rome and visited Paul in prison there, where Paul brought Onesimus to Jesus.<br><br>Paul told Philemon that he was sending Onesimus back to him. Philemon had the right to execute Onesimus according to Roman law. But Paul said that Philemon should accept Onesimus back as a Christian brother. He even suggested that Philemon should allow Onesimus to come back to Paul and help him in prison.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators may choose to call this book by its traditional title, “Philemon.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “Paul’s Letter to Philemon” or “The Letter Paul wrote to Philemon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Does this letter approve the practice of slavery?<br><br>Paul sent Onesimus back to his former master. But that did not mean that Paul thought that slavery was an acceptable practice. Instead, Paul was more concerned with people being reconciled to each other and that they serve God in whatever situation they were in. It is important to note that in the culture of the time, people became slaves for various reasons and it was not considered a permanent state.<br><br>### What does Paul mean by the expression “in Christ,” “in the Lord,” etc.?<br><br>Paul meant to express the idea of a very close union with Christ and the believers. See the introduction to the Book of Romans for more details about this kind of expression.<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### Singular and plural “you”<br><br>In this book, the word “I” refers to Paul. The word “you” is almost always singular and refers to Philemon. The two exceptions to this are 1:22 and 1:25. There “you” refers to Philemon and the believers that met at his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])<br><br>Three times Paul identifies himself as the author of this letter (in verses 1, 9, and 19). Evidently Timothy was with him and may have written down the words as Paul said them. All instances of “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to Paul. Philemon is the main person to whom this letter is written. All instances of “you” and “your” refer to him and are singular unless otherwise noted. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
3 PHM 1 1 ne8k figs-123person Παῦλος 1 Your language may have a particular way of introducing the author of a letter. Use that here. Alternate translations: “From me, Paul” or “I, Paul” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person)
4 PHM 1 1 cgs4 δέσμιος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ 1 a prisoner of Christ Jesus Paul was in prison because people in authority did not want him to preach about Jesus. They put him there in order to stop him and to punish him. This does not mean that Jesus had put Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “a prisoner for the sake of Christ Jesus”
5 PHM 1 1 sv3p ὁ ἀδελφὸς 1 our brother Paul is using the term **brother** figuratively to mean someone who shares the same faith. Alternate translation: “our fellow Christian” or “our companion in the faith” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)
12 PHM 1 2 bb1s figs-exclusive τῇ ἀδελφῇ 1 Here, the word **our** is not in the original, but was necessary for English, which requires that a relationship word indicate who the person is related to. In this case, **our** would be inclusive, relating Apphia to Paul and the readers as a sister in Christ. If your language requires this, you can do the same. If not, you can do the same as the original, which says, “the sister.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
13 PHM 1 2 hhpc figs-metaphor τῇ ἀδελφῇ 1 Paul is using the term **sister** figuratively to mean a woman who shares the same faith. Alternate translation: “our fellow Christian” or “our spiritual sister” (See: rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor)
14 PHM 1 2 e8su figs-exclusive ἡμῶν 1 our The word **our** here refers to Paul and those with him, but not to the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
15 PHM 1 2 kyzo Ἀπφίᾳ…Ἀρχίππῳ…τῇ…ἐκκλησίᾳ 1 The letter is predominantly addressed to Philemon. It could be misleading to suggest Paul is writing to **Apphia**, **Archippus**, and **the church** in Philemon’s house, on the same level as Philemon. The letter is predominantly addressed to Philemon. It could be misleading to suggest Paul is writing to **Apphia**, **Archippus**, and **the church** in Philemon’s house, on the same level as he is writing to Philemon.
