26 Commits
v33 ... v34

Author SHA1 Message Date
  Robert Hunt e02850275c Prepare to publish v34 (#1503) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee c56deca009 Fix missing letters on UGNT snippets in 1 Timothy (#1502) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee 539638abb3 Corrected 1 Timothy errors found by validator (#1500) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee fe0b019398 Correct 1Ti errors found by validation. (#1499) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee ad251e70a3 Restored original ID's to 1 Timothy notes (#1498) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee 8461a93c72 Correct errors in 1Ti found by validation tool (#1497) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee 6d53951bcb Corrected errors in 1Ti from validation tool (#1496) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee 428cedbc01 Corrected zero-width and non-breaking spaces that tC-Create put in Luk, Tit, 1Ti, and 3Jn. (#1495) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee 9065326f6c Aaron.Shryock-tc-create-1 (#1494) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee cd1b7e74a8 Fix column error in 1 Timothty (#1492) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee fabd536d0b Aaron.Shryock-tc-create-1 (#1491) 2 months ago
  Perry J Oakes eec43aedb5 Final Review [EST] (#1489) 2 months ago
  Joel D. Ruark 8dd5828a57 BP Editing [EZR] (#1490) 2 months ago
  Larry Sallee a7a4f53e38 Fixed unmatched brackets in 1 Timothy (#1488) 3 months ago
  Larry Sallee 87ecb4c440 Merge christopherrsmith-patch-1 with latest updates to 1 Timothy notes (#1487) 3 months ago
  Larry Sallee d1b30f8047 Correct error in 1Ti 5:24 note format (#1486) 3 months ago
  Joel D. Ruark d317b0d0b6 Proofread Check [NEH] (#1485) 3 months ago
  Larry Sallee 1d5785561a Merge christopherrsmith-patch-1 for 1 Timothy BP (#1484) 3 months ago
  Richard Mahn bc0e98513f Fixes link (#1483) 3 months ago
  Joel D. Ruark db8906ff91 Remove stray quote character (#1481) 4 months ago
  Joel D. Ruark a7f0afba85 tCore Check [NEH] (#1480) 4 months ago
  Joel D. Ruark 5d114898be Delete bad characters in RC links (#1478) 4 months ago
  Joel D. Ruark 968125cc31 joeldruark-tc-create-1 (#1477) 4 months ago
  christopherrsmith 0eb1345065 Test input method on Luke 9:59-62 (#1476) 4 months ago
  Robert Hunt e46bf898a0 Remove spaces after maqaf (#1475) 4 months ago
  Robert Hunt 3ae0cba204 RJHfixes (#1474) 4 months ago
8 changed files with 975 additions and 950 deletions
Split View
  1. +13
    -14
      en_tn_15-EZR.tsv
  2. +117
    -117
      en_tn_16-NEH.tsv
  3. +420
    -450
      en_tn_17-EST.tsv
  4. +14
    -12
      en_tn_43-LUK.tsv
  5. +401
    -347
      en_tn_55-1TI.tsv
  6. +2
    -2
      en_tn_57-TIT.tsv
  7. +2
    -2
      en_tn_65-3JN.tsv
  8. +6
    -6
      manifest.yaml

+ 13
- 14
en_tn_15-EZR.tsv View File

@@ -60,13 +60,13 @@ EZR 1 9 hu9c figs-idiom וְ⁠אֵ֖לֶּה מִסְפָּרָ֑⁠ם 1 Gener
EZR 1 10 ja6u כְּפ֤וֹרֵי כֶ֨סֶף֙ מִשְׁנִ֔ים 1 bowls This means that these bowls were a different type of bowl than the gold ones just mentioned. It does not mean that the silver was of a different type than the silver in the basins described in verse [9] (../01/09.md).
EZR 1 11 z55f כָּל־כֵּלִים֙ לַ⁠זָּהָ֣ב וְ⁠לַ⁠כֶּ֔סֶף חֲמֵ֥שֶׁת אֲלָפִ֖ים וְ⁠אַרְבַּ֣ע מֵא֑וֹת 1 5400 This expression means, “The total number of these gold and silver objects was 5,400.” Verses [9] (../01/09.md) and [10] (../01/10.md) actually list only 2,499 items, and it is not clear why the numbers are different. The explanation does not seem to be that the total here includes other miscellaneous items, because the last item on the list itself is “other vessels.” It would probably be best simply to report this total without calling attention to the difference and trying to explain it, since there is no clear reason for it.
EZR 1 11 i30r figs-idiom הַ⁠כֹּ֞ל הֶעֱלָ֣ה שֵׁשְׁבַּצַּ֗ר עִ֚ם הֵעָל֣וֹת הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה מִ⁠בָּבֶ֖ל לִ⁠ירוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ 1 Like the similar expression in verse [3] (../01/03.md), here the book says “brought up” and “going up” because the Jews had to travel from a river valley up into the mountains to return from exile to Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “Sheshbazzar brought all these vessels along when he traveled to Jerusalem with the group of Jews who had been taken away from their homeland but who were now returning from Babylon to Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 1 11 2t84 figs-abstractnouns הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 The abstract noun “exile” refers in this context to the community of Jews who were living in Babylon because the Babylonians had relocated them away from their homeland when they conquered Jerusalem. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the group of Jews who had been taken away from their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 1 11 2t84 figs-abstractnouns הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 The abstract noun “exiles” refers in this context to the community of Jews who were living in Babylon because the Babylonians had relocated them away from their homeland when they conquered Jerusalem. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the group of Jews who had been taken away from their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 1 11 fi2e translate-names מִ⁠בָּבֶ֖ל 1 This is the name of a city. The book also uses this name for the empire that was once ruled from that city, and for the region that had been at the heart of this empire that became a province in the Persian Empire. The name occurs many times in the book, and it will be helpful to your readers if you translate it consistently each time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 2 intro rr42 0 # Ezra 02 General Notes<br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Genealogy<br>People had to prove they were priests, or that they were Jews, through their genealogies. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/priest]])
EZR 2 1 ezk9 figs-personification בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠מְּדִינָ֗ה 0 General Information: The book speaks figuratively here of the province of Judah as if it were the ancestor of all the Jews who had come from there there. Alternate translation: “the people from the province of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
EZR 2 1 ponw figs-metonymy הַ⁠מְּדִינָ֗ה 0 “The province” means the province of Judah. The document is referring to Judah by something associated with it, its status as a province. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EZR 2 1 byc2 figs-idiom הָֽ⁠עֹלִים֙ 1 went up “Went up” means “traveled from Babylon back to Judah,” since that involves going from a river valley up into the mountains. Alternate translation: “who returned to Judah from Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 2 1 czrg figs-abstractnouns מִ⁠שְּׁבִ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶגְלָ֛ה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל לְ⁠בָבֶ֑ל 1 The abstract nouns “captivity” and “exile” refer to the way Nebuchadnezzar took these people prisoner and transported them away from their homeland. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind these terms with verbs. Alternate translation: “Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, had taken their ancestors prisoner and transported them to Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 2 1 czrg figs-abstractnouns מִ⁠שְּׁבִ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶגְלָ֛ה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּ֥ר מֶֽלֶךְ־בָּבֶ֖ל לְ⁠בָבֶ֑ל 1 The abstract nouns “captivity” and “exiles” refer to the way Nebuchadnezzar took these people prisoner and transported them away from their homeland. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind these terms with verbs. Alternate translation: “Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, had taken their ancestors prisoner and transported them to Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 2 1 evx5 figs-idiom אִ֥ישׁ לְ⁠עִירֽ⁠וֹ׃ 1 Here “a man” means “each one” or “each person” Alternate translation: “They went to live in the same towns where their families had lived before.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 2 2 0xt0 אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣אוּ עִם 1 This phrase introduces a list of the men who led this group back to Judah. Alternate translation: “The leaders of this group were”
EZR 2 2 tmp8 translate-names זְרֻבָּבֶ֗ל יֵשׁ֡וּעַ נְ֠חֶמְיָה שְׂרָיָ֨ה רְֽעֵלָיָ֜ה מָרְדֳּכַ֥י בִּלְשָׁ֛ן מִסְפָּ֥ר בִּגְוַ֖י רְח֣וּם בַּעֲנָ֑ה 1 Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mispar, Bigvai, Rehum, and Baanah These are the names of twelve men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -93,7 +93,7 @@ EZR 2 11 h16w translate-names בֵבָ֔י 1 Bebai Bebai is the name of a man. (
EZR 2 12 bhyt bita-hq בְּנֵ֣י עַזְגָּ֔ד 1 “Sons” figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Azgad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 2 12 rxn6 translate-names עַזְגָּ֔ד 1 Azgad Azgad is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 2 13 yr6e bita-hq בְּנֵי֙ אֲדֹ֣נִיקָ֔ם 1 “Sons” figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Adonikam” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 2 13 uzn6 translate-names אֲדֹ֣נִיקָ֔ם 1 Adonikam Adonikam is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/]])
EZR 2 13 uzn6 translate-names אֲדֹ֣נִיקָ֔ם 1 Adonikam Adonikam is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 2 14 9tzp bita-hq בְּנֵ֣י בִגְוָ֔י 1 “Sons” figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Bigvai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 2 14 qkv6 translate-names בִגְוָ֔י 1 Bigvai Bigvai is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 2 15 u5zk bita-hq בְּנֵ֣י עָדִ֔ין 0 General Information: “Sons” figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Adin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
@@ -330,8 +330,7 @@ EZR 4 1 v368 writing-background וַֽ⁠יִּשְׁמְע֔וּ 0 General Info
EZR 4 1 miqb figs-personification יְהוּדָ֖ה וּ⁠בִנְיָמִ֑ן 0 Here the book is referring figuratively to the people who came from the tribe of Judah as if they were a single person, their ancestor Judah. It is referring similarly to the people of the tribe of Benjamin as if they were a single person, their ancestor Benjamin. Alternate translation: “the people of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin,” however, see the next note for a further possibility. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
EZR 4 1 i4dx figs-hendiadys יְהוּדָ֖ה וּ⁠בִנְיָמִ֑ן 0 Here the book may be expressing a single idea figuratively by using two words connected with “and.” Together the two words may be a way of referring to all of the Israelites, since at this point the community consisted essentially of people from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hendiadys]])
EZR 4 1 vflf figs-synecdoche וַֽ⁠יִּשְׁמְע֔וּ ... כִּֽי־בְנֵ֤י הַ⁠גּוֹלָה֙ בּוֹנִ֣ים הֵיכָ֔ל 0 “Heard” means that these enemies learned by some means that the Jews were doing this. The book is figuratively using hearing, one means of discovering things, to describe the enemies learning this. Alternate translation: “learned that the Jews who had returned from exile were building a temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
EZR 4 1 uie3 bita-hq בְנֵ֤י הַ⁠גּוֹלָה֙ 1 the sons of the exiles “Son of” here is a figurative expression that indicates that a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, the book is describing people who share the quality of having been taken into exile away from their homeland and then returning. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned from exile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 4 1 syf6 figs-abstractnouns בְנֵ֤י הַ⁠גּוֹלָה֙ 1 The abstract noun “exile” refers to the way the Babylonians had taken the Jews as captives and transported them away from their homeland. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with a verb such as “return,” which would describe the present situation of some of these Jews and their descendants. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 4 1 syf6 figs-idiom בְנֵ֤י הַ⁠גּוֹלָה֙ 1 As indicated in [2:1](../02/01.md) and [8:35](../08/35.md), the phrase **the sons of the exile** refers specifically to the group of Jewish people who returned to the land of Judah from Babylon after King Nebuchadnezzar had conquered Jerusalem and has taken many Jews as captives to Babylon. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned from exile” or “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 4 1 czf3 figs-informremind לַ⁠יהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל 1 This phrase provides further background information about Yahweh and it likely expresses the perspective of the enemies on the situation. Alternate translation: “Yahweh, the God they worshipped” or “Yahweh, the God whom the people of Israel worshipped” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind]])
EZR 4 2 dkbu grammar-connect-logic-result וַ⁠יִּגְּשׁ֨וּ 1 This word indicates that the sentence it introduces explains the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “as a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EZR 4 2 spx4 translate-names זְרֻבָּבֶ֜ל 1 Zerubbabel This is the name of a man. See how you translated it in [2:2] (../02/02.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -644,7 +643,7 @@ EZR 6 15 i2k0 translate-hebrewmonths עַ֛ד י֥וֹם תְּלָתָ֖ה לִ
EZR 6 15 bhp9 translate-ordinal שְׁנַת־שֵׁ֔ת לְ⁠מַלְכ֖וּת דָּרְיָ֥וֶשׁ מַלְכָּֽ⁠א 1 sixth year The Hebrew uses a cardinal number here, “six,” but there is not a significant difference in meaning between that and the way the Hebrew uses an ordinal number, “sixth,” in similar contexts elsewhere. If your language customarily uses ordinals for the numbers of years, you can do that here in your translation. Alternate translation: “in the sixth year of the reign of Darius as king of Persia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
EZR 6 16 xnpw grammar-connect-time-sequential וַ⁠עֲבַ֣דוּ 1 the rest of the children of the exile This word indicates that the event the story will now relate came after the events it has just described. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this relationship by using a word such as “then.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
EZR 6 16 ajjz bita-hq בְנֵֽי־יִ֠שְׂרָאֵל 1 the rest of the children of the exile “Sons” figuratively means “descendants.” Here the book envisions all of the Israelites as descendants of the patriarch Jacob, who was also known as Israel. The expression comprises the three groups that are listed next, the priests, Levites, and other Jews. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 6 16 cq1q bita-hq וּ⁠שְׁאָ֣ר בְּנֵי־גָלוּתָ֗⁠א 1 the rest of the children of the exile As in [4:1] (../04/01.md), “son of” here is a figurative expression that indicates that a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, the book is describing people who share the quality of having been taken into exile away from their homeland and then returning. Alternate translation: “the rest of the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 6 16 cq1q figs-idiom וּ⁠שְׁאָ֣ר בְּנֵי־גָלוּתָ֗⁠א 1 the rest of the children of the exile As indicated in [2:1](../02/01.md) and [8:35](../08/35.md), the phrase **the sons of the exile** refers specifically to the group of Jewish people who returned to the land of Judah from Babylon after King Nebuchadnezzar had conquered Jerusalem and has taken many Jews as captives to Babylon. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned from exile” or “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 6 16 z1u1 figs-abstractnouns וַ⁠עֲבַ֣דוּ...חֲנֻכַּ֛ת בֵּית־אֱלָהָ֥⁠א דְנָ֖ה בְּ⁠חֶדְוָֽה 1 the rest of the children of the exile The abstract noun “dedication” refers to the way the Israelites conducted a special ceremony to set the temple apart as a place for the worship of Yahweh. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this word with a verb such as “dedicate.” Alternate translation: “joyfully dedicated this temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])<br>
EZR 6 17 iel9 figs-abstractnouns וְ⁠הַקְרִ֗בוּ לַ⁠חֲנֻכַּת֮ בֵּית־אֱלָהָ֣⁠א דְנָה֒ 1 one hundred bulls…four hundred lambs As in the previous sentence, the abstract noun “dedication” refers to the way the Israelites conducted a special ceremony. Once again you could translate the idea behind this word with a verb such as “dedicate.” Alternate translation: “As they dedicated this temple, they offered” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 6 17 r49v figs-explicit וְ⁠הַקְרִ֗בוּ...תּוֹרִ֣ין מְאָ֔ה דִּכְרִ֣ין מָאתַ֔יִן אִמְּרִ֖ין אַרְבַּ֣ע מְאָ֑ה וּ⁠צְפִירֵ֨י עִזִּ֜ין ל⁠חטיא...תְּרֵֽי־עֲשַׂ֔ר 1 one hundred bulls…four hundred lambs The implication, as [6:9] (../06/09.md) indicates explicitly, is that the bulls, rams, and lambs were used for whole burnt offerings. If it would be helpful, review the note to [3:2] (../03/02.md) about what whole burnt offerings were and why they were offered. Alternate translation: “they offered 100 bulls, 200 rams, and 400 lambs as whole burnt offerings and 12 male goats as a sin offering.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -667,7 +666,7 @@ EZR 6 20 rjm2 figs-parallelism הִֽטַּהֲר֞וּ...כְּ⁠אֶחָ֖ד
EZR 6 20 j34t figs-metaphor הִֽטַּהֲר֞וּ 1 purified themselves Being pure figuratively represents being acceptable to God. Alternate translation: “performed a ceremony to show that they wanted to be acceptable to God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 6 20 ryyj figs-explicit וַ⁠יִּשְׁחֲט֤וּ הַ⁠פֶּ֨סַח֙ 1 purified themselves The book assumes that readers will know that the Passover celebration included a special meal of lamb. The Israelites had slaughtered lambs to eat on the night before they left Egypt, and they had put the blood of the lambs on their doorframes so that God would “pass over” their houses and everyone inside would be safe. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “they slaughtered lambs for the special Passover meal.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EZR 6 20 cgbl translate-names הַ⁠פֶּ֨סַח֙ 1 purified themselves See how you translated the name of this festival in [6:19] (../06/19.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 6 20 b9et bita-hq בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 purified themselves See how you translated this expression in verse [16] (../06/16.md). Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 6 20 b9et figs-idiom בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 purified themselves See how you translated this expression in [6:16](../06/16.md). Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 6 20 m6ql bita-hq וְ⁠לַ⁠אֲחֵי⁠הֶ֥ם הַ⁠כֹּהֲנִ֖ים 1 purified themselves Here “brother” is a figurative way of saying “fellow priests,” although it is possible that this group included some of the biological brothers of the priests who slaughtered the lambs. Alternate translation: “their fellow priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 6 21 dpio bita-hq וַ⁠יֹּאכְל֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל 1 had separated themselves from the uncleanness of the nations of the land “Sons” here figuratively means “descendants.” The book is envisioning all of the Israelites as descendants of the patriarch Jacob, who was also known as Israel. Alternate translation: “the Israelites ate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 6 21 zqei figs-ellipsis וַ⁠יֹּאכְל֣וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל 1 had separated themselves from the uncleanness of the nations of the land Here the book leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Alternate translation: “the Israelites ate the Passover meal” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
@@ -969,7 +968,7 @@ EZR 8 33 jrat translate-names וְ⁠נֽוֹעַדְיָ֥ה בֶן־בִּנּ
EZR 8 34 4qb5 figs-explicit בְּ⁠מִסְפָּ֥ר בְּ⁠מִשְׁקָ֖ל לַ⁠כֹּ֑ל 1 Jeshua This means that the objects and the bars or coins of silver and gold were both counted and weighed. The implication is that this was a double confirmation of the honesty of the priests and Levites who had transported these donations. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Everything was both counted and weighed, as proof that the men who had carried it had not stolen anything.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EZR 8 34 nh2n figs-activepassive וַ⁠יִּכָּתֵ֥ב כָּֽל־הַ⁠מִּשְׁקָ֖ל 1 Jeshua If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “The priests and Levites in the temple wrote down the weight of all the silver and gold and of the objects” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EZR 8 35 gxu7 figs-parallelism הַ֠⁠בָּאִים מֵֽ⁠הַ⁠שְּׁבִ֨י בְנֵֽי־הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֜ה 1 those who had come back from the captivity, the sons of the exiles These two phrases mean the same thing. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned from exile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
EZR 8 35 qo2t bita-hq הַ֠⁠בָּאִים מֵֽ⁠הַ⁠שְּׁבִ֨י בְנֵֽי־הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֜ה 1 those who had come back from the captivity, the sons of the exiles As in [4:1] (../04/01.md), “son of” here is a figurative expression that indicates that a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, it is the quality of having been taken into exile away from their homeland and then having returned. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 8 35 qo2t figs-idiom הַ֠⁠בָּאִים מֵֽ⁠הַ⁠שְּׁבִ֨י בְנֵֽי־הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֜ה 1 those who had come back from the captivity, the sons of the exiles As indicated in [2:1](../02/01.md) and [8:35](../08/35.md), the phrase **the sons of the exile** refers specifically to the group of Jewish people who returned to the land of Judah from Babylon after King Nebuchadnezzar had conquered Jerusalem and has taken many Jews as captives to Babylon. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned from exile” or “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 8 35 lgl7 figs-explicit הִקְרִ֥יבוּ עֹל֣וֹת׀ לֵ⁠אלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל פָּרִ֨ים שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֤ר עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֵילִ֣ים׀ תִּשְׁעִ֣ים וְ⁠שִׁשָּׁ֗ה כְּבָשִׂים֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים וְ⁠שִׁבְעָ֔ה צְפִירֵ֥י חַטָּ֖את שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֑ר הַ⁠כֹּ֖ל עוֹלָ֥ה לַ⁠יהוָֽה 1 twelve…ninety-six…seventy-seven…twelve The book assumes that readers will recognize that the expression “burnt offering” means two different things here. In its first instance, it means a sacrifice offered in order to express a desire to be in good standing with God by creating an aroma, the smell of roasting meat, that was considered to be pleasing to God. This first instance of the expression applies to the bulls, rams, and lambs. As in [6:17] (../06/17.md), the goats were instead a “sin offering,” a sacrifice offered as an act of contrition and a request for forgiveness. “Burnt offering” in its second instance means a sacrifice that was entirely consumed, none of which anyone could eat. The bulls, rams, lambs, and goats were all burnt offerings in that second sense. Alternate translation: “offered as burnt offerings to the God of Israel 12 bulls for all Israel, 96 rams, and 77 lambs, and as a sin offering 12 male goats. All of these sacrifices to Yahweh were completely burned up.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EZR 8 35 rdop translate-symaction הִקְרִ֥יבוּ עֹל֣וֹת׀ לֵ⁠אלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל פָּרִ֨ים שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂ֤ר עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֵילִ֣ים׀ תִּשְׁעִ֣ים וְ⁠שִׁשָּׁ֗ה כְּבָשִׂים֙ שִׁבְעִ֣ים וְ⁠שִׁבְעָ֔ה צְפִירֵ֥י חַטָּ֖את שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֑ר 1 twelve…ninety-six…seventy-seven…twelve The numbers of animals offered are symbolic, as the book explains in the case of the bulls. There were 12 bulls “for all Israel” because there were twelve tribes of Israel. There were 12 goats for the same reason. The same symbolism seems to lie behind the 96 rams, since that number is eight times 12, although the significance of the number eight is no longer apparent. The number 77 is an intensive form of the number seven, which symbolizes completeness. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “offered 12 bulls, one for each of the tribes of Israel, 96 rams, eight for each of the tribes of Israel, and 77 lambs, expressing completeness, as burnt offerings to the God of Israel, and 12 male goats as a sin offering, one for each of the tribes of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])
EZR 8 36 r5gu figs-explicit וַֽ⁠יִּתְּנ֣וּ׀ אֶת־דָּתֵ֣י הַ⁠מֶּ֗לֶךְ לַ⁠אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנֵי֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ וּ⁠פַחֲו֖וֹת עֵ֣בֶר הַ⁠נָּהָ֑ר 1 the governors in the Province Beyond the River Here the “laws of the king” seem to mean the decrees that Artaxerxes issued in the letter he gave to Ezra, and specifically the provisions that allowed Ezra to ask for support for the temple, exempted temple personnel from taxation, and allowed Ezra to appoint judges. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “And Ezra and the Jewish leaders informed the royal officials and governors in Beyond-the-River province of the decrees that Artaxerxes had issued in his letter to Ezra.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -998,7 +997,7 @@ EZR 9 3 qhy7 מְשׁוֹמֵֽם 1 When I heard this matter The sense of this
EZR 9 4 k68j figs-activepassive וְ⁠אֵלַ֣⁠י יֵאָסְפ֗וּ כֹּ֤ל חָרֵד֙ בְּ⁠דִבְרֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַ֖ל מַ֣עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֑ה 1 the evening sacrifice If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Everyone came and joined me who was just as distressed as I was about the way the Jews who had returned from exile had disobeyed the commandments of the God of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EZR 9 4 0svq figs-metaphor כֹּ֤ל חָרֵד֙ 1 the evening sacrifice Often in the Old Testament “tremble” is a [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] meaning to regard someone or something with respect and reverential fear. That is likely included in the meaning here, but in this context, the expression also seems to indicate an actual physical response to the situation, just as Ezra did not move or speak. Alternate translation: “everyone … who was distressed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 9 4 adr0 figs-metaphor בְּ⁠דִבְרֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל 1 the evening sacrifice This phrase does not refer to something that God said on this occasion. Rather, it refers figuratively to the commandment that God had given to the Israelites earlier not to intermarry with foreign groups, which Ezra cites in his prayer in verses [10] (../09/10.md) and [11] (../09/11.md). Alternate translation: “the commandments of the God of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 9 4 sfvr figs-metaphor עַ֖ל מַ֣עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֑ה 1 the evening sacrifice The abstract noun “exile” refers in this context to the Jews who had returned to their homeland from Babylon. Here “the exile” seems to be equivalent to the longer phrase “the sons of the exile” in several other places in the book. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “because of the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 9 4 sfvr figs-metaphor עַ֖ל מַ֣עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֑ה 1 the evening sacrifice The abstract noun “exiles” refers in this context to the Jews who had returned to their homeland from Babylon. Here “the exile” seems to be equivalent to the longer phrase “the sons of the exile” in several other places in the book. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “because of the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 9 4 9s46 figs-metaphor עַ֖ל מַ֣עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֑ה 1 the evening sacrifice As in [9:2] (../09/02.md), “unfaithfulness” figuratively means disobedience. Alternate translation: “because of the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 9 4 m8dw translate-unknown וַ⁠אֲנִי֙ יֹשֵׁ֣ב מְשׁוֹמֵ֔ם עַ֖ד לְ⁠מִנְחַ֥ת הָ⁠עָֽרֶב 1 the evening sacrifice The “offering of the evening” was a sacrifice that the priests would offer around the time that the sun was going down. Alternate translation: “I continued to sit without moving or speaking until the time of the evening sacrifice” or “I continued to sit without moving or speaking for the rest of that day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EZR 9 5 v2nb figs-idiom קַ֚מְתִּי מִ⁠תַּֽעֲנִיתִ֔⁠י 1 my fasting Even though Ezra had been sitting down and he now got up, in this context the word “arise” means more than that. As in [1:5] (../01/05.md), [3:2] (../03/02.md), and [5:2] (../05/02.md), it means to take action to get an enterprise under way. Ezra had been sitting motionless to show how ashamed and upset he was. Now he began to take action to address the situation the clan leaders had told him about. Alternate translation: “I stopped sitting motionless and began to do something about the situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
@@ -1131,14 +1130,14 @@ EZR 10 6 b5wa grammar-connect-logic-result לֶ֤חֶם לֹֽא־אָכַל֙
EZR 10 6 fwd9 translate-symaction לֶ֤חֶם לֹֽא־אָכַל֙ וּ⁠מַ֣יִם לֹֽא־שָׁתָ֔ה כִּ֥י מִתְאַבֵּ֖ל עַל־מַ֥עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib Not eating or drinking was a symbolic action whose purpose was to show that Ezra was grieving over the disobedience of the exiles. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to show that he was still grieving over the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed, he did not eat or drink anything.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])
EZR 10 6 3s2r figs-synecdoche לֶ֤חֶם לֹֽא־אָכַל֙ וּ⁠מַ֣יִם לֹֽא־שָׁתָ֔ה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib It is likely that the story is using bread, one kind of food, to represent all food, and that it is using water, one kind of drink, to represent all drink. Alternate translation: “He did not eat or drink anything” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
EZR 10 6 s6oc figs-metaphor מַ֥עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib “Unfaithfulness” figuratively means disobedience. Alternate translation: “the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 10 6 1t20 figs-abstractnouns מַ֥עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib The abstract noun “exile” describes the Jews who had returned to their homeland from Babylon. (The term seems to be equivalent to the longer phrase “the sons of the exile” that is used in several places in the book, including in the next verse.) If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 6 1t20 figs-abstractnouns מַ֥עַל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib The abstract noun “exiles” describes the Jews who had returned to their homeland from Babylon. (The term seems to be equivalent to the longer phrase “the sons of the exile” that is used in several places in the book, including in the next verse.) If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with an equivalent phrase. Alternate translation: “the way the Jews who had returned to their homeland had disobeyed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 7 7gfd figs-metonymy וַ⁠יַּעֲבִ֨ירוּ ק֜וֹל בִּ⁠יהוּדָ֣ה וִ⁠ירֽוּשָׁלִַ֗ם 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib As in [1:1] (../01/01.md), this “voice” is a voice speaking a message, and it figuratively represents the message that the voice speaks. But since the message could not travel by itself, ultimately the reference is to the messengers who delivered it. Alternate translation: “they sent messengers throughout Judah and Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EZR 10 7 sni5 bita-hq בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib “Son of” is a figurative expression that indicates that a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, the book is describing people who share the quality of having been taken into exile away from their homeland and then having returned. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 10 7 sni5 figs-idiom בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib As indicated in [2:1](../02/01.md) and [8:35](../08/35.md), the phrase **the sons of the exile** refers specifically to the group of Jewish people who returned to the land of Judah from Babylon after King Nebuchadnezzar had conquered Jerusalem and has taken many Jews as captives to Babylon. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned from exile” or “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 10 7 4khl figs-abstractnouns בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָ֔ה 1 Jehohanan…Eliashib The abstract noun “exile” refers to the way the Babylonians had taken the Jews as captives and transported them away from their homeland. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with a verb such as “return,” which would describe the present situation of some of these Jews and their descendants. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 8 tv2h כַּ⁠עֲצַ֤ת הַ⁠שָּׂרִים֙ וְ⁠הַ⁠זְּקֵנִ֔ים 1 Everyone who did not come…all his property would be forfeited, and he would be excluded Alternate translation: “as the leaders and elders had specified they must”
EZR 10 8 a5ia figs-idiom יָחֳרַ֖ם כָּל־רְכוּשׁ֑⁠וֹ 1 three days “Devoted to the ban” is an idiom that refers to the complete loss of property. While in earlier times this would have meant that the property would be totally destroyed, in this context it likely meant that it would be confiscated and sold and that the proceeds would be put in the temple treasury. Alternate translation: “all of his property would be confiscated” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 10 8 0f6s figs-idiom וְ⁠ה֥וּא יִבָּדֵ֖ל מִ⁠קְּהַ֥ל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 three days “Separated from the assembly” is a Hebrew idiom that means to be expelled from the community and no longer considered a Jew. Alternate translation: “And he himself would be expelled from the Jewish community.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 10 8 1nmq figs-abstractnouns מִ⁠קְּהַ֥ל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 three days As often in the book, the abstract noun “exile” here refers to the way the Jews had been transported away from their homeland but had since returned. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with a verb such as “return.” Alternate translation: “the community of Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 8 1nmq figs-abstractnouns מִ⁠קְּהַ֥ל הַ⁠גּוֹלָֽה 1 three days As often in the book, the abstract noun “exiles” here refers to the way the Jews had been transported away from their homeland but had since returned. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this term with a verb such as “return.” Alternate translation: “the community of Jews who had returned to their homeland” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 9 kp1w grammar-connect-logic-result וַ⁠יִּקָּבְצ֣וּ 1 in three days This word indicates that the sentence it introduces explains the results of what the previous sentence described. Alternate translation: “As a result” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EZR 10 9 2e29 figs-personification כָל־אַנְשֵֽׁי־יְהוּדָה֩ וּ⁠בִנְיָמִ֨ן 1 in three days Here the story refers to all of the descendants of Judah figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Judah, and similarly to the descendants of Benjamin as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Benjamin. Alternate translation: “all the men from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
EZR 10 9 pfo4 figs-synecdoche כָל־אַנְשֵֽׁי־יְהוּדָה֩ וּ⁠בִנְיָמִ֨ן 1 in three days Since the assembly included Israelites from other tribes (for example, the priests and the Levites, who were both from the tribe of Levi), the book is using the tribes of Judah and Benjamin to represent all the Israelite tribes. Alternate translation: “all the Israelite men” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
@@ -1177,7 +1176,7 @@ EZR 10 15 piy5 translate-names יוֹנָתָ֧ן בֶּן־עֲשָׂהאֵ֛ל
EZR 10 15 i7li translate-names וְ⁠יַחְזְיָ֥ה בֶן־תִּקְוָ֖ה 1 Jonathan…Asahel…Jahzeiah…Tikvah…Meshullam…Shabbethai Jahzeiah is the name of a man, and Tikvah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 10 15 sl99 figs-metaphor עָמְד֣וּ עַל־זֹ֑את 1 Jonathan son of Asahel and Jahzeiah son of Tikvah opposed this To stand against something means figuratively to oppose it. Alternate translation: “did not want the community to investigate who had married foreign women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EZR 10 15 uu1e bita-hq וּ⁠מְשֻׁלָּ֛ם וְ⁠שַׁבְּתַ֥י 1 Jonathan son of Asahel and Jahzeiah son of Tikvah opposed this These are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 10 16 jyy9 figs-abstractnouns וַ⁠יַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵן֮ בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָה֒ 1 did this See how you translated the expression “the sons of the exile” in verse [7] (../10/07.md). Alternate translation: “So the Jews who had returned to their homeland did what their assembly had decided” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 16 jyy9 figs-abstractnouns וַ⁠יַּֽעֲשׂוּ־כֵן֮ בְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠גּוֹלָה֒ 1 did this See how you translated the expression “the sons of the exile” in [10:7](../10/07.md). Alternate translation: “So the Jews who had returned to their homeland did what their assembly had decided” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EZR 10 16 sz6j figs-activepassive וַ⁠יִּבָּדְלוּ֩ עֶזְרָ֨א הַ⁠כֹּהֵ֜ן אֲנָשִׁ֨ים רָאשֵׁ֧י הָ⁠אָב֛וֹת לְ⁠בֵ֥ית אֲבֹתָ֖⁠ם וְ⁠כֻלָּ֣⁠ם בְּ⁠שֵׁמ֑וֹת 1 did this If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “Ezra the priest summoned the leaders of each clan by name” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EZR 10 16 1rw5 figs-ellipsis רָאשֵׁ֧י הָ⁠אָב֛וֹת לְ⁠בֵ֥ית אֲבֹתָ֖⁠ם 1 did this As in [1:5] (../01/05.md) and many other places in the book, “the heads of the fathers” is an abbreviated way of saying “the heads of father’s houses,” and the “house of the father” or “father’s house” means a clan. Alternate translation: “the leaders of each clan” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
EZR 10 16 0oo5 figs-informremind עֶזְרָ֨א הַ⁠כֹּהֵ֜ן 1 did this Here the book repeats some background information to remind readers who Ezra was. Alternate translation: “Ezra, who was a priest” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind]])
@@ -1243,4 +1242,4 @@ EZR 10 43 cab3 bita-hq מִ⁠בְּנֵ֖י נְב֑וֹ 1 Nebo “Sons” her
EZR 10 43 tih9 translate-names יְעִיאֵ֤ל מַתִּתְיָה֙ זָבָ֣ד זְבִינָ֔א יַדַּ֥י וְ⁠יוֹאֵ֖ל בְּנָיָֽה 1 Jeiel These are the names of seven men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EZR 10 44 f8ms figs-idiom כָּל־אֵ֕לֶּה נָשְׂא֖וּ נָשִׁ֣ים נָכְרִיּ֑וֹת 1 All of these As in [9:2] (../09/02.md), “lifted” is an idiom that means “married.” Alternate translation: “all of these men had married foreign women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EZR 10 44 bri0 figs-explicit וְ⁠יֵ֣שׁ מֵ⁠הֶ֣ם נָשִׁ֔ים וַ⁠יָּשִׂ֖ימוּ בָּנִֽים 1 All of these The implication is that if a foreign wife had borne children, the Israelite husband sent both the wife and her children away, as [10:3] (../10/03.md) describes. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Some of the foreign wives had borne children, and the men who had married them divorced them and sent both them and their children away.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EZR 10 44 kg57 figs-gendernotations בָּנִֽים 1 All of these The term “sons” here means “children” and includes both boys and girls. Alternate translation: “children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
EZR 10 44 kg57 figs-gendernotations בָּנִֽים 1 All of these The term “sons” here means “children” and includes both boys and girls. Alternate translation: “children” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])

+ 117
- 117
en_tn_16-NEH.tsv View File

@@ -1,25 +1,25 @@
Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
NEH front intro k2y2 0 # Introduction to Nehemiah<br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of Nehemiah<br><br>1. Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem and inspects the walls (1:1-2:20)<br>1. The people rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (3:1-4:23)<br>1. Nehemiah helps the poor and provides an unselfish example (5:1–19)<br>1. Enemies try to slow down the work, but the people finish the walls (6:1–19)<br>1. Nehemiah lists the people who returned from exile (7:6–73)<br>1. Ezra reads the Law of Yahweh and the people respond (8:1-10:39)<br>1. Nehemiah lists the people who lived in and around Jerusalem (11:1–36)<br>1. Nehemiah lists the priests and Levites (12:1–26)<br>1. The people dedicate the walls of Jerusalem (12:27–47)<br>1. Nehemiah corrects problems (13:1–31)<br><br>### What is the Book of Nehemiah about?<br><br>A Jew named Nehemiah lived in Persia and worked for King Artaxerxes. Nehemiah received a report that the walls around Jerusalem were broken down. Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem to help rebuild the city walls. The walls around the city helped protect the city against armies and invaders.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>The Book of Nehemiah is named for a Jewish leader named Nehemiah. Translators can use the traditional title “Nehemiah.” Or they may choose a clearer title, such as “The Book about Nehemiah.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Why were Israelites not allowed to marry people from other nations?<br><br>Foreigners worshiped many false gods. Yahweh did not allow his people to marry foreigners. He knew this would cause the people of Israel to worship false gods. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod]])<br><br>### Did all of the people of Israel return to their homeland?<br><br>Many of the Jews remained in Babylon instead of returning to the Promised Land. Many of them were successful in Babylon and desired to remain there. However, this meant that they were unable to worship Yahweh in Jerusalem as their ancestors had done. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promisedland]])<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### How does the Book of Nehemiah use the term “Israel”?<br><br>The Book of Nehemiah uses the term “Israel” to refer to the kingdom of Judah. It was mostly made up of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The other ten tribes had ended their loyalty to any kings descended from David. God allowed the Assyrians to conquer the other ten tribes and take them into exile. As a result, they mixed with other people groups and did not return to the land of Israel. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/israel]])<br><br>### Are the events in the Book of Nehemiah told in the order that they actually happened?<br><br>Some of the events in the Book of Nehemiah are not told in the order they actually happened. Translators should pay attention to notes that signal when events are probably out of order.
NEH 1 intro y5jf 0 # Nehemiah 01 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>### “The words of Nehemiah son of Hacaliah:”<br><br>This phrase serves as an introduction to this entire book.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Repentance<br><br>This chapter is a single long record of Nehemiah’s repentance on behalf of the people. (See: \[\[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent\]\])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### I<br><br>In this book, the word “I” always refers to Nehemiah.<br><br>### Israel<br><br>It is uncertain to whom “Israel” refers. It probably does not refer to the northern kingdom of Israel. Neither does it likely refer to the twelve tribes of Israel. Instead, it is probably a reference to Israel in the sense of the surviving people group. At Nehemiah’s time, this people group exclusively comprised the tribe of Judah because the other tribes had already been scattered throughout the entire Near East, where they lost their identity, for the most part.
NEH front intro k2y2 0 # Introduction to Nehemiah<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of Nehemiah<br><br>1. Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem and inspects the walls (1:1-2:20)<br>2. The people rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (3:1-4:23)<br>3. Nehemiah helps the poor and provides an unselfish example (5:1–19)<br>4. Enemies try to slow down the work, but the people finish the walls (6:1–19)<br>5. Nehemiah lists the people who returned from exile (7:6–73)<br>6. Ezra reads the law of Yahweh and the people respond (8:1-10:39)<br>7. Nehemiah lists the people who lived in and around Jerusalem (11:1–36)<br>8. Nehemiah lists the priests and Levites (12:1–26)<br>9. The people dedicate the walls of Jerusalem (12:27–47)<br>10. Nehemiah corrects problems (13:1–31)<br><br>### What is the Book of Nehemiah about?<br><br>A Jew named Nehemiah lived in Persia and worked for King Artaxerxes. Nehemiah received a report that the walls around Jerusalem were broken down. Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem to help rebuild the city walls. The walls around the city helped protect the city against armies and invaders.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>The Book of Nehemiah is named for a Jewish leader named Nehemiah. Translators can use the traditional title “Nehemiah.” Or they may choose a more complete title, such as “The Book about Nehemiah.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names\]\])<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### Why were Israelites not allowed to marry people from other nations?<br><br>Foreigners worshiped many false gods. Yahweh did not allow his people to marry foreigners. He knew this would cause the people of Israel to worship false gods. (See: \[\[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/falsegod\]\])<br><br>### Did all of the people of Israel return to their homeland?<br><br>Many of the Jews remained in Babylon instead of returning to the Promised Land. Many of them were successful in Babylon and desired to remain there. However, this meant that they were unable to worship Yahweh in Jerusalem as their ancestors had done. (See: \[\[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/promisedland\]\])<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### How does the Book of Nehemiah use the term “Israel”?<br><br>The Book of Nehemiah uses the term “Israel” to refer to the kingdom of Judah. It was mostly made up of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. The other ten tribes had ended their loyalty to any kings descended from David. God had allowed the Assyrians to conquer the other ten tribes and take them into exile around 275 years earlier. As a result, they mixed with other people groups and did not return to the land of Israel. (See: \[\[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/israel\]\])<br><br>### Are the events in the Book of Nehemiah told in the order that they actually happened?<br><br>Some of the events in the Book of Nehemiah are told in an order that is different than the order in which they actually happened so that they events can be grouped by theme. Translators should pay attention to notes that signal when events are probably out of chronological order.
NEH 1 intro y5jf 0 # Nehemiah 01 General Notes<br><br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>### “The words of Nehemiah son of Hacaliah:”<br><br>This phrase serves as an introduction to this entire book.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Repentance<br><br>This chapter is a single long record of Nehemiah’s repentance on behalf of the people of Israel. (See: \[\[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/repent\]\])<br><br>## Other possible translation difficulties in this chapter<br><br>### I<br><br>In this book, the word “I” always refers to Nehemiah.<br><br>### Israel<br><br>In this book, “Israel” probably does not refer to the northern kingdom of Israel. Neither does it likely refer to the twelve tribes of Israel. Instead, it is probably a reference to Israel in the sense of the surviving people group from the southern kingdom of Judah. At Nehemiah’s time, these would be the people from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin who survived the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon in 586 BC and the exile of many of them to Babylon. The other tribes had already been scattered throughout the entire Near East where most of them lost their identity as Israel.
