Philippians TN edits through end of chapter 2 #2171

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en_tn_51-PHP.tsv

@ -150,7 +150,7 @@ PHP 2 8 ttys figs-rpronouns ἑαυτὸν 1 The word **himself** is a reflexiv
PHP 2 8 r5f0 figs-abstractnouns γενόμενος ὑπήκοος μέχρι θανάτου 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **obey** with a verb such as “obeying”. Alternate translation: “having obeyed to the point of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHP 2 8 hi57 figs-abstractnouns θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ 1 even death on a cross If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **death** with a verb such as “dying”. Alternate translation: “even to dying on a cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])<br><br><br>
PHP 2 8 flk2 θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ 1 The word **even** combined with the repetition of the word **death** emphasize that dying on a cross was considered extremely humiliating. Paul’s readers would have been familiar with crucifixion and understood that it was very humiliating. This phrase emphasizes that Jesus’ death on the cross showed the great extent of his humility and obedience. Think about the best way, in your language, to show the emphatic nature of this phrase. Alternate translation: “even to death on a cross” or “even as so far as dying on a cross” or “even to the extent of dying on a cross”
PHP 2 9 f3ek grammar-connect-logic-result διὸ 1 The word **Therefore** introduces the result of Jesus humbling himself. How Jesus humbled himself is described in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). What follows the word **Therefore** is the result of what Jesus did in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). The word**Therefore** shows the reason and result relationship between what comes before this word and what follows it. Choose the best way in your language to express the reason and result relationship expressed by the word **Therefore**. Alternate translation: “Because of this” or “Because Jesus acted this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
PHP 2 9 f3ek grammar-connect-logic-result διὸ 1 The word **Therefore** introduces the result of Jesus humbling himself. How Jesus humbled himself is described in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). What follows the word **Therefore** is the result of what Jesus did in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). The word **Therefore** shows the reason and result relationship between what comes before this word and what follows it. Choose the best way in your language to express the reason and result relationship expressed by the word **Therefore**. Alternate translation: “Because of this” or “Because Jesus acted this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
PHP 2 9 wmvd αὐτὸν ὑπερύψωσεν 1 Alternate translation: “greatly honored him”
PHP 2 9 qsy9 καὶ ἐχαρίσατο αὐτῷ τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα 1 above every name Alternate translation: “and gave him the position that was higher than any other position”
PHP 2 9 mvb7 figs-metonymy τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα 1 the name that is above every name Here, **name** is a metonym that refers to status or position. Alternate translation: “the position that is above every other position” or “the rank that is above every other rank” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
@ -212,18 +212,29 @@ PHP 2 21 b922 figs-explicit οἱ πάντες γὰρ τὰ ἑαυτῶν ζη
PHP 2 21 ycle figs-abstractnouns τὰ ἑαυτῶν ζητοῦσιν, οὐ τὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Alternate translation: “what they care about and not what Jesus Christ cares about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHP 2 22 gm8i figs-simile ὡς πατρὶ τέκνον 1 as a child with his father, he served with me Sons try to follow and imitate their fathers and often want to work alongside their fathers as they work. Paul was not Timothy’s biological father but uses this simile to illustrate how Timothy worked alongside him as a spiritual son so that together they advanced the gospel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])
PHP 2 22 clvw figs-abstractnouns τὴν δὲ δοκιμὴν αὐτοῦ γινώσκετε 1 If it would be clearer in your language you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **worth** with an adjective such as “valuable.” Alternate translation: “But you know how valuable Timothy is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHP 2 22 xdn5 figs-metonymy εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον 1 in the gospel Here, **the gospel** stands for the activity of telling people the good news about Jesus and working to help them become mature followers of Jesus. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in telling people about the gospel” or “in working to advance the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHP 2 24 yn62 πέποιθα…ἐν Κυρίῳ, ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι 1 I am confident in the Lord that I myself will also come soon “I am sure, if it is the Lord’s will, that I will also come soon”
PHP 2 22 xdn5 figs-metonymy εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον 1 in the gospel Here, **the gospel** means the work of advancing the gospel. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in gospel work” or “in working to advance the gospel” or “in the work of the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
PHP 2 24 yn62 πέποιθα…ἐν Κυρίῳ, ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι 1 I am confident in the Lord that I myself will also come soon Alternate translation: “I am sure, if it is the Lord’s will, that I will also come soon”
PHP 2 24 l7mv πέποιθα 1 The phrase **I trust** expresses a stronger idea of confidence than the phrase **I hope** in verse 23. Make sure that your translation reflects this.