16 PHM 1 2 sq44 translate-names Ἀρχίππῳ 1 Archippus This is the name of a man in the church with Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
17 PHM 1 2 mnn5 figs-metaphor τῷ συνστρατιώτῃ ἡμῶν 1 our fellow soldier Paul speaks here of Archippus as if they were both soldiers in an army. He means that Archippus works hard, as Paul himself works hard, to spread the gospel. Alternate translation: “our fellow spiritual warrior” or “who also fights the spiritual battle with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]) Paul speaks here of Archippus as if he and Archippus were both soldiers in an army. He means that Archippus works hard, as Paul himself works hard, to spread the gospel. Alternate translation: “our fellow spiritual warrior” or “who also fights the spiritual battle with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
18 PHM 1 2 uof9 καὶ τῇ κατ’ οἶκόν σου ἐκκλησίᾳ 1 Apphia and Archippus were probably also members of the church that met at Philemon’s house. If mentioning them separately would imply that they were not part of the church, you could include a word like “other.” Alternate translation: “to the other members of the church in your house”
19 PHM 1 3 r4nq translate-blessing χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ After introducing the senders and recipients of the letter, Paul gives a blessing. Use a form that people would recognize as a blessing in your language. Alternate translation: “May God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ give you grace and peace.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-blessing]])
20 PHM 1 3 iv7e figs-abstractnouns χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη, ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns **grace** and **peace** with adjectives such as “gracious” and “peaceful.” Alternate translation: “May God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and make you peaceful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
21 PHM 1 3 e5z8 figs-exclusive ἡμῶν…ἡμῶν 1 our The word **our** here is inclusive, referring to Paul, those with him, and the reader. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
22 PHM 1 3 qglx figs-yousingular ὑμῖν 1 Here **you** is plural, referring to all of the recipients named in verses 1–2. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
23 PHM 1 3 lh8a guidelines-sonofgodprinciples Πατρὸς 1 Father This is an important title for God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples]])
24 PHM 1 4 puh8 figs-exclusive figs-yousingular σου 1 Here, the word **you** is singular and refers to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]]) Here, the word **you** is singular and refers to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
25 PHM 1 5 l3i2 figs-abstractnouns ἀκούων σου τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους 1 figs-abstractnouns If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the ideas behind the abstract nouns **love** and **faith** with verbs instead. Alternate translation: “hearing how much you love and believe in the Lord Jesus and all the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
26 PHM 1 5 ojcu writing-poetry ἀκούων σου τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν, ἣν ἔχεις πρὸς τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους 1 writing-poetry Paul is using a poetic structure here in which the first and last parts relate and the second and third parts relate. Therefore, the meaning is: “hearing of the faith that you have in the Lord Jesus and of your love for all the saints.”Paul said exactly that in Colossians 1:4 without the poetic structure. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-poetry]])
27 PHM 1 5 pf1y figs-exclusive figs-yousingular σου…ἔχεις 1 Here, the words **your** and **you** are singular and refer to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]]) Here, the words **your** and **you** are singular and refer to Philemon. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
28 PHM 1 6 mfrp figs-explicit ὅπως 1 Here, **that** introduces the content of the prayer that Paul mentions in verse 4. If it would be clearer in your language, you can repeat the idea of prayer here. Alternate translation: “I pray that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
29 PHM 1 6 t54l figs-abstractnouns ἡ κοινωνία τῆς πίστεώς σου 1 the fellowship of your faith The word translated **fellowship** means a sharing or a partnership in something. Paul probably intends both meanings, but if you must choose, it could mean: (1) that Philemon shares the same faith in Christ as Paul and others. Alternate translation: “the faith that you share with us” (2) that Philemon is a partner with Paul and others in working for Christ. Alternate translation: “your working together with us as believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
30 PHM 1 6 hcwp figs-abstractnouns ἡ κοινωνία τῆς πίστεώς σου, ἐνεργὴς γένηται ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ τοῦ ἐν ἡμῖν εἰς Χριστόν. 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **faith** with a verb such as “trust” or “believe,” and the abstract noun **knowledge** with a verb such as “know” or “learn.” Alternate translation: “as you trust in the Messiah along with us, you may become increasingly better at serving the Messiah, as you learn about all of the good things that he has given us to use for him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
31 PHM 1 6 pxw1 figs-abstractnouns ἐν ἐπιγνώσει παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ 1 may be effective for the knowledge of everything good This could mean: (1) “will result in you knowing every good thing” (2) “those you share your faith with will know every good thing” Alternate translation: “by knowing everything good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]]) This could mean: (1) “and will result in you knowing every good thing” (2) “so that those you share your faith with will know every good thing” Alternate translation: “by knowing everything good” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
32 PHM 1 6 n25e figs-explicit εἰς Χριστόν 1 in Christ If it would be clearer in your language, you could say more explicitly how **everything good** is **for Christ**. Alternate translation: “for the sake of Christ” or “for the benefit of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say more explicitly how “everything good” is **for Christ**. Alternate translation: “for the sake of Christ” or “for the benefit of Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
33 PHM 1 7 vyc7 figs-abstractnouns χαρὰν γὰρ πολλὴν ἔσχον καὶ παράκλησιν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns **joy** and **comfort** with adjectives. Alternate translation: “For you made me very joyful and comforted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
34 PHM 1 7 xlp6 figs-abstractnouns ἐπὶ τῇ ἀγάπῃ σου 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **love** with a verb. Alternate translation: “because you love people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
35 PHM 1 7 shpv figs-activepassive τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων ἀναπέπαυται διὰ σοῦ 1 the inward parts of the saints are being refreshed by you This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “you have refreshed the inward parts of the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
36 PHM 1 7 aq4g figs-metonymy τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων 1 the inward parts of the saints Here, **inward parts** figuratively refers to a person’s emotions or inner being. Use the figure that is normal in your language for this, such as “hearts” or “livers,” or give the plain meaning. Alternate translation: “the thoughts and feelings of the saints” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
37 PHM 1 7 z0ne figs-metaphor τὰ σπλάγχνα τῶν ἁγίων ἀναπέπαυται διὰ σοῦ 1 Here, **being refreshed** figuratively refers to the feeling of encouragement or relief. Alternate translation: “you have encouraged the saints” or “you have helped the believers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
38 PHM 1 7 m5ip figs-metaphor σοῦ, ἀδελφέ 1 you, brother Paul called Philemon **brother** because they were both believers and to emphasize their friendship. Alternate translation: “you, dear brother” or “you, dear friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]) Paul called Philemon **brother** because they were both believers, and he wanted to emphasize their friendship. Alternate translation: “you, dear brother” or “you, dear friend” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