NEH 1 1 bi9h translate-names נְחֶמְיָ֖ה בֶּן־חֲכַלְיָ֑ה 1 Nehemiah, the son of Hakaliah Nehemiah is the name of a man, and Hakaliah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 1 abc1 writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֤י 1 Now it happened This is a common way of beginning a historical story. Alternate translation: “My story begins” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent\]\])
NEH 1 1 qd3e translate-hebrewmonths בְ⁠חֹֽדֶשׁ־כִּסְלֵיו֙ 1 in the month of Kislev **Kislev** is the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 1 hn28 figs-explicit שְׁנַ֣ת עֶשְׂרִ֔ים 1 in the twentieth year This is referring to the number of years that Artaxerxes had been reigning as king. Alternate translation: “in the twentieth year of the reign of Artaxerxes, King of Persia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
NEH 1 1 abc3 figs-metonymy בְּ⁠שׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַ⁠בִּירָֽה 1 in Susa the citadel The city in which this palace was located was also called Susa, because the city was associated with the palace. Since this was where the kings of Persia lived, it was the capital city of their empire. Alternate translation: “the capital city of Susa” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 1 abc1 writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֤י 1 Now it happened This is a common way of beginning a historical story. Use a natural way of beginning a story about something that actually happened. Alternate translation: “My story begins” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/riting-newevent\]\])
NEH 1 1 qd3e translate-hebrewmonths בְ⁠חֹֽדֶשׁ־כִּסְלֵיו֙ 1 in the month of Kislev **Kislev** is the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths\]\])
NEH 1 1 hn28 figs-explicit שְׁנַ֣ת עֶשְׂרִ֔ים 1 in the twentieth year This is referring to the number of years that Artaxerxes had been reigning as king. You can include this information if you want to make this clear. Most scholars consider this to be the year 445 BC. Alternate translation: “in the twentieth year of the reign of Artaxerxes, King of Persia” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit\]\])
NEH 1 1 abc3 figs-metonymy בְּ⁠שׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַ⁠בִּירָֽה 1 in Susa the citadel A **citadel** is a fortified castle or palace, usually inside a city. In this case, the city in which this palace was located was also called Susa, because the city was associated with the palace. Since this was where the kings of Persia lived, it was the capital city of their empire. Alternate translation: “the capital city of Susa” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy\]\])
NEH 1 1 abc5 translate-names בְּ⁠שׁוּשַׁ֥ן 1 in Susa This was the name of a royal city of the Persian kings. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 1 g6dl translate-unknown הַ⁠בִּירָֽה 1 the citadel This means a “castle” or “palace” or “stronghold,” usually inside a city, where a king would live. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 1 2 f2ab translate-names חֲנָ֜נִי 1 Hanani This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 2 l6cw חֲנָ֜נִי אֶחָ֧ד 1 one of my brothers The term **brother** is often used figuratively in this book, but here it most likely means that Hanani was Nehemiah’s biological brother.
NEH 1 2 abc7 figs-gendernotations ה֥וּא וַ⁠אֲנָשִׁ֖ים 1 he and men This was a delegation that had come from one Jewish community to visit another Jewish community in another part of the world. So it’s possible and even likely that it included women as well as men. Alternate translation: “along with some other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 1 2 abc7 figs-gendernotations ה֥וּא וַ⁠אֲנָשִׁ֖ים 1 he and men This was a delegation that had come from one Jewish community to visit another Jewish community in another part of the world. So it’s possible that it included women as well as men. Alternate translation: “along with some other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 1 2 lg14 translate-names מִֽ⁠יהוּדָ֑ה 1 from Judah Judah was formerly the southern kingdom of the Israelites. It was now a Persian province. Alternate translation: “the province of Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 2 abc9 figs-parallelism הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֧ים הַ⁠פְּלֵיטָ֛ה אֲשֶֽׁר־נִשְׁאֲר֥וּ מִן־הַ⁠שֶּׁ֖בִי 1 the Jews who escaped, who were left behind from the captivity These two phrases mean the same thing. Nehemiah uses them together for clarity to describe one particular group of people, and perhaps also to express his particular concern for them. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had escaped the exile” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 2 q7zi figs-explicit הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֧ים הַ⁠פְּלֵיטָ֛ה אֲשֶֽׁר־נִשְׁאֲר֥וּ מִן־הַ⁠שֶּׁ֖בִי 1 the Jews who escaped, who were left behind from the captivity These two phrases refer to the same group of people. Possible meanings are (1) the few Jews who were taken as exiles to Babylon but escaped and returned to live in Jerusalem or (2) the few Jews who had escaped from those who were trying to take them into exile in Babylon and so remained in Jerusalem. Since it is unclear from where they escaped, it may be best not to specify in the translation. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had escaped the exile and who remained in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 2 ab11 figs-abstractnouns הַ⁠שֶּׁ֖בִי 1 the captivity **Captivity** is an abstract noun that refers to the Jews being taken away from their homeland. Judah had been conquered by the Babylonians about 150 years before this. The Babylonians had taken many people away from Judah and relocated them to different parts of their empire. About 50 years later, the Persian Empire conquered Babylon and many Jews, like Nehemiah, came to live in Persia. But some also lived in their former homeland. You can translate this idea with a phrase such as “the time when the Jews were taken away” or “the time when soldiers forced many Jews to go to Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 1 2 q7zi figs-explicit הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֧ים הַ⁠פְּלֵיטָ֛ה אֲשֶֽׁר־נִשְׁאֲר֥וּ מִן־הַ⁠שֶּׁ֖בִי 1 the Jews who escaped, who were left behind from the captivity These two phrases refer to the same group of people. Possible meanings are (1) the few Jews who were taken as exiles to Babylon but who later were able to return and live in Jerusalem or (2) the few Jews who had escaped from those who were trying to take them into exile in Babylon and so remained in Jerusalem. It is probably best to translate this in a way that can include both groups. Alternate translation: “the Jews who had escaped the exile and who remained in Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 2 ab11 figs-abstractnouns הַ⁠שֶּׁ֖בִי 1 the captivity **Captivity** is an abstract noun that refers to the Jews being taken away from their homeland. Judah had been conquered by the Babylonians about 150 years before this. At that time, the Babylonians took many people away from Judah and relocated them to different parts of their empire. About 50 years later, the Persian Empire conquered Babylon and so the Babylonian empire became the Persian empire. The Jews who had been captured by Babylon now lived in Persia, although some had since returned to Judah. You can translate the idea of "captivity" with a phrase such as “the time when the Jews were taken away” or “the time when soldiers forced many Jews to go to Babylon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 1 2 ab13 figs-explicit וְ⁠עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם 1 and about Jerusalem Jerusalem had been the capital city of the kingdom of Judah. Nehemiah was asking specifically about the physical condition of the buildings and walls in the city, in addition to asking about the welfare of the Jewish community in Judah. Alternate translation: “about the condition of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 3 igf2 figs-parallelism הַֽ⁠נִּשְׁאָרִ֞ים אֲשֶֽׁר־נִשְׁאֲר֤וּ מִן־הַ⁠שְּׁבִי֙ 1 the ones left behind, who were left behind from the captivity These two statements mean similar things. Nehemiah says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to show his concern for this group. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “the Jews who escaped the exile and remained” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 3 y1zg figs-metonymy בַּ⁠מְּדִינָ֔ה 1 in the province Here **province** refers to Judah as an administrative district within the Persian Empire. Hanani is describing Judah by referring to something associated with it, its status as a province. Alternate translation: “in the province of Judah” or “in Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 3 ab15 figs-doublet בְּ⁠רָעָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה וּ⁠בְ⁠חֶרְפָּ֑ה 1 in great evil and in reproach **Evil** and **reproach** mean similar things. Hanani uses them together to emphasize what a desperate situation the people are in. You do not need to repeat both words in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “in a desperate situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 1 3 ab17 figs-abstractnouns בְּ⁠רָעָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה וּ⁠בְ⁠חֶרְפָּ֑ה 1 in great evil The abstract noun **evil** in this case does not refer to something morally bad, but to a difficult situation. It describes the situation objectively, as bad for the people in it. You can translate this idea with an adjective such as “bad.” Alternate translation: “in a very bad situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 1 3 ab17 figs-abstractnouns בְּ⁠רָעָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה וּ⁠בְ⁠חֶרְפָּ֑ה 1 in great evil The abstract noun **evil** in this case does not refer to something morally bad, but to a difficult situation. It objectively describes the situation as bad for the people in it. You can translate this idea with an adjective such as “bad.” Alternate translation: “in a very bad situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 1 3 ab19 figs-abstractnouns וּ⁠בְ⁠חֶרְפָּ֑ה 1 and in reproach **Reproach** is an abstract noun that describes how other people would see the situation of the Jews. The situation would lead them to say bad things about them. You can translate this idea with a verb such as “mock.” Alternate translation: “people are mocking them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 1 3 pk3f figs-activepassive וְ⁠חוֹמַ֤ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֨ם֙ מְפֹרָ֔צֶת וּ⁠שְׁעָרֶ֖י⁠הָ נִצְּת֥וּ בָ⁠אֵֽשׁ 1 the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates have been burned with fire This can be stated in active form. You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “armies have broken open the wall of Jerusalem and have set its gates on fire” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 1 3 ab21 figs-explicit וְ⁠חוֹמַ֤ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֨ם֙ מְפֹרָ֔צֶת וּ⁠שְׁעָרֶ֖י⁠הָ נִצְּת֥וּ בָ⁠אֵֽשׁ 1 the wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates have been burned with fire The implication is that the people are now defenseless. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “The people living there are defenseless.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -29,95 +29,95 @@ NEH 1 4 ab27 figs-metonymy כְּ⁠שָׁמְעִ֣⁠י ׀ אֶת־הַ⁠דּ
NEH 1 4 ab29 translate-symaction יָשַׁ֨בְתִּי֙ וָֽ⁠אֶבְכֶּ֔ה 1 I sat down, and I wept **Sitting down** likely means that Nehemiah stopped going about his usual business because he was so overcome by grief. Alternate translation: “I could do nothing else but grieve” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])
NEH 1 4 ab31 וָ⁠אֶתְאַבְּלָ֖⁠ה יָמִ֑ים 1 I mourned for days This means that Nehemiah kept on grieving. He did not get over being upset. The term “days” here suggests “many days” and it is a figurative expression for “a long time.” Alternate translation: “I could not stop mourning for a long time.”
NEH 1 4 ab33 צָם֙ וּ⁠מִתְפַּלֵּ֔ל 1 fasting and praying **Fasting** means going without food. This was something that Jews often did in connection with prayer. It allowed them to concentrate on their prayers, and it showed how important those prayers were. Alternate translation: “I went without food, and I prayed”
NEH 1 4 ab35 figs-metonymy וּ⁠מִתְפַּלֵּ֔ל לִ⁠פְנֵ֖י 1 and praying before the face of Here **face** is a metonym for the action of seeing, which is a figurative way of referring to a person’s notice or attention to something. Nehemiah is saying that he prayed in order to bring these matters to God’s notice or attention. Alternate translation: “and I prayed to” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 1 4 ab35 figs-metonymy וּ⁠מִתְפַּלֵּ֔ל לִ⁠פְנֵ֖י 1 and praying before the face of Here **face** is a metonym for the action of seeing, which is a figurative way of referring to a person’s notice or attention to something. Nehemiah is saying that he prayed in order to bring these matters to God’s notice or attention. Alternate translation: “and I prayed to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 4 ab37 אֱלֹהֵ֥י הַ⁠שָּׁמָֽיִם 1 the God of heaven Alternate translation: “the God who is in heaven”
NEH 1 5 ab39 וָ⁠אֹמַ֗ר 1 Then I said Here Nehemiah tells what he prayed. Alternate translation: “Then I prayed”
NEH 1 5 ab41 figs-exclamations אָֽנָּ֤א 1 Ah! Nehemiah uses this word to call on God with strong feeling. Alternate translation: “O” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])
NEH 1 5 pf2l translate-names יְהוָה֙ 1 Yahweh This is the name of God that he revealed to his people in the Old Testament. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 5 ab43 figs-you אֱלֹהֵ֣י הַ⁠שָּׁמַ֔יִם 1 the God of heaven Since Nehemiah is addressing God directly, you can use “you” forms in your translation. They should be singular but also respectful. Alternate translation: “you are the God who is in heaven” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
NEH 1 5 ab45 figs-doublet הָ⁠אֵ֥ל הַ⁠גָּד֖וֹל וְ⁠הַ⁠נּוֹרָ֑א 1 the great and fearsome God **Great** and **fearsome** mean similar things. Nehemiah uses them together to emphasize how much respect God deserves. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could also bring that out in your translation. “Great” refers to how powerful God is objectively. “Fearsome” reflects how people should respond to God’s greatness subjectively. They should “fear” God. This does not mean that they should be afraid of him, but that they should show him respect and reverence. Alternate translation: “the great and awesome God” or “the God who deserves total respect” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 1 5 ab47 figs-parallelism שֹׁמֵ֤ר הַ⁠בְּרִית֙ וָ⁠חֶ֔סֶד 1 who keeps the covenant and covenant faithfulness **Covenant** and **covenant faithfulness** mean similar things. Nehemiah says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize how certain it is that God will keep his promises. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could bring that out in your translation even if you combine the phrases. The “covenant” is God’s promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their descendants. “Covenant faithfulness” is a character quality of God. He is inwardly disposed to keep all of his promises, and so he always does so faithfully. So you could say something like, “Because of who you are, you always keep your promises faithfully.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 5 ab47 figs-parallelism שֹׁמֵ֤ר הַ⁠בְּרִית֙ וָ⁠חֶ֔סֶד 1 who keeps the covenant and covenant faithfulness **Covenant** and **covenant faithfulness** mean similar things. Nehemiah says the same thing twice in slightly different ways to emphasize how certain it is that God will keep his promises. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. However, there is a slight difference in meaning, and you could bring that out in your translation even if you combine the phrases. The “covenant” is God’s promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their descendants. “Covenant faithfulness” is a character quality of God. He is inwardly disposed to keep all of his promises, and he always does that faithfully. Therefore, you could say something like, “Because of who you are, you always keep your promises faithfully.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 5 ab49 figs-parallelism לְ⁠אֹהֲבָ֖י⁠ו וּ⁠לְ⁠שֹׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְוֺתָֽי⁠ו 1 to those who love him and to those who keep his commandments Nehemiah is not describing two different groups. These phrases mean similar things. The repetition is used for clarity and emphasis. Nehemiah says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to express that those who love God show this by keeping his commandments. You can translate this so that it is clear that these words describe one group. Alternate translation: “those who love you and keep your commandments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 5 zc64 figs-123person לְ⁠אֹהֲבָ֖י⁠ו וּ⁠לְ⁠שֹׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְוֺתָֽי⁠ו 1 to those who love him and to those who keep his commandments Since Nehemiah is speaking to Yahweh, the pronouns “him” and “his” can be translated as “you” and “your.” Alternate translation: “who love you and keep your commandments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 6 ab51 figs-parallelism תְּהִ֣י נָ֣א אָזְנְ⁠ךָֽ־קַשֶּׁ֣בֶת וְֽ⁠עֵינֶ֪י⁠ךָ פְתֻוּח֟וֹת 1 Please let your ear be attentive and your eyes opened These two phrases mean similar things. Nehemiah says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to urge God to pay attention to him. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “pay attention to me,” otherwise “please listen to me and look at me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 6 ab53 figs-metonymy אָזְנְ⁠ךָֽ־קַשֶּׁ֣בֶת 1 your ear be attentive This request for God’s ear to be attentive refers figuratively to the action of listening. In this context, Nehemiah is asking God to listen to his prayer, with the intention that God would do something about the bad situation in Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 6 g947 figs-metaphor וְֽ⁠עֵינֶ֪י⁠ךָ פְתֻוּח֟וֹת 1 and your eyes opened This request for God’s eyes to be open refers figuratively to the action of seeing. Seeing is a metaphor meaning knowledge, perception, notice, attention, or judgment. In this case, is asking God to pay attention both to him and to the problem in Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 6 g947 figs-metaphor וְֽ⁠עֵינֶ֪י⁠ךָ פְתֻוּח֟וֹת 1 and your eyes opened This request for God’s eyes to be open refers figuratively to the action of seeing. Seeing is a metaphor meaning knowledge, perception, notice, attention, or judgment. In this case, Nehemiah is asking God to pay attention both to him and to the problem in Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 6 qjf3 figs-123person תְּפִלַּ֣ת עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֡ 1 the prayer of your servant Nehemiah uses the word servant to refer to himself. This is how a person would address a superior in order to show humility and respect. Alternate translation: “my prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 6 ab55 figs-metonymy מִתְפַּלֵּ֨ל לְ⁠פָנֶ֤י⁠ךָ 1 am praying before your face Here **face** is a metonym for the action of seeing, which is figurative way of referring to a person’s notice or attention to something. Nehemiah is repeating the fact that he is praying in order to bring these matters to God’s notice or attention. Alternate translation: “praying to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 6 ab55 figs-metonymy מִתְפַּלֵּ֨ל לְ⁠פָנֶ֤י⁠ךָ 1 am praying before your face Here, **face** is a metonym for the action of seeing, which is figurative way of referring to a person’s notice or attention to something. Nehemiah is repeating the fact that he is praying in order to bring these matters to God’s notice or attention. Alternate translation: “praying to you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 6 ab57 figs-idiom הַ⁠יּוֹם֙ 1 today This does not necessarily mean on this particular day, but at this time. Alternate translation: “right now” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 1 6 v8gx figs-merism הַ⁠יּוֹם֙ יוֹמָ֣ם וָ⁠לַ֔יְלָה 1 day and night When Nehemiah says that he has prayed both during the day and during the night, he means that he has also prayed at all times in between, that is, constantly. However, he does not mean that he has prayed non-stop all day long and all night long, without doing any other activities such as sleeping or eating. Alternate translation: “constantly,” otherwise “during the day and at night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
NEH 1 6 ab59 figs-gendernotations בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל 1 the sons of Israel Here **sons** figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “on behalf of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 1 6 ab59 figs-gendernotations בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל 1 the sons of Israel Here, **sons** figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “on behalf of the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 1 6 ab61 figs-metaphor עֲבָדֶ֑י⁠ךָ 1 your servants In this context, the word **servants** refers to the special role that the people of Israel had in the world as a model community of God’s followers. Alternate translation: “your chosen people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 1 6 ab63 figs-gendernotations וּ⁠מִתְוַדֶּ֗ה עַל־חַטֹּ֤אות בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֣אנוּ לָ֔⁠ךְ 1 confessing on account of the sins of the sons of Israel that we have sinned against you Here again **sons** means “descendants” and the phrase refers to the people of Israel Alternate translation: “I must confess the sins that we, the people of Israel, have committed against you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 1 6 bxj6 figs-metonymy וַ⁠אֲנִ֥י וּ⁠בֵית־אָבִ֖⁠י חָטָֽאנוּ 1 Even I and the house of my father, we have sinned Among the Israelites, the expression **father’s house** or **house of the father** originally described an extended-family group. It later came to be used more generally to refer to a larger clan within a tribe. In this expression, the word "house" figuratively describes all the people descended from a particular person. The term views all of those descendants as if they were one household living together. However, since Nehemiah is stressing his sense of personal responsibility here and identifying closely with the people in this group, he may be using the term in its original sense to refer to his nearest relatives. Alternate translation: “Both I and my family have also sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 6 ab63 figs-gendernotations וּ⁠מִתְוַדֶּ֗ה עַל־חַטֹּ֤אות בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָטָ֣אנוּ לָ֔⁠ךְ 1 confessing on account of the sins of the sons of Israel that we have sinned against you Here again, **sons** means “descendants” and the phrase refers to the people of Israel. Alternate translation: “I must confess the sins that we, the people of Israel, have committed against you.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 1 6 bxj6 figs-metonymy וַ⁠אֲנִ֥י וּ⁠בֵית־אָבִ֖⁠י חָטָֽאנוּ 1 Even I and the house of my father, we have sinned Among the Israelites, the expression **father’s house** or **house of the father** originally described an extended-family group. It later came to be used more generally to refer to a larger clan within a tribe. In this expression, the word “house” figuratively describes all the people descended from a particular person. The term views all of those descendants as if they were one household living together. However, since Nehemiah is stressing his sense of personal responsibility here and identifying closely with the people in this group, he may be using the term in its original sense to refer to his nearest relatives. Alternate translation: “Both I and my family have also sinned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 7 ab65 figs-abstractnouns חֲבֹ֖ל חָבַ֣לְנוּ לָ֑⁠ךְ 1 With extreme corruption we have acted corruptly against you The repetition here is used for emphasis. You can translate the idea of the abstract noun “corruption”’ with an adverb such as “wickedly.” Alternate translation: “We have acted very wickedly toward you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 1 7 ab67 figs-doublet אֶת־הַ⁠מִּצְוֺ֗ת וְ⁠אֶת־הַֽ⁠חֻקִּים֙ וְ⁠אֶת־הַ⁠מִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים 1 the commandments, and the statutes, and the judgments These three words mean basically the same thing. Nehemiah uses the repetition to emphasize how comprehensively the Israelites have disobeyed what God commanded them through Moses. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them into a single phrase. Alternate translation: “the Law of Moses,” otherwise “the commands and rules and laws” (Note: A doublet can involve the use of more than two words.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 1 7 ab67 figs-doublet אֶת־הַ⁠מִּצְוֺ֗ת וְ⁠אֶת־הַֽ⁠חֻקִּים֙ וְ⁠אֶת־הַ⁠מִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים 1 the commandments, and the statutes, and the judgments These three words mean basically the same thing. Nehemiah uses the repetition to emphasize how comprehensively the Israelites have disobeyed what God commanded them through Moses. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them into a single phrase. Alternate translation: “the law of Moses,” otherwise “the commands and rules and laws” (Note: A doublet can involve the use of more than two words.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 1 7 brz7 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֖יתָ אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֥ה עַבְדֶּֽ⁠ךָ 1 that you commanded Moses, your servant Moses was the great leader who brought the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt centuries before and gave them God’s law. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “that you gave us many years ago through your servant Moses.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 8 pv64 figs-idiom זְכָר־נָא֙ 1 Please remember Here **remember** is an idiom that means to think about someone and consider what action you can take on their behalf. Nehemiah is not suggesting that God has forgotten the promise he made to Moses. Alternate translation: “Please call to mind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 1 8 pv64 figs-idiom זְכָר־נָא֙ 1 Please remember Here, **remember** is an idiom that means to think about someone and consider what action you can take on their behalf. Nehemiah is not suggesting that God has forgotten the promise he made to Moses. Alternate translation: “Please call to mind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 1 8 y5jp figs-yousingular הַ⁠דָּבָ֔ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּ֛יתָ אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֥ה עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֖ 1 the word that you commanded Moses, your servant The pronouns **you** and **your** refer to God and so are singular. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-yousingular]])
NEH 1 8 ab69 הַ⁠דָּבָ֔ר 1 the word This refers to a promise that God made while giving the Law to the people of Israel through Moses. Alternate translation: “the promise”
NEH 1 8 ab69 הַ⁠דָּבָ֔ר 1 the word This refers to a promise that God made while giving the law to the people of Israel through Moses. Alternate translation: “the promise”
NEH 1 8 b6qh figs-you אַתֶּ֣ם תִּמְעָ֔לוּ 1 If you yourselves act unfaithfully The pronouns **you** and **yourselves** refer to the Israelite people, and so they are plural. Alternate translation: “If you Israelites” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
NEH 1 8 ab71 figs-metaphor אַתֶּ֣ם תִּמְעָ֔לוּ 1 If you yourselves act unfaithfully Here infidelity in marriage is used as a figurative description of the people of Israel not keeping God’s commandments. Alternate translation: “If you Israelites do not keep my commandments” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 1 8 ab73 אָפִ֥יץ אֶתְ⁠כֶ֖ם בָּ⁠עַמִּֽים 1 I myself will scatter you among the peoples Alternate translation: “I will take you from your land and make you live among the other nations”
NEH 1 8 evf5 figs-explicit אָפִ֥יץ אֶתְ⁠כֶ֖ם בָּ⁠עַמִּֽים 1 I myself will scatter you among the peoples The implication is that God would do this to punish the Israelites for breaking his commandments. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “as a punishment, I will take you from your land and make you live among the other nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 9 dqn5 figs-you וְ⁠שַׁבְתֶּ֣ם אֵלַ֔⁠י וּ⁠שְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ מִצְוֺתַ֔⁠י וַ⁠עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑⁠ם אִם־יִהְיֶ֨ה נִֽדַּחֲ⁠כֶ֜ם 1 But if you return to me and keep my commandments and do them, although your banished ones are The pronouns **you** and **your** refer to the Israelite people, so they are plural. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-you]])
NEH 1 9 ab75 figs-metaphor וְ⁠שַׁבְתֶּ֣ם אֵלַ֔⁠י וּ⁠שְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ מִצְוֺתַ֔⁠י וַ⁠עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑⁠ם אִם־יִהְיֶ֨ה נִֽדַּחֲ⁠כֶ֜ם 1 But if you return to me **Return** is a figurative way of saying “become loyal again.” Alternate translation: “If you become loyal to me again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 1 9 ab77 figs-parallelism וּ⁠שְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ מִצְוֺתַ֔⁠י וַ⁠עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם 1 and keep my commandments and do them These two statements mean similar things. They are used together for emphasis. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “start obeying my commandments once more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 9 ab77 figs-parallelism וּ⁠שְׁמַרְתֶּם֙ מִצְוֺתַ֔⁠י וַ⁠עֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָ֑⁠ם 1 and keep my commandments and do them These two statements mean similar things. They are used together for emphasis. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “start obeying my commandments once more” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 9 ab79 נִֽדַּחֲ⁠כֶ֜ם 1 your banished ones This refers to the exile. Alternate translation: “all of you who were taken away”
NEH 1 9 f8jz figs-hyperbole בִּ⁠קְצֵ֤ה הַ⁠שָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ 1 at the extremity of heaven This means “the most distant point under the sky.” In this culture the sky was understood to be a solid dome with a flat earth beneath it. The phrase is describing a point beyond which no one could go any farther because they would have reached the edge of the dome of the sky. This is an overstatement, because even from the perspective of this culture, no one could really reach such a point. Alternate translation: “places very far away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 1 9 f8jz figs-hyperbole בִּ⁠קְצֵ֤ה הַ⁠שָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ 1 at the extremity of heaven This means “the most distant point under the sky.” In this culture the sky was understood to be a solid dome with a flat earth beneath it. The phrase is describing a point beyond which no one could go any farther because they would have reached the edge of the dome of the sky. This is an overstatement because even from the perspective of this culture, no one could really reach such a point. Alternate translation: “places very far away” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 1 9 ab81 figs-123person אֲקַבְּצֵ֔⁠ם וַהֲבִֽיאוֹתִים֙ 1 I will gather them and bring them Since God is actually addressing the Israelites here, you can say “you” in the plural. Alternate translation: “I will bring you back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 9 ab83 figs-parallelism אֲקַבְּצֵ֔⁠ם וַהֲבִֽיאוֹתִים֙ 1 I will gather them and bring them These two statements mean similar things. They are used together to emphasize that God will definitely keep this promise. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine the phrases. Alternate translation: “I will bring you back” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 9 ab85 figs-personification אֶל־הַ⁠מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּחַ֔רְתִּי לְ⁠שַׁכֵּ֥ן אֶת־שְׁמִ֖⁠י שָֽׁם 1 to the place where I have chosen to cause my name to dwell there Here God’s name is spoken of as if it were capable of living in a place. The phrase indicates the place from which God chose to start making himself famous throughout the world. You can say something like that as an alternate translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
NEH 1 9 lgh9 figs-explicit אֶל־הַ⁠מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּחַ֔רְתִּי לְ⁠שַׁכֵּ֥ן אֶת־שְׁמִ֖⁠י שָֽׁם 1 to the place where I have chosen to cause my name to dwell there This phrase refers initially to Jerusalem, because that was where God chose to put his temple. You could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jerusalem, where I have chosen for my name to remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 9 lgh9 figs-explicit אֶל־הַ⁠מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּחַ֔רְתִּי לְ⁠שַׁכֵּ֥ן אֶת־שְׁמִ֖⁠י שָֽׁם 1 to the place where I have chosen to cause my name to dwell there This phrase refers initially to Jerusalem because that was where God chose to put his temple. You could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “to Jerusalem, where I have chosen for my name to remain” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 9 w4qw figs-metonymy אֶל־הַ⁠מָּק֔וֹם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּחַ֔רְתִּי לְ⁠שַׁכֵּ֥ן אֶת־שְׁמִ֖⁠י שָֽׁם 1 to the place where I have chosen to cause my name to dwell there Nehemiah is actually using this phrase to refer to all of Judah. As the book explains later, when the Jews returned there, they each settled in their own former towns, though one in ten of them were recruited to live in Jerusalem. So Judah is being described by something associated with it, the capital city. Alternate translation: “to your homeland of Judah.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 9 g88j figs-metonymy שְׁמִ֖⁠י 1 my name Here **name** is a figurative way of referring to the fame or reputation of a person. Their fame is described by something associated with it, how well known their name is and how people react to hearing it. Alternate translation: “reputation” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 1 9 g88j figs-metonymy שְׁמִ֖⁠י 1 my name Here, **name** is a figurative way of referring to the fame or reputation of a person. Their fame is described by something associated with it, how well known their name is and how people react to hearing it. Alternate translation: “reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 10 mjx7 figs-123person וְ⁠הֵ֥ם עֲבָדֶ֖י⁠ךָ וְ⁠עַמֶּ֑⁠ךָ 1 And they are your servants and your people The word **they** refers to the Israelite people. Since Nehemiah is speaking on their behalf and including himself, you could say “we” in your translation if that would make things clearer for your readers. If your language marks the distinction, “we” should not include the addressee. Alternate translation: “we are your servants, your chosen people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 10 ab87 figs-parallelism וְ⁠הֵ֥ם עֲבָדֶ֖י⁠ךָ וְ⁠עַמֶּ֑⁠ךָ 1 And they are your servants and your people As in [1:6](../01/06.md), **servants** refers to the special role that the people of Israel had as a model community of God’s followers. So these two phrases are basically saying the same thing. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “we are your chosen people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 10 ab89 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁ֤ר פָּדִ֨יתָ֙ 1 whom you redeemed This is a reference to the way God delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. Alternate translation: “you rescued us from slavery in Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 10 zu4s figs-doublet בְּ⁠כֹחֲ⁠ךָ֣ הַ⁠גָּד֔וֹל וּ⁠בְ⁠יָדְ⁠ךָ֖ הַ⁠חֲזָקָֽה 1 by your great power and by your strong hand These two phrases mean basically the same thing. Nehemiah uses the repetition to emphasize the intensity of Yahweh’s power. Alternate translation: “by your very great strength” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 1 10 ab91 figs-metaphor וּ⁠בְ⁠יָדְ⁠ךָ֖ הַ⁠חֲזָקָֽה 1 your strong hand Here **hand** represents a person’s power, strength, or ability. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 1 10 ax91 figs-metaphor וּ⁠בְ⁠יָדְ⁠ךָ֖ הַ⁠חֲזָקָֽה 1 your strong hand Here, **hand** represents a person’s power, strength, or ability. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 11 ab93 figs-exclamations אָנָּ֣א 1 Ah! As in [1:5](../01/05.md), Nehemiah uses this word to call on God with strong feeling. Alternate translation: “O” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclamations]])
NEH 1 11 ab95 אֲדֹנָ֗⁠י תְּהִ֣י נָ֣א אָזְנְ⁠ךָֽ־קַ֠שֶּׁבֶת אֶל־תְּפִלַּ֨ת עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֜ 1 My Lord, please let your ear be attentive to the prayer of your servant Nehemiah calls himself a **servant** and he calls God his **Lord** because this is how a person in his culture would address a superior in order to show humility and respect. See how you translated this in [1:6](../01/06.md).
NEH 1 11 ab97 translate-names אֲדֹנָ֗⁠י 1 Lord This term in Hebrew can be understood as either a noun with a pronoun suffix (“My Lord”) or as a simple title (“Lord”). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 11 ab97 translate-names אֲדֹנָ֗⁠י 1 Lord This term in Hebrew can be understood as either a noun with a pronoun suffix (“my Lord”) or as a simple title (“Lord”). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 1 11 ab99 figs-metonymy תְּהִ֣י נָ֣א אָזְנְ⁠ךָֽ־קַ֠שֶּׁבֶת 1 let your ear be attentive As in [1:6](../01/06.md), this phrase refers figuratively to the action of listening. Alternate translation: “please pay careful attention.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 11 jjm7 figs-123person תְּפִלַּ֨ת עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֜ 1 the prayer of your servant Alternate translation: “to my prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 11 j433 תְּפִלַּ֣ת עֲבָדֶ֗י⁠ךָ 1 the prayer of your servants Here **servants** refers to the rest of the Israelite people who were also praying for Yahweh to act on behalf of his people and on behalf of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “and to the prayers of my fellow Israelites”
NEH 1 11 hk3z figs-metonymy הַֽ⁠חֲפֵצִים֙ לְ⁠יִרְאָ֣ה אֶת־שְׁמֶ֔⁠ךָ 1 the ones who delight to fear your name Here **name** represents Yahweh himself. Alternate translation: “who are glad to honor you” or “who are eager to uphold your reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 11 j433 תְּפִלַּ֣ת עֲבָדֶ֗י⁠ךָ 1 the prayer of your servants Here, **servants** refers to the rest of the Israelite people who were also praying for Yahweh to act on behalf of his people and on behalf of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “and to the prayers of my fellow Israelites”
NEH 1 11 hk3z figs-metonymy הַֽ⁠חֲפֵצִים֙ לְ⁠יִרְאָ֣ה אֶת־שְׁמֶ֔⁠ךָ 1 the ones who delight to fear your name Here, **name** represents Yahweh himself. Alternate translation: “who are glad to honor you” or “who are eager to uphold your reputation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 1 11 a11b figs-idiom הַֽ⁠חֲפֵצִים֙ 1 the ones who delight To delight in doing something means to be glad to do it and to want to do it. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 1 11 a13b לְ⁠יִרְאָ֣ה 1 to fear As in [1:5](../01/05.md), **fear** means to show respect and reverence.
NEH 1 11 a15b figs-123person וְ⁠הַצְלִֽיחָ⁠ה־נָּ֤א לְ⁠עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֙ הַ⁠יּ֔וֹם וּ⁠תְנֵ֣⁠הוּ לְ⁠רַחֲמִ֔ים 1 cause your servant to succeed today and give him mercies Once again Nehemiah calls himself a **servant** to show respect to a superior. He then refers to himself in the third person (“give him”) to express humility before God. Alternate translation: “make me successful today and let the king be merciful to me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 11 a17b figs-parallelism וְ⁠הַצְלִֽיחָ⁠ה־נָּ֤א לְ⁠עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֙ הַ⁠יּ֔וֹם וּ⁠תְנֵ֣⁠הוּ לְ⁠רַחֲמִ֔ים 1 cause your servant to succeed today and give him mercies These two statements mean similar things. Nehemiah says the same thing twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize how important it is for him to have God’s help. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “grant that the king will have mercy on me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 1 11 a19b figs-idiom הַ⁠יּ֔וֹם 1 today This does not necessarily mean on this same day. Rather, Nehemiah is praying that God will give him the opportunity to speak with the king soon about helping the Jews in Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “soon” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 1 11 kr99 figs-123person ⁠תְנֵ֣⁠הוּ לְ⁠רַחֲמִ֔ים 1 give him mercies Here **him** refers to Nehemiah, who refers to himself in the third person to express his humility before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 11 r7af figs-metaphor לִ⁠פְנֵ֖י הָ⁠אִ֣ישׁ הַ⁠זֶּ֑ה 1 before the face of this man Here **face** is a figurative way of referring to the action of seeing, and seeing is a figurative way of describing knowledge, perception, notice, attention, or judgment. In this context, Nehemiah is asking God to cause the king to make a favorable decision in response to a request he plans to make. Alternate translation: “Please grant that the king will agree to the request that I am going to make.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 11 kr99 figs-123person וּ⁠תְנֵ֣⁠הוּ לְ⁠רַחֲמִ֔ים 1 give him mercies Here, **him** refers to Nehemiah, who refers to himself in the third person to express his humility before God. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 1 11 r7af figs-metaphor לִ⁠פְנֵ֖י הָ⁠אִ֣ישׁ הַ⁠זֶּ֑ה 1 before the face of this man Here, **face** is a figurative way of referring to the action of seeing, and seeing is a figurative way of describing knowledge, perception, notice, attention, or judgment. In this context, Nehemiah is asking God to cause the king to make a favorable decision in response to a request he plans to make. Alternate translation: “Please grant that the king will agree to the request that I am going to make.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 1 11 a21b figs-explicit הָ⁠אִ֣ישׁ הַ⁠זֶּ֑ה 1 this man As we will discover in the next chapter, **this man** refers to Artaxerxes, the king of Persia. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the king” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 1 11 h9hl writing-background וַ⁠אֲנִ֛י הָיִ֥יתִי מַשְׁקֶ֖ה לַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 Now as for me, I was a cupbearer for the king This is background information about Nehemiah’s role in the king’s court. Your language may have a special way to mark background information. As a “cupbearer,” it was Nehemiah’s duty to serve the wine at the king's table, but he was much more than a waiter or butler. When the king gave him this assignment, this showed that he trusted Nehemiah completely to protect him from being poisoned. Nehemiah’s work also allowed him to see the king frequently and get to know him. So this was an important office. Alternate translation: “At that time, I was an important official who served the wine at the king’s table.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
NEH 2 intro mj1d 0 # Nehemiah 02 General Notes<br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>This chapter begins the account of the construction of the wall. Many scholars believe these chapters teach valuable lessons on leadership ([Nehemiah 2-6](./01.md)).<br><br>### Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Nehemiah’s character<br>Apparently, Nehemiah’s character made an impression on the king. It was very unusual for a king to be so concerned with one of his servants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])<br><br>### Cultural Customs<br>In ancient Persia, people thought it was important for their conquered peoples to practice their own cultural customs. It was thought that this independence promoted peace in their vast kingdom. The rebuilding of Jerusalem may have been seen as a way to allow for the Jewish cultural practices.<br><br>### Yahweh’s control<br>Yahweh is seen as very powerful. He is able to provide for his people, even through a foreign king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]])
NEH 1 11 h9hl writing-background וַ⁠אֲנִ֛י הָיִ֥יתִי מַשְׁקֶ֖ה לַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 Now as for me, I was a cupbearer for the king This is background information about Nehemiah’s role in the king’s court. Your language may have a special way to mark background information. As a “cupbearer,” it was Nehemiah’s duty to serve the wine at the kings table, but he was much more than a waiter or butler. When the king gave him this assignment, this showed that he trusted Nehemiah completely to protect him from being poisoned. Nehemiah’s work also allowed him to see the king frequently and get to know him. So this was an important office. Alternate translation: “At that time, I was an important official who served the wine at the king’s table.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
NEH 2 intro mj1d 0 # Nehemiah 02 General Notes<br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>This chapter begins the account of the construction of the wall. Many scholars believe these chapters teach valuable lessons on leadership ([Nehemiah 2-6](./01.md)).<br><br>### Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Nehemiah’s character<br>Apparently, Nehemiah’s character made an impression on the king. It was very unusual for a king to be so concerned with one of his servants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])<br><br>### Cultural Customs<br>In ancient Persia, people thought it was important for their conquered peoples to retain and practice their own cultural customs. It was thought that this independence promoted peace in their vast kingdom. The rebuilding of Jerusalem may have been seen as a way to allow for the Jewish cultural practices.<br><br>### Yahweh’s control<br>Yahweh is seen as very powerful. He is able to provide for his people even through a foreign king. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/peopleofgod]])
NEH 2 1 a23b writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֣י 1 Then it happened that Nehemiah uses this phrase to introduce the next event in his story. You do not need to represent it in your translation unless your language has a similar expression that it characteristically uses. Alternate translation: “Then one day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
NEH 2 1 a25b figs-explicit בְּ⁠חֹ֣דֶשׁ נִיסָ֗ן שְׁנַ֥ת עֶשְׂרִ֛ים לְ⁠אַרְתַּחְשַׁ֥סְתְּא הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 in the month of Nisan, in year twenty of Artaxerxes the King Since there were twelve months in the Hebrew calendar, and it was still the same year in the reign of Artaxerxes, this means that four months had gone by since Hanani came and spoke with Nehemiah. The implication is that Nehemiah had been praying all this time, in the way described in chapter 1. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “I prayed like this for four months.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 1 a25b figs-explicit בְּ⁠חֹ֣דֶשׁ נִיסָ֗ן שְׁנַ֥ת עֶשְׂרִ֛ים לְ⁠אַרְתַּחְשַׁ֥סְתְּא הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 in the month of Nisan, in year twenty of Artaxerxes the King Since there were twelve months in the Hebrew calendar, and it was still the same year in the reign of Artaxerxes, this means that four months had gone by since Hanani came and spoke with Nehemiah. The implication is that Nehemiah had been praying all this time in the way described in chapter 1. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “I prayed like this for four months.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 1 h3hu translate-hebrewmonths בְּ⁠חֹ֣דֶשׁ נִיסָ֗ן 1 In the month of Nisan **Nisan** is the name of the first month of the Hebrew calendar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]])
NEH 2 1 l63f translate-ordinal שְׁנַ֥ת עֶשְׂרִ֛ים לְ⁠אַרְתַּחְשַׁ֥סְתְּא הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 in year twenty of Artaxerxes the king This is referring to the number of years that Artaxerxes had been reigning as king. Alternate translation: “in year 20 of the reign of Artaxerxes as the king of Persia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
NEH 2 1 k1vf יַ֣יִן לְ⁠פָנָ֑י⁠ו 1 wine was before his face **Him** means King Artaxerxes. Alternate translation: “when it was time to serve him the wine”
NEH 2 1 a27b figs-metaphor יַ֣יִן לְ⁠פָנָ֑י⁠ו 1 wine was before his face Here **face** is a figurative way of referring to the presence of a person. This sentence means that a time had come when Nehemiah needed to serve wine to the king. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 1 a24b figs-metaphor יַ֣יִן לְ⁠פָנָ֑י⁠ו 1 wine was before his face Here, **face** is a figurative way of referring to the presence of a person. This sentence means that a time had come when Nehemiah needed to serve wine to the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 1 a29b וָ⁠אֶשָּׂ֤א אֶת־הַ⁠יַּ֨יִן֙ וָ⁠אֶתְּנָ֣⁠ה לַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 I lifted the wine, and I gave it to the king Alternate translation: “I poured a cup of wine and gave it to the king.”