PHP 2 24 qqpo figs-explicit ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι. 1 Here, the word **also** expresses that Paul was confident that he would be able to visit the Philippian Christians, in addition to sending Timothy to them. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “that I myself, in addition to Timothy, will also come soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHP 2 24 wbpc figs-go ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι 1 Your language may say “go” instead of **come** in contexts such as this. Alternate translation: “that I myself will also go soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])
PHP 2 25 k4wz translate-names Ἐπαφρόδιτον 1 Epaphroditus This is the name of a man sent by the Philippian church to minister to Paul in prison. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
PHP 2 25 c3ce figs-metaphor συνεργὸν καὶ συνστρατιώτην 1 fellow worker and fellow soldier Here Paul is speaking of Epaphroditus as if he were a **fellow soldier**. He means that Epaphroditus is trained and is dedicated to serving God, no matter how great the hardship he must suffer. Alternate translation: “fellow believer who works and struggles along with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHP 2 25 qsd6 ὑμῶν…ἀπόστολον καὶ λειτουργὸν τῆς χρείας μου 1 your messenger and minister for my needs “who brings your messages to me and helps me when I am in need”
PHP 2 26 gxn9 ἐπιποθῶν ἦν πάντας ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἀδημονῶν 1 he is longing to be with you all and he is distressed “he wanted to be with you all and is very worried”
PHP 2 27 itx2 figs-explicit λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην 1 sorrow upon sorrow The cause of the **sorrow** can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the sorrow of losing him added to the sorrow I already have from being in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHP 2 28 y5gc κἀγὼ ἀλυπότερος ὦ 1 and I might be free from pain “I will be less anxious” or “I will not worry as much as I have been”
PHP 2 29 y95x προσδέχεσθε οὖν αὐτὸν 1 Therefore welcome him “Therefore, gladly receive Epaphroditus”
PHP 2 29 qx14 ἐν Κυρίῳ μετὰ πάσης χαρᾶς 1 in the Lord with all joy “as a fellow believer in the Lord with all joy” or “with the great joy we have because the Lord Jesus loves us”
PHP 2 30 ns1y figs-metaphor μέχρι θανάτου ἤγγισεν 1 he came near even to death Paul here speaks of **death** as if it were a place that one could go to. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHP 2 30 g98z figs-metaphor ἀναπληρώσῃ τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα, τῆς πρός με λειτουργίας 1 he might make up your lack of service to me Paul speaks of his needs as if they were a container that Epaphroditus filled with good things for Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHP 2 25 csw5 figs-metaphor ἀδελφὸν…μου 1 Here, the phrase **my brother** does not mean that Epaphroditus was Paul’s biological brother. Rather, Paul calls Epaphroditus his **brother** because they were both members of God’s spiritual family through their faith in Jesus Christ. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “my spiritual brother” or “my brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHP 2 25 c3ce figs-metaphor συνστρατιώτην 1 fellow worker and fellow soldier Here, the phrase **fellow soldier** does not mean that Epaphroditus and Paul were actual soldiers in a military. What Paul means is that he and Epaphroditus were spiritual soldiers fighting together for God in the spiritual battle against Satan and evil. If this would be unclear in your language you could express this explicitly or modify the phrase **fellow soldier** to further explain what Paul means here. Alternate translation: “fellow believer who works and struggles along with us” or “fellow soldier of God” or “fellow warrior of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
PHP 2 25 qsd6 ὑμῶν…ἀπόστολον καὶ λειτουργὸν τῆς χρείας μου 1 your messenger and minister for my needs Alternate translation: “who brings your messages to me and helps me in my need”
PHP 2 26 gxn9 ἐπιποθῶν ἦν πάντας ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἀδημονῶν 1 he is longing to be with you all and he is distressed Alternate translation: “he has wanted to be with you all and is deeply concerned”
PHP 2 26 wdvh ἐπειδὴ ἐπιποθῶν ἦν πάντας ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἀδημονῶν διότι ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἠσθένησεν 1 In this verse all three uses of the pronoun **he** refer to Epaphroditus. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “seeing that Epaphroditus has been longing to be with you all and is distressed because you heard that he was sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