39 PHM 1 8 ayy1 0 Connecting Statement: Paul begins his plea and the reason for his letter.
40 PHM 1 8 fd84 πολλὴν ἐν Χριστῷ παρρησίαν 1 all boldness in Christ This could mean: (1) “all authority because of Christ” (2) “all courage because of Christ.”
41 PHM 1 8 x3nc grammar-connect-logic-result διό 1 The word **Therefore** signals that what Paul has just said in verses 4–7 is the reason for what he is about to say. Use a connecting word or another way that your language uses to signal this relationship. Alternate translation: “Because of this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
50 PHM 1 12 yn1d figs-metonymy τὰ ἐμὰ σπλάγχνα 1 Here, ** inward parts** is figurative for the place of a person’s emotions. If your language has a similar figure, then use that. If not, use plain language. Alternate translation: “my heart” or “my liver” or “my deepest feelings” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
51 PHM 1 13 t4xl ἵνα ὑπὲρ σοῦ μοι διακονῇ 1 so that he might serve me on behalf of you Paul knows that Philemon wants to help him, and so he suggests that a way to do that would be to allow Onesimus to serve Paul in prison. Alternate translation: “so that, since you cannot be here, he might help me” or “so that he could help me in your place”
52 PHM 1 13 bb3t figs-metonymy ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς 1 in the chains Prisoners were often bound in **chains**. Paul was in prison when he told Onesimus about the Messiah, and he was still in prison when he wrote this letter. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
53 PHM 1 13 vver figs-explicit ἐν τοῖς δεσμοῖς τοῦ εὐαγγελίου 1 Paul was in prison because he preached **the gospel** publicly. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “that they put on me because I preach the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) Paul was in prison because he preached **the gospel** publicly. This can be stated explicitly. Alternate translation: “in the chains that they put on me because I preach the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
54 PHM 1 14 ngg8 figs-abstractnouns ἵνα μὴ ὡς κατὰ ἀνάγκην τὸ ἀγαθόν σου ἵνα μὴ ὡς κατὰ ἀνάγκην τὸ ἀγαθόν σου ᾖ 1 but according to good will If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **compulsion** with a verb. Alternate translation: “for I did not want you to do this good deed because I commanded you to do it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
55 PHM 1 14 fg6l figs-abstractnouns ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἑκούσιον. 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **will** with a verb. Alternate translation: “but because you wanted to do it” or “but because you freely chose to do the right thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
56 PHM 1 15 tcrd figs-activepassive τάχα γὰρ διὰ τοῦτο, ἐχωρίσθη πρὸς ὥραν, ἵνα 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you can state this in active form. Alternate translation: “For perhaps the reason that God took Onesimus away from you for a time was so that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
57 PHM 1 15 bx4q figs-idiom πρὸς ὥραν 1 Here, the phrase **for an hour** is an idiom meaning “for a short time.” If it would be clearer in your language, you could use an equivalent idiom or use plain language. Alternate translation: “for this short time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
60 PHM 1 16 bynb ὑπὲρ δοῦλον 1 Alternate translation: “more valuable than a slave”
61 PHM 1 16 f8tz figs-metaphor ἀδελφὸν 1 a beloved brother Here, **brother** is a metaphor for a fellow believer. Alternative translation, “spiritual brother” or “brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
62 PHM 1 16 qxi0 ἀγαπητόν 1 Alternate translation: “dear” or “precious”
63 PHM 1 16 scj1 ἐν Κυρίῳ 1 in the Lord Alternate translation: “because he is a brother in the Lord” or “because he is a fellow believer in the Lord” Alternate translation: “in the fellowship of brotherhood through Jesus” or “in the fellowship of believers in the Lord”
64 PHM 1 17 e1j2 grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ…με ἔχεις κοινωνόν 1 if you have me as a partner Paul is writing in a way that makes it seem as though it is possible that Philemon does not consider that Paul is his partner, but he knows that Philemon does consider Paul to be his partner. This is a way of getting Philemon to agree on one thing (that Paul is a partner) so that he will agree to the other thing (to receive Onesimus). If your language does not state something as uncertain if it is certain or true, and if your readers might misunderstand and think that what Paul is saying is not certain, then you can translate his words as an affirmative statement. Alternate translation: “since you have me as a partner” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
65 PHM 1 17 e0es grammar-connect-logic-result οὖν 1 **Therefore** means that what came before this word is the reason for what comes after it. It may be that Paul intends for everything that came before to be the reason, because this word also indicates that Paul is now coming to the main point of the letter. Use a natural method in your language to indicate this transition. Alternate translation: “Because of all of these things” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