NEH 2 1 a31b figs-idiom וְ⁠לֹא־הָיִ֥יתִי רַ֖ע לְ⁠פָנָֽי⁠ו 1 and I was not evil before his face In this context, **evil** refers to a person looking sad or upset. It does not mean morally bad. Alternate translation: “I did not look sad in his presence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 1 a31b figs-idiom וְ⁠לֹא־הָיִ֥יתִי רַ֖ע לְ⁠פָנָֽי⁠ו 1 and I was not evil before his face In this context, **unpleasant** refers to a person looking sad or upset. Alternate translation: “I did not look sad in his presence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 1 a33b figs-explicit וְ⁠לֹא־הָיִ֥יתִי 1 and I was not The context suggests that **I was not** actually means “I had never been.” It seems that King Artaxerxes always wanted his officials to be cheerful in his presence. That is why Nehemaiah became afraid when the king asked him why he was sad. If it would make things clearer for your readers, you could say “I had never been.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 1 a35p figs-metaphor לְ⁠פָנָֽי⁠ו 1 before his face **Face** is a figurative way of referring to the presence of a person. Alternate translation: “in his presence” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 1 a38p figs-metaphor לְ⁠פָנָֽי⁠ו 1 before his face Here, **face** is a figurative way of referring to the presence of a person. Alternate translation: “in his presence” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 2 n5wy figs-explicit וַ⁠יֹּאמֶר֩ לִ֨⁠י הַ⁠מֶּ֜לֶךְ 1 And the king said to me The king must have noticed that Nehemiah looked sad because he asked about it. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “But the king noticed that on this day I did look sad. So he asked me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 2 ue51 figs-synecdoche מַדּ֣וּעַ ׀ פָּנֶ֣י⁠ךָ רָעִ֗ים 1 Why is your face evil? The king refers to Nehemiah by one part of him, his **face**, because the face shows one’s emotions. Alternate translation: “Why are you sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 2 2 a37b figs-idiom מַדּ֣וּעַ ׀ פָּנֶ֣י⁠ךָ רָעִ֗ים 1 Why is your face evil? As in verse 1, **evil** does not mean morally bad in this context. It refers to a person looking sad or upset. Alternate translation: “Why are you sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 2 a37b figs-idiom מַדּ֣וּעַ ׀ פָּנֶ֣י⁠ךָ רָעִ֗ים 1 Why is your face evil? As in [2:1](../02/01.md), **unpleasant** refers to a person looking sad or upset. Alternate translation: “Why are you sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 2 a39b וְ⁠אַתָּה֙ אֵֽינְ⁠ךָ֣ חוֹלֶ֔ה 1 Now as for you, you are not sick Alternate translation: “I can tell that you are not sick.”
NEH 2 2 g1k7 figs-personification אֵ֣ין זֶ֔ה כִּי־אִ֖ם רֹ֣עַֽ לֵ֑ב 1 This is nothing except evil of heart This phrase means “sadness of heart.” The king speaks as if Nehemiah’s heart were a living thing capable of having emotions. Alternate translation: “You must be very sad inside” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 2 g1k7 figs-personification אֵ֣ין זֶ֔ה כִּי־אִ֖ם רֹ֣עַֽ לֵ֑ב 1 This is nothing except evil of heart This phrase means “sadness of heart.” The king speaks as if Nehemiah’s heart were a living thing capable of having emotions. Alternate translation: “You must be very sad inside” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 2 a41b figs-doublenegatives אֵ֣ין זֶ֔ה כִּי־אִ֖ם רֹ֣עַֽ לֵ֑ב 1 This is nothing except evil of heart You can state this in a positive form: Alternate translation: “This can only be sadness” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])
NEH 2 2 eyt8 figs-explicit וָ⁠אִירָ֖א הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד 1 Then I was extremely much afraid The implication is that Nehemiah was very afraid because no one was supposed to look unhappy in the king’s presence. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “This made me very afraid, because no one was supposed to look unhappy in the king’s presence.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 3 qz4i figs-hyperbole הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ לְ⁠עוֹלָ֣ם יִחְיֶ֑ה 1 May the king live to eternity! Nehemiah is showing honor to King Artaxerxes. Here **to eternity** is an exaggeration that refers to a long life. Alternate translation: “Long live the king” or “May you have a long life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 2 3 qz4i figs-hyperbole הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ לְ⁠עוֹלָ֣ם יִחְיֶ֑ה 1 May the king live to eternity! Nehemiah is showing honor to King Artaxerxes. Here, **to eternity** is an exaggeration that refers to a long life. Alternate translation: “Long live the king” or “May you have a long life” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 2 3 a43b figs-123person הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ לְ⁠עוֹלָ֣ם יִחְיֶ֑ה 1 May the king live to eternity! Nehemiah addresses the king in the third person as a sign of respect. You can indicate this respect by adding an expression such as “Your Majesty.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 2 3 klj6 figs-rquestion מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־יֵרְע֣וּ פָנַ֗⁠י 1 Why should not my face be evil Nehemiah is making a statement, not asking a question. He does not expect the king to give him reasons why he should not be sad. Instead, he is using the question form for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate this as a statement. Alternate translation: “I am sorry, but I cannot help being sad.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
NEH 2 3 a45b figs-synecdoche מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־יֵרְע֣וּ פָנַ֗⁠י 1 Why should not my face be evil Nehemiah refers to himself by one part of him, his **face**, because the face shows one’s emotions. Alternate translation: “I have very good reasons to be sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 2 3 a47b figs-idiom מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־יֵרְע֣וּ פָנַ֗⁠י 1 Why should not my face be evil **Evil** does not mean morally bad in this context. It refers to a person looking sad or upset. Alternate translation: “I have very good reasons to be sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 3 a47b figs-idiom מַדּ֜וּעַ לֹא־יֵרְע֣וּ פָנַ֗⁠י 1 Why should not my face be evil Here, **unpleasant** refers to a person looking sad or upset. Alternate translation: “I have very good reasons to be sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 3 a49b figs-explicit הָ⁠עִ֜יר…חֲרֵבָ֔ה 1 the city…is desolate **The city** means Jerusalem. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the city of Jerusalem … lies in ruins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 3 eh23 figs-metaphor בֵּית־קִבְר֤וֹת אֲבֹתַ⁠י֙ 1 the house of the graves of my fathers **House** here is a figurative way of referring to a place. Alternate translation: “the place where my ancestors are buried” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 3 a51b figs-metonymy בֵּית־קִבְר֤וֹת אֲבֹתַ⁠י֙ 1 the house of the graves of my fathers **Fathers** here figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “the place where my ancestors are buried” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 3 ehz3 figs-metaphor בֵּית־קִבְר֤וֹת אֲבֹתַ⁠י֙ 1 the house of the graves of my fathers Here, **house** is a figurative way of referring to a place. Alternate translation: “the place where my ancestors are buried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 3 a51b figs-metonymy בֵּית־קִבְר֤וֹת אֲבֹתַ⁠י֙ 1 the house of the graves of my fathers Here, **fathers** figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “the place where my ancestors are buried” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 3 g7f4 figs-activepassive וּ⁠שְׁעָרֶ֖י⁠הָ אֻכְּל֥וּ בָ⁠אֵֽשׁ 1 its gates have been consumed by fire If it would be clearer in your language, you can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “fire has destroyed its gates” or “our enemies have burned its gates” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 2 4 a53b עַל־מַה־זֶּ֖ה אַתָּ֣ה מְבַקֵּ֑שׁ 1 For what is this you are seeking? Alternate translation: “What do you want me to do for you?”
NEH 2 4 a55b figs-explicit וָֽ⁠אֶתְפַּלֵּ֔ל 1 And I prayed The implication is that Nehemiah prayed to God before he answered the king. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Before I answered him, I prayed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ NEH 2 4 a57b אֱלֹהֵ֖י הַ⁠שָּׁמָֽיִם 1 the God of heaven A
NEH 2 5 uv1p וָ⁠אֹמַ֣ר לַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 And I said to the king Alternate translation: “Then I replied to the king”
NEH 2 5 a59b figs-idiom אִם־עַל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֔וֹב 1 If it is good to the king This is an idiom that means, “If it seems good in your judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 5 a61b figs-123person אִם־עַל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֔וֹב 1 If it is good to the king Nehemiah speaks to the king in third person as a form of respect. Alternate translation: “If it seems good in your judgment” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 2 5 ae4b figs-synecdoche וְ⁠אִם־יִיטַ֥ב עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֖ לְ⁠פָנֶ֑י⁠ךָ 1 and if your servant is good before your face Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. So this could mean, “As I stand here before you.” But “face” could also be referring figuratively to the king himself by naming one part of him. What he thought and felt about Nehemiah’s request would become evident in his face first, so that would be an appropriate part of him to use to represent all of him. Alternate translation: “if you are pleased with me” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 5 ae4b figs-synecdoche וְ⁠אִם־יִיטַ֥ב עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֖ לְ⁠פָנֶ֑י⁠ךָ 1 and if your servant is good before your face Here, **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. So this could mean, “As I stand here before you.” But “face” could also be referring figuratively to the king himself by naming one part of him. What he thought and felt about Nehemiah’s request would become evident in his face first, so that would be an appropriate part of him to use to represent all of him. Alternate translation: “if you are pleased with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 5 u2zy figs-123person וְ⁠אִם־יִיטַ֥ב עַבְדְּ⁠ךָ֖ לְ⁠פָנֶ֑י⁠ךָ 1 your servant Nehemiah refers to himself as **your servant** to show his submission to the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
NEH 2 5 a63b figs-idiom אֲשֶׁ֧ר תִּשְׁלָחֵ֣⁠נִי אֶל־יְהוּדָ֗ה 1 that you would send me to Judah Nehemiah is really asking for permission to go, rather than asking the king to send him. But as a sign of respect, he speaks as if the king would be taking the initiative. Alternate translation: “please allow me to go to Judah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 5 df8l עִ֛יר קִבְר֥וֹת אֲבֹתַ֖⁠י 1 the city of the graves of my fathers This is similar to [2:3](../02/03.md). Alternate translation: “the city where my ancestors are buried”
@@ -144,8 +144,8 @@ NEH 2 7 a85b figs-123person עַל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ 1 to the king Nehemi
NEH 2 7 rgj6 figs-activepassive אִגְּרוֹת֙ יִתְּנוּ־לִ֔⁠י 1 let letters be given to me You can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “please give me letters” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 2 7 a87b עַֽל־פַּחֲו֖וֹת 1 for the governors Alternate translation: “that I can show to the governors”
NEH 2 7 qp9n translate-names עֵ֣בֶר הַ⁠נָּהָ֑ר 1 Beyond-the-River This is the name of the Persian province that lay west of the Euphrates River. Alternate translation: “the province Beyond the River” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 7 a89b אֲשֶׁר֙ יַעֲבִיר֔וּ⁠נִי עַ֥ד אֲשֶׁר־אָב֖וֹא אֶל־יְהוּדָֽה 1 that they will bring me across as far as where I enter into Judah Nehemiah’s request is not for these governors to provide him with transportation. Nehemiah explains in [2:9](../02/09.md) that the king did that for him. These letter would instead request the governors to allow him safe passage through their provinces. Alternate translation: "Please tell them to give me safe passage through their provinces to Judah"
NEH 2 8 a91b וְ⁠אִגֶּ֡רֶת אֶל־אָסָף֩ 1 and a letter to Asaph Nehemiah is continuing his requests to the king. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Please also write a letter for me to Asaph”
NEH 2 7 a89b אֲשֶׁר֙ יַעֲבִיר֔וּ⁠נִי עַ֥ד אֲשֶׁר־אָב֖וֹא אֶל־יְהוּדָֽה 1 that they will bring me across as far as where I enter into Judah Nehemiah’s request is not for these governors to provide him with transportation. Nehemiah explains in [2:9](../02/09.md) that the king did that for him. These letter would instead request the governors to allow him safe passage through their provinces. Alternate translation: “Please tell them to give me safe passage through their provinces to Judah”
NEH 2 8 a91b וְ⁠אִגֶּ֡רֶת אֶל־אָסָף֩ 1 and a letter to Asaph Nehemiah is continuing his requests to the king. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “Please also write a letter to Asaph for me
NEH 2 8 ar5v translate-names אָסָף֩ 1 Asaph This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 8 a93b שֹׁמֵ֨ר 1 the keeper of Alternate translation: “the man who takes care of”
NEH 2 8 a95b figs-explicit הַ⁠פַּרְדֵּ֜ס אֲשֶׁ֣ר לַ⁠מֶּ֗לֶךְ 1 the forest that belongs to the king The implication is that this forest was near where Nehemiah was going to need the wood. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “your royal forest in that area” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -154,12 +154,12 @@ NEH 2 8 a99b אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִתֶּן־לִ֣⁠י עֵצִ֡ים 1 that he
NEH 2 8 ac11 figs-metonymy הַ⁠בִּירָ֤ה אֲשֶׁר־לַ⁠בַּ֨יִת֙ 1 the citadel, which is for the house As in [1:1](../01/01.md), **citadel** refers to a fortress or stronghold. “House” here figuratively describes the temple as the “house” where God lives. Alternate translation: “the fortress that is near the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 2 8 ac13 וְ⁠לַ⁠בַּ֖יִת אֲשֶׁר־אָב֣וֹא אֵלָ֑י⁠ו 1 and for the house into which I will enter Alternate translation: “and for the house that I will live in”
NEH 2 8 ac15 וַ⁠יִּתֶּן־לִ֣⁠י הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 And the king gave to me Alternate translation: “The king agreed to all of my requests.”
NEH 2 8 wl1s figs-metaphor כְּ⁠יַד־אֱלֹהַ֖⁠י הַ⁠טּוֹבָ֥ה עָלָֽ⁠י 1 according to the good hand of my God upon me Here **hand** figuratively represents strength, power, control, or action. In this context, the expression means that God acted toward Nehemiah in a positive and favorable manner. Alternate translation: “because God’s favor was upon me” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 8 w91s figs-metaphor כְּ⁠יַד־אֱלֹהַ֖⁠י הַ⁠טּוֹבָ֥ה עָלָֽ⁠י 1 according to the good hand of my God upon me Here, **hand** figuratively represents strength, power, control, or action. In this context, the expression means that God acted toward Nehemiah in a positive and favorable manner. Alternate translation: “because God’s favor was upon me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 8 ac17 grammar-connect-logic-result כְּ⁠יַד־אֱלֹהַ֖⁠י הַ⁠טּוֹבָ֥ה עָלָֽ⁠י 1 according to the good hand of my God upon me If it would be clearer in your language, you can give this explanation (the reason) before the result that it accounts for, using a connecting word like “so.” Alternate translation: “God’s favor was upon me, and so the king agreed to all of my requests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 2 9 ac19 וָֽ⁠אָב֗וֹא אֶֽל־פַּֽחֲווֹת֙ עֵ֣בֶר הַ⁠נָּהָ֔ר 1 And I came to the governors of Beyond-the-River Alternate translation: “When I reached the province Beyond the River, I went to see its governors”
NEH 2 9 ac21 translate-names עֵ֣בֶר הַ⁠נָּהָ֔ר 1 Beyond-the-River This is the name of a Persian province. See how you translated it in [2:7](../02/07.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 9 ac23 וָ⁠אֶתְּנָ֣⁠ה לָ⁠הֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אִגְּר֣וֹת הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶך 1 I gave to them the letters of the king Alternate translation: “I showed them the letters the king had given me.”
NEH 2 9 ac25 figs-explicit וָ⁠אֶתְּנָ֣⁠ה לָ⁠הֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אִגְּר֣וֹת הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶך 1 I gave to them the letters of the king The implication is that when the governors saw the letters from the king, they allowed Nehemiah safe passage. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “and they gave me safe passage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 9 ac23 וָ⁠אֶתְּנָ֣⁠ה לָ⁠הֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אִגְּר֣וֹת הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶךְ 1 I gave to them the letters of the king Alternate translation: “I showed them the letters the king had given me.”
NEH 2 9 ac25 figs-explicit וָ⁠אֶתְּנָ֣⁠ה לָ⁠הֶ֔ם אֵ֖ת אִגְּר֣וֹת הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶךְ 1 I gave to them the letters of the king The implication is that when the governors saw the letters from the king, they allowed Nehemiah safe passage. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “and they gave me safe passage” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 9 ac27 figs-explicit וַ⁠יִּשְׁלַ֤ח עִמִּ⁠י֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ שָׂ֥רֵי חַ֖יִל וּ⁠פָרָשִֽׁים 1 And the king sent with me officers of the army and horsemen The implication is that the king did this when Nehemiah left for Judah, and that the purpose was to protect him on his journey. If it would make things clearer for your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “When I left to travel to Judah, the king sent along some army officers and soldiers riding on horses to protect me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 9 ac29 figs-events וַ⁠יִּשְׁלַ֤ח עִמִּ⁠י֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ שָׂ֥רֵי חַ֖יִל וּ⁠פָרָשִֽׁים 1 And the king sent with me officers of the army and horsemen You can put this information first because it happened before Nehemiah showed his letters to the governors. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])
NEH 2 10 ac31 figs-explicit וַ⁠יִּשְׁמַ֞ע סַנְבַלַּ֣ט הַ⁠חֹרֹנִ֗י וְ⁠טֽוֹבִיָּה֙ הָ⁠עֶ֣בֶד הָֽ⁠עַמֹּנִ֔י 1 Then Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah, the servant, the Ammonite, heard Sanballat was the governor of Samaria, the area right next to Judah. So he was one of the people Nehemiah would have shown a letter from the king authorizing his trip. If it would make things clearer for your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “This was how Sanballat the Horonite and his deputy Tobiah the Ammonite learned” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -168,7 +168,7 @@ NEH 2 10 eh4c translate-names וְ⁠טֽוֹבִיָּה֙…הָֽ⁠עַמּ
NEH 2 10 vb3p וְ⁠טֽוֹבִיָּה֙ הָ⁠עֶ֣בֶד 1 and Tobiah, the servant From the role that Tobiah plays in the book, this phrase seems to indicate that he was the official who served directly under Sanballat. Alternate translation: “Tobiah, his deputy”
NEH 2 10 ac33 figs-explicit וַ⁠יֵּ֥רַע לָ⁠הֶ֖ם רָעָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א אָדָ֔ם לְ⁠בַקֵּ֥שׁ טוֹבָ֖ה לִ⁠בְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל 1 And it was evil to them, a great evil, that someone had come to seek good for the sons of Israel The implication is that Sanballat and Tobiah did not want to see Judah become strong again because that would be a threat to the power and influence of Samaria. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 10 ac35 figs-idiom וַ⁠יֵּ֥רַע לָ⁠הֶ֖ם רָעָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֑ה 1 And it was evil to them, a great evil Here **evil** means “bad,” so this expression is the opposite of “if it is good to you” in [2:5](../02/05.md) and [2:7](../02/05.md). Alternate translation: “They thought it was a bad thing, a very bad thing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 10 ac37 figs-doublet וַ⁠יֵּ֥רַע לָ⁠הֶ֖ם רָעָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֑ה 1 And it was evil to them, a great evil These two short phrases mean almost the same thing. Nehemiah uses together for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “they became very upset” or “they did not like it at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 2 10 ac37 figs-doublet וַ⁠יֵּ֥רַע לָ⁠הֶ֖ם רָעָ֣ה גְדֹלָ֑ה 1 And it was evil to them, a great evil These two short phrases mean almost the same thing. Nehemiah uses them together for emphasis. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “they became very upset” or “they did not like it at all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 2 10 ac39 figs-idiom אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥א אָדָ֔ם לְ⁠בַקֵּ֥שׁ טוֹבָ֖ה לִ⁠בְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל 1 that someone had come to seek good for the sons of Israel **To seek good for** means “to help.” Alternate translation: “that someone had come to help the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 10 ac41 figs-gendernotations לִ⁠בְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל 1 for the sons of Israel As in [1:6](../01/06.md), **sons** means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 2 11 ac43 figs-explicit וָ⁠אָב֖וֹא אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם 1 And I came to Jerusalem Here the text might be implying that Nehemiah made it safely to Jerusalem anyway, despite the opposition of Sanballat and Tobiah. Alternate translation: “But I made it safely to Jerusalem despite their opposition.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -176,12 +176,12 @@ NEH 2 11 ac45 וָ⁠אֱהִי־שָׁ֖ם יָמִ֥ים שְׁלֹשָֽׁה
NEH 2 12 ac47 figs-explicit וָ⁠אָק֣וּם ׀ לַ֗יְלָה 1 Then I arose in the night The implication is that Nehemiah went out to inspect the city walls, as described in 1:13–15(../01/13.md). The implication is also that he did this at night so that no one would know he was doing it. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “I got up secretly in the night to inspect the city walls.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 12 ac49 figs-gendernotations אֲנִי֮ וַ⁠אֲנָשִׁ֣ים ׀ מְעַט֮ עִמִּ⁠י֒ 1 myself and a few men with me The word **men** here could conceivably include both men and women. However, for a nighttime mission through the ruins of the city walls, it’s likely that Nehemiah brought along only other men. So in this context you could use a word that indicates that. Alternate translation: “I brought only a few other men with me.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 2 12 ac51 figs-hyperbole וְ⁠לֹא־הִגַּ֣דְתִּי לְ⁠אָדָ֔ם מָ֗ה אֱלֹהַ⁠י֙ נֹתֵ֣ן אֶל־לִבִּ֔⁠י לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת לִ⁠ירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם 1 and I did not tell anyone what my God had been giving to my heart to do for Jerusalem Probably Nehemiah told at least some people, since he brought a few men with him when he went out to inspect the walls. So “not … anyone” might be an exaggeration that emphasizes the secrecy Nehemiah maintained. Alternate translation: “I did not say publicly what God had led me to do for Jerusalem.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 2 12 ac53 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠לֹא־הִגַּ֣דְתִּי לְ⁠אָדָ֔ם מָ֗ה אֱלֹהַ⁠י֙ נֹתֵ֣ן אֶל־לִבִּ֔⁠י לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת לִ⁠ירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם 1 and I did not tell anyone If it would be clearer in your language, you can give this explanation before describing Nehemiah’s night time mission, because it is the reason that explains the result of him maintaining so much secrecy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 2 12 s7mw figs-metaphor מָ֗ה אֱלֹהַ⁠י֙ נֹתֵ֣ן אֶל־לִבִּ֔⁠י לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת 1 had put into my heart Here Nehemiah’s **heart** figuratively represents his thoughts and will. Alternate translation: “what God had inspired me to do” or “what God had led me to do” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 12 ac53 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠לֹא־הִגַּ֣דְתִּי לְ⁠אָדָ֔ם מָ֗ה אֱלֹהַ⁠י֙ נֹתֵ֣ן אֶל־לִבִּ֔⁠י לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת לִ⁠ירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם 1 and I did not tell anyone If it would be clearer in your language, you can give this explanation before describing Nehemiah’s nighttime mission, because it is the reason that explains the result of him maintaining so much secrecy. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 2 12 s72w figs-metaphor מָ֗ה אֱלֹהַ⁠י֙ נֹתֵ֣ן אֶל־לִבִּ֔⁠י לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת 1 had put into my heart Here, Nehemiah’s **heart** figuratively represents his thoughts and will. Alternate translation: “what God had inspired me to do” or “what God had led me to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 12 wd63 figs-explicit וּ⁠בְהֵמָה֙ אֵ֣ין עִמִּ֔⁠י 1 Now there was no animal with me The implication is that this was another measure to maintain secrecy. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “To keep things quiet, there were no other animals with me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 13 au61 figs-synecdoche וָ⁠אֵצְאָ֨⁠ה 1 I went out Even though he brought a few men with him, Nehemiah says “I” because he was the primary person conducting this inspection. In this narrative, he represents the entire group. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say “we” in your translation to express this meaning. If your language makes this distinction, “we” would not include the addressee. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 2 13 ac55 translate-names בְ⁠שַֽׁעַר־הַ⁠גַּ֜יא 1 at the gate of the valley This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “at the Valley Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 13 ac57 figs-metonymy וְ⁠אֶל־פְּנֵי֙ עֵ֣ין הַתַּנִּ֔ין 1 even to the face of the spring of the dragon Here **face** figuratively means the front of an object. This means that the group passed in front of the well. Alternate translation: “we went past the Dragon Well” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 13 az64 figs-metonymy וְ⁠אֶל־פְּנֵי֙ עֵ֣ין הַתַּנִּ֔ין 1 even to the face of the spring of the dragon Here, **face** figuratively means the front of an object. This means that the group passed in front of the well. Alternate translation: “we went past the Dragon Well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 13 pt1h translate-names עֵ֣ין הַתַּנִּ֔ין 1 the spring of the dragon This is the name of a spring-fed well outside Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Dragon Well” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 13 mif3 translate-names וְ⁠אֶל־שַׁ֖עַר הָ⁠אַשְׁפֹּ֑ת 1 and to the gate of dung This is the name of another one of the gates of Jerusalem. It seems that rubbish was removed from the city through this gate. Alternate translation: “the Rubbish Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 13 ac59 וָ⁠אֱהִ֨י שֹׂבֵ֜ר בְּ⁠חוֹמֹ֤ת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֨ם֙ 1 And I was looking intently at the walls of Jerusalem Alternate translation: “We made a careful inspection of the walls of Jerusalem.”
@@ -193,7 +193,7 @@ NEH 2 15 l39v figs-synecdoche וָ⁠אֱהִ֨י עֹלֶ֤ה בַ⁠נַּ֨ח
NEH 2 15 ac67 grammar-connect-logic-result וָ⁠אֱהִ֨י עֹלֶ֤ה בַ⁠נַּ֨חַל֙ לַ֔יְלָה וָ⁠אֱהִ֥י שֹׂבֵ֖ר בַּ⁠חוֹמָ֑ה וָ⁠אָשׁ֗וּב וָ⁠אָב֛וֹא בְּ⁠שַׁ֥עַר הַ⁠גַּ֖יְא וָ⁠אָשֽׁוּב 1 And I was going up by the wadi at night Nehemiah is saying that because they could not continue going along the wall, they had to take a different route. You could use an introductory word like “so” to indicate this. Alternate translation: “So we followed the path of the Kidron Brook” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 2 15 ac69 figs-synecdoche וָ⁠אֱהִ֨י עֹלֶ֤ה 1 And I was going up Nehemiah continues to speak of himself as representative of the whole group. Alternate translation: “So we followed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 2 15 ac71 translate-unknown בַ⁠נַּ֨חַל֙ 1 by the wadi This refers to the Kidron Brook, which runs along the eastern side of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Kidron Brook” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 2 15 ac73 figs-explicit לַ֔יְלָה 1 at night The implication may be, “even though it was night.” The slippery, uneven ground of the path along the brook would have been more dangerous in the dark. (Nehemiah is writing a chronicle of all the things he did to help the Jews, and he records specific things that required risk or sacrifice.) Alternate translation: “even though it was night.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 15 ac73 figs-explicit לַ֔יְלָה 1 at night The implication may be “even though it was night.” The slippery, uneven ground of the path along the brook would have been more dangerous in the dark. (Nehemiah is writing a chronicle of all the things he did to help the Jews, and he records specific things that required risk or sacrifice.) Alternate translation: “even though it was night.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 15 ac75 figs-explicit וָ⁠אֱהִ֥י שֹׂבֵ֖ר בַּ⁠חוֹמָ֑ה 1 and I was looking intently at the wall The implication is that from the brook they were able to look up at the wall and see its condition. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “From there we were able to look up at the wall and see its condition.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 15 ac77 וָ⁠אָשׁ֗וּב 1 Then I turned back This likely means not that Nehemiah turned around, but that this route brought him and the other men back to where they started. So they were able to go all the way around the city and inspect the entire wall. Alternate translation: “This route brought us back to where we started.”
NEH 2 15 ac79 figs-synecdoche וָ⁠אָשׁ֗וּב 1 Then I turned back The other men with Nehemiah also followed him. Alternate translation: “This route brought us back to where we started.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
@@ -201,7 +201,7 @@ NEH 2 15 b637 וָ⁠אָב֛וֹא בְּ⁠שַׁ֥עַר הַ⁠גַּ֖יְ
NEH 2 15 ac81 translate-names בְּ⁠שַׁ֥עַר הַ⁠גַּ֖יְא 1 at the gate of the valley See how you translated the name of this gate in [2:13](../02/13.md). Alternate translation: “the Valley Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 15 ac83 figs-explicit וָ⁠אָשֽׁוּב 1 and I returned Here the expression probably means “and I went back home.” The implication is that no one had seen him. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “and I went back home without being seen.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 16 ac85 וְ⁠הַ⁠סְּגָנִ֗ים 1 Now the prefects Alternate translation: “the city officials”
NEH 2 16 ac87 figs-explicit עַד־כֵּ֖ן לֹ֥א הִגַּֽדְתִּי 1 until this time I had not yet told The implication is that Nehemiah had not yet told anyone that he was planning to repair the walls. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. I Alternate translation: “had not yet told … that I was planning to repair the walls.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 16 ac87 figs-explicit עַד־כֵּ֖ן לֹ֥א הִגַּֽדְתִּי 1 until this time I had not yet told The implication is that Nehemiah had not yet told anyone that he was planning to repair the walls. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “had not yet told … that I was planning to repair the walls.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 16 ac89 figs-explicit וְ⁠לַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֨ים וְ⁠לַ⁠כֹּהֲנִ֜ים וְ⁠לַ⁠חֹרִ֣ים וְ⁠לַ⁠סְּגָנִ֗ים 1 the Jews, the priests, or the nobles, or the perfects The implication seems to be that Nehemiah had not said anything privately about his plans to any particular group of leaders. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “I had not even said anything about it privately to the Jewish leaders, the priests, the leading citizens, or the city officials” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 16 ac91 figs-synecdoche וְ⁠לַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֨ים 1 the Jews While this expression means “the Jewish people” in most of the book, in the contexts here and in [5:17](../05/17.md) it seems to mean “the Jewish leaders.” Nehemiah is describing some members of this people group, its leaders, as if they were the whole group. Alternate translation: “the Jewish leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 2 16 xd75 figs-explicit וּ⁠לְ⁠יֶ֨תֶר֙ עֹשֵׂ֣ה הַ⁠מְּלָאכָ֔ה 1 the rest who were about to do the work This seems to refer to the people who would later rebuild the walls. Alternate translation: “the others who would later do the work of rebuilding the walls” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -217,7 +217,7 @@ NEH 2 18 a11c דִּבְרֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָֽ
NEH 2 18 a13c figs-explicit נָק֣וּם וּ⁠בָנִ֔ינוּ 1 We will rise up and build The implication is that the people responded this way after they heard all that God had done for Nehemiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “When they heard this, they said, ‘Let’s get going and begin building!’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 2 18 a15c figs-idiom נָק֣וּם וּ⁠בָנִ֔ינוּ 1 We will rise up and build In this context, **rise up** means to begin something. This was an enthusiastic response. Alternate translation: “Let’s get going and start building!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 18 y6ui figs-idiom וַ⁠יְחַזְּק֥וּ יְדֵי⁠הֶ֖ם לַ⁠טּוֹבָֽה 1 And they strengthened their hands for good The phrase “strengthened their hands” means that they encouraged one another. “For good” refers to the rebuilding project, which they recognized would be a great benefit. Alternate translation: “So they prepared themselves to do this good work” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 2 18 a17c figs-metaphor יְדֵי⁠הֶ֖ם 1 their hands **Hand** in this context represents a person’s strength or power. Alternate translation: “they prepared themselves” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 2 18 a14c figs-metaphor יְדֵי⁠הֶ֖ם 1 their hands **Hand** in this context represents a person’s strength or power. Alternate translation: “they prepared themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 2 19 et87 translate-names סַנְבַלַּ֨ט הַ⁠חֹרֹנִ֜י 1 Sanballat the Horonite Sanballat is the name of a man, and Horonite is the name of his people group. See how you translated this in [2:10](../02/10.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 19 a19c translate-names וְ⁠טֹבִיָּ֣ה…הָֽ⁠עַמּוֹנִ֗י 1 and Tobiah…the Ammonite Tobiah is the name of a man, and Ammonite is the name of his people group. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 2 19 a21c וְ⁠טֹבִיָּ֣ה ׀ הָ⁠עֶ֣בֶד 1 and Tobiah, the servant See how you translated this in [2:10](../02/10.md). Alternate translation: “Tobiah, his deputy”
@@ -238,7 +238,7 @@ NEH 3 1 ald8 figs-explicit וַ⁠יָּ֡קָם אֶלְיָשִׁיב֩ הַ
NEH 3 1 a37c figs-idiom וַ⁠יָּ֡קָם 1 And…rose up As in [2:18](../02/18.md), **rise up** here means to begin something. Alternate translation: “began to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 3 1 g9az translate-names אֶלְיָשִׁיב֩ 1 Eliashib This is the name of a man. It occurs about a dozen times in the book of Nehemiah. It will be helpful to your readers if you translate it consistently each time. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 1 a39c translate-unknown הַ⁠כֹּהֵ֨ן הַ⁠גָּד֜וֹל 1 the high priest This means that Eliashib was the leader of the priests who conducted worship in the temple and performed many other religious and community functions. Alternate translation: “the priest who was in charge in the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 3 1 a41c figs-metaphor וְ⁠אֶחָ֣י⁠ו הַ⁠כֹּהֲנִ֗ים 1 with his brothers the priests Here **brother** could mean Eliashib’s biological brothers, but more likely it figuratively refers to the rest of the priests. Alternate translation: “with his fellow priests” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 3 1 a40c figs-metaphor וְ⁠אֶחָ֣י⁠ו הַ⁠כֹּהֲנִ֗ים 1 with his brothers the priests Here **brother** could mean Eliashib’s biological brothers, but more likely it figuratively refers to the rest of the priests. Alternate translation: “with his fellow priests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 3 1 a43c figs-explicit וַ⁠יִּבְנוּ֙ 1 and they built It is clear from the context that they were not building something brand new. Rather, they were rebuilding the walls that had been knocked down. This expression occurs several times in this chapter. It would be helpful to your readers to translate it consistently. Alternate translation: “rebuilt.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 3 1 a45c translate-names שַׁ֣עַר הַ⁠צֹּ֔אן 1 the gate of the sheep This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Sheep Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 1 a47c translate-symaction הֵ֣מָּה קִדְּשׁ֔וּ⁠הוּ 1 They themselves consecrated it **Consecrate** means to set something apart for a special purpose. The Sheep Gate was the gate closest to the temple. By dedicating it to God, the priests were symbolically dedicating the entire wall to God. The rebuilt wall would define and protect the city of Jerusalem as the place from which God had chosen to start making himself famous throughout the world, as described in [1:9](../01/09.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])
@@ -247,7 +247,7 @@ NEH 3 1 a51c וַֽ⁠יַּעֲמִ֖ידוּ דַּלְתֹתָ֑י⁠ו 1 an
NEH 3 1 a7k9 figs-ellipsis וְ⁠עַד־מִגְדַּ֤ל הַ⁠מֵּאָה֙ קִדְּשׁ֔וּ⁠הוּ עַ֖ד מִגְדַּ֥ל חֲנַנְאֵֽל 1 And they consecrated it as far as the tower of the Hundred and as far as the tower of Hananel In this record of people who helped rebuild the wall, Nehemiah is writing more of a list than a narrative, so he often leaves out one or more words that a sentence normally would have in order to be complete. This sentence seems to mean, “They rebuilt the wall as far as the Tower of the Hundred, and beyond that to the Tower of Hananel. Then they dedicated that part of the wall to God as well.” You could say something like that if it would be helpful to your readers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 3 1 e1th translate-names מִגְדַּ֤ל הַ⁠מֵּאָה֙…מִגְדַּ֥ל חֲנַנְאֵֽל 1 the tower of the Hundred…the tower of Hananel These are the names of two of the towers on the Jerusalem wall. Alternate translation: “the Tower of the Hundred…the Tower of Hananel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 1 r9wn translate-unknown מִגְדַּ֤ל הַ⁠מֵּאָה֙ 1 the tower of the Hundred It is not clear why this tower had this name. The tower could have been 100 cubits high (about 150 feet or about 45 meters), or 100 soldiers may have been stationed there. Since the reason is unknown, it might be best just to call this the “Tower of the Hundred.” However, if it would be confusing to your readers not to explain the meaning of the number, you suggest one of these possibilities. Alternate translation: “The Tower of the Hundred Soldiers” or “The Hundred-Cubit Tower.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 2 xtj9 figs-idiom וְ⁠עַל־יָד֥⁠וֹ בָנ֖וּ 1 And…built at his hand Here **at his hand** is a figurative way of saying “beside him” or “next to him.” This expression occurs several times in this chapter. It would be helpful to your readers to translate it consistently. Alternate translation: “next to them” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 3 2 xtj9 figs-idiom וְ⁠עַל־יָד֥⁠וֹ בָנ֖וּ 1 And…built at his hand Here **at his hand** is a figurative way of saying “beside him” or “next to him.” This expression occurs several times in this chapter. It would be helpful to your readers to translate it consistently. Alternate translation: “next to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 3 2 qf25 figs-gendernotations אַנְשֵׁ֣י יְרֵח֑וֹ 1 men of Jericho The word **men** here can include women, and it does seem to include them in this context. Elsewhere in this chapter, [3:12](../02/12.md) tells us that “Shallum and his daughters repaired part of the wall.” So we know that both men and women worked on this project. Alternate translation: “people from Jericho” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
NEH 3 2 u2s6 translate-names יְרֵח֑וֹ 1 Jericho Jericho is the name of one of the cities in Judah. We see from this chapter that several cities and towns sent work parties to help rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 2 q84s translate-names זַכּ֖וּר בֶּן־אִמְרִֽי 1 Zaccur, the son of Imri Zaccur is the name of a man, and Imri is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -276,7 +276,7 @@ NEH 3 7 mj92 translate-unknown לְ⁠כִסֵּ֕א פַּחַ֖ת עֵ֥בֶר
NEH 3 8 b2yh translate-names עֻזִּיאֵ֤ל בֶּֽן־חַרְהֲיָה֙ 1 Uzziel, the son of Harbaiah Uzziel is the name of a man, and Harhaiah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 8 f4p5 translate-unknown צֽוֹרְפִ֔ים 1 of the goldsmiths This means that Uzziel was one of the goldsmiths who worked in Jerusalem. A goldsmith is a person who makes jewelry and other objects from gold. The term “goldsmith” occurs several more times in the chapter, and if you include both the name and the definition here, that would help your readers understand it in its later occurrences. Alternate translation: “He was one of the goldsmiths, the workers who made jewelry and other objects from gold.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 3 8 mx88 translate-names חֲנַנְיָ֖ה 1 Hananiah Hananiah is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 8 mm1q figs-metaphor בֶּן־הָ⁠רַקָּחִ֑ים 1 a son of the perfumers **Son of** here is a figurative expression that indicates that a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, the book is describing someone who shares the quality of being a maker of perfume. Alternate translation: “one of the perfumers” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 3 8 mm1q figs-metaphor בֶּן־הָ⁠רַקָּחִ֑ים 1 a son of the perfumers **Son of** here is a figurative expression that indicates that a person shares the qualities of something. In this case, the book is describing someone who shares the quality of being a maker of perfume. Alternate translation: “one of the perfumers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 3 8 y25y translate-names וַ⁠יַּֽעַזְבוּ֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם עַ֖ד הַ⁠חוֹמָ֥ה הָ⁠רְחָבָֽה 1 And they restored Jerusalem as far as the broad wall This is the name of one of the features of the Jerusalem wall. This may have been a place where the wall had been built thicker and stronger for strategic purposes. Alternate translation: “They rebuilt the wall of Jerusalem as far as the Broad Wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 9 m5at וְ⁠עַל־יָדָ֤⁠ם הֶחֱזִיק֙ רְפָיָ֣ה בֶן־ח֔וּר שַׂ֕ר חֲצִ֖י פֶּ֥לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם 1 And Rephaiah, the son of Hur, the administrator for half of the district of Jerusalem, strengthened at their hand. In this chapter, when Nehemiah names a person, then names their father, and then describes a role, it is the first person, not their father, who was in that role. It will be helpful to your readers if you make this clear. Alternate translation: “Next to them, Rephaiah the son of Hur repaired part of the wall. Rephaiah ruled half of the district of Jerusalem.”