PHP 2 27 d3ou καὶ γὰρ ἠσθένησεν παραπλήσιον θανάτῳ, ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς ἠλέησεν αὐτόν, οὐκ αὐτὸν δὲ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐμέ, ἵνα μὴ λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην σχῶ 1 Here, the pronoun **he** refers to Epaphroditus as well as both uses of the pronoun **him**. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “For indeed Epaphroditus was sick nearly to death. But God had mercy on him, and not on him only, but also on me, so that I might not have sorrow upon sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
PHP 2 27 rl0m figs-abstractnouns ἠσθένησεν παραπλήσιον θανάτῳ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **death** with an adjective such as “dying”. Alternate translation: “he was sick nearly to the point of dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHP 2 27 n0zd figs-abstractnouns ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς ἠλέησεν 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **mercy** with an adjective such as “merciful”. Alternate translation: “but God was merciful to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHP 2 27 ioqq figs-explicit λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην 1 If the expression **sorrow upon sorrow** would be unclear in your language consider using an equivalent expression from your language or state the meaning of this phrase explicitly. Alternate translation: “sorrow added to sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
PHP 2 27 dzgz λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην 1 The expression **sorrow upon sorrow** could mean: (1) adding the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death to the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ sickness. Alternate translation: “the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death added to the sorrow of his sickness” (2) adding the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death to the sorrow of Paul’s imprisonment. Alternate translation: “the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death added to the sorrow of my imprisonment”
PHP 2 28 kt1d writing-pronouns σπουδαιοτέρως οὖν ἔπεμψα αὐτὸν, ἵνα ἰδόντες αὐτὸν πάλιν, χαρῆτε κἀγὼ ἀλυπότερος ὦ 1 Here, both occurrences of the pronoun **him** refer to Epaphroditus. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “Therefore, I sent Epaphroditus all the more eagerly, so that, having seen him again, you might rejoice, and I might be free from pain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
PHP 2 28 y5gc κἀγὼ ἀλυπότερος ὦ 1 and I might be free from pain Alternate translation: “and I might be less anxious” or “and I might be less concerned about you”
PHP 2 29 y95x figs-yousingular προσδέχεσθε οὖν αὐτὸν 1 Therefore welcome him The word **welcome** is a command given to the Philippian Christians in the plural form. In the original language that Paul wrote this letter in the word **welcome** could be translated as “you welcome”. If your language has a plural command form that would be appropriate to use in this context, consider using it in your translation of this word. Alternate translation: “I exhort each of you to welcome” or “each of you welcome” or “all of you welcome” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])<br><br>
PHP 2 29 qx14 figs-abstractnouns ἐν Κυρίῳ μετὰ πάσης χαρᾶς 1 in the Lord with all joy If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **joy** with an adverb such as “joyfully” as the UST does or you can use a verbal form of this word such as “rejoicing”. Alternate translation: “Therefore, welcome him in the Lord with rejoicing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
PHP 2 29 l59w ἐντίμους ἔχετε 1 The phrase **hold in honor** is a command given to the Philippian Christians in the plural form. In the original language that Paul wrote this letter in the phrase **hold in honor** could be translated as “you hold in honor”. If your language has a plural command form that would be appropriate to use in this context, consider using it in your translation of this phrase. Alternate translation: “I exhort each of you to hold in honor” or “each of you honor” or “all of you honor”
PHP 2 30 ns1y writing-pronouns ὅτι διὰ τὸ ἔργον Χριστοῦ μέχρι θανάτου ἤγγισεν, παραβολευσάμενος τῇ ψυχῇ, ἵνα ἀναπληρώσῃ τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα, τῆς πρός με λειτουργίας 1 he came near even to death Here, the pronouns **he** and **him** refer to Epaphroditus. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “since for the sake of the work of Christ, Epaphroditus came near even to death, risking his life so that he might make up your lack of service to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