66 PHM 1 17 d56r figs-ellipsis προσλαβοῦ αὐτὸν ὡς ἐμέ. 1 Paul is leaving out some of the words here that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “receive him just as you would receive me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
67 PHM 1 18 nq4j grammar-connect-condition-fact εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει 1 Onesimus certainly did wrong Philemon by leaving, and he probably also stole some of Philemon’s property. But Paul is stating these things as uncertain in order to be polite. If your language does not use a conditional statement in this way, then use a more natural way to state this. Alternate translation: “But whatever he has taken or whatever wrong he has done to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]]) Onesimus certainly did wrong to Philemon by running away, and he probably also stole some of Philemon’s property. But Paul is stating these things as uncertain in order to be polite. If your language does not use a conditional statement in this way, then use a more natural way to state this. Alternate translation: “But whatever he has taken or whatever wrong he has done to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-condition-fact]])
68 PHM 1 18 w4ys εἰ δέ τι ἠδίκησέν σε ἢ ὀφείλει 1 These two phrases mean similar things, although **wronged you** is more general than **owes you**. If it would be more natural in your language, you can put the more general phrase second. Alternate translation: “But if he owes you anything or has wronged you in any way”
69 PHM 1 18 j3ou τοῦτο ἐμοὶ ἐλλόγα. 1 Alternate translation: “I will take responsibility for repaying you” or “say that I am the one who owes you”
70 PHM 1 19 wb53 ἐγὼ Παῦλος ἔγραψα τῇ ἐμῇ χειρί 1 I, Paul, write this with my own hand Paul wrote this part with his **own hand** so that Philemon would know that these words were really from Paul, and that Paul really would pay him. He used the past tense here because the action of writing would be in the past when Philemon read the letter. Use the tense that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I, Paul, write this myself.”
71 PHM 1 19 gn6c figs-irony ἵνα μὴ λέγω σοι 1 in order not to say to you Paul says that he will not say something to Philemon while saying it. This is a polite way of emphasizing the truth of what Paul is telling him. If your language would not use irony like this, then use a more natural expression. Alternate translation: “I do not need to remind you” or “You already know.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]]) Paul says that he will not say something to Philemon while saying it. This is a polite way of emphasizing the truth of what Paul is telling him. If your language would not use irony like this, then use a more natural expression. Alternate translation: “I do not need to remind you” or “You already know” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-irony]])
72 PHM 1 19 st7e figs-explicit καὶ σεαυτόν μοι προσοφείλεις 1 you also owe me your own self Paul was implying that whatever Onesimus or Paul owed to Philemon was canceled by the larger amount that Philemon owed to Paul, which was Philemon’s own life. The reason that Philemon owed Paul his life can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “you even owe me your own life” or “you owe me much more because I saved your life” or “you owe me your own life because I told you about Jesus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
73 PHM 1 20 mw03 figs-metaphor ἀδελφέ 1 Here, **brother** is a metaphor for a fellow believer. Alternate translation: “spiritual brother” or “brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
74 PHM 1 20 cqd0 figs-metaphor ἐν Κυρίῳ 1 See how you translated **in the Lord** in verse 16. This metaphor refers to being a believer in Jesus and means the same as **in Christ**. Alternate translation: “as you serve the Lord” or “because we are fellow believers in the Lord” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
75 PHM 1 20 xp0b figs-explicit ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα ἐν Χριστῷ 1 refresh my inward parts in Christ How Paul wanted Philemon to refresh him can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “refresh my inward parts in Christ by accepting Onesimus kindly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
76 PHM 1 20 j8lh figs-metaphor ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα 1 refresh my inward parts Here **refresh** is a metaphor for comfort or encourage. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
77 PHM 1 20 kmpp figs-metonymy ἀνάπαυσόν μου τὰ σπλάγχνα 1 refresh my inward parts Here “inward parts” is a metonym for a person’s feelings, thoughts, or inner being. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]]) Here, **inward parts** is a metonym for a person’s feelings, thoughts, or inner being. Alternate translation: “encourage me” or “comfort me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