NEH 3 9 avu2 translate-names רְפָיָ֣ה בֶן־ח֔וּר 1 Rephaiah, the son of Hur Rephaiah is the name of a man, and Hur is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -288,16 +288,16 @@ NEH 3 11 b6fx translate-ordinal מִדָּ֣ה שֵׁנִ֗ית 1 a second secti
NEH 3 11 g61e translate-names מַלְכִּיָּ֣ה בֶן־חָרִ֔ם 1 Malkijah, the son of Harim Malkijah is the name of a man, and Malkijah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 11 jy16 translate-names וְ⁠חַשּׁ֖וּב בֶּן־פַּחַ֣ת מוֹאָ֑ב 1 and Hasshub, the son of Pahath-Moab Hasshub is the name of a man, and Pahath-Moab is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 11 l1db translate-names מִגְדַּ֥ל הַ⁠תַּנּוּרִֽים 1 the tower of ovens This is the name of one of the towers of the Jerusalem wall. Alternate translation: “the Tower of the Ovens” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 12 e9p4 translate-names שַׁלּוּם֙ בֶּן־הַלּוֹחֵ֔שׁ שַׂ֕ר 1 Shallum, the son of Hallohesh Shallum is the name of a man, and Hallohesh is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 12 e9p4 translate-names שַׁלּוּם֙ בֶּן־הַלּוֹחֵ֔שׁ 1 Shallum, the son of Hallohesh Shallum is the name of a man, and Hallohesh is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 12 wml3 translate-names שַׂ֕ר חֲצִ֖י פֶּ֣לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם 1 the administrator for half of the district of Jerusalem This is the name of one of the districts into which the city and the surrounding area were divided. Since the first half has already been named, you could say as an alternate translation: “Shallum ruled the other half of the district of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 12 b7iq ה֖וּא וּ⁠בְנוֹתָֽי⁠ו 1 he and his daughters Alternate translation: “along with his daughters”
NEH 3 13 i9v2 translate-names שַׁ֨עַר הַ⁠גַּ֜יְא 1 the gate of the valley This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Valley Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 13 itt7 translate-names חָנוּן֮ 1 Hanun This is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 13 w5le translate-names וְ⁠יֹשְׁבֵ֣י זָנוֹחַ֒ 1 the inhabitants of Zanoah Zanoah is the name of one of the cities in Judah that sent a work party to help rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the people from Zanoah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 13 kw6h translate-bdistance וְ⁠אֶ֤לֶף אַמָּה֙ 1 a thousand cubits Depending on what would be most helpful to your readers, you could express this either in ancient or modern measurements, “1000 cubits” or “460 meters” or “1500 feet.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bdistance]])
NEH 3 13 r9e4 translate-names שַׁ֥עַר הָ⁠שֲׁפֽוֹת 1 the gate of dung This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Rubbish Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 14 d9dt translate-names שַׁ֣עַר הָ⁠אַשְׁפּ֗וֹת 1 the gate of dung This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Rubbish Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 14 w494 translate-names מַלְכִּיָּ֣ה בֶן־רֵכָ֔ב שַׂ֖ר 1 Malkijah, the son of Rechab Malkijah is the name of a man, and Recab is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 13 r9e4 translate-names שַׁ֥עַר הָ⁠שֲׁפֽוֹת 1 the gate of dung This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Dung Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 14 d9dt translate-names שַׁ֣עַר הָ⁠אַשְׁפּ֗וֹת 1 the gate of dung This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Dung Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 14 w494 translate-names מַלְכִּיָּ֣ה בֶן־רֵכָ֔ב 1 Malkijah, the son of Rechab Malkijah is the name of a man, and Recab is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 14 u2dk translate-names פֶּ֣לֶךְ בֵּית־הַכָּ֑רֶם 1 the district of Beth-Hakkerem This is the name of one of the districts into which the city and the surrounding area were divided. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 15 shf9 translate-names שַׁ֨עַר הָ⁠עַ֜יִן 1 the gate of the spring This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Fountain Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 15 l7wu translate-names שַׁלּ֣וּן בֶּן־כָּל־חֹזֶה֮ 1 Shallun son of Kol-Hozeh Shallun is the name of a man, and Kol-Hozeh is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -306,7 +306,7 @@ NEH 3 15 l3hf ה֤וּא יִבְנֶ֨⁠נּוּ֙ וִ⁠יטַֽלְלֶ֔
NEH 3 15 c8rt חוֹמַ֞ת בְּרֵכַ֤ת הַ⁠שֶּׁ֨לַח֙ 1 the wall of the pool of Siloam Alternate translation: “the wall that surrounded the Pool of Siloam”
NEH 3 15 kmx6 לְ⁠גַן־הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ וְ⁠עַד־הַֽ⁠מַּעֲל֔וֹת הַ⁠יּוֹרְד֖וֹת מֵ⁠עִ֥יר דָּוִֽיד 1 at the garden of the king even as far as the stairs descending from the city of David Alternate translation: “next to the royal garden, as far as the steps that went down from the City of David.”
NEH 3 15 c5bs translate-names מֵ⁠עִ֥יר דָּוִֽיד 1 from the city of David This was one part of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the City of David” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 16 x774 translate-names נְחֶמְיָ֣ה בֶן־עַזְבּ֔וּק שַׂ֕ר 1 Nehemiah, the son of Azbuk Nehemiah is the name of a man, and Azbuk is the name of his father. (This is not the same Nehemiah who wrote this book.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 16 x774 translate-names נְחֶמְיָ֣ה בֶן־עַזְבּ֔וּק 1 Nehemiah, the son of Azbuk Nehemiah is the name of a man, and Azbuk is the name of his father. (This is not the same Nehemiah who wrote this book.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 16 sc4c translate-names פֶּ֣לֶךְ בֵּֽית־צ֑וּר 1 the district of Beth-Zur This is the name of one of the districts into which the city and the surrounding area were divided. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 16 ngr2 עַד־נֶ֨גֶד֙ קִבְרֵ֣י דָוִ֔יד וְ⁠עַד־הַ⁠בְּרֵכָה֙ הָ⁠עֲשׂוּיָ֔ה וְ⁠עַ֖ד בֵּ֥ית הַ⁠גִּבֹּרִֽים 1 as far as in front of the graves of David, and as far as the pool that was made, and as far as the house of the mighty men Alternate translation: “as far as the place opposite the tombs in the City of David, to the reservoir that the people had made and the army barracks”
NEH 3 17 str7 translate-names אַחֲרָ֛י⁠ו הֶחֱזִ֥יקוּ הַ⁠לְוִיִּ֖ם 1 After him, the Levites strengthened The Levites were descendants of Levi. They had the special assignment of helping the priests. Alternate translation: “Next to him, some Levites repaired parts of the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -315,11 +315,11 @@ NEH 3 17 yt87 figs-explicit רְח֣וּם בֶּן־בָּנִ֑י 1 Rehum, the
NEH 3 17 a88s translate-names חֲשַׁבְיָ֛ה 1 Hashabiah Hashabiah is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 17 yh3z עַל־יָד֣⁠וֹ הֶחֱזִ֗יק חֲשַׁבְיָ֛ה…לְ⁠פִלְכּֽ⁠וֹ 1 at his hand, Hashabiah…strengthened for his district This does not mean that Hashabiah repaired this part of the wall for the benefit of his district, but rather that he did it leading a work party from his district. Alternate translation: “led a work party from his district that repaired the next section of the wall”
NEH 3 17 y3tu translate-names חֲצִי־פֶ֥לֶךְ קְעִילָ֖ה 1 half the district of Keilah This is the name of one of the districts into which the city and the surrounding area were divided. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 18 h5qz figs-metaphor הֶחֱזִ֣יקוּ אֲחֵי⁠הֶ֔ם 1 their brothers repaired As in [3:1](../03/01.md), **brother** could mean the biological brothers of the Levites mentioned in [3:17](../03/17.md). However, more likely it figuratively means other Levites. Alternate translation: “some other Levites repaired more of the wall” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 3 18 h5qz figs-metaphor הֶחֱזִ֣יקוּ אֲחֵי⁠הֶ֔ם 1 their brothers repaired As in [3:1](../03/01.md), **brother** could mean the biological brothers of the Levites mentioned in [3:17](../03/17.md). However, more likely it figuratively means other Levites. Alternate translation: “some other Levites repaired more of the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 3 18 b6sj figs-ellipsis בַּוַּ֖י בֶּן־חֵנָדָ֑ד שַׂ֕ר חֲצִ֖י פֶּ֥לֶךְ קְעִילָֽה 1 Binnui, the son of Henadad, the administrator for half the district of Keilah Here Nehemiah does not say “at their hand” (next to them) or “strengthened” (repaired another section of the wall). Once again he is leaving out some of what a complete sentence would be expected to contain. You can fill in this information. Alternate translation: “Next to them, Binnui the son of Henadad, who ruled the other half of the district of Keilah, repaired more of the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 3 18 gc2h translate-names בַּוַּ֖י בֶּן־חֵנָדָ֑ד 1 Binnui, the son of Henadad Binnui is the name of a man, and Henadad is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 18 ca6t translate-names שַׂ֕ר חֲצִ֖י פֶּ֥לֶךְ קְעִילָֽה 1 the administrator for half the district of Keilah This is the name of one of the districts into which the city and the surrounding area were divided. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 19 f6if translate-names עֵ֧זֶר בֶּן־יֵשׁ֛וּעַ שַׂ֥ר 1 Ezer, the son of Jeshua Ezer is the name of a man, and Jeshua is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 19 f6if translate-names עֵ֧זֶר בֶּן־יֵשׁ֛וּעַ 1 Ezer, the son of Jeshua Ezer is the name of a man, and Jeshua is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 19 g2y6 translate-names שַׂ֥ר הַ⁠מִּצְפָּ֖ה 1 the administrator for Mizpah Since the district of Mizpah is mentioned in [3:15](../03/15.md), this probably means the city of Mizpah. Alternate translation: “Ezer ruled the city of Mizpah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 19 gcc6 translate-ordinal וַ⁠יְחַזֵּ֨ק…מִדָּ֣ה שֵׁנִ֑ית 1 And…was strengthening a second section Alternate translation: “repaired another section” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
NEH 3 19 c8s5 מִ⁠נֶּ֕גֶד עֲלֹ֥ת הַ⁠נֶּ֖שֶׁק הַ⁠מִּקְצֹֽעַ 1 opposite the ascent to the armory at the angle Alternate translation: “He started from the place in front of the steps that went up to the armory, and he finished at the place where the wall bends slightly.”
@@ -358,7 +358,7 @@ NEH 3 28 d5qa מֵ⁠עַ֣ל ׀ שַׁ֣עַר הַ⁠סּוּסִ֗ים 1 fro
NEH 3 28 q9qb translate-names שַׁ֣עַר הַ⁠סּוּסִ֗ים 1 the gate of horses This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the Horse Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 28 d5uv figs-idiom אִ֖ישׁ לְ⁠נֶ֥גֶד בֵּיתֽ⁠וֹ 1 a man to the front of his house Here **a man** means “each one.” Alternate translation: “Each one repaired the section in front of his own house.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 3 29 n271 translate-names צָד֥וֹק בֶּן־אִמֵּ֖ר 1 Zadok, the son of Immer Zadok is the name of a man, and Immer is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 29 f74e translate-names שְׁמַֽעְיָ֣ה בֶן־שְׁכַנְיָ֔ה שֹׁמֵ֖ר שַׁ֥עַר הַ⁠מִּזְרָֽח 1 Shemaiah, the son of Shecaniah Shemaiah is the name of a man, and Shecaniah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 29 f74e translate-names שְׁמַֽעְיָ֣ה בֶן־שְׁכַנְיָ֔ה 1 Shemaiah, the son of Shecaniah Shemaiah is the name of a man, and Shecaniah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 29 e9mh שֹׁמֵ֖ר שַׁ֥עַר הַ⁠מִּזְרָֽח 1 the keeper of the gate of the east Alternate translation: “the person who looked after the East Gate” or “the person who opened and closed the East Gate”
NEH 3 29 x9q4 translate-names שַׁ֥עַר הַ⁠מִּזְרָֽח 1 the gate of the east This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “the East Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 30 a65c translate-ordinal הֶחֱזִ֜יק…מִדָּ֣ה שֵׁנִ֑י 1 strengthened a second section Alternate translation: “repaired another section” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ NEH 3 30 nn44 translate-ordinal הַ⁠שִּׁשִּׁ֖י 1 sixth Alternate tr
NEH 3 30 ifp5 translate-names מְשֻׁלָּם֙ בֶּן־בֶּ֣רֶכְיָ֔ה 1 Meshullam, the son of Berechiah Meshullam is the name of a man, and Berechiah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 30 bv3t נֶ֖גֶד נִשְׁכָּתֽ⁠וֹ 1 in front of his chamber Alternate translation: “in front of the rooms where he stayed”
NEH 3 31 d33p translate-names מַלְכִּיָּה֙ 1 Malkijah Malkijah is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 31 uuc7 figs-metaphor בֶּן־הַ⁠צֹּ֣רְפִ֔י 1 a son of the goldsmiths As in [3:8](../03/08.md), this is a figurative way of saying that Malkijah was one of the goldsmiths. In this figure of speech, the “son of” something shares its qualities. Since the goldsmiths have been mentioned previously (in [3:8](../03/08.md), where their work is described), you could say as an alternate translation: “who was another one of the goldsmiths” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 3 31 uuc7 figs-metaphor בֶּן־הַ⁠צֹּ֣רְפִ֔י 1 a son of the goldsmiths As in [3:8](../03/08.md), this is a figurative way of saying that Malkijah was one of the goldsmiths. In this figure of speech, the “son of” something shares its qualities. Since the goldsmiths have been mentioned previously (in [3:8](../03/08.md), where their work is described), you could say as an alternate translation: “who was another one of the goldsmiths” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 3 31 lb9z עַד־בֵּ֥ית הַ⁠נְּתִינִ֖ים וְ⁠הָ⁠רֹכְלִ֑ים 1 as far as the house of the Nethinim and the merchants Alternate translation: “as far as the building used by the temple servants and the merchants”
NEH 3 31 ye2u translate-names שַׁ֣עַר הַ⁠מִּפְקָ֔ד 1 the gate of mustering This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. “Mustering” refers to soldiers assembling to go out to battle. Alternate translation: “the Mobilization Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 3 31 r6sv וְ⁠עַ֖ד עֲלִיַּ֥ת הַ⁠פִּנָּֽה 1 even as far as the upper chamber of the corner Alternate translation: “He built as far as the upper apartments of this building, which were on the corner.”
@@ -379,9 +379,9 @@ NEH 4 intro tlj9 0 # Nehemiah 04 General Notes<br>## Special concepts in this
NEH 4 1 rnw3 writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֞י 1 And it happened that Nehemiah uses this phrase to introduce the next event in his story. You do not need to represent it in your translation unless your language has a similar expression that it characteristically uses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
NEH 4 1 vfu4 translate-names סַנְבַלַּ֗ט 1 Sanballat This is a man’s name. See how you translated this in [2:10](../02/10.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 4 1 a71c figs-parallelism וַ⁠יִּ֣חַר ל֔⁠וֹ וַ⁠יִּכְעַ֖ס הַרְבֵּ֑ה 1 And it burned him, and he was very angry These two phrases mean similar things. Nehemiah uses the repetition to emphasize how angry Sanballat was. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases and say something like “he became furiously angry” or “he became very angry.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 4 1 s6td figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּ֣חַר ל֔⁠וֹ וַ⁠יִּכְעַ֖ס 1 it burned him, and he was very angry Here Nehemiah says that Sanballat’s anger was a fire that burned inside of him. Alternate translation: “he became furious” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom\]\])
NEH 4 2 v3qv figs-metaphor וַ⁠יֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לִ⁠פְנֵ֣י 1 And he spoke before the face of Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The expression means that Sanballat was speaking personally to the other people who are named. Alternate translation: “He said to” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 4 2 a73c figs-metaphor אֶחָ֗י⁠ו 1 his brothers Here **brother** likely refers figuratively to Sanballat’s fellow officials. Alternate translation: “the other provincial officials” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 4 1 s6td figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּ֣חַר ל֔⁠וֹ וַ⁠יִּכְעַ֖ס 1 it burned him, and he was very angry Here Nehemiah says that Sanballat’s anger was a fire that burned inside of him. Alternate translation: “he became furious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom]])
NEH 4 2 v3qv figs-metaphor וַ⁠יֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לִ⁠פְנֵ֣י 1 And he spoke before the face of Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The expression means that Sanballat was speaking personally to the other people who are named. Alternate translation: “He said to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 2 a73c figs-metaphor אֶחָ֗י⁠ו 1 his brothers Here **brother** likely refers figuratively to Sanballat’s fellow officials. Alternate translation: “the other provincial officials” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 2 a75c figs-synecdoche וְ⁠חֵיל֙ שֹֽׁמְר֔וֹן 1 and the army of Samaria Sanballat was not speaking to the entire army. Nehemiah is figuratively using all of something to mean part of it. He is referring to the officers of the army by the name of the entire army. Alternate translation: “the army officers” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 2 d5n2 figs-rquestion מָ֛ה הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֥ים הָ⁠אֲמֵלָלִ֖ים עֹשִׂ֑ים הֲ⁠יַעַזְב֨וּ לָ⁠הֶ֤ם הֲ⁠יִזְבָּ֨חוּ֙ הַ⁠יְכַלּ֣וּ בַ⁠יּ֔וֹם 1 What are the feeble Jews doing? Will they restore for themselves? Will they sacrifice? Will they finish in a day? Sanballat actually is making a series of statement, not asking a series of questions. He does not expect the officials and officers to tell him what the Jews are doing and whether they will succeed. Instead, he is using the question form to mock the Jews. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the ideas in his questions as a series of statements. Alternate translation: “These feeble Jews can accomplish nothing. They will never restore the city for themselves. They will not offer sacrifices. They will not finish the work any time soon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
NEH 4 2 r9lb הֲ⁠יִזְבָּ֨חוּ֙ 1 Will they sacrifice? The meaning of this phrase is not entirely clear. It could be that Sanballat is speaking of the Jews offering sacrifices to try to entice God to make their project successful. Alternate translation: “They will not get their God to help them.”
@@ -390,7 +390,7 @@ NEH 4 2 hr7v figs-personification הַ⁠יְחַיּ֧וּ אֶת־הָ⁠אֲ
NEH 4 2 b96n figs-activepassive מֵ⁠עֲרֵמ֥וֹת הֶ⁠עָפָ֖ר וְ⁠הֵ֥מָּה שְׂרוּפֽוֹת 1 from the piles of rubble after they were burned If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “useless stones that someone has burned and turned into rubble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 4 3 alw5 translate-names וְ⁠טוֹבִיָּ֥ה הָ⁠עַמֹּנִ֖י 1 And Tobiah the Ammonite This is a man’s name. See how you translated this in [2:10](../02/10.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 4 3 b24b גַּ֚ם 1 Yes This word indicates that Tobiah agrees with Sanballat and that he is going to say something to support him. Alternate translation: “That’s right!”
NEH 4 3 da2t figs-hyperbole אִם־יַעֲלֶ֣ה שׁוּעָ֔ל וּ⁠פָרַ֖ץ חוֹמַ֥ת אַבְנֵי⁠הֶֽם 1 If only a fox went up on what they are building, then he would break down their wall of stones Tobiah probably does not believe that the wall would really fall down if a fox walked along the top of it. He is exaggerating to mock the work the Jews are doing. You could use a non-figurative expression in your translation instead, such as, “It wouldn’t take much to make that wall fall over.” However, Tobiah’s expression is so colorful that you may want to retain it, but be sure that your readers understand he is exaggerating. Alternate translation: “Tobiah made fun of the Jews by saying, ‘That wall they are building is so weak that if a fox climbed up on it, the stones would fall to the ground’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 4 3 da2t figs-hyperbole אֲשֶׁר־הֵ֣ם בּוֹנִ֔ים אִם־יַעֲלֶ֣ה שׁוּעָ֔ל וּ⁠פָרַ֖ץ חוֹמַ֥ת אַבְנֵי⁠הֶֽם 1 If only a fox went up on what they are building, then he would break down their wall of stones Tobiah probably does not believe that the wall would really fall down if a fox walked along the top of it. He is exaggerating to mock the work the Jews are doing. You could use a non-figurative expression in your translation instead, such as, “It wouldn’t take much to make that wall fall over.” However, Tobiah’s expression is so colorful that you may want to retain it, but be sure that your readers understand he is exaggerating. Alternate translation: “Tobiah made fun of the Jews by saying, ‘That wall they are building is so weak that if a fox climbed up on it, the stones would fall to the ground’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 4 4 buk3 figs-explicit שְׁמַ֤ע אֱלֹהֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ 1 Hear, our God Nehemiah starts talking directly to God at this point in the book. The implication is that he heard about what Sanballat and Tobiah were saying, and in response, he prayed the prayer that is recorded here in 2:4-5. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “When I heard about what they were saying, I prayed and said, ‘Listen, our God’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 4 a77c figs-aside שְׁמַ֤ע אֱלֹהֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ 1 Hear, our God Nehemiah’s prayer here is a particular type of aside. In an aside, someone who is speaking to or about one person or group will pause and speak confidentially to somebody else about them. Often an aside is spoken to the audience of a work about someone who is being addressed within the work. But in this case, Nehemiah pauses from addressing the audience that is hearing his story to speak confidentially to God in prayer about two of the characters in the story. If it would be clearer in your language, you could show this is a prayer is distinct from the story by making it a direct quotation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-aside]])
NEH 4 4 ae62 figs-abstractnouns הָיִ֣ינוּ בוּזָ֔ה 1 we are a contempt The abstract noun **contempt** refers to the way Sanballat and Tobiah regarded the Jews, which led them to make fun of them. You can translate the idea behind this term with a verb like “mocking.” Alternate translation: “our enemies are mocking us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
@@ -399,25 +399,25 @@ NEH 4 4 pgh8 figs-abstractnouns וּ⁠תְנֵ֥⁠ם לְ⁠בִזָּ֖ה ב
NEH 4 5 mc9p figs-parallelism וְ⁠אַל־תְּכַס֙ עַל־עֲוֺנָ֔⁠ם וְ⁠חַטָּאתָ֖⁠ם מִ⁠לְּ⁠פָנֶ֣י⁠ךָ אַל־תִּמָּחֶ֑ה 1 And do not cover over their iniquity, and do not wipe out their sin from before your face These two phrases mean similar things. Nehemiah uses the repetition to emphasize how guilty Sanballat and Tobiah are for opposing the work that God has sent him to do. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “do not ever forgive them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 4 5 zz8h figs-metaphor וְ⁠אַל־תְּכַס֙ עַל־עֲוֺנָ֔⁠ם 1 Do not cover over their iniquity Nehemiah speaks of a person’s sins as if they were an object that could be physically hidden. Alternate translation: “do not forgive their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 4 5 k9rw figs-metaphor וְ⁠חַטָּאתָ֖⁠ם…אַל־תִּמָּחֶ֑ה 1 and do not wipe out their sin Nehemiah speaks of a person’s sins as if they were something written that could be erased. Alternate translation: “do not forget their sins” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 4 5 a79c figs-metaphor מִ⁠לְּ⁠פָנֶ֣י⁠ךָ 1 from before your face Here **face** figuratively means the action of seeing or a person’s notice or attention. A person can see what is in front of their face, so in this case the expression means, “from where you can see it” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq\]\])
NEH 4 5 a79c figs-metaphor מִ⁠לְּ⁠פָנֶ֣י⁠ךָ 1 from before your face Here **face** figuratively means the action of seeing or a person’s notice or attention. A person can see what is in front of their face, so in this case the expression means, “from where you can see it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 5 mbi1 כִּ֥י הִכְעִ֖יסוּ לְ⁠נֶ֥גֶד הַ⁠בּוֹנִֽים 1 for they have provoked anger before the front of the builders This expression could mean a number of things: (1) They have caused others to be angry at the people who are rebuilding the wall. This third possibility seems the most likely, since Nehemiah is praying that what these men are trying to do to others will happen to them. His prayer is presumably not that the builders or God will make Sanballat and Tobiah angry, but that the other nations they are trying to recruit will turn against them. Alternate translation: “they have caused others to be angry at the people who are rebuilding the wall” (2) Sanballat and Tobiah have made the builders angry by mocking them. Alternate translation: “they have made the builders become angry” (3) They have made God angry by opposing the work he has commanded Nehemiah to do. Alternate translation: “they have made you become angry”
NEH 4 6 r475 וַ⁠נִּבְנֶה֙ אֶת־הַ֣⁠חוֹמָ֔ה 1 So we built the wall As in chapter 3, it might be helpful to say “rebuilt.” The Jews were not building something brand new. See the note to [3:1](../03/01.md).
NEH 4 6 mhm5 figs-activepassive וַ⁠תִּקָּשֵׁ֥ר כָּל־הַ⁠חוֹמָ֖ה עַד־חֶצְיָ֑⁠הּ 1 and all the wall was joined together to half its height You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “we filled in the breaks as high as halfway up the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 4 6 a81c figs-explicit וַ⁠תִּקָּשֵׁ֥ר כָּל־הַ⁠חוֹמָ֖ה עַד־חֶצְיָ֑⁠הּ 1 and all the wall was joined together It appears from the context that this likely took some time and perseverance after Sanballat and Tobiah began to mock and oppose the project. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “after some time, we filled in the breaks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 6 ef8p translate-fraction עַד־חֶצְיָ֑⁠הּ 1 half its height “Half” means one part out of two equal parts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])
NEH 4 6 a83c figs-metaphor וַ⁠יְהִ֧י לֵ֦ב לָ⁠עָ֖ם לַ⁠עֲשֽׂוֹת 1 And the heart of the people was for working Here the **heart** figuratively represents the thoughts and the will of the people. Alternate translation: “Everyone was determined to accomplish this.” (See: <br> [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 6 a83c figs-metaphor וַ⁠יְהִ֧י לֵ֦ב לָ⁠עָ֖ם לַ⁠עֲשֽׂוֹת 1 And the heart of the people was for working Here the **heart** figuratively represents the thoughts and the will of the people. Alternate translation: “Everyone was determined to accomplish this.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 7 a85c writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֣י 1 Then it happened Nehemiah uses this phrase to introduce the next event in his story. You do not need to represent it in your translation unless your language has a similar expression that it characteristically uses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
NEH 4 7 a87c translate-names סַנְבַלַּ֡ט וְ֠⁠טוֹבִיָּה 1 Sanballat, and Tobiah This are the names of men. See how you translated them in [2:10](../02/10.md). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 4 7 a89c translate-names וְ⁠הָ⁠עַרְבִ֨ים וְ⁠הָ⁠עַמֹּנִ֜ים וְ⁠הָ⁠אַשְׁדּוֹדִ֗ים 1 and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites These are the names of people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 4 7 a91c figs-personification עָלְתָ֤ה אֲרוּכָה֙ לְ⁠חֹמ֣וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם 1 the health of the walls of Jerusalem was going up Here Nehemiah is speaking of the wall around Jerusalem as if it was a living thing that was sick because it was broken down. Nehemiah speaks of the repairs to the wall as if the wall is becoming healthy again. Alternate translation: “we were continuing to repair the walls of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
NEH 4 7 a93c bita-part1 עָלְתָ֤ה 1 was going up Alternate translation: “was increasing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-part1]])
NEH 4 7 a95c figs-activepassive כִּי־הֵחֵ֥לּוּ הַ⁠פְּרֻצִ֖ים לְ⁠הִסָּתֵ֑ם 1 and the breaks were beginning to be closed You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “we were continuing to … fill in the gaps” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 4 7 gsb7 figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּ֥חַר לָ⁠הֶ֖ם מְאֹֽד 1 that…it burned them exceedingly Here Nehemiah says that the anger of these enemies was a fire that burned inside of them. Alternate translation: “they became very angry” or “they became enraged” (See: <br>[[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom]])
NEH 4 7 gsb7 figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּ֥חַר לָ⁠הֶ֖ם מְאֹֽד 1 that…it burned them exceedingly Here Nehemiah says that the anger of these enemies was a fire that burned inside of them. Alternate translation: “they became very angry” or “they became enraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom]])
NEH 4 8 b6im figs-metonymy לְ⁠הִלָּחֵ֣ם בִּ⁠ירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם 1 to fight against Jerusalem Here **Jerusalem** refers to the people who live there. These enemies were not coming to fight against the walls and buildings. Nehemiah is describing the people of Jerusalem figuratively by reference to something associated with them, the city where they live. Alternate translation: “to fight against the people of Jerusalem” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 4 8 a97c figs-abstractnouns וְ⁠לַ⁠עֲשׂ֥וֹת ל֖⁠וֹ תּוֹעָֽה 1 and to make confusion for it The abstract noun **confusion** refers to the way these enemies hoped that their attack would make the people of Jerusalem not know what to do. The people might disagree among themselves about whether they should keep working on the wall, or whether they should discontinue the work to appease the attackers. They might also disagree about how to defend themselves. You can translate the idea behind the term “confusion” with adjectives such as “confused” and “divided.” Alternate translation: “They wanted to make the people inside the city confused and divided.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 4 9 vz1d וַ⁠נַּעֲמִ֨יד מִשְׁמָ֧ר עֲלֵי⁠הֶ֛ם 1 and we set up a guard on account of them “and we put men around the wall to guard the city”
NEH 4 9 a99c figs-merism יוֹמָ֥ם וָ⁠לַ֖יְלָה 1 by day and by night This does not mean that some people went up on the walls to look around at various parts of the day, and others went up at certain times of night. Nehemiah is describing how he maintained a constant guard by speaking of two times when people were on duty, the day and the night, in order to include all the time in between. Alternate translation: “at all times,” otherwise “throughout the day and night” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
NEH 4 9 ad11 figs-metaphor מִ⁠פְּנֵי⁠הֶֽם 1 from their faces This term could mean two different things: (1) Most likely, here “Their faces” figuratively means the front of a group. This likely means that the lookouts would see the front ranks of the army as it approached. Alternate translation: “to spot them as they approached” (See: <br>[[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]). (2) Here “their faces” could also be a figurative way of referring to the enemies and their hostile intentions toward the people doing the work. Alternate translations: “against them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 9 ad11 figs-metaphor מִ⁠פְּנֵי⁠הֶֽם 1 from their faces This term could mean two different things: (1) Most likely, here “Their faces” figuratively means the front of a group. This likely means that the lookouts would see the front ranks of the army as it approached. Alternate translation: “to spot them as they approached” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]]). (2) Here “their faces” could also be a figurative way of referring to the enemies and their hostile intentions toward the people doing the work. Alternate translations: “against them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 10 ad13 figs-metonymy וַ⁠יֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוּדָ֗ה 1 And Judah said Nehemiah is describing the people of Judah figuratively by reference to something associated with them, the name of their province. Alternate translation: “Then the people of Judah started saying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 4 10 ad15 כָּשַׁל֙ כֹּ֣חַ הַ⁠סַּבָּ֔ל 1 the strength of the burden-bearers is failing Alternate translation: “The people who are carrying the stones are getting worn out”
NEH 4 10 vc8h וְ⁠הֶ⁠עָפָ֖ר 1 and…rubble Alternate translation: “and…burned stone” or “and…broken rock” or “and…unusable stone”
@@ -440,7 +440,7 @@ NEH 4 14 mza7 figs-synecdoche יֶ֣תֶר הָ⁠עָ֔ם 1 This does not mean
NEH 4 14 ic4q figs-synecdoche אַל־תִּֽירְא֖וּ מִ⁠פְּנֵי⁠הֶ֑ם 1 Here **face** figuratively describes an entire person by reference to one part, the “face,” likely because the face shows what the person is thinking and feeling. Alternate translation: “Do not be afraid of our enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 14 xyjh figs-idiom זְכֹ֔רוּ 1 In this context, **remember** does not refer to a person recalling something they have forgotten. Rather, it means, “keep in mind.” Alternate translation: “keep in mind” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 14 xgdm figs-synecdoche אֲדֹנָ֞⁠י הַ⁠גָּד֤וֹל וְ⁠הַ⁠נּוֹרָא֙ 1 Nehemiah is referring here to Yahweh, the God who promised to bless and protect the Jews as his chosen people. When he says **my**, he is using himself to represent the entire community. Alternate translation: “our great and awesome God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 14 x0ri figs-doublet הַ⁠גָּד֤וֹל וְ⁠הַ⁠נּוֹרָא֙ 1 Nehemiah uses this same expression in [1:5](../01/05.md). See how you translated it there. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “great and awesome” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 4 14 x0ri figs-doublet הַ⁠גָּד֤וֹל וְ⁠הַ⁠נּוֹרָא֙ 1 Nehemiah uses this same expression in [1:5](../01/05.md). See how you translated it there. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “great and glorious” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 4 14 c8s7 figs-metaphor אֲחֵי⁠כֶם֙ 1 Here **brother** could mean biological brothers, but it is more likely that it refers figuratively to a person’s relatives, that is, their whole family. Alternate translation: “your families” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 15 puc1 writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֞י כַּֽ⁠אֲשֶׁר 1 Nehemiah uses this phrase to introduce the next event in his story. You do not need to represent it in your translation unless your language has a similar expression that it characteristically uses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
NEH 4 15 qxa7 figs-activepassive נ֣וֹדַֽע לָ֔⁠נוּ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you could say who did the action. Alternate translation: “we found out about their plans” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
@@ -449,7 +449,7 @@ NEH 4 15 e4mc וַ⁠יָּ֥פֶר הָ⁠אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־עֲצָ
NEH 4 15 f236 figs-metonymy וַנָּ֤שָׁב כֻּלָּ֨⁠נוּ֙ אֶל־הַ֣⁠חוֹמָ֔ה אִ֖ישׁ אֶל־מְלַאכְתּֽ⁠וֹ 1 Here **the wall** means the work on the wall. Nehemiah is describing this work figuratively by referring to something associated with it, the wall that was the object of the work. Alternate translation: “we all went back to working on the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 4 15 g1de figs-explicit וַנָּ֤שָׁב כֻּלָּ֨⁠נוּ֙ אֶל־הַ֣⁠חוֹמָ֔ה אִ֖ישׁ אֶל־מְלַאכְתּֽ⁠וֹ 1 The implication is that when the enemies realized the Jews knew about their plans, they decided not to attack. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “They decided not to attack us, and we all went back to working on the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 15 doov figs-idiom אִ֖ישׁ אֶל־מְלַאכְתּֽ⁠וֹ 1 In this context, **a man** means “each person.” It does not refer only to an adult male. Alternate translation: “Each person continued doing the same work as before” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 16 rtac figs-idiom מִן־הַ⁠יּ֣וֹם 1 In this context, **day** may not refer to one specific day, but rather to a more general time. Alternate translation: “from that time on” or “after that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 16 rtac figs-idiom מִן־הַ⁠יּ֣וֹם הַ⁠ה֗וּא 1 In this context, **day** may not refer to one specific day, but rather to a more general time. Alternate translation: “from that time on” or “after that” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 16 gh9g figs-idiom נְעָרַ⁠י֮ עֹשִׂ֣ים בַּ⁠מְּלָאכָה֒ 1 This expression refers to the servants who worked for Nehemiah. While they probably were young adult males, the expression is specifically envisioning their role and status. Alternate translation: “my servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 16 rgab figs-explicit עֹשִׂ֣ים בַּ⁠מְּלָאכָה֒ 1 This refers to the work on the wall. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “worked on the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 16 f9in translate-fraction חֲצִ֣י נְעָרַ⁠י֮ 1 **Half** means one part out of two equal parts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])
@@ -465,7 +465,7 @@ NEH 4 18 g8tq figs-idiom וְ⁠הַ֨⁠בּוֹנִ֔ים אִ֥ישׁ חַר
NEH 4 18 vur2 figs-explicit וְ⁠הַ⁠תּוֹקֵ֥עַ בַּ⁠שּׁוֹפָ֖ר אֶצְלִֽ⁠י 1 The implication is that Nehemiah stationed this person next to him so that he could sound a signal if needed. (This becomes clear in [4:20](../04/20.md).) If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly here. Alternate translation: “And I stationed someone next to me who would blow a ram’s horn if we needed a signal.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 19 yn7h וָ⁠אֹמַ֞ר 1 See how you translated these terms in [2:16](../02/16.md). Alternate translation: “the leading citizens … the city officials”
NEH 4 19 xi9g figs-synecdoche הַ⁠חֹרִ֤ים…הַ⁠סְּגָנִים֙ 1 As in [4:14](../04/14.md), this does not mean all of the other people who lived in Jerusalem, but rather many of them who came to hear Nehemiah speak on this occasion. He is figuratively describing part of the people as if they were all of them. Alternate translation: “many of the other people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 19 agy3 figs-doublet הַ⁠מְּלָאכָ֥ה הַרְבֵּ֖ה 1 **Great** and **vast** mean similar things. Nehemiah uses them together to emphasize the scope of the rebuilding project. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “large-scale” or “huge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 4 19 agy3 figs-doublet הַ⁠מְּלָאכָ֥ה הַרְבֵּ֖ה וּ⁠רְחָבָ֑ה 1 **Great** and **vast** mean similar things. Nehemiah uses them together to emphasize the scope of the rebuilding project. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “large-scale” or “huge” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 4 19 p5fh bita-hq וַ⁠אֲנַ֗חְנוּ נִפְרָדִים֙ עַל־הַ֣⁠חוֹמָ֔ה רְחוֹקִ֖ים אִ֥ישׁ מֵ⁠אָחִֽי⁠ו 1 In this context, **a man** means “each person,” and **brother** means “fellow Jew.” Alternate translation: “each of us is far apart from our fellow Jews along the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 4 20 tm9s figs-explicit אֶת־ק֣וֹל הַ⁠שּׁוֹפָ֔ר 1 The implication is that the workers and guards would need to gather together to fight off an attack. The implication is also that while the people were widely scattered, they would all be able to hear the ram’s horn even from a distance, and so it would be an effective signal. If it would make things clearer for your readers, you could say these things explicitly. Alternate translation: “So if we all need to gather in one place to fight off an attack, I will have someone blow a ram’s horn there. You will be able to hear this signal from anywhere along the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 20 i5t4 translate-unknown הַ⁠שּׁוֹפָ֔ר 1 See how you translated this in [4:18](../04/18.md). Review the explanation there if that would be helpful. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
@@ -473,7 +473,7 @@ NEH 4 20 qml6 אֱלֹהֵ֖י⁠נוּ יִלָּ֥חֶם לָֽ⁠נוּ 1 T
NEH 4 21 opos figs-explicit וַ⁠אֲנַ֖חְנוּ עֹשִׂ֣ים בַּ⁠מְּלָאכָ֑ה 1 This means the **work** of rebuilding the wall. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “So we continued to work on rebuilding the wall.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 4 21 xvrl figs-synecdoche וְ⁠חֶצְיָ֗⁠ם מַחֲזִיקִים֙ בָּֽ⁠רְמָחִ֔ים 1 “Them” means the men who would otherwise have been working as builders or carrying loads, but who were serving as guards instead. As verses [4:13](../04/13.md) and [4:16](../04/13.md) make clear, the weaponry included not just spears, but also shields and bows and arrows. So Nehemiah is using “spears” here to refer figuratively to all of the weaponry. Alternate translation: “half of the men served as guards and kept their weapons ready” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 4 21 ca45 translate-fraction וְ⁠חֶצְיָ֗⁠ם 1 Here **half** means one part out of two equal parts. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-fraction]])
NEH 4 21 w4uu figs-merism מֵ⁠עֲל֣וֹת הַ⁠שַּׁ֔חַר עַ֖ד צֵ֥את הַ⁠כּוֹכָבִֽים 1 Nehemiah is referring to the entire day by speaking of two extreme parts of it, the time when first light of morning appears and the time when it becomes dark enough to see the stars, in order to include everything in between. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “at all times,” otherwise “from the time when the light of dawn appeared in the morning until the time when the stars appeared at night" (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
NEH 4 21 w4uu figs-merism מֵ⁠עֲל֣וֹת הַ⁠שַּׁ֔חַר עַ֖ד צֵ֥את הַ⁠כּוֹכָבִֽים 1 Nehemiah is referring to the entire day by speaking of two extreme parts of it, the time when first light of morning appears and the time when it becomes dark enough to see the stars, in order to include everything in between. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this meaning with a single phrase. Alternate translation: “at all times,” otherwise “from the time when the light of dawn appeared in the morning until the time when the stars appeared at night (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
NEH 4 21 jl3h מֵ⁠עֲל֣וֹת הַ⁠שַּׁ֔חַר 1 This phrase refers to the daily appearance of light rising in the east in the early morning hours prior to the sun rising above the horizon. Alternate translation: “the first light of day”
NEH 4 21 ww7q figs-metaphor צֵ֥את הַ⁠כּוֹכָבִֽים 1 Here Nehemiah describes the appearing of the stars as if they **came out** of an enclosed container. Alternate translation: “the very beginning of the night” <br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 4 22 j1fu figs-idiom אִ֣ישׁ 1 In this context, **a man** means “each person” and more specifically “each worker.” As in 4:16, “young man” means servant. Alternate translation: “each worker and his servant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
@@ -484,7 +484,7 @@ NEH 4 23 g8mf figs-metonymy וְ⁠אַחַ֣⁠י 1 Here **brother** likely re
NEH 4 23 vfv3 figs-idiom וּ⁠נְעָרַ֗⁠י 1 As in [4:16](../04/16.md), this means “my servants.” <br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 23 flyg translate-unknown וְ⁠אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַ⁠מִּשְׁמָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אַחֲרַ֔⁠י 1 This likely refers to the personal bodyguard that the king would have assigned to Nehemiah when he appointed him to be the governor of Judah. (Nehemiah describes this appointment in [5:14](../05/14.md).) Alternate translation: “my personal bodyguard” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 4 23 upc5 figs-ellipsis אִ֖ישׁ שִׁלְח֥⁠וֹ הַ⁠מָּֽיִם 1 Here the specific meaning of the Hebrew text is unknown, but Nehemiah is almost certainly leaving out some of the words that a sentence would normally have to have in order to be complete. He says that he and his relatives, servants, and bodyguards did not take off their clothes, **or anyone his weapon at the water.** This could mean that “no one took his weapon off even when he was washing himself” or that “no one took his weapon off even when going to get water.” If it would be clearer in your language if you explained what “at the water” might mean, you could choose one of these possibilities. Alternate translation: “Each of us always had our weapons with us, even when we were washing ourselves.” <br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 4 23 v2e1 figs-idiom פֹשְׁטִ֖ים בְּגָדֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 In this context, **a man** means “anyone.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 4 23 v2e1 figs-idiom פֹשְׁטִ֖ים בְּגָדֵ֑י⁠נוּ אִ֖ישׁ שִׁלְח֥⁠וֹ 1 In this context, **a man** means “anyone.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 5 intro k7pb 0 # Nehemiah 05 General Notes<br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Equality<br><br>The rich made money from the poor. The rich oppressed the poor by charging interest on loans. Because Nehemiah wanted to treat everyone fairly, he did not collect any taxes from them. This chapter also emphasizes that it was wrong to enslave a fellow Jew. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/other/oppress]])<br><br>### Governor<br>Nehemiah was a governmental leader in Jerusalem, but he was not a king. Jerusalem had a great deal of independence, but it was under the authority of the Persian king. The term “governor” reflects this idea, but a different term may be used in translation.