PHP 2 30 g98z ἵνα ἀναπληρώσῃ τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα, τῆς πρός με λειτουργίας 1 he might make up your lack of service to me The **lack of service** Paul speaks of here is the inability of the Philippian believers to be present with him in prison. By sending Epaphroditus to Paul, the Philippian believers ministered to his needs through Epaphroditus and so Epaphroditus supplied what they could not. Alternate translation: “so that he might supply what you could not give me” or “so that he might make up for what you could not give”
PHP 3 intro btx3 0 # Philippians 3 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>In verses 4-8, Paul lists how he qualifies for being considered a righteous Jew. In every way, Paul was an exemplary Jew. But he contrasts this with the greatness of knowing Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Dogs<br><br>The people of the ancient Near East used dogs as an image to refer to people in a negative way. Not all cultures use the term “dogs” in this way.<br><br>### Resurrected Bodies<br><br>We know very little about what people will be like in heaven. Paul teaches here that Christians will have some kind of glorious body and will be free from sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])<br><br>## Important figures of speech in this chapter<br><br>### Prize<br><br>Paul uses an extended illustration to describe the Christian life. The goal of the Christian life is attempting to grow to be like Christ until a person dies. We can never achieve this goal perfectly, but we must strive for it.
PHP 3 1 e79h 0 Connecting Statement: In order to warn his fellow believers about Jews who would try to get them to follow the old laws, Paul gives his own testimony about when he persecuted believers.
PHP 3 1 s3bx τὸ λοιπόν, ἀδελφοί μου 1 As to the rest, my brothers “Now moving along, my brothers” or “Concerning other matters, my brothers”

1 Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
150 PHP 2 8 r5f0 figs-abstractnouns γενόμενος ὑπήκοος μέχρι θανάτου 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **obey** with a verb such as “obeying”. Alternate translation: “having obeyed to the point of death” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
151 PHP 2 8 hi57 figs-abstractnouns θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ 1 even death on a cross If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **death** with a verb such as “dying”. Alternate translation: “even to dying on a cross” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])<br><br><br>
152 PHP 2 8 flk2 θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ 1 The word **even** combined with the repetition of the word **death** emphasize that dying on a cross was considered extremely humiliating. Paul’s readers would have been familiar with crucifixion and understood that it was very humiliating. This phrase emphasizes that Jesus’ death on the cross showed the great extent of his humility and obedience. Think about the best way, in your language, to show the emphatic nature of this phrase. Alternate translation: “even to death on a cross” or “even as so far as dying on a cross” or “even to the extent of dying on a cross”
153 PHP 2 9 f3ek grammar-connect-logic-result διὸ 1 The word **Therefore** introduces the result of Jesus humbling himself. How Jesus humbled himself is described in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). What follows the word **Therefore** is the result of what Jesus did in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). The word**Therefore** shows the reason and result relationship between what comes before this word and what follows it. Choose the best way in your language to express the reason and result relationship expressed by the word **Therefore**. Alternate translation: “Because of this” or “Because Jesus acted this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]]) The word **Therefore** introduces the result of Jesus humbling himself. How Jesus humbled himself is described in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). What follows the word **Therefore** is the result of what Jesus did in [2:6-8](../2/6-8.md). The word **Therefore** shows the reason and result relationship between what comes before this word and what follows it. Choose the best way in your language to express the reason and result relationship expressed by the word **Therefore**. Alternate translation: “Because of this” or “Because Jesus acted this way” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
154 PHP 2 9 wmvd αὐτὸν ὑπερύψωσεν 1 Alternate translation: “greatly honored him”
155 PHP 2 9 qsy9 καὶ ἐχαρίσατο αὐτῷ τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα 1 above every name Alternate translation: “and gave him the position that was higher than any other position”