78 PHM 1 21 azje figs-abstractnouns πεποιθὼς τῇ ὑπακοῇ σου 1 refresh my inward parts If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract nouns **confidence** and **obedience** with verbs. Alternate translation: “Because I am confident that you will obey” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
79 PHM 1 21 lxxi ἔγραψά σοι 1 refresh my inward parts Paul used the past tense here because the action of writing would be in the past when Philemon read the letter. Use the tense that is most natural in your language. Alternate translation: “I write to you”
80 PHM 1 22 xpn6 checking/headings 0 Connecting Statement: Here Paul closes his letter and gives final instruction to Philemon and a blessing on Philemon and on the believers that met for church in Philemon’s house. If you are using section headings, you could put one here before verse 22. Suggested heading: “Final Instruction and Blessing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/checking/headings]])
82 PHM 1 22 ctr4 χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν 1 I will be given back to you Alternate translation: “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can go to you.”
83 PHM 1 22 mzr0 ἑτοίμαζέ μοι ξενίαν 1 I will be given back to you The word translated **guest room** refers to any hospitality that is provided for a guest. So the kind of space is unspecified. Alternate translation: “also prepare a place in your house for me.”
84 PHM 1 22 lnw9 διὰ τῶν προσευχῶν ὑμῶν 1 I will be given back to you Alternate translation: “God will answer your prayers so”
85 PHM 1 22 p2u0 figs-activepassive χαρισθήσομαι ὑμῖν. 1 I will be given back to you If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bring me back to you” or “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can go to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God will bring me back to you” or “those who are keeping me in prison will set me free so that I can come to you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
86 PHM 1 22 o06s figs-you ὑμῶν…ὑμῖν 1 I will be given back to you The words **your** and **you** here are plural, referring to Philemon and all the believers who met in his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
87 PHM 1 23 x2d8 translate-names Ἐπαφρᾶς 1 Epaphras This is the name of a man who was a fellow believer and prisoner with Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]]) **Epaphras** was the name of a man who was a fellow believer and prisoner with Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
88 PHM 1 23 f0b6 ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ 1 Epaphras Here, **in Christ Jesus** means something similar to the phrases “in the Lord” and “in Christ” in verse 20. See how you translated those there. Alternate translation: “who is in prison with me because he serves Christ Jesus” fdHere, **in Christ Jesus** means something similar to the phrases “in the Lord” and “in Christ” in verse 20. See how you translated those there. Alternate translation: “who is here with me because he serves Christ Jesus”
89 PHM 1 24 i5gc translate-names Μᾶρκος, Ἀρίσταρχος, Δημᾶς, Λουκᾶς 1 Mark…Aristarchus…Demas…Luke These are names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
90 PHM 1 24 uc6n figs-ellipsis Μᾶρκος, Ἀρίσταρχος, Δημᾶς, Λουκᾶς 1 Mark…Aristarchus…Demas…Luke Paul is leaving out some of the words here that a sentence would need in many languages to be complete. If it would be clearer in your language, you could supply these words from the context. Alternate translation: “as do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow workers” or “Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow workers, also greet you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
91 PHM 1 24 gf6e οἱ συνεργοί μου 1 my fellow workers Alternate translation: “the men who work with me” or “who all work with me.”
92 PHM 1 25 apvl figs-synecdoche μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματος ὑμῶν 1 be with your spirit The words **your spirit** are a synecdoche and represent the people themselves. Paul is referring to Philemon and all who met in his house. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
93 PHM 1 25 e35h figs-abstractnouns ἡ χάρις τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 be with your spirit If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **grace** with an adjective or verb. Alternate translation: “May our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to” or “May our Lord Jesus Christ be kind to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **grace** with an adjective or verb. Alternate translation: “May our Lord Jesus Christ be gracious to you and” or “May our Lord Jesus Christ be kind to you and” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
94 PHM 1 25 jou6 figs-you ὑμῶν 1 be with your spirit The word **your** here is plural and refers to Philemon and all who met in his house. Alternate translation: “your spirits” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
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