NEH 5 1 za4u grammar-connect-time-simultaneous וַ⁠תְּהִ֨י 1 Nehemiah now relates something else that was happening even while the Jews were trying to rebuild the wall and defend themselves against their enemies. You can make this clear in your translation with an appropriate connecting word or phrase. Alternate translation: “Around this same time” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])
NEH 5 1 zmb8 figs-abstractnouns צַעֲקַ֥ת הָ⁠עָ֛ם וּ⁠נְשֵׁי⁠הֶ֖ם גְּדוֹלָ֑ה 1 **Outcry** is an abstract noun that refers to the complaints that the poorer Jews made to Nehemiah about how the wealthier and more powerful Jews were treating them. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind this word with a verb such as “complain.” Since Nehemiah says this was a “great” outcry, involving many serious grievances, you could intensify the verb with an adverb such as “bitterly.” Alternate translation: “many of the men and their wives complained bitterly” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
@@ -503,22 +503,22 @@ NEH 5 4 zurg figs-metonymy לָוִ֥ינוּ כֶ֖סֶף 1 **Silver** here me
NEH 5 4 wi16 translate-unknown לְ⁠מִדַּ֣ת הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶךְ שְׂדֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ וּ⁠כְרָמֵֽי⁠נוּ 1 **Tribute** means “taxes” here. Alternate translation: “the taxes that the king commanded us to pay on our fields and our vineyards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 5 5 zami grammar-connect-words-phrases וְ⁠עַתָּ֗ה 1 This term indicates that the sentence that follows is a further development of the thought from the previous sentence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases]])
NEH 5 5 z4ru figs-explicit כִּ⁠בְשַׂ֤ר אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ בְּשָׂרֵ֔⁠נוּ כִּ⁠בְנֵי⁠הֶ֖ם בָּנֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 Here the Jews are insisting that they are of the same Jewish descent as the other Jews and that they of the same importance as the others. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “Yet our families are Jews just like the other Jew’s families, and our children are just as important to us as their children are to them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 5 ff7r figs-abstractnouns כִּ⁠בְשַׂ֤ר אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ בְּשָׂרֵ֔⁠נוּ כִּ⁠בְנֵי⁠הֶ֖ם בָּנֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 These two phrases mean similar things. The people complaining to Nehemiah are using the repetition to emphasize how shameful it is for the wealthy and powerful to sell their own fellow Jews into slavery. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “And we are Jews, just like the people who are doing these things to us!” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-[[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]]]])
NEH 5 5 ff7r figs-abstractnouns כִּ⁠בְשַׂ֤ר אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ בְּשָׂרֵ֔⁠נוּ כִּ⁠בְנֵי⁠הֶ֖ם בָּנֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 These two phrases mean similar things. The people complaining to Nehemiah are using the repetition to emphasize how shameful it is for the wealthy and powerful to sell their own fellow Jews into slavery. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “And we are Jews, just like the people who are doing these things to us!” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 5 5 pcwk כִּ⁠בְשַׂ֤ר אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ בְּשָׂרֵ֔⁠נוּ כִּ⁠בְנֵי⁠הֶ֖ם בָּנֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 You could move this sentence to the end of the verse, since it is the culmination of the argument.
NEH 5 5 w1ot figs-metaphor אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ֙ 1 Here **brother** figuratively describes the Jews who are exploiting their poor and vulnerable fellow Jews. Alternate translation: “And we are Jews, just like the people who are doing these things to us!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 5 5 oguf וְ⁠הִנֵּ֣ה 1 **Behold** is a term meant to focus the attention of the listener on what the speaker is about to say. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could use some emphatic term or expression in your language that would have this same effect.
NEH 5 5 rdp9 figs-explicit אֲנַ֣חְנוּ כֹ֠בְשִׁים אֶת־בָּנֵ֨י⁠נוּ וְ⁠אֶת־בְּנֹתֵ֜י⁠נוּ לַ⁠עֲבָדִ֗ים וְ⁠יֵ֨שׁ מִ⁠בְּנֹתֵ֤י⁠נוּ נִכְבָּשׁוֹת֙ 1 In this context, the construction **are putting** likely indicates that the poor are on the verge of selling their children into slavery. The next sentence shows that they have already done this just in some instances. It appears that in this culture, in dire situations, girls were sold before boys, perhaps because they could become either domestic servants or concubines. A concubine was a woman who was both a slave and a secondary wife to her master. If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this statement that way. Alternate translation: “We are on the verge of selling our children into slavery. In fact, we have already sold some of our daughters as servants and concubines.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 5 z783 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠אֵ֣ין לְ⁠אֵ֣ל יָדֵ֔⁠נוּ וּ⁠שְׂדֹתֵ֥י⁠נוּ וּ⁠כְרָמֵ֖י⁠נוּ לַ⁠אֲחֵרִֽים 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, because the second phrase gives the reason why the first phrase is true. Alternate translation: “because our creditors took the fields and vineyards we pledged as security for loans, there is nothing else we can do in this situation.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result\]\])
NEH 5 5 y2mq figs-idiom וְ⁠אֵ֣ין לְ⁠אֵ֣ל יָדֵ֔⁠נוּ 1 “My hand is to God” is an [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]] that means that the speaker has the power to do what they are describing. Here the poor are saying that this is not the case. Alternate translation: “there is nothing else we can do in this situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 5 5 z783 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠אֵ֣ין לְ⁠אֵ֣ל יָדֵ֔⁠נוּ וּ⁠שְׂדֹתֵ֥י⁠נוּ וּ⁠כְרָמֵ֖י⁠נוּ לַ⁠אֲחֵרִֽים 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, because the second phrase gives the reason why the first phrase is true. Alternate translation: “because our creditors took the fields and vineyards we pledged as security for loans, there is nothing else we can do in this situation.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 5 5 y2mq figs-idiom וְ⁠אֵ֣ין לְ⁠אֵ֣ל יָדֵ֔⁠נוּ 1 **There is nothing to God in our hand** is an idiom that means that the speaker does not have the power to do what they are describing. Alternate translation: “there is nothing else we can do in this situation” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 5 5 jr7j figs-explicit וּ⁠שְׂדֹתֵ֥י⁠נוּ וּ⁠כְרָמֵ֖י⁠נוּ לַ⁠אֲחֵרִֽים 1 The implication is that when the poor could not pay back their loans, their creditors took the fields and vineyards they had pledged as collateral. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because our creditors took the fields and vineyards we pledged as security for loans.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 6 xcm3 figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּ֥חַר לִ֖⁠י מְאֹ֑ד 1 Here Nehemiah says that his anger was a fire that burned inside of him. Alternate translation: “I got very angry” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom]])
NEH 5 6 ryx1 figs-abstractnouns כַּ⁠אֲשֶׁ֤ר שָׁמַ֨עְתִּי֙ אֶת־זַֽעֲקָתָ֔⁠ם 1 **Outcry** is an abstract noun that refers to complaints that the poorer Jews made to Nehemiah about how the wealthier and more powerful Jews were treating them. You can translate the idea behind this word with a verb such as “complain.” Alternate translation: “when I heard how they were complaining” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 5 6 some figs-doublet אֶת־זַֽעֲקָתָ֔⁠ם וְ⁠אֵ֖ת הַ⁠דְּבָרִ֥ים 1 These two short phrases mean similar things. They are used together to emphasize the urgency and severity of these complaints. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “everything that they were complaining about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 5 7 zk8g figs-personification וַ⁠יִּמָּלֵ֨ךְ לִבִּ֜⁠י עָלַ֗⁠י 1 Here Nehemiah is speaking about his heart as if it were a living thing that could act like a king and rule over him. However, he is not saying that his feelings commanded his actions. (He says in the previous verse that he became very angry, but in the next verse he describes acting in a careful and deliberate manner.) Instead, this means that his heart “took counsel” with him, the way a king would take counsel with advisors. In effect, Nehemiah is saying that he talked the matter over with himself. Alternate translation: “I thought hard about what to do” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification\]\])
NEH 5 7 wxyz figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּמָּלֵ֨ךְ לִבִּ֜⁠י עָלַ֗⁠י 1 Here the **heart** figuratively represents the thoughts and the will. Alternate translation: “I thought hard about what to do” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\])
NEH 5 6 ryx1 figs-abstractnouns כַּ⁠אֲשֶׁ֤ר שָׁמַ֨עְתִּי֙ אֶת־זַֽעֲקָתָ֔⁠ם וְ⁠אֵ֖ת הַ⁠דְּבָרִ֥ים הָ⁠אֵֽלֶּה 1 **Outcry** is an abstract noun that refers to complaints that the poorer Jews made to Nehemiah about how the wealthier and more powerful Jews were treating them. You can translate the idea behind this word with a verb such as “complain.” Alternate translation: “when I heard how they were complaining” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 5 6 some figs-doublet אֶת־זַֽעֲקָתָ֔⁠ם וְ⁠אֵ֖ת הַ⁠דְּבָרִ֥ים הָ⁠אֵֽלֶּה 1 These two short phrases mean similar things. They are used together to emphasize the urgency and severity of these complaints. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “everything that they were complaining about” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 5 7 zk8g figs-personification וַ⁠יִּמָּלֵ֨ךְ לִבִּ֜⁠י עָלַ֗⁠י 1 Here Nehemiah is speaking about his heart as if it were a living thing that could act like a king and rule over him. However, he is not saying that his feelings commanded his actions. (He says in the previous verse that he became very angry, but in the next verse he describes acting in a careful and deliberate manner.) Instead, this means that his heart “took counsel” with him, the way a king would take counsel with advisors. In effect, Nehemiah is saying that he talked the matter over with himself. Alternate translation: “I thought hard about what to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
NEH 5 7 wxyz figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּמָּלֵ֨ךְ לִבִּ֜⁠י עָלַ֗⁠י 1 Here the **heart** figuratively represents the thoughts and the will. Alternate translation: “I thought hard about what to do” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 5 7 jawz וָ⁠אָרִ֨יבָ⁠ה֙ 1 **Contended** is a technical term that means “to bring charges.” It means to initiate a lawsuit that would require the defendants to answer for themselves publicly, in the presence of their fellow citizens. Alternate translation: “Then I brought charges”
NEH 5 7 o23t figs-metaphor הַ⁠חֹרִ֣ים…הַ⁠סְּגָנִ֔ים 1 See how you translated these terms in [2:16](../02/16.md). Alternate translation: “the leading citizens and the city officials”
NEH 5 7 dy73 figs-idiom מַשָּׁ֥א…אַתֶּ֣ם נֹשִׁ֑ים 1 This expression means to charge interest when loaning money to another person. Alternate translation: "You are charging interest" <br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 5 7 o23t הַ⁠חֹרִ֣ים…הַ⁠סְּגָנִ֔ים 1 See how you translated these terms in [2:16](../02/16.md). Alternate translation: “the leading citizens and the city officials”
NEH 5 7 dy73 figs-idiom מַשָּׁ֥א…אַתֶּ֣ם נֹשִׁ֑ים 1 This expression means to charge interest when loaning money to another person. Alternate translation: “You are charging interest” <br>(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 5 7 sn56 figs-explicit מַשָּׁ֥א אִישׁ־בְּ⁠אָחִ֖י⁠ו 1 The Law of Moses specifically forbade charging interest on a loan to a fellow Jew. So this was not just an exploitive business practice, it was a violation of God’s Law. The rich and powerful Jews would certainly have been expected to know this. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “You are charging interest on loans to your fellow Jews. You know that is forbidden in the Law of Moses.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 7 f66g figs-idiom אִישׁ־בְּ⁠אָחִ֖י⁠ו 1 In this context, “a man” means “each person.” It does not mean only an adult male. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 5 7 yibe figs-metaphor אִישׁ־בְּ⁠אָחִ֖י⁠ו 1 Here **brother** could conceivably include even biological brothers, but in context it likely refers figuratively to fellow Jews. Alternate translation: “to your fellow Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
@@ -530,7 +530,7 @@ NEH 5 8 o6o8 כְּ⁠דֵ֣י בָ֔⁠נוּ 1 Alternate translation: “to
NEH 5 8 q123 figs-doublet אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֜ים 1 These two short phrases mean similar things. They are used together to emphasize that buying them back was an honorable and expected action. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that would be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “our Jewish relatives” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 5 8 bszc figs-metaphor אַחֵ֨י⁠נוּ 1 Here **brother** likely refers figuratively to fellow Jews. Alternate translation: “our fellow Jews” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 5 8 t5y7 figs-activepassive הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֜ים הַ⁠נִּמְכָּרִ֤ים 1 You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “our fellow Jews have had to sell themselves” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 5 8 pzy8 figs-explicit אַתֶּ֛ם תִּמְכְּר֥וּ אֶת־אֲחֵי⁠כֶ֖ם וְ⁠נִמְכְּרוּ־לָ֑⁠נוּ 1 This means that they are selling their family members, both men and women, as slaves to their fellow Jews. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “Now you are selling your own people to be slaves of your fellow Jews, so that they might later sell them back to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 8 pzy8 figs-explicit וְ⁠גַם־אַתֶּ֛ם תִּמְכְּר֥וּ אֶת־אֲחֵי⁠כֶ֖ם וְ⁠נִמְכְּרוּ־לָ֑⁠נוּ 1 This means that they are selling their family members, both men and women, as slaves to their fellow Jews. The full meaning of this statement can be made clear. Alternate translation: “Now you are selling your own people to be slaves of your fellow Jews, so that they might later sell them back to us” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 8 kn82 figs-activepassive הַ⁠נִּמְכָּרִ֤ים לַ⁠גּוֹיִם֙ 1 This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “who people had sold as slaves to the nations” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 5 8 b1a1 וְ⁠גַם־אַתֶּ֛ם 1 Malkijah This is an emphatic expression. Nehemiah uses it to show how serious the offense is. If it would be clearer in your language, you could indicate this emphasis in some way in your translation. Alternate translation: “you are actually”
NEH 5 8 b1a3 figs-explicit תִּמְכְּר֥וּ אֶת־אֲחֵי⁠כֶ֖ם 1 This means that the creditors were selling the debtors into slavery to recover the money they owed. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “you are actually selling your fellow Jews into slavery to get back the money they owe you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -585,16 +585,16 @@ NEH 5 14 nqt2 figs-metaphor וְ⁠אַחַ֔⁠י 1 As in [4:23](../04/23.md),
NEH 5 15 uu9k figs-doublet וְ⁠הַ⁠פַּחוֹת֩ הָ⁠רִאשֹׁנִ֨ים אֲשֶׁר־לְ⁠פָנַ֜⁠י 1 **Former** and **before my face** mean similar things. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them. Alternate translation: “The men who were governors before me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 5 15 b1g1 figs-synecdoche לְ⁠פָנַ֜⁠י 1 Here **face** figuratively describes an entire person by reference to one part of them, the “face.” Alternate translation: “before me” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 5 15 b1g3 figs-metaphor הִכְבִּ֣ידוּ עַל־הָ⁠עָ֗ם 1 Here Nehemiah speaks figuratively as if these governors had been a great burden that the people were carrying, making their lives very difficult. Alternate translation: “made life very difficult for the people” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 5 15 b1g5 figs-explicit וַ⁠יִּקְח֨וּ מֵ⁠הֶ֜ם בְּ⁠לֶ֤חֶם וָ⁠יַ֨יִן֙ אַחַר֙ כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִ֣ים 1 **After** indicates that the supplies of bread and wine were in addition to the money. Nehemiah is likely describing what the former governors required of the people each day. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “They demanded that they supply them with bread and wine and forty silver shekels every day.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 15 b1g5 figs-explicit וַ⁠יִּקְח֨וּ מֵ⁠הֶ֜ם בְּ⁠לֶ֤חֶם וָ⁠יַ֨יִן֙ אַחַר֙ כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִ֣ים אַרְבָּעִ֔ים 1 **After** indicates that the supplies of bread and wine were in addition to the money. Nehemiah is likely describing what the former governors required of the people each day. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “They demanded that they supply them with bread and wine and forty silver shekels every day.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 15 w4zk translate-bmoney כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִ֣ים אַרְבָּעִ֔ים 1 In ancient times, a silver shekel weighed about 11 grams or about a third of an ounce. You could try to express this in terms of modern money values, but if you did, that could cause your Bible translation to become outdated and inaccurate over time, since those values can change from year to year. Instead, you could say something general like “forty silver coins,” or give the equivalent weight, or use the biblical term in the text and give the weight in a note. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-bmoney]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])
NEH 5 15 b1g7 translate-numbers כֶּֽסֶף־שְׁקָלִ֣ים אַרְבָּעִ֔ים 1 Alternate translation: “forty silver shekels” or “40 pieces of silver” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])
NEH 5 15 b1g9 גַּ֥ם נַעֲרֵי⁠הֶ֖ם שָׁלְט֣וּ עַל־הָ⁠עָ֑ם 1 Alternate translation: “Even their servants oppressed the people.”
NEH 5 15 egg7 grammar-connect-logic-result וַ⁠אֲנִי֙ לֹא־עָשִׂ֣יתִי כֵ֔ן מִ⁠פְּנֵ֖י יִרְאַ֥ת אֱלֹהִֽים 1 In this sentence, if it would be clearer in your language, you can put the reason before the result. Alternate translation: “But because of my fear of God, I did not take the food” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 5 15 b1h1 figs-metaphor מִ⁠פְּנֵ֖י יִרְאַ֥ת אֱלֹהִֽים 1 Here **face** figuratively represents Nehemiah’s personal perception. “Fearing” God does not mean being afraid of God, but recognizing that God deserves respect and honor. Nehemiah is speaking of this perception figuratively, as if this recognition was always directly in front of him in a place where he could see it. He means that he was always aware of it. Alternate translation: “because I knew I needed to respect God” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 5 16 gx42 figs-metaphor בִּ⁠מְלֶ֜אכֶת הַ⁠חוֹמָ֤ה הַ⁠זֹּאת֙ הֶחֱזַ֔קְתִּי 1 Nehemiah describes himself figuratively as **holding fast to**, meaning “holding onto,” the work of rebuilding the wall. This means that he was devoted to it, and he did not pursue other interests, including ones that could have made money for him. Alternate translation: “I devoted myself to the work of rebuilding of the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 5 16 lm7t שָׂדֶ֖ה לֹ֣א קָנִ֑ינוּ 1 **We** likely refers to Nehemiah and his relatives, since he mentions his servants next.
NEH 5 16 b1h3 figs-synecdoche שָׂדֶ֖ה לֹ֣א קָנִ֑ינוּ 1 Nehemiah is using the term **field** figuratively to describe any kind of real property that he and his relatives might have bought. Verse 11 shows that this could have included not just fields but also things like vineyards, olive orchards, and houses. He is describing all real property by reference to one kind, a field. Alternate translation: “My relatives and I did not buy any property” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 5 16 m3s9 figs-explicit שָׂדֶ֖ה לֹ֣א קָנִ֑ינוּ 1 The implication is that they could have bought property cheaply because the poor were so desperate. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “My relatives and I did not buy any property, even though we could have gotten it cheaply because the poor were so desperate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 16 lm7t וְ⁠שָׂדֶ֖ה לֹ֣א קָנִ֑ינוּ 1 **We** likely refers to Nehemiah and his relatives, since he mentions his servants next.
NEH 5 16 b1h3 figs-synecdoche וְ⁠שָׂדֶ֖ה לֹ֣א קָנִ֑ינוּ 1 Nehemiah is using the term **field** figuratively to describe any kind of real property that he and his relatives might have bought. Verse 11 shows that this could have included not just fields but also things like vineyards, olive orchards, and houses. He is describing all real property by reference to one kind, a field. Alternate translation: “My relatives and I did not buy any property” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 5 16 m3s9 figs-explicit וְ⁠שָׂדֶ֖ה לֹ֣א קָנִ֑ינוּ 1 The implication is that they could have bought property cheaply because the poor were so desperate. If it would make things clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “My relatives and I did not buy any property, even though we could have gotten it cheaply because the poor were so desperate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 5 16 xpb3 figs-activepassive וְ⁠כָל־נְעָרַ֔⁠י קְבוּצִ֥ים שָׁ֖ם עַל־הַ⁠מְּלָאכָֽה 1 **There** means at the wall, and **for the work** means the work of rebuilding the wall. If it would be clearer in your language, you can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “I gathered all of my servants there to work on the wall” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 5 17 j2af figs-synecdoche וְ⁠הַ⁠יְּהוּדִ֨ים 1 While this expression means “the Jewish people” in most of the book, in the contexts here and in 2:16 it seems to mean “Jewish leaders.” Nehemiah is describing some members of this people group, its leaders, as if they were the whole group. Alternate translation: “the Jewish leaders” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 5 17 a1g4 translate-unknown וְ⁠הַ⁠סְּגָנִ֜ים 1 See how you translated this term in [2:16](../02/16.md). Alternate translation: “city officials” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
@@ -652,7 +652,7 @@ NEH 6 7 c1d5 לֵ⁠אמֹ֗ר מֶ֚לֶךְ בִּֽ⁠יהוּדָ֔ה 1 Th
NEH 6 7 c1d7 וְ⁠עַתָּה֙ 1 This is not a reference to time. Sanballat is using this expression to introduce a further inference. Alternate translation: “certainly.”
NEH 6 7 c1d9 figs-activepassive יִשָּׁמַ֣ע לַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ כַּ⁠דְּבָרִ֣ים הָ⁠אֵ֑לֶּה 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “King Artaxerxes will certainly hear these reports” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 6 7 c1e1 figs-explicit יִשָּׁמַ֣ע לַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ כַּ⁠דְּבָרִ֣ים הָ⁠אֵ֑לֶּה 1 The implication is that when Artaxerxes hears these reports, he will be very angry with Nehemiah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “King Artaxerxes will certainly hear these reports, and when he does, he will be very angry with you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 6 7 c1e3 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠עַתָּ֣ה 1 This is not a reference to time. Sanballat is using this expression to introduce his conclusion. This term expresses that the sentences that came before provide the reason for the sentence that comes after. Alternate translation: “Therefore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 6 7 c1e3 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠עַתָּה֙ 1 This is not a reference to time. Sanballat is using this expression to introduce his conclusion. This term expresses that the sentences that came before provide the reason for the sentence that comes after. Alternate translation: “Therefore” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 6 7 c1e5 לְכָ֔⁠ה וְ⁠נִֽוָּעֲצָ֖ה יַחְדָּֽו 1 As in [6:2](../06/02.md), “come” is a word of encouragement rather than a command. Alternate translation: “So we really should meet together and talk about this”
NEH 6 8 ei6j וָ⁠אֶשְׁלְחָ֤⁠ה אֵלָי⁠ו֙ 1 Alternate translation: “I sent a message back to him”
NEH 6 8 ab7x figs-activepassive לֹ֤א נִֽהְיָה֙ כַּ⁠דְּבָרִ֣ים הָ⁠אֵ֔לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֖ר אַתָּ֣ה אוֹמֵ֑ר 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “I have not done any of the things you have written” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
@@ -691,7 +691,7 @@ NEH 6 13 c1j3 grammar-connect-logic-goal וְ⁠אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־כֵּ֖ן
NEH 6 13 b27k figs-explicit וְ⁠אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־כֵּ֖ן וְ⁠חָטָ֑אתִי 1 It is not entirely clear why Nehemiah says it would have been a sin for him to hide in the temple, since it was a time-honored tradition in Israel to allow people to seek sanctuary there. Perhaps the explanation is that Nehemiah knew God had sent him to Judah on a special mission to help and protect the Jewish community there. And so if he had abandoned that mission to save his life, he would have been disobeying God. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say something like that explicitly. Alternate translation: “They were hoping they could make me sin by abandoning my responsibilities and hiding in the temple.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 6 13 ji1g figs-metonymy וְ⁠הָיָ֤ה לָ⁠הֶם֙ לְ⁠שֵׁ֣ם רָ֔ע לְמַ֖עַן יְחָֽרְפֽוּ⁠נִי 1 Here **name** is a figurative way of referring to the fame or reputation of a person. If he hid in the temple to save his own life, Nehemiah would get a bad reputation as a coward who was concerned only for himself. Alternate translation: “this would give me a bad reputation, and they could say bad things about me to everyone” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 6 13 c1j5 grammar-connect-logic-goal לְמַ֖עַן 1 This term expresses that the clause that comes after is the goal for the clause that comes before. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal]])
NEH 6 14 c1j7 אֱלֹהַ֛⁠י 1 As in [4:4](../04/04.md) and [6:9](../06/09.md), Nehemiah records here what he prayed at the time of the events he is describing. You can indicate this by introducing these words as a prayer and presenting the prayer as a direct quotation. Alternate translation: “So I prayed, ‘My God …’
NEH 6 14 c1j7 אֱלֹהַ֛⁠י 1 As in [4:4](../04/04.md) and [6:9](../06/09.md), Nehemiah records here what he prayed at the time of the events he is describing. You can indicate this by introducing these words as a prayer and presenting the prayer as a direct quotation. Alternate translation: “So I prayed, ‘My God …’”
NEH 6 14 nau4 figs-idiom זָכְרָ֧⁠ה…לְ⁠טוֹבִיָּ֥ה וּ⁠לְ⁠סַנְבַלַּ֖ט כְּ⁠מַעֲשָׂ֣י⁠ו אֵ֑לֶּה 1 **His** refers to both Sanballat and Tobiah. In this context, “remember” means to think about someone and consider what action you should take in their regard. Nehemiah is not suggesting that God has forgotten about Tobiah and Sanballat. Alternate translation: “treat Tobiah and Sanballat the way they deserve for what they have done” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 6 14 c1j9 וְ⁠גַ֨ם לְ⁠נוֹעַדְיָ֤ה הַ⁠נְּבִיאָה֙ וּ⁠לְ⁠יֶ֣תֶר הַ⁠נְּבִיאִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָי֖וּ מְיָֽרְאִ֥ים אוֹתִֽ⁠י 1 Alternate translation: “Do the same for the female prophet Noadiah and all the other prophets who are trying to make me afraid.”
NEH 6 14 g3ch translate-names לְ⁠נוֹעַדְיָ֤ה 1 This is the name of a woman. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -824,7 +824,7 @@ NEH 7 37 b9f2 translate-names לֹד֙ חָדִ֣יד וְ⁠אוֹנ֔וֹ 1 Lo
NEH 7 38 d1f3 figs-personification בְּנֵ֣י סְנָאָ֔ה 1 The document speaks here of the town of Senaah as if it were the ancestor of all the people who lived there. It is saying figuratively that these men were from families that had originally lived in that town. Alternate translation: “from the town of Senaah” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
NEH 7 38 rla1 translate-names סְנָאָ֔ה 1 Senaah Senaah is the name of a town. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 7 39 x7hb הַֽ⁠כֹּהֲנִ֑ים 1 Alternate translation: “This is how many men returned from each family of priests”
NEH 7 39 xwy8 figs-metaphor בְּנֵ֤י יְדַֽעְיָה֙ לְ⁠בֵ֣ית יֵשׁ֔וּעַ 1 **Sons** figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Jedaiah who were descendants of Jeshua” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 7 39 xwy8 figs-metaphor בְּנֵ֤י יְדַֽעְיָה֙ לְ⁠בֵ֣ית יֵשׁ֔וּעַ 1 **Sons** figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Jedaiah who were descendants of Jeshua” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 7 39 d1f5 translate-names יְדַֽעְיָה֙…יֵשׁ֔וּעַ 1 Jedaiah is the name of a man, and Jeshua is the name of one of his descendants. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 7 39 mk8g figs-metonymy לְ⁠בֵ֣ית יֵשׁ֔וּעַ 1 Here the word **house** describes all the people descended from a particular person. The document is describing all of the descendants of Jeshua figuratively as if they were one household living together. Alternate translation: “who were descendants of Jeshua” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-manmade]])
NEH 7 40 d1f7 figs-metaphor בְּנֵ֣י אִמֵּ֔ר 1 **Sons** figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “from the descendants of Immer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
@@ -979,12 +979,12 @@ NEH 8 10 e1j5 figs-doublet כִּֽי־קָד֥וֹשׁ הַ⁠יּ֖וֹם לַ
NEH 8 10 e1j7 grammar-connect-logic-result כִּֽי־קָד֥וֹשׁ הַ⁠יּ֖וֹם לַ⁠אֲדֹנֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could move this phrase to the beginning of the quotation, because it gives the reason for the resulting actions that are described in the rest of the quotation. You could also connect this phrase to the ones that would then follow with a word like “so,” to show the connection. Alternate translation: “Today is a holy day set apart to worship our Lord. So …” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 8 10 ach1 figs-activepassive וְ⁠אַל־תֵּ֣עָצֵ֔בוּ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could express this same idea with an active form, and you can say what is causing the action. Alternate translation: “You have recognized that you have not obeyed the Law of Moses, but do not let that make you sad.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 8 10 e1j9 figs-explicit כִּֽי־חֶדְוַ֥ת יְהוָ֖ה הִ֥יא מָֽעֻזְּ⁠כֶֽם 1 The implication is that if a person is truly sorry for disobeying, Yahweh does not want that person to fear punishment or to grieve for the way they have offended. Instead, Yahweh wants them to be encouraged that they can live in a new way and to be happy about that. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “because Yahweh wants you to be happy and encouraged about living in a new way.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 8 10 sni7 figs-abstractnouns חֶדְוַ֥ת…מָֽעֻזְּ⁠כֶֽם 1 for the joy of Yahweh is your strength If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the ideas behind the abstract nouns “joy” and “strength” with adjectives. Alternate translation: “happy … encouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 8 10 sni7 figs-abstractnouns חֶדְוַ֥ת…מָֽעֻזְּ⁠כֶֽם 1 for the joy of Yahweh is your strength If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the ideas behind the abstract nouns **joy** and **strength** with adjectives. Alternate translation: “happy … encouraged” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 8 11 e1k1 figs-hyperbole מַחְשִׁ֤ים לְ⁠כָל־הָ⁠עָם֙ 1 These are two overstatements that emphasize how encouraging the Levites were trying to be. **All the people** does not mean everyone in the crowd, but those who were crying. **Be silent** does not mean “say nothing” or “make no noise,” but “stop crying.” (Certainly the Levites hoped that these people would soon be talking and laughing with others at celebration meals.) Alternate translation: “encouraged the people who were weeping to stop crying” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
NEH 8 11 e1k3 grammar-connect-logic-result הַ֔סּוּ כִּ֥י הַ⁠יּ֖וֹם קָדֹ֑שׁ וְ⁠אַל־תֵּעָצֵֽבוּ 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could put your translation of “for today is holy” first, since it gives the reason for the resulting actions in the other two phrases. You could also show the connection by using a word such as “so.” Alternate translation: “This is a day of celebration, so stop crying now, and do not be sad.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 8 11 sxx6 הַ֔סּוּ 1 This is a word that signals to a person that they should be quiet. If your language has a similar expression, you can use it in your translation. You could also give the meaning in this context, if that would be clearer to your readers. Alternate translation: “Shhh!” or “Stop crying, now.”
NEH 8 11 fjz6 figs-activepassive וְ⁠אַל־תֵּעָצֵֽבוּ 1 Do not be grieved If you expressed the idea behind this phrase with an active form in [8:10](../08/10.md) and you said there what was causing the action, you would not need to repeat that information here. Alternate translation: “do not be sad” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
NEH 8 12 e1k5 grammar-connect-logic-result ⁠יֵּלְכ֨וּ כָל־הָ⁠עָ֜ם לֶ⁠אֱכֹ֤ל וְ⁠לִ⁠שְׁתּוֹת֙ וּ⁠לְ⁠שַׁלַּ֣ח מָנ֔וֹת וְ⁠לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת שִׂמְחָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could put the last phrase at the beginning of the sentence, since it gives the reason for the rest of the actions. Alternate translation: “So the people celebrated by eating and drinking and sharing with the poor.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 8 12 e1k5 grammar-connect-logic-result וַ⁠יֵּלְכ֨וּ כָל־הָ⁠עָ֜ם לֶ⁠אֱכֹ֤ל וְ⁠לִ⁠שְׁתּוֹת֙ וּ⁠לְ⁠שַׁלַּ֣ח מָנ֔וֹת וְ⁠לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת שִׂמְחָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֑ה 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could put the last phrase at the beginning of the sentence, since it gives the reason for the rest of the actions. Alternate translation: “So the people celebrated by eating and drinking and sharing with the poor.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 8 12 e1k7 figs-explicit לֶ⁠אֱכֹ֤ל וְ⁠לִ⁠שְׁתּוֹת֙ 1 The implication is that they enjoyed the special food and drink described in [8:10](.//08/10.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “eating rich foods and drinking sweet drinks” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 8 12 e1k9 figs-doublet לֶ⁠אֱכֹ֤ל וְ⁠לִ⁠שְׁתּוֹת֙ 1 Eating and drinking are used together here to convey a single idea, celebrating. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine them into a single phrase. Alternate translation: “celebrating with festive meals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
NEH 8 12 e1l1 figs-explicit לֶ⁠אֱכֹ֤ל וְ⁠לִ⁠שְׁתּוֹת֙ 1 The implication is that they enjoyed the special food and drink described in [8:10](../08/10.md). If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “enjoying special meals” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -1017,7 +1017,7 @@ NEH 8 16 e1o7 figs-ellipsis וַ⁠יֵּצְא֣וּ הָ⁠עָם֮ וַ⁠י
NEH 8 16 dl2y figs-idiom וַ⁠יַּעֲשׂוּ֩ לָ⁠הֶ֨ם סֻכּ֜וֹת אִ֤ישׁ עַל־גַּגּ⁠וֹ֙ 1 In this context, **a man** is an idiom that means “each person” and likely “each family.” It does not mean only an adult male. Alternate translation: “and each family built shelters on their roofs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 8 16 e1o9 figs-explicit עַל־גַּגּ⁠וֹ֙ 1 In this culture, roofs were flat and stairs led up to them from outside the house. So a shelter could stand on the flat roof and the family could use it as a temporary home. Alternate translation: “on their flat roofs” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 8 16 e1p1 figs-explicit וּ⁠בְ⁠חַצְרֹ֣תֵי⁠הֶ֔ם 1 In this culture, houses were built around an open courtyard. So a shelter could be set up there, within the walls of the house. Alternate translation: “and in the courtyards within the walls of their homes” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 8 16 krx4 figs-metaphor ⁠בְ⁠חַצְר֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית הָ⁠אֱלֹהִ֑ים 1 As in [6:10](../06/10.md), here the book speaks of the temple figuratively as the “house of God,” as if it were God’s dwelling place. Alternate translation: “and in the temple courtyards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 8 16 krx4 figs-metaphor וּ⁠בְ⁠חַצְר֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית הָ⁠אֱלֹהִ֑ים 1 As in [6:10](../06/10.md), here the book speaks of the temple figuratively as the “house of God,” as if it were God’s dwelling place. Alternate translation: “and in the temple courtyards” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 8 16 b74m figs-ellipsis וּ⁠בִ⁠רְח֖וֹב שַׁ֥עַר אֶפְרָֽיִם 1 Here the story is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. The meaning is clear from the context, since this same location is described in [8:1](../08/01.md) and [8:3](../08/03.md). Alternate translation: “the square in front of the Water Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 8 16 e1p3 translate-names שַׁ֣עַר הַ⁠מַּ֔יִם 1 This is the name of one of the gates of Jerusalem. See how you translated it in [3:26](../03/26.md), [8:1](../08/01.md), and [8:3](../08/03.md). Alternate translation: “the Water Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 8 16 e1p5 figs-ellipsis וּ⁠בִ⁠רְח֖וֹב שַׁ֥עַר אֶפְרָֽיִם 1 Here the story is leaving out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. The meaning is clear from the context. Alternate translation: “the square in front of the Ephraim Gate” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
@@ -1088,12 +1088,12 @@ NEH 9 8 f1f5 figs-metaphor לָ⁠תֵ֡ת אֶת־אֶרֶץ֩…לָ⁠תֵ֣
NEH 9 8 vbx8 translate-names הַ⁠כְּנַעֲנִ֨י הַ⁠חִתִּ֜י הָ⁠אֱמֹרִ֧י וְ⁠הַ⁠פְּרִזִּ֛י וְ⁠הַ⁠יְבוּסִ֥י וְ⁠הַ⁠גִּרְגָּשִׁ֖י 1 These are the names of six people groups. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 9 8 f1f7 figs-personification וַ⁠תָּ֨קֶם֙ אֶת־דְּבָרֶ֔י⁠ךָ 1 As in [5:13](../05/13.md), **words** means the promises that God made to Abraham, and **stand** means stay in place rather than go away. The Levites are speaking of God’s promises figuratively as if they were a living thing that could move around or not. Alternate translation: “you have kept all of your promises” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
NEH 9 8 f1f9 כִּ֥י צַדִּ֖יק אָֽתָּה 1 Alternate translation: “because you always do what is right”
NEH 9 9 p3f4 figs-merism וַ⁠תֵּ֛רֶא אֶת־עֳנִ֥י אֲבֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ בְּ⁠מִצְרָ֑יִם וְ⁠אֶת־זַעֲקָתָ֥⁠ם שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ עַל־ יַם־סֽוּף 1 Here the Levites are describing how, centuries later, God rescued their ancestors, who were Abraham’s descendants, from slavery in Egypt. In this verse they describe that entire experience generally by reference to its first episode and its final episode, to include everything in between. (In [9:10](../09/10.md) and [9:11](../09/11.md) they will add further specific details.) If it would be clearer in your language, you could describe the entire experience in a single phrase here. (However, you could also explain these episodes separately. See the next two notes.) Alternate translation: “You rescued our fathers from slavery in Egypt by defeating Pharaoh.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
NEH 9 9 p3f4 figs-merism וַ⁠תֵּ֛רֶא אֶת־עֳנִ֥י אֲבֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ בְּ⁠מִצְרָ֑יִם וְ⁠אֶת־זַעֲקָתָ֥⁠ם שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ עַל־יַם־סֽוּף 1 Here the Levites are describing how, centuries later, God rescued their ancestors, who were Abraham’s descendants, from slavery in Egypt. In this verse they describe that entire experience generally by reference to its first episode and its final episode, to include everything in between. (In [9:10](../09/10.md) and [9:11](../09/11.md) they will add further specific details.) If it would be clearer in your language, you could describe the entire experience in a single phrase here. (However, you could also explain these episodes separately. See the next two notes.) Alternate translation: “You rescued our fathers from slavery in Egypt by defeating Pharaoh.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
NEH 9 9 vp1y figs-abstractnouns וַ⁠תֵּ֛רֶא אֶת־עֳנִ֥י אֲבֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ בְּ⁠מִצְרָ֑יִם 1 **Affliction** is an abstract noun that refers to the way the Israelites suffered when Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, forced them to serve him as slaves. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate the idea behind it with a verb such as “suffer.” Alternate translation: “you saw how badly our ancestors were suffering as slaves in Egypt” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
NEH 9 9 f1g1 figs-explicit וַ⁠תֵּ֛רֶא אֶת־עֳנִ֥י אֲבֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ בְּ⁠מִצְרָ֑יִם 1 The implication is that God not only saw how the Israelites were suffering, God was moved to action out of compassion for them. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “you saw how badly our ancestors were suffering as slaves in Egypt, and so you delivered them from slavery” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 9 f1g3 figs-metaphor אֲבֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ 1 **Fathers** here figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “our ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 9 9 j256 figs-explicit ⁠אֶת־זַעֲקָתָ֥⁠ם שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ עַל־ יַם־סֽוּף 1 The Levites continue to rehearse the details of Israelite history without explaining their significance because they assume their listeners will already understand this. This is a reference to something that happened after God had freed their ancestors from slavery and they had left Egypt. Pharaoh regretted letting them go and pursued them with his army. The Israelites were trapped helplessly against the shores of the Red Sea as Pharaoh’s army approached. So they cried out to God for rescue. Alternate translation: “you answered their prayer when they cried to you for help from the shores of the Red Sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 9 f1g5 figs-idiom אֶת־זַעֲקָתָ֥⁠ם שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ 1 **Heard** is an idiom that means that God both heard and answered the Israelites’ prayer, in the way described in [9:11](../09/11.md). Alternate translation: “you answered their prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 9 9 j256 figs-explicit וְ⁠אֶת־זַעֲקָתָ֥⁠ם שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ עַל־יַם־סֽוּף 1 The Levites continue to rehearse the details of Israelite history without explaining their significance because they assume their listeners will already understand this. This is a reference to something that happened after God had freed their ancestors from slavery and they had left Egypt. Pharaoh regretted letting them go and pursued them with his army. The Israelites were trapped helplessly against the shores of the Red Sea as Pharaoh’s army approached. So they cried out to God for rescue. Alternate translation: “you answered their prayer when they cried to you for help from the shores of the Red Sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 9 f1g5 figs-idiom וְ⁠אֶת־זַעֲקָתָ֥⁠ם שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ 1 **Heard** is an idiom that means that God both heard and answered the Israelites’ prayer, in the way described in [9:11](../09/11.md). Alternate translation: “you answered their prayer” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 9 9 f1g7 translate-names יַם־סֽוּף 1 This is the name of a body of water near Egypt. Alternate translation: “the Red Sea” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 9 10 ge61 figs-explicit וַ֠⁠תִּתֵּן אֹתֹ֨ת וּ⁠מֹֽפְתִ֜ים בְּ⁠פַרְעֹ֤ה וּ⁠בְ⁠כָל־עֲבָדָי⁠ו֙ וּ⁠בְ⁠כָל־עַ֣ם אַרְצ֔⁠וֹ 1 If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain why God did this. Alternate translation: “You did amazing things that were signs to Pharaoh, his officials, and the people of Egypt that you are the one true God and that they should not have enslaved your people.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 10 s54a figs-doublet וַ֠⁠תִּתֵּן אֹתֹ֨ת וּ⁠מֹֽפְתִ֜ים 1 **Signs** and **wonders** are words that mean similar things. They both describe powerful things that God did. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these words. Alternate translation: “you did miracles” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
@@ -1122,7 +1122,7 @@ NEH 9 15 f1i9 figs-explicit וְ֠⁠לֶחֶם מִ⁠שָּׁמַ֜יִם נָ
NEH 9 15 f1j1 translate-unknown וְ֠⁠לֶחֶם מִ⁠שָּׁמַ֜יִם 1 This is a figurative way of describing the special food that God provided for the Israelites in the desert. Because it had not grown from the ground, it was as if God had sent it from heaven. The Israelites gave this food the name “manna.” If it would be helpful to your readers, you could call it by this name after providing a non-figurative description. Alternate translation: “and a special food, manna.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 9 15 f1j3 figs-synecdoche וְ֠⁠לֶחֶם מִ⁠שָּׁמַ֜יִם 1 This expression used bread to refer figuratively to food in general. It describes all food by the name of one kind of good, bread. Alternate translation: “special food” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 9 15 f1j5 grammar-connect-logic-result וּ⁠מַ֗יִם מִ⁠סֶּ֛לַע הוֹצֵ֥אתָ לָ⁠הֶ֖ם לִ⁠צְמָאָ֑⁠ם 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the first phrase gives the reason for the resulting action that is described in the second phrase. Alternate translation: “because they were thirsty, you made water flow out of a rock for them to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 9 15 f1j7 figs-explicit ⁠מַ֗יִם מִ⁠סֶּ֛לַע הוֹצֵ֥אתָ לָ⁠הֶ֖ם לִ⁠צְמָאָ֑⁠ם 1 If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain why the people were thirsty. Alternate translation: “because they were thirsty in the desert where there was no water, you made water flow out of a rock for them to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 15 f1j7 figs-explicit וּ⁠מַ֗יִם מִ⁠סֶּ֛לַע הוֹצֵ֥אתָ לָ⁠הֶ֖ם לִ⁠צְמָאָ֑⁠ם 1 If it would be helpful to your readers, you could explain why the people were thirsty. Alternate translation: “because they were thirsty in the desert where there was no water, you made water flow out of a rock for them to drink” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 15 f1j9 וַ⁠תֹּ֣אמֶר לָ⁠הֶ֗ם לָ⁠בוֹא֙ לָ⁠רֶ֣שֶׁת 1 Alternate translation: “you commanded them to enter and occupy”
NEH 9 15 f1k1 translate-symaction הָ⁠אָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָשָׂ֥אתָ אֶת־יָדְ⁠ךָ֖ לָ⁠תֵ֥ת לָ⁠הֶֽם 1 In this culture, a person would raise their hand when they swore an oath. Here the Levites are describing the action of swearing an oath figuratively by referring to the gesture associated with that action, raising a hand. Alternate translation: “the land that you swore to give them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
NEH 9 15 f1k3 figs-explicit הָ⁠אָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָשָׂ֥אתָ אֶת־יָדְ⁠ךָ֖ לָ⁠תֵ֥ת לָ⁠הֶֽם 1 The Levites assume that their listeners will understand that this means the land of Canaan. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “the land of Canaan, which you swore to give them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -1186,7 +1186,7 @@ NEH 9 26 vbj5 הֵעִ֥ידוּ בָ֖⁠ם 1 Alternate translation: “warne
NEH 9 26 rr76 translate-unknown וַֽ⁠יַּעֲשׂ֔וּ נֶאָצ֖וֹת גְּדוֹלֹֽת 1 As in [9:18](../09/18.md), **blasphemy** means to worship or honor something other than God as divine. This is likely a reference to the way the Israelites started worshipping other gods. (That is why the prophets needed to try to “bring them back” to Yahweh.) Alternate translation: “they worshipped other gods” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 9 27 v5lz figs-metaphor וַֽ⁠תִּתְּנֵ⁠ם֙ בְּ⁠יַ֣ד צָֽרֵי⁠הֶ֔ם 1 Here **hand** figuratively represents power and control. Alternate translation: “you allowed their enemies to defeat them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 9 27 k998 וַ⁠יָּצֵ֖רוּ לָ⁠הֶ֑ם 1 **They** means the enemies, and “them” means the Israelites. Alternate translation: “The enemies of the Israelites made them suffer.”