156 PHP 2 9 mvb7 figs-metonymy τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα 1 the name that is above every name Here, **name** is a metonym that refers to status or position. Alternate translation: “the position that is above every other position” or “the rank that is above every other rank” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
212 PHP 2 21 ycle figs-abstractnouns τὰ ἑαυτῶν ζητοῦσιν, οὐ τὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ 1 Alternate translation: “what they care about and not what Jesus Christ cares about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
213 PHP 2 22 gm8i figs-simile ὡς πατρὶ τέκνον 1 as a child with his father, he served with me Sons try to follow and imitate their fathers and often want to work alongside their fathers as they work. Paul was not Timothy’s biological father but uses this simile to illustrate how Timothy worked alongside him as a spiritual son so that together they advanced the gospel. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-simile]])
214 PHP 2 22 clvw figs-abstractnouns τὴν δὲ δοκιμὴν αὐτοῦ γινώσκετε 1 If it would be clearer in your language you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **worth** with an adjective such as “valuable.” Alternate translation: “But you know how valuable Timothy is” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
215 PHP 2 22 xdn5 figs-metonymy εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον 1 in the gospel Here, **the gospel** stands for the activity of telling people the good news about Jesus and working to help them become mature followers of Jesus. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in telling people about the gospel” or “in working to advance the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]]) Here, **the gospel** means the work of advancing the gospel. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “in gospel work” or “in working to advance the gospel” or “in the work of the gospel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
216 PHP 2 24 yn62 πέποιθα…ἐν Κυρίῳ, ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι 1 I am confident in the Lord that I myself will also come soon “I am sure, if it is the Lord’s will, that I will also come soon” Alternate translation: “I am sure, if it is the Lord’s will, that I will also come soon”
217 PHP 2 24 l7mv πέποιθα 1 The phrase **I trust** expresses a stronger idea of confidence than the phrase **I hope** in verse 23. Make sure that your translation reflects this.
218 PHP 2 24 qqpo figs-explicit ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι. 1 Here, the word **also** expresses that Paul was confident that he would be able to visit the Philippian Christians, in addition to sending Timothy to them. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “that I myself, in addition to Timothy, will also come soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
219 PHP 2 24 wbpc figs-go ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸς ταχέως ἐλεύσομαι 1 Your language may say “go” instead of **come** in contexts such as this. Alternate translation: “that I myself will also go soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-go]])
220 PHP 2 25 k4wz translate-names Ἐπαφρόδιτον 1 Epaphroditus This is the name of a man sent by the Philippian church to minister to Paul in prison. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
221 PHP 2 25 c3ce csw5 figs-metaphor συνεργὸν καὶ συνστρατιώτην ἀδελφὸν…μου 1 fellow worker and fellow soldier Here Paul is speaking of Epaphroditus as if he were a **fellow soldier**. He means that Epaphroditus is trained and is dedicated to serving God, no matter how great the hardship he must suffer. Alternate translation: “fellow believer who works and struggles along with us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]) Here, the phrase **my brother** does not mean that Epaphroditus was Paul’s biological brother. Rather, Paul calls Epaphroditus his **brother** because they were both members of God’s spiritual family through their faith in Jesus Christ. If this would be unclear in your language consider stating this explicitly. Alternate translation: “my spiritual brother” or “my brother in Christ” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
222 PHP 2 25 qsd6 c3ce figs-metaphor ὑμῶν…ἀπόστολον καὶ λειτουργὸν τῆς χρείας μου συνστρατιώτην 1 your messenger and minister for my needs fellow worker and fellow soldier “who brings your messages to me and helps me when I am in need” Here, the phrase **fellow soldier** does not mean that Epaphroditus and Paul were actual soldiers in a military. What Paul means is that he and Epaphroditus were spiritual soldiers fighting together for God in the spiritual battle against Satan and evil. If this would be unclear in your language you could express this explicitly or modify the phrase **fellow soldier** to further explain what Paul means here. Alternate translation: “fellow believer who works and struggles along with us” or “fellow soldier of God” or “fellow warrior of God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