NEH 9 27 tz5a ⁠כְ⁠רַחֲמֶ֣י⁠ךָ הָֽ⁠רַבִּ֗ים 1 Alternate translation: “because of your great mercy” or “because you are very merciful”
NEH 9 27 tz5a וּֽ⁠כְ⁠רַחֲמֶ֣י⁠ךָ הָֽ⁠רַבִּ֗ים 1 Alternate translation: “because of your great mercy” or “because you are very merciful”
NEH 9 27 z213 translate-unknown תִּתֵּ֤ן לָ⁠הֶם֙ מֽוֹשִׁיעִ֔ים 1 This is a reference to the time in Israelite history when God sent the judges to lead the Israelite tribes in fighting back against their enemies. Alternate translation: “you sent the judges to rescue them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 9 27 ku2m figs-metaphor וְ⁠יוֹשִׁיע֖וּ⁠ם מִ⁠יַּ֥ד צָרֵי⁠הֶֽם 1 Here **hand** figuratively represents power and control. Alternate translation: “they rescued them from their enemies” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
NEH 9 28 u77m grammar-connect-logic-contrast וּ⁠כְ⁠נ֣וֹחַ לָ⁠הֶ֔ם יָשׁ֕וּבוּ לַ⁠עֲשׂ֥וֹת רַ֖ע לְ⁠פָנֶ֑י⁠ךָ 1 This sentence draws a contrast between how the Israelites should have responded when God delivered them and how they actually responded. You could begin the sentence with a word like “but” or “however” or “nevertheless” to indicate this contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
@@ -1253,14 +1253,14 @@ NEH 9 37 q3dz figs-explicit לַ⁠מְּלָכִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥
NEH 9 37 x15l figs-parallelism לַ⁠מְּלָכִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥תָּה עָלֵ֖י⁠נוּ…וְ⁠עַ֣ל גְּ֠וִיֹּתֵי⁠נוּ מֹשְׁלִ֤ים וּ⁠בִ⁠בְהֶמְתֵּ֨⁠נוּ֙ 1 These two phrases mean similar things. In each phrase, the Levites are describing how foreign kings now rule over the Israelites. The second phrase intensifies the first by specifying that the Israelites serve these kings as slaves, and that the Israelites do not even own the animals they work with. You do not need to repeat both phrases in your translation if that might be confusing for your readers. Alternate translation: “You have allowed foreign kings to rule over us as slaves who own nothing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 9 37 huw8 כִּ⁠רְצוֹנָ֔⁠ם 1 Alternate translation: “as they see fit”
NEH 9 38 g7s3 grammar-connect-logic-result וּ⁠בְ⁠כָל־זֹ֕את 1 This phrase indicates that the sentence it introduces explains the actions that the people are taking in response to everything that the Levites have just said. That is, they are doing this because they and their ancestors had disobeyed and Yahweh had punished them. Alternate translation: “In light of all this” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 9 38 t4ag אֲנַ֛חְנוּ כֹּרְתִ֥ים אֲמָנָ֖ה 1 The word “faithful’ here does not mean that the covenant will act in a certain way, but that the people themselves are promising to be faithful to this covenant. Alternate translation: “we are making a covenant that we promise to keep”
NEH 9 38 t4ag אֲנַ֛חְנוּ כֹּרְתִ֥ים אֲמָנָ֖ה 1 The word **faithful** here does not mean that the covenant will act in a certain way, but that the people themselves are promising to be faithful to this covenant. Alternate translation: “we are making a covenant that we promise to keep”
NEH 9 38 xee9 figs-idiom אֲנַ֛חְנוּ כֹּרְתִ֥ים 1 As in [9:8](../09/08.md), to “cut” a covenant is a Hebrew idiom for making a solemn agreement with a person. Review the note there if that would be helpful. Alternate translation: “we are making a covenant” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 9 38 l6qa figs-explicit וְ⁠כֹתְבִ֑ים וְ⁠עַל֙ הֶֽ⁠חָת֔וּם שָׂרֵ֥י⁠נוּ לְוִיֵּ֖⁠נוּ כֹּהֲנֵֽי⁠נוּ 1 The implication is that the Israelites had scribes write this covenant on a scroll, the leaders wrote their names on it representing all the people, and then the Israelites sealed the document to make it official and to preserve it. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “We are writing this covenant on a scroll. The community leaders, the Levites, and the priests will sign it. And then we will seal it.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 9 38 wj7b שָׂרֵ֥י⁠נוּ 1 This means the community leaders. From the document itself, it appears that these included both Nehemiah as the governor (10:1) and various tribal and extended-family leaders (10:14–27).
NEH 10 intro m17y 0 # Nehemiah 10 General Notes<br>## Structure and formatting<br><br>This chapter concludes the passage beginning in chapter 9.<br><br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### The vow<br><br>By signing this document, the people vowed or agreed to obey God, not to buy things on the Sabbath and to pay their temple tax. (See: [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/vow]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/sabbath]] and [[rc://en/tw/dict/bible/kt/temple]])
NEH 10 1 ijh7 וְ⁠עַ֖ל הַ⁠חֲתוּמִ֑ים 1 Alternate translation: “These are the names that the leaders signed on the scroll before it was sealed.”
NEH 10 1 jc8x translate-unknown נְחֶמְיָ֧ה הַ⁠תִּרְשָׁ֛תָא בֶּן־חֲכַלְיָ֖ה 1 As in [7:65](../07/65.md) and [7:70](../07/70.md), this was the formal Persian title of the governor. If it would be clearer in your language, you could state the title and then explain it. Alternate translation: “Nehemiah son of Hakiliah, the Tirshatha (that is, the governor)” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 10 1 j4ny translate-names נְחֶמְיָ֧ה…בֶּן־חֲכַלְיָ֖ה 1 As in [1:1](../01/01.md), Nehemiah is the name of a man, and Hakaliah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 1 j4ny translate-names נְחֶמְיָ֧ה…בֶּן־חֲכַלְיָ֖ה וְ⁠צִדְקִיָּֽה 1 As in [1:1](../01/01.md), Nehemiah is the name of a man, and Hakaliah is the name of his father. Zedekiah is also the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 1 mu7u figs-explicit וְ⁠צִדְקִיָּֽה 1 This could mean the same man who is called “Zadok the scribe” in [13:13](../13/13.md). That man seems to have been the official secretary for Nehemiah. Other documents from this time suggest that the name of the scribe would have come second in a list like this, right after the government official in charge. Alternate translation: “Zedekiah the scribe” or “Zedekiah the secretary.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 10 2 r4sg translate-names שְׂרָיָ֥ה עֲזַרְיָ֖ה יִרְמְיָֽה 1 These are the names of three men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 3 b2lc translate-names פַּשְׁח֥וּר אֲמַרְיָ֖ה מַלְכִּיָּֽה 1 These are the names of three men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
@@ -1274,7 +1274,7 @@ NEH 10 8 ppp7 grammar-connect-logic-result אֵ֖לֶּה הַ⁠כֹּהֲנִ
NEH 10 9 b29e וְֽ⁠הַ⁠לְוִיִּ֑ם 1 Alternate translation: “These are the names of the Levites who signed the covenant.”
NEH 10 9 i6e3 figs-explicit וְֽ⁠הַ⁠לְוִיִּ֑ם 1 From the contexts in which the names of these men appear elsewhere in the book of Nehemiah, it seems that they were leaders of the Levites. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “These are the names of the Levites who signed the covenant. First, their leaders:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 10 9 si66 translate-names וְ⁠יֵשׁ֨וּעַ֙ בֶּן־אֲזַנְיָ֔ה 1 Jeshua is the name of a man, and Azaniah is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 9 pi28 translate-names בִּנּ֕וּי 1 Binnui is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 9 pi28 translate-names בִּנּ֕וּי…חֵנָדָ֖ד 1 Binnui and Henadad are both names of men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 9 j952 figs-metaphor בִּנּ֕וּי מִ⁠בְּנֵ֥י חֵנָדָ֖ד 1 **Sons** here figuratively means “descendants.” Alternate translation: “Binnui, one of the descendants of Henadad.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 10 9 km8e translate-names קַדְמִיאֵֽל 1 Kadmiel is the name of a man. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 10 10 yg6h figs-metaphor וַ⁠אֲחֵי⁠הֶ֑ם 1 Here **brother** likely refers figuratively to the rest of the Levites who signed the covenant as fellow Levites of the three leaders. Alternate translation: “Next, their fellow Levites:” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
@@ -1319,7 +1319,7 @@ NEH 10 29 m39f figs-doublet כָּל־מִצְוֺת֙ יְהוָ֣ה אֲדֹנ
NEH 10 30 s4sx figs-parallelism וַ⁠אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־נִתֵּ֥ן בְּנֹתֵ֖י⁠נוּ לְ⁠עַמֵּ֣י הָ⁠אָ֑רֶץ וְ⁠אֶת־בְּנֹ֣תֵי⁠הֶ֔ם לֹ֥א נִקַּ֖ח לְ⁠בָנֵֽי⁠נוּ 1 These two phrases mean similar things. They both indicate that the Jews are promising here not to let their children marry people from the other groups living in the area. If it would be clearer in your language, you could combine these phrases. Alternate translation: “We promise that we will not allow any one of our children to marry someone from another people group” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
NEH 10 30 lx8c figs-exclusive נִתֵּ֥ן 1 Here and through to the end of this chapter, the pronoun “we” includes Nehemiah and the Jewish people, but not the readers of this book. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-exclusive]])
NEH 10 30 iqq1 figs-explicit לְ⁠עַמֵּ֣י הָ⁠אָ֑רֶץ 1 This refers to other people groups who live in the land and who do not worship Yahweh. The implication is that intermarriage with these groups would lead the Israelites to compromise their loyalty to Yahweh. Alternate translation: “the people of this land who do not worship Yahweh” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 10 31 g1b7 grammar-connect-logic-result ⁠עַמֵּ֣י הָ⁠אָ֡רֶץ הַֽ⁠מְבִיאִים֩ אֶת־הַ⁠מַּקָּח֨וֹת וְ⁠כָל־שֶׁ֜בֶר בְּ⁠י֤וֹם הַ⁠שַּׁבָּת֙ לִ⁠מְכּ֔וֹר לֹא־נִקַּ֥ח מֵ⁠הֶ֛ם בַּ⁠שַּׁבָּ֖ת 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the result that is described in the first phrase. Alternate translation: “If people from other groups bring goods or grain to sell on the Sabbath, we will not buy any from them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 10 31 g1b7 grammar-connect-logic-result וְ⁠עַמֵּ֣י הָ⁠אָ֡רֶץ הַֽ⁠מְבִיאִים֩ אֶת־הַ⁠מַּקָּח֨וֹת וְ⁠כָל־שֶׁ֜בֶר בְּ⁠י֤וֹם הַ⁠שַּׁבָּת֙ לִ⁠מְכּ֔וֹר לֹא־נִקַּ֥ח מֵ⁠הֶ֛ם בַּ⁠שַּׁבָּ֖ת 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could reverse the order of these phrases, since the second phrase gives the reason for the result that is described in the first phrase. Alternate translation: “If people from other groups bring goods or grain to sell on the Sabbath, we will not buy any from them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 10 31 g1b9 figs-explicit בַּ⁠שַּׁבָּ֖ת 1 The implication is that the Israelites are promising not to buy anything because the Sabbath is a day for rest and worship, not for buying and selling. If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “on the Sabbath, we will not buy any from them, because Yahweh has told us not to buy or sell on the Sabbath” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 10 31 g1c1 וּ⁠בְ⁠י֣וֹם קֹ֑דֶשׁ 1 Alternate translation: “on a festival day” or “during a festival”
NEH 10 31 g1c3 figs-ellipsis וְ⁠נִטֹּ֛שׁ אֶת־הַ⁠שָּׁנָ֥ה הַ⁠שְּׁבִיעִ֖ית 1 Here the covenant leaves out one or more words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. **Leave alone** means “leave our fields alone,” that is, do not plant or harvest any crops, and **the seventh year** means “in the seventh year.” Alternate translation: “we will not grow anything in our fields every seventh year” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
@@ -1379,7 +1379,7 @@ NEH 10 39 b23h figs-metaphor בֵּ֥ית אֱלֹהֵֽי⁠נוּ 1 The coven
NEH 11 intro xja1 0 # Nehemiah 11 General Notes<br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### The places where the Jews lived<br><br>Some people lived in Jerusalem, but most people lived in villages and towns away from Jerusalem. They lived there in order to farm the land raise their animals. The city with its walls was there to provide all of the people with protection if enemies attacked them.
NEH 11 1 e2yg translate-unknown הִפִּ֨ילוּ גוֹרָל֜וֹת 1 As in [10:34](../10/34.md), a **lot** was a physical object that was used in various ways to make a selection among different possibilities. Use the term in your language that would best describe such an object for your readers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 11 1 beq5 figs-ellipsis אֶחָ֣ד מִן־הָ⁠עֲשָׂרָ֗ה 1 This means “one out of ten people.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 11 1 h1a1 figs-informremind בִּֽ⁠ירוּשָׁלִַ֨ם֙ עִ֣יר הַ⁠קֹּ֔דֶשׁ 1 Here the book repeats some background information to remind readers about the special status that Jerusalem had, which was why it was so important for that city to be well populated. As in [1:9](../01/09.md), the list is acknowledging Jerusalem as the place from which God chose to start making himself famous throughout the world, and as the city where God chose to put his temple. Alternate translation: “Jerusalem, the special city that God chose ” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind]])
NEH 11 1 h1a1 figs-informremind בִּֽ⁠ירוּשָׁלִַ֨ם֙ עִ֣יר הַ⁠קֹּ֔דֶשׁ 1 Here the book repeats some background information to remind readers about the special status that Jerusalem had, which was why it was so important for that city to be well populated. As in [1:9](../01/09.md), the list is acknowledging Jerusalem as the place from which God chose to start making himself famous throughout the world, and as the city where God chose to put his temple. Alternate translation: “Jerusalem, the special city that God chose” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind]])
NEH 11 1 h1a3 figs-synecdoche וְ⁠תֵ֥שַׁע הַ⁠יָּד֖וֹת בֶּ⁠עָרִֽים 1 Here the list is using the term **hand** to refer figuratively to an entire person. Alternate translation: “the other nine out of ten people remained in the cities and towns where they had been living” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
NEH 11 2 h1a5 figs-idiom לְ⁠כֹל֙ הָֽ⁠אֲנָשִׁ֔ים 1 In this context, **a man** means “everyone.” Alternate translation: “everyone who” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 11 3 h1a7 figs-metaphor רָאשֵׁ֣י הַ⁠מְּדִינָ֔ה 1 **Head** here is a figurative way of saying “leader.” Alternate translation: “provincial leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
@@ -1564,8 +1564,8 @@ NEH 12 17 em6c לַ⁠אֲבִיָּ֖ה זִכְרִ֑י לְ⁠מִ֨נְיָ
NEH 12 17 e7rx translate-names לַ⁠אֲבִיָּ֖ה זִכְרִ֑י לְ⁠מִ֨נְיָמִ֔ין לְ⁠מוֹעַדְיָ֖ה פִּלְטָֽי 1 These are the names of five men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 18 zd3p לְ⁠בִלְגָּ֣ה שַׁמּ֔וּעַ לִֽ⁠שְׁמַעְיָ֖ה יְהוֹנָתָֽן 1 Alternate translation: “Shammua was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Bilgah. Jehonathan was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Shemaiah.”
NEH 12 18 t8yy translate-names לְ⁠בִלְגָּ֣ה שַׁמּ֔וּעַ לִֽ⁠שְׁמַעְיָ֖ה יְהוֹנָתָֽן 1 These are the names of four men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 19 u373 ⁠לְ⁠יוֹיָרִ֣יב מַתְּנַ֔י לִֽ⁠ידַֽעְיָ֖ה עֻזִּֽי 1 Alternate translation: “Mattenai was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Joiarib. Uzzi was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Jedaiah.”
NEH 12 19 s8n3 translate-names ⁠לְ⁠יוֹיָרִ֣יב מַתְּנַ֔י לִֽ⁠ידַֽעְיָ֖ה עֻזִּֽי 1 These are the names of four men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 19 u373 וּ⁠לְ⁠יוֹיָרִ֣יב מַתְּנַ֔י לִֽ⁠ידַֽעְיָ֖ה עֻזִּֽי 1 Alternate translation: “Mattenai was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Joiarib. Uzzi was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Jedaiah.”
NEH 12 19 s8n3 translate-names וּ⁠לְ⁠יוֹיָרִ֣יב מַתְּנַ֔י לִֽ⁠ידַֽעְיָ֖ה עֻזִּֽי 1 These are the names of four men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 20 y23c לְ⁠סַלַּ֥י קַלָּ֖י לְ⁠עָמ֥וֹק עֵֽבֶר 1 Alternate translation: “Kallai was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Sallai. Eber was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Amok.”
NEH 12 20 p8dg translate-names לְ⁠סַלַּ֥י קַלָּ֖י לְ⁠עָמ֥וֹק עֵֽבֶר 1 These are the names of four men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 21 v16d לְ⁠חִלְקִיָּ֣ה חֲשַׁבְיָ֔ה לִֽ⁠ידַֽעְיָ֖ה נְתַנְאֵֽל 1 Alternate translation: “Hashabiah was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Hilkiah. Nethanel was the leader of the clan whose ancestor was Jedaiah.”
@@ -1587,7 +1587,7 @@ NEH 12 23 d2rp figs-idiom וְ⁠עַד־יְמֵ֖י יֽוֹחָנָ֥ן 1 Th
NEH 12 23 i1e9 translate-names יֽוֹחָנָ֥ן 1 **Johanan** is the name of a man. The context indicates that he was a Jewish high priest, and so he seems to be the same man who is called “Jonathan” in verse 11. If you think it would make things clearer for your readers, you could use the same name both here and in verse 11, either “Johanan” or “Jonathan.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 23 i1f1 figs-metaphor בֶּן־אֶלְיָשִֽׁיב 1 **Eliashib** is the name of a man. Verse [12:10](../12/10.md) shows that Johanan/Jonathan was not actually his son, but his grandson. So **son** here figuratively means “descendant.” Alternate translation: “the grandson of Eliashib” or “the descendant of Eliashib” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 24 kx4z figs-ellipsis וְ⁠רָאשֵׁ֣י הַ֠⁠לְוִיִּם…לְ⁠הַלֵּ֣ל לְ⁠הוֹד֔וֹת 1 Here the book leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. This sentence seems to mean, “The Levite leaders who directed the choir that sang songs of praise and thanksgiving were …” You could say something like that as an alternate translation if it would be helpful to your readers. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 12 24 d373 figs-metaphor ⁠רָאשֵׁ֣י הַ֠⁠לְוִיִּם 1 **Head** here is a figurative way of saying “leader.” Alternate translation: “the leaders of the Levites” or “the Levite leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 12 24 d373 figs-metaphor וְ⁠רָאשֵׁ֣י הַ֠⁠לְוִיִּם 1 **Head** here is a figurative way of saying “leader.” Alternate translation: “the leaders of the Levites” or “the Levite leaders” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 12 24 i1f3 translate-names חֲשַׁבְיָ֨ה שֵֽׁרֵבְיָ֜ה 1 These are the names of two men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 24 e1ls translate-names וְ⁠יֵשׁ֤וּעַ בֶּן־קַדְמִיאֵל֙ 1 Jeshua is the name of a man, and Kadmiel is the name of his father. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
NEH 12 24 i1f5 figs-explicit וַ⁠אֲחֵי⁠הֶ֣ם לְ⁠נֶגְדָּ֔⁠ם…מִשְׁמָ֖ר לְ⁠עֻמַּ֥ת מִשְׁמָֽר 1 As in [12:9](../12/09.md), this could mean one of two things. (1) It could mean that Hashabiah, Sherebiah, and Jeshua directed one choir, and other Levite leaders directed a second choir that stood opposite to this first one and sang responses to what it sang. (2) It could mean that other Levite leaders took turns with these three men in assuming the responsibilities of directing a single Levite choir. Alternate translation: “Their fellow Levite leaders directed a second choir that sang responses” or “their fellow Levite leaders took turns with them directing the choir.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -1727,7 +1727,7 @@ NEH 13 4 c9hf figs-synecdoche בְּ⁠לִשְׁכַּ֣ת בֵּית־אֱלֹ
NEH 13 4 k1d9 figs-metaphor בֵּית־אֱלֹהֵ֑י⁠נוּ 1 As often in this book, Nehemiah speaks figuratively of the temple here as the **house of God**, as if it were God’s dwelling place. Alternate translation: “the temple” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-manmade]])
NEH 13 5 xi14 grammar-connect-logic-result וַ⁠יַּ֨עַשׂ 1 In this context, the conjunction **and** indicates that the sentence it introduces explains the reason for what the previous sentence described, or what made it possible. Alternate translation: “and so,” unless you used the word “since” to introduce the last phrase in [13:4](../13/04.md), in which case the connection would already be clear and you would not need to use any connecting phrase here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
NEH 13 5 k1de ל֜⁠וֹ 1 Verse [13:7](../13/07.md) indicates that **him** refers to Tobiah. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly here. Alternate translation: “he allowed Tobiah to move into a large room in the temple.”
NEH 13 5 v2in figs-explicit ⁠שָׁ֣ם הָי֪וּ לְ⁠פָנִ֟ים נֹ֠תְנִים אֶת־הַ⁠מִּנְחָ֨ה 1 **They** means the Israelites, and **offerings**, if it is a general term (see next note), means the contributions that they gave to support the priests and Levites, as described in [12:44](../12/44.md). If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “This was the room that the Israelites had previously been using to store the offerings they brought to the temple to support the priests and Levites.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 13 5 v2in figs-explicit וְ⁠שָׁ֣ם הָי֪וּ לְ⁠פָנִ֟ים נֹ֠תְנִים אֶת־הַ⁠מִּנְחָ֨ה 1 **They** means the Israelites, and **offerings**, if it is a general term (see next note), means the contributions that they gave to support the priests and Levites, as described in [12:44](../12/44.md). If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say that explicitly. Alternate translation: “This was the room that the Israelites had previously been using to store the offerings they brought to the temple to support the priests and Levites.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 13 5 k1e3 הַ⁠מִּנְחָ֨ה 1 The word **offerings** could be referring generally to all of the contributions that the Israelites brought, which would then be listed in the rest of this verse, or it could be the first specific item on the list, the daily grain offering, as described in [10:33](../10/33.md). Alternate translation: “the offerings they brought” or “the daily grain offering.”
NEH 13 5 k1e5 translate-unknown הַ⁠לְּבוֹנָ֜ה 1 This term refers to a mixture of fragrant spices that was burned to produce smoke that had a pleasant smell. The law specified a special blend of spices that it said only the priests could use in the temple. Alternate translation: “the sacred incense” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
NEH 13 5 k1e7 figs-synecdoche וְ⁠הַ⁠כֵּלִ֗ים 1 As in [10:39](../10/39.md), here Nehemiah uses one type of equipment that the storerooms would hold, **vessels** or “jars” or “containers,” to refer figuratively to all the different types of equipment that the priests and Levites would have used in the temple. Alternate translation: “the temple equipment” (See [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
@@ -1807,7 +1807,7 @@ NEH 13 17 k1r1 translate-unknown וּֽ⁠מְחַלְּלִ֖ים אֶת־י֥
NEH 13 18 k1r3 figs-rquestion הֲ⁠ל֨וֹא כֹ֤ה עָשׂוּ֙ אֲבֹ֣תֵי⁠כֶ֔ם וַ⁠יָּבֵ֨א אֱלֹהֵ֜י⁠נוּ עָלֵ֗י⁠נוּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָ⁠רָעָ֣ה הַ⁠זֹּ֔את וְ⁠עַ֖ל הָ⁠עִ֣יר הַ⁠זֹּ֑את 1 Nehemiah once again uses a question form for emphasis as he continues to scold the leaders of Judah. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate what he says as a statement or as an exclamation. Alternate translation: “You know that your ancestors did the same thing, and that is why our God brought all this trouble on us and on this city.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
NEH 13 18 k1r5 figs-metaphor אֲבֹ֣תֵי⁠כֶ֔ם 1 **Fathers** here figuratively means “ancestors.” Alternate translation: “your ancestors” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]])
NEH 13 18 k1r7 וַ⁠יָּבֵ֨א אֱלֹהֵ֜י⁠נוּ עָלֵ֗י⁠נוּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־הָ⁠רָעָ֣ה הַ⁠זֹּ֔את וְ⁠עַ֖ל הָ⁠עִ֣יר הַ⁠זֹּ֑את 1 As Nehemiah speaks to the leading citizens, he assumes that they will know that he is referring to the way God allowed the Babylonians to conquer Jerusalem, destroy much of the city including the temple, break down the city wall, and take most of the people into exile. As he reports this conversation in the book, he assumes that its audience will know this as well. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “our God allowed the Babylonians to take our people into exile and destroy this city” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 13 18 k1r9 figs-idiom כָּל־הָ⁠רָעָ֣ה 1 **Evil** here does not refer to something morally wrong, but to trouble or harm. Alternate translation: “all this trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 13 18 k1r9 figs-idiom כָּל־הָ⁠רָעָ֣ה הַ⁠זֹּ֔את 1 **Evil** here does not refer to something morally wrong, but to trouble or harm. Alternate translation: “all this trouble” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 13 18 k1s1 grammar-connect-logic-contrast וְ⁠אַתֶּ֞ם 1 In this context, the conjunction **And** indicates a contrast between how the leading citizens should be acting and how they actually are acting. You could make this contrast explicit by using an expression such as, “You should know better!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
NEH 13 18 k1s3 figs-explicit וְ⁠אַתֶּ֞ם מוֹסִיפִ֤ים חָרוֹן֙ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל 1 Nehemiah assumes that the leading citizens will know that he is speaking of God’s wrath, that is, God’s anger at the people’s sin and the punishment that God may use to penalize and correct the people for what they are doing. If it would be helpful to your readers, you could say this explicitly. Alternate translation: “You are making God even more angry with the people of Israel, and God may punish us even more.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 13 18 k1s5 figs-personification יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל 1 Here Nehemiah refers to all of the Israelites figuratively as if they were a single person, their ancestor, Israel. Alternate translation: “the Israelites” or “the people of Israel” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-personification]])
@@ -1853,8 +1853,8 @@ NEH 13 25 gzx6 figs-123person וָ⁠אַשְׁבִּיעֵ֣⁠ם בֵּֽ⁠א
NEH 13 25 k1y1 figs-ellipsis וָ⁠אַשְׁבִּיעֵ֣⁠ם בֵּֽ⁠אלֹהִ֗ים אִם־תִּתְּנ֤וּ בְנֹֽתֵי⁠כֶם֙ לִ⁠בְנֵי⁠הֶ֔ם וְ⁠אִם־תִּשְׂאוּ֙ מִ⁠בְּנֹ֣תֵי⁠הֶ֔ם לִ⁠בְנֵי⁠כֶ֖ם וְ⁠לָ⁠כֶֽם 1 Nehemiah has the men take an oath using a common Hebrew formula that leaves out some of the words that a sentence would ordinarily need in order to be complete. Whenever a person takes an oath using this formula, the implication is, “May God punish me severly if I do this thing.” Alternate translation: “If we allow our daughters to marry their sons, or if we or our sons marry their daughters, may God punish us severely!” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-ellipsis]])
NEH 13 25 k1y3 figs-idiom תִּתְּנ֤וּ בְנֹֽתֵי⁠כֶם֙ לִ⁠בְנֵי⁠הֶ֔ם 1 This is an idiom that means “allow your daughters to marry their sons” or “give your daughters in marriage to their sons.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 13 25 k1y5 figs-idiom תִּשְׂאוּ֙ מִ⁠בְּנֹ֣תֵי⁠הֶ֔ם 1 This is an idiom that means “if you take any of their daughters as wives.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 13 26 k1y7 figs-explicit הֲ⁠ל֣וֹא עַל־אֵ֣לֶּה חָטָֽא־שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה מֶ֣לֶךְ 1 Here Nehemiah supports his argument by appealing to facts that he assumes these men will know. Alternate translation: “You know that Solomon king of Israel sinned because he married foreign women.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 13 26 k1y9 figs-rquestion הֲ⁠ל֣וֹא עַל־אֵ֣לֶּה חָטָֽא־שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה מֶ֣לֶךְ 1 Nehemiah is using a question form for emphasis as he scolds these men. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate what he says as a statement. Alternate translation: “You know that Solomon king of Israel sinned because he married foreign women.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
NEH 13 26 k1y7 figs-explicit הֲ⁠ל֣וֹא עַל־אֵ֣לֶּה חָטָֽא־שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל 1 Here Nehemiah supports his argument by appealing to facts that he assumes these men will know. Alternate translation: “You know that Solomon king of Israel sinned because he married foreign women.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
NEH 13 26 k1y9 figs-rquestion הֲ⁠ל֣וֹא עַל־אֵ֣לֶּה חָטָֽא־שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה מֶ֣לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֡ל 1 Nehemiah is using a question form for emphasis as he scolds these men. If it would be clearer in your language, you could translate what he says as a statement. Alternate translation: “You know that Solomon king of Israel sinned because he married foreign women.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-rquestion]])
NEH 13 26 k1z1 grammar-connect-logic-contrast וּ⁠בַ⁠גּוֹיִ֣ם 1 In this context, the conjunction **Yet** introduces a contrast between what Solomon would have been expected to do and what he actually did. You could begin the sentence with a phrase like “even though” to indicate this contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
NEH 13 26 k1z3 figs-idiom וּ⁠בַ⁠גּוֹיִ֣ם הָ⁠רַבִּים֩ לֹֽא־הָיָ֨ה מֶ֜לֶךְ כָּמֹ֗⁠הוּ 1 The expression **many nations** in this phrase indicates, “You could look among as many nations as you wanted, but you would still find no king like him.” In other words, “There was no other king like him anywhere in the world.” If it would be clearer in your language, you could say that as an alternate translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
NEH 13 26 k1z5 figs-activepassive וְ⁠אָה֤וּב לֵֽ⁠אלֹהָי⁠ו֙ הָיָ֔ה 1 If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “God loved him very much” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])


+ 420
- 450
en_tn_17-EST.tsv View File

@@ -1,15 +1,15 @@
Book Chapter Verse ID SupportReference OrigQuote Occurrence GLQuote OccurrenceNote
EST front intro d989 0 # Introduction to Esther<br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of Esther<br><br>1. King Ahasuerus sends away his wife, the queen (1:1–22)<br>1. Ahasuerus chooses Esther as the new queen (2:1–23)<br>1. Haman plots to destroy the Jews (3:1–15)<br>1. Mordecai asks Esther to help her people (4:1–17)<br>1. Esther pleads with the king for the Jews (5:1–7:10)<br>1. The result of Haman’s plot to destroy the Jews (8:1–9:16)<br>1. The Feast of Purim (9:17–32)<br>1. Conclusion (10:1–3)<br><br>### What is the Book of Esther about?<br><br>The Book of Esther tells how a young Jewish woman named Esther became the queen of Persia. As queen, she worked to save all the Jews in the Persian Empire from being destroyed.<br><br>This book ends by telling why the Jews celebrate the festival of Purim. The name “Purim” comes from the word “pur.” It means “lots” or “dice.” Haman, the enemy of Jews, threw dice to choose when to attack and destroy the Jews. The Jews celebrate Purim to remember how Yahweh rescued his people from being destroyed.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators can use the traditional title of this book, which is “The Book of Esther” or just “Esther.” Or they can choose a clearer title, such as “The Book About Esther.”<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### What was the Persian Empire?<br><br>King Cyrus the Great conquered and ruled over many kingdoms. This was in the part of the world called Persia, which is now Iran. So people named his kingdom the Persian Empire. When Cyrus conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C., he then controlled the Jews whom the Babylonians had exiled.<br><br>### Why were there Jews in Babylonia when the Persians conquered it?<br><br>In 586 B.C., the Babylonians conquered and took into exile the people of Judah. These Jews and their descendants were still in Babylon when the Persians conquered it.<br><br>### What was meant by “the laws of the Medes and Persians”?<br><br>The phrase “the laws of the Medes and Persians” is found in Esther 1:19 and Daniel 6:12. It referred to laws and decrees that could not be changed or removed once they were issued. In the book of Esther, the king made a decree that the people could attack the Jews. Later he regretted that decision but he was not able to change the decree.<br><br>The term “Medes” refers to a people group that had formed its own nation, but the Persians conquered them.<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### What different levels of language are in the Book of Esther?<br><br>In the Book of Esther, people talk to each other in many different situations. There is the polite and stately talk in the Persian court and the words of royal decrees. Friends and close relatives also talk to each other. There are even the words that one uses in speaking to oneself. Translators should use all the ways their own language has to express these different situations in a way that their readers will identify and understand.
EST front intro d989 0 # Introduction to Esther<br><br>## Part 1: General Introduction<br><br>### Outline of Esther<br><br>1. King Ahasuerus sends away his wife, the queen (1:1–22)<br>2. Ahasuerus chooses Esther as the new queen (2:1–23)<br>3. Haman plots to destroy the Jews (3:1–15)<br>4. Mordecai asks Esther to help her people (4:1–17)<br>5. Esther pleads with the king for the Jews (5:1–7:10)<br>6. The result of Haman’s plot to destroy the Jews (8:1–9:16)<br>7. The Feast of Purim (9:17–32)<br>8. Conclusion (10:1–3)<br><br>### What is the Book of Esther about?<br><br>The Book of Esther tells how a young Jewish woman named Esther became the queen of Persia. As queen, she worked to save all the Jews in the Persian Empire from being destroyed.<br><br>This book ends by telling why the Jews celebrate the festival of Purim. The name “Purim” comes from the word “pur.” It means “lots” or “dice.” Haman, the enemy of Jews, threw dice to choose when to attack and destroy the Jews. The Jews celebrate Purim to remember how Yahweh rescued his people from being destroyed.<br><br>### How should the title of this book be translated?<br><br>Translators can use the traditional title of this book, which is “The Book of Esther” or just “Esther.” Or they can choose a clearer title, such as “The Book About Esther.”<br><br>## Part 2: Important Religious and Cultural Concepts<br><br>### What was the Persian Empire?<br><br>King Cyrus the Great conquered and ruled over many kingdoms. This was in the part of the world called Persia, which is now Iran. So people named his kingdom the Persian Empire. When Cyrus conquered Babylonia in 539 B.C., he then controlled the Jews whom the Babylonians had earlier taken into exile.<br><br>### Why were there Jews in Babylonia when the Persians conquered it?<br><br>In 586 B.C., the Babylonians conquered and took into exile the people of Judah. These Jews and their descendants were still in Babylon when the Persians conquered it.<br><br>### What was meant by “the laws of the Medes and Persians”?<br><br>The phrase “the laws of the Medes and Persians” is found in Esther 1:19 and Daniel 6:12. It referred to laws and decrees that could not be changed or removed once they were issued. In the book of Esther, the king made a decree that the people could attack the Jews. Later he regretted that decision but he was not able to change the decree.<br><br>The term “Medes” refers to a people group that had formed its own nation, but the Persians conquered them.<br><br>## Part 3: Important Translation Issues<br><br>### What different levels of language are in the Book of Esther?<br><br>In the Book of Esther, people talk to each other in many different situations. There is the polite and stately talk in the Persian court and the words of royal decrees. Friends and close relatives also talk to each other. There are even the words that one uses in speaking to oneself. Translators should use all the ways their own language has to express these different situations in a way that their readers will identify and understand.
EST 1 intro v1fp 0 # Esther 01 General Notes<br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### The king’s divorce<br><br>The king’s advisers were afraid that husbands would lose their authority when they heard the queen had refused to come to show her beauty to the king’s guests; so the advisers told him to divorce her.
EST 1 1 jdr1 writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֖י 1 Now it happened In the Old Testament, this is a standard way of beginning a historical story. Many languages have similar story-opening formulas, and if your language has one, you can use it. But do not use it if it would suggest that the story is not real, only made up. Alternate translation: “This account happened” (See: Introduction of a New Event) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
EST 1 1 zzz2 bita-phenom בִּ⁠ימֵ֣י אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ 1 In the days of Ahasuerus The term **day** is used figuratively here to refer to a longer period of time. You could just say “during the reign of Ahasuerus,” as UST does. But as an alternative, you could say, “in the time of Ahasuerus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom]] [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 1 zzz2 figs-idiom בִּ⁠ימֵ֣י אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ 1 In the days of Ahasuerus The term **day** is used figuratively here to refer to a longer period of time. You could just say “during the reign of Ahasuerus,” as UST does. But as an alternative, you could say, “in the time of Ahasuerus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 1 qwe1 translate-names אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ 1 Ahasuerus This is a man’s name. It occurs many times in the story. Be sure to translate it consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 1 1 v5ts writing-background ה֣וּא אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ הַ⁠מֹּלֵךְ֙ מֵ⁠הֹ֣דּוּ וְ⁠עַד־כּ֔וּשׁ שֶׁ֛בַע וְ⁠עֶשְׂרִ֥ים וּ⁠מֵאָ֖ה מְדִינָֽה 1 he was Ahasuerus the one who ruled from India even as far as Ethiopia, 127 provinces This is background information to help the reader identify Ahasuerus. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 1 1 qwe3 ה֣וּא אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ הַ⁠מֹּלֵךְ֙ 1 he was Ahasuerus, the one who ruled “This king named Ahasuerus ruled”
EST 1 1 qwe5 writing-background מֵ⁠הֹ֣דּוּ וְ⁠עַד־כּ֔וּשׁ 1 from India even as far as Ethiopia In case your audience might not know where these places are, you could say, “extending from India in the east to Ethiopia in the west.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 1 1 qwe7 writing-background שֶׁ֛בַע וְ⁠עֶשְׂרִ֥ים וּ⁠מֵאָ֖ה מְדִינָֽה 1 127 provinces The number is given to show what a large empire this was. You could say that explicitly: “Ahasuerus ruled a very large empire that had 127 provinces.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 1 1 qwe8 translate-numbers שֶׁ֛בַע וְ⁠עֶשְׂרִ֥ים וּ⁠מֵאָ֖ה מְדִינָֽה 1 127 provinces Alternate translation: “one hundred twenty seven provinces” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-numbers]])
EST 1 2 dk31 bita-humanbehavior כְּ⁠שֶׁ֣בֶת…עַ֚ל כִּסֵּ֣א מַלְכוּת֔⁠וֹ 1 sat on the throne of his royalty Here the action of **sitting** on a throne is used figuratively to mean ruling over a kingdom. You could just say “ruled,” as UST does. But as an alternative, you could say, “ruled his empire from his royal throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-humanbehavior]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 2 dk31 figs-metonymy כְּ⁠שֶׁ֣בֶת…עַ֚ל כִּסֵּ֣א מַלְכוּת֔⁠וֹ 1 sat on the throne of his royalty Here the action of **sitting** on a throne is used figuratively to mean ruling over a kingdom. You could just say “ruled,” as UST does. But as an alternative, you could say, “ruled his empire from his royal throne” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 2 qwe9 figs-abstractnouns עַ֚ל כִּסֵּ֣א מַלְכוּת֔⁠וֹ 1 the throne of his royalty **Royalty** is an abstract noun that refers to the royal authority that the king exercised. You can translate this idea with a verb, “the throne he ruled from,” or an adjective, “his royal throne.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 2 hgm3 translate-names בְּ⁠שׁוּשַׁ֥ן 1 in Susa This was the name of a royal city of the Persian kings. It occurs many times in the story. Be sure to translate it consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 1 2 qwr1 translate-unknown הַ⁠בִּירָֽה 1 the citadel This means a “castle” or “palace” where a king would live. But since the city of Susa itself is being called a “citadel” here, it’s likely that the term figuratively means “royal city” or “capital city.” The person telling this story is identifying Susa as the capital by calling it by the name of something closely associated with it, the royal palace within it. A good translation might be “the capital city of Persia.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ EST 1 3 qwr3 figs-abstractnouns בִּ⁠שְׁנַ֤ת שָׁלוֹשׁ֙ לְ
EST 1 3 qwr5 עָשָׂ֣ה מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה 1 he made a feast “he hosted a feast”
EST 1 3 prm1 figs-synecdoche חֵ֣יל ׀ פָּרַ֣ס וּ⁠מָדַ֗י 1 the army of Persia and Media This likely refers to the leaders of the army. It is describing a part of the army by referring to the whole army. Alternate translation: “the officers of the army” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
EST 1 3 qwr7 הַֽ⁠פַּרְתְּמִ֛ים 1 the noblemen This probably means something like “the wealthy landowners.”
EST 1 3 jdr3 bita-hq לְ⁠פָנָֽי⁠ו 1 before his face **Face** figuratively stands for the presence of a person, so this phrase means “in his presence.” The invitation was to come to the royal capital to attend a banquet where the king would be present in person. You could say, as UST does, that the king was present in person to host the feast. Or you could say as an alternative, “All of them came to Susa for the feast.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 3 jdr3 figs-metonymy לְ⁠פָנָֽי⁠ו 1 before his face **Face** figuratively stands for the presence of a person, so this phrase means “in his presence.” The invitation was to come to the royal capital to attend a banquet where the king would be present in person. You could say, as UST does, that the king was present in person to host the feast. Or you could say as an alternative, “All of them came to Susa for the feast.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 4 qwr9 figs-abstractnouns בְּ⁠הַרְאֹת֗⁠וֹ אֶת־עֹ֨שֶׁר֙ כְּב֣וֹד מַלְכוּת֔⁠וֹ 1 when he displayed the wealth of the glory of his kingdom You can translate the abstract noun with an emphasized adjective. Alternate translation: “Ahasuerus … wanted to demonstrate … the great wealth of his kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 4 qet1 figs-explicit בְּ⁠הַרְאֹת֗⁠וֹ 1 when he displayed “He” refers to the king. The implication is that he held this banquet was to show all of his officials how wealthy and powerful he was. The invited officials would then go back to all the different parts of the empire and tell everyone this. Alternate translation: “Ahasuerus wanted to demonstrate to his guests” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 4 m8xa figs-doublet עֹ֨שֶׁר֙ כְּב֣וֹד מַלְכוּת֔⁠וֹ 1 the wealth of the glory of his kingdom The words “wealth” and “glory” have similar meanings and they are used together to emphasize how great his kingdom was. Alternate translation: “the great wealth of his kingdom” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ EST 1 7 urm7 figs-abstractnouns וְ⁠הַשְׁקוֹת֙ 1 And the serving wa
EST 1 7 qru7 ⁠כֵלִ֖ים מִ⁠כֵּלִ֣ים שׁוֹנִ֑ים 1 with vessels different from other vessels This could mean that “no two of them were alike.” But you could also just say that the wine was served in “various kinds of golden cups.”
EST 1 7 r6ec figs-explicit וְ⁠יֵ֥ין מַלְכ֛וּת רָ֖ב כְּ⁠יַ֥ד הַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 and the wine of royalty was abundant according to the hand of the king This means that King Ahasuerus himself paid for all the wine that the guests drank at his seven-day feast in Susa, and it came from his personal supply. Alternate translation: “the king was very generous with the royal wine” or “the king showed a great willingness to give” or “the king provided all of it” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 7 qru9 figs-abstractnouns וְ⁠יֵ֥ין מַלְכ֛וּת רָ֖ב כְּ⁠יַ֥ד הַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 and the wine of royalty This probably means special fine wine that only the king could acquire and afford. You can translate the abstract noun “royalty” with an adjective. Alternate translation: “royal wine.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 7 wpq1 bita-hq כְּ⁠יַ֥ד הַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 according to the hand of the king Here **hand** refers figuratively to the king himself, viewed through his action of giving. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 7 wpq1 figs-metonymy כְּ⁠יַ֥ד הַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 according to the hand of the king Here **hand** refers figuratively to the king himself, viewed through his action of giving. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 8 qtu1 figs-abstractnouns וְ⁠הַ⁠שְּׁתִיָּ֥ה כַ⁠דָּ֖ת 1 the drinking was according to the law The abstract noun **drinking** refers here not to the action of drinking, but to the guidelines for serving drinks that the king had established for the banquet. Alternate translation: “Ahasuerus had established this rule for all his household attendants who served the wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 8 g5gu figs-explicit אֵ֣ין אֹנֵ֑ס 1 There is no compulsion This could mean one of two things. (1) No one would be stopped from drinking, even if the attendants thought they had already had enough. Alternate translation: “There was to be no restriction on drinking.” (2) There would be no requirement to drink. Alternate translation: “No one must be forced to drink.” Either way, this was another sign of the generosity that the king showed as he hosted this banquet to thank the people who worked for him. Either he was (1) allowing them to drink as much as they wanted to, or (2) not requiring them to eat and drink everything that was served at a banquet, as guests of the king would usually have to do. You could say explicitly at the beginning of the verse that the king was giving his guests a special privilege. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 8 f6px grammar-connect-logic-result כִּי־כֵ֣ן ׀ יִסַּ֣ד הַ⁠מֶּ֗לֶךְ עַ֚ל כָּל־רַ֣ב בֵּית֔⁠וֹ לַ⁠עֲשׂ֖וֹת כִּ⁠רְצ֥וֹן אִישׁ־וָ⁠אִֽישׁ 1 for thus the king had established for every overseer of his house, to do according to the desire of man by man Alternate translation: “The king made the attendants who served the wine follow this rule.” This explains why no one had to drink if they did not want to. If it would be clearer in your language, you can give this explanation (the reason) before the result that it accounts for, using a connecting word like “so”: “the king had established for every overseer of his house to do according to the desire of man by man, so the drinking was according to the law, ‘There is no compulsion.’” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
@@ -58,13 +58,13 @@ EST 1 9 qti1 מִשְׁתֵּ֣ה נָשִׁ֑ים 1 a feast of women This coul
EST 1 9 qti3 בֵּ֚ית הַ⁠מַּלְכ֔וּת אֲשֶׁ֖ר לַ⁠מֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ 1 the house of royalty that belonged to the king Ahasuerus Alternate translation: “the royal palace where King Ahasuerus lived”
EST 1 9 qti5 figs-abstractnouns בֵּ֚ית הַ⁠מַּלְכ֔וּת 1 house of royalty You can translate the abstract noun “royalty” with the adjective “royal.” Alternate translation: “royal palace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 10 jv7z translate-ordinal בַּ⁠יּוֹם֙ הַ⁠שְּׁבִיעִ֔י 1 On the seventh day Alternate translation: “After 6 days” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
EST 1 10 le6l bita-hq כְּ⁠ט֥וֹב לֵב־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ בַּ⁠יָּ֑יִן 1 when the heart of the king was pleased by the wine Here **heart** figuratively means the action of thinking or feeling. Alternate translation: “when King Ahasuerus was in a good mood from drinking wine” or “when the king was drunk with wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 10 le6l figs-idiom כְּ⁠ט֥וֹב לֵב־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ בַּ⁠יָּ֑יִן 1 when the heart of the king was pleased by the wine Here **heart** figuratively means the action of thinking or feeling. Alternate translation: “when King Ahasuerus was in a good mood from drinking wine” or “when the king was drunk with wine” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 10 dcb2 translate-names מְהוּמָן בִּזְּתָ֨א חַרְבוֹנָ֜א בִּגְתָ֤א וַ⁠אֲבַגְתָא֙ זֵתַ֣ר וְ⁠כַרְכַּ֔ס 1 Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha and Abagtha, Zethar and Karkas These are names of seven men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 1 10 ens5 translate-unknown הַ⁠סָּ֣רִיסִ֔ים 1 the…eunuchs This term occurs a dozen times in the story. It describes male royal officials whose served as guardians for the women who lived in the palace. They were both guardians of the door, to keep unwanted people out of the women’s quarters, and guardians of the women inside, to take care of them and look after their needs. (As we learn in 2:21, some of these officials also protected the king’s private quarters.) As we see here, and as will also be seen in 2:14 and 2:16, their duties included escorting women from place to place. The term likely indicates that, in keeping with the practices of the time, these men were castrated because their work brought them into such close contact with the king’s wives and concubines. If your language has a term for such an official and you think your readers would recognize it, you can use it. Otherwise, you can use a term that describes the role that these officials played in the royal court. Alternate translation: “guardians” or “officials” or “castrated servants” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 1 10 qti7 writing-background הַ⁠מְשָׁ֣רְתִ֔ים אֶת־פְּנֵ֖י הַ⁠מֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ 1 who served before the face of King Ahasuerus This is background information to explain who these men were. Alternate translation: “who attended him personally.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 1 10 jdr7 bita-hq פְּנֵ֖י הַ⁠מֶּ֥לֶךְ 1 the face of King Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means that these seven men served King Ahasuerus personally. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 10 jdr7 figs-metonymy פְּנֵ֖י הַ⁠מֶּ֥לֶךְ 1 the face of King Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means that these seven men served King Ahasuerus personally. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 11 qti9 figs-explicit לְ֠⁠הָבִיא 1 to bring This is the beginning of the instructions that King Ahasuerus gave to the seven eunuchs he summoned in verse 10. You can make this explicit: “He told them to bring.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 11 jdr9 bita-hq לִ⁠פְנֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 to the face of the king Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus wanted Queen Vashti to come personally into his presence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 11 jdr9 figs-metonymy לִ⁠פְנֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 to the face of the king Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus wanted Queen Vashti to come personally into his presence. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 11 asd1 figs-abstractnouns בְּ⁠כֶ֣תֶר מַלְכ֑וּת 1 in a crown of royalty You can translate the abstract noun **royalty** with an adjective: “wearing her royal crown.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 11 asd3 figs-explicit בְּ⁠כֶ֣תֶר מַלְכ֑וּת 1 in a crown of royalty Ahasuerus likely wanted Vashti to wear her queen’s crown so that everyone would know that she was his wife. You could say that explicitly. (For the possible reasons why he wanted them to know this, see the next note.) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 11 asd5 writing-background לְ⁠הַרְא֨וֹת הָֽ⁠עַמִּ֤ים וְ⁠הַ⁠שָּׂרִים֙ אֶת־יָפְיָ֔⁠הּ 1 in order to show the people and the officials her beauty Everything Ahasuerus did at his banquets was to show how rich and powerful he was. He seems to have believed that having a very beautiful wife was one more thing that proved he was a great man. So he wanted everyone to see how beautiful Vashti was. You can put this second in the verse, after explaining that Vashti was a very beautiful woman, because it accounts for what happens afterwards, when the king sends his seven personal servants to bring her in to his banquet. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
@@ -74,35 +74,35 @@ EST 1 11 qvk4 figs-idiom כִּֽי־טוֹבַ֥ת מַרְאֶ֖ה הִֽיא
EST 1 12 asf1 figs-events וַ⁠תְּמָאֵ֞ן הַ⁠מַּלְכָּ֣ה וַשְׁתִּ֗י לָ⁠בוֹא֙ 1 But the queen Vashti refused to come You can put the events in chronological order and say first that the eunuchs told Vashti what the king had commanded, and then say that she refused to come. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])
EST 1 12 asf3 figs-explicit וַ⁠תְּמָאֵ֞ן הַ⁠מַּלְכָּ֣ה וַשְׁתִּ֗י לָ⁠בוֹא֙ 1 But the queen Vashti refused to come If your language needs to give a reason why she refused, it is most likely “because she did not want a group of drunken men staring at her lustfully.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 12 b57q בִּ⁠דְבַ֣ר הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 at the word of the king Alternate translation: “at the king’s command” or “what the king wanted”
EST 1 12 asf5 bita-hq בְּ⁠יַ֣ד הַ⁠סָּרִיסִ֑ים 1 by the hand of the eunuchs Here **hand** refers figuratively to the eunuchs themselves, viewed through their action of telling Vashti what the king had commanded. Alternation translation: “when those servants told Queen Vashti what the king wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 12 asf5 figs-metonymy בְּ⁠יַ֣ד הַ⁠סָּרִיסִ֑ים 1 by the hand of the eunuchs Here **hand** refers figuratively to the eunuchs themselves, viewed through their action of telling Vashti what the king had commanded. Alternation translation: “when those servants told Queen Vashti what the king wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 12 kp6p translate-unknown הַ⁠סָּרִיסִ֑ים 1 the eunuchs See how you translated this term in 1:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 1 12 asf7 figs-parallelism וַ⁠יִּקְצֹ֤ף הַ⁠מֶּ֨לֶךְ֙ מְאֹ֔ד וַ⁠חֲמָת֖⁠וֹ בָּעֲרָ֥ה בֽ⁠וֹ 1 the king became very angry, and his rage burned within him These two phrases mean similar things. The repetition is used to emphasize the idea that they are expressing. You could combine them, as UST does: “The king became so angry that he could barely contain himself.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
EST 1 12 bsd5 figs-metaphor וַ⁠חֲמָת֖⁠וֹ בָּעֲרָ֥ה בֽ⁠וֹ 1 and his rage burned within him Here the story uses a metaphor that pictures the king’s anger as a fire that burned inside of him. If your language has a different word picture that it uses to describe extreme anger, you can use that here. If not, you can translate plainly, “his anger continued to increase.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-phenom]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 12 bsd5 figs-metaphor וַ⁠חֲמָת֖⁠וֹ בָּעֲרָ֥ה בֽ⁠וֹ 1 and his rage burned within him Here the story uses a metaphor that pictures the king’s anger as a fire that burned inside of him. If your language has a different word picture that it uses to describe extreme anger, you can use that here. If not, you can translate plainly, “his anger continued to increase.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 13 asf9 לַ⁠חֲכָמִ֖ים 1 to the wise men This means the king’s advisors. You could call them “his advisors” or “the royal advisors.”
EST 1 13 g9fe יֹדְעֵ֣י הָֽ⁠עִתִּ֑ים 1 who were knowers of the times This means something like “who knew the right way to do things” or “who understood the culture.”
EST 1 13 x2u7 writing-background כִּי־כֵן֙ דְּבַ֣ר הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 for thus was the manner of the king This means that “it was the king's habit” to consult his advisors on important questions. This is background information that explains why the king called upon these men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 1 13 adf1 grammar-connect-logic-result כִּי־כֵן֙ דְּבַ֣ר הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 for thus was the manner of the king You can put this first in the verse if it would be clearer in your language to put the reason before the result, because it explains what happens next. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EST 1 13 jd11 bita-hq לִ⁠פְנֵ֕י 1 before the face of Here **face** refers figuratively to the presence of a person. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus would personally ask his wise men for advice in matters like these. Alternate translation: “to consult personally with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 13 jd11 figs-metonymy לִ⁠פְנֵ֕י 1 before the face of Here **face** refers figuratively to the presence of a person. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus would personally ask his wise men for advice in matters like these. Alternate translation: “to consult personally with” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 13 adf3 יֹדְעֵ֖י דָּ֥ת וָ⁠דִֽין 1 knowers of law and judgment This means that these advisors knew the law and knew how to make good decisions in light of it.
EST 1 14 adf5 וְ⁠הַ⁠קָּרֹ֣ב אֵלָ֗י⁠ו 1 and the ones near to him “the king’s closest advisors”
EST 1 14 cc44 translate-names כַּרְשְׁנָ֤א שֵׁתָר֙ אַדְמָ֣תָא תַרְשִׁ֔ישׁ מֶ֥רֶס מַרְסְנָ֖א מְמוּכָ֑ן 1 Karshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Mersena, Memukan These are the names of seven men. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 1 14 jd13 figs-idiom רֹאֵי֙ פְּנֵ֣י הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 seers of the face of the king **To see the face of** is an idiom that means to be in the presence of a person. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus would regularly and personally consult with these seven advisors. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 14 adf7 bita-humanbehavior הַ⁠יֹּשְׁבִ֥ים רִאשֹׁנָ֖ה בַּ⁠מַּלְכֽוּת 1 the ones who sat first in the kingdom Here **sitting** represents ruling or judging. The expression here means that these were the most powerful officials in the empire. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-humanbehavior]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 14 adf7 figs-metaphor הַ⁠יֹּשְׁבִ֥ים רִאשֹׁנָ֖ה בַּ⁠מַּלְכֽוּת 1 the ones who sat first in the kingdom Here **sitting** represents ruling or judging. The expression here means that these were the most powerful officials in the empire. (See:[[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 15 j6sh figs-explicit כְּ⁠דָת֙ מַֽה־לַּ⁠עֲשׂ֔וֹת בַּ⁠מַּלְכָּ֖ה וַשְׁתִּ֑י עַ֣ל ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־עָשְׂתָ֗ה אֶֽת־מַאֲמַר֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֔וֹשׁ בְּ⁠יַ֖ד הַ⁠סָּרִיסִֽים 1 According to law, what is to be done with the queen Vashti on account of that she did not perform the command of King Ahasuerus by the hand of the eunuchs? This verse presents the question that the king asked the wise men. It may be helpful to indicate this by saying something like, “The king asked them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 15 ics9 כְּ⁠דָת֙…עַ֣ל ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר 1 According to law…on account of that “What does the law say we should do…because…?”
EST 1 15 adf9 figs-events בְּ⁠יַ֖ד הַ⁠סָּרִיסִֽים 1 by the hand of the eunuchs To present the events in chronological order, you can put the information first that these men brought the command. Alternate translation: “Queen Vashti did not do what I told my servants to command her to do.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-events]])
EST 1 15 jd15 bita-hq בְּ⁠יַ֖ד הַ⁠סָּרִיסִֽים 1 by the hand of the eunuchs Here **hand** figuratively represents the action of doing or giving. The phrase means that the eunuchs were the ones who told Queen Vashti what King Ahasuerus had commanded her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 15 jd15 figs-metonymy בְּ⁠יַ֖ד הַ⁠סָּרִיסִֽים 1 by the hand of the eunuchs Here **hand** figuratively represents the action of doing or giving. The phrase means that the eunuchs were the ones who told Queen Vashti what King Ahasuerus had commanded her. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 15 adg1 translate-unknown הַ⁠סָּרִיסִֽים 1 eunuchs See how you translated this term in 1:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 1 16 adg3 bita-hq וַ⁠יֹּ֣אמֶר מְמוּכָ֗ן לִ⁠פְנֵ֤י הַ⁠מֶּ֨לֶךְ֙ 1 And Memukan answered before the face of the king and the officials Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The phrase means that Memukan was speaking in the presence of the king and of the other officials. Alternate translation: “Then Memukan spoke so that both the king and the officials could hear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 16 adg3 figs-metonymy וַ⁠יֹּ֣אמֶר מְמוּכָ֗ן לִ⁠פְנֵ֤י הַ⁠מֶּ֨לֶךְ֙ 1 And Memukan answered before the face of the king and the officials Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The phrase means that Memukan was speaking in the presence of the king and of the other officials. Alternate translation: “Then Memukan spoke so that both the king and the officials could hear” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 16 ss5y translate-names מְמוּכָ֗ן 1 Memukan See how you translated this man’s name in 1:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 1 16 yqr8 figs-hyperbole כָּל־הָ֣⁠עַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֕ר בְּ⁠כָל־מְדִינ֖וֹת הַ⁠מֶּ֥לֶךְ 1 all the people who are in all the provinces of the king This means all the different people groups that were living in the empire. You could say “all the people groups in all the provinces that King Ahasuerus rules” or more generally “every person who lives in the entire empire of King Ahasuerus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
EST 1 16 adg5 figs-123person הַ⁠מֶּ֥לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֽוֹשׁ 1 the king Ahasuerus Memukan speaks of the king in third person as a form of respect. If you want to portray him as speaking primarily to the king, because he is answering the king’s question, you could have him say “in all the provinces that you rule” or “every person who lives in your entire empire.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 1 17 jd17 grammar-connect-logic-result כִּֽי 1 For This introduces the reason why Memukan says that Queen Vashti has done wrong against all the men in the kingdom and not only against King Ahasuerus. To show that, you can begin with, “This is what will happen.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EST 1 17 gn4g figs-hyperbole יֵצֵ֤א דְבַר־הַ⁠מַּלְכָּה֙ עַל־כָּל־הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֔ים 1 the matter of the queen will go out to all the women To emphasize his point, Memukan exaggerates and says that every single woman in the empire will hear about Queen Vashti refusing to obey King Ahasuerus. You could say, as UST does, that “women all over the empire” will hear about what the queen did. Or you could preserve Memukan’s manner of speaking by saying “every woman” will hear. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-hyperbole]])
EST 1 17 jd19 bita-hq לְ⁠הַבְז֥וֹת בַּעְלֵי⁠הֶ֖ן בְּ⁠עֵינֵי⁠הֶ֑ן 1 to make their husbands despised in their eyes Here **eyes** stand for “seeing,” and “seeing” figuratively means knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. The phrase means that the women will treat their husbands with disrespect and not obey them. Alternate translation: “women will despise their husbands.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 17 jd19 figs-metaphor לְ⁠הַבְז֥וֹת בַּעְלֵי⁠הֶ֖ן בְּ⁠עֵינֵי⁠הֶ֑ן 1 to make their husbands despised in their eyes Here **eyes** stand for “seeing,” and “seeing” figuratively means knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. The phrase means that the women will treat their husbands with disrespect and not obey them. Alternate translation: “women will despise their husbands.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 17 adg7 figs-explicit בְּ⁠אָמְרָ֗⁠ם הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֡וֹשׁ אָמַ֞ר לְ⁠הָבִ֨יא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּ֧י הַ⁠מַּלְכָּ֛ה לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו וְ⁠לֹא־בָֽאָה 1 when they say, “The king Ahasuerus said to bring Vashti the queen before his face, but she did not come.” The implication is that they will go on to say, “So if even the queen can disobey the king, why should I have to obey my husband?” If it would be clearer in your language, you can say that explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 17 adg9 grammar-connect-logic-result הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֡וֹשׁ אָמַ֞ר לְ⁠הָבִ֨יא אֶת־וַשְׁתִּ֧י הַ⁠מַּלְכָּ֛ה לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו וְ⁠לֹא־בָֽאָה 1 The king Ahasuerus said to bring Vashti the queen before his face, but she did not come. The women will stop respecting their husbands after they hear about this. You can put this report about what Queen Vashti did first, before “women will stop respecting their husbands,” because it is the reason that explains that result. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EST 1 17 jd21 bita-hq לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו 1 before his face Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means the Queen Vashti refused to come into the presence of King Ahasuerus when he summoned her during the feast. See how you translated this in verse 11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 17 jd21 figs-metonymy לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו 1 before his face Here **face** figuratively means the presence of a person. The phrase means the Queen Vashti refused to come into the presence of King Ahasuerus when he summoned her during the feast. See how you translated this in verse 11. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 18 afg1 וְֽ⁠הַ⁠יּ֨וֹם הַ⁠זֶּ֜ה 1 Now this day “Even today” or “Even this very day”
EST 1 18 afg3 שָׂר֣וֹת פָּֽרַס־וּ⁠מָדַ֗י 1 the noblewomen of Persia and Media It becomes clear later in the verse that Memukan is speaking of the wives of the king’s officials, and you could say that here: “the wives of the officials who govern Persia and Media.” But the term “noblewomen” indicates that they also had high status of their own, so you could also call them “the leading women of Persia and Media.”
EST 1 18 afg5 דְּבַ֣ר הַ⁠מַּלְכָּ֔ה 1 the matter of the queen “what the queen has done”
@@ -112,13 +112,13 @@ EST 1 18 u6d7 וּ⁠כְ⁠דַ֖י בִּזָּי֥וֹן וָ⁠קָֽצֶף
EST 1 18 afh1 figs-explicit וּ⁠כְ⁠דַ֖י 1 and there will be enough This could mean that the husbands will be furious “as much as they can bear.” But it could also mean, “That will be bad enough by itself, even if the news does not spread any farther.” If you think that is the meaning, you can say that explicitly, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 1 19 afh3 figs-idiom אִם־עַל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֗וֹב 1 If it is good to the king This is an idiom that means, “If the king thinks this is a good idea” or “If this advice is pleasing to the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 19 d8qk figs-123person אִם־עַל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ ט֗וֹב 1 If it is good to the king Memukan speaks to the king in third person as a form of respect. Alternate translation: “If it pleases you” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 1 19 jd25 bita-hq יֵצֵ֤א דְבַר־מַלְכוּת֙ מִ⁠לְּ⁠פָנָ֔י⁠ו 1 let a decree of royalty go out from before his face Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The phrase means that the decree will come from the king himself. Alternate translation: “you should personally issue a royal decree” or “you should write a decree yourself.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 19 jd25 figs-metonymy יֵצֵ֤א דְבַר־מַלְכוּת֙ מִ⁠לְּ⁠פָנָ֔י⁠ו 1 let a decree of royalty go out from before his face Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The phrase means that the decree will come from the king himself. Alternate translation: “you should personally issue a royal decree” or “you should write a decree yourself.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 19 afh5 figs-abstractnouns דְבַר־מַלְכוּת֙ 1 a decree of royalty You can translate the abstract noun **royalty** with the adjective “royal.” Alternate translation: “royal decree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 19 jd23 figs-123person מִ⁠לְּ⁠פָנָ֔י⁠ו 1 from before his face Memukan speaks to the king in third person as a form of respect. Alternate translation: “personally” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 1 19 afh7 figs-activepassive וְ⁠יִכָּתֵ֛ב 1 and let it be written You can say this with an active form, and you can say who will do the action. Alternate translation: “you should write a decree yourself” or “command your scribes to write a decree” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 1 19 mh1a וְ⁠לֹ֣א יַעֲב֑וֹר 1 which do not pass away “these laws never become invalid” or “can never be changed”
EST 1 19 jd27 figs-123person תָב֜וֹא…לִ⁠פְנֵי֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ 1 come before the face of the king Memukan speaks to the king in third person as a form of respect. Alternate translation: “never come into your presence again” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 1 19 jd29 bita-hq תָב֜וֹא…לִ⁠פְנֵי֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ 1 come before the face of the king Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The phrase means that Queen Vashti will never again come into the king’s presence. Alternate translation: “never again come before King Ahasuerus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 19 jd29 figs-metonymy תָב֜וֹא…לִ⁠פְנֵי֙ הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ 1 come before the face of the king Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. The phrase means that Queen Vashti will never again come into the king’s presence. Alternate translation: “never again come before King Ahasuerus” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 19 jd31 figs-123person וּ⁠מַלְכוּתָ⁠הּ֙ יִתֵּ֣ן הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ לִ⁠רְעוּתָ֖⁠הּ הַ⁠טּוֹבָ֥ה מִמֶּֽ⁠נָּה 1 and let the king give her royalty to her female neighbor Memukan speaks to the king in third person as a form of respect. You can show the same meaning with a verb that addresses a singular “you” and indicates that Memukan is offering advice, not giving a command: “choose another woman to be queen.” Alternate translation: “the king can give her position as queen to some other woman.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 1 19 afh9 figs-abstractnouns וּ⁠מַלְכוּתָ⁠הּ֙ 1 and…her royalty You can translate the abstract noun “royalty” with an expression such as “her royal position” or “her position as queen.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 1 19 afj1 figs-explicit הַ⁠טּוֹבָ֥ה מִמֶּֽ⁠נָּה 1 the woman who is better than she Memukan means that the next queen should be “better than” Vashti by obeying all of the king’s commands. You could say this explicitly, as UST does. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
@@ -130,105 +130,102 @@ EST 1 20 p8nz כִּ֥י רַבָּ֖ה הִ֑יא 1 though it is great “even
EST 1 20 afj5 הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֗ים יִתְּנ֤וּ יְקָר֙ לְ⁠בַעְלֵי⁠הֶ֔ן 1 women will give honor to their husbands “women will respect and obey their husbands”
EST 1 20 be9r figs-merism לְ⁠מִ⁠גָּד֖וֹל וְ⁠עַד־קָטָֽן 1 from the greatest to the least This expression figuratively refers to all of the husbands in the empire. By naming both extremes, it includes everyone in between. You could just give the meaning, as UST does: “every husband in the empire” Alternate translation: “This will be true for both the most important man and the least important man in the empire, and everyone in between.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-merism]])
EST 1 21 afj7 figs-idiom וַ⁠יִּיטַב֙ הַ⁠דָּבָ֔ר בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 The word seemed good in the eyes of the king Like “if it is good to the king” in verse 19, this is an idiom that means, “the king thought this was a good idea” or “this advice pleased the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 21 afj9 bita-hq בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ וְ⁠הַ⁠שָּׂרִ֑ים 1 in the eyes of the king and the officials Here **eyes** stand for for seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus and all the officials who heard Memukan’s advice thought that his suggestion was a good idea. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 21 afj9 figs-metaphor בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ וְ⁠הַ⁠שָּׂרִ֑ים 1 in the eyes of the king and the officials Here **eyes** stand for for seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus and all the officials who heard Memukan’s advice thought that his suggestion was a good idea. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 1 21 agj1 וַ⁠יַּ֥עַשׂ הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ כִּ⁠דְבַ֥ר מְמוּכָֽן 1 the king acted according to the word of Memukan This means that King Ahasuerus wrote a law proclaiming what Memukan had suggested.
EST 1 21 p5us translate-names מְמוּכָֽן 1 Memukan Translate his name as in 1:14. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 1 22 agj3 וַ⁠יִּשְׁלַ֤ח סְפָרִים֙ אֶל־כָּל־מְדִינ֣וֹת הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 he sent letters to all the provinces of the king “He” means King Ahasuerus. This is saying that the king sent letters to every province in his empire.
EST 1 22 jd37 figs-idiom מְדִינָ֤ה וּ⁠מְדִינָה֙ 1 province by province This is an idiom that means “every province” or “every single province.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 22 agj5 כִּ⁠כְתָבָ֔⁠הּ 1 according to its own writing “using its own alphabet” or “written in its own script”
EST 1 22 jd39 figs-idiom עַ֥ם וָ⁠עָ֖ם 1 people by people This is an idiom that means “every people group” or “every single people group.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 1 22 jd41 bita-hq כִּ⁠לְשׁוֹנ֑⁠וֹ 1 according to its tongue Here **tongue** figuratively means the language spoken by a person or a group of people. Alternate translation: “in its own language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 22 jd41 figs-metonymy כִּ⁠לְשׁוֹנ֑⁠וֹ 1 according to its tongue Here **tongue** figuratively means the language spoken by a person or a group of people. Alternate translation: “in its own language” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 22 jj9n לִ⁠הְי֤וֹת כָּל־אִישׁ֙ שֹׂרֵ֣ר בְּ⁠בֵית֔⁠וֹ 1 that every man should be ruling in his house This meant that that all men should have complete authority over their wives and their children.
EST 1 22 jd43 bita-hq כִּ⁠לְשׁ֥וֹן עַמּֽ⁠וֹ 1 speaking according to the tongue of his people Here **tongue** figuratively means the language spoken by a person or a group of people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 22 jd43 figs-metonymy כִּ⁠לְשׁ֥וֹן עַמּֽ⁠וֹ 1 speaking according to the tongue of his people Here **tongue** figuratively means the language spoken by a person or a group of people. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 1 22 agj7 figs-explicit כִּ⁠לְשׁ֥וֹן עַמּֽ⁠וֹ 1 speaking according to the tongue of his people The implication is that the husband ought to be able to give orders to his wife in his own native language and that she should understand and obey him, even if she had to learn his language to do so. If it would be clearer in your language, you can say that explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 intro eb4q 0 # Esther 02 General Notes<br>## Special concepts in this chapter<br><br>### Esther becomes queen<br><br>Esther was humble and took the advice of the royal officials about how to dress for her time with the king. The king chose Esther to be the new queen.<br><br>### Mordecai warns the king against a plot<br><br>Esther’s cousin, Mordecai, discovered that two men planned to kill the king. He told Esther, who then told the king. She also gave Mordecai credit for telling her.
EST 2 1 dpc3 writing-newevent אַחַר֙ הַ⁠דְּבָרִ֣ים הָ⁠אֵ֔לֶּה 1 After these things This introduces a new event that happened some time later. You can show this with a phrase like “some time later.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent]])
EST 2 1 e4lp כְּ⁠שֹׁ֕ךְ חֲמַ֖ת הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ 1 when the rage of the king Ahasuerus subsided “when King Ahasuerus no longer felt so angry” or “became less angry”
EST 2 1 agj9 זָכַ֤ר אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי֙ 1 he remembered Vashti This means that he started to think about Vashti and he probably missed her.
EST 2 1 xpt9 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֔תָה וְ⁠אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־נִגְזַ֖ר עָלֶֽי⁠הָ 1 what she had done, and what had been decided concerning her This refers to Vashti’s refusal to obey Ahasuerus and the decision he made in 1:21 that she could never come into his presence again. This could actually mean that when he thought about Vashti and what she had done, he regretted the decision that he had made about her. But there was nothing he could do to bring her back, because the laws of the empire could not be changed. You could explain all or some of this in your translation. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 1 dpc3 writing-newevent אַחַר֙ הַ⁠דְּבָרִ֣ים הָ⁠אֵ֔לֶּה 1 After these things This introduces a new event that happened some time later, but we do not know how much later. You can show this with a phrase like “After some time had passed.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent\]\])
EST 2 1 e4lp כְּ⁠שֹׁ֕ךְ חֲמַ֖ת הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֑וֹשׁ 1 when the rage of the king Ahasuerus subsided “when King Ahasuerus was not angry any more” or “when King Ahasuerus became less angry”
EST 2 1 agj9 זָכַ֤ר אֶת־וַשְׁתִּי֙ 1 he remembered Vashti This means that he started to think about Vashti. He probably thought about the things that he liked about her, meaning that he missed her.
EST 2 1 xpt9 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֔תָה וְ⁠אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־נִגְזַ֖ר עָלֶֽי⁠הָ 1 what she had done, and what had been decided concerning her This refers to Vashti’s refusal to obey Ahasuerus and the decision he made in 1:21 that she could never come into his presence again. This could actually mean that when he thought about Vashti and what she had done, he regretted the decision that he had made about her. But there was nothing he could do to bring her back, because the laws of the empire could not be changed. You could explain all or some of this in your translation, as in the UST. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit\]\])
EST 2 1 agk1 figs-activepassive אֲשֶׁר־נִגְזַ֖ר עָלֶֽי⁠הָ 1 what had been decided You can say this with an active form, and you can say that the king performed the action. Alternate translation: “what he had decided” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 2 agk3 translate-unknown נַעֲרֵֽי־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ מְשָׁרְתָ֑י⁠ו 1 the young men of the king who serve him These were not the older, wiser royal advisors whom Ahasuerus consulted in 1:13, but younger men who stood nearby the king ready to help with any practical needs. You could call them his “personal servants.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 2 agk5 figs-explicit יְבַקְשׁ֥וּ לַ⁠מֶּ֛לֶךְ נְעָר֥וֹת 1 Let them seek for the king young women Implicit in this suggestion is the idea, “You should get a new wife for yourself.” You can say that explicitly at the beginning of the advice that the young men give to the king. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 2 s4hv figs-activepassive יְבַקְשׁ֥וּ 1 Let them seek **Them** means the servants that the king would send to do this. You should express this in a form that shows it is a suggestion, not a command, for example: “You could send some men to look for.”
EST 2 2 abt8 figs-123person לַ⁠מֶּ֛לֶךְ 1 for the king The young men speak to the king in the third person as a sign of respect. Alternatively, you could have them say “for yourself” or “on your behalf.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 2 2 s4hv writing-participants יְבַקְשׁ֥וּ 1 Let them seek **Them** refers to the servants that the king would send to do this. If this is unclear, you can say "servants" or "your servants." Be sure to express this in a form that shows that it is a respectful suggestion, not a command, for example: “You could send some men to look for.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants\]\])
EST 2 2 abt8 figs-123person לַ⁠מֶּ֛לֶךְ 1 for the king The young men speak to the king in the third person as a sign of respect. Alternatively, you could have them say “for yourself” or “on your behalf,” if that would be clear but also respectful in your language (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person\]\])
EST 2 2 jd45 figs-idiom טוֹב֥וֹת מַרְאֶֽה 1 pleasing of appearance As in 1:11, this is an idiom that means “very beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 2 3 g9vp figs-123person וְ⁠יַפְקֵ֨ד הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ 1 And let the king appoint The young men speak to the king in third person as a sign of respect. Alternatively, you could have them say “you could appoint” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 2 3 g9vp figs-123person וְ⁠יַפְקֵ֨ד הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ 1 And let the king appoint The young men speak to the king in third person as a sign of respect. Alternatively, you could have them say “you could appoint” in a respectful way (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person\]\])
EST 2 3 jd47 figs-idiom טוֹבַ֨ת מַרְאֶ֜ה 1 pleasing of appearance As in 1:11, this is an idiom that means “very beautiful” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 2 3 xqf9 translate-unknown שׁוּשַׁ֤ן הַ⁠בִּירָה֙ 1 Susa the citadel In this context, this expression probably means “to the palace here in Susa.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 3 j4ka בֵּ֣ית הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֔ים 1 the house of women This means the harem for virgins, the place where the young women would live and receive beauty treatments before they were taken to the king (see verses 13 and 14).
EST 2 3 d754 figs-activepassive אֶל־יַ֥ד הֵגֶ֛א סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 into the hand of Hegai, the eunuch of the king who is overseer of the women This can be stated in active form. Alternate translation: “Let Hegai, the king’s official, who is in charge of the women, take care of them” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 3 jd49 bita-hq יַ֥ד הֵגֶ֛א 1 the hand of Hegai Here **hand** is a metaphor meaning power, control, or authority. As the overseer of the women, Hegai was responsible for the young women who lived in the harem for virgins. Alternate translation: “under the custody of Hegai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 3 jd49 figs-metaphor יַ֥ד הֵגֶ֛א 1 the hand of Hegai Here **hand** is a metaphor meaning power, control, or authority. As the overseer of the women, Hegai was responsible for the young women who lived in the harem for virgins. Alternate translation: “under the custody of Hegai” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 3 lf71 translate-names הֵגֶ֛א 1 Hegai This is a man’s name. It occurs several times in this chapter. Be sure to translate it consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 3 jd51 figs-123person סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 the eunuch of the king The servants spoke to the king in third person as a sign of respect. Alternate translation: “your eunuch” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 2 3 agk7 translate-unknown סְרִ֥יס 1 eunuch See how you translated this term in 1:10. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 3 agk9 שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 who is overseer of the women “the official who is in charge of the women who live there.”
EST 2 3 agk7 translate-unknown סְרִ֥יס 1 eunuch "the official of" or "the administrator of" See how you translated this term in 1:10. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown\]\])
EST 2 3 agk9 שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 who is overseer of the women “who is in charge of the women who live there.”
EST 2 3 w1ly translate-unknown תַּמְרוּקֵי⁠הֶֽן 1 their ointments This term seems to refer to a specific substance that women would put on their face or other parts of their body to make themselves more beautiful. From verse 12, it appears to mean lotions that were used along with oils and perfumes. But here, this one aspect of a woman’s beauty treatment seems to be used to refer to all of it, so you could call these “beauty treatments.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]]) (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-synecdoche]])
EST 2 4 jd53 figs-123person וְ⁠הַֽ⁠נַּעֲרָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּיטַב֙ בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֣י הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 Then the young woman who is pleasing in the eyes of the king The servants spoke to the king in third person as a sign of respect. You could express the same meaning in the second person by saying something such as “the young woman you like the best.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-123person]])
EST 2 4 lh3n bita-hq בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֣י 1 in the eyes of Here **eyes** figuratively represent seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus could decide which young woman he liked the best and make her queen. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 4 jd55 bita-hq וַ⁠יִּיטַ֧ב הַ⁠דָּבָ֛ר בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 the word was pleasing in the eyes of the king Here **eyes** have the same figurative meaning. The phrase indicates that King Ahasuerus thought that this suggestion was a good idea. Alternate translation: “The king found their suggestion appealing” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 4 lh3n figs-metaphor בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֣י 1 in the eyes of Here **eyes** figuratively represent seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. The phrase means that King Ahasuerus could decide which young woman he liked the best and make her queen. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\])
EST 2 4 jd55 figs-metaphor וַ⁠יִּיטַ֧ב הַ⁠דָּבָ֛ר בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֥י הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 the word was pleasing in the eyes of the king Here **eyes** have the same figurative meaning. The phrase indicates that King Ahasuerus thought that this suggestion was a good idea. Alternate translation: “The king found their suggestion appealing” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\])
EST 2 4 zxc1 וַ⁠יַּ֥עַשׂ כֵּֽן 1 so he did thus “so he followed the suggestion”
EST 2 5 h6z2 writing-participants אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדִ֔י 1 A man, a Jew This introduces Mordecai as a new character in the story. This expression means “a Jewish man.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants]])
EST 2 5 h6z2 writing-participants אִ֣ישׁ יְהוּדִ֔י 1 A man, a Jew This introduces Mordecai as a new character in the story. Use your language's way of introducing a new character. This expression means “a Jewish man.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-participants\]\])
EST 2 5 uu9i translate-unknown בְּ⁠שׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַ⁠בִּירָ֑ה 1 in Susa the citadel Here the phrase likely indicates the city rather than the palace, that is, “the capital city of Susa.”