223 PHP 2 26 25 gxn9 qsd6 ἐπιποθῶν ἦν πάντας ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἀδημονῶν ὑμῶν…ἀπόστολον καὶ λειτουργὸν τῆς χρείας μου 1 he is longing to be with you all and he is distressed your messenger and minister for my needs “he wanted to be with you all and is very worried” Alternate translation: “who brings your messages to me and helps me in my need”
224 PHP 2 27 26 itx2 gxn9 figs-explicit λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην ἐπιποθῶν ἦν πάντας ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἀδημονῶν 1 sorrow upon sorrow he is longing to be with you all and he is distressed The cause of the **sorrow** can be made explicit. Alternate translation: “the sorrow of losing him added to the sorrow I already have from being in prison” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]]) Alternate translation: “he has wanted to be with you all and is deeply concerned”
225 PHP 2 28 26 y5gc wdvh κἀγὼ ἀλυπότερος ὦ ἐπειδὴ ἐπιποθῶν ἦν πάντας ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἀδημονῶν διότι ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἠσθένησεν 1 and I might be free from pain “I will be less anxious” or “I will not worry as much as I have been” In this verse all three uses of the pronoun **he** refer to Epaphroditus. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “seeing that Epaphroditus has been longing to be with you all and is distressed because you heard that he was sick” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
226 PHP 2 29 27 y95x d3ou προσδέχεσθε οὖν αὐτὸν καὶ γὰρ ἠσθένησεν παραπλήσιον θανάτῳ, ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς ἠλέησεν αὐτόν, οὐκ αὐτὸν δὲ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐμέ, ἵνα μὴ λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην σχῶ 1 Therefore welcome him “Therefore, gladly receive Epaphroditus” Here, the pronoun **he** refers to Epaphroditus as well as both uses of the pronoun **him**. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “For indeed Epaphroditus was sick nearly to death. But God had mercy on him, and not on him only, but also on me, so that I might not have sorrow upon sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
227 PHP 2 29 27 qx14 rl0m figs-abstractnouns ἐν Κυρίῳ μετὰ πάσης χαρᾶς ἠσθένησεν παραπλήσιον θανάτῳ 1 in the Lord with all joy “as a fellow believer in the Lord with all joy” or “with the great joy we have because the Lord Jesus loves us” If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **death** with an adjective such as “dying”. Alternate translation: “he was sick nearly to the point of dying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
228 PHP 2 30 27 ns1y n0zd figs-metaphor figs-abstractnouns μέχρι θανάτου ἤγγισεν ἀλλὰ ὁ Θεὸς ἠλέησεν 1 he came near even to death Paul here speaks of **death** as if it were a place that one could go to. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]) If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **mercy** with an adjective such as “merciful”. Alternate translation: “but God was merciful to him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
229 PHP 2 30 27 g98z ioqq figs-metaphor figs-explicit ἀναπληρώσῃ τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα, τῆς πρός με λειτουργίας λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην 1 he might make up your lack of service to me Paul speaks of his needs as if they were a container that Epaphroditus filled with good things for Paul. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]) If the expression **sorrow upon sorrow** would be unclear in your language consider using an equivalent expression from your language or state the meaning of this phrase explicitly. Alternate translation: “sorrow added to sorrow” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
230 PHP 2 27 dzgz λύπην ἐπὶ λύπην 1 The expression **sorrow upon sorrow** could mean: (1) adding the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death to the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ sickness. Alternate translation: “the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death added to the sorrow of his sickness” (2) adding the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death to the sorrow of Paul’s imprisonment. Alternate translation: “the sorrow of Epaphroditus’ death added to the sorrow of my imprisonment”