EST 2 5 zxc3 translate-names מָרְדֳּכַ֗י 1 Mordecai This is a man’s name. It occurs many times throughout the story. Be sure to translate it consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 5 q2rz translate-names בֶּ֣ן יָאִ֧יר בֶּן־שִׁמְעִ֛י בֶּן־קִ֖ישׁ 1 the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish These are men’s names. Jair, Shimei, and Kish are Mordecai’s male ancestors. You could say, “Mordecai was the son of Jair, who was the son of Shimei, who was the son of Kish,” or, “His father was named Jair, his grandfather was named Shimei, and his great-grandfather was named Kish.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 5 q2rz translate-names בֶּ֣ן יָאִ֧יר בֶּן־שִׁמְעִ֛י בֶּן־קִ֖ישׁ 1 the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish These are men’s names. Jair, Shimei, and Kish are Mordecai’s male ancestors. You could say, “Mordecai was the son of Jair, who was the son of Shimei, who was the son of Kish,” or see the UST. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names\]\])
EST 2 5 kw5t אִ֥ישׁ יְמִינִֽי 1 a man, a Benjamite While this likely refers to Kish, it is necessarily also true of Mordecai, and you could put it second in the verse. That way Mordecai’s nationality would come first, then his tribe, and then his family and clan. Alternate translation: “from the tribe of Benjamin”
EST 2 6 zxc5 writing-background אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָגְלָה֙ מִ⁠יר֣וּשָׁלַ֔יִם עִם־הַ⁠גֹּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָגְלְתָ֔ה עִ֖ם יְכָנְיָ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶגְלָ֔ה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל 1 who had been exiled from Jerusalem with the captives who had been exiled along with Jehoiachin, the king of Judah, who Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had exiled The story now tells about something that happened many years before. This is background information that explains how this Jewish family came to live in Susa. You should introduce this by saying something like, “Many years earlier.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 2 6 zxc5 writing-background אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָגְלָה֙ מִ⁠יר֣וּשָׁלַ֔יִם עִם־הַ⁠גֹּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָגְלְתָ֔ה עִ֖ם יְכָנְיָ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶגְלָ֔ה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל 1 who had been exiled from Jerusalem with the captives who had been exiled along with Jehoiachin, the king of Judah, who Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had exiled The story now tells about something that happened many years before. This is background information that explains how this Jewish family came to live in Susa. You can introduce this by saying something like, “Many years earlier.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background\]\])
EST 2 6 z7fe figs-activepassive אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָגְלָה֙ מִ⁠יר֣וּשָׁלַ֔יִם 1 who had been exiled from Jerusalem If it would be clearer in your language, you could say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. Alternate translation: “King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had taken Kish away from Jerusalem along with some other captives.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 6 egm7 writing-background אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָגְלָה֙ מִ⁠יר֣וּשָׁלַ֔יִם 1 who had been exiled from Jerusalem You can bring this information forward from later in the verse because it provides background information that helps identify Mordecai. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 2 6 zxc7 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָגְלָה֙ מִ⁠יר֣וּשָׁלַ֔יִם 1 who had been exiled from Jerusalem If it would be clearer in your language, you could say where King Nebuchadnezzar brought the people that he took away from Jerusalem. Alternate translation: “had taken Kish away from Jerusalem … and brought him to Babylon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 6 zxc9 grammar-connect-time-simultaneous עִ֖ם 1 along with This means that the two things happened at the same time. You can indicate this with a phrase like “at the same time that he took.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])
EST 2 6 ch1t translate-names יְכָנְיָ֣ה מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָ֑ה 1 Jeconiah, the king of Judah In the historical passage where this event is described (2 Kings 24:8–17), this king is called Jehoiachin. That was another name by which he was known. You can call him Jehoiachin here in Esther if you think that would help your readers recognize him better. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 6 zxv1 translate-names אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֶגְלָ֔ה נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֖ר מֶ֥לֶךְ בָּבֶֽל 1 whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had exiled You can say where King Nebuchadnezzar brought this king when he took him away from Jerusalem, for example, “Nebuchadnezzar … took King Jehoiachin of Judah away from Jerusalem and brought him to Babylon.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 7 zxv3 וַ⁠יְהִ֨י 1 And he was The story now returns to talking about Mordecai. You can specify his name: “Now Mordecai.”
EST 2 7 zxv5 אֹמֵ֜ן 1 fostering “was taking care of”
EST 2 7 zxv3 וַ⁠יְהִ֨י 1 And he was The story now returns to talking about Mordecai. If it is helpful for your readers, you can specify his name: “Now Mordecai.”
EST 2 7 hfm9 בַּת־דֹּד֔⁠וֹ 1 the daughter of his uncle If your language has a specific term for this relationship, you can use it, for example, “his cousin.” Alternate translation: “his uncle’s daughter”
EST 2 7 m9kx translate-names הֲדַסָּ֗ה הִ֤יא אֶסְתֵּר֙ 1 Hadassah (she is Esther) Here the story is indicating that this woman’s Hebrew name was Hadassah and her Persian name was Esther. You could say that explicitly. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 7 zxv7 translate-names אֶסְתֵּר֙ 1 Esther This is a woman’s name. It occurs many times throughout the story. Be sure to translate it consistently. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 7 ccb1 אֵ֥ין לָ֖⁠הּ אָ֣ב וָ⁠אֵ֑ם 1 there was not for her a father or a mother You could say simply that “she was an orphan,” as UST does. Alternate translation: “both her father and mother had died”
EST 2 7 jd59 figs-parallelism וְ⁠הַ⁠נַּעֲרָ֤ה יְפַת־תֹּ֨אַר֙ וְ⁠טוֹבַ֣ת מַרְאֶ֔ה 1 Now the young woman was beautiful of form and pleasing of appearance These two phrases mean something similar. Separately they could be saying that Esther was both sexually mature and very attractive. But taken together they mean that overall she was very pleasant to look at. You could combine them, as UST does, and say that she was “exceptionally attractive” Alternate translation: “she had a lovely body and a beautiful face.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
EST 2 7 skt5 writing-background וּ⁠בְ⁠מ֤וֹת אָבִ֨י⁠הָ֙ וְ⁠אִמָּ֔⁠הּ לְקָחָ֧⁠הּ מָרְדֳּכַ֛י ל֖⁠וֹ לְ⁠בַֽת 1 And at the death of her father and her mother, Mordecai had taken her for him as a daughter This is background information explaining the relationship between Mordecai and Esther. You can move it to right after the place where Esther is introduced by name, because it describes what happened in the past, before Esther became a beautiful young woman. Alternate translation: “After her father and her mother had died, Mordecai had adopted her as his own daughter” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 2 8 zxv9 grammar-connect-time-sequential וַ⁠יְהִ֗י 1 So it happened that After providing this background information about Mordecai and Esther in verses 5–7, the story now tells what happened as a result of these facts, when the provincial officers described in verse 3 began sending young women to the harem. That is, the story tells what happened to Esther because her family was living in the Persian empire and she was very attractive. You should indicate in some way that the events are now moving forward from where the story left off. For example, “And so this is what happened.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential]])
EST 2 8 zxv9 writing-newevent וַ⁠יְהִ֗י 1 So it happened that After providing this background information about Mordecai and Esther in verses 5–7, the story now tells what happened as a result of these facts, when the provincial officers described in verse 3 began sending young women to the harem. That is, the story tells what happened to Esther because her family was living in the Persian empire and she was very attractive. Use your language's way of showing that the events are now moving forward after giving background information. For example, “And so this is what happened.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-newevent\]\])
EST 2 8 zcv1 grammar-connect-time-simultaneous בְּ⁠הִשָּׁמַ֤ע דְּבַר־הַ⁠מֶּ֨לֶךְ֙ וְ⁠דָת֔⁠וֹ וּֽ⁠בְ⁠הִקָּבֵ֞ץ נְעָר֥וֹת רַבּ֛וֹת 1 when the decree of the king and his law were heard, and when many young women were gathered This indicates that two actions took place at the same time. You should indicate this with a phrase like “at the same time.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])
EST 2 8 zcv3 figs-activepassive בְּ⁠הִשָּׁמַ֤ע דְּבַר־הַ⁠מֶּ֨לֶךְ֙ וְ⁠דָת֔⁠וֹ וּֽ⁠בְ⁠הִקָּבֵ֞ץ נְעָר֥וֹת רַבּ֛וֹת 1 when the decree of the king and his law were heard You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. For example, “when the messengers proclaimed the king's decree and the scribes published the king's law.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 8 c52i דְּבַר־הַ⁠מֶּ֨לֶךְ֙ 1 the decree of the king This refers to King Ahasuerus banishing Queen Vashti from his presence.
EST 2 8 zcv5 וְ⁠דָת֔⁠וֹ 1 and his law This refers to King Ahasuerus commanding that men would have complete authority over their wives.
EST 2 8 zcv7 figs-explicit בְּ⁠הִשָּׁמַ֤ע 1 when…were heard You could also say where they did this action. Alternate translation: “Messengers went throughout the empire and proclaimed” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 8 m3ld figs-activepassive וּֽ⁠בְ⁠הִקָּבֵ֞ץ נְעָר֥וֹת רַבּ֛וֹת 1 and when many young women were gathered You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action: “the officers the king had appointed in each province began to bring many young women” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 8 m3ld figs-activepassive וּֽ⁠בְ⁠הִקָּבֵ֞ץ נְעָר֥וֹת רַבּ֛וֹת 1 and when many young women were gathered You can say this with an active form, and you can say who did the action. See the UST. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive\]\])
EST 2 8 jd65 translate-unknown שׁוּשַׁ֥ן הַ⁠בִּירָ֖ה 1 Susa the citadel Here again this likely means “the capital city of Susa.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 8 mbk1 bita-hq אֶל־יַ֣ד הֵגָ֑י 1 into the hand of Hegai Here **hand** is a metaphor meaning power, control, or authority. As the overseer of the women, Hegai was responsible for the women in the harem for virgins. You could say that the officers “put them under the custody of Hegai” or that “Hegai began to take care of them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 8 zcv9 grammar-connect-time-simultaneous וַ⁠יְהִ֗י בְּ⁠הִשָּׁמַ֤ע…וּֽ⁠בְ⁠הִקָּבֵ֞ץ…וַ⁠תִּלָּקַ֤ח 1 So it happened that, when…were heard, and when…were gathered…Esther was taken This means that Esther was brought to the harem of King Ahaserus at the same as other young women were also being brought to the harem. You can say “they brought Esther at the same time” or “they also brought Esther.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous]])
EST 2 8 mbk1 figs-metaphor אֶל־יַ֣ד הֵגָ֑י 1 into the hand of Hegai Here **hand** is a metaphor meaning power, control, or authority. As the overseer of the women, Hegai was responsible for the women in the harem for virgins. You could say that the officers “put them under the custody of Hegai” or that “Hegai began to take care of them.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 8 zcv9 grammar-connect-time-simultaneous וַ⁠יְהִ֗י בְּ⁠הִשָּׁמַ֤ע…וּֽ⁠בְ⁠הִקָּבֵ֞ץ…וַ⁠תִּלָּקַ֤ח 1 So it happened that, when…were heard, and when…were gathered…Esther was taken This means that Esther was brought to the harem of King Ahaserus at the same time as other young women were also being brought to the harem. You can say “they brought Esther at the same time” or “they also brought Esther.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous\]\])
EST 2 8 n3zc figs-activepassive וַ⁠תִּלָּקַ֤ח 1 that…Esther was taken You can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “they brought Esther” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 8 zcb1 figs-explicit וַ⁠תִּלָּקַ֤ח 1 that…Esther was taken You can explain why this happened, for example, “Because Esther was exceptionally attractive, the officers also brought her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 8 zcb3 בֵּ֣ית הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 the house of the king “the king’s palace”
EST 2 8 jd71 figs-metaphor אֶל־יַ֥ד הֵגַ֖י שֹׁמֵ֥ר הַ⁠נָּשִֽׁים 1 into the hand of Hegai As earlier in this verse, this means “under the custody of Hegai” or that “Hegai also began to take care of her.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 8 jd71 figs-metaphor אֶל־יַ֥ד הֵגַ֖י שֹׁמֵ֥ר הַ⁠נָּשִֽׁים 1 into the hand of Hegai As earlier in this verse, this means “under the custody of Hegai” or that “Hegai also began to take care of her.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 8 zcb5 writing-background שֹׁמֵ֥ר הַ⁠נָּשִֽׁים 1 who was overseer of the women This means that Hegai took care of the young women who lived in the harem for virgins.” If it would be clearer in your language, you could move this information to earlier in the verse, when Hegai is first mentioned, because it explains why the young women were brought to him. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 2 9 zcb7 וַ⁠תִּיטַ֨ב הַ⁠נַּעֲרָ֣ה בְ⁠עֵינָי⁠ו֮ וַ⁠תִּשָּׂ֣א חֶ֣סֶד לְ⁠פָנָי⁠ו֒ 1 the young woman was pleasing in his eyes, and she lifted kindness before his face This means that “Hegai found Esther attractive, and she obtained kindness from him” or that “Hegai was very impressed with Esther, and she won his favor.” In other words, because he was so impressed with her, this made him want to do everything he could to help her. This is background information that explains why Hegai took the actions that are listed next.
EST 2 9 zcb9 bita-hq וַ⁠תִּיטַ֨ב הַ⁠נַּעֲרָ֣ה בְ⁠עֵינָי⁠ו֮ 1 the young woman was pleasing in his eyes Here **eyes** figuratively represent seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. In this context, the phrase probably means that Hegai thought that Esther was either an attractive woman or a pleasant person, or both. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 2 9 zcb9 figs-metonymy וַ⁠תִּיטַ֨ב הַ⁠נַּעֲרָ֣ה בְ⁠עֵינָי⁠ו֮ 1 the young woman was pleasing in his eyes Here **eyes** figuratively represent seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. In this context, the phrase probably means that Hegai thought that Esther was either an attractive woman or a pleasant person, or both. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 2 9 f8i8 הַ⁠נַּעֲרָ֣ה 1 the young woman This means Esther. You should make sure that this is clear in your translation.
EST 2 9 jd75 בְ⁠עֵינָי⁠ו֮ 1 in his eyes Here **his** means Hegai. You should make sure that this clear in your translation.
EST 2 9 jd77 bita-hq וַ⁠תִּשָּׂ֣א חֶ֣סֶד לְ⁠פָנָי⁠ו֒ 1 and she lifted kindness before his face Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. To say that she “lifted kindness before his face” is a rare expression in Hebrew, and the exact meaning is uncertain. In this context, it could even suggest that Esther and Hegai became friends. Alternate translation: “she won his favor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 2 9 jd77 figs-metonymy וַ⁠תִּשָּׂ֣א חֶ֣סֶד לְ⁠פָנָי⁠ו֒ 1 and she lifted kindness before his face Here **face** figuratively represents the presence of a person. To say that she “lifted kindness before his face” is a rare expression in Hebrew, and the exact meaning is uncertain. In this context, it could even suggest that Esther and Hegai became friends. Alternate translation: “she won his favor” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 2 9 jd79 לְ⁠פָנָי⁠ו֒ 1 before his face Here **his** means Hegai. You should make sure that this clear in your translation.
EST 2 9 abc1 translate-unknown תַּמְרוּקֶ֤י⁠הָ 1 her ointments Alternate translation: “her beauty treatments,” as in 2:3. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 9 abc2 מָנוֹתֶ֨⁠הָ֙ 1 her portions of food In context, this likely means that Hegai made sure that Esther was served good food that would keep her healthy.
EST 2 9 abc3 שֶׁ֣בַע הַ⁠נְּעָר֔וֹת הָ⁠רְאֻי֥וֹת לָֽ⁠תֶת־לָ֖⁠הּ מִ⁠בֵּ֣ית הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶךְ 1 gave her seven young women chosen from the house of the king This means that Hegai chose seven female servants from the king's palace and assigned them to take care of Esther.
EST 2 9 abc4 וַ⁠יְשַׁנֶּ֧⁠הָ וְ⁠אֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶ֛י⁠הָ 1 And he transferred her and her young women **Her** means Esther, and “her young women” means the female attendants Hegai assigned to her.
EST 2 9 abc5 לְ⁠ט֖וֹב בֵּ֥ית הַ⁠נָּשִֽׁים 1 to the best of the house of women “to the best rooms in the harem for virgins”
EST 2 10 abc6 לֹא־הִגִּ֣ידָה אֶסְתֵּ֔ר אֶת־עַמָּ֖⁠הּ וְ⁠אֶת־מֽוֹלַדְתָּ֑⁠הּ 1 Esther had not told her people or ancestry This means that Esther had not told anyone this information about herself.
EST 2 10 abc7 figs-doublet אֶת־עַמָּ֖⁠הּ וְ⁠אֶת־מֽוֹלַדְתָּ֑⁠הּ 1 her people or her ancestry These two short phrases mean almost the same thing. They are used together to emphasize that Esther followed Mordecai’s instructions exactly. You could combine them, as UST does, and say something like “what people group she was from.” Alternate translation: “Esther did not tell anyone that she was a Jew, and she did not tell anyone who her relatives were” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublet]])
EST 2 10 abc8 grammar-connect-logic-result כִּ֧י מָרְדֳּכַ֛י צִוָּ֥ה עָלֶ֖י⁠הָ 1 for Mordecai had laid a charge upon her This is background information that explains why Esther did not tell anyone about her family or nationality. So you can put it first in the verse if that is clearer in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EST 2 10 abc9 צִוָּ֥ה עָלֶ֖י⁠הָ 1 had laid a charge upon her This means that Mordecai had gotten her to promise not to do it.
EST 2 11 jd81 figs-idiom וּ⁠בְ⁠כָל־י֣וֹם וָ⁠י֔וֹם 1 And always day by day Alternate translation: “Each and every day” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 2 11 abd1 מָרְדֳּכַי֙ מִתְהַלֵּ֔ךְ 1 Mordecai was walking about Express this in the way your language describes habitual action, for example, “Mordecai would walk around.”
EST 2 11 jd83 bita-hq לִ⁠פְנֵ֖י חֲצַ֣ר 1 before the face of the courtyard Here **face** figuratively means the front of a place. So you could say “in front of the courtyard.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 2 11 jd81 figs-idiom וּ⁠בְ⁠כָל־י֣וֹם וָ⁠י֔וֹם 1 And always day by day Alternate translation: “Every single day” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom\]\])
EST 2 11 abd1 מָרְדֳּכַי֙ מִתְהַלֵּ֔ךְ 1 Mordecai was walking about Express this in the way your language describes an action that someone does over and over, for example, “Mordecai would walk around.”
EST 2 11 jd83 figs-metonymy לִ⁠פְנֵ֖י חֲצַ֣ר 1 before the face of the courtyard Here **face** figuratively means the front of a place. So you could say “in front of the courtyard.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]])
EST 2 11 abd2 בֵּית־הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 the house of women “the harem for virgins”
EST 2 11 abd3 grammar-connect-logic-result לָ⁠דַ֨עַת֙ אֶת־שְׁל֣וֹם אֶסְתֵּ֔ר וּ⁠מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֖ה בָּֽ⁠הּ 1 in order to know the welfare of Esther and what was being done with her This is background information that explains why Mordecai would walk around in front of the courtyard. It was so that he could ask people who were going in to or coming out of the courtyard how Esther was doing. You can put this first in the verse because it explains the rest of what is said, if that would be clearer in your language. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-result]])
EST 2 11 nz1p שְׁל֣וֹם אֶסְתֵּ֔ר 1 the welfare of Esther “how Esther was doing” or “about Esther’s well-being”
EST 2 11 abd4 figs-parallelism שְׁל֣וֹם אֶסְתֵּ֔ר וּ⁠מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֖ה בָּֽ⁠הּ 1 the welfare of Esther and what was being done with her These two phrases mean similar things. The story is using the repetition to emphasize how concerned Mordecai was for Esther. You could combine them, as UST does. Alternate translation: “how Esther was doing and what was happening with her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
EST 2 12 jcj8 writing-background וּ⁠בְ⁠הַגִּ֡יעַ 1 Now when…came Verses 12 to 14 are background information about how the virgins who were gathered for the king became his concubines. These verses are not specifically about Esther, but about the women in general. Use a connecting word or a phrase such as “This is how virgins became concubines for the king” so that your readers will know that this is background information.(See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 2 11 abd4 figs-parallelism שְׁל֣וֹם אֶסְתֵּ֔ר וּ⁠מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂ֖ה בָּֽ⁠הּ 1 the welfare of Esther and what was being done with her These two phrases mean similar things. The story is using the repetition to emphasize how concerned Mordecai was for Esther. You could combine them and say, "how Esther was doing" or "if Esther was all right."  (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism\]\])
EST 2 12 jcj8 writing-background וּ⁠בְ⁠הַגִּ֡יעַ 1 Now when…came Verses 12 to 14 are background information about how the virgins who were gathered for the king became his concubines. These verses are not specifically about Esther, but about the women in general. Use your language's way of letting your readers know that this is background information, such as by using a connecting word or a phrase such as, “This is how virgins became concubines for the king.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background\]\])
EST 2 12 jd85 figs-idiom נַעֲרָ֨ה וְ⁠נַעֲרָ֜ה 1 young woman by young woman Alternate translation: “each one of the young women.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 2 12 abd5 figs-explicit וּ⁠בְ⁠הַגִּ֡יעַ תֹּר֩…לָ⁠ב֣וֹא ׀ אֶל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ 1 when the turn came…to go to the king Ahasuerus Each of these young women was going to have sexual relations with the king and, as a result, legally become one of his concubines, that is, one of his secondary wives. As the story has already explained, he would then choose one of them to become his queen and primary wife. But the king would still provide for each of the concubines for the rest of her life. They would not be free to marry anyone else. This is something that the story’s original audience would have understood implicitly. You can say it explicitly if your readers need this information to understand the story: “Each young woman in the harem, one at a time, was going to have sexual relations with King Ahasuerus and become one of his concubines” or “one of his secondary wives.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])
EST 2 12 abd6 מִ⁠קֵּץ֩ הֱי֨וֹת לָ֜⁠הּ…שְׁנֵ֣ים עָשָׂ֣ר חֹ֔דֶשׁ 1 it was after her 12 months This means that before her turn came, each woman received a full year of beauty treatments.
EST 2 12 p7i5 translate-unknown כְּ⁠דָ֤ת הַ⁠נָּשִׁים֙ 1 according to the law of women Here **law** probably does not mean so much a legal decree as a regimen that had been developed. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 12 abd5 figs-explicit וּ⁠בְ⁠הַגִּ֡יעַ תֹּר֩…לָ⁠ב֣וֹא ׀ אֶל־הַ⁠מֶּ֣לֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵר֗וֹשׁ 1 when the turn came…to go to the king Ahasuerus Each of these young women was going to have sexual relations with the king and, as a result, legally become one of his concubines, that is, one of his secondary wives. As the story has already explained, he would then choose one of them to become his queen and primary wife. But the king would still provide for each of the concubines for the rest of her life. They would not be free to marry anyone else. This is something that the story’s original audience would have understood implicitly. You can say it explicitly if your readers need this information to understand the story: “Each young woman in the harem, one at a time, was going to have sexual relations with King Ahasuerus and become one of his concubines” or “one of his secondary wives.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit\]\])
EST 2 12 p7i5 translate-unknown כְּ⁠דָ֤ת הַ⁠נָּשִׁים֙ 1 according to the law of women Here **law** probably does not mean a legal decree, but rather a standard regimen that had been developed. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown\]\])
EST 2 12 abd7 writing-background כִּ֛י כֵּ֥ן יִמְלְא֖וּ יְמֵ֣י מְרוּקֵי⁠הֶ֑ן 1 For thus the days of their beautification would be fulfilled This phrase indicates that the story is now going to provide background information on how these treatments were done. It means, “This is how these women would spend the time preparing to go to the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/writing-background]])
EST 2 12 abd8 figs-explicit שִׁשָּׁ֤ה חֳדָשִׁים֙ בְּ⁠שֶׁ֣מֶן הַ⁠מֹּ֔ר 1 six months by oil of myrrh This means that a woman’s attendants would rub her body with olive oil mixed with myrrh every day for six months. You can explain this in more detail if your readers need this information to understand the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 12 abd9 בְּ⁠שֶׁ֣מֶן הַ⁠מֹּ֔ר 1 by oil of myrrh This likely means “olive oil mixed with myrrh.”
@@ -237,96 +234,92 @@ EST 2 13 abd0 וּ⁠בָ⁠זֶ֕ה 1 Then at this “After a woman’s year o
EST 2 13 abe0 הַֽ⁠נַּעֲרָ֖ה בָּאָ֣ה אֶל־הַ⁠מֶּ֑לֶךְ 1 the young woman would go to the king This means that the young woman would go and have sexual relations with the king and thereby become one of his concubines. If your readers need this information to understand the story, you could explain that here, if you did not do so in verse 12. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-symaction]])
EST 2 13 abe1 figs-explicit כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאמַ֜ר יִנָּ֤תֵֽן לָ⁠הּ֙ 1 Anything that she said would be given to her “Anything” most likely refers to clothing and jewelry. This phrase probably means that a woman could take any of those that she wanted from the harem for virgins and wear them when she went to the king’s palace. You could say that explicitly, for example, “A young woman could take whatever clothing and jewelry she wanted from the harem for virgins and wear them when she went to the king’s palace.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 13 v133 figs-activepassive כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר תֹּאמַ֜ר יִנָּ֤תֵֽן לָ⁠הּ֙ 1 Anything that she said would be given to her You can say this with an active form. Alternate translation: “she could take whatever she wanted” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 13 abe2 מִ⁠בֵּ֥ית הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֖ים 1 the house of women “the harem for virgins”
EST 2 13 abe3 בֵּ֥ית הַ⁠מֶּֽלֶךְ 1 the house of the king “the king’s rooms” or “the king’s house” or “the king’s palace”
EST 2 14 abe4 הִ֣יא בָאָ֗ה 1 she would go She would not walk over on her own. Rather, the king’s servants would come and bring her to the king’s private quarters, in the way that they were told to bring Vashti to the banquet in 1:11. You can say this explicitly if it would help your readers to understand the story. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 14 ded5 figs-explicit וּ֠⁠בַ⁠בֹּקֶר הִ֣יא שָׁבָ֞ה 1 and in the morning she would return to It is implied that this is the following morning. This information can be made clear. Once again, she would not go on her own. Alternate translation: “the next morning the king’s servants would bring her to” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 14 lq9h translate-ordinal בֵּ֤ית הַ⁠נָּשִׁים֙ שֵׁנִ֔י 1 the second house of women Alternate translations: “a different house for women” or “the harem for concubines” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
EST 2 14 yw63 אֶל־יַ֧ד שַֽׁעֲשְׁגַ֛ז סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים 1 into the hand of Shaashgaz, the eunuch of the king who was overseer of the concubines “to where Shaashgaz,…concubines would take care of her”
EST 2 14 ze74 bita-hq אֶל־יַ֧ד שַֽׁעֲשְׁגַ֛ז סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים 1 into the hand of Shaashgaz Here **hand** is a metaphor meaning power, control, or authority. Hegai was the overseer of the virgins. As the overseer of the concubines, Shaashgaz would be the one responsible for Esther while she was in the harem for concubines. Alternate translation: “under the custody of Shaashgaz” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 14 yw63 אֶל־יַ֧ד שַֽׁעֲשְׁגַ֛ז סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים 1 into the hand of Shaashgaz, the eunuch of the king who was overseer of the concubines “where Shaashgaz, the king's servant in charge of the concubines, would take care of her”
EST 2 14 ze74 figs-metaphor אֶל־יַ֧ד שַֽׁעֲשְׁגַ֛ז סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים 1 into the hand of Shaashgaz Here **hand** is a metaphor meaning power, control, or authority. Just as Hegai was the overseer of the virgins, Shaashgaz was the overseer of the concubines, so he would be the one responsible for Esther while she was in the harem for concubines. Alternate translation: “under the custody of Shaashgaz” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\])
EST 2 14 q5yx translate-names שַֽׁעֲשְׁגַ֛ז 1 Shaashgaz This is a man’s name. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 14 abe5 translate-unknown סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 the eunuch of the king See translated this term “eunuch” in 1:10. You could say “royal” instead of “of the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 14 abe5 translate-unknown סְרִ֥יס הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 the eunuch of the king See how you translated this term “eunuch” in 1:10. You could say “royal” instead of “of the king.” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown\]\])
EST 2 14 abe6 שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים 1 the overseer of the concubines This means that Shaashgaz was “the official who took care of the concubines” or who was “responsible for the concubines.”
EST 2 14 abe7 figs-explicit הַ⁠פִּֽילַגְשִׁ֑ים 1 the concubines As a concubine, the young woman was one of the king’s secondary wives. She would live in this harem for the rest of her life. She was not free to return to her family or to marry anybody else. If it would help your readers to understand the story, you could explain all or part of this to your readers here, if you did not do so in 2:12 or 2:13. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 14 abe8 לֹא־תָב֥וֹא עוֹד֙ אֶל־הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 She would not go to the king again Alternate translation: “She would not go and see the king again.” In verse 12, the Note mentioned that “go to the king” meant “have sexual relations with the king.” But for this occurrence of the expression, it is appropriate to use a phrase suggesting that there would be a larger social component to a further visit. The woman would now be a secondary wife, and the king would only send for her if he decided that he enjoyed being with her.
EST 2 14 abe8 לֹא־תָב֥וֹא עוֹד֙ אֶל־הַ⁠מֶּ֔לֶךְ 1 She would not go to the king again Alternate translation: “She would not go and see the king again.” In verse 12, the Note mentioned that “go to the king” meant “have sexual relations with the king.” But for this occurrence of the expression, it is appropriate to use a more general phrase such as "visit the king," because there could be other, more social reasons for a further visit. The woman would now be a secondary wife, and the king would only send for her if he decided that he enjoyed being with her.
EST 2 14 abe9 חָפֵ֥ץ בָּ֛⁠הּ 1 had delighted in her This means that he “had enjoyed being with her” or that she “had pleased the king very much.”
EST 2 14 abf0 figs-activepassive וְ⁠נִקְרְאָ֥ה בְ⁠שֵֽׁם 1 and she was called by name You can say this with an active form, for example, “and the king asked for her by name” or “and called for her by name.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 15 fiy8 grammar-connect-logic-contrast וּ⁠בְ⁠הַגִּ֣יעַ תֹּר־אֶסְתֵּ֣ר…לָ⁠ב֣וֹא אֶל־הַ⁠מֶּ֗לֶךְ 1 Now when the turn of Esther…came to go to the king The story resumes here after the background information that was provided in verses 12-14 about what the women in the harem did when they became concubines of the king. A contrast is being drawn. A young woman could take any clothing and jewelry she wanted from the harem. But Esther only asked for what Hegai recommended. So it would be good to introduce this episode with a word such as “but” that draws a contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
EST 2 15 jk51 figs-informremind בַּת־אֲבִיחַ֣יִל דֹּ֣ד מָרְדֳּכַ֡י אֲשֶׁר֩ לָקַֽח־ל֨⁠וֹ לְ⁠בַ֜ת 1 the daughter of Abihail, the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for him as a daughter This background information reminds the reader who Esther was by describing her relationship to Mordecai. You could move this to the end of the verse and put it in parentheses, as UST does, so that you don’t break up the flow of the contrast that is being drawn. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind]])
EST 2 15 jk51 figs-informremind בַּת־אֲבִיחַ֣יִל דֹּ֣ד מָרְדֳּכַ֡י אֲשֶׁר֩ לָקַֽח־ל֨⁠וֹ לְ⁠בַ֜ת 1 the daughter of Abihail, the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for him as a daughter This background information reminds the reader who Esther was by describing her relationship to Mordecai. You could make this a separate sentence and move it later in the verse to keep from breaking up the flow of the first sentence about what Esther did. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind\]\])
EST 2 15 mg8y translate-names אֲבִיחַ֣יִל 1 Abihail This man was Esther’s father and Mordecai’s uncle. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 15 qx3u figs-doublenegatives לֹ֤א בִקְשָׁה֙ דָּבָ֔ר כִּ֠י אִ֣ם אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֛ר הֵגַ֥י 1 she did not ask for anything except what Hegai…said You can state this in a positive form: “she asked only for” Alternate translation: “she did not ask for anything else to wear except.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-doublenegatives]])
EST 2 15 vw9r אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֛ר הֵגַ֥י 1 what Hegai…said “what Hegai recommended” or “what Hegai suggested”
EST 2 15 abf1 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֛ר הֵגַ֥י 1 what Hegai…said As the king’s personal servant, Hegai would have known what kind of clothing and jewelry Ahasuerus found attractive on a woman. By following his advice, Esther showed that she trusted Hegai. This is implicit information that you can make explicit if it would help the reader to understand the story. You might say, for example, as UST does: “Hegai knew the king’s preferences because he was his personal servant. Esther had come to trust Hegai and so she followed his advice.” This could go at the end of the verse, once again to preserve the flow of the contrast. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 15 abf2 figs-informremind סְרִיס־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 the eunuch of the king who was overseer of the women This is saying that Hegai was the royal official responsible for the women the harem for virgins. This is background information that reminds the reader who Hegai was by describing his responsibilities. You could also move this to the end of the verse and put it in parentheses. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind]])
EST 2 15 abf3 translate-unknown סְרִיס־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 the eunuch of the king See how you decided to translate the term “eunuch” in 1:10. You could say “royal” for “of the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 15 abf4 grammar-connect-logic-contrast וַ⁠תְּהִ֤י אֶסְתֵּר֙ נֹשֵׂ֣את חֵ֔ן בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֖י כָּל־רֹאֶֽי⁠הָ 1 And Esther was a lifter of favor in the eyes of every man who saw her. Another contrast is possibly being drawn. Even though Esther only asked for what Hegai recommended, everyone was still impressed by the way she looked. So you could use a word such as “nevertheless” or “still” that draws a contrast. On the other hand, perhaps people were just impressed with her simple beauty because she didn’t try to be gaudy. They may also have been impressed with Hegai’s skill with her ensemble. You can decide whether it would help your readers to suggest a contrast here. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast]])
EST 2 15 z519 figs-idiom נֹשֵׂ֣את חֵ֔ן בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֖י כָּל־רֹאֶֽי⁠הָ 1 a lifter of favor in the eyes of every man who saw her This is a rare expression in Hebrew, and the exact meaning is uncertain. In this context, the expression probably means that everyone who saw Esther dressed in the clothes she would wear for her visit to the king was very impressed with the way she looked. Alternate translation: “pleased all” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 2 15 jd87 bita-hq בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֖י 1 in the eyes of Here **eyes** is a metonym for seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. In this context, the phrase probably means that all the men who saw Esther thought that she was either an attractive woman or a pleasant person, or both. Alternate translation: “The young girl greatly pleased him” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/bita-hq]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metonymy]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor]])
EST 2 15 jd89 figs-gendernotations כָּל־רֹאֶֽי⁠הָ 1 every man who saw her This phrase can mean either every man or every person who saw her. Alternate translation: “everyone who saw her” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations]])
EST 2 15 abf1 figs-explicit אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֛ר הֵגַ֥י 1 what Hegai…said As the king’s personal servant, Hegai would have known what kind of clothing and jewelry Ahasuerus found attractive on a woman. By following his advice, Esther showed that she trusted Hegai. This is implicit information that you can make explicit if it would help the reader to understand the story. You might say, for example, “Hegai knew the king’s preferences because he was his personal servant. Esther had come to trust Hegai and so she followed his advice.” This could go at the end of the verse or in a footnote. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit\]\])
EST 2 15 abf2 figs-informremind סְרִיס־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ שֹׁמֵ֣ר הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֑ים 1 the eunuch of the king who was overseer of the women This is saying that Hegai was the royal official responsible for the women in the harem for virgins. This is background information that reminds the reader who Hegai was by describing his responsibilities. You could also move this to the end of the verse and put it in parentheses. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-informremind\]\])
EST 2 15 abf3 translate-unknown סְרִיס־הַ⁠מֶּ֖לֶךְ 1 the eunuch of the king See how you decided to translate the term “eunuch” in 1:10. You could say “royal” for “of the king.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 15 z519 figs-idiom נֹשֵׂ֣את חֵ֔ן בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֖י כָּל־רֹאֶֽי⁠הָ 1 a lifter of favor in the eyes of every man who saw her This is a rare expression in Hebrew, and the exact meaning is uncertain. In this context, the expression probably means that everyone who saw Esther dressed in the clothes she would wear for her visit to the king was very impressed with the way she looked. Alternate translation: “pleased all who saw her” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom\]\])
EST 2 15 jd87 figs-metaphor בְּ⁠עֵינֵ֖י 1 in the eyes of Here **eyes** is a metonym for seeing, and seeing is a metaphor for knowledge, notice, attention, or judgment. In this context, the phrase probably means that everyone who saw Esther thought that she was either an attractive woman or a pleasant person, or both. Alternate translation: “in the judgment of” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-metaphor\]\])
EST 2 15 jd89 figs-gendernotations כָּל־רֹאֶֽי⁠הָ 1 every man who saw her This phrase can mean either every man or every person who saw her. Alternate translation: “every man who saw her” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-gendernotations\]\])
EST 2 16 jd91 figs-activepassive וַ⁠תִּלָּקַ֨ח אֶסְתֵּ֜ר 1 So Esther was taken You can say this with an active form, for example, “The king's servants brought Esther.” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-activepassive]])
EST 2 16 abf5 figs-abstractnouns אֶל־בֵּ֣ית מַלְכוּת֔⁠וֹ 1 to the house of his royalty You can use an adjective to translate the abstract noun **royalty**, for example, “in his royal palace” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-abstractnouns]])
EST 2 16 jd92 translate-ordinal בַּ⁠חֹ֥דֶשׁ הָ⁠עֲשִׂירִ֖י 1 in the tenth month Alternate translation: “month ten” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
EST 2 16 jr5s translate-hebrewmonths הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ טֵבֵ֑ת 1 which is the month of Tebeth “Tebeth” is the name of the tenth month of the Hebrew calendar. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]] and [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names]])
EST 2 16 jd92 translate-ordinal בַּ⁠חֹ֥דֶשׁ הָ⁠עֲשִׂירִ֖י 1 in the tenth month Alternate translation: “in month ten” (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal\]\])
EST 2 16 jr5s translate-hebrewmonths הוּא־חֹ֣דֶשׁ טֵבֵ֑ת 1 which is the month of Tebeth “Tebeth” is the name of the tenth month of the Hebrew calendar. Alternate translation: "that is, the month of Tebeth." (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-hebrewmonths\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal\]\] and \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-names\]\])
EST 2 16 abf6 חֹ֣דֶשׁ טֵבֵ֑ת 1 the month of Tebeth The story is being recorded from the perspective of the Persian court. But for the benefit of its intended Jewish audience, the Hebrew name of the month is given.
EST 2 16 abf7 translate-unknown חֹ֣דֶשׁ טֵבֵ֑ת 1 the month of Tebeth You could convert the Hebrew days and months into approximate dates on the calendar that your culture uses. However, the Jews used a lunar calendar, so if you use a solar calendar, the dates will be different every year and the translation will not be quite accurate. So you may just want to give the Hebrew days and months. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-unknown]])
EST 2 16 x6yg translate-ordinal בִּ⁠שְׁנַת־שֶׁ֖בַע לְ⁠מַלְכוּתֽ⁠וֹ 1 in the seventh year of his reign Alternate translation: “during the seventh year of the reign of Ahasuerus as king of Persia” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/translate-ordinal]])
EST 2 17 p3s7 figs-parallelism וַ⁠יֶּאֱהַ֨ב הַ⁠מֶּ֤לֶךְ אֶת־אֶסְתֵּר֙ מִ⁠כָּל־הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֔ים וַ⁠תִּשָּׂא־חֵ֥ן וָ⁠חֶ֛סֶד לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו מִ⁠כָּל־הַ⁠בְּתוּלֹ֑ת 1 And the king loved Esther more than all the women, and she lifted both favor and kindness before his face more than all the other virgins These two phrases mean almost the same thing. The information is given twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize that Ahasuerus was completely convinced that Esther was the one he should make his queen. “More than all the virgins” basically duplicates the meaning of “more than all the women,” so, if this duplication would be confusing in your language, you don’t need to include both phrases (unless you want your translation to capture something of the Hebrew storytelling style). (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism]])
EST 2 17 abf8 figs-explicit מִ⁠כָּל־הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֔ים 1 more than all the women This means all the other women who had been brought to the king and become his concubines. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit]])
EST 2 17 p3s7 figs-parallelism וַ⁠יֶּאֱהַ֨ב הַ⁠מֶּ֤לֶךְ אֶת־אֶסְתֵּר֙ מִ⁠כָּל־הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֔ים וַ⁠תִּשָּׂא־חֵ֥ן וָ⁠חֶ֛סֶד לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו מִ⁠כָּל־הַ⁠בְּתוּלֹ֑ת 1 And the king loved Esther more than all the women, and she lifted both favor and kindness before his face more than all the other virgins aThese two phrases mean almost the same thing. The information is given twice, in slightly different ways, to emphasize that Ahasuerus was completely convinced that Esther was the one he should make his queen. “More than all the virgins” basically duplicates the meaning of “more than all the women,” so, if this duplication would be confusing in your language, you don’t need to include both phrases, or you could say, "more than all of them" for the second phrase. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-parallelism\]\])
EST 2 17 abf8 figs-explicit מִ⁠כָּל־הַ⁠נָּשִׁ֔ים 1 more than all the women This means all the other women who had been brought to the king and who became his concubines. (See: \[\[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-explicit\]\])
EST 2 17 bcu8 figs-idiom וַ⁠תִּשָּׂא־חֵ֥ן וָ⁠חֶ֛סֶד לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו 1 And she lifted both favor and kindness before his face This is a rare expression in Hebrew, and the exact meaning is uncertain. See how you translated similar phrases in 2:9 and 2:15. Review the explanation there if that would be helpful. In this context, it probably means that King Ahasuerus was very impressed with both Esther’s appearance and her personality. (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-idiom]])
EST 2 17 abf9 figs-doublet וַ⁠תִּשָּׂא־חֵ֥ן וָ⁠חֶ֛סֶד לְ⁠פָנָ֖י⁠ו 1 And she lifted both favor and kindness before his face **Favor** and **kindness** mean similar things and are proba