231 PHP 2 28 kt1d writing-pronouns σπουδαιοτέρως οὖν ἔπεμψα αὐτὸν, ἵνα ἰδόντες αὐτὸν πάλιν, χαρῆτε κἀγὼ ἀλυπότερος ὦ 1 Here, both occurrences of the pronoun **him** refer to Epaphroditus. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “Therefore, I sent Epaphroditus all the more eagerly, so that, having seen him again, you might rejoice, and I might be free from pain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
232 PHP 2 28 y5gc κἀγὼ ἀλυπότερος ὦ 1 and I might be free from pain Alternate translation: “and I might be less anxious” or “and I might be less concerned about you”
233 PHP 2 29 y95x figs-yousingular προσδέχεσθε οὖν αὐτὸν 1 Therefore welcome him The word **welcome** is a command given to the Philippian Christians in the plural form. In the original language that Paul wrote this letter in the word **welcome** could be translated as “you welcome”. If your language has a plural command form that would be appropriate to use in this context, consider using it in your translation of this word. Alternate translation: “I exhort each of you to welcome” or “each of you welcome” or “all of you welcome” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])<br><br>
234 PHP 2 29 qx14 figs-abstractnouns ἐν Κυρίῳ μετὰ πάσης χαρᾶς 1 in the Lord with all joy If it would be clearer in your language, you could express the idea behind the abstract noun **joy** with an adverb such as “joyfully” as the UST does or you can use a verbal form of this word such as “rejoicing”. Alternate translation: “Therefore, welcome him in the Lord with rejoicing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
235 PHP 2 29 l59w ἐντίμους ἔχετε 1 The phrase **hold in honor** is a command given to the Philippian Christians in the plural form. In the original language that Paul wrote this letter in the phrase **hold in honor** could be translated as “you hold in honor”. If your language has a plural command form that would be appropriate to use in this context, consider using it in your translation of this phrase. Alternate translation: “I exhort each of you to hold in honor” or “each of you honor” or “all of you honor”
236 PHP 2 30 ns1y writing-pronouns ὅτι διὰ τὸ ἔργον Χριστοῦ μέχρι θανάτου ἤγγισεν, παραβολευσάμενος τῇ ψυχῇ, ἵνα ἀναπληρώσῃ τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα, τῆς πρός με λειτουργίας 1 he came near even to death Here, the pronouns **he** and **him** refer to Epaphroditus. If this would be unclear in your language consider clarifying this in your translation. Alternate translation: “since for the sake of the work of Christ, Epaphroditus came near even to death, risking his life so that he might make up your lack of service to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-pronouns]])
237 PHP 2 30 g98z ἵνα ἀναπληρώσῃ τὸ ὑμῶν ὑστέρημα, τῆς πρός με λειτουργίας 1 he might make up your lack of service to me The **lack of service** Paul speaks of here is the inability of the Philippian believers to be present with him in prison. By sending Epaphroditus to Paul, the Philippian believers ministered to his needs through Epaphroditus and so Epaphroditus supplied what they could not. Alternate translation: “so that he might supply what you could not give me” or “so that he might make up for what you could not give”
238 PHP 3 intro btx3 0 # Philippians 3 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>In verses 4-8, Paul lists how he qualifies for being considered a righteous Jew. In every way, Paul was an exemplary Jew. But he contrasts this with the greatness of knowing Jesus. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/righteous]])<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Dogs<br><br>The people of the ancient Near East used dogs as an image to refer to people in a negative way. Not all cultures use the term “dogs” in this way.<br><br>### Resurrected Bodies<br><br>We know very little about what people will be like in heaven. Paul teaches here that Christians will have some kind of glorious body and will be free from sin. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/heaven]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sin]])<br><br>## Important figures of speech in this chapter<br><br>### Prize<br><br>Paul uses an extended illustration to describe the Christian life. The goal of the Christian life is attempting to grow to be like Christ until a person dies. We can never achieve this goal perfectly, but we must strive for it.
239 PHP 3 1 e79h 0 Connecting Statement: In order to warn his fellow believers about Jews who would try to get them to follow the old laws, Paul gives his own testimony about when he persecuted believers.
240 PHP 3 1 s3bx τὸ λοιπόν, ἀδελφοί μου 1 As to the rest, my brothers “Now moving along, my brothers” or “Concerning other matters, my brothers”
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